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Sample records for beas 2b cells

  1. Propofol inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis in lung epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiang; Zhou, Xuhui; Yan, Jia; Jiang, Jue; Jiang, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in lung endothelial apoptosis which is crucial for lung fibrogenesis in ARDS progression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been reported to be involved in LPS-induced lung epithelial cell apoptosis. Propofol is a commonly used intravenous anesthetic agent in clinic and it could attenuate LPS-induced epithelial cells oxidation and apoptosis. However, the mechanisms are still obscure. In this study, we examined whether and how propofol attenuates LPS-induced oxidation and apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells. Compared with control group, LPS up-regulated Pin-1, phosphatase A2 (PP2A) expression, induced p66 Shc -Ser 36 phosphorylation, and facilitated p66 Shc mitochondrial translocation, thus leading to superoxide anion (O 2 - ) generation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, active caspase 3 over-expression and cell viability inhibition. Importantly, propofol was shown to down-regulate LPS-induced PP2A expression, limit p66 Shc mitochondrial translocation, decrease O 2 - generation, inhibit mitochondrial cytochrome c release, reduce active caspase 3 expression, and recover cells viability, while propofol had no effects on LPS-induced Pin-1 expression and p66 Shc -Ser 36 phosphorylation. Moreover, the protective effects of propofol on LPS-induced BEAS-2B cells apoptosis were similar to that of calyculin A, which is an inhibitor of PP2A. We also found that FTY720, which is an activator of PP2A, can effectively reverse the protective function of propofol. Our data illustrated that propofol could alleviate LPS-induced BEAS-2B cells oxidation and apoptosis through down-regulating PP2A expression, limiting p66 Shc -Ser 36 dephosphorylation and p66 Shc mitochondrial translocation, decreasing O 2 - generation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activating caspase 3 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, an appropriate in vitro model to study heavy metals induced carcinogenesis

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    Park, Youn-hee; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu

    2015-09-15

    Occupational and environmental exposure to arsenic (III) and chromium VI (Cr(VI)) have been confirmed to cause lung cancer. Mechanisms of these metals carcinogenesis are still under investigation. Selection of cell lines to be used is essential for the studies. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells are the cells to be utilized by most of scientists. However, due to p53 missense mutation (CCG → TCG) at codon 47 and the codon 72 polymorphism (CGC → CCC) in BEAS-2B cells, its usage has frequently been questioned. The present study has examined activity and expression of 53 and its downstream target protein p21 upon acute or chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic and Cr(VI). The results show that short-term exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) was able to activate both p53 and p21. Chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to these two metals caused malignant cell transformation and tumorigenesis. In arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells reductions in p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392 were observed, while the total p53 protein level remained the same compared to those in passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were decreased in arsenic-transformed cells. Cr(VI)-transformed cells exhibit elevated p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation at Ser15, but reduced phosphorylation at Ser392 and total p53 protein level compared to passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were elevated in Cr(VI)-transformed cells. These results demonstrate that p53 is able to respond to exposure of arsenic or Cr(VI), suggesting that BEAS-2B cells are an appropriate in vitro model to investigate arsenic or Cr(VI) induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Short-term exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) activates p53 and p21. • Chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) causes cell transformation and tumorigenesis. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit

  3. Oxidative stress induced by cerium oxide nanoparticles in cultured BEAS-2B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Jinhee; Park, Young-Kwon; Park, Kwangsik

    2008-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles of different sizes (15, 25, 30, 45 nm) were prepared by the supercritical synthesis method, and cytotoxicity was evaluated using cultured human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Exposure of the cultured cells to nanoparticles (5, 10, 20, 40 μg/ml) led to cell death, ROS increase, GSH decrease, and the inductions of oxidative stress-related genes such as heme oxygenase-1, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and thioredoxin reductase. The increased ROS by cerium oxide nanoparticles triggered the activation of cytosolic caspase-3 and chromatin condensation, which means that cerium oxide nanoparticles exert cytotoxicity by an apoptotic process. Uptake of the nanoparticles to the cultured cells was also tested. It was observed that cerium oxide nanoparticles penetrated into the cytoplasm and located in the peri-region of the nucleus as aggregated particles, which may induce the direct interaction between nanoparticles and cellular molecules to cause adverse cellular responses

  4. Induction of pro-inflammatory signals by 1-nitropyrene in cultured BEAS-2B cells.

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    Park, Eun-Jung; Park, Kwangsik

    2009-01-30

    Nitropyrene (1-NP) is classified as Group 2B carcinogen and is one of the main components of diesel exhaust particles (DEP), which are generated from incomplete combustion of automobile engines to cause human cancer or inflammatory diseases. Although many reports on the mutagenesis or carcinogenesis of 1-NP have been released, non-carcinogenic toxicities of 1-NP have not been widely studied. In this study, induction of pro-inflammatory signals by 1-NP was investigated using cultured human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B. By using microarray analysis and RT-PCR technique, it was found that 1-NP induced the expression of genes related to the pro-inflammatory responses such as pentaxin, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2), and TNF-alpha. 1-NP was also found to induce ROS generation and intracellular GSH decrease. It suggested that 1-NP may be a pivotal component of DEP to cause inflammatory diseases.

  5. Effects of Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter on Cellular Oxidant Radical Generation in Human Bronchial Epithelial BEAS-2B Cells

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    Longfei Guan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of size-fractionated (i.e., <1; 1–2.5, and 2.5–10 µm in an aerodynamic diameter ambient particulate matter (PM on reactive oxygen species (ROS activity and cell viability in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B. The PM samples were collected from an urban site (uPM in Beijing and a steel factory site (sPM in Anshan, China, from March 2013 to December 2014. Metal elements, organic and elemental carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions in the uPM and sPM were analyzed. The cell viability and ROS generation in PM-exposed BEAS-2B cells were measured by MTS and DCFH-DA. The results showed that both uPM and sPM caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in ROS generation. The level of ROS measured in sPM1.0 was approximately triple that in uPM1.0. The results of correlation analysis showed that the ROS activity and cytotoxicity were related to different PM composition. Moreover, deferoxamine (DFO significantly prevented the increase of ROS generation and the decrease of cell viability. Taken together, our results suggest that the metals absorbed on PM induced oxidant radical generation in BEAS-2B cells that could lead to impairment of pulmonary function.

  6. Genotoxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles in BEAS 2B cells.

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    Nymark, Penny; Catalán, Julia; Suhonen, Satu; Järventaus, Hilkka; Birkedal, Renie; Clausen, Per Axel; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Vippola, Minnamari; Savolainen, Kai; Norppa, Hannu

    2013-11-08

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely utilized in various consumer products and medical devices, especially due to their antimicrobial properties. However, several studies have associated these particles with toxic effects, such as inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo and cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in vitro. Here, we assessed the genotoxic effects of AgNPs coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (average diameter 42.5±14.5 nm) on human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro. AgNPs were dispersed in bronchial epithelial growth medium (BEGM) with 0.6 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA). The AgNP were partially well-dispersed in the medium and only limited amounts (ca. 0.02 μg Ag(+) ion/l) could be dissolved after 24h. The zeta-potential of the AgNPs was found to be highly negative in pure water but was at least partially neutralized in BEGM with 0.6 mg BSA/ml. Cytotoxicity was measured by cell number count utilizing Trypan Blue exclusion and by an ATP-based luminescence cell viability assay. Genotoxicity was assessed by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay, and the chromosomal aberration (CA) assay. The cells were exposed to various doses (0.5-48 μg/cm(2) corresponding to 2.5-240 μg/ml) of AgNPs for 4 and 24 h in the comet assay, for 48 h in the MN assay, and for 24 and 48 h in the CA assay. DNA damage measured by the percent of DNA in comet tail was induced in a dose-dependent manner after both the 4-h and the 24-h exposures to AgNPs, with a statistically significant increase starting at 16 μg/cm(2) (corresponding to 60.8 μg/ml) and doubling of the percentage of DNA in tail at 48 μg/cm(2). However, no induction of MN or CAs was observed at any of the doses or time points. The lack of induction of chromosome damage by the PVP-coated AgNPs is possibly due to the coating which may protect the cells from direct interaction with the AgNPs, either by reducing ion leaching from the

  7. The Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Cell Apoptosis and the Mechanism of Human Lung BEAS-2B Cells In Vitro.

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    Ying, Jun; Xu, Jie; Shen, Liping; Mao, Zhijie; Liang, Jingchen; Lin, Shuangxiang; Yu, Xinyan; Pan, Ruowang; Yan, Chunxia; Li, Shengbin; Bao, Qiyu; Li, Peizhen

    2017-09-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is a source of fluoride ions used in many applications. Previous studies found that NaF suppressed the proliferation of osteoblast MC3T3 E1 cells and induced the apoptosis of chondrocytes. However, little is known about the effects of NaF on human lung BEAS-2B cells. Therefore, we investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and its underlying molecular mechanisms. BEAS-2B cells were treated with NaF at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mmol/L. Cell viability decreased and apoptotic cells significantly increased as concentrations of NaF increased over specific periods of time. The IC 50 of NaF was 1.9 and 0.9 mM after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The rates of apoptosis increased from 4.8 to 37.7% after NaF exposure. HE staining, electron microscopy, and single cell gel electrophoresis revealed that morphological changes of apoptosis increased with exposure concentrations. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the apoptotic pathways. The expressions of bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, p53, and the cytoplasmic CytC of the NaF groups increased, while bcl-2 and mitochondrial CytC decreased compared with that of the control group (P < 0.05). Further, the fluorescence intensities of ROS in the NaF groups were higher than those in the control group, and the membrane potential of mitochondria in the NaF group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). These findings suggested that NaF induced apoptosis in the BEAS-2B cells through mitochondria-mediated signal pathways. Our study provides the theoretical foundation and experimental basis for exploring the mechanisms of human lung epithelial cell damage and cytotoxicity induced by fluorine.

  8. Nickel compounds induce apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells by activation of c-Myc through ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Suen, T.-C.; Sun Hong; Arita, Adriana; Costa, Max

    2009-01-01

    Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and have been shown to alter epigenetic homeostasis. The c-Myc protein controls 15% of human genes and it has been shown that fluctuations of c-Myc protein alter global epigenetic marks. Therefore, the regulation of c-Myc by nickel ions in immortalized but not tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells was examined in this study. It was found that c-Myc protein expression was increased by nickel ions in non-tumorigenic Beas-2B and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The results also indicated that nickel ions induced apoptosis in Beas-2B cells. Knockout of c-Myc and its restoration in a rat cell system confirmed the essential role of c-Myc in nickel ion-induced apoptosis. Further studies in Beas-2B cells showed that nickel ion increased the c-Myc mRNA level and c-Myc promoter activity, but did not increase c-Myc mRNA and protein stability. Moreover, nickel ion upregulated c-Myc in Beas-2B cells through the MEK/ERK pathway. Collectively, the results demonstrate that c-Myc induction by nickel ions occurs via an ERK-dependent pathway and plays a crucial role in nickel-induced apoptosis in Beas-2B cells

  9. Signaling factors and pathways of α-particle irradiation induced bilateral bystander responses between Beas-2B and U937 cells

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    Fu, Jiamei; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xiangdong; Wang, Ping; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Cuiping; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Radiation damage of Beas-2B cells was enhanced by macrophage-mediated bilateral bystander responses. • Expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells were dependent on ERK and p38 pathways. • The neighboring U937 cells further increased the generation of TNF-α and IL-8 in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. • NF-κB dependent upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells. - Abstract: Although radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been investigated for decades for their potential health risk, the underlying gene regulation is still largely unclear, especially the roles of immune system and inflammatory response in RIBE. In the present study, macrophage U937 cells and epithelial Beas-2B cells were co-cultured to disclose the cascades of bystander signaling factors and intercellular communications. After α-particle irradiation, both ERK and p38 pathways were activated in Beas-2B cells and were associated with the autocrine and paracrine signaling of TNF-α and IL-8, resulting in direct damage to the irradiated cells. Similar upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells after co-culture with α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. This upregulation was dependent on the activation of NF-κB pathway and was responsible for the enhanced damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. Interestingly, the increased expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in the bystander U937 cells were clearly relayed on the activated ERK and p38 pathways in the irradiated Beas-2B cells, and the upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in co-cultured Beas-2B cells was also partly due to the activated NF-κB pathway in the bystander U937 cells. With the pretreatment of U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) or BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor), the aggravated damage in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells could be largely alleviated. Our results disclosed novel signaling cascades of macrophage-mediated bilateral

  10. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

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    Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous

  11. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O 2 ·− ) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous report. The

  12. Effects of Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter on Cellular Oxidant Radical Generation in Human Bronchial Epithelial BEAS-2B Cells

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    Guan, Longfei; Rui, Wei; Bai, Ru; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of size-fractionated (i.e., Metal elements, organic and elemental carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions in the uPM and sPM were analyzed. The cell viability and ROS generation in PM-exposed BEAS-2B cells were measured by MTS and DCFH-DA. The results showed that both uPM and sPM caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in ROS generation. The level of ROS measured in sPM1.0 was approximately triple that in uPM1.0. The results of correlation analysis showed that the ROS activity and cytotoxicity were related to different PM composition. Moreover, deferoxamine (DFO) significantly prevented the increase of ROS generation and the decrease of cell viability. Taken together, our results suggest that the metals absorbed on PM induced oxidant radical generation in BEAS-2B cells that could lead to impairment of pulmonary function. PMID:27171105

  13. Identification of PM10 characteristics involved in cellular responses in human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Den Hond, Elly; Govarts, Eva; Colles, Ann; Koppen, Gudrun; Staelens, Jeroen; Mampaey, Maja; Janssen, Nicole; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding evidence is present that physicochemical characteristics of ambient particles attribute to adverse health effects, there is still some lack of understanding in this complex relationship. At this moment it is not clear which properties (such as particle size, chemical composition) or sources of the particles are most relevant for health effects. This study investigates the in vitro toxicity of PM 10 in relation to PM chemical composition, black carbon (BC), endotoxin content and oxidative potential (OP). In 2013–2014 PM 10 was sampled (24 h sampling, 108 sampling days) in ambient air at three sites in Flanders (Belgium) with different pollution characteristics: an urban traffic site (Borgerhout), an industrial area (Zelzate) and a rural background location (Houtem). To characterize the toxic potential of PM 10 , airway epithelial cells (Beas-2B cells) have been exposed to particles in vitro. Different endpoints were studied including cell damage and death (cell viability) using the Neutral red Uptake assay, the production of pro-inflammatory molecules by interleukin 8 (IL-8) induction and DNA-damaging activity using the FPG-modified Comet assay. The endotoxin levels in the collected samples were analysed and the capacity of PM 10 particles to produce reactive oxygen species (OP) was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Chemical characteristics of PM 10 (BC, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and meteorological conditions were recorded on the sampling days. PM 10 particles exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity in Beas-2B cells and were found to significantly induce the release of IL-8 in samples from the three locations. Oxidatively damaged DNA was observed in exposed Beas-2B cells. Endotoxin levels above the detection limit were detected in half of the samples. OP was measurable in all samples. Associations between PM 10 characteristics and biological effects of PM 10 were assessed by single and multiple regression analyses

  14. The crosstalk between α-irradiated Beas-2B cells and its bystander U937 cells through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways

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    Fu, Jiamei; Yuan, Dexiao; Xiao, Linlin; Tu, Wenzhi; Dong, Chen; Liu, Weili; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • α-irradiated Beas-2B cells induced bystander effects in macrophage U937 cells. • The neighboring macrophages enhanced the damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. • MAPK and NF-κB pathways were activated in U937 cells after cell co-culture. • NF-κB and MAPK pathways participated in the bilateral bystander responses. - Abstract: Although accumulated evidence suggests that α-particle irradiation induced bystander effect may relevant to lung injury and cancer risk assessment, the exact mechanisms are not yet elucidated. In the present study, a cell co-culture system was used to investigate the interaction between α-particle irradiated human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) and its bystander macrophage U937 cells. It was found that the cell co-culture amplified the detrimental effects of α-irradiation including cell viability decrease and apoptosis promotion on both irradiated cells and bystander cells in a feedback loop which was closely relevant to the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways in the bystander U937 cells. When these two pathways in U937 cells were disturbed by special pharmacological inhibitors before cell co-culture, it was found that a NF-κB inhibitor of BAY 11-7082 further enhanced the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in bystander U937 cells, but MAPK inhibitors of SP600125 and SB203580 protected cells from viability loss and apoptosis and U0126 presented more beneficial effect on cell protection. For α-irradiated epithelial cells, the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in U937 cells participated in detrimental cellular responses since the above inhibitors could largely attenuate cell viability loss and apoptosis of irradiated cells. Our results demonstrated that there are bilateral bystander responses between irradiated lung epithelial cells and macrophages through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, which accounts for the enhancement of α-irradiation induced damage.

  15. Diesel exhaust particles induced release of interleukin 6 and 8 by (primed) human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS 2B) in vitro.

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    Steerenberg, P A; Zonnenberg, J A; Dormans, J A; Joon, P N; Wouters, I M; van Bree, L; Scheepers, P T; Van Loveren, H

    1998-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have recently shown associations of increased premature mortality rates with ambient particulate air pollution. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may constitute an important part of (ultra)fine particulate air pollution in urban areas and may therefore contribute to its toxicity. Epithelial lining of the respiratory tract may be the first target of the toxic effects of DEP, that upon exposure may release pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 6 and 8 (IL-6, IL-8), ultimately causing airway tissue damage and immune alterations. In this study the effects of in vitro DEP exposure (0.04-0.33 mg/mL) on IL-6, IL-8 production by a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) were investigated. For comparison, the production of interleukins during exposure to silica and titanium oxide (TiO2) were also studied, representing relatively toxic and non-toxic particles, respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that the size of the DEP particles ranged between 25 to 35 nm and that DEP was phagocytized by BEAS-2B cells. An increase in IL-6 and IL-8 production (11- and 4-fold, respectively) was found after 24 or 48 h of exposure to DEP compared to the non-exposed cells. This increase was lower compared to silica (17- and 3.3-fold) and higher as compared to TiO2 which showed no increase for IL-6 and IL-8. To study the DEP effect on inflammation-primed cells, BEAS-2B cells were exposed to both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and subsequently to DEP. Exposure to TNF-alpha caused a strong increase in IL-6 and IL-8 production. Additive effects on the IL-6 and IL-8 production by BEAS-2B cells were found after TNF-alpha priming and subsequently exposure to DEP, only at a low dose of DEP and TNF-alpha (0.05-0.2 ng/mL). In conclusion, BEAS-2B phagocytized DEP and produced an increased amount of IL-6 and IL-8. In TNF-alpha primed BEAS-2B cells, DEP increased interleukin production only at low concentrations of DEP and

  16. Poly (I:C, an agonist of toll-like receptor-3, inhibits replication of the Chikungunya virus in BEAS-2B cells

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    Li Yong-Gang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and its mimic, polyinosinic acid: polycytidylic acid [Poly (I:C], are recognized by toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and induce interferon (IFN-β in many cell types. Poly (I:C is the most potent IFN inducer. In in vivo mouse studies, intraperitoneal injection of Poly (I:C elicited IFN-α/β production and natural killer (NK cells activation. The TLR3 pathway is suggested to contribute to innate immune responses against many viruses, including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus 2, and murine cytomegalovirus. In Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection, the viruses are cleared within 7–10 days postinfection before adaptive immune responses emerge. The innate immune response is important for CHIKV clearance. Results The effects of Poly (I:C on the replication of CHIKV in human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, were studied. Poly (I:C suppressed cytopathic effects (CPE induced by CHIKV infection in BEAS-2B cells in the presence of Poly (I:C and inhibited the replication of CHIKV in the cells. The virus titers of Poly (I:C-treated cells were much lower compared with those of untreated cells. CHIKV infection and Poly (I:C treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced the production of IFN-β and increased the expression of anti-viral genes, including IFN-α, IFN-β, MxA, and OAS. Both Poly (I:C and CHIKV infection upregulate the expression of TLR3 in BEAS-2B cells. Conclusions CHIKV is sensitive to innate immune response induced by Poly (I:C. The inhibition of CHIKV replication by Poly (I:C may be through the induction of TLR3, which triggers the production of IFNs and other anti-viral genes. The innate immune response is important to clear CHIKV in infected cells.

  17. A Cross-Talk Between NFAT and NF-κB Pathways is Crucial for Nickel-Induced COX-2 Expression in Beas-2B Cells

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    Cai, T.; Li, X.; Ding, J.; Luo, W.; Li, J.; Huang, C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a critical enzyme implicated in chronic inflammation-associated cancer development. Our studies have shown that the exposure of Beas-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, to lung carcinogenic nickel compounds results in increased COX-2 expression. However, the signaling pathways leading to nickel-induced COX-2 expression are not well understood. In the current study, we found that the exposure of Beas-2B cells to nickel compounds resulted in the activation of both nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The expression of COX-2 induced upon nickel exposure was inhibited by either a NFAT pharmacological inhibitor or the knockdown of NFAT3 by specific siRNA. We further found that the activation of NFAT and NF-κB was dependent on each other. Since our previous studies have shown that NF-κB activation is critical for nickel-induced COX-2 expression in Beas-2B cells exposed to nickel compounds under same experimental condition, we anticipate that there might be a cross-talk between the activation of NFAT and NF-κB for the COX-2 induction due to nickel exposure in Beas-2B cells. Furthermore, we showed that the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by introduction of mitochondrial catalase inhibited the activation of both NFAT and NF-κB, and the induction of COX-2 due to nickel exposure. Taken together, our results defining the evidence showing a key role of the cross-talk between NFAT and NF-κB pathways in regulating nickel-induced COX-2 expression, further provide insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanisms linking nickel exposure to its lung carcinogenic effects. PMID:21486220

  18. MiR-146a regulates PM1 -induced inflammation via NF-κB signaling pathway in BEAS-2B cells.

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    Liu, Limin; Wan, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Guan, Longfei; Tian, Guoxiong; Zhang, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2018-04-18

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) leads to kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases, such as asthma, COPD, arrhythmias, lung cancer, etc., which are related to PM-induced inflammation. We have found that PM 2.5 (aerodynamics diameter <2.5 µm) exposure induces inflammatory response both in vivo and in vitro. Since the toxicity of PM is tightly associated with its size and components, PM 1 (aerodynamics diameter <1.0 µm) is supposed to be more toxic than PM 2.5 . However, the mechanism of PM 1 -induced inflammation is not clear. Recently, emerging evidences prove that microRNAs play a vital role in regulating inflammation. Therefore, we studied the regulation of miR-146a in PM 1 -induced inflammation in human lung bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. The results show that PM 1 induces the increase of IL-6 and IL-8 in BEAS-2B cells and up-regulates the miR-146a expression by activating NF-κB signaling pathway. Overexpressed miR-146a prevents the nuclear translocation of p65 through inhibiting the IRAK1/TRAF6 expression, and downregulates the expression of IL-6 and IL-8. Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR-146a can negatively feedback regulate PM 1 -induced inflammation via NF-κB signaling pathway in BEAS-2B cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ► ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ► Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin-mediated signaling. ► ROS

  20. Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase Suppression Participates in Nickel-Induced Histone H3 Lysine9 Dimethylation in BEAS-2B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens with weak mutagenic activity. Histone methylation has been proposed to play an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT decreases histone methylation in several cancer cells by altering the cellular ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH. However, the role of NNMT in nickel-induced histone methylation remains unclear. Methods: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2 for 72 h or 200 μM NiCl2 for different time periods. Histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9 mono-, di-, and trimethylation and NNMT protein levels were measured by western blot analysis. Expressions of NNMT mRNA and the H3k9me2-associated genes, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAP2K3 and dickkopf1 (DKK1, were determined by qPCR analysis. The cellular ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to reduced NAD (NADH and SAM/SAH ratio were determined. Results: Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to nickel increased H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2, suppressed the expressions of H3K9me2-associated genes (MAP2K3 and DKK1, and induced NNMT repression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, over-expression of NNMT inhibited nickel-induced H3K9me2 and altered the cellular SAM/SAH ratio. Additionally, the NADH oxidant phenazine methosulfate (PMS not only reversed the nickel-induced reduction in NAD+/NADH but also inhibited the increase in H3K9me2. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the repression of NNMT may underlie nickel-induced H3K9 dimethylation by altering the cellular SAM/SAH ratio.

  1. Nicotine Component of Cigarette Smoke Extract (CSE) Decreases the Cytotoxicity of CSE in BEAS-2B Cells Stably Expressing Human Cytochrome P450 2A13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Minghui; Zhang, Yudong; Li, Na; Wang, Chao; Xia, Rong; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2017-10-13

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), an extrahepatic enzyme mainly expressed in the human respiratory system, has been reported to mediate the metabolism and toxicity of cigarette smoke. We previously found that nicotine inhibited 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism by CYP2A13, but its influence on other components of cigarette smoke remains unclear. The nicotine component of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was separated, purified, and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), splitting CSE into a nicotine section (CSE-N) and nicotine-free section (CSE-O). Cell viability and apoptosis by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry assays were conducted on immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells stably expressing CYP2A13 (B-2A13) or vector (B-V), respectively. Interestingly, CSE and CSE-O were toxic to BEAS-2B cells whereas CSE-N showed less cytotoxicity. CSE-O was more toxic to B-2A13 cells than to B-V cells (IC 50 of 2.49% vs. 7.06%), which was flatted by 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), a CYP inhibitor. CSE-O rather than CSE or CSE-N increased apoptosis of B-2A13 cells rather than B-V cells. Accordingly, compared to CSE-N and CSE, CSE-O significantly changed the expression of three pairs of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 Associated X Protein/B cell lymphoma-2 (Bax/Bcl-2), Cleaved Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase/Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase (C-PARP/PARP), and C-caspase-3/caspase-3, in B-2A13 cells. In addition, recombination of CSE-N and CSE-O (CSE-O/N) showed similar cytotoxicity and apoptosis to the original CSE. These results demonstrate that the nicotine component decreases the metabolic activation of CYP2A13 to CSE and aids in understanding the critical role of CYP2A13 in human respiratory diseases caused by cigarette smoking.

  2. Impact of ADMA (asymmetric dimethylarginine) on physiology with respect to diabetes mellitus and respiratory system BEAS-2B cells (human bronchial epithelial cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Omneya; Podlogar, Julia; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2013-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a non-selective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate ADMA with respect to both diabetes and respiratory disease. Glucose was determined by hexokinase method, insulin by a radioimmunoassay. Griess test was used for NO assay and cytokinines were assayed by ELISA. Ciliary beat frequency was determined by high speed video using a microscope. ADMA induced an increase in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in rats; the ratio of these effects indicates the induction of a diabetic situation (insulin resistance). L-arginine increased blood glucose and initially slightly decreased plasma insulin. A pretreatment with ADMA abolished these effects. ADMA shows similar effects in vitro (insulin-secreting cell line, INS-1 cells). L-arginine increased production of NO, which was reversed by ADMA (INS-1 cells). ADMA also reduced NO production positively modulated by various substances, namely metformin, ciglitazone, losartan and nateglinide, but nevertheless inhibited insulin release induced by these compounds. ADMA stimulated the production of cytokines such as interleukin (IL-6) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) (rat IL-8 analogue) from INS-1 cells. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), a direct adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) activator and anti-inflammatory agent, induced NO production and reduced cytokine release. In contrast to diabetes parameters, ADMA had no effect of on the respiratory system (cytokine secretion from BEAS-2B cells (IL-8, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, and tumour necrosis factor-α), ciliary beat frequency and smooth muscle contraction of rat trachea). ADMA has a pathophysiological impact leading to a diabetic situation but has no impact on the respiratory system. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012. Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Downregulation of B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 by overexpressed microRNA 34a enhanced titanium dioxide nanoparticle-induced autophagy in BEAS-2B cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenlin; Chen, Yujiao; Sun, Pengling; Gao, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (TNPs) are manufactured worldwide for a wide range of applications and the toxic effect of TNPs on biological systems is gaining attention. Autophagy is recognized as an emerging toxicity mechanism triggered by nanomaterials. MicroRNA 34a (miR34a) acts as a tumor suppressor gene by targeting many oncogenes, but how it affects autophagy induced by TNPs is not completely understood. Here, we observed the activation of TNP-induced autophagy through monodansylcadaverine staining and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion. Meanwhile, the transmission electron microscope ultrastructural analysis showed typical morphological characteristics in autophagy process. We detected the expression of miR34a and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2). In addition, the underlying mechanism of TNP-induced autophagy was performed using overexpression of miR34a by lentivirus vector transfection. Results showed that TNPs induced autophagy generation evidently. Typical morphological changes in the process of autophagy were observed by the transmission electron microscope ultrastructural analysis and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion increased significantly in TNP-treated cells. Meanwhile, TNPs induced the downregulation of miR34a and increased the expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, overexpressed miR34a decreased the expression of Bcl-2 both in messenger RNA and protein level, following which the level of autophagy and cell death rate increased after the transfected cells were incubated with TNPs for 24 hours. These findings provide the first evidence that overexpressed miR34a enhanced TNP-induced autophagy and cell death through targeted downregulation of Bcl-2 in BEAS-2B cells. PMID:27226226

  4. Silica Nanoparticle-induced Cytokine Responses in BEAS-2B and HBEC3-KT Cells: Significance of Particle Size and Signalling Pathways in Different Lung Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låg, Marit; Skuland, Tonje; Godymchuk, Anna; Nguyen, Thu H T; Pham, Hang L T; Refsnes, Magne

    2018-01-15

    We have previously reported that silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) of nominal size 50 nm (Si50) induce the pro-inflammatory cytokines CXCL8 and IL-6 in BEAS-2B cells, via mechanisms involving MAPK p38, TACE-mediated TGF-α release and the NF-κB pathway. In this study, we examined whether these findings are cell specific or might be extended to another epithelial lung cell model, HBEC3-KT, and also to SiNPs of a smaller size (nominal size of 10 nm; Si10). The TEM average size of Si10 and Si50 was 10.9 and 34.7 nm, respectively. The surface area (BET) of Si10 was three times higher than for Si50 per mass unit. With respect to hydrodynamic size (DLS), Si10 in exposure medium showed a higher z-average for the main peak than Si50, indicating more excessive agglomeration. Si10 strongly induced CXCL8 and IL-6, as assessed by ELISA and RT-PCR, and was markedly more potent than Si50, even when adjusted to equal surface area. Furthermore, Si10 was far more cytotoxic, measured as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, than Si50 in both epithelial cell cultures. With respect to signalling pathways, Western analysis and experiments with and without inhibition of MAPK, TACE and NF-κB (synthetic inhibitors) revealed that p38-phosphorylation, TACE-mediated TGF-α release and NF-κB activation seem to be important triggering mechanisms for both Si50 and Si10 in the two different lung epithelial cell cultures. In conclusion, the identified signalling pathways are suggested to be important in inducing cytokine responses in different epithelial cell types and also for various sizes of silica nanoparticles. © 2018 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  5. Roles of MAPK pathway activation during cytokine induction in BEAS-2B cells exposed to fine World Trade Center (WTC) dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Prophete, Colette; Soukup, Joleen M; Chen, Lung-Chi; Costa, Max; Ghio, Andrew; Qu, Qingshan; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chen, Haobin

    2010-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) collapse on September 11, 2001 released copious amounts of particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere of New York City. Follow-up studies on persons exposed to the dusts have revealed a severely increased rate for asthma and other respiratory illnesses. There have only been a few studies that have sought to discern the possible mechanisms underlying these untoward pathologies. In one study, an increased cytokine release was detected in cells exposed to WTC fine dusts (PM₂.₅ fraction or WTC₂.₅). However, the mechanism(s) for these increases has yet to be fully defined. Because activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways is known to cause cytokine induction, the current study was undertaken to analyze the possible involvement of these pathways in any increased cytokine formation by lung epithelial cells (as BEAS-2B cells) exposed to WTC₂.₅. Our results showed that exposure to WTC₂.₅ for 5 hr increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression in BEAS-2B cells, as well as its protein levels in the culture media, in a dose-dependent manner. Besides IL-6, cytokine multiplex analyses revealed that formation of IL-8 and -10 was also elevated by the exposure. Both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, but not c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, signaling pathways were found to be activated in cells exposed to WTC₂.₅. Inactivation of ERK signaling pathways by PD98059 effectively blocked IL-6, -8, and -10 induction by WTC₂.₅; the p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 significantly decreased induction of IL-8 and -10. Together, our data demonstrated activation of MAPK signaling pathway(s) likely played an important role in the WTC₂.₅-induced formation of several inflammatory (and, subsequently, anti-inflammatory) cytokines. The results are important in that they help to define one mechanism via which the WTC dusts may have acted to cause the documented increases in asthma and other

  6. Cellular effects in an in vitro human 3D cellular airway model and A549/BEAS-2B in vitro cell cuultures following air exposure to cerium oxide particles at an air-liquid interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, I.M.; Grollers-Mulderij, M.; Steenhof, M.; Duistermaat, E.; Acker, F.A.A. van; Staal, Y.C.M.; Tromp, P.C.; Schoen, E.D.; Kuiper, C.F.; Someren, E.P. van

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for representative in vitro models to assess the effects of airborne particles on lung health. The ob-jective of this study was to assess the cellular effects of cerium oxide (Ce02) particles exposed via an air—liquid interface in three relevant cell models in parallel. BEAS-2B,

  7. PI3K-delta mediates double-stranded RNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 in BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan-o, Keiko [Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsumoto, Koichiro, E-mail: koichi@kokyu.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Asai-Tajiri, Yukari; Fukuyama, Satoru; Hamano, Saaka; Seki, Nanae; Nakanishi, Yoichi [Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Inoue, Hiromasa [Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Double-stranded RNA upregulates B7-H1 on BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells. •The upregulation of B7-H1 is attenuated by inhibition of PI3Kδ isoform. •PI3Kδ-mediated upregulation of B7-H1 is independent of NF-κB activation. •Inhibition of PI3Kδ may prevent persistent viral infection induced by B7-H1. -- Abstract: Airway viral infection disturbs the health-related quality of life. B7-H1 (also known as PD-L1) is a coinhibitory molecule associated with the escape of viruses from the mucosal immunity, leading to persistent infection. Most respiratory viruses generate double-stranded (ds) RNA during replication. The stimulation of cultured airway epithelial cells with an analog of viral dsRNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC) upregulates the expression of B7-H1 via activation of the nuclear factor κB(NF-κB). The mechanism of upregulation was investigated in association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks). Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was profoundly suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor and partially by an inhibitor or a small interfering (si)RNA for PI3Kδ in BEAS-2B cells. Similar results were observed in the respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. The expression of p110δ was detected by Western blot and suppressed by pretreatment with PI3Kδ siRNA. The activation of PI3Kδ is typically induced by oxidative stress. The generation of reactive oxygen species was increased by poly IC. Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, or by oxypurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Poly IC-induced activation of NF-κB was suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor but not by a PI3Kδ inhibitor. These results suggest that PI3Kδ mediates dsRNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 without affecting the activation of NF-κB.

  8. PI3K-delta mediates double-stranded RNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 in BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan-o, Keiko; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Asai-Tajiri, Yukari; Fukuyama, Satoru; Hamano, Saaka; Seki, Nanae; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Double-stranded RNA upregulates B7-H1 on BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells. •The upregulation of B7-H1 is attenuated by inhibition of PI3Kδ isoform. •PI3Kδ-mediated upregulation of B7-H1 is independent of NF-κB activation. •Inhibition of PI3Kδ may prevent persistent viral infection induced by B7-H1. -- Abstract: Airway viral infection disturbs the health-related quality of life. B7-H1 (also known as PD-L1) is a coinhibitory molecule associated with the escape of viruses from the mucosal immunity, leading to persistent infection. Most respiratory viruses generate double-stranded (ds) RNA during replication. The stimulation of cultured airway epithelial cells with an analog of viral dsRNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC) upregulates the expression of B7-H1 via activation of the nuclear factor κB(NF-κB). The mechanism of upregulation was investigated in association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks). Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was profoundly suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor and partially by an inhibitor or a small interfering (si)RNA for PI3Kδ in BEAS-2B cells. Similar results were observed in the respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. The expression of p110δ was detected by Western blot and suppressed by pretreatment with PI3Kδ siRNA. The activation of PI3Kδ is typically induced by oxidative stress. The generation of reactive oxygen species was increased by poly IC. Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, or by oxypurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Poly IC-induced activation of NF-κB was suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor but not by a PI3Kδ inhibitor. These results suggest that PI3Kδ mediates dsRNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 without affecting the activation of NF-κB

  9. Activation of Akt/GSK3β and Akt/Bcl-2 signaling pathways in nickel-transformed BEAS-2B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing-Ju; Chang, Qing-Shan; Wang, Xin; Son, Young-Ok; Liu, Jiankang; Zhang, Zhuo; Bi, Yong-Yi; Shi, Xianglin

    2011-11-01

    The Akt signaling pathway has been implicated in a wide range of cellular functions involving cell survival and proliferation, angiogenesis, metabolism and cell migration. Accumulating evidence suggests that Akt perturbations play an important role in human malignancy. Here, we investigated Akt perturbation in nickel-transformed cells. Chronic treatment of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells with low doses of nickel chloride resulted in cell transformation demonstrated by anchorage-independent (AI) growth, increased cell growth and alterations of cell growth pattern. Western blot assays show that phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473, but not that of p38, JNK and ERK, was increased in nickel-transformed cells compared with controls. Inhibition of Akt or PI3K by pharmacological or biochemical interference suppressed nickel AI growth and cell growth of transformed cells. Activation of Akt led to inhibition of GSK3β by phosphorylation at Ser9 in nickel-transformed cells. In addition, two major anti-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl family, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, were increased in nickel-transformed cells. By employing the small interfering RNA technique (siRNA), our results showed that siRNA Akt attenuated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in nickel-transformed cells, indicating that induction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL was likely mediated through Akt. ROS generation was decreased in nickel-transformed cells compared with controls. Moreover, down-regulation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) was observed in nickel-transformed cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that activation of Akt, followed by GSK3β inhibition and Bcl-2, Bcl-XL up-regulation and decrease of ROS generation, along with a synergistic effect of Rb down-regulation may cause apoptosis resistance, contributing to the overall mechanism of nickel carcinogenesis.

  10. Surface reactivity and in vitro toxicity on human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) of nanomaterials intermediates of the production of titania-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Viviana; Aldieri, Elisabetta; Fenoglio, Ivana; Marucco, Arianna; Carlucci, Claudia; Ciccarella, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of applications. Evaluating the hazards associated with TiO2 NPs is crucial as it enables risk assessment related to human and environmental exposure. In this study the in vitro human toxicity of a set of TiO2 NPs modified with acetic, oleic and boric acids were studied in order to assess the hazard in view of a future scale-up of the synthesis. The surface reactivity of the powders under simulated solar illumination and in the dark has been evaluated by means of EPR spectroscopy. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) have been chosen as a model for lung epithelium. Cytotoxicity has been assessed by measuring the cells membrane integrity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, and the inflammatory response evaluated as nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α production, and oxidative stress measured as intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and induced lipoperoxidation. Aeroxide P25 was used for comparison. The results demonstrated a low photoreactivity and toxic effects lower than Aeroxide P25 of the nano-TiO2 powders, probably as a consequence of the presence of acidic moieties at the surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA damage and DNA damage response in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells following exposure to 2-nitrobenzanthrone and 3-nitrobenzanthrone: role in apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Elisabeth; Ovrevik, Johan; Arlt, Volker M; Nagy, Eszter; Phillips, David H; Holme, Jørn A

    2011-11-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutants found in diesel exhaust and on urban air pollution particles. In the present study, human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). DNA damage responses were compared to those observed after exposure to 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Examination by microscopy revealed that 3-NBA was the most potent toxic compound while weaker responses were observed with 1-NP and B[a]P. Most interestingly, 2-NBA did not induce cell death or any other stress-related responses. 3-NBA induced a typical apoptotic cell death judged by nuclear condensation and little plasma membrane damage as well as cleavage of caspase 3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Exposure to 3-NBA resulted in an accumulation of cells in S-phase, and further analysis by Western blotting, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry revealed that 3-NBA induced a DNA damage response characterized by phosphorylation of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated), checkpoint kinase (Chk) 2/Chk1, H2AX and p53. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α inhibited 3-NBA-induced apoptosis while small effects were seen using pifithrin-μ, suggesting that 3-NBA-induced cell death is a result of transcriptional activation of p53. In conclusion, 3-NBA is a potent inducer of apoptosis, which seemed to be triggered by the DNA damage response. Furthermore, a change of the nitro-group to the second position (i.e. 2-NBA) dramatically changed the cellular reactivity of the compound.

  12. Prooxidant and proinflammatory potency of air pollution particulate matter (PM₂.₅₋₀.₃) produced in rural, urban, or industrial surroundings in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergham, Mona; Lepers, Capucine; Verdin, Anthony; Billet, Sylvain; Cazier, Fabrice; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz; Garçon, Guillaume

    2012-04-16

    Compelling evidence indicates that exposure to air pollution particulate matter (PM) affects human health. However, how PM composition interacts with PM-size to cause adverse health effects needs elucidation. In this study, we were also interested in the physicochemical characteristics and toxicological end points of PM₂.₅₋₀.₃ samples produced in rural, urban, or industrial surroundings, thereby expecting to differentiate their respective in vitro adverse health effects in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Physicochemical characteristics of the three PM₂.₅₋₀.₃ samples, notably their inorganic and organic components, were closely related to their respective emission sources. Referring also to the dose/response relationships of the three PM₂.₅₋₀.₃ samples, the most toxicologically relevant exposure times (i.e., 24, 48, and 72 h) and doses (i.e., 3.75 μg PM/cm² and 15 μg PM/cm²) to use to study the underlying mechanisms of action involved in PM-induced lung toxicity were chosen. Organic chemicals adsorbed on the three PM₂.₅₋₀.₃ samples (i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were able to induce the gene expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (i.e., Cytochrome P4501A1 and 1B1, and, to a lesser extent, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase-1). Moreover, intracellular reactive oxygen species within BEAS-2B cells exposed to the three PM₂.₅₋₀.₃ samples induced oxidative damage (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation, malondialdehyde production and/or glutathione status alteration). There were also statistically significant increases of the gene expression and/or protein secretion of inflammatory mediators (i.e., notably IL-6 and IL-8) in BEAS-2B cells after their exposure to the three PM₂.₅₋₀.₃ samples. Taken together, the present findings indicated that oxidative damage and inflammatory response preceeded cytotoxicity in air pollution PM₂.₅₋₀.₃-exposed BEAS-2B cells and supported the

  13. Toxicological Impact of Air Pollution Particulate Matter PM 2.5 Collected under Urban Industrial or Rural Influence Occurrence of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction in BEAS 2B Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Corrected Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dergham, M.; Billet, S; Verdin, A.; Courcot, D.; Cazier, F.; Pirouz, Sh.; Garcon, G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution Particulate Matter (PM) is one of the risk factors involved in the high incidence of respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases. In this work, to integrate inter-seasonal and inter-site variations, fine particle (PM2.5) samples have been collected in spring-summer 2008) and autumn 2008-winter 2009, in Dunkerque (France) under urban or industrial influence, and in Rubrouck (France), under rural influence. Attention was paid to characterize their physico-chemical characteristics, and to determine their ability to induce oxidative stress and inflammatory response in a human bronchial epithelial cell model (BEAS-2B cell line). Physico-chemical characterization of the six PM samples showed their heterogeneities and complexities depending upon their respective natural and/or anthropogenic emission sources. Lung cytotoxicity of these air pollution PM2.5 samples, as shown in BEAS-2B cells, might rely on the induction of oxidative stress conditions and particularly on the excessive inflammatory response. (author)

  14. Proinflammatory effects of diesel exhaust particles from moderate blend concentrations of 1st and 2nd generation biodiesel in BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells-The FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuland, Tonje S; Refsnes, Magne; Magnusson, Pål; Oczkowski, Michał; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Kruszewski, Marcin; Mruk, Remigiusz; Myhre, Oddvar; Lankoff, Anna; Øvrevik, Johan

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel fuel fuels are introduced at an increasing extent as a more carbon-neutral alternative to reduce CO 2 -emissions, compared to conventional diesel fuel. In the present study we have investigated the impact of increasing the use of 1st generation fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel from current 7% blend (B7) to 20% blend (B20), or by increasing the biodiesel content by adding 2nd generation hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) based biodiesel (SHB; Synthetic Hydrocarbon Biofuel) on toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in an in vitro system. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed for 4 and 20h to DEP from B7, B20 and SHB at different concentrations, and examined for effects on gene expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), CXCL8 (IL-8), CYP1A1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The results show that both B20 and SHB were more potent inducers of IL-6 expression compared to B7. Only B20 induced statistically significant increases in CXCL8 expression. By comparison the rank order of potency to induce CYP1A1 was SHB>B7>B20. No statistically significant difference were observed form HO-1 expression, suggesting that the differences in cytokine responses were not due to oxidative stress. The results show that even moderate increases in biodiesel blends, from 7% to 20%, may increase the proinflammatory potential of emitted DEP in BEAS-2B cells. This effect was observed for both addition of 1st generation FAME and 2nd generation HVO biodiesel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellular Interactions and Biological Responses to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in HepG2 and BEAS-2B Cells: Role of Cell Culture Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT We have shown previously that the composition of the biological medium used in vitro can affect the cellular interaction and biological response of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in human lung epithelial cells. However, it is unclear if these effects are co...

  16. Overexpression of microRNA-155 suppresses chemokine expression induced by Interleukin-13 in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Matsukura

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: miR-155 specifically inhibits IL-13-induced expression of eosinophilic chemokines CCL11 and CCL26 in bronchial epithelial cells, even though the 3'-untranslated region of these genes do not contain a consensus binding site for miR-155.

  17. Adenovirus-mediated delivery and expression of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor gene to BEAS-2B epithelial cells abolishes the anti-inflammatory effects of rolipram, salbutamol, and prostaglandin E2: a comparison with H-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meja, Koremu K; Catley, Matthew C; Cambridge, Lisa M; Barnes, Peter J; Lum, Hazel; Newton, Robert; Giembycz, Mark A

    2004-05-01

    cAMP-elevating drugs are thought to mediate their biological effects by activating the cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) cascade. However, this hypothesis is difficult to confirm due to a lack of selective inhibitors. Here, we have probed the role of PKA in mediating inhibitory effects of several cAMP-elevating drugs in BEAS-2B epithelial cells using an adenovirus vector encoding a PKA inhibitor protein (PKIalpha) and have compared it to H-89, a commonly used small molecule PKA inhibitor. Initial studies established efficient gene transfer and confirmed functionality of PKIalpha 48 h after virus infection. All cAMP-elevating drugs tested promoted the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), activated a cAMP response element (CRE)-driven luciferase reporter gene, and suppressed both granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) generation and [(3)H]arachidonic acid (AA) release in response to interleukin-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, respectively. These effects were abolished by PKIalpha. In contrast, H-89 behaved unpredictably under the same conditions. Thus, although CREB phosphorylation evoked by a range of cAMP-elevating drugs was abolished by H-89, neither activation of the CRE-dependent luciferase reporter gene construct nor the inhibition of GM-CSF generation was inhibited. Paradoxically, H-89 antagonized MCP-1-induced [(3)H]AA release and enhanced the inhibitory effect of submaximal concentrations of rolipram and 8-bromo-cAMP. We suggest that expression of PKIalpha in susceptible cells provides a simple and unambiguous way to assess the role of PKA in cAMP signaling and to probe the mechanism of action of other drugs and cAMP-dependent responses where the participation of PKA is equivocal. Furthermore, these data suggest that H-89 is not a selective inhibitor of PKA and should be avoided.

  18. Selective ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily C Gene Expression and Proinflammatory Mediators Released by BEAS-2B after PM2.5, Budesonide, and Cotreated Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarline Encarnación-Medina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette subfamily C (ABCC genes code for phase III metabolism proteins that translocate xenobiotic (e.g., particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 and drug metabolites outside the cells. IL-6 secretion is related with the activation of the ABCC transporters. This study assesses ABCC1–4 gene expression changes and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-8 release in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B exposed to PM2.5 organic extract, budesonide (BUD, used to control inflammation in asthmatic patients, and a cotreatment (Co-T: PM2.5 and BUD. A real-time PCR assay shows that ABCC1 was upregulated in BEAS-2B exposed after 6 and 7 hr to PM2.5 extract or BUD but downregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T. ABCC3 was downregulated after 6 hr of BUD and upregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T exposures. ABCC4 was upregulated after 5 hr of PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T exposures. The cytokine assay revealed an increase in IL-6 release by BEAS-2B exposed after 5 hr to PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T. At 7 hr, the Co-T decreases IL-6 release and IL-8 at 6 hr. In conclusion, the cotreatment showed an opposite effect on exposed BEAS-2B as compared with BUD. The results suggest an interference of the BUD therapeutic potential by PM2.5.

  19. Proliferative activity of a blend of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea root extracts in human vein epithelial, HeLa, and QBC-939 cell lines, but not in Beas-2b cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Angelo Cichello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea is used for its immunostimulating properties and may have a role in modulating adverse immune effects of chemotherapy (i.e., use of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; fluorouracil and its immunosuppressive effect. Patients may seek herbal remedies such as Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea for immune stimulation. Echinacea extracts have been prescribed to supplement cancer chemotherapy for their immune-supportive effects; however, the extracts may also influence tumourgenesis. Our study aimed to determine the proliferative effect of the ethanolic blend of E. angustifolia and E. purpurea on various cancer cervical and bile duct cell lines, including HELA and QBC-939. Various cancer cells (HeLa and QBC-939 and human vein epithelial cells (HUVEC were treated with the Echinacea blend sample that was evaporated and reconstituted in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. As the extract concentration of Echinacea was increased from 12.5 μg/mL to 25 μg/mL, there was an increase in cell inhibition up to 100%, which then reduced to 90% over the next three concentrations, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 200 μg/mL, in HeLa cells; further inhibitory effects were observed in QBC-939 cells, from 9% inhibition at a concentration of 25 μg/mL up to 37.96% inhibition at 100 μg/mL concentration. Moreover, this is the first study to report the growth-promoting effects of this Echinacea blend in HUVEC, up to 800% at a dose concentration of 200 μg/mL. Previous studies have suggested that chicoric acid of Echinacea spp. is responsible for the increased cell growth. The results of this study show that the hydroethanolic extract of Echinacea herbal medicine promotes the growth of HeLa cells and QBC-939 cancer cell proliferation, and may interfere with cancer treatment (i.e., chemotherapy drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and Cisplatin (DDP. However, the Echinacea blend shows potential in neurodegenerative diseases with growth-promoting effects in HUVEC

  20. Proliferative activity of a blend of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea root extracts in human vein epithelial, HeLa, and QBC-939 cell lines, but not in Beas-2b cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichello, Simon Angelo; Yao, Qian; He, Xiao Qiong

    2016-04-01

    Echinacea is used for its immunostimulating properties and may have a role in modulating adverse immune effects of chemotherapy (i.e., use of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); fluorouracil and its immunosuppressive effect). Patients may seek herbal remedies such as Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea) for immune stimulation. Echinacea extracts have been prescribed to supplement cancer chemotherapy for their immune-supportive effects; however, the extracts may also influence tumourgenesis. Our study aimed to determine the proliferative effect of the ethanolic blend of E. angustifolia and E. purpurea on various cancer cervical and bile duct cell lines, including HELA and QBC-939. Various cancer cells (HeLa and QBC-939) and human vein epithelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with the Echinacea blend sample that was evaporated and reconstituted in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). As the extract concentration of Echinacea was increased from 12.5 μg/mL to 25 μg/mL, there was an increase in cell inhibition up to 100%, which then reduced to 90% over the next three concentrations, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 200 μg/mL, in HeLa cells; further inhibitory effects were observed in QBC-939 cells, from 9% inhibition at a concentration of 25 μg/mL up to 37.96% inhibition at 100 μg/mL concentration. Moreover, this is the first study to report the growth-promoting effects of this Echinacea blend in HUVEC, up to 800% at a dose concentration of 200 μg/mL. Previous studies have suggested that chicoric acid of Echinacea spp. is responsible for the increased cell growth. The results of this study show that the hydroethanolic extract of Echinacea herbal medicine promotes the growth of HeLa cells and QBC-939 cancer cell proliferation, and may interfere with cancer treatment (i.e., chemotherapy drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and Cisplatin (DDP)). However, the Echinacea blend shows potential in neurodegenerative diseases with growth-promoting effects in HUVEC. Further animal

  1. RELEASE OF IL-8 AND IL-6 BY BEAS-2B CELLS FOLLOWING IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO BIODIESEL PM EXTRACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Body: Biodiesel, an alkyl ester of plant oils that can be used in an unmodified diesel engine, is a renewable fuel alternative which show signs of becoming a commercially accepted part of our nation¿s energy infrastructure. Biodiesel exhaust has been physicochemically ch...

  2. Proteome Profiling of BEAS-2B Cells Treated with Titanium Dioxide Reveals Potential Toxicity of and Detoxification Pathways for Nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is known to play important roles in nanomaterial-induced toxicities. However, the proteins and signaling pathways associated with nanomaterial-mediated oxidative stress and toxicity are largely unknown. To identify oxidative stress-responding toxicity pathways an...

  3. Proteome Profiling Reveals Potential Toxicity and Detoxification Pathways Following Exposure of BEAS-2B Cells to Engineered Nanoparticle Titanium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of toxicity pathways linked to chemical -exposure is critical for a better understanding of biological effects of the exposure, toxic mechanisms, and for enhancement of the prediction of chemical toxicity and adverse health outcomes. To identify toxicity pathways a...

  4. Proteome Profiling Reveals Potential Toxicity and Detoxification Pathways Following Exposure of BEAS-2B Cells to Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is known to play important roles in engineered nanomaterial induced cellular toxicity. However, the proteins and signaling pathways associated with the engineered nanomaterial mediated oxidative stress and toxicity are largely unknown. To identify these toxicity ...

  5. Proteomic Responses of BEAS-2B Cells to Nontoxic and Toxic Chromium: Protein Indicators of Cytotoxicity Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is an environmental human carcinogen which primarily targets lungs. Among a variety of toxic mechanisms, disruption of biological pathways via translational and post-translational modifications represents a key mechanism through which Cr (VI) induces...

  6. Implementing BEA Portal 92

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Portals have come into their own in the last several years. Over this time, I have seen portal technology become the latest expression of businesses trying to organize the torrent of information that computers bring. BEA portal is a leader in portal technology. It allows for an enterprise level of support, stability, and capability. Portal 92 has the tools to make your next portal project a success. It also has the sophistication to keep your portal running and remaining relevant to your business. If you are investigating BEA Portal technology, or if you are a seasoned BEA administrator, you

  7. Downregulation of the Adenosine A2b Receptor by RNA Interference Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Hong-Jun; Chai, Fu-Lu; Wang, De-Sheng; Dou, Ke-Feng

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the biological effect of adenosine A2b receptor (A2bR) on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2, three A2bR siRNA constructs were transiently transfected into HepG2 cells. The results showed that A2bR siRNA reduced the levels of A2bR mRNA and protein. In order to further detect the function of A2bR, we established a stable hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) expressing siRNA targeting the adenosine A2b receptor. Targeted RNAi significantly inhibited tumor ce...

  8. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A.; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.

  9. Doc2b synchronizes secretion from chromaffin cells by stimulating fast and inhibiting sustained release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Pinheiro, Paulo César; de Wit, Heidi; Walter, Alexander M

    2013-01-01

    Synaptotagmin-1 and -7 constitute the main calcium sensors mediating SNARE-dependent exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells, but the role of a closely related calcium-binding protein, Doc2b, remains enigmatic. We investigated its role in chromaffin cells using Doc2b knock-out mice and high temporal...... resolution measurements of exocytosis. We found that the calcium dependence of vesicle priming and release triggering remained unchanged, ruling out an obligatory role for Doc2b in those processes. However, in the absence of Doc2b, release was shifted from the readily releasable pool to the subsequent...... sustained component. Conversely, upon overexpression of Doc2b, the sustained component was largely inhibited whereas the readily releasable pool was augmented. Electron microscopy revealed an increase in the total number of vesicles upon Doc2b overexpression, ruling out vesicle depletion as the cause...

  10. Trypanosoma brucei Co-opts NK Cells to Kill Splenic B2 B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Frenkel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After infection with T. brucei AnTat 1.1, C57BL/6 mice lost splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed poor parasite-specific antibody responses, lost weight, became anemic and died with fulminating parasitemia within 35 days. In contrast, infected C57BL/6 mice lacking the cytotoxic granule pore-forming protein perforin (Prf1-/- retained splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed high-titer antibody responses against many trypanosome polypeptides, rapidly suppressed parasitemia and did not develop anemia or lose weight for at least 60 days. Several lines of evidence show that T. brucei infection-induced splenic B cell depletion results from natural killer (NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity: i B2 B cells were depleted from the spleens of infected intact, T cell deficient (TCR-/- and FcγRIIIa deficient (CD16-/- C57BL/6 mice excluding a requirement for T cells, NKT cell, or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; ii administration of NK1.1 specific IgG2a (mAb PK136 but not irrelevant IgG2a (myeloma M9144 prevented infection-induced B cell depletion consistent with a requirement for NK cells; iii splenic NK cells but not T cells or NKT cells degranulated in infected C57BL/6 mice co-incident with B cell depletion evidenced by increased surface expression of CD107a; iv purified NK cells from naïve C57BL/6 mice killed purified splenic B cells from T. brucei infected but not uninfected mice in vitro indicating acquisition of an NK cell activating phenotype by the post-infection B cells; v adoptively transferred C57BL/6 NK cells prevented infection-induced B cell population growth in infected Prf1-/- mice consistent with in vivo B cell killing; vi degranulated NK cells in infected mice had altered gene and differentiation antigen expression and lost cytotoxic activity consistent with functional exhaustion, but increased in number as infection progressed indicating continued generation. We conclude that NK cells in T. brucei

  11. KDM2B overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and regulates glioma cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yiwei Wang,1 Jin Zang,1 Dongyong Zhang,2 Zhenxiang Sun,1 Bo Qiu,2 Xiaojie Wang1 1Department of Human Anatomy, Shenyang Medical College, Huanggu District, Shenyang City, 2Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Heping District, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, ChinaBackground: Gliomas are one of the most lethal cancers in the human central nervous system. Despite clinical treatment advancements, the prognosis of patients with glioma remains poor. KDM2B is a histone lysine demethylase, which has been observed in multiple tumors. But the concrete role of KDM2B in gliomas remains to be further illustrated.Methods: The KDM2B expression in gliomas was detected with immunohistochemistry and Western blot assay. Furthermore, knockdown of KDM2B in U87 and U251 glioma cell lines, the proliferation capacity was evaluated by cell viability assay, colon formation assay and flow cytometry in vitro. Western blot assay was used to analyze the p21, EZH2 and cyclinD1 changes followed by knockdown of KDM2B.Results: KDM2B was upregulated in tissues of glioma patients, and the expression was correlated to cancer progression. Downregulation of KDM2B in U87 and U251 glioma cell lines inhibited cell proliferation and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. In addition, silencing KDM2B promoted the upregulation of p21 while reduced the expression of EZH2 and cyclinD1.Conclusion: Taken together, our results revealed that KDM2B might influence gliomas growth and act as a novel therapeutic target for glioma patients.Keywords: EZH2, glioma, KDM2B, P21

  12. Comparative Analysis of Toxic Responses of Organic Extracts from Diesel and Selected Alternative Fuels Engine Emissions in Human Lung BEAS-2B Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Líbalová, Helena; Rössner ml., Pavel; Vrbová, Kristýna; Brzicová, Táňa; Sikorová, Jitka; Vojtíšek-Lom, M.; Beránek, V.; Kléma, J.; Cigánek, M.; Neča, J.; Pěnčíková, K.; Machala, M.; Topinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2016), s. 1833 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01438S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1508; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : diesel * alternative fuels * diesel exhaust particles Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  13. The Histone H2B Monoubiquitination Regulatory Pathway Is Required for Differentiation of Multipotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpiuk, Oleksandra; Najafova, Zeynab; Kramer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Extensive changes in posttranslational histone modifications accompany the rewiring of the transcriptional program during stem cell differentiation. However, the mechanisms controlling the changes in specific chromatin modifications and their function during differentiation remain only poorly...... understood. We show that histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) significantly increases during differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and various lineage-committed precursor cells and in diverse organisms. Furthermore, the H2B ubiquitin ligase RNF40 is required for the induction...... during the transition from an inactive to an active chromatin conformation. Thus, these data indicate that H2Bub1 is required for maintaining multipotency of hMSCs and plays a central role in controlling stem cell differentiation....

  14. The Adaptor Protein SH2B3 (Lnk) Negatively Regulates Neurite Outgrowth of PC12 Cells and Cortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tien-Cheng; Chiu, Hsun; Chang, Yu-Jung; Hsu, Tai-Yu; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Chen, Linyi

    2011-01-01

    SH2B adaptor protein family members (SH2B1-3) regulate various physiological responses through affecting signaling, gene expression, and cell adhesion. SH2B1 and SH2B2 were reported to enhance nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells, a well-established neuronal model system. In contrast, SH2B3 was reported to inhibit cell proliferation during the development of immune system. No study so far addresses the role of SH2B3 in the nervous system. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that SH2B3 is expressed in the cortex of embryonic rat brain. Overexpression of SH2B3 not only inhibits NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells but also reduces neurite outgrowth of primary cortical neurons. SH2B3 does so by repressing NGF-induced activation of PLCγ, MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways and the expression of Egr-1. SH2B3 is capable of binding to phosphorylated NGF receptor, TrkA, as well as SH2B1β. Our data further demonstrate that overexpression of SH2B3 reduces the interaction between SH2B1β and TrkA. Consistent with this finding, overexpressing the SH2 domain of SH2B3 is sufficient to inhibit NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Together, our data demonstrate that SH2B3, unlike the other two family members, inhibits neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons. Its inhibitory mechanism is likely through the competition of TrkA binding with the positive-acting SH2B1 and SH2B2. PMID:22028877

  15. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from a patient with hereditary multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) syndrome with "highest risk" RET mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaceur-Griscelli, A; Hadoux, J; Féraud, O; Opolon, P; Divers, D; Gobbo, E; Schlumberger, M; Griscelli, F; Turhan, A G

    2017-08-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B (MEN2B) is a cancer-predisposing syndrome that affects patients with germline RET mutations. The clinical spectrum of the syndrome includes medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and pheochromocytoma. Currently, there is no satisfactory model recapitulating all the features of the disease especially at the level of stem cells. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a patient with RET mutation at codon 918 who developed pheochromocytoma and MTC. These iPSC had normal karyotype, harboured the RET M918T mutation and expressed pluripotency hallmarks. A comprehensive pathological assessment of teratoma was performed after injection in immunodeficient mice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase SULT2B1b promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Yang

    Full Text Available Hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b is highly selective for the addition of sulfate groups to 3β-hydroxysteroids. Although previous reports have suggested that SULT2B1b is correlated with cell proliferation of hepatocytes, the relationship between SULT2B1b and the malignant phenotype of hepatocarcinoma cells was not clear. In the present study, we found that SULT2B1 was comparatively higher in the human hepatocarcinoma tumorous tissues than their adjacent tissues. Besides, SULT2B1b overexpression promoted the growth of the mouse hepatocarcinoma cell line Hepa1-6, while Lentivirus-mediated SULT2B1b interference inhibited growth as assessed by the CCK-8 assay. Likewise, inhibition of SULT2B1b expression induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in Hepa1-6 cells by upregulating the expression of FAS, downregulating the expression of cyclinB1, BCL2 and MYC in vitro and in vivo at both the transcript and protein levels. Knock-down of SULT2B1b expression significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mouse xenografts. Moreover, proliferation rates and SULT2B1b expression were highly correlated in the human hepatocarcinoma cell lines Huh-7, Hep3B, SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 cells. Knock-down of SULT2B1b inhibited cell growth and cyclinB1 levels in human hepatocarcinoma cells and suppressed xenograft growth in vivo. In conclusion, SULT2B1b expression promotes proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, which may contribute to the progression of HCC.

  17. The Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor Roflumilast Protects against Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Mitophagy-Dependent Cell Death in Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Sun Young; Kim, Yu Jin; Son, Eun Suk; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Park, Jeong Woong

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies show that mitophagy, the autophagy-dependent turnover of mitochondria, mediates pulmonary epithelial cell death in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure and contributes to the development of emphysema in vivo during chronic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of mitophagy in the regulation of CSE-exposed lung bronchial epithelial cell (Beas-2B) death. We also investigated the role of a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, roflumilast, in CSE-induced mitophagy-dependent cell death. Our results demonstrated that CSE induces mitophagy in Beas-2B cells through mitochondrial dysfunction and increased the expression levels of the mitophagy regulator protein, PTEN-induced putative kinase-1 (PINK1), and the mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-1-like protein (DRP1). CSE-induced epithelial cell death was significantly increased in Beas-2B cells exposed to CSE but was decreased by small interfering RNA-dependent knockdown of DRP1. Treatment with roflumilast in Beas-2B cells inhibited CSE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy by inhibiting the expression of phospho-DRP1 and -PINK1. Roflumilast protected against cell death and increased cell viability, as determined by the lactate dehydrogenase release test and the MTT assay, respectively, in Beas-2B cells exposed to CSE. These findings suggest that roflumilast plays a protective role in CS-induced mitophagy-dependent cell death. Copyright©2018. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.

  18. Defective dendritic cell generation from monocytes is a potential reason for poor therapeutic efficacy of interferon α2b (IFNα2b) in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumyabrata; Goswami, Shyamal; Bose, Anamika; Goswami, Kuntal Kanti; Sarkar, Koustav; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Chakraborty, Tathagata; Pal, Smarajit; Haldar, Atanu; Basu, Parthasarathi; Biswas, Jaydip; Baral, Rathindranath

    2011-10-01

    Despite being a pleiotropic cytokine, the therapeutic potential of interferon α2b (IFNα2b) is debatable. Thus, the need for identifying predictive marker(s) for patients who are most likely to benefit from the treatment is pivotal for avoiding the exposure of nonresponsive patients to the toxicity of the treatment. To account for the attenuated efficacy of the drug, we have verified its dendritic cell (DC) maturating ability from monocytes of cervical cancer stage IIIB (CaCx-IIIB) patients. First, we evaluated the status of monocytes from CaCx-IIIB and healthy women by conducting flow cytometric studies of various activation markers and a cytokine analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry. Immature DCs were then generated from these monocytes and matured with low-dose IFNα2b (1500 units/mL). A functional and phenotypic comparative analysis of these matured DCs was performed by flow cytometric, proliferative, cytotoxic, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Our study shows that monocytes isolated from CaCx-IIIB are impaired, and in vitro maturation with IFNα2b did not significantly improve the functional repertoire of DCs generated from these monocytes in comparison with healthy controls. This impairment of monocytes might be a plausible reason for the attenuated efficacy of this drug alone in treating CaCx-IIIB patients, and this imbalance of immune parameters associated with the stage of malignancy might be considered an effective marker to design a proper therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of Extrachromosomal Histone H2B on Recognition of DNA Viruses and Cell Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobiyama, Kouji; Kawashima, Akira; Jounai, Nao; Takeshita, Fumihiko; Ishii, Ken J; Ito, Tetsuhide; Suzuki, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Histones are essential components of chromatin structure, and histone modification plays an important role in various cellular functions including transcription, gene silencing, and immunity. Histones also play distinct roles in extrachromosomal settings. Extrachromosomal histone H2B acts as a cytosolic sensor to detect double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments derived from infectious agents or damaged cells to activate innate and acquired immune responses in various cell types. It also physically interacts with interferon (IFN)-β promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1), an essential adaptor molecule that activates innate immunity, through COOH-terminal importin 9-related adaptor organizing histone H2B and IPS-1 (CIAO), resulting in a distinct signaling complex that induces dsDNA-induced type I IFN production. Such a molecular platform acts as a cellular sensor to recognize aberrant dsDNA in cases of viral infection and cell damage. This mechanism may also play roles in autoimmunity, transplantation rejection, gene-mediated vaccines, and other therapeutic applications.

  20. Expression of Receptors for Tetanus Toxin and Monoclonal Antibody A2B5 by Pancreatic Islet Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, G. S.; Shimizu, K.; Bowring, M. A.; Wells, S.

    1982-08-01

    Studies of the reaction of antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin with pancreatic islet cells, islet cell tumors, and other human amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) tumors are described. By indirect immunofluorescence, antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin were shown to specifically bind to the plasma membrane of human, rat, chicken, and mouse islet cells. The binding of antibody A2B5 to the cell surface of living islet cells has allowed isolation of these cells from a suspension of pancreatic cells by using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. In studies designed to determine whether tetanus toxin and antibody A2B5 bound to the same surface antigen, A2B5 and tetanus toxin did not compete for binding to normal islet cells, a human islet cell tumor, or a rat islet cell tumor. In addition to binding to islet cell tumors, antibody A2B5 reacts with frozen sections, isolated cells, and cell lines of neural, neural crest, and APUD origin.

  1. Cholesterol Sulfonation Enzyme, SULT2B1b, Modulates AR and Cell Growth Properties in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickman, Renee E; Crist, Scott A; Kerian, Kevin; Eberlin, Livia; Cooks, R Graham; Burcham, Grant N; Buhman, Kimberly K; Hu, Chang-Deng; Mesecar, Andrew D; Cheng, Liang; Ratliff, Timothy L

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol accumulates in prostate lesions and has been linked to prostate cancer incidence and progression. However, how accumulated cholesterol contributes to prostate cancer development and progression is not completely understood. Cholesterol sulfate (CS), the primary sulfonation product of cholesterol sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b), accumulates in human prostate adenocarcinoma and precancerous prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions compared with normal regions of the same tissue sample. Given the enhanced accumulation of CS in these lesions, it was hypothesized that SULT2B1b-mediated production of CS provides a growth advantage to these cells. To address this, prostate cancer cells with RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of SULT2B1b were used to assess the impact on cell growth and survival. SULT2B1b is expressed and functional in a variety of prostate cells, and the data demonstrate that SULT2B1b KD, in LNCaP and other androgen-responsive (VCaP and C4-2) cells, results in decreased cell growth/viability and induces cell death. SULT2B1b KD also decreases androgen receptor (AR) activity and expression at mRNA and protein levels. While AR overexpression has no impact on SULT2B1b KD-mediated cell death, the addition of exogenous androgen is able to partially rescue the growth inhibition induced by SULT2B1b KD in LNCaP cells. These results suggest that SULT2B1b positively regulates the AR either through alterations in ligand availability or by interaction with critical coregulators that influence AR activity. These findings provide evidence that SULT2B1b is a novel regulator of AR activity and cell growth in prostate cancer and should be further investigated for therapeutic potential. Mol Cancer Res; 14(9); 776-86. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Efficient cell culture system for hepatitis C virus genotype 2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present inventors developed hepatitis C virus 2b/2a intergenotypic recombinants in which the JFH1 structural genes (Core, E1 and E2), p7 and the complete NS2 were replaced by the corresponding genes of the genotype 2b reference strain J8. Sequence analysis of recovered 2b/2a recombinants from...... transfection experiments revealed that 2b/2a was genetically stable. Conclusion: The developed 2b/2a viruses provide a robust in vitro tool for research in HCV genotype 2b, including vaccine studies and functional analysis.......The present inventors developed hepatitis C virus 2b/2a intergenotypic recombinants in which the JFH1 structural genes (Core, E1 and E2), p7 and the complete NS2 were replaced by the corresponding genes of the genotype 2b reference strain J8. Sequence analysis of recovered 2b/2a recombinants from 2...

  3. Evolving role of 2B4/CD244 in T and NK cell responses during virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Noel Waggoner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM family receptor, 2B4/CD244, was first implicated in anti-viral immunity by the discovery that mutations of the SLAM-associated protein, SAP/SH2D1A, impaired 2B4-dependent stimulation of T and natural killer (NK cell anti-viral functions in X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP syndrome patients with uncontrolled Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections. Engagement of 2B4 has been variably shown to either activate or inhibit lymphocytes which express this receptor. While SAP expression is required for stimulatory functions of 2B4 on lymphocytes, it remains unclear whether inhibitory signals derived from 2B4 can predominate even in the presence of SAP. Regardless, mounting evidence suggests that 2B4 expression by NK and CD8 T cells is altered by virus infection in mice as well as in humans, and 2B4-mediated signaling may be an important determinant of effective immune control of chronic virus infections. In this review, recent findings regarding the expression and function of 2B4 as well as SAP on T and NK cells during virus infection is discussed, with a focus on the role of 2B4-CD48 interactions in crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity.

  4. Resveratrol induces cellular senescence with attenuated mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B in glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Michael S.; Barnett, Tamara L. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Xu, C. Wilson, E-mail: wxu@nvcancer.org [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Resveratrol induces cellular senescence in glioma cell. {yields} Resveratrol inhibits mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120. {yields} Depletion of RNF20, phenocopies the inhibitory effects of resveratrol. {yields} Mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 is a novel target of resveratrol. {yields} RNF20 inhibits cellular senescence in proliferating glioma cells. -- Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol naturally occurring in grapes and other plants, has cancer chemo-preventive effects and therapeutic potential. Although resveratrol modulates multiple pathways in tumor cells, how resveratrol or its affected pathways converge on chromatin to mediate its effects is not known. Using glioma cells as a model, we showed here that resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular hypertrophy by transforming spindle-shaped cells to enlarged, irregular and flatten-shaped ones. We further showed that resveratrol-induced hypertrophic cells expressed senescence-associated-{beta}-galactosidase, suggesting that resveratrol-induced cellular senescence in glioma cells. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited clonogenic efficiencies in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we found that acute treatment of resveratrol inhibited mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 (uH2B) in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, brain tumor cells as well as primary human cells. Chronic treatment with low doses of resveratrol also inhibited uH2B in the resveratrol-induced senescent glioma cells. Moreover, we showed that depletion of RNF20, a ubiquitin ligase of histone H2B, inhibited uH2B and induced cellular senescence in glioma cells in vitro, thereby recapitulated the effects of resveratrol. Taken together, our results suggest that uH2B is a novel direct or indirect chromatin target of resveratrol and RNF20 plays an important role in inhibiting cellular

  5. Efficient cell culture system for hepatitis C virus genotype 2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present inventors developed hepatitis C virus 2b/2a intergenotypic recombinants in which the JFH1 structural genes (Core, E1 and E2), p7 and the complete NS2 were replaced by the corresponding genes of the genotype 2b reference strain J8. Sequence analysis of recovered 2b/2a recombinants from 2...

  6. Cutting Edge: 2B4-Mediated Coinhibition of CD4+ T Cells Underlies Mortality in Experimental Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Wen; Mittal, Rohit; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Burd, Eileen M; Terhorst, Cox; Martin, Greg S; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2017-09-15

    Sepsis is a leading cause of death in the United States, but the mechanisms underlying sepsis-induced immune dysregulation remain poorly understood. 2B4 (CD244, SLAM4) is a cosignaling molecule expressed predominantly on NK cells and memory CD8 + T cells that has been shown to regulate T cell function in models of viral infection and autoimmunity. In this article, we show that 2B4 signaling mediates sepsis lymphocyte dysfunction and mortality. 2B4 expression is increased on CD4 + T cells in septic animals and human patients at early time points. Importantly, genetic loss or pharmacologic inhibition of 2B4 significantly increased survival in a murine cecal ligation and puncture model. Further, CD4-specific conditional knockouts showed that 2B4 functions on CD4 + T cell populations in a cell-intrinsic manner and modulates adaptive and innate immune responses during sepsis. Our results illuminate a novel role for 2B4 coinhibitory signaling on CD4 + T cells in mediating immune dysregulation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Synthesis of Ni2B nanoparticles by RF thermal plasma for fuel cell catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y; Tanaka, M; Watanabe, T; Choi, S Y; Shin, M S; Lee, K H

    2014-01-01

    The catalyst of Ni 2 B nanoparticles was successfully prepared using nickel and boron as precursors with the quenching gas in radio frequency thermal plasmas. The generating of Ni 2 B needs adequate reaction temperature and boron content in precursors. The quenching gas is beneficial for the synthesis of Ni 2 B in RF thermal plasma. The effect of quenching rate, powder feed rate and boron content in feeding powders on the synthesis of nickel boride nanoparticles was studied in this research. The high mass fraction of 28 % of Ni 2 B nanoparticles can be generated at the fixed initial composition of Ni:B = 2:3. Quenching gas is necessary in the synthesis of Ni 2 B nanoaprticles. In addition, the mass fraction of Ni 2 B increases with the increase of quenching gas flow rate and powder feed rate

  8. KAT2B Is Required for Pancreatic Beta Cell Adaptation to Metabolic Stress by Controlling the Unfolded Protein Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Nabil; Denechaud, Pierre-Damien; Gromada, Xavier; Hannou, Sarah Anissa; Zhang, Hongbo; Rashid, Talha; Salas, Elisabet; Durand, Emmanuelle; Sand, Olivier; Bonnefond, Amélie; Yengo, Loic; Chavey, Carine; Bonner, Caroline; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Abderrahmani, Amar; Auwerx, Johan; Fajas, Lluis; Froguel, Philippe; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-05-03

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR(er)) pathway plays an important role in helping pancreatic β cells to adapt their cellular responses to environmental cues and metabolic stress. Although altered UPR(er) gene expression appears in rodent and human type 2 diabetic (T2D) islets, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We show here that germline and β cell-specific disruption of the lysine acetyltransferase 2B (Kat2b) gene in mice leads to impaired insulin secretion and glucose intolerance. Genome-wide analysis of Kat2b-regulated genes and functional assays reveal a critical role for Kat2b in maintaining UPR(er) gene expression and subsequent β cell function. Importantly, Kat2b expression is decreased in mouse and human diabetic β cells and correlates with UPR(er) gene expression in normal human islets. In conclusion, Kat2b is a crucial transcriptional regulator for adaptive β cell function during metabolic stress by controlling UPR(er) and represents a promising target for T2D prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reversal of pathology in CHMP2B-mediated frontotemporal dementia patient cells using RNA interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Mizielinska, Sarah; Hasholt, Lis

    2012-01-01

    role in the pathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: In the present study, we used lentiviral vectors to efficiently knockdown CHMP2B by delivering microRNA embedded small hairpin RNAs. RESULTS: We show that CHMP2B can be efficiently knocked down in patient fibroblasts using an RNA interference approach......BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is the second most common form of young-onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and several genetic forms of frontotemporal dementia are known. A rare genetic variant is caused by a point mutation in the CHMP2B gene. CHMP2B is a component of the ESCRT......-III complex, which is involved in endosomal trafficking of proteins targeted for degradation in lysosomes. Mutations in CHMP2B result in abnormal endosomal structures in patient fibroblasts and patient brains, probably through a gain-of-function mechanism, suggesting that the endosomal pathway plays a central...

  10. NR2B-containing NMDA receptors promote neural progenitor cell proliferation through CaMKIV/CREB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mei, E-mail: limeihit@163.com [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Department of Pharmacology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Dong-Qing; Wang, Xiang-Zhen [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou (China); Xu, Tie-Jun, E-mail: xztjxu@163.com [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Department of Pharmacology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The NR2B component of the NMDARs is important for the NSPC proliferation. {yields} pCaMKIV and pCREB exist in NSPCs. {yields} The CaMKIV/CREB pathway mediates NSPC proliferation. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in regulating neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation. Functional properties of NMDARs can be markedly influenced by incorporating the regulatory subunit NR2B. Here, we aim to analyze the effect of NR2B-containing NMDARs on the proliferation of hippocampal NSPCs and to explore the mechanism responsible for this effect. NSPCs were shown to express NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B. The NR2B selective antagonist, Ro 25-6981, prevented the NMDA-induced increase in cell proliferation. Moreover, we demonstrated that the phosphorylation levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were increased by NMDA treatment, whereas Ro 25-6981 decreased them. The role that NR2B-containing NMDARs plays in NSPC proliferation was abolished when CREB phosphorylation was attenuated by CaMKIV silencing. These results suggest that NR2B-containing NMDARs have a positive role in regulating NSPC proliferation, which may be mediated through CaMKIV phosphorylation and subsequent induction of CREB activation.

  11. Multiplexed quantitative high content screening reveals that cigarette smoke condensate induces changes in cell structure and function through alterations in cell signaling pathways in human bronchial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Charleata A.; Hamm, Jonathan T.

    2009-01-01

    Human bronchial cells are one of the first cell types exposed to environmental toxins. Toxins often activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and protein kinase C (PKC). We evaluated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, activates PKC-α and NF-κB, and concomitantly disrupts the F-actin cytoskeleton, induces apoptosis and alters cell function in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Compared to controls, exposure of BEAS-2B cells to doses of 30 μg/ml CSC significantly activated PKC-α, while CSC doses above 20 μg/ml CSC significantly activated NF-κB. As NF-κB was activated, cell number decreased. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced a decrease in cell size and an increase in cell surface extensions including filopodia and lamellipodia. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced F-actin rearrangement such that stress fibers were no longer prominent at the cell periphery and throughout the cells, but relocalized to perinuclear regions. Concurrently, CSC induced an increase in the focal adhesion protein vinculin at the cell periphery. CSC doses above 30 μg/ml induced a significant increase in apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells evidenced by an increase in activated caspase 3, an increase in mitochondrial mass and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. As caspase 3 increased, cell number decreased. CSC doses above 30 μg/ml also induced significant concurrent changes in cell function including decreased cell spreading and motility. CSC initiates a signaling cascade in human bronchial epithelial cells involving PKC-α, NF-κB and caspase 3, and consequently decreases cell spreading and motility. These CSC-induced alterations in cell structure likely prevent cells from performing their normal function thereby contributing to smoke-induced diseases.

  12. Neurotoxic, cytotoxic, apoptotic and antiproliferative effects of some marine algae extracts on the NA2B cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, O; Özdal-Kurt, F; Akçora, C M; Özkut, M; Tuğlu, M I

    2018-02-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to cancer pathologies and to apoptosis. Marine algae exhibit cytotoxic, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects; their metabolites have been used to treat many types of cancer. We investigated in culture extracts of Petalonia fascia, Jania longifurca and Halimeda tuna to determine their effects on mouse neuroblastoma cell line, NA2B. NA2B cells were treated with algae extracts, and the survival and proliferation of NA2B cells were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of algae extracts on oxidative stress in NA2B cells also were investigated using nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunocytochemistry and apoptosis was assessed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. We observed significant neurite inhibition with moderate damage by the neurotoxicity-screening test (NST) at IC 50 dilutions of the extracts. MTT demonstrated that J. longifurca extracts were more toxic than P. fascia and H. tuna extracts. We found an increase of endothelial and inducible NOS immunostaining for oxidative stress and TUNEL analysis revealed increased apoptosis after application of extract. Our findings suggest that the algae we tested may have potential use for treatment of cancer.

  13. Development of a coordinated allo T cell and auto B cell response against autosomal PTK2B after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Anita N; van der Griendt, Judith C; van der Meijden, Edith D; Honders, M Willy; Ayoglu, Burcu; Schwenk, Jochen M; Nilsson, Peter; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Griffioen, Marieke

    2014-02-01

    It is well known that allo-reactive T cells play a crucial role in graft-versus-leukemia and graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Allo-reactive CD4(+) T cells can mediate direct cytolysis, but may also stimulate production of IgG antibodies as helper cells. Immune complexes may subsequently be processed and presented by professional antigen presenting cells and stimulate induction of specific CD8(+) T cells. As such, proteins targeted in coordinated T- and B-cell responses may represent a class of immunodominant antigens in clinical responses after alloSCT. We previously identified LB-PTK2B-1T as HLA class II restricted polymorphic antigen in a patient treated with donor lymphocyte infusion for relapsed chronic myeloid leukemia after HLA-matched alloSCT. Since PTK2B has also been described as antibody target, we here investigated whether a coordinated T- and B-cell response against PTK2B was induced. Patient serum before and after alloSCT and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) was screened for antibodies, and we indeed observed development of a humoral immune response against PTK2B. Antibodies against PTK2B were only found after DLI and, in contrast to the CD4(+) T cells, recognized a monomorphic region of the protein. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a coordinated allo-reactive CD4(+) T-cell and auto-reactive antibody response against an autosomal antigen.

  14. Alternative Thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene Isoindigo Polymers for Solar Cell Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios

    2018-03-05

    This work reports the synthesis, characterization, photophysical, and photovoltaic properties of five new thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene isoindigo (TBTI)-containing low bandgap donor-acceptor conjugated polymers with a series of comonomers and different side chains. When TBTI is combined with different electron-rich moieties, even small structural variations can have significant impact on thin film morphology of the polymer:phenyl C70 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends. More importantly, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy is used to investigate the phase-separated bulk heterojunction domains, which can be accurately and precisely resolved, enabling an enhanced correlation between polymer chemical structure, photovoltaic device performance, and morphology.

  15. Expression of NR2B in cerebellar granule cells specifically facilitates effect of motor training on motor learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwei Jiao; Akira Nakajima; William G M Janssen; Vytautas P Bindokas; Xiaoli Xiong; John H Morrison; James R Brorson; Ya-Ping Tang

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that gene/environment interaction (GEI) plays a pivotal role in the development of motor skills, which are acquired via practicing or motor training. However, the underlying molecular/neuronal mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we reported that the expression of NR2B, a subunit of NMDA receptors, in cerebellar granule cells specifically enhanced the effect of voluntary motor training on motor learning in the mouse. Moreover, this effect was characterized as motor learning-spec...

  16. FGF-2b and h-PL Transform Duct and Non-Endocrine Human Pancreatic Cells into Endocrine Insulin Secreting Cells by Modulating Differentiating Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Donadel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a multifactorial disease orphan of a cure. Regenerative medicine has been proposed as novel strategy for DM therapy. Human fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2b controls β-cell clusters via autocrine action, and human placental lactogen (hPL-A increases functional β-cells. We hypothesized whether FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment induces β-cell differentiation from ductal/non-endocrine precursor(s by modulating specific genes expression. Methods: Human pancreatic ductal-cells (PANC-1 and non-endocrine pancreatic cells were treated with FGF-2b plus hPL-A at 500 ng/mL. Cytofluorimetry and Immunofluorescence have been performed to detect expression of endocrine, ductal and acinar markers. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and annexin-V quantified cells proliferation and apoptosis. Insulin secretion was assessed by RIA kit, and electron microscopy analyzed islet-like clusters. Results: Increase in PANC-1 duct cells de-differentiation into islet-like aggregates was observed after FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment showing ultrastructure typical of islets-aggregates. These clusters, after stimulation with FGF-2b/hPL-A, had significant (p < 0.05 increase in insulin, C-peptide, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, somatostatin, glucagon, and glucose transporter 2 (Glut-2, compared with control cells. Markers of PANC-1 (Cytokeratin-19, MUC-1, CA19-9 were decreased (p < 0.05. These aggregates after treatment with FGF-2b/hPL-A significantly reduced levels of apoptosis. Conclusions: FGF-2b and hPL-A are promising candidates for regenerative therapy in DM by inducing de-differentiation of stem cells modulating pivotal endocrine genes.

  17. Determination of Histone 2B-Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) Retention in Intestinal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin R; Mahida, Yashwant R

    2018-01-01

    The epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract represents the interface between the luminal contents of the gut and that of the host tissues and plays a central role not only in regulating absorption of dietary nutrients but also in providing a barrier to prevent the entry of bacteria and other pathogens. Repair and replacement of damaged aging cells within the epithelium is modulated by stem cells, which are located in the intestinal crypts of the small intestine.Two distinct populations of intestinal stem cells have been described in the literature, one population at the very base of the crypt and a second population of long-lived stem cells located just above the Paneth cell zone. Herein, we describe a method to label this population of long-lived GFP label retaining cells. This method is free from confounding factors of previous methodologies based on radioactive tracers and also enables functional studies not previously possible using the radioactive tracer techniques described in the literature.

  18. Luteolin inhibits Cr(VI)-induced malignant cell transformation of human lung epithelial cells by targeting ROS mediated multiple cell signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Roy, Ram Vinod; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Asha, Padmaja [National Centre for Aquatic Animal Health, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin (India); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Yitao [State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau (China); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Inhibition of metal induced carcinogenesis by a dietary antioxidant is a novel approach. Luteolin, a natural dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We found that short term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to Cr(VI) (5 μM) showed a drastic increase in ROS generation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione depletion, which were significantly inhibited by the treatment with luteolin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with luteolin decreased AP-1, HIF-1α, COX-2, and iNOS promoter activity induced by Cr(VI) in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, luteolin protected BEAS-2B cells from malignant transformation induced by chronic Cr(VI) exposure. Moreover, luteolin also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and VEGF in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin inhibited multiple gene products linked to survival (Akt, Fak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL), inflammation (MAPK, NF-κB, COX-2, STAT-3, iNOS, TNF-α) and angiogenesis (HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9) in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Nude mice injected with BEAS-2B cells chronically exposed to Cr(VI) in the presence of luteolin showed reduced tumor incidence compared to Cr(VI) alone treated group. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) or SOD2, eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Overall, our results indicate that luteolin protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis by scavenging ROS and modulating multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Luteolin, therefore, serves as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Luteolin inhibited Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress. • Luteolin inhibited chronic Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation.

  19. 2B4-SAP signaling is required for the priming of naive CD8+T cells by antigen-expressing B cells and B lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Tsai, Kevin; Tan, Sara Y; Kang, Sohyeong; Ford, Mandy L; Harder, Kenneth W; Priatel, John J

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in SH2D1A gene that encodes SAP (SLAM-associated protein) result in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a rare primary immunodeficiency disease defined by exquisite sensitivity to the B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and B cell lymphomas. However, the precise mechanism of how the loss of SAP function contributes to extreme vulnerability to EBV and the development of B cell lymphomas remains unclear. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that SAP is critical for CD8 + T cell immune surveillance of antigen (Ag)-expressing B cells or B lymphoma cells under conditions of defined T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Sh2d1a - / - CD8 + T cells exhibited greatly diminished proliferation relative to wild type when Ag-presenting-B cells or -B lymphoma cells served as the primary Ag-presenting cell (APC). By contrast, Sh2d1a - / - CD8 + T cells responded equivalently to wild-type CD8 + T cells when B cell-depleted splenocytes, melanoma cells or breast carcinoma cells performed Ag presentation. Through application of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family receptor blocking antibodies or SLAM family receptor-deficient CD8 + T cells and APCs, we found that CD48 engagement on the B cell surface by 2B4 is crucial for initiating SAP-dependent signaling required for the Ag-driven CD8 + T cell proliferation and differentiation. Altogether, a pivotal role for SAP in promoting the expansion and differentiation of B cell-primed viral-specific naive CD8 + T cells may explain the selective immune deficiency of XLP patients to EBV and B cell lymphomas.

  20. Oxidative stress promotes autophagic cell death in human neuroblastoma cells with ectopic transfer of mitochondrial PPP2R2B (Bβ2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ming-Yi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multifunctional protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein phosphatase composed of a scaffolding, catalytic and regulatory subunits. By modifying various downstream signal transducers, the aberrant expression of the brain-targeted regulatory subunit PPP2R2B is associated with the onset of a panel of neuronal disorders. The alternatively splicing of PPP2R2B encodes two regulatory subunit isoforms that determine cellular distribution of the neuron-specific holoenzyme to mitochondria (Bβ2 and cytoplasm (Bβ1, respectively. Results Human neuroblastoma cells were transfected with PPP2R2B constructs encoding the complete sequences of Bβ2 and Bβ1, respectively. The colonies with antibiotic resistance were selected as stable cell lines. Both ectopic Bβ1 and Bβ2 clones exhibited characteristics of autophagy. To test how cells respond to reactive oxygen species generators, the cells were treated with either hydrogen peroxide or t-butyl hydroperoxide and Bβ2 clones induced cell death. Suppression of autophagy using either RNA interference of the essential autophagy gene or pharmacological inhibitor rescued cell death caused by oxidative stress. Conclusions Cells with ectopically expressed mitochondria-targeted regulatory subunit PPP2R2B of the holoenzyme PP2A were shown predisposed to autophagy and oxidative stress induced cell death that is related to apoptosis. The results promised a model for studying the mechanism and function of aberrant PPP2R2B expression in neuronal cells. The work provided a new target for understanding and prevention of neuropathogenesis.

  1. Expression of NR2B in cerebellar granule cells specifically facilitates effect of motor training on motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Jiao

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that gene/environment interaction (GEI plays a pivotal role in the development of motor skills, which are acquired via practicing or motor training. However, the underlying molecular/neuronal mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we reported that the expression of NR2B, a subunit of NMDA receptors, in cerebellar granule cells specifically enhanced the effect of voluntary motor training on motor learning in the mouse. Moreover, this effect was characterized as motor learning-specific and developmental stage-dependent, because neither emotional/spatial memory was affected nor was the enhanced motor learning observed when the motor training was conducted starting at the age of 3 months old in these transgenic mice. These results indicate that changes in the expression of gene(s that are involved in regulating synaptic plasticity in cerebellar granule cells may constitute a molecular basis for the cerebellum to be involved in the GEI by facilitating motor skill learning.

  2. Expression of NR2B in cerebellar granule cells specifically facilitates effect of motor training on motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jianwei; Nakajima, Akira; Janssen, William G M; Bindokas, Vytautas P; Xiong, Xiaoli; Morrison, John H; Brorson, James R; Tang, Ya-Ping

    2008-02-27

    It is believed that gene/environment interaction (GEI) plays a pivotal role in the development of motor skills, which are acquired via practicing or motor training. However, the underlying molecular/neuronal mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we reported that the expression of NR2B, a subunit of NMDA receptors, in cerebellar granule cells specifically enhanced the effect of voluntary motor training on motor learning in the mouse. Moreover, this effect was characterized as motor learning-specific and developmental stage-dependent, because neither emotional/spatial memory was affected nor was the enhanced motor learning observed when the motor training was conducted starting at the age of 3 months old in these transgenic mice. These results indicate that changes in the expression of gene(s) that are involved in regulating synaptic plasticity in cerebellar granule cells may constitute a molecular basis for the cerebellum to be involved in the GEI by facilitating motor skill learning.

  3. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line via CRISPR-Cas9 mediated integration of a site-specific heterozygous mutation in CHMP2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu; Schmid, Benjamin; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup

    2016-01-01

    have generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line of a healthy individual and inserted the CHMP2B IVS5AS G-C gene mutation into one of the alleles, resulting in aberrant splicing. This human iPSC line provides an ideal model to study CHMP2B-dependent phenotypes of FTD3....

  4. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line via CRISPR-Cas9 mediated integration of a site-specific homozygous mutation in CHMP2B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is an early onset neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in several genes cause familial FTD and one of them is charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B on chromosome 3 (FTD3, a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III. We have generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line of a healthy individual and inserted the CHMP2B IVS5AS G-C gene mutation into both alleles, resulting in aberrant splicing. This human iPSC line provides an ideal model to study CHMP2B-dependent phenotypes of FTD3.

  5. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line via CRISPR-Cas9 mediated integration of a site-specific homozygous mutation in CHMP2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu; Schmid, Benjamin; Nielsen, Troels T.

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is an early onset neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in several genes cause familial FTD and one of them is charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) on chromosome 3 (FTD3), a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III). ...... have generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line of a healthy individual and inserted the CHMP2B IVS5AS G-C gene mutation into both alleles, resulting in aberrant splicing. This human iPSC line provides an ideal model to study CHMP2B-dependent phenotypes of FTD3....

  6. The effects of a HTR2B stop codon and testosterone on energy metabolism and beta cell function among antisocial Finnish males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Saukkonen, Tero; Fex, Malin; Bennet, Hedvig; Rautiainen, Marja-Riitta; Paunio, Tiina; Koskinen, Mika; Panarsky, Rony; Bevilacqua, Laura; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2016-10-01

    Herein, we examined insulin resistance (IR), insulin sensitivity (IS), beta cell activity, and glucose metabolism in subjects with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and whether the serotonin 2B (5-HT2B) receptor and testosterone have a role in energy metabolism. A cohort of subjects belonging to a founder population that included 98 ASPD males, aged 25-30, was divided into groups based on the presence of a heterozygous 5-HT2B receptor loss-of-function gene mutation (HTR2B Q20*; n = 9) or not (n = 89). Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured in a 5 h oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) and indices describing IR, IS, and beta cell activity were calculated. Body mass index (BMI) was also determined. Concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were measured in cerebrospinal fluid, and testosterone levels from serum. An IR-like state comprising high IR, low IS, and high beta cell activity indices was observed among ASPD subjects without the HTR2B Q20* allele. By contrast, being an ASPD HTR2B Q20* carrier appeared to be preventive of these pathophysiologies. The HTR2B Q20* allele and testosterone predicted lower BMI independently, but an interaction between HTR2B Q20* and testosterone lead to increased insulin sensitivity among HTR2B Q20* carriers with low testosterone levels. The HTR2B Q20* allele also predicted reduced beta cell activity and enhanced glucose metabolism. Reduced 5-HT2B receptor function at low or normal testosterone levels may be protective of obesity. Results were observed among Finnish males having an antisocial personality disorder, which limits the generality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. LNK (SH2B3) is a key regulator of integrin signaling in endothelial cells and targets α-parvin to control cell adhesion and migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devallière, Julie; Chatelais, Mathias; Fitau, Juliette; Gérard, Nathalie; Hulin, Philippe; Velazquez, Laura; Turner, Christopher E.; Charreau, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Focal adhesion (FA) formation and disassembly play an essential role in adherence and migration of endothelial cells. These processes are highly regulated and involve various signaling molecules that are not yet completely identified. Lnk [Src homology 2-B3 (SH2B3)] belongs to a family of SH2-containing proteins with important adaptor functions. In this study, we showed that Lnk distribution follows that of vinculin, localizing Lnk in FAs. Inhibition of Lnk by RNA interference resulted in decreased spreading, whereas sustained expression dramatically increases the number of focal and cell-matrix adhesions. We demonstrated that Lnk expression impairs FA turnover and cell migration and regulates β1-integrin-mediated signaling via Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation. Moreover, the α-parvin protein was identified as one of the molecular targets of Lnk responsible for impaired FA dynamics and cell migration. Finally, we established the ILK protein as a new molecular partner for Lnk and proposed a model in which Lnk regulates α-parvin expression through its interaction with ILK. Collectively, our results underline the adaptor Lnk as a novel and effective key regulator of integrin-mediated signaling controlling endothelial cell adhesion and migration.—Devallière, J., Chatelais, M., Fitau, J., Gérard, N., Hulin, P., Velazquez, L., Turner, C. E. Charreau, B. LNK (SH2B3) is a key regulator of integrin signaling in endothelial cells and targets α-parvin to control cell adhesion and migration. PMID:22441983

  8. HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cell function augmented by blockade of 2B4/CD48 interaction in HTLV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibueze Chioma Ezinne

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cell response is important in the response to viral infections; this response though is regulated by inhibitory receptors. Expression of inhibitory receptors has been positively correlated with CD8+ T cell exhaustion; the consequent effect of simultaneous blockade of these inhibitory receptors on CD8+ T cell response in viral infections have been studied, however, the role of individual blockade of receptor-ligand pair is unclear. 2B4/CD48 interaction is involved in CD8+T cell regulation, its signal transducer SAP (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM-associated protein is required for stimulatory function of 2B4/CD244 on lymphocytes hence, we analyzed 2B4/CD244 (natural killer cell receptor and SAP (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule(SLAM-associated protein on total CD8+ and HTLV-1 specific CD8+T cells in HTLV-1 infection and the effect of blockade of interaction with ligand CD48 on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cell function. We observed a high expression of 2B4/CD244 on CD8+ T cells relative to uninfected and further upregulation on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. 2B4+ CD8+ T cells exhibited more of an effector and terminally differentiated memory phenotype. Blockade of 2B4/CD48 interaction resulted in improvement in function via perforin expression and degranulation as measured by CD107a surface mobilization on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. In the light of these findings, we thus propose an inhibitory role for 2B4/CD48 interaction on CD8+T cell function.

  9. 2B4 expression on natural killer cells increases in HIV-1 infected patients followed prospectively during highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Ullum, H; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2005-01-01

    by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), low-level viraemia, proviral-DNA or immune activation in HIV-1 infected patients. A total of 101 HAART-treated HIV-1 infected patients with HIV-RNA copies/ml were followed prospectively for 24 months. HIV-RNA was investigated 3-monthly and 2B4...... expression on CD3- CD16+ NK cells and CD3+ CD8+ cells, proviral-DNA and plasma soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor (sTNFr)-II were investigated 6-monthly. For comparison, 2B4 expression was investigated in 20 healthy individuals. The concentration of 2B4+ NK cells was initially reduced in HIV-1 infected...... follow-up (both P DNA carrying cells and plasma sTNFrII were associated with reductions in the concentration of 2B4+ NK cells (all P HIV-RNA had no effect on 2B4 expression on NK cells or CD3+ CD8+ cells. These findings demonstrate that the concentration of 2B...

  10. Interplay between cell migration and neurite outgrowth determines SH2B1β-enhanced neurite regeneration of differentiated PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available The regulation of neurite outgrowth is crucial in developing strategies to promote neurite regeneration after nerve injury and in degenerative diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of an adaptor/scaffolding protein SH2B1β promotes neurite re-growth of differentiated PC12 cells, an established neuronal model, using wound healing (scraping assays. Cell migration and the subsequent remodeling are crucial determinants during neurite regeneration. We provide evidence suggesting that overexpressing SH2B1β enhances protein kinase C (PKC-dependent cell migration and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT-, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK kinase (MEK-ERK-dependent neurite re-growth. Our results further reveal a cross-talk between pathways involving PKC and ERK1/2 in regulating neurite re-growth and cell migration. We conclude that temporal regulation of cell migration and neurite outgrowth by SH2B1β contributes to the enhanced regeneration of differentiated PC12 cells.

  11. Interplay between Cell Migration and Neurite Outgrowth Determines SH2B1β-Enhanced Neurite Regeneration of Differentiated PC12 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Nan-Yuan; Hsu, Hsin-Ling; Chen, Linyi

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of neurite outgrowth is crucial in developing strategies to promote neurite regeneration after nerve injury and in degenerative diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of an adaptor/scaffolding protein SH2B1β promotes neurite re-growth of differentiated PC12 cells, an established neuronal model, using wound healing (scraping) assays. Cell migration and the subsequent remodeling are crucial determinants during neurite regeneration. We provide evidence suggesting that overexpressing SH2B1β enhances protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent cell migration and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK-dependent neurite re-growth. Our results further reveal a cross-talk between pathways involving PKC and ERK1/2 in regulating neurite re-growth and cell migration. We conclude that temporal regulation of cell migration and neurite outgrowth by SH2B1β contributes to the enhanced regeneration of differentiated PC12 cells. PMID:22539954

  12. Bio-Physicochemical Interactions of Engineered Nanomaterials in in Vitro Cell Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-11

    cultured BEAS-2B cells. Toxicology 245, 90–100. Rosenkranz P, Fernández- Cruz M L, Conde E, Ramírez-Fernández MB, Flores JC, Papis E, Rossi F, Raspanti M...public release; distribution is unlimited. 31    Tice, R. R., Agurell, E., Anderson, D., Burlinson, B., Hartmann, A., Kobayashi, H., Miyamae, Y., Rojas , E

  13. Genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis of human TOP2B occupancy in MCF7 breast cancer epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona M. Manville

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the whole genome ChIP seq for human TOP2B from MCF7 cells. Using three different peak calling methods, regions of binding were identified in the presence or absence of the nuclear hormone estradiol, as TOP2B has been reported to play a role in ligand-induced transcription. TOP2B peaks were found across the whole genome, 50% of the peaks fell either within a gene or within 5 kb of a transcription start site. TOP2B peaks coincident with gene promoters were less frequently associated with epigenetic features marking active promoters in estradiol treated than in untreated cells. Significantly enriched transcription factor motifs within the DNA sequences underlying the peaks were identified. These included SP1, KLF4, TFAP2A, MYF, REST, CTCF, ESR1 and ESR2. Gene ontology analysis of genes associated with TOP2B peaks found neuronal development terms including axonogenesis and axon guidance were significantly enriched. In the absence of functional TOP2B there are errors in axon guidance in the zebrafish eye. Specific heparin sulphate structures are involved in retinal axon targeting. The glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis–heparin sulphate/heparin pathway is significantly enriched in the TOP2B gene ontology analysis, suggesting changes in this pathway in the absence of TOP2B may cause the axon guidance faults.

  14. Leptin Enhances NR2B-mediated NMDA Responses Via a MAPK-dependent Process in Cerebellar Granule Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, A. J.; Wallace, L; Durakoglugil, D; Harvey, J.

    2006-01-01

    It is well documented that the hormone leptin regulates energy balance via its actions in the hypothalamus. However, evidence is accumulating that leptin plays a key role in numerous CNS functions. Indeed, leptin receptors are expressed in many extrahypothalamic brain regions, with high levels found in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In the hippocampus, leptin has been shown to facilitate NMDA receptor function and modulate synaptic plasticity. A role for leptin in cerebellar function is also indicated as leptin-deficient rodents display reduced mobility that is unrelated to obesity. Here we show that leptin receptor immunolabeling can be detected in cultured cerebellar granule cells, being expressed at the somatic plasma membrane and also concentrated at synapses. Furthermore, leptin facilitated NR2B NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx in cerebellar granule cells via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. These findings provide the first direct evidence for a cellular action of leptin in cerebellar neurons. In addition, given that NMDA receptor activity in the cerebellum is crucial for normal locomotor function, these data also have important implications for the potential role of leptin in the control of movement. PMID:16413128

  15. TGF-β1 down-regulation of NKG2D/DAP10 and 2B4/SAP expression on human NK cells contributes to HBV persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Sun

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains unclear. We investigated the role of innate immune responses to persistent HBV infection in 154 HBV-infected patients and 95 healthy controls. The expression of NKG2D- and 2B4-activating receptors on NK cells was significantly decreased, and moreover, the expression of DAP10 and SAP, the intracellular adaptor proteins of NKG2D and 2B4 (respectively, were lower, which then impaired NK cell-mediated cytotoxic capacity and interferon-γ production. Higher concentrations of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1 were found in sera from persistently infected HBV patients. TGF-β1 down-regulated the expression of NKG2D and 2B4 on NK cells in our in vitro study, leading to an impairment of their effector functions. Anti-TGF-β1 antibodies could restore the expression of NKG2D and 2B4 on NK cells in vitro. Furthermore, TGF-β1 induced cell-cycle arrest in NK cells by up-regulating the expression of p15 and p21 in NK cells from immunotolerant (IT patients. We conclude that TGF-β1 may reduce the expression of NKG2D/DAP10 and 2B4/SAP, and those IT patients who are deficient in these double-activating signals have impaired NK cell function, which is correlated with persistent HBV infection.

  16. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 is involved in cell growth and chemoresistance of small cell lung cancer by regulating LIMK2b via EZH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuchun; Ma, Feng; Huang, Weimei; Fang, Shun; Li, Man; Wei, Ting; Guo, Linlang

    2017-01-09

    Taurine upregulated gene1 (TUG1) as a 7.1-kb lncRNA, has been shown to play an oncogenic role in various cancers. However, the biological functions of lncRNA TUG1 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remain unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of TUG1 in cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC and its possible molecular mechanism. The expression of TUG1 in thirty-three cases of SCLC tissues and SCLC cell line were examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The functional roles of TUG1 in SCLC were demonstrated by CCK8 assay, colony formation assay, wound healing assay and transwell assay, flow cytometry analysis and in vivo study through siRNA or shRNA mediated knockdown. Western blot assays were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) were performed to confirm the molecular mechanism of TUG1 involved in cell growth and chemoresistance of small cell lung cancer. We found that TUG1 was overexpressed in SCLC tissues, and its expression was correlated with the clinical stage and the shorter survival time of SCLC patients. Moreover, downregulation of TUG1 expression could impair cell proliferation and increased cell sensitivity to anticancer drugs both in vitro and in vivo. We also discovered that TUG1 knockdown significantly promoted cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro . We further demonstrated that TUG1 can regulate the expression of LIMK2b (a splice variant of LIM-kinase 2) via binding with enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), and then promoted cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC. Together, these results suggested that TUG1 mediates cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC by regulating LIMK2b via EZH2.

  17. Host cell killing by the West Nile Virus NS2B-NS3 proteolytic complex: NS3 alone is sufficient to recruit caspase-8-based apoptotic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, Mathura P.; Chambers, Jerome A.; Pankhong, Panyupa; Chattergoon, Michael; Attatippaholkun, Watcharee; Dang, Kesen; Shah, Neelima; Weiner, David B.

    2006-01-01

    The West Nile Virus (WNV) non-structural proteins 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3) constitute the proteolytic complex that mediates the cleavage and processing of the viral polyprotein. NS3 recruits NS2B and NS5 proteins to direct protease and replication activities. In an effort to investigate the biology of the viral protease, we cloned cDNA encoding the NS2B-NS3 proteolytic complex from brain tissue of a WNV-infected dead crow, collected from the Lower Merion area (Merion strain). Expression of the NS2B-NS3 gene cassette induced apoptosis within 48 h of transfection. Electron microscopic analysis of NS2B-NS3-transfected cells revealed ultra-structural changes that are typical of apoptotic cells including membrane blebbing, nuclear disintegration and cytoplasmic vacuolations. The role of NS3 or NS2B in contributing to host cell apoptosis was examined. NS3 alone triggers the apoptotic pathways involving caspases-8 and -3. Experimental results from the use of caspase-specific inhibitors and caspase-8 siRNA demonstrated that the activation of caspase-8 was essential to initiate apoptotic signaling in NS3-expressing cells. Downstream of caspase-3 activation, we observed nuclear membrane ruptures and cleavage of the DNA-repair enzyme, PARP in NS3-expressing cells. Nuclear herniations due to NS3 expression were absent in the cells treated with a caspase-3 inhibitor. Expression of protease and helicase domains themselves was sufficient to trigger apoptosis generating insight into the apoptotic pathways triggered by NS3 from WNV

  18. Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation through activating the NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wen-Zhu [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Hainan 572013 (China); Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Miao, Yu-Liang [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Wen-Zhi [Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Military General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100700 (China); Wu, Wei, E-mail: wwzwgk@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Li, Bao-Wei [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); An, Li-Na [Department of Anesthesiology, Armed Police General Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Fang, Wei-Wu [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Mi, Wei-Dong, E-mail: elite2005gg@163.com [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Leptin promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells isolated from embryonic mouse hippocampus. • Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. • The effects of leptin are partially mediated by upregulating NR2B subunits. - Abstract: Corticosterone inhibits the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The removal of corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation has been reported to contribute to neural regeneration. Leptin has been shown to regulate brain development, improve angiogenesis, and promote neural regeneration; however, its effects on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation remain unclear. Here we reported that leptin significantly promoted the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs in a concentration-dependent pattern. Also, leptin efficiently reversed the inhibition of NSCs proliferation induced by corticosterone. Interestingly, pre-treatment with non-specific NMDA antagonist MK-801, specific NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NR2B, significantly blocked the effect of leptin on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. Furthermore, corticosterone significantly reduced the protein expression of NR2B, whereas pre-treatment with leptin greatly reversed the attenuation of NR2B expression caused by corticosterone in cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our findings demonstrate that leptin reverses the corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. This process is, at least partially mediated by increased expression of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors.

  19. Whole blood assay for NK activity in splenectomized and non-splenectomized hairy cell leukemia patients during IFN-alpha-2b treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Hokland, P; Ellegaard, J

    1989-01-01

    Natural killer cell (NK) activity in peripheral blood (PB) was followed longitudinally for up to 2 yr after initiation of low-dose IFN-alpha-2b therapy in nine hairy cell leukemia (HCL) patients. A whole blood NK (WB-NK) assay was employed in order to measure the NK activity per unit blood. The p...

  20. Zeolite H-BEA catalysed multicomponent reaction: One-pot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BEA catalysed multicomponent reaction: One-pot synthesis of amidoalkyl naphthols - Biologically active drug-like molecules. Sunil R Mistry Rikesh S Joshi Kalpana C Maheria. Volume 123 Issue 4 July 2011 pp 427-432 ...

  1. The adenosine A2B receptor is involved in anion secretion in human pancreatic duct Capan-1 epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Inagaki, A.; Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine modulates a wide variety of biological processes via adenosine receptors. In the exocrine pancreas, adenosine regulates transepithelial anion secretion in duct cells and is considered to play a role in acini-to-duct signaling. To identify the functional adenosine receptors and Cl...... by CFTRinh-172, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel inhibitor. The adenosine A2B receptor agonist, BAY 60-6583, increased Isc and whole-cell Cl− currents through CFTR Cl− channels, whereas the A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680, had negligible effects. The A2B receptor....... These results demonstrate that luminal adenosine regulates anion secretion by activating CFTR Cl− channels via adenosine A2B receptors on the luminal membranes of Capan-1 cells. The present study endorses that purinergic signaling is important in the regulation of pancreatic secretion....

  2. Generation of a Stable Transgenic Swine Model Expressing a Porcine Histone 2B-eGFP Fusion Protein for Cell Tracking and Chromosome Dynamics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sper, Renan B; Koh, Sehwon; Zhang, Xia; Simpson, Sean; Collins, Bruce; Sommer, Jeff; Petters, Robert M; Caballero, Ignacio; Platt, Jeff L; Piedrahita, Jorge A

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic pigs have become an attractive research model in the field of translational research, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapy due to their anatomic, genetic and physiological similarities with humans. The development of fluorescent proteins as molecular tags has allowed investigators to track cell migration and engraftment levels after transplantation. Here we describe the development of two transgenic pig models via SCNT expressing a fusion protein composed of eGFP and porcine Histone 2B (pH2B). This fusion protein is targeted to the nucleosomes resulting a nuclear/chromatin eGFP signal. The first model (I) was generated via random insertion of pH2B-eGFP driven by the CAG promoter (chicken beta actin promoter and rabbit Globin poly A; pCAG-pH2B-eGFP) and protected by human interferon-β matrix attachment regions (MARs). Despite the consistent, high, and ubiquitous expression of the fusion protein pH2B-eGFP in all tissues analyzed, two independently generated Model I transgenic lines developed neurodegenerative symptoms including Wallerian degeneration between 3-5 months of age, requiring euthanasia. A second transgenic model (II) was developed via CRISPR-Cas9 mediated homology-directed repair (HDR) of IRES-pH2B-eGFP into the endogenous β-actin (ACTB) locus. Model II transgenic animals showed ubiquitous expression of pH2B-eGFP on all tissues analyzed. Unlike the pCAG-pH2B-eGFP/MAR line, all Model II animals were healthy and multiple pregnancies have been established with progeny showing the expected Mendelian ratio for the transmission of the pH2B-eGFP. Expression of pH2B-eGFP was used to examine the timing of the maternal to zygotic transition after IVF, and to examine chromosome segregation of SCNT embryos. To our knowledge this is the first viable transgenic pig model with chromatin-associated eGFP allowing both cell tracking and the study of chromatin dynamics in a large animal model.

  3. NK cell cytotoxicity mediated by 2B4 and NTB-A is dependent on SAP acting downstream of receptor phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eMeinke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 2B4 (CD244 and NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A, CD352 are activating receptors on human NK cells and belong to the family of SLAM-related receptors. Engagement of these receptors leads to phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and recruitment of the adapter proteins SAP and EAT-2. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP is a severe immunodeficiency that results from mutations in the SAP gene. 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity are abrogated in XLP NK cells. To elucidate the molecular basis for this defect we analyzed early signaling events in SAP knockdown cells. Similar to XLP NK cells, knockdown of SAP in primary human NK cells leads to a reduction of 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that early signaling events such as raft recruitment and receptor phosphorylation are not affected by the absence of SAP, indicating the defect in the absence of SAP is downstream of these events. In addition, knockdown of EAT-2 does not impair 2B4 or NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. Surprisingly, EAT-2 recruitment to both receptors is abrogated in the absence of SAP, revealing a novel cooperativity between these adapters.

  4. TIPE2 Inhibits the Expression of Asthma-Related Inflammatory Factors in Hyperstretched Bronchial Epithelial Cells Through the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinrong; Chen, Lu; Yan, Wen

    2017-06-01

    Childhood asthma, an airway inflammatory disease, is a serious threat to the child's quality of life. Recently, TIPE2 expression was reported to be decreased in children with asthma. Therefore, additional studies focusing on TIPE2 might provide an approach for treating childhood asthma. In this study, we found that TIPE2 was poorly expressed in hyperstretched human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). TIPE2 overexpression also significantly suppressed the stretch-induced secretion of asthma-related inflammatory factors (TNF-α, TSLP, MMP-9, and VEGF). In contrast, TIPE2 inhibition significantly promoted the secretion of TNF-α, TSLP, MMP-9, and VEGF. Furthermore, overexpression of TIPE2 remarkably inhibited the activation of Wnt/β-catenin in hyperstretched BEAS-2B cells, while siTIPE2 activated Wnt/β-catenin in hyperstretched BEAS-2B cells. Further analysis showed that the Wnt/β-catenin signal inhibitor Dkk-1 could further enhance the TIPE2-induced suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which also suppressed the siTIPE2-induced secretion of TNF-α, TSLP, MMP-9, and VEGF in hyperstretched BEAS-2B cells. Dkk-1 reversed the effects of siRNA-TIPE2 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and inflammatory cytokines. In summary, we have exhibited that TIPE2 inhibited the expression of asthma-related inflammatory factors in hyperstretched BEAS-2B cells by suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. TIPE2 may be involved in airway inflammation during asthma attack, and it may be used as a potential therapeutic target for bronchial epithelial inflammation in childhood asthma.

  5. A Post-Docking Role of Synaptotagmin 1-C2B Domain Bottom Residues R398/399 in Mouse Chromaffin Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedar, Girish H; Munch, Anders S; van Weering, Jan R T

    2015-01-01

    Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) is the principal Ca2+ sensor for vesicle fusion and is also essential for vesicle docking in chromaffin cells. Docking depends on interactions of the Syt1-C2B domain with the t-SNARE SNAP25/Syntaxin1 complex and/or plasma membrane phospholipids. Here, we investigated the ro...

  6. Regulatory T cell frequency in patients with melanoma with different disease stage and course, and modulating effects of high-dose interferon-α 2b treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascierto Paolo A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-dose interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-α 2b is the only approved systemic therapy in the United States for the adjuvant treatment of melanoma. The study objective was to explore the immunomodulatory mechanism of action for IFN-α 2b by measuring serum regulatory T cell (Treg, serum transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, interleukin (IL-10, and autoantibody levels in patients with melanoma treated with the induction phase of the high-dose IFN-α 2b regimen. Methods Patients with melanoma received IFN-α 2b administered intravenously (20 MU/m2 each day from day 1 to day 5 for 4 consecutive weeks. Serum Treg levels were measured as whole lymphocytes in CD4+ cells using flow cytometry while TGF-β, IL-10, and autoantibody levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Twenty-two patients with melanoma received IFN-α 2b treatment and were evaluated for Treg levels. Before treatment, Treg levels were significantly higher in patients with melanoma when compared with data from 20 healthy subjects (P = 0.001; Mann-Whitney test. Although a trend for reduction of Treg levels following IFN-α 2b treatment was observed (average decrease 0.29% per week, statistical significance was not achieved. Subgroup analyses indicated higher baseline Treg levels for stage III versus IV disease (P = 0.082, early recurrence versus no recurrence (P = 0.017, deceased versus surviving patients (P = 0.021, and preoperative neoadjuvant versus postoperative adjuvant treatment groups (not significant. No significant effects were observed on the levels of TGF-β, IL-10, and autoantibodies in patients with melanoma treated with IFN-α 2b. Conclusions Patients with melanoma in this study showed increased basal levels of Treg that may be relevant to their disease and its progression. Treg levels shifted in patients with melanoma treated with IFN-α 2b, although no firm conclusions regarding the role of Tregs as a marker of treatment response

  7. Effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate NR2B subunit antagonist ifenprodil on precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, E C; König, H-G; Prehn, J H M; Kirby, B P

    2014-06-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, one of the ionotropic glutamate receptor, plays important physiological and pathological roles in learning and memory, neuronal development, acute and chronic neurological diseases, and neurogenesis. This work examines the contribution of the NR2B NMDA receptor subunit to adult neurogenesis/cell proliferation under physiological conditions and following an excitotoxic insult. We have previously shown in vitro that a discrete NMDA-induced, excitotoxic injury to the hippocampus results in an increase in neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus. Here we have characterized adult neurogenesis or proliferation, using BrdU, in an in vivo model of excitotoxic injury to the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus. We demonstrate a peak in neural stem cell proliferation/neurogenesis between 6 and 9 days after the excitotoxic insult. Treatment with ifenprodil, an NR2B subunit-specific NMDA receptor antagonist, without prior injury induction, also increased the number of BrdU-positive cells within the DG and posterior periventricle, indicating that ifenprodil itself could modulate the rate of proliferation. Interestingly, though, the increased level of cell proliferation did not change significantly when ifenprodil was administered following an excitotoxic insult. In conclusion, our results suggest and add to the growing evidence that NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors play a role in neural stem cell proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Primary mechanism of apoptosis induction in a leukemia cell line by fraction FA-2-b-ß prepared from the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gao

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murill is a native Brazilian mushroom which functions primarily as an anticancer substance in transplanted mouse tumors. However, the mechanism underlying this function of A. blazei Murill remains obscure. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of fraction FA-2-b-ß, an RNA-protein complex isolated from A. blazei Murill, on human leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro. Typical apoptotic characteristics were determined by morphological methods using DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The growth suppressive effect of fraction FA-2-b-ß on HL-60 cells in vitro occurred in a dose- (5-80 µg/mL and time-dependent (24-96 h manner. The proliferation of HL-60 cells (1 x 10(5 cells/mL treated with 40 µg/mL of fraction FA-2-b-ß for 24-96 h and with 5-80 µg/mL for 96 h resulted in inhibitory rates ranging from 8 to 54.5%, and from 4.9 to 86.3%, respectively. Both telomerase activity determined by TRAP-ELISA and mRNA expression of the caspase-3 gene detected by RT-PCR were increased in HL-60 cells during fraction FA-2-b-ß treatment. The rate of apoptosis correlated negatively with the decrease of telomerase activity (r = 0.926, P < 0.05, but correlated positively with caspase-3 mRNA expression (r = 0.926, P < 0.05. These data show that fraction FA-2-b-ß can induce HL-60 cell apoptosis and that the combined effect of down-regulation of telomerase activity and up-regulation of mRNA expression of the caspase-3 gene could be the primary mechanism of induction of apoptosis. These findings provide strong evidence that fraction FA-2-b-ß could be of interest for the clinical treatment of acute leukemia.

  9. Automated realtime data import for the i2b2 clinical data warehouse: introducing the HL7 ETL cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Raphael W; Röhrig, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Clinical data warehouses are used to consolidate all available clinical data from one or multiple organizations. They represent an important source for clinical research, quality management and controlling. Since its introduction, the data warehouse i2b2 gathered a large user base in the research community. Yet, little work has been done on the process of importing clinical data into data warehouses using existing standards. In this article, we present a novel approach of utilizing the clinical integration server as data source, commonly available in most hospitals. As information is transmitted through the integration server, the standardized HL7 message is immediately parsed and inserted into the data warehouse. Evaluation of import speeds suggest feasibility of the provided solution for real-time processing of HL7 messages. By using the presented approach of standardized data import, i2b2 can be used as a plug and play data warehouse, without the hurdle of customized import for every clinical information system or electronic medical record. The provided solution is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/histream/.

  10. 78 FR 64598 - Bank Enterprise Award (BEA) Program; Programmatic and Administrative Aspects; Public Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Bank Enterprise Award (BEA) Program; Programmatic and Administrative Aspects; Public Comment Request AGENCY: Community... of the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund's (CDFI Fund) Bank Enterprise Award (BEA...

  11. Influenza Virus Infects Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells of the Distal Lung: Impact on Fgfr2b-Driven Epithelial Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Quantius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza Virus (IV pneumonia is associated with severe damage of the lung epithelium and respiratory failure. Apart from efficient host defense, structural repair of the injured epithelium is crucial for survival of severe pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms underlying stem/progenitor cell mediated regenerative responses are not well characterized. In particular, the impact of IV infection on lung stem cells and their regenerative responses remains elusive. Our study demonstrates that a highly pathogenic IV infects various cell populations in the murine lung, but displays a strong tropism to an epithelial cell subset with high proliferative capacity, defined by the signature EpCamhighCD24lowintegrin(α6high. This cell fraction expressed the stem cell antigen-1, highly enriched lung stem/progenitor cells previously characterized by the signature integrin(β4+CD200+, and upregulated the p63/krt5 regeneration program after IV-induced injury. Using 3-dimensional organoid cultures derived from these epithelial stem/progenitor cells (EpiSPC, and in vivo infection models including transgenic mice, we reveal that their expansion, barrier renewal and outcome after IV-induced injury critically depended on Fgfr2b signaling. Importantly, IV infected EpiSPC exhibited severely impaired renewal capacity due to IV-induced blockade of β-catenin-dependent Fgfr2b signaling, evidenced by loss of alveolar tissue repair capacity after intrapulmonary EpiSPC transplantation in vivo. Intratracheal application of exogenous Fgf10, however, resulted in increased engagement of non-infected EpiSPC for tissue regeneration, demonstrated by improved proliferative potential, restoration of alveolar barrier function and increased survival following IV pneumonia. Together, these data suggest that tropism of IV to distal lung stem cell niches represents an important factor of pathogenicity and highlight impaired Fgfr2b signaling as underlying mechanism. Furthermore, increase of

  12. Effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate NR2B subunit antagonist ifenprodil on precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bunk, Eva C; König, Hans-Georg; Prehn, Jochen HM; Kirby, Brian P

    2014-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, one of the ionotropic glutamate receptor, plays important physiological and pathological roles in learning and memory, neuronal development, acute and chronic neurological diseases, and neurogenesis. This work examines the contribution of the NR2B NMDA receptor subunit to adult neurogenesis/cell proliferation under physiological conditions and following an excitotoxic insult. We have previously shown in vitro that a discrete NMDA-induced, excitotoxic ...

  13. A Thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene Isoindigo Building Block for Additive- and Annealing-Free High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Wan

    2015-08-20

    A novel photoactive polymer with two different molecular weights is reported, based on a new building block: thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene isoindigo. Due to the improved crystallinity, optimal blend morphology, and higher charge mobility, solar-cell devices of the high-molecular-weight polymer exhibit a superior performance, affording efficiencies of 9.1% without the need for additives, annealing, or additional extraction layers during device fabrication.

  14. Zeolite H-BEA catalysed multicomponent reaction: One-pot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lent thermal stability which make them economically and environmentally feasible.2 The use of zeolites as a ... of zeolite H-BEA was added. The mixture was stirred under thermal solvent-free condition at 120. ◦. C in oil bath for 5–7min and the reaction was followed by. TLC. After completion of reaction, mass was cooled to.

  15. Accelerated synthesis of Sn-BEA in fluoride media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakimov, Alexander V.; Kolyagin, Yury G.; Tolborg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Tin-containing zeotypes, particularly Sn-BEA, are promising heterogeneous catalysts for a number of important industrially relevant reactions. However, the direct hydrothermal synthesis of these materials requires unfavourably long times, which is an obstacle for their industrial application. In ...

  16. Intravesical BCG+interferon-α-2b in prevention of recurrence in transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayan K Mohanty

    2000-01-01

    Between Jan. ′94 to Dec. ′98, 100 patients with super-ficial TCC (Ta, TI of urinary bladder with or without Tis after transurethral resection of tumor underwent intra-vesical instillation of BCG (70 ing + Interferon-α-2b (5-million IU weekly for 8 weeks, fortnightly for 8 weeks, monthly . for 8 weeks . followed by maintenance dose at the end of 9th, 12th, 18th & 24th months with follow-up for 60 months. Results: At the end of 60 months of follow-up 36 pa-tients (36% showed complete response, 44 patients (44% showed partial response, resulting in a total response rate of 80% while 20% progressed to higher stage & grade. Patients′ tolerance was good and adverse reaction was low 19%. Conclusion: This study has shown that a low dose com-bined therapy with BCG and Interferon is not only safe, well tolerated, cost effective but also highly efficient in preventing recurrences in 36%, maintaining superficial nature of the disease in another 44% with a disease pro-gression free interval of 5 years in 80% of cases.

  17. Exogenous serotonin regulates proliferation of interstitial cells of Cajal in mouse jejunum through 5-HT2B receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Mira; Gibbons, Simon J; Roeder, Jaime L; Distad, Marne; Ou, Yijun; Strege, Peter R; Szurszewski, Joseph H; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are required for normal gastrointestinal motility. Loss of ICC is associated with several motility disorders. The mechanisms modulating ICC survival and proliferation are poorly understood. This study aimed to establish whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) plays a role in regulating ICC proliferation. METHODS: Expression of 5-HT receptor mRNA was investigated in muscle strips, in purified populations of ICC, and in identified single cells. Th...

  18. The Small Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 Are Important for T-Cell Independent Antigen Responses and for Suppressing Switching to IgG2b in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimčik, Natalija; He, Minghui; Dahlberg, Carin I M; Kuznetsov, Nikolai V; Severinson, Eva; Westerberg, Lisa S

    2017-01-01

    The Rho GTPases Cdc42, Rac1, and Rac2 coordinate receptor signaling to cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Deletion of Rac1 and Rac2 early during B cell development leads to failure in B cell entry into the splenic white pulp. Here, we sought to understand the role of Rac1 and Rac2 in B cell functionality and during the humoral antibody response. To circumvent the migratory deficiency of B cells lacking both Rac1 and Rac2, we took the approach to inducibly delete Rac1 in Rac2 -/- B cells in the spleen (Rac1 B Rac2 -/- B cells). Rac1 B Rac2 -/- mice had normal differentiation of splenic B cell populations, except for a reduction in marginal zone B cells. Rac1 B Rac2 -/- B cells showed normal spreading response on antibody-coated layers, while both Rac2 -/- and Rac1 B Rac2 -/- B cells had reduced homotypic adhesion and decreased proliferative response when compared to wild-type B cells. Upon challenge with the T-cell-independent antigen TNP-conjugated lipopolysaccharide, Rac1 B Rac2 -/- mice showed reduced antibody response. In contrast, in response to the T-cell-dependent antigen sheep red blood cells, Rac1 B Rac2 -/- mice had increased serum titers of IgG1 and IgG2b. During in vitro Ig class switching, Rac1 B Rac2 -/- B cells had elevated germline γ2b transcripts leading to increased Ig class switching to IgG2b. Our data suggest that Rac1 and Rac2 serve an important role in regulation of the B cell humoral immune response and in suppressing Ig class switching to IgG2b.

  19. Purkinje cell-specific knockout of the protein phosphatase PP2B impairs potentiation and cerebellar motor learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schonewille (Martijn); A. Belmeguenai (Amor); S.K.E. Koekkoek (Bas); S.H. Houtman (Simone Hendrika); H.J. Boele (Henk-Jan); B.J. van Beugen (Boeke); Z. Gao (Zhenyu); A.M. Badura (Aleksandra); G. Ohtsuki (Gen); W.E. Amerika; E. Hosy; F.E. Hoebeek (Freek); Y. Elgersma (Ype); C.R.W. Hansel (Christian); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCerebellar motor learning is required to obtain procedural skills. Studies have provided supportive evidence for a potential role of kinase-mediated long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapse in cerebellar learning. Recently, phosphatases have been

  20. No evidence for dualism in function and receptors: PD-L2/B7-DC is an inhibitory regulator of human T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfistershammer, Katharina; Klauser, Christoph; Pickl, Winfried F; Stöckl, Johannes; Leitner, Judith; Zlabinger, Gerhard; Majdic, Otto; Steinberger, Peter

    2006-05-01

    The B7 family member programmed-death-1-ligand 2 (PD-L2/B7-DC) is a ligand for programmed-death-receptor 1 (PD-1), a receptor involved in negative regulation of T cell activation. Several independent studies have reported that PD-L2, however, can also potently costimulate murine T cells via an additional yet unidentified receptor. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of PD-L2 to the activation of human T cells using a novel system of engineered T cell stimulators that expresses membrane-bound anti-CD3 antibodies. Analyzing early activation markers, cytokine production and proliferation, we found PD-L2 to consistently inhibit T cell activation. PD-L2 inhibition affected CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and was not abrogated by costimulation via CD28. Blocking PD-1 reverted the inhibitory effect of PD-L2, demonstrating involvement of this pathway. In human T cells, we found no evidence for any of the costimulatory effects described for PD-L2 in murine systems. In line with our functional data that do not point to stimulatory PD-L2-ligands, we show that binding of PD-L2-immunoglobulin to activated human T cells is abrogated by PD-1 antibodies. Our results demonstrate that PD-L2 negatively regulates human T cell activation and thus might be a candidate molecule for immunotherapeutic approaches aimed to attenuate pathological immune responses.

  1. Nanodiamond internalization in cells and the cell uptake mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevedentseva, E.; Hong, S.-F.; Huang, K.-J.; Chiang, I.-T.; Lee, C.-Y.; Tseng, Y.-T.; Cheng, C.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Cell type-dependent penetration of nanodiamond in living cells is one of the important factors for using nanodiamond as cellular markers/labels, for drug delivery as well as for other biomedical applications. In this work, internalization of 100 nm nanodiamonds by A549 lung human adenocarcinoma cell, Beas-2b non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell, and HFL-1 fibroblast-like human fetal lung cell is studied and compared. The penetration of nanodiamond into the cells was observed using confocal fluorescence imaging and Raman imaging methods. Visualization of the nanodiamond in cells allows comparison of the internalization for diamond nanoparticles in cancer A549 cell, non-cancer HFL-1, and Beas-2b cells. The dose-dependent and time-dependent behavior of nanodiamond uptake is observed in both cancer as well as non-cancer cells. The mechanism of nanodiamond uptake by cancer and non-cancer cells is analyzed by blocking different pathways. The uptake of nanodiamond in both cancer and non-cancer cells was found predominantly via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In spite of observed similarity in the uptake mechanism for cancer and non-cancer cells, the nanodiamond uptake for cancer cell quantitatively exceeds the uptake for non-cancer cells, for the studied cell lines. The observed difference in internalization of nanodiamond by cancer and non-cancer cells is discussed

  2. Nanodiamond internalization in cells and the cell uptake mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevedentseva, E. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Physics (China); Hong, S.-F.; Huang, K.-J. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Life Sciences (China); Chiang, I.-T.; Lee, C.-Y. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Physics (China); Tseng, Y.-T. [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Life Sciences (China); Cheng, C.-L., E-mail: clcheng@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Physics (China)

    2013-08-15

    Cell type-dependent penetration of nanodiamond in living cells is one of the important factors for using nanodiamond as cellular markers/labels, for drug delivery as well as for other biomedical applications. In this work, internalization of 100 nm nanodiamonds by A549 lung human adenocarcinoma cell, Beas-2b non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cell, and HFL-1 fibroblast-like human fetal lung cell is studied and compared. The penetration of nanodiamond into the cells was observed using confocal fluorescence imaging and Raman imaging methods. Visualization of the nanodiamond in cells allows comparison of the internalization for diamond nanoparticles in cancer A549 cell, non-cancer HFL-1, and Beas-2b cells. The dose-dependent and time-dependent behavior of nanodiamond uptake is observed in both cancer as well as non-cancer cells. The mechanism of nanodiamond uptake by cancer and non-cancer cells is analyzed by blocking different pathways. The uptake of nanodiamond in both cancer and non-cancer cells was found predominantly via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In spite of observed similarity in the uptake mechanism for cancer and non-cancer cells, the nanodiamond uptake for cancer cell quantitatively exceeds the uptake for non-cancer cells, for the studied cell lines. The observed difference in internalization of nanodiamond by cancer and non-cancer cells is discussed.

  3. GRIN2B encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, Konrad; Yuan, Hongjie; Schütz, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    treatment response in the respective patients still remains to be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to previously known features of intellectual disability, epilepsy and autism, we found evidence that GRIN2B encephalopathy is also frequently associated with movement disorder, cortical visual impairment...

  4. Molecular interactions of alcohols with zeolite BEA and MOR frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stückenschneider, Kai; Merz, Juliane; Schembecker, Gerhard

    2013-12-01

    Zeolites can adsorb small organic molecules such as alcohols from a fermentation broth. Also in the zeolite-catalyzed conversion of alcohols to biofuels, biochemicals, or gasoline, adsorption is the first step. Several studies have investigated the adsorption of alcohols in different zeolites experimentally, but computational investigations in this field have mostly been restricted to zeolite MFI. In this study, the adsorption of C1-C4 alcohols in BEA and MOR was investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Calculated adsorption geometries and the corresponding energies of the designed cluster models were comparable to periodic calculations, and the adsorption energies were in the same range as the corresponding computational and experimental values reported in the literature for zeolite MFI. Thus, BEA and MOR may be good adsorption materials for alcohols in the field of downstream processing and catalysis. Aside from the DFT calculations, adsorption isotherms were determined experimentally in this study from aqueous solutions. For BEA, the adsorption of significant amounts of alcohol from aqueous solution was observed experimentally. In contrast, MOR was loaded with only a very small amount of alcohol. Although differences were found between the affinities obtained from gas-phase DFT calculations and those observed experimentally in aqueous solution, the computational data presented here represent molecular level information on the geometries and energies of C1-C4 alcohols adsorbed in zeolites BEA and MOR. This knowledge should prove very useful in the design of zeolite materials intended for use in adsorption and catalytic processes, as it allows adsorption behavior to be predicted via judiciously designed computational models.

  5. J chain and myocyte enhancer factor 2B are useful in differentiating classical Hodgkin lymphoma from nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erika M; Swerdlow, Steven H; Gibson, Sarah E

    2017-10-01

    Although most classical Hodgkin lymphomas (CHLs) are easily distinguished from nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL), cases with significant CD20 expression cause diagnostic confusion. Although the absence of OCT-2 and BOB.1 are useful in these circumstances, a variable proportion of CHLs are positive for these antigens. We investigated the utility of J chain and myocyte enhancer factor 2B (MEF2B) in the diagnosis of CHL; NLPHL; PMBL; T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma (TCRLBL); and B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and CHL, compared with OCT-2 and BOB.1. J chain and MEF2B highlighted lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells in 20/20 (100%) NLPHLs and were negative in 43/43 (100%) CHLs. Fourteen of 15 (93%) PMBLs and 4/4 (100%) TCRLBLs were MEF2B positive, whereas 67% of PMBLs and 50% of TCRLBLs were J chain positive. Three of 3 B-cell lymphomas, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and CHL, were negative for J chain and MEF2B. J chain and MEF2B were 100% sensitive and specific for NLPHL versus CHL. MEF2B was 100% sensitive and 98% specific for PMBL versus CHL. Whereas loss of OCT-2 and/or BOB.1 expression had a sensitivity of only 86% and specificity of 100% for CHL versus NLPHL, PMBL, and TCRLBL, lack of both J chain and MEF2B expression was 100% sensitive and 97% specific. J chain and MEF2B are highly sensitive and specific markers of NLPHL versus CHL; are particularly useful in highlighting LP cells; and, with rare exception, are of greater utility than OCT-2 and BOB.1 in differentiating CHL from NLPHL and other large B-cell lymphomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytokines downregulate the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum pump Ca2+ ATPase 2b and deplete endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+, leading to induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress in pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardozo, Alessandra K; Ortis, Fernanda; Storling, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    , by microarray analysis of primary beta-cells, that IL-1beta + IFN-gamma decrease expression of the mRNA encoding for the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum pump Ca(2+) ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) while inducing expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related and proapoptotic gene CHOP (C/EBP [CCAAT/enhancer binding...

  7. Grape seed extract proanthocyanidins downregulate HIV- 1 entry coreceptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5 gene expression by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADHAVAN P NAIR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids and related polyphenols, in addition to their cardioprotective, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-allergic activities, also possess promising anti-HIV effects. Recent studies documented that the ß-chemokine receptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5, and the alpha-chemokine receptors, CXCR1, CXCR2 and CXCR4 serve as entry coreceptors for HIV-1. Although flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds elicit anti-HIV effects such as inhibition of HIV-1 expression and virus replication, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be clearly elucidated. We hypothesize that flavonoids exert their anti-HIV effects, possibly by interfering at the HIV co-receptor level. We investigated the effect of flavonoid constituents of a proprietary grape seed extract (GSE on the expression of HIV-1 coentry receptors by immunocompetent mononuclear leukocytes. Our results showed that GSE significantly downregulated the expression of the HIV-1 entry co-receptors, CCR2b , CCR3 and CCR5 in normal PBMC in a dose dependent manner. Further , GSE treated cultures showed significantly lower number of CCR3 positive cells as quantitated by flow cytometry analysis which supports RT-PCR gene expression data.Investigations of the mechanisms underlying the anti-HIV-1 effects of grape seed extracts may help to identify promising natural products useful in the prevention and /or amelioration of HIV-1 infection

  8. A variant at 9p21.3 functionally implicates CDKN2B in paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungate, Eric A; Vora, Sapana R; Gamazon, Eric R; Moriyama, Takaya; Best, Timothy; Hulur, Imge; Lee, Younghee; Evans, Tiffany-Jane; Ellinghaus, Eva; Stanulla, Martin; Rudant, Jéremie; Orsi, Laurent; Clavel, Jacqueline; Milne, Elizabeth; Scott, Rodney J; Pui, Ching-Hon; Cox, Nancy J; Loh, Mignon L; Yang, Jun J; Skol, Andrew D; Onel, Kenan

    2016-02-12

    Paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) is the most common cancer of childhood, yet little is known about BCP-ALL predisposition. In this study, in 2,187 cases of European ancestry and 5,543 controls, we discover and replicate a locus indexed by rs77728904 at 9p21.3 associated with BCP-ALL susceptibility (Pcombined=3.32 × 10(-15), OR=1.72) and independent from rs3731217, the previously reported ALL-associated variant in this region. Of correlated SNPs tagged by this locus, only rs662463 is significant in African Americans, suggesting it is a plausible causative variant. Functional analysis shows that rs662463 is a cis-eQTL for CDKN2B, with the risk allele associated with lower expression, and suggests that rs662463 influences BCP-ALL risk by regulating CDKN2B expression through CEBPB signalling. Functional analysis of rs3731217 suggests it is associated with BCP-ALL by acting within a splicing regulatory element determining CDKN2A exon 3 usage (P=0.01). These findings provide new insights into the critical role of the CDKN2 locus in BCP-ALL aetiology.

  9. Highly efficient infectious cell culture of three hepatitis C virus genotype 2b strains and sensitivity to lead protease, nonstructural protein 5A, and polymerase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Santseharay; Li, Yi-Ping; Jensen, Sanne B

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a genetically diverse virus with multiple genotypes exhibiting remarkable differences, particularly in drug susceptibility. Drug and vaccine development will benefit from high-titer HCV cultures mimicking the complete viral life cycle, but such systems only...... exist for genotypes 1a and 2a. We developed efficient culture systems for the epidemiologically important genotype 2b. Full-length molecular clones of patient strains DH8 and DH10 were adapted to efficient growth in Huh7.5 cells by using F1468L/A1676S/D3001G (LSG) mutations. The previously developed J8......cc prototype 2b recombinant was further adapted. DH8 and J8 achieved infectivity titers >4.5 log10 Focus-Forming Units/mL. A defined set of DH8 mutations had cross-isolate adapting potential. A chimeric genome with the DH10 polyprotein coding sequence inserted into a vector with J8 untranslated...

  10. Spermidine-Activated Satellite Cells Are Associated with Hypoacetylation in ACVR2B and Smad3 Binding to Myogenic Genes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luchu; Gong, Huiying; Sun, Qinwei; Zhao, Ruqian; Jia, Yimin

    2018-01-17

    Spermidine is an acetyltransferase inhibitor and a specific inducer of autophagy. Recently, spermidine is identified as a potential therapeutic agent for age-related muscle atrophy and inherited myopathies. However, the effect of spermidine on nonpathological skeletal muscle remains unclear. In this study, long-term spermidine administration in mice lowered the mean cross-sectional area of the gastrocnemius muscle and reduced the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the muscle, which was associated with ubiquitination. Moreover, spermidine supplementation induced autophagy in satellite cells and enhanced satellite cell proliferation. ChIP assay revealed that spermidine repressed H3K56ac in the promoter of ACVR2B and lowered the binding affinity of Smad3 to the promoters of Myf5 and MyoD. Altogether, our results indicate that long-term administration of spermidine can activate satellite cells, as well as enhance autophagy, eventually resulting in muscle atrophy. In addition, H3K56ac and Smad3 emerged as key determinants of satellite cell activation.

  11. Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]Dithiophene-6,7-Difluoroquinoxaline Small Molecule Donors with >8% BHJ Solar Cell Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-07-14

    Solution-processable small molecule (SM) donors are promising alternatives to their polymer counterparts in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. While SM donors with favorable spectral absorption, self-assembly patterns, optimum thin-film morphologies, and high carrier mobilities in optimized donor–acceptor blends are required to further BHJ device efficiencies, material structure governs each one of those attributes. As a result, the rational design of SM donors with gradually improved BHJ solar cell efficiencies must concurrently address: (i) bandgap tuning and optimization of spectral absorption (inherent to the SM main chain) and (ii) pendant-group substitution promoting structural order and mediating morphological effects. In this paper, the rational pendant-group substitution in benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–6,7-difluoroquinoxaline SMs is shown to be an effective approach to narrowing the optical gap (Eopt) of the SM donors (SM1 and SM2), without altering their propensity to order and form favorable thin-film BHJ morphologies with PC71BM. Systematic device examinations show that power conversion efficiencies >8% and open-circuit voltages (VOC) nearing 1 V can be achieved with the narrow-gap SM donor analog (SM2, Eopt = 1.6 eV) and that charge transport in optimized BHJ solar cells proceeds with minimal, nearly trap-free recombination. Detailed device simulations, light intensity dependence, and transient photocurrent analyses emphasize how carrier recombination impacts BHJ device performance upon optimization of active layer thickness and morphology.

  12. Mutation analysis of genes that control the G1/S cell cycle in melanoma: TP53, CDKN1A, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, José Luis; Cabrera, Carmen M; Serrano, Salvio; López-Nevot, Miguel Ángel

    2005-01-01

    The role of genes involved in the control of progression from the G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle in melanoma tumors in not fully known. The aim of our study was to analyse mutations in TP53, CDKN1A, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B genes in melanoma tumors and melanoma cell lines We analysed 39 primary and metastatic melanomas and 9 melanoma cell lines by single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP). The single-stranded technique showed heterozygous defects in the TP53 gene in 8 of 39 (20.5%) melanoma tumors: three new single point mutations in intronic sequences (introns 1 and 2) and exon 10, and three new single nucleotide polymorphisms located in introns 1 and 2 (C to T transition at position 11701 in intron 1; C insertion at position 11818 in intron 2; and C insertion at position 11875 in intron 2). One melanoma tumor exhibited two heterozygous alterations in the CDKN2A exon 1 one of which was novel (stop codon, and missense mutation). No defects were found in the remaining genes. These results suggest that these genes are involved in melanoma tumorigenesis, although they may be not the major targets. Other suppressor genes that may be informative of the mechanism of tumorigenesis in skin melanomas should be studied

  13. Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene-Pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine Small-Molecule Donors for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wolf, Jannic Sebastian

    2016-01-22

    We report on the synthesis, material properties and BHJ solar cell characteristics of a set of π-conjugated small-molecule (SM) donors composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT) and pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine (PP) units – examining the perspectives of alkyl-substituted PP acceptor motifs in SM designs. In these systems (SM1-4), both the type of side chains derived from the PP motifs and the presence of ring-substituents on BDT critically impact (i) molecular packing, and (ii) thin-film morphologies and charge transport in BHJ solar cells. With the appropriate side-chain pattern, the ring-substituted analogue SM4 stands out: achieving efficiencies of ca. 6.5% with PC71BM, and fine-scale morphologies comparable to those obtained with some of the best-performing polymer donors in BHJ solar cells. 1H-1H DQ-SQ NMR analyses are used to examine the distinct self-assembly pattern of SM4, expected to factor into the development of the BHJ morphology.

  14. Leptin enhances NR2B-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartate responses via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent process in cerebellar granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, A J; Wallace, L; Durakoglugil, D; Harvey, J

    2006-01-01

    It is well documented that the hormone leptin regulates energy balance via its actions in the hypothalamus. However, evidence is accumulating that leptin plays a key role in numerous CNS functions. Indeed, leptin receptors are expressed in many extrahypothalamic brain regions, with high levels found in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In the hippocampus leptin has been shown to facilitate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function and modulate synaptic plasticity. A role for leptin in cerebellar function is also indicated as leptin-deficient rodents display reduced mobility that is unrelated to obesity. Here we show that leptin receptor immunolabeling can be detected in cultured cerebellar granule cells, being expressed at the somatic plasma membrane and also concentrated at synapses. Furthermore, leptin facilitated NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx in cerebellar granule cells via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. These findings provide the first direct evidence for a cellular action of leptin in cerebellar neurons. In addition, given that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity in the cerebellum is crucial for normal locomotor function, these data also have important implications for the potential role of leptin in the control of movement.

  15. PODAAC-SEAAM-L2B00

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWinds on ADEOS-II Level 2B product provides ocean wind vectors in 25 km wind vector cell (WVC) swaths with AMSR corrections in single-orbit files. The AMSR...

  16. the influence of acidity of zeolite H-BEA catalyzed isobutane/n-butene alkylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nivarthy, G.S.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of the concentration of acid sites for isobutane/n-butene alkylation on zeolite BEA with varying degrees of Na+ ion exchange is reported. All catalysts studied showed complete n-butene conversion over a significant time-on-stream. Isooctanes were the dominating products over H-BEA,

  17. Differences in gene expression and cytokine production by crystalline vs. amorphous silica in human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins Timothy N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to respirable crystalline silica particles, as opposed to amorphous silica, is associated with lung inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis, and potentially with lung cancer. We used Affymetrix/GeneSifter microarray analysis to determine whether gene expression profiles differed in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS 2B exposed to cristobalite vs. amorphous silica particles at non-toxic and equal surface areas (75 and 150 × 106μm2/cm2. Bio-Plex analysis was also used to determine profiles of secreted cytokines and chemokines in response to both particles. Finally, primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE were used to comparatively assess silica particle-induced alterations in gene expression. Results Microarray analysis at 24 hours in BEAS 2B revealed 333 and 631 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite at low (75 and high (150 × 106μm2/cm2 amounts, respectively (p 6μm2/cm2 induced 108 significant gene changes. Bio-Plex analysis of 27 human cytokines and chemokines revealed 9 secreted mediators (p FOS, ATF3, IL6 and IL8 early and over time (2, 4, 8, and 24 h. Patterns of gene expression in NHBE cells were similar overall to BEAS 2B cells. At 75 × 106μm2/cm2, there were 339 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite and 42 by amorphous silica. Comparison of genes in response to cristobalite (75 × 106μm2/cm2 revealed 60 common, significant gene alterations in NHBE and BEAS 2B cells. Conclusions Cristobalite silica, as compared to synthetic amorphous silica particles at equal surface area concentrations, had comparable effects on the viability of human bronchial epithelial cells. However, effects on gene expression, as well as secretion of cytokines and chemokines, drastically differed, as the crystalline silica induced more intense responses. Our studies indicate that toxicological testing of particulates by surveying viability and

  18. Differences in gene expression and cytokine production by crystalline vs. amorphous silica in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Timothy N; Shukla, Arti; Peeters, Paul M; Steinbacher, Jeremy L; Landry, Christopher C; Lathrop, Sherrill A; Steele, Chad; Reynaert, Niki L; Wouters, Emiel F M; Mossman, Brooke T

    2012-02-02

    Exposure to respirable crystalline silica particles, as opposed to amorphous silica, is associated with lung inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis), and potentially with lung cancer. We used Affymetrix/GeneSifter microarray analysis to determine whether gene expression profiles differed in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS 2B) exposed to cristobalite vs. amorphous silica particles at non-toxic and equal surface areas (75 and 150 × 106μm2/cm2). Bio-Plex analysis was also used to determine profiles of secreted cytokines and chemokines in response to both particles. Finally, primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) were used to comparatively assess silica particle-induced alterations in gene expression. Microarray analysis at 24 hours in BEAS 2B revealed 333 and 631 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite at low (75) and high (150 × 106μm2/cm2) amounts, respectively (p amorphous silica micro-particles at high amounts (150 × 106μm2/cm2) induced 108 significant gene changes. Bio-Plex analysis of 27 human cytokines and chemokines revealed 9 secreted mediators (p silica, but none were induced by amorphous silica. QRT-PCR revealed that cristobalite selectively up-regulated stress-related genes and cytokines (FOS, ATF3, IL6 and IL8) early and over time (2, 4, 8, and 24 h). Patterns of gene expression in NHBE cells were similar overall to BEAS 2B cells. At 75 × 106μm2/cm2, there were 339 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite and 42 by amorphous silica. Comparison of genes in response to cristobalite (75 × 106μm2/cm2) revealed 60 common, significant gene alterations in NHBE and BEAS 2B cells. Cristobalite silica, as compared to synthetic amorphous silica particles at equal surface area concentrations, had comparable effects on the viability of human bronchial epithelial cells. However, effects on gene expression, as well as secretion of cytokines and chemokines, drastically differed, as

  19. PAR1 inhibition suppresses the self-renewal and growth of A2B5-defined glioma progenitor cells and their derived gliomas in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auvergne, R.; Wu, C.; Connell, A.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most common and lethal intracranial tumor. In a comparison of gene expression by A2B5-defined tumor-initiating progenitor cells (TPCs) to glial progenitor cells derived from normal adult human brain, we found that the F2R gene encoding PAR1 was differentially overex...

  20. Regulation of UGT2B Expression and Activity by miR-216b-5p in Liver Cancer Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Dluzen, Douglas F.; Sutliff, Aimee K.; Chen, Gang; Watson, Christy J. W.; Ishmael, Faoud T.; Lazarus, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B enzymes are important in the detoxification of a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including many hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Identifying novel mechanisms governing their expression is important in understanding patient-specific response to drugs and cancer risk factors. In silico prediction algorithm programs were used to screen for microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential regulators of UGT2B enzymes, with miR-216b-5p identified as a potenti...

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of protein 53, murine double minute 2, B-cell lymphoma 2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in odontogenic cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hébel Cavalcanti Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Even though odontogenic cysts share a similar histogenesis, they show different growth and differentiation profile due to differences in the proliferative cellular activity. Aims: We perform an immunohistochemical assessment of protein 53 (p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2, and murine double minute 2 (MDM2 expression in odontogenic cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumor analyzing their correlation with the biological behavior of these lesions. Materials and Methods: By the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method with antibodies against p53, PCNA, bcl-2, and MDM2 proteins, 11 radicular cysts, 11 dentigerous cysts, and 11 keratocystic odontogenic tumor were analyzed. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskall-Wallis test (P ≤ 0.05 were used to analyze the data. Results: Immunopositivity for PCNA was observed in all cases appraised, predominantly in the suprabasal layer of keratocystic odontogenic tumor epithelial lining (SD ± 19.44, but no significant differences were found among the groups of lesions. Bcl-2 immunoexpression was observed especially in the basal layer of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PCNA LI was significantly higher than bcl-2 LI in keratocystic odontogenic tumor. MDM2 and p53 immunoexpression were not detected in the lesions studied. Among the evaluated lesions, the keratocystic odontogenic tumor showed different immunoexpression of the proliferation and apoptosis markers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the keratocystic odontogenic tumor presents distinct biological behavior of the odontogenic cysts, as for the processes of proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, reinforcing the information in favor of the neoplastic nature of this lesion.

  2. The effects of clobazam treatment in rats on the expression of genes and proteins encoding glucronosyltransferase 1A/2B (UGT1A/2B) and multidrug resistance‐associated protein-2 (MRP2), and development of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaki, Izuru, E-mail: izuru-miyawaki@ds-pharma.co.jp; Tamura, Akitoshi; Matsumoto, Izumi; Inada, Hiroshi; Kunimatsu, Takeshi; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2012-12-15

    Clobazam (CLB) is known to increase hepatobiliary thyroxine (T4) clearance in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, which results in hypothyroidism followed by thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy. However, the mechanism of the acceleration of T4-clearance has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we tried to clarify the roles of hepatic UDP-glucronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes (UGT1A and UGT2B) and efflux transporter (multidrug resistance–associated protein-2; MRP2) in the CLB-induced acceleration of T4-clearance using two mutant rat strains, UGT1A-deficient mutant (Gunn) and MRP2-deficient mutant (EHBR) rats, especially focusing on thyroid morphology, levels of circulating hormones (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3)) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and mRNA or protein expressions of UGTs (Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, and Ugt2b1/2) and MRP2 (Mrp). CLB induced thyroid morphological changes with increases in TSH in SD and Gunn rats, but not in EHBR rats. T4 was slightly decreased in SD and Gunn rats, and T3 was decreased in Gunn rats, whereas these hormones were maintained in EHBR rats. Hepatic Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, Ugt2b1/2, and Mrp2 mRNAs were upregulated in SD rats. In Gunn rats, UGT1A mRNAs (Ugt1a1/6) and protein levels were quite low, but UGT2B mRNAs (Ugt2b1/2) and protein were prominently upregulated. In SD and Gunn rats, MRP2 mRNA and protein were upregulated to the same degree. These results suggest that MRP2 is an important contributor in development of the thyroid cellular hypertrophy in CLB-treated rats, and that UGT1A and UGT2B work in concert with MRP2 in the presence of MRP2 function to enable the effective elimination of thyroid hormones. -- Highlights: ► Role of UGT and MRP2 in thyroid pathology was investigated in clobazam-treated rats. ► Clobazam induced thyroid cellular hypertrophy in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Hepatic Mrp2 gene and protein were upregulated in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Neither serum thyroid hormones (T3/T4

  3. Loss or gain of function in NIH3T3 and PC12 cells produced by different mutations in the RET tyrosine kinase domain may explain phenotypic diversity between Hirchsprung disease and MEN 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasini, B.; Seri, M.; Yin, L. [Laboratorio di Genetica Molecolare, Genova (Italy)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The RET protooncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the control differentiation of neural crest derived cells. Point mutations of the RET tyrosine kinase domain were identified among others in 2 distinct genetic disorders, Hirchsprung disease (HSCR) and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 2B (MEN 2B). In order to test the biological effect of HSCR and MEN 2B mutations we used a system based on RET-PTC2, a chimeric activated form of the RET protoocogene isolated from a papillary thyroid carcinoma, which shows a detectable transforming activity in NIH3T3 cells and induction of differentiation in PC12 cells. By site-direct mutagenesis we introduced into RET-PTC2 cDNA the mutations at codon 918 (Met{yields}thr, typical of MEN 2B), at codon 765 (Ser{yields}Pro, observed in HSCR) and at codon 897 (Arg{yields}Gln, also observed in HSCR). The former mutation appears to increase the transforming activity of RET-PTC2 in NIH3T3 cells. The latter two mutations abolish the oncogenic activity in NIH3T3 cells as well as its differentiating effect in PC12 cells. These results suggest that RET mutations may cause MEN 2B and HSCR phenotypes through a mechanism of gain or loss of function respectively. Finally, co-transfection experiments of wild-type RET-PTC2 with either HSCR mutation are in progress in order to test the hypothesis of a dominant negative effect in heterozygous state.

  4. Peritoneal B-1b and B-2 B-cells confer long-term protection from pneumococcal serotype 3 infection after vaccination with Prevnar-13 and are defective in sickle cell disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Christina; Szczepanek, Steven M

    2017-06-16

    Long-term immunity after inoculation with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar-13) is impaired in sickle cell disease (SCD) mice. We sought to determine which B-cell subsets are defective in SCD mice after vaccination with Prevnar-13, yet confer long-term immunity in wild-type (WT) mice. We vaccinated WT and SCD mice three times at three week intervals with Prevnar-13. Fourteen weeks later, 5∗10 4 cells of isolated peritoneal B-1a, B-1b, and B-2 cells were harvested and intraperitoneally transferred to Rag -/- recipients. A week later recipients were intraperitoneally challenged with 10 3 CFU of Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotype 3). Recipient mice that received either B-1b or B-2 B-cells from WT mice survived challenge, whereas mice that received B-1a cells died. Recipient mice that received B-1a, B-1b, or B-2 cells from SCD mice died after challenge. Both B-1b and B-2 cells appear to confer long-term immunity after Prevnar-13 vaccination, yet neither subset functions properly in SCD mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cancer Stem-Like Cells Accumulated in Nickel-Induced Malignant Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Fan, Jia; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wise, James T.F.; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are known as human carcinogens. Chronic environmental exposure to nickel is a worldwide health concern. Although the mechanisms of nickel-induced carcinogenesis are not well understood, recent studies suggest that stem cells/cancer stem cells are likely important targets. This study examines the role of cancer stem cells in nickel-induced cell transformation. The nontransformed human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) was chronically exposed to nickel chloride for 12 months to induce cell transformation. Nickel induced Beas-2B cell transformation, and cancer stem-like cells were enriched in nickel-transformed cell (BNiT) population. The BNiT cancer stem-like cells demonstrated enhanced self-renewal and distinctive differentiation properties. In vivo tumorigenesis studies show that BNiT cancer stem-like cells possess a high tumor-initiating capability. It was also demonstrated that superoxide dismutase 1 was involved in the accumulation of cancer stem-like cells; the regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression was different in transformed stem-like cells and nontransformed. Overall, the accumulation of stem-like cells and their enhanced stemness functions contribute to nickel-induced tumorigenesis. Our study provides additional insight into the mechanisms by which metals or other chemicals can induce carcinogenesis. PMID:26962057

  6. Impact of High Glucose and Proteasome Inhibitor MG132 on Histone H2A and H2B Ubiquitination in Rat Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenlin Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hyperglycemia plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN and may be related to epigenetic metabolic memory. One of the most crucial epigenetic mechanisms is histone modification, which is associated with the expression of a fibrosis factor in vascular injury. Aim .In this study, we investigated the ubiquitination of histones H2A and H2B to explore the epigenetic mechanisms of DN. Materials and Methods. The GMCs were cultured as follows: normal group, high glucose group, mannitol group, and intervention group. After 12 hr, 24 hr, and 48 hr, histones ubiquitination, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, and fibronectin (FN were measured using WB, RT-PCR, and IF. Result. High glucose can induce the upregulation of FN. H2A ubiquitination in GMCs increased in high glucose group (P<0.01, whereas it decreased significantly in intervention group (P<0.05. In contrast, H2B ubiquitination decreased with an increasing concentration of glucose, but it was recovered in the intervention group (P<0.05. Expression of TGF-β changed in response to abnormal histone ubiquitination. Conclusions. The high glucose may induce H2A ubiquitination and reduce H2B ubiquitination in GMCs. The changes of histone ubiquitination may be due in part to DN by activating TGF-β signaling pathway.

  7. Selective prostacyclin receptor agonism augments glucocorticoid-induced gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylvia M; Shen, Pamela; Rider, Christopher F; Traves, Suzanne L; Proud, David; Newton, Robert; Giembycz, Mark A

    2009-11-15

    Prostacyclin receptor (IP-receptor) agonists display anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity in cell-based assays and in preclinical models of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we have extended these observations by demonstrating that IP-receptor activation also can enhance the ability of glucocorticoids to induce genes with anti-inflammatory activity. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells stably transfected with a glucocorticoid response element (GRE) luciferase reporter were activated in a concentration-dependent manner by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. An IP-receptor agonist, taprostene, increased cAMP in these cells and augmented luciferase expression at all concentrations of dexamethasone examined. Analysis of the concentration-response relationship that described this effect showed that taprostene increased the magnitude of transcription without affecting the potency of dexamethasone and was, thus, steroid-sparing in this simple system. RO3244794, an IP-receptor antagonist, and oligonucleotides that selectively silenced the IP-receptor gene, PTGIR, abolished these effects of taprostene. Infection of BEAS-2B GRE reporter cells with an adenovirus vector encoding a highly selective inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also prevented taprostene from enhancing GRE-dependent transcription. In BEAS-2B cells and primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells, taprostene and dexamethasone interacted either additively or cooperatively in the expression of three glucocorticoid-inducible genes (GILZ, MKP-1, and p57(kip2)) that have anti-inflammatory potential. Collectively, these data show that IP-receptor agonists can augment the ability of glucocorticoids to induce anti-inflammatory genes in human airway epithelial cells by activating a cAMP/PKA-dependent mechanism. This observation may have clinical relevance in the treatment of airway inflammatory diseases that are either refractory or respond suboptimally to

  8. Cutting edge: The adapters EAT-2A and -2B are positive regulators of CD244- and CD84-dependent NK cell functions in the C57BL/6 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ninghai; Calpe, Silvia; Westcott, Jill; Castro, Wilson; Ma, Chunyan; Engel, Pablo; Schatzle, John D; Terhorst, Cox

    2010-11-15

    EWS/FLI1-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2)A and EAT-2B are single SH2-domain proteins, which bind to phosphorylated tyrosines of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptors in murine NK cells. While EAT-2 is a positive regulator in human cells, a negative regulatory role was attributed to the adapter in NK cells derived from EAT-2A-deficient 129Sv mice. To evaluate whether the genetic background or the presence of a selection marker in the mutant mice could influence the regulatory mode of these adapters, we generated EAT-2A-, EAT-2B-, and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice using C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. We found that NK cells from EAT-2A- and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice were unable to kill tumor cells in a CD244- or CD84-dependent manner. Furthermore, EAT-2A/B positively regulate phosphorylation of Vav-1, which is known to be implicated in NK cell killing. Thus, as in humans, the EAT-2 adapters act as positive regulators of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptor-specific NK cell functions in C57BL/6 mice.

  9. Utilizing alkoxyphenyl substituents for side-chain engineering of efficient benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b ']dithiophene-based small molecule organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Zhengkun; Chen, Weichao; Qiu, Meng

    2015-01-01

    A new two-dimensional (2D) conjugated small molecule, namely DCA3TBDTP, with an alkoxyphenyl substituted benzo[1,2-b: 4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) unit as the central core, octyl cyanoacetate as the end-capped groups and terthiophene as the pi-linked bridge, was designed and synthesized for solution-processed......-gap (1.82 eV) and a high decomposition temperature (362 degrees C). By applying the simple solution spin-coating fabrication process, the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs based on DCA3TBDTP and [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) exhibited a good power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4...

  10. Sigma-1 (σ₁) receptor deficiency reduces β-amyloid(25-35)-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death and cognitive deficits through suppressing phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor NR2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Sha, Sha; Chen, Tingting; Wang, Conghui; Hong, Juan; Jie, Pinghui; Zhou, Rong; Li, Lin; Sokabe, Masahiro; Chen, Ling

    2015-02-01

    In early Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, reduction of sigma-1 receptors (σ1R) is detected. In this study, we employed male heterozygous σ1R knockout (σ1R(+/-)) mice showing normal cognitive performance to investigate association of σ1R deficiency with AD risk. Herein we report that a single injection (i.c.v.) of Aβ(25-35) impaired spatial memory with approximately 25% death of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region of WT mice (Aβ(25-35)-WT mice), whereas it did not cause such impairments in σ1R(+/-) mice (Aβ(25-35)-σ1R(+/-) mice). Compared with WT mice, Aβ(25-35)-WT mice showed increased levels of NMDA-activated currents (INMDA) and NR2B phosphorylation (phospho-NR2B) in the hippocampal CA1 region at 48 h after Aβ25-35-injection (post-Aβ(25-35)) followed by approximately 40% decline at 72 h post-Aβ(25-35) of their respective control levels, which was inhibited by the σ1R antagonist NE100. In Aβ(25-35)-WT mice, the administration of NR2B inhibitor Ro25-6981 or NE100 on day 1-4 post-Aβ(25-35) attenuated the memory deficits and loss of pyramidal cells. By contrast, Aβ(25-35)-σ1R(+/-) mice showed a slight increase in the INMDA density and the phospho-NR2B at 48 h or 72 h post-Aβ25-35 compared to σ1R(+/-) mice. Treatment with σ1R agonist PRE084 in Aβ(25-35)-σ1R(+/-) mice caused the same changes in the INMDA density and the phospho-NR2B as those in Aβ(25-35)-WT mice. Furthermore, Aβ(25-35)-σ1R(+/-) mice treated with the NMDA receptor agonist NMDA or PRE084 on day 1-4 post-Aβ(25-35) showed a loss of neuronal cells and memory impairment. These results indicate that the σ1R deficiency can reduce Aβ(25-35)-induced neuronal cell death and cognitive deficits through suppressing Aβ(25-35)-enhanced NR2B phosphorylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genotoxicity of short single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes in human bronchial epithelial and mesothelial cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, Hanna K.; Falck, Ghita C.-M.; Singh, Rajinder; Suhonen, Satu; Järventaus, Hilkka; Vanhala, Esa; Catalán, Julia; Farmer, Peter B.; Savolainen, Kai M.; Norppa, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Although some types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been described to induce mesothelioma in rodents and genotoxic effects in various cell systems, there are few previous studies on the genotoxicity of CNTs in mesothelial cells. Here, we examined in vitro DNA damage induction by short multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs; 10–30 nm × 1–2 μm) and single-wall CNTs (SWCNTs; >50% SWCNTs, ∼40% other CNTs; 1 dG) DNA adducts. In BEAS 2B cells, we also studied the induction of micronuclei (MN) by the CNTs using the cytokinesis-block method. The cells were exposed to the CNTs (5–200 μg/cm 2 , corresponding to 19–760 μg/ml) for 24 and 48 h in the comet assay and for 48 and 72 h in the MN and M 1 dG assays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed more MWCNT fibres and SWCNT clusters in BEAS 2B than MeT-5A cells, but no significant differences were seen in intracellular dose expressed as area of SWCNT clusters between TEM sections of the cell lines. In MeT-5A cells, both CNTs caused a dose-dependent induction of DNA damage (% DNA in comet tail) in the 48-h treatment and SWCNTs additionally in the 24-h treatment, with a statistically significant increase at 40 μg/cm 2 of SWCNTs and (after 48 h) 80 μg/cm 2 of both CNTs. SWCNTs also elevated the level of M 1 dG DNA adducts at 1, 5, 10 and 40 μg/cm 2 after the 48-h treatment, but both CNTs decreased M 1 dG adduct level at several doses after the 72-h treatment. In BEAS 2B cells, SWCNTs induced a statistically significant increase in DNA damage at 80 and 120 μg/cm 2 after the 24-h treatment and in M 1 dG adduct level at 5 μg/cm 2 after 48 h and 10 and 40 μg/cm 2 after 72 h; MWCNTs did not affect the level of DNA damage but produced a decrease in M 1 dG adducts in the 72-h treatment. The CNTs did not affect the level of MN. In conclusion, MWCNTs and SWCNTs induced DNA damage in MeT-5A cells but showed a lower (SWCNTs) or no (MWCNTs) effect in BEAS 2B cells, suggesting that MeT-5A cells were more sensitive to the DNA

  12. Proinflammatory-Activated Glioma Cells Induce a Switch in Microglial Polarization and Activation Status, From a Predominant M2b Phenotype to a Mixture of M1 and M2a/B Polarized Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Lisi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are primary brain tumors characterized by morphological and genetic complexities, as well as diffuse infiltration into normal brain parenchyma. Within gliomas, microglia/macrophages represent the largest tumor-infiltrating cell population, contributing by at least one-third to the total tumor mass. Bi-directional interactions between glioma cells and microglia may therefore play an important role on tumor growth and biology. In the present study, we have characterized the influence of glioma-soluble factors on microglial function, comparing the effects of media harvested under basal conditions with those of media obtained after inducing a pro-inflammatory activation state in glioma cells. We found that microglial cells undergo a different pattern of activation depending on the stimulus; in the presence of activated glioma-derived factors, i.e. a condition mimicking the late stage of pathology, microglia presents as a mixture of polarization phenotypes (M1 and M2a/b, with up-regulation of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase, ARG (arginase and IL (interleukine-10. At variance, microglia exposed to basal glioma-derived factors, i.e. a condition resembling the early stage of pathology, shows a more specific pattern of activation, with increased M2b polarization status and up-regulation of IL-10 only. As far as viability and cell proliferation are concerned, both LI-CM [LPS (lipopolysaccharide—IFNγ (interferon γ conditioned media] and C-CM (control-conditioned media induce similar effects on microglial morphology. Finally, in human glioma tissue obtained from surgical resection of patients with IV grade glioblastoma, we detected a significant amount of CD68 positive cells, which is a marker of macrophage/microglial phagocytic activity, suggesting that in vitro findings presented here might have a relevance in the human pathology as well.

  13. Naphtho[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene-Based Conjugated Polymers for Fullerene-Free Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaoyan; Li, Huan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianqi; Zhang, Yajie; Lu, Kun; Wei, Zhixiang

    2018-03-23

    Three novel copolymers based on zigzag naphthodithiophene (zNDT) with different aromatic rings as π bridges and different core side substitutions are designed and synthesized (PzNDT-T-1,3-bis(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-thiophen-2-yl)-5,7-bis(2-ethylhexyl)benzo[1,2-c:4,5-c']-dithiophene-4,8-dione (BDD), PzNDT-TT-BDD, and PzNDTP-T-BDD, respectively). The 2D conjugation structure and molecular planarity of the polymers can be effectively altered through the modification of conjugated side chains and π-bridges. These alterations contribute to the variation in energy levels, light absorption capacity, and morphology compatibility of the polymers. When blended with the nonfullerene acceptor (2,2'-[(4,4,9,9-tetrahexyl-4,9-dihydro-sindaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene-2,7-diyl)bis[methylidyne(3-oxo-1H-indene-2,1(3H)-diylidene)

  14. A variant at 9p21.3 functionally implicates CDKN2B in paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia aetiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hungate, Eric A.; Vora, Sapana R.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Moriyama, Takaya; Best, Timothy; Hulur, Imge; Lee, Younghee; Evans, Tiffany-Jane; Ellinghaus, Eva; Stanulla, Martin; Rudant, Jéremie; Orsi, Laurent; Clavel, Jacqueline; Milne, Elizabeth; Scott, Rodney J.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Cox, Nancy J.; Loh, Mignon L.; Yang, Jun J.; Skol, Andrew D.; Onel, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) is the most common cancer of childhood, yet little is known about BCP-ALL predisposition. In this study, in 2,187 cases of European ancestry and 5,543 controls, we discover and replicate a locus indexed by rs77728904 at 9p21.3

  15. Development and characterization of glass-ceramic sealants in the (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3) system for Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedim, Hichem; Nonnet, Helene; Mear, Francois O.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of glass-ceramic sealants plays a crucial role in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell performance and durability. In order to develop suitable sealants, operating around 800 degrees C, two parent glass compositions, CAS1B and CAS2B, from the CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 system were prepared and explored. The thermal and physicochemical properties of the glass ceramics and their crystallization behavior were investigated by HSM. DTA and XRD analyses. The microstructure and chemical compositions of the crystalline phases were investigated by microprobe analysis. Bonding characteristic as well as chemical interactions of the parent glass with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and ferritic steel-based interconnect (Crofere (R)) were also investigated. The preliminary results revealed the superiority of CAS2B glass for sealing application in SOECs. The effect of minor additions of V 2 O 5 , K 2 O and TiO 2 on the thermal properties was also studied and again demonstrated the advantages of the CAS2B glass composition. Examining the influence of heat treatment on the seal behavior showed that the choice of the heating rate is a compromise between delaying the crystallization process and delaying the viscosity drop. The thermal Expansion Coefficients (TEC) obtained for the selected glass ceramic are within the desired range after the heat treatment of crystallization. The crystallization kinetic parameters of the selected glass composition were also determined under non-isothermal conditions by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and using the formal theory of transformations for heterogeneous nucleation. (authors)

  16. Development and characterization of glass-ceramic sealants in the (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3) system for Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedim, Hichem; Nonnet, Hélène; Méar, François O.

    2012-10-01

    The efficiency of glass-ceramic sealants plays a crucial role in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell performance and durability. In order to develop suitable sealants, operating around 800 °C, two parent glass compositions, CAS1B and CAS2B, from the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3 system were prepared and explored. The thermal and physicochemical properties of the glass ceramics and their crystallization behavior were investigated by HSM, DTA and XRD analyses. The microstructure and chemical compositions of the crystalline phases were investigated by microprobe analysis. Bonding characteristic as well as chemical interactions of the parent glass with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and ferritic steel-based interconnect (Crofer®) were also investigated. The preliminary results revealed the superiority of CAS2B glass for sealing application in SOECs. The effect of minor additions of V2O5, K2O and TiO2 on the thermal properties was also studied and again demonstrated the advantages of the CAS2B glass composition. Examining the influence of heat treatment on the seal behavior showed that the choice of the heating rate is a compromise between delaying the crystallization process and delaying the viscosity drop. The thermal Expansion Coefficients (TEC) obtained for the selected glass ceramic are within the desired range after the heat treatment of crystallization. The crystallization kinetic parameters of the selected glass composition were also determined under non-isothermal conditions by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and using the formal theory of transformations for heterogeneous nucleation.

  17. 2′,3′-cAMP, 3′-AMP, and 2′-AMP inhibit human aortic and coronary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via A2B receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jin; Gillespie, Delbert G.

    2011-01-01

    Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from renal microvessels metabolize 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP, and these AMPs are converted to adenosine that inhibits microvascular VSMC proliferation via A2B receptors. The goal of this study was to test whether this mechanism also exists in VSMCs from conduit arteries and whether it is similarly expressed in human vs. rat VSMCs. Incubation of rat and human aortic VSMCs with 2′,3′-cAMP concentration-dependently increased levels of 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP in the medium, with a similar absolute increase in 2′-AMP vs. 3′-AMP. In contrast, in human coronary VSMCs, 2′,3′-cAMP increased 2′-AMP levels yet had little effect on 3′-AMP levels. In all cell types, 2′,3′-cAMP increased levels of adenosine, but not 5′-AMP, and 2′,3′-AMP inhibited cell proliferation. Antagonism of A2B receptors (MRS-1754), but not A1 (1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine), A2A (SCH-58261), or A3 (VUF-5574) receptors, attenuated the antiproliferative effects of 2′,3′-cAMP. In all cell types, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 5′-AMP increased adenosine levels, and inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase blocked this effect of 5′-AMP but not that of 2′-AMP nor 3′-AMP. Also, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 5′-AMP, like 2′,3′-cAMP, exerted antiproliferative effects that were abolished by antagonism of A2B receptors with MRS-1754. In conclusion, VSMCs from conduit arteries metabolize 2′,3′-cAMP to AMPs, which are metabolized to adenosine. In rat and human aortic VSMCs, both 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP are involved in this process, whereas, in human coronary VSMCs, 2′,3′-cAMP is mainly converted to 2′-AMP. Because adenosine inhibits VSMC proliferation via A2B receptors, local vascular production of 2′,3′-cAMP may protect conduit arteries from atherosclerosis. PMID:21622827

  18. Ordering effects in benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6- dione polymers with >7% solar cell efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Warnan, Julien

    2014-05-15

    Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']difuran-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (PBDFTPD) polymers prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis can achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) >7% in bulk-heterojunction solar cells with phenyl-C61/71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In "as-cast" PBDFTPD-based devices solution-processed without a small-molecule additive, high PCEs can be obtained in spite of the weak propensity of the polymers to self-assemble and form π-aggregates in thin films. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. An NR2B-Dependent Decrease in the Expression of trkB Receptors Precedes the Disappearance of Dopaminergic Cells in Substantia Nigra in a Rat Model of Presymptomatic Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Riquelme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory changes occurring during presymptomatic stages of Parkinson's disease (PD would explain that the clinical symptoms of the disease appear late, when the degenerative process is quite advanced. Several data support the proposition that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF could play a role in these plastic changes. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of the specific BDNF receptor, trkB, in a rat model of presymptomatic PD generated by intrastriatal injection of the neurotoxin 6-OHDA. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a decrease in trkB expression in SN pars compacta (SNc seven days after 6-OHDA injection. At this time point, no change in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunoreactive (TH-IR cells is detected, although a decrease is evident 14 days after neurotoxin injection. The decrease in TH-positive cells and trkB expression in SNc was significantly prevented by systemic administration of Ifenprodil, a specific antagonist of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors. Therefore, an NR2B-NMDA receptor-dependent decrease in trkB expression precedes the disappearance of TH-IR cells in SNc in response to 6-OHDA injection. These results support the idea that a functional coupling between NMDA receptors and BDNF/trkB signalling may be important for the maintenance of the dopaminergic phenotype in SNc during presymptomatic stages of PD.

  20. 75 FR 14661 - Bank Enterprise Award (BEA) Program; Notice of Funds Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Bank Enterprise Award... (NOFA) inviting applications for the FY 2010 Funding Round of the Bank Enterprise Award (BEA) Program... Enterprise Award. 2. New Markets Tax Credits. Financial assistance provided by an Applicant for which the...

  1. Glacier fluctuation using Satellite Data in Beas basin, 1972–2006 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corresponding author. e-mail: sakshishruti@gmail.com. Glaciers are widely recognized as sensitive indicators for regional climate change. Very few studies have been conducted to investigate the long term deglaciation status in the Himalaya. In the present study, glaciers in the Beas basin, Himachal Pradesh, India were ...

  2. Aldol condensation of furfural with acetone over ion-exchanged and impregnated potassium BEA zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kikhtyanin, O.; Bulánek, R.; Frolich, K.; Čejka, Jiří; Kubička, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 424, DEC 2016 (2016), s. 358-368 ISSN 1381-1169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : activated hydrotalcites * carbon-monoxide * cyclic-ketones * Acetone * Furfural * Condensation * Potassium-BEA * Zeolite Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.211, year: 2016

  3. Fe-BEA Zeolite Catalysts for NH3-SCR of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anne Mette; Mert, Selcuk; Due-Hansen, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Iron-containing zeolites are known to be promising catalysts for the NH3-SCR reaction. Here, we will investigate the catalytic activity of iron-based BEA catalysts, which was found to exhibit improved activities compared to previously described iron-containing zeolite catalysts, such as ZSM-5...

  4. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) 2016 Self-Assessment Report for Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Juan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report provides Battelle Energy Alliance’s (BEA) self-assessment of performance for the period of October 1, 2015, through September 30, 2016, as evaluated against the goals, performance objectives, and notable outcomes defined in the Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan (PEMP). BEA took into consideration and consolidated all input provided from internal and external sources (e.g., Contractor Assurance System [CAS], program and customer feedback, external and independent reviews, and Department of Energy [DOE] Idaho Operations Office [ID] quarterly PEMP reports and Quarterly Evaluation Reports). The overall performance of BEA during this rating period was self-assessed as “Excellent,” exceeding expectations of performance in Goal 1.0, “Efficient and Effective Mission Accomplishment”; Goal 2.0, “Efficient and Effective Stewardship and Operation of Research Facilities”; and Goal 3.0, “Sound and Competent Leadership and Stewardship of the Laboratory.” BEA met or exceeded expectations for Mission Support Goals 4.0 through 7.0 assessing a final multiplier of 1.0. Table 1 documents BEA’s assessment of performance to the goals and individual performance objectives. Table 2 documents completion of the notable outcomes. A more-detailed assessment of performance for each individual performance objective is documented in the closeout reports (see the PEMP reporting system). Table 3 includes an update to “Performance Challenges” as reported in the FY 2015 Self-Assessment Report.

  5. Glacier fluctuation using Satellite Data in Beas basin, 1972–2006 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glaciers are widely recognized as sensitive indicators for regional climate change. Very few studies have been conducted to investigate the long term deglaciation status in the Himalaya. In the present study, glaciers in the Beas basin, Himachal Pradesh, India were mapped by interpretation of various glacio- morphological ...

  6. Glacier fluctuation using Satellite Data in Beas basin, 1972–2006 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glaciers are widely recognized as sensitive indicators for regional climate change. Very few studies have been conducted to investigate the long term deglaciation status in the Himalaya. In the present study, glaciers in the Beas basin, Himachal Pradesh, India were mapped by interpretation of various glaciomorphological ...

  7. elementary mechanistic steps and the influence of process variables in isobutane alkylation over H-BEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nivarthy, G.S.; He, Y.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Liquid phase conversion of n-butene in excess iso-butane was investigated over zeolite BEA as catalyst in a continuously operated slurry reactor. Single and multiple alkylation and cracking were the main reaction pathways. Only saturated products were observed indicating that hydride transfer

  8. Synthesis of interleukin 6 (interferon-. beta. /sub 2//B cell stimulatory factor 2) in human fibroblasts is triggered by an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhange, Y.; Lin, J.X.; Vilcek, J.

    1988-05-05

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6; also referred to as interferon-..beta../sub 2/, 26-kDa protein, and B cell stimulatory factor 2) is a cytokine whose actions include a stimulation of immunoglobulin synthesis, enhancement of B cell growth, and modulation of acute phase protein synthesis by hepatocytes. Synthesis of IL-6 is stimulated by interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or platelet-derived growth factor. The authors examined the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signal transduction pathway in IL-6 gene expression. Several activators of adenylate cyclase, including prostaglandin E1, forskolin, and cholera toxin, as well as the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine and the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP, shared the ability to cause a dramatic and sustained increase in IL-6 mRNA levels in human FS-4 fibroblasts. Actinomycin D treatment abolished this enhancement. Treatments that increased intracellular cAMP also stimulated the secretion of the IL-6 protein in a biologically active form. Increased intracellular cAMP appears to enhance IL-6 gene expression by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism because down-regulation of protein kinase C by a chronic exposure of cells to a high dose of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate did not abolish the enhancement of IL-6 expression by treatments that increase cAMP. IL-1 and TNF too increased IL-6 mRNA levels by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism. The results suggest a role for the cAMP-dependent pathway(s) in IL-6 gene activation by TNF and IL-1.

  9. Synthesis of interleukin 6 (interferon-β2/B cell stimulatory factor 2) in human fibroblasts is triggered by an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhange, Y.; Lin, J.X.; Vilcek, J.

    1988-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6; also referred to as interferon-β 2 , 26-kDa protein, and B cell stimulatory factor 2) is a cytokine whose actions include a stimulation of immunoglobulin synthesis, enhancement of B cell growth, and modulation of acute phase protein synthesis by hepatocytes. Synthesis of IL-6 is stimulated by interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or platelet-derived growth factor. The authors examined the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signal transduction pathway in IL-6 gene expression. Several activators of adenylate cyclase, including prostaglandin E1, forskolin, and cholera toxin, as well as the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine and the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP, shared the ability to cause a dramatic and sustained increase in IL-6 mRNA levels in human FS-4 fibroblasts. Actinomycin D treatment abolished this enhancement. Treatments that increased intracellular cAMP also stimulated the secretion of the IL-6 protein in a biologically active form. Increased intracellular cAMP appears to enhance IL-6 gene expression by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism because down-regulation of protein kinase C by a chronic exposure of cells to a high dose of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate did not abolish the enhancement of IL-6 expression by treatments that increase cAMP. IL-1 and TNF too increased IL-6 mRNA levels by a protein kinase C-independent mechanism. The results suggest a role for the cAMP-dependent pathway(s) in IL-6 gene activation by TNF and IL-1

  10. Organic Solar Cells Based on a 2D Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-Conjugated Polymer with High-Power Conversion Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lijun; Liu, Tao; Fan, Bingbing; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Sun, Xiaobo; Wei, Donghui; Yu, Mingming; Liu, Yunqi; Sun, Yanming

    2015-11-18

    A novel 2D benzodifuran (BDF)-based copolymer (PBDF-T1) is synthesized. Polymer solar cells fabricated with PBDF-T1 show high power conversion efficiency of 9.43% and fill factor of 77.4%, which is higher than the performance of its benzothiophene (BDT) counterpart (PBDT-T1). These results provide important progress for BDF-based copolymers and demonstrate that BDF-based copolymers can be competitive with the well-studied BDT counterparts via molecular structure design and device optimization. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. 2-Alkyl-5-thienyl-substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-based donor molecules for solution-processed organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Dhananjaya; Huang, Tzu-Yen; Chiang, Chao-Cheng; Maturana, Ramon Orlando Valencia; Pao, Chun-Wei; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2013-10-09

    In this study, we have strategically designed and convergently synthesized two novel, symmetrical, and linear A-D-A-type π-conjugated donor molecules (TBDTCNR, TBDTCN), each containing a planar electron-rich 2-octylthiene-5-yl-substituted benzodithiophene (TBDT) unit as the core, flanked by octylthiophene units and end-capped with electron-deficient cyanoacetate (CNR) or dicyanovinyl (CN) units. We thoroughly characterized both of these materials and investigated the effects of the end groups (CNR, CN) on their optical, electrochemical, morphological, and photovoltaic properties. We then fabricated solution-processed bulk heterojunction organic solar cells incorporating TBDTCNR and TBDTCN. Among our tested devices, the one containing TBDTCNR and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester in a 1:0.40 ratio (w/w) exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency (5.42%) with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 9.08 mA cm(-2), an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.90 V, and an impressive fill factor (FF) of 0.66 under AM 1.5G irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)). The FFs of these solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells (SMOSCs) are outstanding when compared with those recently reported for benzodithiophene (BDT)-based SMOSCs, because of the high crystallinity and excellent stacking properties of the TBDT-based compounds.

  12. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) 2016 Self-Assessment Report for Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This report provides Battelle Energy Alliance's (BEA) self-assessment of performance for the period of October 1, 2015, through September 30, 2016, as evaluated against the goals, performance objectives, and notable outcomes defined in the Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan (PEMP). BEA took into consideration and consolidated all input provided from internal and external sources (e.g., Contractor Assurance System [CAS], program and customer feedback, external and independent reviews, and Department of Energy [DOE] Idaho Operations Office [ID] quarterly PEMP reports and Quarterly Evaluation Reports). The overall performance of BEA during this rating period was self-assessed as 'Excellent,' exceeding expectations of performance in Goal 1.0, 'Efficient and Effective Mission Accomplishment'; Goal 2.0, 'Efficient and Effective Stewardship and Operation of Research Facilities'; and Goal 3.0, 'Sound and Competent Leadership and Stewardship of the Laboratory.' BEA met or exceeded expectations for Mission Support Goals 4.0 through 7.0 assessing a final multiplier of 1.0. Table 1 documents BEA's assessment of performance to the goals and individual performance objectives. Table 2 documents completion of the notable outcomes. A more-detailed assessment of performance for each individual performance objective is documented in the closeout reports (see the PEMP reporting system). Table 3 includes an update to 'Performance Challenges' as reported in the FY 2015 Self-Assessment Report.

  13. [Prolonged exposure to crystalline silica Min-U-Sil-5 influences apoptosis or extracellular matrix genes expression in human bronchial epithelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, A; Antognelli, C; Murgia, N; dell'Omo, M; Talesa, V N; Muzi, G

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline silica (Min-U-Sil-5) induces oxidative stress in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), through the intracellular accumulation of ROS that cause oxidative damage leading to the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and to the loss of cell adhesion molecules inducing apoptosis and genotoxic damage. This paper briefly summarizes some of the recent findings from our laboratories with emphasis on the molecular events by which the cronic and cumulative exposure to crystalline silica can induce cellular damage that promotes changes in extracellular matrix and in apoptosis gene expression.

  14. Cadmium induces cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells through upregulation of eIF5A1 and NF-kappaB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Du, Ji-Ying [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Huang, Dong-Yang [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Lau, Andy T.Y., E-mail: andytylau@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were dosed with cadmium (Cd). • A low level (2 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h elicited negligible cytotoxicity. • High levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h induced cell death. • High levels of Cd can upregulate the protein levels of eIF5A1 and NF-κB p65. • We suggest that eIF5A1 level is possibly modulated by NF-κB. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and Cd compounds are widely-distributed in the environment and well-known carcinogens. Here, we report that in CdCl{sub 2}-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), the level of p53 is dramatically decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the observed Cd-induced cytotoxicity is not likely due to the pro-apoptotic function of p53. Therefore, this prompted us to further study the responsive pro-apoptotic factors by proteomic approaches. Interestingly, we identified that high levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd can significantly upregulate the protein levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A1 (eIF5A1) and redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB p65. Moreover, there is an enhanced NF-κB nuclear translocation as well as chromatin-binding in Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. We also show that small interfering RNA-specific knockdown of eIF5A1 in Cd-exposed cells attenuated the Cd cytotoxicity, indicating the potential role of eIF5A1 in Cd cytotoxicity. As eIF5A1 is reported to be related with cell apoptosis but little is known about its transcriptional control, we hypothesize that NF-κB might likely modulate eIF5A1 gene expression. Notably, by bioinformatic analysis, several potential NF-κB binding sites on the upstream promoter region of eIF5A1 gene can be found. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that indeed there is enhanced NF-κB binding on eIF5A1 promoter region of Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, our findings suggest for the first time a regulatory mechanism for the pro

  15. Effects of prenatal chronic mild stress exposure on hippocampal cell proliferation, expression of GSK-3α, β and NR2B in adult offspring during fear extinction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Li, Xiaobai; Zhang, Xinxin; Ren, Jintao; Jiang, Han; Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Cheng, Wenwen

    2014-06-01

    Stress during pregnancy has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of many mental disorders; however, the influence of prenatal stress on the fear or anxiety-related behaviors, especially the fear extinction in adult offspring has been little investigated. In order to investigate how prenatal stress affects fear extinction, which is regarded as a form of new learning that counteracts the expression of Pavlovian's conditioned fear, a rat model of prenatal chronic mild stress (PNS) was used to evaluate the effects of PNS on fear extinction in adult offspring. The expression of hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase-3s (GSK-3α, β), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs)-2B and the hippocampal cell proliferation in dentate gyrus in the adult offspring during fear extinction were studied. Our results showed that PNS significantly reduced body weight of pups, indicating PNS might induce growth retardation in offspring. Moreover, PNS significantly enhanced the freezing behavior of offspring at the phase of extinction, suggesting PNS impaired the abilities of fear extinction learning. In addition, PNS significantly increased the levels of GSK-3α, β and NR2B, but reduced hippocampal cell proliferation during fear extinction. Taken together, our findings suggest that maternal stress during pregnancy can impair the fear extinction of adult offspring, probably by affecting the neural plasticity of brain. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxicological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives on respiratory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Eiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in ambient aerosols and particulate matter. Experimental studies have shown that PAHs and related chemicals can induce toxicological effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of PAHs and their derivatives on the respiratory and immune systems and the underlying mechanisms. The human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was exposed to PAHs and their derivatives, and the cytotoxicity and proinflammatory protein expression were then investigated. A cytotoxic effect was observed in BEAS-2B exposed to PAH derivatives such as naphthoquinone (NQ), phenanthrenequinone (PQ), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), and 1-aminopyrene (1-AP). In addition, 1,2-NQ and 9,10-PQ showed more effective cytotoxicity than 1,4-NQ and 1,4-PQ, respectively. Pyrene showed a weak cytotoxic effect. On the other hand, naphthalene and phenanthrene showed no significant effects. Pyrene, 1-NP, and 1-AP also increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and interleukin-6 production in BEAS-2B. The increase was partly suppressed by protein kinase inhibitors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor and nuclear receptor antagonists such as the thyroid hormone receptor antagonist. The present study suggests that the toxicological effects of chemicals may be related to the different activities resulting from their structures, such as numbers of benzene rings and functional groups. Furthermore, the chemical-induced increase in proinflammatory protein expression in bronchial epithelial cells was possibly a result of the activation of protein kinase pathways and nuclear receptors. The increase may partly contribute to the adverse health effects of atmospheric PAHs.

  17. Interleukin-17A and Toll-Like Receptor 3 Ligand Poly(I:C Synergistically Induced Neutrophil Chemoattractant Production by Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are common respiratory disorders worldwide. Exacerbations of these diseases are frequent and worsen patients' respiratory condition and overall health. However, the mechanisms of exacerbation have not been fully elucidated. Recently, it was reported that interleukin (IL-17A might play an important role in neutrophilic inflammation, which is characteristic of such exacerbations, through increased production of neutrophil chemoattractants. Therefore, we hypothesized that IL-17A was involved in the pathogenesis of acute exacerbation, due to viral infection in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. In this study, we assessed chemokine production by bronchial epithelial cells and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Comprehensive chemokine analysis showed that, compared with poly(I:C alone, co-stimulation of BEAS-2B cells with IL-17A and poly(I:C strongly induced production of such neutrophil chemoattractants as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL8, growth-related oncogene (GRO, and CXCL1. Co-stimulation synergistically induced CXCL8 and CXCL1 mRNA and protein production by BEAS-2B cells and normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Poly(I:C induced chemokine expression by BEAS-2B cells mainly via Toll-like receptor 3/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β-mediated signals. The co-stimulation with IL-17A and poly(I:C markedly activated the p38 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway, compared with poly(I:C, although there was little change in nuclear factor-κB translocation into the nucleus or the transcriptional activities of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein 1. IL-17A promoted stabilization of CXCL8 mRNA in BEAS-2B cells treated with poly(I:C. In conclusion, IL-17A appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway disease exacerbation, due to viral infection by promoting release of neutrophil

  18. Donor and Acceptor Unit Sequences Influence Material Performance in Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-6,7-Difluoroquinoxaline Small Molecule Donors for BHJ Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kai

    2016-08-22

    Well-defined small molecule (SM) donors can be used as alternatives to π-conjugated polymers in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with fullerene acceptors (e.g., PC61/71BM). Taking advantage of their synthetic tunability, combinations of various donor and acceptor motifs can lead to a wide range of optical, electronic, and self-assembling properties that, in turn, may impact material performance in BHJ solar cells. In this report, it is shown that changing the sequence of donor and acceptor units along the π-extended backbone of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-6,7-difluoroquinoxaline SM donors critically impacts (i) molecular packing, (ii) propensity to order and preferential aggregate orientations in thin-films, and (iii) charge transport in BHJ solar cells. In these systems (SM1-3), it is found that 6,7-difluoroquinoxaline ([2F]Q) motifs directly appended to the central benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene (BDT) unit yield a lower-bandgap analogue (SM1) with favorable molecular packing and aggregation patterns in thin films, and optimized BHJ solar cell efficiencies of ≈6.6%. 1H-1H DQ-SQ NMR analyses indicate that SM1 and its counterpart with [2F]Q motifs substituted as end-group SM3 possess distinct self-assembly patterns, correlating with the significant charge transport and BHJ device efficiency differences observed for the two analogous SM donors (avg. 6.3% vs 2.0%, respectively). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Physico-chemical properties based differential toxicity of graphene oxide/reduced graphene oxide in human lung cells mediated through oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sandeep; Kumar, Veeresh; Dhiman, Nitesh; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Pasricha, Renu; Pandey, Alok Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Goraphene derivatives (GD) are currently being evaluated for technological and biomedical applications owing to their unique physico-chemical properties over other carbon allotrope such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). But, the possible association of their properties with underlying in vitro effects have not fully examined. Here, we assessed the comparative interaction of three GD - graphene oxide (GO), thermally reduced GO (TRGO) and chemically reduced GO (CRGO), which significantly differ in their lateral size and functional groups density, with phenotypically different human lung cells; bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549). The cellular studies demonstrate that GD significantly ineternalize and induce oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity in both cells. The toxicity intensity was in line with the reduced lateral size and increased functional groups revealed more toxicity potential of TRGO and GO respectively. Further, A549 cells showed more susceptibility than BEAS-2B which reflected cell type dependent differential cellular response. Molecular studies revealed that GD induced differential cell death mechanism which was efficiently prevented by their respective inhibitors. This is prior study to the best of our knowledge involving TRGO for its safety evaluation which provided invaluable information and new opportunities for GD based biomedical applications.

  20. Chemokine receptor CCR2b 64I polymorphism and its relation to CD4 T-cell counts and disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Copenhagen AIDS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Iversen, Anton; Benfield, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the recently described mutation in CCR2b named 64I in relation to HIV resistance, CD4 T-cell counts, and disease progression in Danish individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods as well as sequenced full-length CXCR4 and CCR5 genes from HIV......-infected long-term nonprogressors for possible mutations. In total, 215 Danish individuals were analyzed for 64I allele frequency; disease progression was followed in 105 HIV-1-positive homosexual Danish men from their first known positive HIV-1 test result and up to 11 years. In 87 individuals, the CD4 T-cell...... count was monitored closely. We found no significant difference in 64I allele frequency between HIV-1-seropositive persons (0.08), high-risk HIV-1-seronegative persons (0.11), and blood donors (0.06). No significant difference was observed in annual CD4 T-cell decline, CD4 T-cell counts at the time...

  1. Linear side chains in benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-thieno[3,4-c] pyrrole-4,6-dione polymers direct self-assembly and solar cell performance

    KAUST Repository

    Cabanetos, Clement

    2013-03-27

    While varying the size and branching of solubilizing side chains in π-conjugated polymers impacts their self-assembling properties in thin-film devices, these structural changes remain difficult to anticipate. This report emphasizes the determining role that linear side-chain substituents play in poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymers for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell applications. We show that replacing branched side chains by linear ones in the BDT motifs induces a critical change in polymer self-assembly and backbone orientation in thin films that correlates with a dramatic drop in solar cell efficiency. In contrast, we show that for polymers with branched alkyl-substituted BDT motifs, controlling the number of aliphatic carbons in the linear N-alkyl-substituted TPD motifs is a major contributor to improved material performance. With this approach, PBDTTPD polymers were found to reach power conversion efficiencies of 8.5% and open-circuit voltages of 0.97 V in BHJ devices with PC71BM, making PBDTTPD one of the best polymer donors for use in the high-band-gap cell of tandem solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. INFα-2b inhibitory effects on CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in the tumor microenvironment of C57BL/6 J mice with melanoma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yang; Huang, Run; Zong, Xiangyun; He, Xiangming; Mo, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg s ), particularly the CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg s , down regulate immunity and promote tumor cell growth by directly suppressing CD8 + and CD4 + T cells. Alternatively they can promote tumor growth by generating interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) in situ, which help tumor cells to evade the immune system. In vivo tumor models were prepared via subcutaneous injection with a suspension of B16 melanoma cells into the left upper flank of C57BL/6 J mice. The mice were randomized into five groups: radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy (CT), radiochemotherapy (RCT), Inteferon α (INFα) groups, and a control group. Flow cytometry was used to determine the Treg s levels in the spleen and peripheral blood, and immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression levels of TGFβ and IL-10 in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor weight was significantly reduced in the CT or RCT groups (40.91 % and 41.83 %, respectively), while the reduction in tumor weight was relatively lower for the RT and IFNα groups (15.10 % and 13.15 %, respectively). The flow cytometry results showed that the ratios of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg s to lymphocytes and CD4 + cells in the spleen and in peripheral blood were significantly decreased after treatment with IFNα (P < 0.05). Expression of TGFβ and IL-10 in the tumor microenvironment in the CT and RT groups was higher compared with the control group (P < 0.01), while the expression of TGFβ and IL-10 in the INFα group was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The results show that INFα-2b inhibits cancer cell immune evasion by decreasing the levels of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg s and suppressing the expression of TGFβ and IL-10 in the tumor microenvironment

  3. Diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes activate cell death in human cancer cell lines but not normal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina Sansone

    Full Text Available Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs that induce abortions or malformations in the offspring of invertebrates exposed to them during gestation. Here we compare the effects of the PUAs 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal (DD, 2-trans,4-trans-octadienal (OD and 2-trans,4-trans-heptadienal (HD on the adenocarcinoma cell lines lung A549 and colon COLO 205, and the normal lung/brunch epithelial BEAS-2B cell line. Using the viability MTT/Trypan blue assays, we show that PUAs have a toxic effect on both A549 and COLO 205 tumor cells but not BEAS-2B normal cells. DD was the strongest of the three PUAs tested, at all time-intervals considered, but HD was as strong as DD after 48 h. OD was the least active of the three PUAs. The effect of the three PUAs was somewhat stronger for A549 cells. We therefore studied the death signaling pathway activated in A549 showing that cells treated with DD activated Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 (TNFR1 and Fas Associated Death Domain (FADD leading to necroptosis via caspase-3 without activating the survival pathway Receptor-Interacting Protein (RIP. The TNFR1/FADD/caspase pathway was also observed with OD, but only after 48 h. This was the only PUA that activated RIP, consistent with the finding that OD causes less damage to the cell compared to DD and HD. In contrast, cells treated with HD activated the Fas/FADD/caspase pathway. This is the first report that PUAs activate an extrinsic apoptotic machinery in contrast to other anticancer drugs that promote an intrinsic death pathway, without affecting the viability of normal cells from the same tissue type. These findings have interesting implications also from the ecological viewpoint considering that HD is one of the most common PUAs produced by diatoms.

  4. Increasing Octane Value in Catalytic Cracking of n-Hexadecane with Addition of *BEA Type Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iori Shimada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, multifunctional catalysts were developed by adding *BEA or MFI zeolite with high Si/Al ratio to a residual fluidized catalytic cracking (RFCC catalyst and tested in the catalytic cracking of n-hexadecane, which is a heavy crude oil model compound, for the purpose of increasing the octane value of produced gasoline under the strong hydrogen transfer activity of the RFCC catalyst. Reaction products analysis revealed that the addition of *BEA zeolite to the RFCC catalyst increased the yields of olefins and multi-branched paraffins, which resulted in improvement of the octane value without sacrificing gasoline yield. On the contrary, the addition of MFI zeolite decreased the gasoline yield because it cracks the gasoline range olefins into LPG range olefins. In general, it is difficult to increase the yield of multi-branched molecules because the multi-branched molecule is more easily cracked than linear molecules. Our results suggest the possibility for the selective acceleration of isomerization reaction by the addition of less acidic *BEA zeolite to the RFCC catalyst.

  5. LINE-1 couples EMT programming with acquisition of oncogenic phenotypes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Aispuro, Ivan; Tavera-Garcia, Marco A; Field, Matthew; Moore, Sara; Ramos, Irma; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2017-11-28

    Although several lines of evidence have established the central role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) in malignant progression of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), the molecular events connecting EMT to malignancy remain poorly understood. This study presents evidence that Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon couples EMT programming with malignancy in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). This conclusion is supported by studies showing that: 1) activation of EMT programming by TGF-β1 increases LINE-1 mRNAs and protein; 2) the lung carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene coregulates TGF-β1 and LINE-1 mRNAs, with LINE-1 positioned downstream of TGF-β1 signaling; and, 3) forced expression of LINE-1 in BEAS-2B cells recapitulates EMT programming and induces malignant phenotypes and tumorigenesis in vivo . These findings identify a TGFβ1-LINE-1 axis as a critical effector pathway that can be targeted for the development of precision therapies during malignant progression of intractable NSCLCs.

  6. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuejiao [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Jiaojiang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 518 Jingdong Rd., Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Wang, Shou-Lin, E-mail: wangshl@njmu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  7. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  8. Chemokine receptor CCR2b 64I polymorphism and its relation to CD4 T-cell counts and disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Copenhagen AIDS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Iversen, Anton; Benfield, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the recently described mutation in CCR2b named 64I in relation to HIV resistance, CD4 T-cell counts, and disease progression in Danish individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods as well as sequenced full-length CXCR4 and CCR5 genes from HIV......-term nonprogression could not be explained by CXCR4 polymorphism or other polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene than the CCR5delta32 allele. Furthermore, we were not able to detect any significant independent effect of the 64I allele on development to AIDS, overall survival, and annual CD4 T-cell decline in this cohort.......-infected long-term nonprogressors for possible mutations. In total, 215 Danish individuals were analyzed for 64I allele frequency; disease progression was followed in 105 HIV-1-positive homosexual Danish men from their first known positive HIV-1 test result and up to 11 years. In 87 individuals, the CD4 T...

  9. Chemokine receptor CCR2b 64I polymorphism and its relation to CD4 T-cell counts and disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Copenhagen AIDS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Iversen, Anton; Benfield, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the recently described mutation in CCR2b named 64I in relation to HIV resistance, CD4 T-cell counts, and disease progression in Danish individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods as well as sequenced full-length CXCR4 and CCR5 genes from HIV...... of AIDS, in AIDS-free survival as well as survival with AIDS, between 64I allele carriers and wild-type individuals. Among 9 long-term nonprogressors, 2 carried the 64I allele, while none of 9 fast progressors carried the 64I allele. However, this was not significantly different (p=.47). Long......-term nonprogression could not be explained by CXCR4 polymorphism or other polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene than the CCR5delta32 allele. Furthermore, we were not able to detect any significant independent effect of the 64I allele on development to AIDS, overall survival, and annual CD4 T-cell decline in this cohort....

  10. Solvent Annealing Effects in Dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole–5,6-Difluorobenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole Small Molecule Donors for BHJ Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kai

    2016-06-17

    Low-bandgap small molecule (SM) donors that can be solution-processed with fullerene acceptors (e.g. PC61/71BM) are proving particularly promising in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Compared to their π-conjugated polymer counterparts, SM donors are well defined (monodispersed) and more synthetically modular –with relatively wide ranges of bandgaps achievable in stepwise couplings of various donor and acceptor motifs. However, the optimization of SM-fullerene morphologies and BHJ device efficiencies relies more specifically on the use of processing additives, post-processing thermal or solvent vapor annealing (SVA) approaches, and achieving adequate interpenetrating networks and structural order in BHJ thin films can be challenging. In this report, we examine the correlated effects of molecular structure and post-processing SVA on the BHJ solar cell performance of a set of π-extended SM donors composed of dithieno[3,2-b:2\\',3\\'-d]pyrrole (DTP) and 5,6-difluorobenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole ([2F]BT) units. In these systems (SM1-3), the introduction of additional alkyl substituents and unsubstituted thiophene rings on the peripheral unit groups critically impacts the effects of SVA steps on BHJ solar cell efficiency. We show that the more π-extended and alkyl-substituted analogue SM3 stands out –with BHJ device efficiencies of ca. 6% obtained from SVA with CS2– while SVA-treated SM3-based active layers also show the most favorable ordering and carrier mobility patterns. However, unlike numbers of SM donors reported in recent years, DTP–[2F]BT SM analogues are in general not prone to dramatic performance variations in BHJ thin films cast with processing additives. Our results indicate that the role of SVA steps is not independent of the molecular structure of the SM donors used in the BHJ solar cells.

  11. A Novel Natural Product, KL-21, Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Adan Gökbulut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of KL-21, a novel plant product (produced by Naturin Natural Products, İzmir, Turkey, on 232B4 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cells and to determine the cytotoxic effects on healthy BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of KL-21 was determined by MTT cell proliferation assay. Changes in caspase-3 enzyme activity were measured using the caspase-3 colorimetric assay. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were determined using the JC-1 dye-based method. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was performed to measure the apoptotic cell population. Effects of KL-21 on cell cycle profiles of CLL cells were investigated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We detected time- and concentration-dependent increases in the cytotoxic effect of KL-21 on 232B4 CLL cells. However, we also showed that, especially at higher concentrations, KL-21 was less cytotoxic towards BEAS-2B healthy cells than towards CLL cells. Annexin-V/PI double staining results showed that the apoptotic cell population increased in 232B4 cells. Increasing concentrations of KL-21 increased caspase-3 enzyme activity and induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. KL-21 administration resulted in small increases in the percentage of the cells in the G0/G1 phase while it decreased the S phase cell population up to 1 mg/mL. At the highest concentration, most of the cells accumulated in the G0/G1 phase. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: KL-21 has a growth-inhibitory effect on 232B4 CLL cells. KL-21 causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1.

  12. Gene expressions changes in bronchial epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remy, S.; Verstraelen, S.; Van Den Heuvel, R.

    2014-01-01

    For the classification of respiratory sensitizing chemicals, no validated in vivo nor in vitro tests are currently available. In this study, we evaluated whether respiratory sensitizers trigger specific signals in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells at the level of the transcriptome...... oligonucleotide arrays. A limited number of 11 transcripts could be identified as potential biomarkers to identify respiratory sensitizers. Three of these transcripts are associated to immune system processes (HSPA5, UPP1, and SEPRINEI). In addition, the transcriptome was screened for transcripts....... The cells were exposed during 6, 10, and 24 h to 4 respiratory sensitizers and 6 non-respiratory sensitizers (3 skin sensitizers and 3 respiratory irritants) at a concentration inducing 20% cell viability loss after 24 h. Changes in gene expression were evaluated using Agilent Whole Human Genome 4 x 44 K...

  13. Ultrafiltration combined with size exclusion chromatography efficiently isolates extracellular vesicles from cell culture media for compositional and functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikter, Birke J; Bouwman, Freek G; Vajen, Tanja; Heinzmann, Alexandra C A; Grauls, Gert; Mariman, Edwin C; Wouters, Emiel F M; Savelkoul, Paul H; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Koenen, Rory R; Rohde, Gernot G U; Stassen, Frank R M

    2017-11-10

    Appropriate isolation methods are essential for unravelling the relative contribution of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and the EV-free secretome to homeostasis and disease. We hypothesized that ultrafiltration followed by size exclusion chromatography (UF-SEC) provides well-matched concentrates of EVs and free secreted molecules for proteomic and functional studies. Conditioned media of BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells were concentrated on 10 kDa centrifuge filters, followed by separation of EVs and free protein using sepharose CL-4B SEC. Alternatively, EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation. EV recovery was estimated by bead-coupled flow cytometry and tuneable resistive pulse sensing. The proteomic composition of EV isolates and SEC protein fractions was characterized by nano LC-MS/MS. UF-SEC EVs tended to have a higher yield and EV-to-protein rate of purity than ultracentrifugation EVs. UF-SEC EVs and ultracentrifugation EVs showed similar fold-enrichments for biological pathways that were distinct from those of UF-SEC protein. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with UF-SEC protein, but not with either type of EV isolate increased the IL-8 concentration in the media whereas EVs, but not protein induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Thus, UF-SEC is a useful alternative for ultracentrifugation and allows comparing the proteomic composition and functional effects of EVs and free secreted molecules.

  14. [Knockdown of SIRT1 enhances the sensitivity to cisplatin by inhibiting autophagy in A549 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenhong; Mei, Chunxia; Wang, Bing; Liang, Zhengmin

    2017-12-01

    Objective To inhibit cisplatin-induced autophagy and improve the cisplatin sensitivity of A549 cells by knockdown the silent information regulator of transcription 1 (SIRT1). Methods Both mRNA and protein levels of SIRT1 in BEAS-2B, A549 and A549/DDP cells were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. After cisplatin treatment, the protein levels of SIRT1, LC3, P62 and beclin-1 in A549 cells were detected by Western blotting. A549 cells were transfected by siRNA to silence SIRT1 expression. Then, the apoptotic morphology was observed by fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst33258 staining. The apoptotic rate was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expressions of SIRT1, LC3, P62, cleaved caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) were measured by Western blotting. Results Both mRNA and protein levels of SIRT1 in A549 cells and A549/DDP cells were significantly higher than those in BEAS-2B cells, and they were higher in A549/DDP cells than in A549 cells. After cisplatin treatment, the protein levels of SIRT1, LC3 and beclin-1 in A549 cells increased, while P62 decreased. After transfected with SIRT1-siRNA, the expression of SIRT1 in A549 cells decreased. Compared with cisplatin group, the number of the apoptotic cells increased with the obvious occurrence of pyknosis and nuclear fragmentation in cisplatin plus SIRT1-siRNA group. Moreover, the expressions of P62, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP were up-regulated accompanied with LC3 decrease. Conclusion SIRT1 is highly expressed in A549 cells. The sensitivity of A549 cells to cisplatin can be improved by inhibiting the cisplatin-induced autophagy through knockdown of SIRT1.

  15. DFT/TD-DFT characterization of conjugational electronic structures and spectral properties of materials based on thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene for organic photovoltaic and solar cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bourass

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a theoretical study on five organic π-conjugated molecules based on thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene using together quantum methods, density functional theory (DFT and its derivative time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT is reported. Different electron side groups were introduced as a bridge to investigate their effects on the electronic structure; The HOMO, LUMO, chemical hardness (η, chemical potential (μ, electronegativity (χ, electrophilicity power (ω, reorganization energy total (λtotal, open circuit voltage (Voc, the gap energy and NBO analysis of these compounds have been reported and discussed in this paper. Thus, our aim is to explore their electronic and spectroscopic properties on the basis of the DFT quantum chemical calculations, and at the same time, we are interested to make an idea on the parameters influencing the photovoltaic efficiency toward a better understanding of the structure–property relationships. The calculated results of these compounds reveal that C4, C5, with thiophene and thienopyrazine as a bridge group respectively, can be used as a potential donor of electron in organic Bulk Heterojunction solar cells (BHJ, due to its best electronic and optical properties and good photovoltaic parameters. The study of electronic, optical and structural properties of these compounds could help to design more efficient functional photovoltaic organic materials.

  16. Intratunical Injection of Genetically Modified Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells with Human Interferon α-2b for Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Tunica Albugineal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Ahmet; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y; Lasker, George F; Bouljihad, Mostafa; Braun, Stephen E; Kim, Hogyoung; Kadowitz, Philip J; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Sikka, Suresh C; Hellstrom, Wayne J

    2015-07-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) has frequently been associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) and may further compromise coitus. To investigate the efficacy of intratunical injection of genetically modified rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) expressing human interferon α-2b (ADSCs-IFN) in decreasing fibrosis and restoring erectile function in a rat model of tunica albugineal fibrosis (TAF). A total of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old; 300-350 g) were randomly divided in six equal groups: (i) sham group (50 μL saline-injected into the tunica albuginea [TA]); (ii) TAF group (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β1 [0.5 μg/50 μL] injected into the TA); (iii) TGF-β1 plus 5 × 10(5) control ADSCs injected same day; (iv) TGF-β1 plus 5 × 10(5) ADSCs-IFN injected same day; (v) TGF-β1 plus 5 × 10(5) control ADSCs injected after 30 days; and (vi) TGF-β1 plus 5 × 10(5) ADSCs-IFN injected after 30 days. Rat allogeneic ADSCs were harvested from inguinal fat tissue. Forty-five days following the TGF-β1 injection, erectile function was assessed, and penile tissues were harvested for further evaluations. In the same-day injection groups, intratunical injection of ADSCs and ADSC-IFN improved erectile response observed upon stimulation of cavernous nerve compared with TAF group. Intratunical ADSC-IFN injection at day 30 improved erectile responses 3.1, 1.8, and 1.3 fold at voltages of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.0, respectively, when compared with TAF group. Furthermore, at voltages of 2.5 and 5.0, treatment on day 30 with ADSCs-IFN improved erectile responses 1.6- and 1.3-fold over treatment with ADSCs alone. Local injection of ADSCs or ADSCs-IFN reduced Peyronie's-like manifestations, and these effects might be associated with a decrease in the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This study documents that transplantation of genetically modified ADSCs, with or without human IFN α-2b, attenuated Peyronie's-like changes and enhanced

  17. Beauvericin-induced cell apoptosis through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human nonsmall cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Lin; Lin, Hen-I; Chen, Bing-Fang; Jow, Guey-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Beauvericin (BEA) is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide that derives from Codyceps cicadae. Our previous study results indicated that the cytotoxic effects of BEA on human A549 lung cancer cells BEA occur through an apoptotic pathway, which involves the up-regulation of cytochrome c release from mitochondria, upregulation of caspase 3 activity, and cellular and morphological changes. In this study, we identified that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor U0126 inhibits the cytotoxic effects of BEA on A549 cells. After exposing human A549 cells to 10 μM BEA, we observed a significant and dose-dependent increase in the percentage of hypoploid (sub-G1) phase cells in the A549 population. Following the pretreatment of the A549 cells with 25 μM U0126, the distribution of A549 cells in the sub-G1 phase decreased significantly. The BEA treatment resulted in a significant increase apoptosis in A549 cells by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Moreover, the MEK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase)-ERK42/44 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases)-90RSK (ribosomal s6 kinase) signaling pathway was activated in BEA-induced apoptotic A549 cells. Furthermore, treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 was capable to attenuate the BEA induced typical apoptotic morphological change, apoptotic cells, and MEK1/2-ERK42/44-90RSK signaling pathway. These results suggested that MEK1/2-ERK42/44-90RSK signaling pathway may play a important role in BEA-induced apoptosis in human NSCLC A549 cancer cells.

  18. Hydroconversion of n-hexane using Pt/H-MOR and Pt/H-BEA catalysts with various Pt contents and bimetallic PtPd/H-MOR, PtPd/H-BEA, PtIr/H-MOR and PtIr/H-BEA catalysts with various secondary metal contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboul-Gheit, A.K.; Abdel-Hamid, S.M.; Awadallah, A.E. [Process Development Div., Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-03-01

    Monometallic catalysts containing 0.35 up to 0.50 wt%Pt on H-MOR or H-BEA zeolites, as well as bimetallic catalysts containing Pd or Ir of 0.05 up to 0.20-0.25 wt% combined with a fixed Pt content of 0.35 wt% also supported on H-MOR or H-BEA were prepared and tested for n-hexane hydroconversion in a hydrogen flow using pulsed reactor system. The reaction products were gas chromatographically analysed and the catalysts were characterised for acid sites strength distribution via ammonia temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and for metal(s) dispersion in the support via pulsed hydrogen chemisorption. Increased Pt content in either zeolites decreased its dispersion. The addition of Pd to Pt increased the metals dispersion in both zeolites up to a certain content, whereas Ir addition, principally, decreased dispersion. Maximum isohexanes production behaved parallel to the metals dispersion in the PtPd containing catalysts (structure sensitive). Hydrocracking was more active on the H-MOR supported catalysts, compared to those supported on H-BEA due to higher acid sites number and strength in the former zeolite. Benzene production via dehydrocyclisation of n-hexane was relatively more active on the H-BEA containing catalysts than on those containing H-MOR, due to the less effective diffusion resistance in the BEA channels. (orig.)

  19. A recombinant multi-antigen vaccine formulation containing Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigens MSA-2a1, MSA-2b and MSA-2c elicits invasion-inhibitory antibodies and IFN-γ producing cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Marina Gimenez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Babesia bovis is a tick-transmitted protozoan hemoparasite and the causative agent of bovine babesiosis, a potential risk to more than 500 million cattle worldwide. The vaccines currently available are based on attenuated parasites, which are difficult to produce, and are only recommended for use in bovines under one year of age. When used in older animals, these vaccines may cause life-threatening clinical symptoms and eventually death. The development of a multi-subunit recombinant vaccine against B. bovis would be attractive from an economic standpoint and, most importantly, could be recommended for animals of any age. In the present study, recombinant ectodomains of MSA-2a1, MSA-2b and MSA-2c antigens were expressed in Pichia pastoris yeast as secreted soluble peptides. Results The antigens were purified to homogeneity, and biochemically and immunologically characterized. A vaccine formulation was obtained by emulsifying a mixture of the three peptides with the adjuvant Montanide ISA 720, which elicited high IgG antibody titers against each of the above antigens. IgG antibodies generated against each MSA-antigen recognized merozoites and significantly inhibited the invasion of bovine erythrocytes. Cellular immune responses were also detected, which were characterized by splenic and lymph node CD4+ T cells producing IFN-γ and TNF-α upon stimulation with the antigens MSA-2a1 or MSA-2c. Conclusions These data strongly suggest the high protective potential of the presented formulation, and we propose that it could be tested in vaccination trials of bovines challenged with B. bovis.

  20. PODAAC-SEA12-L2B00

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWinds on ADEOS-II Level 2B product provides ocean wind vectors in 12.5 km wind vector cell (WVC) slice composites in single-orbit files. The local time at the...

  1. The A2B Adenosine Receptor Modulates the Epithelial– Mesenchymal Transition through the Balance of cAMP/PKA and MAPK/ERK Pathway Activation in Human Epithelial Lung Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Giacomelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a complex process in which cell phenotype switches from the epithelial to mesenchymal one. The deregulations of this process have been related with the occurrence of different diseases such as lung cancer and fibrosis. In the last decade, several efforts have been devoted in understanding the mechanisms that trigger and sustain this transition process. Adenosine is a purinergic signaling molecule that has been involved in the onset and progression of chronic lung diseases and cancer through the A2B adenosine receptor subtype activation, too. However, the relationship between A2BAR and EMT has not been investigated, yet. Herein, the A2BAR characterization was carried out in human epithelial lung cells. Moreover, the effects of receptor activation on EMT were investigated in the absence and presence of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1, which has been known to promote the transition. The A2BAR activation alone decreased and increased the expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and the mesenchymal one (Vimentin, N-cadherin, respectively, nevertheless a complete EMT was not observed. Surprisingly, the receptor activation counteracted the EMT induced by TGF-β1. Several intracellular pathways regulate the EMT: high levels of cAMP and ERK1/2 phosphorylation has been demonstrated to counteract and promote the transition, respectively. The A2BAR stimulation was able to modulated these two pathways, cAMP/PKA and MAPK/ERK, shifting the fine balance toward activation or inhibition of EMT. In fact, using a selective PKA inhibitor, which blocks the cAMP pathway, the A2BAR-mediated EMT promotion were exacerbated, and conversely the selective inhibition of MAPK/ERK counteracted the receptor-induced transition. These results highlighted the A2BAR as one of the receptors involved in the modulation of EMT process. Nevertheless, its activation is not enough to trigger a complete transition, its ability to

  2. The A2B Adenosine Receptor Modulates the Epithelial– Mesenchymal Transition through the Balance of cAMP/PKA and MAPK/ERK Pathway Activation in Human Epithelial Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Chiara; Daniele, Simona; Romei, Chiara; Tavanti, Laura; Neri, Tommaso; Piano, Ilaria; Celi, Alessandro; Martini, Claudia; Trincavelli, Maria L.

    2018-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex process in which cell phenotype switches from the epithelial to mesenchymal one. The deregulations of this process have been related with the occurrence of different diseases such as lung cancer and fibrosis. In the last decade, several efforts have been devoted in understanding the mechanisms that trigger and sustain this transition process. Adenosine is a purinergic signaling molecule that has been involved in the onset and progression of chronic lung diseases and cancer through the A2B adenosine receptor subtype activation, too. However, the relationship between A2BAR and EMT has not been investigated, yet. Herein, the A2BAR characterization was carried out in human epithelial lung cells. Moreover, the effects of receptor activation on EMT were investigated in the absence and presence of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1), which has been known to promote the transition. The A2BAR activation alone decreased and increased the expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin) and the mesenchymal one (Vimentin, N-cadherin), respectively, nevertheless a complete EMT was not observed. Surprisingly, the receptor activation counteracted the EMT induced by TGF-β1. Several intracellular pathways regulate the EMT: high levels of cAMP and ERK1/2 phosphorylation has been demonstrated to counteract and promote the transition, respectively. The A2BAR stimulation was able to modulated these two pathways, cAMP/PKA and MAPK/ERK, shifting the fine balance toward activation or inhibition of EMT. In fact, using a selective PKA inhibitor, which blocks the cAMP pathway, the A2BAR-mediated EMT promotion were exacerbated, and conversely the selective inhibition of MAPK/ERK counteracted the receptor-induced transition. These results highlighted the A2BAR as one of the receptors involved in the modulation of EMT process. Nevertheless, its activation is not enough to trigger a complete transition, its ability to affect different

  3. Peginterferon Alfa-2b (PEG-Intron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2b injection pen, follow these steps: Take the carton containing the injection pen out of the refrigerator ... temperature. Check the expiration date printed on the carton, and do not use the carton if the ...

  4. A Model of B2B Exchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Gabor Fath; Miklos Sarvary

    2001-01-01

    B2B exchanges are revolutionizing the way businesses will buy and sell a variety of intermediary products and services. It is estimated that most of the roughly $7 trillion worth of business transactions are likely to go through these new institutions within the next decade. This paper tries to understand the economics governing the transactions within B2B exchanges and analyze their likely evolution over time. In doing so, we start by providing the rigorous definitions to a number of critica...

  5. Nicotine signals through muscle-type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in both human bronchial epithelial cells and airway fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luketich James D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-neuronal cells, including those derived from lung, are reported to express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR. We examined nAChR subunit expression in short-term cultures of human airway cells derived from a series of never smokers, ex-smokers, and active smokers. Methods and Results At the mRNA level, human bronchial epithelial (HBE cells and airway fibroblasts expressed a range of nAChR subunits. In multiple cultures of both cell types, mRNA was detected for subunits that constitute functional muscle-type and neuronal-type pentomeric receptors. Two immortalized cell lines derived from HBE cells also expressed muscle-type and neuronal-type nAChR subunits. Airway fibroblasts expressed mRNA for three muscle-type subunits (α1, δ, and ε significantly more often than HBE cells. Immunoblotting of HBE cell and airway fibroblast extracts confirmed that mRNA for many nAChR subunits is translated into detectable levels of protein, and evidence of glycosylation of nAChRs was observed. Some minor differences in nAChR expression were found based on smoking status in fibroblasts or HBE cells. Nicotine triggered calcium influx in the immortalized HBE cell line BEAS2B, which was blocked by α-bungarotoxin and to a lesser extent by hexamethonium. Activation of PKC and MAPK p38, but not MAPK p42/44, was observed in BEAS2B cells exposed to nicotine. In contrast, nicotine could activate p42/44 in airway fibroblasts within five minutes of exposure. Conclusions These results suggest that muscle-type and neuronal-type nAChRs are functional in airway fibroblasts and HBE cells, that prior tobacco exposure does not appear to be an important variable in nAChR expression, and that distinct signaling pathways are observed in response to nicotine.

  6. Unprecedented propane–SCR-NOx activity over template-free synthesized Al-rich Co-BEA* zeolite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sazama, Petr; Mokrzycki, Lukasz; Wichterlová, Blanka; Vondrová, Alena; Pilař, Radim; Dědeček, Jiří; Sklenák, Štěpán; Tabor, Edyta

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 332, DEC 2015 (2015), s. 201-211 ISSN 0021-9517 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TH01021259; GA ČR GA15-13876S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : beta zeolite * Al-rich BEA* * OSDA-free synthesis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.354, year: 2015

  7. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  8. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  9. Water quality assessment of river Beas, India, using multivariate and remote sensing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Chawla, Amit; Bhardwaj, Renu; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-03-01

    River Beas originates in the Himalayas and merges into river Sutlej at Harike, a Ramsar wetland. This river is a habitat of the endangered freshwater dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor R. Twenty-five water quality parameters, including eight heavy metals, were studied at four sampling sites over a stretch of 63 km between Beas and Harike towns for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Principal component analysis of the data proved to be an effective tool for data reduction as the first three principal components of all the water quality parameters explained 100% variance. Factor analysis delineated three factors underlying the water quality. Factor 1 comprised pollution-related parameters like BOD, COD, DO, PO4(-3) and hardness. Factor 2 was a natural water quality determinant and explained maximum variance in turbidity, alkalinity and TDS. Factor 3 comprised NO3(-1), a fertilizer-related parameter. Reflectance values from bands 2 (green), 3 (red) and 4 (near infra-red) of Landsat (TM) digital data were regressed on PO4(-3), turbidity and TDS using multiple linear regression analysis. PO4(-3) contributed positively to the spectral radiance, whereas TDS contributed negatively. Beta regression analysis revealed that PO4(-3) had a positive relation with BOD, whereas turbidity and TDS were negatively regressed with BOD. Artificial neural network models were fitted to the data. Correlations between the target values from ANN for turbidity, BOD and bands 2 (green), 3 (red) and 4 (near infra-red) were highly significant.

  10. Cell type-dependent changes in CdSe/ZnS quantum dot uptake and toxic endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B; Soenen, Stefaan J; Al-Ali, Abdullah; Brown, Andy; Hondow, Nicole; Wills, John; Jenkins, Gareth J S; Doak, Shareen H

    2015-04-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is often correlated with the physicochemical characteristics of the materials. However, some discrepancies are noted in in-vitro studies on quantum dots (QDs) with similar physicochemical properties. This is partly related to variations in cell type. In this study, we show that epithelial (BEAS-2B), fibroblast (HFF-1), and lymphoblastoid (TK6) cells show different biological responses following exposure to QDs. These cells represented the 3 main portals of NP exposure: bronchial, skin, and circulatory. The uptake and toxicity of negatively and positively charged CdSe:ZnS QDs of the same core size but with different surface chemistries (carboxyl or amine polymer coatings) were investigated in full and reduced serum containing media following 1 and 3 cell cycles. Following thorough physicochemical characterization, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and gross chromosomal damage were measured. Cellular damage mechanisms in the form of reactive oxygen species and the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α were assessed. QDs uptake and toxicity significantly varied in the different cell lines. BEAS-2B cells demonstrated the highest level of QDs uptake yet displayed a strong resilience with minimal genotoxicity following exposure to these NPs. In contrast, HFF-1 and TK6 cells were more susceptible to toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, as a result of exposure to QDs. Thus, this study demonstrates that in addition to nanomaterial physicochemical characterization, a clear understanding of cell type-dependent variation in uptake coupled to the inherently different capacities of the cell types to cope with exposure to these exogenous materials are all required to predict genotoxicity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  11. Serotonin 2B receptor (5-HT2B R signals through prostacyclin and PPAR-ß/δ in osteoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Chabbi-Achengli

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is due to an imbalance between decreased bone formation by osteoblasts and increased resorption by osteoclasts. Deciphering factors controlling bone formation is therefore of utmost importance for the understanding and the treatment of osteoporosis. Our previous in vivo results showed that bone formation is reduced in the absence of the serotonin receptor 5-HT2B, causing impaired osteoblast proliferation, recruitment, and matrix mineralization. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways responsible for the osteoblast defect in 5-HT2BR(-/- mice. Notably, we investigated the phospholipase A2 pathway and synthesis of eicosanoids in 5-HT2BR(-/- compared to wild type (WT osteoblasts. Compared to control osteoblasts, the lack of 5-HT2B receptors was only associated with a 10-fold over-production of prostacyclin (PGI2. Also, a specific prostacyclin synthase inhibitor (U51605 rescued totally osteoblast aggregation and matrix mineralization in the 5-HT2BR(-/- osteoblasts without having any effect on WT osteoblasts. Prostacyclin is the endogenous ligand of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ß/δ (PPAR-ß/δ, and its inhibition in 5-HT2BR(-/- cells rescued totally the alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin mRNA levels, cell-cell adhesion, and matrix mineralization. We conclude that the absence of 5-HT2B receptors leads to the overproduction of prostacyclin, inducing reduced osteoblast differentiation due to PPAR-ß/δ -dependent target regulation and defective cell-cell adhesion and matrix mineralization. This study thus reveals a previously unrecognized cell autonomous osteoblast defect in the absence of 5-HT2BR and highlights a new pathway linking 5-HT2B receptors and nuclear PPAR- ß/δ via prostacyclin.

  12. MicroRNA-223 Promotes Tumor Progression in Lung Cancer A549 Cells via Activation of the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Li, Fang; Deng, Pengbo; Hu, Chengping

    2016-10-27

    Our study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA-223 (miR-223) in lung cancer A549 cells and to further elucidate its possible regulatory mechanism. The expression levels of normal human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B and human lung cancer cell line A549 were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. The A549 cells were transfected with miR-223 inhibitor and miR-223 scramble. Afterward, the effects of miR-223 inhibition on cell viability, invasion, and apoptosis, as well as the expression levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its downstream proteins, were detected. In addition, the NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 was used to detect the relationship between NF-κB and miR-223. miR-223 was upregulated in human lung cancer A549 cells when compared with BEAS-2B cells. In addition, miR-223 expression was successfully inhibited by the miR-223 inhibitor. Suppression of miR-223 significantly decreased cell viability, inhibited invasion, and induced apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells. Suppression of miR-223 resulted in a significant decrease in the expression levels of NF-κB and its downstream proteins P-IKBα and P-IKKα/β. After treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor, the inhibitory effects of miR-233 inhibitor on cell invasion, as well as the expression levels of NF-κB and p-p65, were enhanced. Our findings indicate that miR-223 may increase proliferation, promote invasion, and inhibit apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells via activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. miR-223 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.

  13. Transforming growth factor-β impairs glucocorticoid activity in the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, S; Harris, T; Mok, J S L; Li, M Y S; Keenan, C R; Schuliga, M J; Stewart, A G

    2012-08-01

    The lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, undergoes epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT) in response to TGF-β. Glucocorticoids do not prevent the EMT response, but TGF-β induced resistance to the cytokine-regulatory action of glucocorticoids. We sought to characterize the impairment of glucocorticoid response in A549 cells. A549 cells were exposed to TGF-β for up to 96 h before glucocorticoid treatment and challenge with IL-1α to assess glucocorticoid regulation of IL-6 and CXCL8 production. Nuclear localization of the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) was ascertained by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Transactivation of the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) was measured with a transfected GRE-secreted human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter. TGF-β (40-400 pM) reduced the maximum inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on IL-1α-induced IL-6 and CXCL8 production. The impaired glucocorticoid response was detected with 4 h of TGF-β (40 pM) exposure (and 4 h IL-1α to induce CXCL8 expression) and therefore was not secondary to EMT, a process that requires longer incubation periods and higher concentrations of TGF-β. TGF-β also impaired dexamethasone regulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in thrombin-stimulated BEAS-2B epithelial cells. Impaired regulation of CXCL8 was associated with markedly reduced GRE transactivation and reduced induction of mRNA for IκBα, the glucocorticoid-inducible leucine zipper and the epithelial sodium channel (SCNN1A). The expression, cellular levels and nuclear localization of GRα were reduced by TGF-β. We have identified mechanisms underlying the impairment of responses to glucocorticoids by TGF-β in the A549 and BEAS-2B cell lines. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Agonist-directed trafficking of signalling at serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C-VSV receptors mediated Gq/11 activation and calcium mobilisation in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussac, Didier; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Ailhaud, Marie-Christine; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Martel, Jean-Claude; Danty, Nathalie; Rauly-Lestienne, Isabelle

    2008-10-10

    Several examples of agonist-directed trafficking of receptor signalling at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors have been reported that involve independent downstream transduction pathways. We now report the functional selectivity of a series of chemically diverse agonists at human (h)5-HT2A, h5-HT2B and h5-HT2C-VSV by examining two related responses, the upstream activation of Gq/11 proteins in comparison with its associated cascade of calcium mobilisation. At the h5-HT2A receptor, d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and the antiparkinsonian agents lisuride, bromocriptine and pergolide exhibit a higher potency for Gq/11 activation than calcium release in contrast with all the other tested ligands such as 5-HT, mCPP and BW723C86, that show an opposite preference of signalling pathway. Comparable observations are made at h5-HT2B and h5-HT2C-VSV receptors, suggesting a similar mechanism of functional selectivity for the three serotonin receptors. Interestingly, the non-hallucinogenic compound lisuride behaves as a partial agonist for both Gq/11 activation and calcium release at the three 5-HT2 receptors, in contrast with DOI, LSD, pergolide and bromocriptine, which are known to provoke hallucinations, and behave as more efficacious agonists. Hence, a functional selectivity for Gq/11 activation together with a threshold of efficacy at h5-HT2A (and possibly h5-HT2B and/or h5-HT2C-VSV) may contribute to hallucinogenic liability. Thus, our results extend the notion of agonist-directed trafficking of receptor signalling to all the 5-HT2-receptor family and indicate that measures of Gq/11 activation versus calcium release may be useful to identify more effective therapeutic drugs with limited side effects.

  15. La Tutela de los derechos conexos a la libertad personal a través del proceso de Hábeas corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Huamán, José Alberto

    2011-01-01

    La presente investigación desarrolla el proceso de Hábeas Corpus, proceso dirigido a tutelar la libertad personal y los derechos conexos a ella, concepción que se regula en el artículo 200.1 de la Constitución Política del Perú y en el artículo 26 del Código Procesal Constitucional. El origen y la evolución del hábeas corpus está en el interdicto de homine libero exhibendo, en la Carta Magna de 1215, la Ley de Hábeas Corpus de 1679 y el Hábeas corpus amendment act de 1816. En el Perú,...

  16. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases unmasks vasoconstriction and potentiates calcium signalling in rat aorta smooth muscle cells in response to an agonist of 5-HT2B receptors BW723C86

    OpenAIRE

    Mironova, G. Y.; Avdonin, P. P.; Goncharov, Nikolay V.; Jenkins, R. O.; Avdonin, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. In blood vessels, serotonin 5-HT2B receptors mainly mediate relaxation, although their activation by the selective agonist BW723C86 is known to exert contraction of aorta in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME) hypertensive rats [Russel et al., 2002; Banes et al., 2003] and in mice with type 2 diabetes ...

  17. DNA Damage in CD133-Positive Cells in Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynoo Thanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrett’s esophagus (BE caused by gastroesophageal reflux is a major risk factor of Barrett’s esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEA, an inflammation-related cancer. Chronic inflammation and following tissue damage may activate progenitor cells under reactive oxygen/nitrogen species-rich environment. We previously reported the formation of oxidative/nitrative stress-mediated mutagenic DNA lesions, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG and 8-nitroguanine, in columnar epithelial cells of BE tissues and cancer cells of BEA tissues. We investigated the mechanisms of BEA development in relation to oxidative/nitrative DNA damage and stem cell hypothesis. We examined 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG formation and the expression of stem cell marker (CD133 in biopsy specimens of patients with BE and BEA by immunohistochemical analysis in comparison with those of normal subjects. CD133 was detected at apical surface of columnar epithelial cells of BE and BEA tissues, and the cytoplasm and cell membrane of cancer cells in BEA tissues. DNA lesions and CD133 were colocalized in columnar epithelial cells and cancer cells. Their relative staining intensities in these tissues were significantly higher than those in normal subjects. Our results suggest that BE columnar epithelial cells with CD133 expression in apical surface undergo inflammation-mediated DNA damage, and mutated cells acquire the property of cancer stem cells with cytoplasmic CD133 expression.

  18. WTS-2 b: Too close for comfort?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of WTS-2 b, a typical hot Jupiter in an unusually close 1.02-day orbit to a K-dwarf star. This is the second planet to be discovered in the infrared light curves of the WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS and is only one-and-a-half times the separation from its host star at which is would be destroyed by Roche lobe overflow. The predicted remaining lifetime of the planet is just 38 Myrs, assuming a tidal dissipation quality factor of Q'* = 106. The magnitude of Q'* is largely unconstrained by observations, thus WTS-2 b provides a useful calibration point for theories describing how frictional processes within a host star affect the tidal orbital evolution of its companion giant planets. It is expected that stars with large convective envelopes are more efficient at dissipating the orbital energy of the planet, and WTS-2 b provides an observational constraint in the sparsely populated K-dwarf regime. In addition, despite its relatively faint magnitude, the favourable size ratio of the WTS-2 star-planet system and the predicted hot equilibrium temperature of the planet will make it possible to characterise the planet's atmosphere via secondary eclipse measurements using existing ground-based instrumentation.

  19. Exchange of Co(II) Ions in H-BEA Zeolites. Identification of Aluminium Pairs in the Zeolite Framework

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bortnovsky, Oleg; Sobalík, Zdeněk; Wichterlová, Blanka

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2001), s. 265-275 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4040015; GA MŠk OC D15.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : BEA zeolites * cobalt ion exchange * zeolite framework aluminium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.497, year: 2001

  20. F-22 Increment 3.2B Modernization (F-22 Inc 3.2B Mod)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    predecessor F - 22 software programs. Notes Delivery Order (DO) 0004 was issued under the overarching F - 22 Raptor , Enhancement, Development, and...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-474 F - 22 Increment 3.2B Modernization ( F - 22 Inc 3.2B Mod) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 16:11:54 UNCLASSIFIED F - 22 Inc 3.2B Mod December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016

  1. The biological effects of long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to total particulate matter from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Toorn, Marco; Sewer, Alain; Marescotti, Diego; Johne, Stephanie; Baumer, Karin; Bornand, David; Dulize, Remi; Merg, Celine; Corciulo, Maica; Scotti, Elena; Pak, Claudius; Leroy, Patrice; Guedj, Emmanuel; Ivanov, Nikolai; Martin, Florian; Peitsch, Manuel; Hoeng, Julia; Luettich, Karsta

    2018-03-07

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable lung cancer (LC). Reduction of harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco may have the potential to reduce the risk of LC. We evaluated functional and molecular changes in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells following a 12-week exposure to total particulate matter (TPM) from the aerosol of a candidate modified-risk tobacco product (cMRTP) in comparison with those following exposure to TPM from the 3R4F reference cigarette. Endpoints linked to lung carcinogenesis were assessed. Four-week 3R4F TPM exposure resulted in crisis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied by decreased barrier function and disrupted cell-to-cell contacts. By week eight, cells regained E-cadherin expression, suggesting that EMT was reversible. Increased levels of inflammatory mediators were noted in cells treated to 3R4F TPM but not in cells treated to the same or a five-fold higher concentration of cMRTP TPM. A 20-fold higher concentration of cMRTP TPM increased oxidative stress and DNA damage and caused reversible EMT. Anchorage-independent growth was observed in cells treated to 3R4F or a high concentration of cMRTP TPM. 3R4F TPM-derived clones were invasive, while cMRTP TPM-derived clones were not. Long-term exposure to TPM from the cMRTP had a lower biological impact on BEAS-2B cells compared with that of exposure to TPM from 3R4F. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Transformer 2β homolog (Drosophila) (TRA2B) Regulates Protein Kinase C δI (PKCδI) Splice Variant Expression during 3T3L1 Preadipocyte Cell Cycle*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rekha S.; Carter, Gay; Cooper, Denise R.; Apostolatos, Hercules; Patel, Niketa A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We previously showed that PKCδ expression is dysregulated in obesity (Carter, G., Apostolatos, A., Patel, R., Mathur, A., Cooper, D., Murr, M., and Patel, N. A. (2013) ISRN Obes. 2013, 161345). Using 3T3L1 preadipocytes, we studied adipogenesis in vitro and showed that expression of PKCδ splice variants, PKCδI and PKCδII, have different expression patterns during adipogenesis (Patel, R., Apostolatos, A., Carter, G., Ajmo, J., Gali, M., Cooper, D. R., You, M., Bisht, K. S., and Patel, N. A. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 26834–26846). Here, we evaluated the role of PKCδI splice variant during adipogenesis. Our results indicate that PKCδI expression level is high in preadipocytes and decreasing PKCδI accelerated terminal differentiation. Our results indicate that PKCδI is required for mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes. We next evaluated the splice factor regulating the expression of PKCδI during 3T3L1 adipogenesis. Our results show TRA2B increased PKCδI expression. To investigate the molecular mechanism, we cloned a heterologous splicing PKCδ minigene and showed that inclusion of PKCδ exon 9 is increased by TRA2B. Using mutagenesis and a RNA-immunoprecipitation assay, we evaluated the binding of Tra2β on PKCδI exon 9 and show that its association is required for PKCδI splicing. These results provide a better understanding of the role of PKCδI in adipogenesis. Determination of this molecular mechanism of alternative splicing presents a novel therapeutic target in the management of obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25261467

  3. Wood dusts induce the production of reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 activity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkkänen, Lea; Stockmann-Juvala, Helene; Alenius, Harri; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai

    2009-08-21

    Wood dusts are associated with several respiratory symptoms, e.g. impaired lung function and asthma, in exposed workers. However, despite the evidence from epidemiological studies, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated different wood dusts for their capacity to induce cytotoxicity and production of radical oxygen species (ROS) as well as activation of the apoptotic caspase-3 enzyme in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Dusts from three different tree species widely used in wood industry were studied; birch and oak represented hardwood species, and pine a common softwood species. All the experiments were carried out in three different concentrations (10, 50, and 500 microg/ml) and the analysis was performed after 0.5, 2, 6, and 24h exposure. All wood dusts studied were cytotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner after 2 and 6h treatment. Exposure to pine, birch, or oak dust had a significant stimulating effect on the production of ROS. Also an induction in caspase-3 protease activity, one of the central components of the apoptotic cascade, was seen in BEAS-2B cells after 2 and 6h exposure to each of the wood dusts studied. In summary, we demonstrate that dusts from pine, birch and oak are cytotoxic, able to increase the production of ROS and the apoptotic response in human broncho-epithelial cells in vitro. Thus, our current data suggest oxidative stress by ROS as an important mechanism likely to function in wood dust related pulmonary toxicity although details of the cellular targets and cell-particle interactions remain to be solved. It is though tempting to speculate that redox-regulated transcription factors such as NFkappaB or AP-1 may play a role in this wood dust-evoked process leading to apparently induced apoptosis of target cells.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of 12-phosphotungstic acid supported on BEA zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jović, A.; Bajuk-Bogdanović, D.; Nedić Vasiljević, B. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Milojević-Rakić, M., E-mail: maja@ffh.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Krajišnik, D. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Cosmetology, University of Belgrade-Faculty of Pharmacy, Vojvode Stepe 450, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Dondur, V. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Popa, A. [Institute of Chemistry Timisoara, Bl. Mihai Viteazul 24, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Uskoković-Marković, S. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Belgrade-Faculty of Pharmacy, Vojvode Stepe 450, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Holclajtner-Antunović, I. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-01-15

    An optimized synthetic route for obtaining heteropoly acid (HPA) species supported on BEA zeolite was applied, and different samples, comprising 20 to 50 wt% of 12-phosphotungstic acid (HPW) were prepared. The as-synthesized supported HPW were subjected to different post-synthesis routes, which involved calcination and ultrasound treatment. Characterization of these materials was performed by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, zeta potential measurements, Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction analysis. Results suggest strong interaction of HPW with the support and revealed that ultrasound treatment resulted in better dispersion of active phase and thus homogeneous morphology of the samples. The zeta potential was found to be dependent on the preparation procedure and HPW content in these materials, while higher HPW loadings induced its agglomeration. Catalytic activity of the synthesized materials was investigated in an ethanol dehydration reaction, where lower HPW loadings induced higher ethanol conversion. Acid sites distribution and accessibility for ethanol molecules were found to be more essential for catalytic activity than HPW loadings, i.e., amount of active sites present in these hybrid materials. - Highlights: • An optimized route for supporting heteropoly acid on beta zeolite is applied. • Ultrasound treatment of the composites gives dispersed morphology. • Lower heteropoly acid amount induces higher conversion in ethanol dehydration. • Acid sites distribution and accessibility for ethanol are essential for catalytic activity.

  5. beas Corpus: contribuciones a la causa del estado de derecho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Bouyssou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La garantía del hábeas corpus despliega, con total humildad, razones para la permanente expansión de la libertad o bien para su contínuo resguardo. Su bajo perfil, sin embargo, es confundido con indiferencia en orden a su compromiso con la causa de la ciencia del derecho; ello se explica, por un lado, debido a la generalizada creencia que su reconocimiento expreso como derecho positivo -en los más altos niveles normativos-, es anticuerpo suficiente para puestas en peligro o atentados directos contra la autonomía personal a manos del Estado y, por el otro, lógicamente anclado en el predio precedente, en una suerte de desubicación contemporánea frente a un punto de partida de contención teorético (y en desuso del abuso del poder político, al que no obstante se le exigen soluciones con mayor intervención fáctica (y menos frenos en las relaciones sociales, aunque necesariamente adecuadas al orden anterior. Corresponde exponer la disconformidad con los pies en claves propias a la ciencia jurídica, sin hacer a un lado lo pragmático, método dual que se aplicará sobre la excursión que sigue, a la que se invita.

  6. Batelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) 2014 Annual report for Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Juan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Allen, Todd [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 annual report provides the Department of Energy (DOE) with BEA’s self-assessment of performance managing and operating the INL for the period ending September 30, 2014. After considering all of the information related to INL performance during the rating period against the Goals, Objectives and Notable Outcomes in the FY 2014 Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan (PEMP), BEA believes it earned an overall grade closest to an A. The paragraphs below highlight how INL excelled in delivering innovative and impactful research across the three mission areas; how INL has successfully positioned itself for future growth and sustainment; and how, through strong leadership, INL has set and implemented a strategic direction to ensure we meet and exceed the expectations of DOE and other customers. Attachments 1 through 5 provide additional detail on FY 2014 mission accomplishments, outline corporate contributions for success, highlight national and international awards and recognitions at the organization and individual levels, and describe the performance issues and challenges faced in FY 2014. • Attachment 1, “Self-Assessed PEMP Ratings” • Attachment 2, “INL Mission Accomplishments” • Attachment 3, “Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC Contributions to INL Success” • Attachment 4, “FY 2014 Awards, Recognition, Professional Roles and Certifications” • Attachment 5, “Performance Issues and Challenges.”

  7. What Happened with Spectrometer Magnet 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A

    2010-05-27

    The spectrometer solenoid is supposed to be the first magnets installed in MICE [1]-[4]. This report described what happened during the test of the MICE spectrometer solenoid 2B. First, the report describes the temperatures in the magnet, the cooler top plate and the shield during the run where the magnet quenched at 258 A. During this quench, a lead between the bottom of the HTS leads and the diode bank burned out causing the magnet to quench. Second, three methods for measuring the net heat flow into the cold mass are described. Third, there is a discussion of possible resistive heating in the HTS leads between liquid helium temperature and the copper plate, which is at about 50 K. Fourth, there is a discussion of the measured first stage heat loads in the magnet, when there is no current in the magnet. The first stage heat load calculations are based on knowing the first stage temperatures of the three two-stage pulse tube coolers and the single stage GM cooler. Fifth, the estimated heat load to the first stage when the magnet has current in it is discussed. Sixth, there is a comparison of the stage 1 heat loads in magnet 1A [5], magnet 2A [6], and magnet 2B [7]. Finally there is a discussion of recommended changes for improving the spectrometer solenoids so that the coolers can keep them cold.

  8. Administration of JTE013 abrogates experimental asthma by regulating proinflammatory cytokine production from bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashita, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Nagano, Tatsuya; Kawa, Yoshitaka; Tamura, Daisuke; Nakata, Kyosuke; Yamamoto, Masatsugu; Tachihara, Motoko; Kamiryo, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-09

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive phospholipid that acts as a signal transducer by binding to S1P receptors (S1PR) 1 to 5. The S1P/S1PRs pathway has been associated with remodeling and allergic inflammation in asthma, but the expression pattern of S1PR and its effects on non-immune cells have not been completely clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of the signaling of S1P and S1PRs expressed in airway epithelial cells (ECs) to asthma responses in mice. Bronchial asthma was experimentally induced in BALB/c mice by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization followed by an OVA inhalation challenge. The effects of S1PR antagonists on the development of asthma were analyzed 24 h after the OVA challenge. Immunohistological analysis revealed S1PR1-3 expression on mouse airway ECs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that S1P greatly stimulated the induction of CCL3 and TIMP2 mRNA in human airway ECs, i.e., BEAS-2B cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the S1PR2 antagonist JTE013 inhibited the CCL3 gene expression in BEAS-2B cells. Immunohistological analysis also showed that the expression level of CCL3 was attenuated by JTE013 in asthmatic mice. Furthermore, JTE013 as well as anti-CCL3 antibody attenuated allergic responses. Intratracheal administration of JTE013 also attenuated eosinophilic reactions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. S1P induced transcription factor NFκB activation, while JTE013 greatly reduced the NFκB activation. JTE013 attenuated allergic airway reactions by regulating CCL3 production from bronchial ECs. The intratracheal administration of JTE013 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for bronchial asthma.

  9. TGF-β1 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in human bronchial epithelial cells is enhanced by IL-1β but not abrogated by corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraw Bruce L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic persistent asthma is characterized by ongoing airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The processes leading to airway remodeling are poorly understood, and there is increasing evidence that even aggressive anti-inflammatory therapy does not completely prevent this process. We sought to investigate whether TGFβ1 stimulates bronchial epithelial cells to undergo transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, and whether this transition can be abrogated by corticosteroid treatment or enhanced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Methods BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with TGFβ1 and expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and zymography. In some cases the epithelial cells were also incubated with corticosteroids or IL-1β. Results were analyzed using non-parametric statistical tests. Results Treatment of BEAS-2B or primary human bronchial epithelial cells with TGFβ1 significantly reduced the expression level of the epithelial adherence junction protein E-cadherin. TGFβ1 then markedly induced mesenchymal marker proteins such as collagen I, tenascin C, fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin mRNA in a dose dependant manner. The process of mesenchymal transition was accompanied by a morphological change towards a more spindle shaped fibroblast cell type with a more motile and invasive phenotype. Corticosteroid pre-treatment did not significantly alter the TGFβ1 induced transition but IL-1β enhanced the transition. Conclusion Our results indicate, that TGFβ1 can induce mesenchymal transition in the bronchial epithelial cell line and primary cells. Since asthma has been strongly associated with increased expression of TGFβ1 in the airway, epithelial to mesenchymal transition may contribute to the contractile and fibrotic remodeling process that accompanies chronic asthma.

  10. ONLINE ACQUISITIONS IN B2B MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the present paper, we propose to review some of the main aspects documented by the academic research so far with regard to the online purchasing behaviour in the B2B online environment (more specifically, in the case of the small and medium-sized companies. Preliminary conclusions reveal that, at least in the case studies, the dominant feature is that the geographic delimitation creates a potential obstacle when it comes to applying a general principle governing the small and medium-sized enterprises. Despite this, we consider that some theoretical elements can be acknowledged, elements from which future research can start to develop theories and hypothesis aimed at better explaining the phenomenon. Furthermore, the fact that the studies are rarely involving the same sector, makes it impossible to generalise the process.

  11. Field production and functional evaluation of chloroplast-derived interferon-alpha2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Philip A; Falconer, Regina; Cherukumilli, Sri; Cole, Amy; Cole, Alexander M; Oishi, Karen K; Daniell, Henry

    2007-07-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) inhibit viral replication and cell growth and enhance the immune response, and therefore have many clinical applications. IFN-alpha2b ranks third in world market use for a biopharmaceutical, behind only insulin and erythropoietin. The average annual cost of IFN-alpha2b for the treatment of hepatitis C infection is $26,000, and is therefore unavailable to the majority of patients in developing countries. Therefore, we expressed IFN-alpha2b in tobacco chloroplasts, and transgenic lines were grown in the field after obtaining United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) approval. Stable, site-specific integration of transgenes into chloroplast genomes and homoplasmy through several generations were confirmed. IFN-alpha2b levels reached up to 20% of total soluble protein, or 3 mg per gram of leaf (fresh weight). Transgenic IFN-alpha2b had similar in vitro biological activity to commercially produced PEG-Introntrade mark when tested for its ability to protect cells against cytopathic viral replication in the vesicular stomatitis virus cytopathic effect (VSV CPE) assay and to inhibit early-stage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The antitumour and immunomodulating properties of IFN-alpha2b were also seen in vivo. Chloroplast-derived IFN-alpha2b increased the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) on splenocytes and the total number of natural killer (NK) cells. Finally, IFN-alpha2b purified from chloroplast transgenic lines (cpIFN-alpha2b) protected mice from a highly metastatic tumour line. This demonstration of high levels of expression of IFN-alpha2b, transgene containment and biological activity akin to that of commercial preparations of IFN-alpha2b facilitated the first field production of a plant-derived human blood protein, a critical step towards human clinical trials and commercialization.

  12. Field production and functional evaluation of chloroplast-derived interferon-α2b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Philip A.; Falconer, Regina; Cherukumilli, Sri; Cole, Amy; Cole, Alexander M.; Oishi, Karen K.; Daniell, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Summary Type I interferons (IFNs) inhibit viral replication and cell growth and enhance the immune response, and therefore have many clinical applications. IFN-α2b ranks third in world market use for a biopharmaceutical, behind only insulin and erythropoietin. The average annual cost of IFN-α2b for the treatment of hepatitis C infection is $26 000, and is therefore unavailable to the majority of patients in developing countries. Therefore, we expressed IFN-α2b in tobacco chloroplasts, and transgenic lines were grown in the field after obtaining United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) approval. Stable, site-specific integration of transgenes into chloroplast genomes and homoplasmy through several generations were confirmed. IFN-α2b levels reached up to 20% of total soluble protein, or 3 mg per gram of leaf (fresh weight). Transgenic IFN-α2b had similar in vitro biological activity to commercially produced PEG-Intron™ when tested for its ability to protect cells against cytopathic viral replication in the vesicular stomatitis virus cytopathic effect (VSV CPE) assay and to inhibit early-stage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The antitumour and immunomodulating properties of IFN-α2b were also seen in vivo . Chloroplast-derived IFN-α2b increased the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) on splenocytes and the total number of natural killer (NK) cells. Finally, IFN-α2b purified from chloroplast transgenic lines (cpIFN-α2b) protected mice from a highly metastatic tumour line. This demonstration of high levels of expression of IFN-α2b, transgene containment and biological activity akin to that of commercial preparations of IFN-α2b facilitated the first field production of a plant-derived human blood protein, a critical step towards human clinical trials and commercialization. PMID:17490449

  13. Beauvericin and enniatin B effects on a human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyes, L; Escrivá, L; Ruiz, M J; Juan-García, A

    2018-03-09

    Several mycotoxins exert their effect on the immunological system; some are classified as immunotoxic. Jurkat T-cells were used to study toxic effects of beauvericin (BEA) and enniatin B (ENN B). Both are not legislated mycotoxins with increasing presence in feed and food. Concentrations studied were from 1 to 15 μM at 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell death by increasing the percentage of apoptotic/necrotic cells was: BEA > ENN B. IC50 values ranged from 3 to 7.5 μM for BEA. ENN B 15 μM decreased viability (21-29%). The percentage of apoptotic/necrotic cells was BEA > ENN B at 24 h but not at 48 h. Caspase-3&7 activation profile varied, although both mycotoxins increased this activation. No difference in ROS production for any mycotoxin was observed. Arrest in S phase for both mycotoxins was obtained. BEA increased the percentage of DNA in the tail (18% and 20%) with respect to the control, whereas not for ENN B. In summary, cytotoxicity of BEA involved mitochondrial alterations; while ENN B only at highest concentrations and time assayed. BEA had cell cycle disturbances and apoptotic and apoptotic/necrotic cells increased; for ENN B these were not evident. Different toxic responses in Jurkat T-cells may be involved in BEA and ENN B toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) mediates noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Fakhera; Ackermann, Sandra; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Roels, Frederik; Engesser, Anne; Hertwig, Falk; Kocak, Hayriye; Hero, Barbara; Dreidax, Daniel; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Berthold, Frank; Nürnberg, Peter; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal pediatric tumor that originates from the developing sympathetic nervous system and shows a broad range of clinical behavior, ranging from fatal progression to differentiation into benign ganglioneuroma. In experimental neuroblastoma systems, retinoic acid (RA) effectively induces neuronal differentiation, and RA treatment has been therefore integrated in current therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation are still poorly understood. We here investigated the role of transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B), a key factor in sympathetic nervous system development, in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and differentiation. Microarray analyses of primary neuroblastomas (n = 649) demonstrated that low TFAP2B expression was significantly associated with unfavorable prognostic markers as well as adverse patient outcome. We also found that low TFAP2B expression was strongly associated with CpG methylation of the TFAP2B locus in primary neuroblastomas (n = 105) and demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in induction of TFAP2B expression in vitro, suggesting that TFAP2B is silenced by genomic methylation. Tetracycline inducible re-expression of TFAP2B in IMR-32 and SH-EP neuroblastoma cells significantly impaired proliferation and cell cycle progression. In IMR-32 cells, TFAP2B induced neuronal differentiation, which was accompanied by up-regulation of the catecholamine biosynthesizing enzyme genes DBH and TH, and down-regulation of MYCN and REST, a master repressor of neuronal genes. By contrast, knockdown of TFAP2B by lentiviral transduction of shRNAs abrogated RA-induced neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)c neuroblastoma cells almost completely. Taken together, our results suggest that TFAP2B is playing a vital role in retaining RA responsiveness and mediating noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies

  15. Identification of Phox2b-regulated genes by expression profiling of cranial motoneuron precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiprich Simone

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Branchiomotor neurons comprise an important class of cranial motor neurons that innervate the branchial-arch-derived muscles of the face, jaw and neck. They arise in the ventralmost progenitor domain of the rhombencephalon characterized by expression of the homeodomain transcription factors Nkx2.2 and Phox2b. Phox2b in particular plays a key role in the specification of branchiomotor neurons. In its absence, generic neuronal differentiation is defective in the progenitor domain and no branchiomotor neurons are produced. Conversely, ectopic expression of Phox2b in spinal regions of the neural tube promotes cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation and, at the same time, induces genes and an axonal phenotype characteristic for branchiomotor neurons. How Phox2b exerts its pleiotropic functions, both as a proneural gene and a neuronal subtype determinant, has remained unknown. Results To gain further insights into the genetic program downstream of Phox2b, we searched for novel Phox2b-regulated genes by cDNA microarray analysis of facial branchiomotor neuron precursors from heterozygous and homozygous Phox2b mutant embryos. We selected for functional studies the genes encoding the axonal growth promoter Gap43, the Wnt antagonist Sfrp1 and the transcriptional regulator Sox13, which were not previously suspected to play roles downstream of Phox2b and whose expression was affected by Phox2b misexpression in the spinal cord. While Gap43 did not produce an obvious phenotype when overexpressed in the neural tube, Sfrp1 induced the interneuron marker Lhx1,5 and Sox13 inhibited neuronal differentiation. We then tested whether Sfrp1 and Sox13, which are down-regulated by Phox2b in the facial neuron precursors, would antagonize some aspects of Phox2b activity. Co-expression of Sfrp1 prevented Phox2b from repressing Lhx1,5 and alleviated the commissural axonal phenotype. When expressed together with Sox13, Phox2b was still able to promote

  16. Alpha2B-adrenoceptors couple to Ca2+ increase in both endogenous and recombinant expression systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, C. I.; Kukkonen, J. P.; Bischoff, A.; Näsman, J.; Courtney, M. J.; Michel, M. C.; Akerman, K. E.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of cloned human alpha2B-adrenoceptors heterologously expressed in Sf9 cells and endogenous alpha2B-adrenoceptors in NG 108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma cells to couple to increase of intracellular Ca2+ was studied. Ca2+ increases in NG 108-15 cells were detectable but slight, whereas those

  17. Mesoporous MEL, BEA, and FAU zeolite crystals obtained by in situ formation of carbon template over metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Ali, Zahra Nasrudin; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of hierarchical zeolite materials with MEL, BEA and FAU structures. The synthesis is based on the carbon templating method with an in situ-generated carbon template. Through the decomposition of methane and deposition of coke over nickel...... nanoparticles supported on silica, a carbon–silica composite is obtained and exploited as a combined carbon template/silica source for the zeolite synthesis. The mesoporous zeolite materials were all prepared by hydrothermal crystallization in alkaline media followed by removal of the carbon template...

  18. Viroporin Activity of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Non-Structural 2B Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Ao

    Full Text Available Viroporins are a family of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic transmembrane proteins that are encoded by various animal viruses. Viroporins form transmembrane pores in host cells via oligomerization, thereby destroying cellular homeostasis and inducing cytopathy for virus replication and virion release. Among the Picornaviridae family of viruses, the 2B protein encoded by enteroviruses is well understood, whereas the viroporin activity of the 2B protein encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV has not yet been described. An analysis of the FMDV 2B protein domains by computer-aided programs conducted in this study revealed that this protein may contain two transmembrane regions. Further biochemical, biophysical and functional studies revealed that the protein possesses a number of features typical of a viroporin when it is overexpressed in bacterial and mammalian cells as well as in FMDV-infected cells. The protein was found to be mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, with both the N- and C-terminal domains stretched into the cytosol. It exhibited cytotoxicity in Escherichia coli, which attenuated 2B protein expression. The release of virions from cells infected with FMDV was inhibited by amantadine, a viroporin inhibitor. The 2B protein monomers interacted with each other to form both intracellular and extracellular oligomers. The Ca(2+ concentration in the cells increased, and the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane was disrupted in cells that expressed the 2B protein. Moreover, the 2B protein induced intense autophagy in host cells. All of the results of this study demonstrate that the FMDV 2B protein has properties that are also found in other viroporins and may be involved in the infection mechanism of FMDV.

  19. MULTIREGION: a simulation-forecasting model of BEA economic area population and employment. [Bureau of Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, R.J.; Westley, G.W.; Herzog, H.W. Jr.; Kerley, C.R.; Bjornstad, D.J.; Vogt, D.P.; Bray, L.G.; Grady, S.T.; Nakosteen, R.A.

    1977-10-01

    This report documents the development of MULTIREGION, a computer model of regional and interregional socio-economic development. The MULTIREGION model interprets the economy of each BEA economic area as a labor market, measures all activity in terms of people as members of the population (labor supply) or as employees (labor demand), and simultaneously simulates or forecasts the demands and supplies of labor in all BEA economic areas at five-year intervals. In general the outputs of MULTIREGION are intended to resemble those of the Water Resource Council's OBERS projections and to be put to similar planning and analysis purposes. This report has been written at two levels to serve the needs of multiple audiences. The body of the report serves as a fairly nontechnical overview of the entire MULTIREGION project; a series of technical appendixes provide detailed descriptions of the background empirical studies of births, deaths, migration, labor force participation, natural resource employment, manufacturing employment location, and local service employment used to construct the model.

  20. A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Water and Methanol in Zeolite BEA: A Molecular Simulation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Van T.; Nguyen, Phuong T.; Dang, Liem X.; Mei, Donghai; Wick, Collin D.; Do, Duong D.

    2014-09-15

    Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were carried out to study the equilibrium adsorption concentration of methanol and water in all-silica zeolite BEA over the wide temperature and pressure ranges. For both water and methanol, their adsorptive capacity increases with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature. The onset of methanol adsorption occurs at much lower pressures than water adsorption at all temperatures. Our GCMC simulation results also indicate that the adsorption isotherms of methanol exhibit a gradual change with pressure while water adsorption shows a sharp first-order phase transition at low temperatures. To explore the effects of Si/Al ratio on adsorption, a series of GCMC simulations of water and methanol adsorption in zeolites HBEA with Si/Al=7, 15, 31, 63 were performed. As the Si/Al ratio decreases, the onsets of both water and methanol adsorption dramatically shift to lower pressures. The type V isotherm obtained for water adsorption in hydrophobic BEA progressively changes to type I isotherm with decreasing Si/Al ratio in hydrophilic HBEA. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  1. Introducción al análisis del derecho fundamental del hábeas data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Gordillo-Triana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo hace una aproximación al desarrollo del hábeas  data en la jurisprudencia constitucional colombiana. Se refiere a la con­ sideración de esta garantía como derecho fundamental, según los criterios esbozados por la propia jurisprudencia constitucional. Igual­ mente, trata de su delimitación con otros derechos fundamentales y los mecanismos jurídicos de protección: Se ocupa también de  la eventualidad de la suspensión de esta garantía, y de sus límites en el evento de la declaración de los estados de excepción contempla­ dos en la Carta Política. Finalmente, se ocupa de los posibles conflictos   del   hábeas   data   con   otros   derechos constitucionales fundamentales.

  2. PODAAC-QSX12-L2B00

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset has been superseded by Version 3: http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/dataset/QSCAT_LEVEL_2B_OWV_COMP_12 . This QuikSCAT Level 2B dataset contains...

  3. Cloning and expression of a rat brain. alpha. sub 2B -adrenergic receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flordellis, C.S.; Handy, D.E.; Bresnahan, M.R.; Zannis, V.I.; Gavras, H. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone (RB{alpha}{sub 2B}) and its homologous gene (GR{alpha}{sub 2B}) encoding an {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype by screening a rat brain cDNA and a rat genomic library. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that both clones code for a protein of 458 amino acids, which is 87% homologous to the human kidney glycosylated adrenergic receptor ({alpha}{sub 2}-C4) and divergent from the rat kidney nonglycosylated {alpha}{sub 2B} subtype (RNG{alpha}{sub 2}). Transient expression of RB{alpha}{sub 2B} in COS-7 cells resulted in high-affinity saturable binding for ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine and a high receptor number in the membranes of transfected COS-7 cells. Pharmacological analysis demonstrated that the expressed receptor bound adrenergic ligands with the following order of potency: rauwolscine {gt} yohimbine {gt} prazosin {gt} oxymetazoline, with a prazosin-to-oxymetazoline K{sub i} ratio of 0.34. This profile is characteristic of the {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype. Blotting analysis of rat brain mRNA gave one major and two minor mRNA species, and hybridization with strand-specific probes showed that both DNA strands of GR{alpha}{sub 2B} may be transcriptionally active. These findings show that rat brain expresses an {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype that is structurally different from the rat kidney nonglycosylated {alpha}{sub 2B} subtype. Thus the rat expresses at least two divergent {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptors.

  4. PKC activation induces inflammatory response and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Kim

    Full Text Available A variety of airborne pathogens can induce inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells, which is a crucial component of host defence. However, excessive inflammatory responses and chronic inflammation also contribute to different diseases of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC is one of the essential mechanisms of inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. In the present study, we stimulated human bronchial lung epithelial (BEAS-2B cells with the phorbol ester Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, and examined gene expression profile using microarrays. Microarray analysis suggests that PKC activation induced dramatic changes in gene expression related to multiple cellular functions. The top two interaction networks generated from these changes were centered on NFκB and TNF-α, which are two commonly known pathways for cell death and inflammation. Subsequent tests confirmed the decrease in cell viability and an increase in the production of various cytokines. Interestingly, each of the increased cytokines was differentially regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels by different sub-classes of PKC isozymes. We conclude that pathological cell death and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells in various situations may be mediated through PKC related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that PKCs can be new targets for treatment of lung diseases.

  5. AMP and adenosine are both ligands for adenosine 2B receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holien, Jessica K; Seibt, Benjamin; Roberts, Veena; Salvaris, Evelyn; Parker, Michael W; Cowan, Peter J; Dwyer, Karen M

    2018-01-15

    Adenosine is considered the canonical ligand for the adenosine 2B receptor (A 2B R). A 2B R is upregulated following kidney ischemia augmenting post ischemic blood flow and limiting tubular injury. In this context the beneficial effect of A 2B R signaling has been attributed to an increase in the pericellular concentration of adenosine. However, following renal ischemia both kidney adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine levels are substantially increased. Using computational modeling and calcium mobilization assays, we investigated whether AMP could also be a ligand for A 2B R. The computational modeling suggested that AMP interacts with more favorable energy to A 2B R compared with adenosine. Furthermore, AMPαS, a non-hydrolyzable form of AMP, increased calcium uptake by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human A 2B R, indicating preferential signaling via the G q pathway. Therefore, a putative AMP-A 2B R interaction is supported by the computational modeling data and the biological results suggest this interaction involves preferential G q activation. These data provide further insights into the role of purinergic signaling in the pathophysiology of renal IRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 7 CFR 301.80-2b - Exempted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted articles. 1 301.80-2b Section 301.80-2b....80-2b Exempted articles. 1 1 The articles hereby exempted remain subject to applicable restrictions under other quarantines. (a) The following articles are exempt from the certification and permit and...

  7. 7 CFR 301.85-2b - Exempted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted articles. 1 301.85-2b Section 301.85-2b... § 301.85-2b Exempted articles. 1 1 The articles hereby exempted remain subject to applicable restrictions under other quarantines and other provisions of this subpart. (a) The following articles are...

  8. TRUST IN B2B E-MARKETPLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIAN KOT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents background of B2B exchanges and review of their forms and functionalities. The benefits and fails reasons are noticed. European enterprises interest in B2B trade is next aspect of consideration. Finally, the trust barriers of B2B exchanges are presented.

  9. Component Based System Framework for Dynamic B2B Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu jinmin, Jinmin; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    Business-to-Business (B2B) collaboration is becoming a pivotal way to bring today's enterprises to success in the dynamically changing e-business environment. Though many business-to-business protocols are developed to support B2B interaction, none are generally accepted. A B2B system should support

  10. Mechanochemical synthesis and characterization of pure Co2B ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Co2B nanoparticles have been com- monly employed as effective catalysts both for the hydro- genation and hydrogen production processes [7–17]. A study on the hydrogenation activity of Co2B particles in the CTAB/. 1-hexanol/water reversed micellar system was performed by. Ma et al [7]. Co2B was first tried as a catalyst ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: CHMP2B-related frontotemporal dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions CHMP2B-related frontotemporal dementia CHMP2B-related frontotemporal dementia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description CHMP2B -related frontotemporal dementia is a progressive brain disorder that affects personality, ...

  12. 4,5-Dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-[4-(4-isopropoxy-benzyl)-phenyl]-amine (RO1138452) is a selective, pseudo-irreversible orthosteric antagonist at the prostacyclin (IP)-receptor expressed by human airway epithelial cells: IP-receptor-mediated inhibition of CXCL9 and CXCL10 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Linda M; Wilson, Sylvia M; Traves, Suzanne L; Proud, David; Giembycz, Mark A

    2008-02-01

    The extent to which the prostacyclin (IP) receptor regulates the release of two proinflammatory chemokines from human airway epithelial cells was investigated using the novel and competitive IP-receptor antagonist 4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-[4-(4-isopropoxy-benzyl)-phenyl]-amine (RO1138452). In BEAS-2B human airway epithelial cells, taprostene, a selective IP-receptor agonist, suppressed interferon-gamma-induced CXCL9 and CXCL10 release in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were mimicked by 8-bromo-cAMP, and they were abolished in cells infected with an adenovirus vector encoding a highly selective inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). RO1138452 blocked the inhibitory effect of taprostene on chemokine output in a manner inconsistent with surmountable competitive antagonism. Comparable results were obtained using primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells. The basis of the antagonism imposed by RO1138452 was studied further using BEAS-2B cells stably transfected with a cAMP-response element (CRE) luciferase reporter. On this output, RO1138452 also behaved insurmountably. Mechanistically, this could not be attributed to covalent receptor inactivation, allosterism, or a state of hemiequilibrium. Other studies established that the degree by which RO1138452 antagonized taprostene-induced CRE-dependent transcription was not reversed over a 20-h "washout" period. This pharmacological profile is consistent with the behavior of a pseudo-irreversible antagonist where dissociation from its cognate receptor is so slow that re-equilibration is not achieved at the time the response is measured. Collectively, these data provide compelling evidence that human airway epithelial cells express inhibitory IP-receptors linked to the activation of PKA. Moreover, contrary to existing literature, RO1138452 behaved pseudoirreversibly, emphasizing the need, in drug discovery, to screen potential new medicines in the target tissue(s) of interest.

  13. Lpar2b Controls Lateral Line Tissue Size by Regulating Yap1 Activity in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqian Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available LPA signaling plays important roles during cell migration and proliferation in normal and pathological conditions. However, its role during sensory organ development remains unknown. Here we show a LPA receptor Lpar2b is expressed in the posterior lateral line primordium (pLLP and mechanosensory organs called neuromasts (NMs in zebrafish embryos. Lpar2b loss-of-function significantly reduces the number of NMs and hair cells in the posterior lateral line (pLL. Further analysis reveals that Lpar2b regulates the patterning and tissue size of the pLLP. Interestingly, we show that knocking down a Hippo effector Yap1 phenocopies the result of Lpar2b depletion, and Lpar2b regulates the phosphorylation and activity of Yap1 in the pLLP. Importantly, a phosphorylation-resistant Yap1 rescues pLLP size and NM number in Lpar2b-depleted embryos. Our results indicate Lpar2b controls primordium size and NM number by regulating Yap1 activity in the lateral line system.

  14. Methadone N-Demethylation by the Common CYP2B6 Allelic Variant CYP2B6.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadel, Sarah; Crafford, Amanda; Regina, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The long-acting opioid methadone displays considerable unexplained interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. Methadone metabolism clinically occurs primarily by N-demethylation to 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), catalyzed predominantly by CYP2B6. Retrospective studies suggest that the common allele variant CYP2B6*6 may influence methadone plasma concentrations. The catalytic activity of CYP2B6.6, encoded by CYP2B6*6, is highly substrate-dependent. This investigation compared methadone N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6 with that by wild-type CYP2B6.1. Methadone enantiomer and racemate N-demethylation by recombinant-expressed CYP2B6.6 and CYP2B6.1 was determined. At substrate concentrations (0.25–2 µM) approximating plasma concentrations occurring clinically, rates of methadone enantiomer N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6, incubated individually or as the racemate, were one-third to one-fourth those by CYP2B6.1. For methadone individual enantiomers and metabolism by CYP2B6.6 compared with CYP2B6.1, Vmax was diminished, Ks was greater and the in vitro intrinsic clearance was diminished 5- to 6-fold. The intrinsic clearance for R- and S-EDDP formation from racemic methadone was diminished approximately 6-fold and 3-fold for R- and S-methadone, respectively. Both CYP2B6.6 and CYP2B6.1 showed similar stereoselectivity (S>R-methadone). Human liver microsomes with diminished CYP2B6 content due to a CYP2B6*6 allele had lower rates of methadone N-demethylation. Results show that methadone N-demethylation catalyzed by CYP2B6.6, the CYP2B6 variant encoded by the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism, is catalytically deficient compared with wild-type CYP2B6.1. Diminished methadone N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6 may provide a mechanistic explanation for clinical observations of altered methadone disposition in individuals carrying the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism. PMID:23298862

  15. Assessment of mitochondrial function following short- and long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to total particulate matter from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and reference cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinska, Dominika; Szymański, Jędrzej; Patalas-Krawczyk, Paulina; Michalska, Bernadeta; Wojtala, Aleksandra; Prill, Monika; Partyka, Małgorzata; Drabik, Karolina; Walczak, Jarosław; Sewer, Alain; Johne, Stephanie; Luettich, Karsta; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; Duszyński, Jerzy; Szczepanowska, Joanna; van der Toorn, Marco; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2018-02-13

    Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by cigarette smoke is involved in the oxidative stress-induced pathology of airway diseases. Reducing the levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco may reduce mitochondrial changes that contribute to oxidative stress and cell damage. We evaluated mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS 2B) following 1- and 12-week exposures to total particulate matter (TPM) from the aerosol of a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), in comparison with TPM from the 3R4F reference cigarette. After 1-week exposure, 3R4F TPM had a strong inhibitory effect on mitochondrial basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates compared to TPM from THS2.2. Alterations in oxidative phosphorylation were accompanied by increased mitochondrial superoxide levels and increased levels of oxidatively damaged proteins in cells exposed to 7.5 μg/mL of 3R4F TPM or 150 μg/mL of THS2.2 TPM, while cytosolic levels of reactive oxygen species were not affected. In contrast, the 12-week exposure indicated adaptation of BEAS-2B cells to long-term stress. Together, the findings indicate that 3R4F TPM had a stronger effect on oxidative phosphorylation, gene expression and proteins involved in oxidative stress than TPM from the candidate modified-risk tobacco product THS2.2. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis list: Gtf2b [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gtf2b Blood,Cardiovascular,Liver + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/m...m9/target/Gtf2b.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2b.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gtf2b.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2b.Blo...od.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2b.Cardiovascular.t...sv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gtf2b.Liver.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu

  17. MAT2B promotes adipogenesis by modulating SAMe levels and activating AKT/ERK pathway during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Cunzhen; Chen, Xiaochang; Wu, Wenjing; Wang, Wusu; Pang, Weijun; Yang, Gongshe, E-mail: gsyang999@hotmail.com

    2016-05-15

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) has been demonstrated as one of the crucial factors of livestock meat quality. The MAT2B protein with MAT2α catalyzes the formation of methyl donor S- adenosylmethionine (SAMe) to mediate cell metabolism including proliferation and apoptosis. However, the regulatory effect of MAT2B on IMF deposition is still unclear. In this study, the effect of MAT2B on adipogenesis and its potential mechanism during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation was studied. The results showed that overexpression of MAT2B promoted adipogenesis and significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of adipogenic marker genes including FASN, PPARγ and aP2, consistently, knockdown of MAT2B inhibited lipid accumulation and down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of the above genes. Furthermore, flow cytometry and EdU-labeling assay indicated that MAT2B regulate adipogenesis was partly due to influence intracellular SAMe levels and further affect cell clonal expansion. Also, increased expression of MAT2B activated the phosphorylations of AKT and ERK1/2, whereas knockdown of MAT2B blocked AKT signaling and repressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of LY294002 (a specific PI3K inhibitor) on the activities of AKT and ERK1/2 was partially recovered by overexpression of MAT2B in porcine intramuscular adipocytes. Finally, Co-IP experiments showed that MAT2B can directly interact with AKT. Taken together, our findings suggested that MAT2B acted as a positive regulator through modifying SAMe levels as well as activating AKT/ERK signaling pathway to promote porcine intramuscular adipocyte differentiation. - Highlights: • MAT2B up-regulates the expression of adipogenic marker genes and promotes porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation. • MAT2B influences intracellular SAMe levels and further affects cell clonal expansion. • MAT2B interacts with AKT and activates AKT/ERK signaling pathway.

  18. Regeneration and sulfur poisoning behavior of In/H-BEA catalyst for NO{sub x} reduction by CH{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hua; Jian, Yanfei; Yu, Yanke, E-mail: yankeyu@xjtu.edu.cn; He, Chi, E-mail: chi_he@xjtu.edu.cn; Shen, Zhenxing; Liu, Hongxia

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Sulfur poisoning mechanism of In/H-BEA was investigated for CH{sub 4}-SCR by in situ DRIFT. • H{sub 2} reduction could reduce In{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} to InO{sup +} via In{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} → In{sub 2}O{sub 3} → In(OH){sub 2}{sup +} → InO{sup +}. • The optimal regeneration parameters of H{sub 2} reduction was 400 °C and 60 min. - Abstract: Sulfur poisoning and regeneration behavior of In/H-BEA catalyst were carried out in NO{sub x} reduction by CH{sub 4}. In/H-BEA catalyst exhibited a poor resistance to sulfur dioxide after addition of 200 ppm SO{sub 2} and 10 vol.% H{sub 2}O into NO reduction with CH{sub 4} at 450 °C for 45 h. Sulfur poisoning of In/H-BEA was attributed to the inhibition of NO{sub x} adsorption on Brønsted acid sites, suppression of reaction intermediates generation on the active sites, and the formation of surface sulfate species. The formation of surface sulfate reduced the availability of surface active sites, blocked the pore structure and decreased the surface area of catalyst. These changes in chemical and textural properties resulted in a severe loss in the activity of sulfated In/H-BEA catalyst for NO reduction with CH{sub 4}. H{sub 2} reduction is a promising technology for regeneration of In/H-BEA deactivated by SO{sub 2} for removing NO{sub x} from lean-burn and diesel exhausts. Indium sulfate could be reduced by H{sub 2} to InO{sup +} with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and In(OH){sub 2}{sup +} as the intermediates. The optimal parameters of H{sub 2} reduction was regeneration temperature of 400 °C and regeneration time of 60 min which completely recovered the catalytic activity of In/H-BEA.

  19. PTK2b function during fertilization of the mouse oocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jinping; McGinnis, Lynda K.; Carlton, Carol; Beggs, Hilary E.; Kinsey, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PTK2b is expressed in oocytes and is activated following fertilization. • PTK2b suppression in oocytes prevents fertilization, but not parthenogenetic activation. • PTK2b suppression prevents the oocyte from fusing with or incorporating bound sperm. • PTK2b suppressed oocytes that fail to fertilize do not exhibit calcium oscillations. - Abstract: Fertilization triggers rapid changes in intracellular free calcium that serve to activate multiple signaling events critical to the initiation of successful development. Among the pathways downstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient is the calcium-calmodulin dependent protein tyrosine kinase PTK2b or PYK2 kinase. PTK2b plays an important role in fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte and the objective of the present study was to establish whether PTK2b also functions in mammalian fertilization. PTK2b was activated during the first few hours after fertilization of the mouse oocyte during the period when anaphase resumption was underway and prior to the pronuclear stage. Suppression of PTK2b kinase activity in oocytes blocked sperm incorporation and egg activation although sperm-oocyte binding was not affected. Oocytes that failed to incorporate sperm after inhibitor treatment showed no evidence of a calcium transient and no evidence of anaphase resumption suggesting that egg activation did not occur. The results indicate that PTK2b functions during the sperm-egg fusion process or during the physical incorporation of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and is therefore critical for successful development

  20. PTK2b function during fertilization of the mouse oocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jinping [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); McGinnis, Lynda K. [Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Carlton, Carol [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Beggs, Hilary E. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kinsey, William H., E-mail: wkinsey@kumc.edu [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • PTK2b is expressed in oocytes and is activated following fertilization. • PTK2b suppression in oocytes prevents fertilization, but not parthenogenetic activation. • PTK2b suppression prevents the oocyte from fusing with or incorporating bound sperm. • PTK2b suppressed oocytes that fail to fertilize do not exhibit calcium oscillations. - Abstract: Fertilization triggers rapid changes in intracellular free calcium that serve to activate multiple signaling events critical to the initiation of successful development. Among the pathways downstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient is the calcium-calmodulin dependent protein tyrosine kinase PTK2b or PYK2 kinase. PTK2b plays an important role in fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte and the objective of the present study was to establish whether PTK2b also functions in mammalian fertilization. PTK2b was activated during the first few hours after fertilization of the mouse oocyte during the period when anaphase resumption was underway and prior to the pronuclear stage. Suppression of PTK2b kinase activity in oocytes blocked sperm incorporation and egg activation although sperm-oocyte binding was not affected. Oocytes that failed to incorporate sperm after inhibitor treatment showed no evidence of a calcium transient and no evidence of anaphase resumption suggesting that egg activation did not occur. The results indicate that PTK2b functions during the sperm-egg fusion process or during the physical incorporation of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and is therefore critical for successful development.

  1. Roxithromycin inhibits VEGF-induced human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation: Opportunities for the treatment of asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Qing-Mei; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Min; Qian, Xue-Jiao; Liu, Jiang-Bo; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodelling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Roxithromycin (RXM) has been widely used in asthma treatment; however, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodelling in patients with asthma, and shown to promote ASM cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the effect of RXM on VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. We tested the effect of RXM on proliferation and cell cycle progression, as well as on the expression of phospho-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-Akt, and caveolin-1 in VEGF-stimulated ASM cells. RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Furthermore, RXM treatment inhibits VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation of caveolin-1 in a dose-dependent manner. RXM also inhibited TGF-β-induced VEGF secretion by ASM cells and BEAS-2B cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that RXM inhibits VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation by suppression of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 activation and caveolin-1 down-regulation, which may be involved in airway remodelling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these observations should enable the development of treatments for smooth muscle hyperplasia-associated diseases of the airway such as asthma. - Highlights: • RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. • VEGF-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2. • RXM inhibits activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation

  2. Roxithromycin inhibits VEGF-induced human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation: Opportunities for the treatment of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qing-Mei, E-mail: 34713316@qq.com [Department of Radiology, Tianjin Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin (China); Jiang, Ping, E-mail: jiangping@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Yang, Min, E-mail: YangMin@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Qian, Xue-Jiao, E-mail: qianxuejiao@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Liu, Jiang-Bo, E-mail: LJB1984@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Kim, Sung-Ho, E-mail: chenghao0726@hotmail.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2016-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodelling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Roxithromycin (RXM) has been widely used in asthma treatment; however, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodelling in patients with asthma, and shown to promote ASM cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the effect of RXM on VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. We tested the effect of RXM on proliferation and cell cycle progression, as well as on the expression of phospho-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-Akt, and caveolin-1 in VEGF-stimulated ASM cells. RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Furthermore, RXM treatment inhibits VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation of caveolin-1 in a dose-dependent manner. RXM also inhibited TGF-β-induced VEGF secretion by ASM cells and BEAS-2B cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that RXM inhibits VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation by suppression of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 activation and caveolin-1 down-regulation, which may be involved in airway remodelling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these observations should enable the development of treatments for smooth muscle hyperplasia-associated diseases of the airway such as asthma. - Highlights: • RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. • VEGF-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2. • RXM inhibits activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation

  3. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect

  4. Haplotypes frequencies of CYP2B6 in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Musa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs with complex pharmacology are used in the management of drug use disorder (DUD and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and in parts of South-East Asia. Their multiethnic populations suggest complexity due to the genetic polymorphism, such as CYP2B6 that metabolizes methadone and anti-retroviral. Aims: Our aim was to explore the genetic polymorphism of CYP2B6 among Malays, Chinese, Indians, and opiate-dependent individuals in Malaysia. Settings and Design: The study utilized DNA from our previous studies on CYPs and new recruitments from opiate-dependent individuals. Materials and Methods: For the new recruitment, after obtaining consent and baseline demography, 5 ml blood was obtained from patients attending methadone maintenance therapy (MMT Clinics. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard methods. 10 nucleotide changes associated with CYP2B6FNx0110, CYP2B6FNx012, CYP2B6FNx0117, CYP2B6FNx0111, CYP2B6FNx018, CYP2B6FNx0114, CYP2B6FNx019, CYP2B6FNx014, CYP2B6FNx016, CYP2B6FNx0127, and CYP2B6FNx0120 were determined using multiplex nested allele-specific PCR. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data. Differences in allele frequencies between populations were tested using Chi-squared test and were corrected using the Bonferroni test. Results: CYP2B6 polymorphism in Malaysia is variable with trends that suggest an ethnic difference. Reduced activity CYP2B6FNx016 occurred in 13% to 26% among Malays, Chinese, Indians and opiate-dependent individuals. Another ′reduced activity′, CYP2B6FNx012 allele, was found at much lower percentages in the groups. Conclusions: The relative commonness of reduced-activity CYP2B6 alleles in our study called for attention in terms of dosage requirements for MMT and ARV in Malaysia. It also implored follow-up association studies to determine its relevance and consequences in personalized medicine for drug use disorder and HIV/AIDS.

  5. Analysis list: GTF2B [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GTF2B Blood,Uterus + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/GT...F2B.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/GTF2B.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/GTF2B.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/GTF2B.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/GTF2B.Uterus.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Uterus.gml ...

  6. Harnessing marketing automation for B2B content marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Joel; Taiminen, Heini

    2016-01-01

    The growing importance of the Internet to B2B customer purchasing decisions has motivated B2B sellers to create digital content that leads potential buyers to interact with their company. This trend has engendered a new paradigm referred to as ‘content marketing.’ This study investigates the organizational processes for developing valuable and timely content to meet customer needs and for integrating content marketing with B2B selling processes. The results of this single case study demonstra...

  7. Topical interferon alfa-2b for the treatment of recalcitrant ocular surface squamous neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, David J; Lee, Graham A

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate topical interferon alfa-2b (IFN-alpha2b) for the treatment of recalcitrant ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). Prospective, noncomparative, interventional consecutive case series. Ten patients with recalcitrant OSSN were treated with topical IFN-alpha2b (1 million IU/ml) four times a day until clinical resolution of the lesion or until the lesion appeared nonresponsive-that is, treatment failure. Progress was assessed by clinical examination and photographic records, with a minimum follow-up of six months. Eight of 10 patients achieved clinical resolution from topical IFN-alpha2b treatment. One patient developed invasive squamous cell carcinoma and underwent exenteration. The other patient required further mitomycin C therapy to achieve clinical resolution. The mean duration to clinical resolution for the eight patients treated with IFN-alpha2b was 21.9 weeks (range six to 59 weeks). There have been no recurrences for any of the nine patients during follow-up (mean 55.0 weeks; range 26 to 84 weeks). Topical IFN-alpha2b is an important treatment modality for recalcitrant OSSN; it avoids the risks of further limbal stem cell destruction from other agents and surgical excision. If invasive disease is diagnosed at any stage, topical therapy is contraindicated, necessitating surgical excision.

  8. Itga2b regulation at the onset of definitive hematopoiesis and commitment to differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Dumon

    Full Text Available Product of the Itga2b gene, CD41 contributes to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC and megakaryocyte/platelet functions. CD41 expression marks the onset of definitive hematopoiesis in the embryo where it participates in regulating the numbers of multipotential progenitors. Key to platelet aggregation, CD41 expression also characterises their precursor, the megakaryocyte, and is specifically up regulated during megakaryopoiesis. Though phenotypically unique, megakaryocytes and HSC share numerous features, including key transcription factors, which could indicate common sub-regulatory networks. In these respects, Itga2b can serve as a paradigm to study features of both developmental-stage and HSC- versus megakaryocyte-specific regulations. By comparing different cellular contexts, we highlight a mechanism by which internal promoters participate in Itga2b regulation. A developmental process connects epigenetic regulation and promoter switching leading to CD41 expression in HSC. Interestingly, a similar process can be observed at the Mpl locus, which codes for another receptor that defines both HSC and megakaryocyte identities. Our study shows that Itga2b expression is controlled by lineage-specific networks and associates with H4K8ac in megakaryocyte or H3K27me3 in the multipotential hematopoietic cell line HPC7. Correlating with the decrease in H3K27me3 at the Itga2b Iocus, we find that following commitment to megakaryocyte differentiation, the H3K27 demethylase Jmjd3 up-regulation influences both Itga2b and Mpl expression.

  9. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, A M; Johannsen, P; Holm, I

    2011-01-01

    CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The best studied example is frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) which occurs in a large Danish family, with a further CHMP2B mutation identified in an unrelated Belgian familial FTD patient. ...... features of FTD caused by CHMP2B truncation mutations as well as new brain imaging and neuropathological findings. Finally, we collate the current data on CHMP2B missense mutations, which have been reported in FTD and motor neuron disease....

  10. Multiple roles for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)2B15 and UGT2B17 enzymes in androgen metabolism and prostate cancer evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Landry, Louis; Bélanger, Alain; Barbier, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In the prostate, approximately 50% of androgens are from adrenal steroids, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its sulfate and androstenedione. These compounds are converted first into testosterone, and then into the active hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT). After having activated the androgen receptor (AR), DHT is reduced into androstane-3α-DIOL (3α-DIOL) and androsterone (ADT), which are subsequently converted into 2 inactive and easily excretable metabolites: 3α-DIOL-17glucuronide (3α-DIOL-17G) and ADT-3glucuronide (ADT-3G). The formation of these last derivatives through the glucuronidation reaction involves 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, namely UGT2B15 and UGT2B17. The present review article aims at providing a comprehensive view of the physiological and pharmacological importance of these 2 enzymes for the control of androgen homeostasis. We will resume: (i) how UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 contribute to androgen elimination; (ii) how their glucuronidation capacity influences the androgen signaling pathway in prostate cells; (iii) how they contribute to the anti-proliferative properties of AR antagonists in prostate cancer cells; and (iv) how AR and its spliced variants regulate the UGT2B15 and/or UGT2B17 genes expression. Finally, whether the unexploited AR-UGT axis could serve as a prognostic maker or a pharmacological target for novel therapeutics in the treatment of prostate cancer is also discussed. This article is part of a special issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. B2B or Not to Be: Does B2B E-Commerce Increase Labour Productivity?

    OpenAIRE

    Bertschek, Irene; Fryges, Helmut; Kaiser, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    We implement an endogeneous switching-regression model for labour productivity and firms' decision to use business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce. Our approach allows B2B usage to affect any parameter of the labour productivity equation and to properly take account of strategic complementarities between the input factors and B2B usage. Empirical evidence from 1,394 German firms shows that firms using B2B e-commerce have a significantly higher output elasticity with respect to ICT-investment and...

  12. Association analysis of polymorphism in KIAA1717, HUMMLC2B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KIAA1717, HUMMLC2B, DECR1, and FTO genes have been found to be associated with some pork meat quality traits. ... with meat color (CIE L), backfat thickness, drip loss, water-holding capacity, and pH24hr; a SNP in HUMMLC2B was associated with chemical composition ...

  13. Mechanochemical synthesis and characterization of pure Co2B ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cobalt boride (Co 2 B) is a significant transition metal boride having a wide range of usage area due to its high oxidation, abrasion and corrosion resistance as well as its superior electrochemical, magnetic and anisotropicproperties. In this study, pure Co2B nanocrystals were synthesized with Co, B 2 O 3 and Mg as starting ...

  14. Expression and purification of recombinant Shiga toxin 2B from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IMAC) column, followed by second step using HaloLink resin. The native Stx2B was obtained after column cleavage of halo-tag using HaloTEV protease. Maximum protein expression of Stx2B economically was obtained using 1 mM IPTG for 4 h at ...

  15. PODAAC-QSX25-L2B02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset has been superseded by Version 3: http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/dataset/QSCAT_LEVEL_2B_OWV_COMP_12 . This QuikSCAT Level 2B dataset contains the Version 2...

  16. PODAAC-RSX12-L2B11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the RapidScat Level 2B 12.5km Version 1.1 science-quality ocean surface wind vectors. The Level 2B wind vectors are binned on a 12.5 km Wind...

  17. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, A M; Johannsen, P; Holm, I

    2011-01-01

    CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The best studied example is frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) which occurs in a large Danish family, with a further CHMP2B mutation identified in an unrelated Belgian familial FTD patient...

  18. Involvement of the MAPK and PI3K pathways in chitinase 3-like 1-regulated hyperoxia-induced airway epithelial cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Na; Lee, Kyung Eun; Hong, Jung Yeon; Heo, Won Il; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu Earn [Department of Pediatrics and Institute of Allergy, Severance Medical Research Institute, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Myung Hyun, E-mail: mhsohn@yuhs.ac [Department of Pediatrics and Institute of Allergy, Severance Medical Research Institute, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperoxia induces apoptosis and chitinase 3-like 1 expression in human airway epithelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of chitinase 3-like 1 affects airway epithelial cell death after hyperoxic exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing chitinase 3-like 1 manipulate the phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and Akt. -- Abstract: Background: Exposure to 100% oxygen causes hyperoxic acute lung injury characterized by cell death and injury of alveolar epithelial cells. Recently, the role of chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), a member of the glycosyl hydrolase 18 family that lacks chitinase activity, in oxidative stress was demonstrated in murine models. High levels of serum CHI3L1 have been associated with various diseases of the lung, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. However, the role of CHI3L1 in human airway epithelial cells undergoing oxidative stress remains unknown. In addition, the signaling pathways associated with CHI3L1 in this process are poorly understood. Purpose: In this study, we demonstrate the role of CHI3L1, along with the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways, in hyperoxia-exposed airway epithelial cells. Method: The human airway epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, was exposed to >95% oxygen (hyperoxia) for up to 72 h. Hyperoxia-induced cell death was determined by assessing cell viability, Annexin-V FITC staining, caspase-3 and -7 expression, and electron microscopy. CHI3L1 knockdown and overexpression studies were conducted in BEAS-2B cells to examine the role of CHI3L1 in hyperoxia-induced apoptosis. Activation of the MAPK and PI3K pathways was also investigated to determine the role of these signaling cascades in this process. Results: Hyperoxia exposure increased CHI3L1 expression and apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. CHI3L1 knockdown protected cells from hyperoxia-induced apoptosis. In contrast, CHI3L1 overexpression promoted cell death after hyperoxia exposure. Finally

  19. Immunodiagnosis of tumors in vivo using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody A2B5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reintgen, D.S.; Shimizu, K.; Coleman, E.; Briner, W.; Kitzmiller, J.; Eisenbarth, G.; Seigler, H.F.

    1983-07-01

    Recently a murine monoclonal antibody (A2B5) has been described that reacts with a membrane associated GQ ganglioside common to peptide secreting normal cells and tumors. In vitro binding data demonstrated the presence of this ganglioside on neurons, adrenal medulla, and pancreatic islets, along with neuroendocrine tumors such as insulinomas, pheochromocytomas, melanomas and neuroblastomas. Negative binding has previously been shown for tissue sections from liver, kidney, colon, lung, stomach, and tumors not derived from the neural crest. Because of the specificity at A2B5 in vitro, this monoclonal antibody was labeled with /sup 131/I for in vivo tumor localization studies. Daily radionuclear scans were obtained in 5 KX rats bearing the radiation induced rat insulinoma with disappearance of the label from the blood pool and concentration in the tumor so that by the fourth day, the only activity present by scan was in the insulinoma. In addition A2B5 also localized to five different human melanoma cells lines grown in nude mice with high tumor/blood levels compared to normal tissues, while no localization is seen in nudes carrying osteosarcomas, colon, bladder, and renal cell carcinomas. In addition antibody A2B5 did not concentrate in any normal tissue though the antigen is present on several. The finding that A2B5 reacts across species lines (mouse, rat, man) lends itself to obvious diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities.

  20. Chronic occupational exposure to arsenic induces carcinogenic gene signaling networks and neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueckle, Todd A.; Lu, Yongju; Davis, Mary E.; Wang, Liying; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Holaskova, Ida; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure remains a human health risk; however a clear mode of action to understand gene signaling-driven arsenic carcinogenesis is currently lacking. This study chronically exposed human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low-dose arsenic trioxide to elucidate cancer promoting gene signaling networks associated with arsenic-transformed (B-As) cells. Following a 6 month exposure, exposed cells were assessed for enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion ability and in vivo tumor formation compared to control cell lines. Collected mRNA was subjected to whole genome expression microarray profiling followed by in silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify lung carcinogenesis modes of action. B-As cells displayed significant increases in proliferation, colony formation and invasion ability compared to BEAS-2B cells. B-As injections into nude mice resulted in development of primary and secondary metastatic tumors. Arsenic exposure resulted in widespread up-regulation of genes associated with mitochondrial metabolism and increased reactive oxygen species protection suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Carcinogenic initiation via reactive oxygen species and epigenetic mechanisms was further supported by altered DNA repair, histone, and ROS-sensitive signaling. NF-κB, MAPK and NCOR1 signaling disrupted PPARα/δ-mediated lipid homeostasis. A ‘pro-cancer’ gene signaling network identified increased survival, proliferation, inflammation, metabolism, anti-apoptosis and mobility signaling. IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1α, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. In conclusion, transformed B-As cells with their whole genome expression profile provide an in vitro arsenic model for future lung cancer signaling research and data for chronic arsenic exposure risk assessment. Highlights: ► Chronic As 2 O 3

  1. Chronic occupational exposure to arsenic induces carcinogenic gene signaling networks and neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stueckle, Todd A., E-mail: tstueckle@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Lu, Yongju, E-mail: yongju6@hotmail.com [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Davis, Mary E., E-mail: mdavis@wvu.edu [Department of Physiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Wang, Liying, E-mail: lmw6@cdc.gov [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: bhjiang@jefferson.edu [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Holaskova, Ida, E-mail: iholaskova@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Schafer, Rosana, E-mail: rschafer@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Rojanasakul, Yon, E-mail: yrojan@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure remains a human health risk; however a clear mode of action to understand gene signaling-driven arsenic carcinogenesis is currently lacking. This study chronically exposed human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low-dose arsenic trioxide to elucidate cancer promoting gene signaling networks associated with arsenic-transformed (B-As) cells. Following a 6 month exposure, exposed cells were assessed for enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion ability and in vivo tumor formation compared to control cell lines. Collected mRNA was subjected to whole genome expression microarray profiling followed by in silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify lung carcinogenesis modes of action. B-As cells displayed significant increases in proliferation, colony formation and invasion ability compared to BEAS-2B cells. B-As injections into nude mice resulted in development of primary and secondary metastatic tumors. Arsenic exposure resulted in widespread up-regulation of genes associated with mitochondrial metabolism and increased reactive oxygen species protection suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Carcinogenic initiation via reactive oxygen species and epigenetic mechanisms was further supported by altered DNA repair, histone, and ROS-sensitive signaling. NF-κB, MAPK and NCOR1 signaling disrupted PPARα/δ-mediated lipid homeostasis. A ‘pro-cancer’ gene signaling network identified increased survival, proliferation, inflammation, metabolism, anti-apoptosis and mobility signaling. IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1α, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. In conclusion, transformed B-As cells with their whole genome expression profile provide an in vitro arsenic model for future lung cancer signaling research and data for chronic arsenic exposure risk assessment. Highlights: ► Chronic As{sub 2}O

  2. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang HB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Bin Chang,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 µg/mL, demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 µg/mL, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 µg/mL. A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 µg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.Keywords: curcuminoid extract, curcuminoid nanoemulsion, Curcuma longa Linnaeus, lung cancer cell, cell cycle, apoptosis mechanism

  3. Up-regulation and subcellular localization of hnRNP A2/B1 in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Huaqing; Wu, Feng; Sun, Yanling; Fan, Guocai; Wang, Qingming

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the world's leading causes of death among cancer patients. It is important to find a new biomarker that diagnoses HCC and monitors its treatment. In our previous work, we screened a single-chain antibody (scFv) N14, which could specifically recognize human HepG2 HCC cells but not human non-cancerous liver LO2 cells. However, the antigen it recognized in the cells remained unknown. Recombinant scFv N14 antibody was expressed as an active antibody. Using this antibody with a combination of immunological and proteomic approaches, we identified the antigen of scFv N14 antibody as the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1). The expression of hnRNP A2/B1 in HCC cells was then investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that the up-regulation of hnRNP A2/B1 was measured at both transcriptional and translational levels in rat HCC cells but not in rat hepatic cells. We also found that in various human hepatic tissues, hnRNP A2/B1 was highly expressed in both human hepatitis virus positive liver tissues and human HCC tissues but not in normal liver tissues. Interestingly, we observed that the localization of hnRNP A2/B1 in HCC cells was altered during the development of HCC. In human hepatitis virus infected tissues hnRNP A2/B1 resides exclusively in the nuclei of hepatocytes. However, when the HCC progressed from a well differentiated to a poorly differentiated stage, hnRNP A2/B1 was increasingly localized in the cytoplasm. In contrast, the HCC tissues with hnRNP A2/B1 highly expressed in the nucleus decreased. This work is the first to show that hnRNP A2/B1 is the antigen specifically recognized by the scFv N14 antibody in HCC cells. The over-expression of hnRNP A2/B1 was confirmed in cultured human and rat HCC cell lines, human virus related hepatitis liver tissues and human HCC tissues. The increased localization of hnRNP A2/B1 in the cytoplasm of HCC cells was revealed

  4. Superconductivity in the intermetallic borocarbides YPd2B2C, YPt2B2C and LaPt2B2C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durajski, A. P.; Paliwoda, M. K.; Szczȩśniak, R.

    2016-11-01

    We report a detailed study of the thermodynamic properties of the conventional phonon-mediated superconductors YPd2B2C, YPt2B2C and LaPt2B2C. Our calculations conducted within the framework of the Migdal-Eliashberg formalism show that the experimental values of the critical temperature cannot be properly reproduced using commonly accepted value of Coulomb pseudopotential. Moreover, we proved that the values of universal ratios of conventional superconductivity appearing in the Bardeen-Copper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory are inconsistent with our results obtained from the investigated borocarbides. The observed differences are connected with the strong/medium-coupling and retardation effects existing in the studied systems.

  5. Sh3pxd2b mice are a model for craniofacial dysmorphology and otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Tian, Cong; Zhang, Zhi-guang; Han, Feng-chan; Azem, Rami; Yu, Heping; Zheng, Ye; Jin, Ge; Arnold, James E; Zheng, Qing Y

    2011-01-01

    Craniofacial defects that occur through gene mutation during development increase vulnerability to eustachian tube dysfunction. These defects can lead to an increased incidence of otitis media. We examined the effects of a mutation in the Sh3pxd2b gene (Sh3pxd2b(nee)) on the progression of otitis media and hearing impairment at various developmental stages. We found that all mice that had the Sh3pxd2b(nee) mutation went on to develop craniofacial dysmorphologies and subsequently otitis media, by as early as 11 days of age. We found noteworthy changes in cilia and goblet cells of the middle ear mucosa in Sh3pxd2b(nee) mutant mice using scanning electronic microscopy. By measuring craniofacial dimensions, we determined for the first time in an animal model that this mouse has altered eustachian tube morphology consistent with a more horizontal position of the eustachian tube. All mutants were found to have hearing impairment. Expression of TNF-α and TLR2, which correlates with inflammation in otitis media, was up-regulated in the ears of mutant mice when examined by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The mouse model with a mutation in the Sh3pxd2b gene (Sh3pxd2b(nee)) mirrors craniofacial dysmorphology and otitis media in humans.

  6. Sh3pxd2b mice are a model for craniofacial dysmorphology and otitis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    Full Text Available Craniofacial defects that occur through gene mutation during development increase vulnerability to eustachian tube dysfunction. These defects can lead to an increased incidence of otitis media. We examined the effects of a mutation in the Sh3pxd2b gene (Sh3pxd2b(nee on the progression of otitis media and hearing impairment at various developmental stages. We found that all mice that had the Sh3pxd2b(nee mutation went on to develop craniofacial dysmorphologies and subsequently otitis media, by as early as 11 days of age. We found noteworthy changes in cilia and goblet cells of the middle ear mucosa in Sh3pxd2b(nee mutant mice using scanning electronic microscopy. By measuring craniofacial dimensions, we determined for the first time in an animal model that this mouse has altered eustachian tube morphology consistent with a more horizontal position of the eustachian tube. All mutants were found to have hearing impairment. Expression of TNF-α and TLR2, which correlates with inflammation in otitis media, was up-regulated in the ears of mutant mice when examined by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The mouse model with a mutation in the Sh3pxd2b gene (Sh3pxd2b(nee mirrors craniofacial dysmorphology and otitis media in humans.

  7. Molecular characterization of an. alpha. sub 2B -adrenergic receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, J.K.; Dewan Zeng; D' Angelo, D.D.; Tucker, A.L.; Zhihong Lu; Barber, C.M.; Lynch, K.R. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-02-26

    {alpha}{sub 2}-Adrenergic receptors comprise a heterogeneous population based on pharmacologic and molecular evidence. The authors have isolated a cDNA clone (pRNG{alpha}2) encoding a previously undescribed third subtype of an {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor from a rat kidney cDNA library. The library was screened with an oligonucleotide encoding a highly conserved region found in all biogenic amine receptors described to date. The deduced amino acid sequence displays many features of G-protein coupled receptors with exception of the absence of the consensus N-linked glycosylation site at the amino terminus. Membranes prepared from COS-1 cells transfected with pRNG{alpha}2 display high affinity and saturable binding to {sup 3}H-rauwolscine (K{sub d}=2 nM).Competition curve data analysis shows that pRNG{alpha}2 protein binds to a variety of adrenergic drugs with the following rank order of potency: yohimbine {ge} cholorpromazine > prazosin {ge} clonidine > norepinephrine {ge} oxymetazoline. pRNG{alpha}2 RNA accumulates in both adult rat kidney and rat neonatal lung (predominant species is 4.0 kb). They conclude that pRNG{alpha}2 likely represents a cDNA for the {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor.

  8. Safety Pharmacology assessment of drugs with biased 5-HT(2B) receptor agonism mediating cardiac valvulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, Icilio; Guillon, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    The rhythmic opening and tightly closing of cardiac valve leaflets are cardiac cyclic events imposing to blood a unidirectional course along the vascular tree. Drugs with 5-HT2B agonism properties can seriously compromise this biological function critical for hemodynamic efficiency as their intrinsic pro-fibrotic effects can, with time, make valvular coaptation blood regurgitant. Cardiac valve anatomy, physiology and pathology as well as 5-HT2B receptor properties (coupling, effects mediated, biased agonism) are briefly exposed. Approaches to unveil 5-HT2B receptor liability of drug candidates are detailed. In silico computational models can rapidly probe molecules for chemical signatures associated with 5-HT2B receptor affinity. In vitro radioligand competition assays allow quantifying receptor binding capacity (Ki, IC50), the pharmacological nature (agonism, antagonism) of which can be ascertained from cytosolic second messenger (inositol phosphates, Ca(++), MAPK2) changes. Potencies calculated from the latter data may exhibit variability as they are dependent upon the readout measured and the experimental conditions (e.g., receptor density level of cell material expressing human 5-HT2B receptors). The in vivo valvulopathy effects of 5-HT2B receptor agonists can be assessed by echocardiographic measurements and valve histology in rats chronically treated with the candidate drug. Finally, safety margins derived from from nonclinical and clinical data are evaluated in terms of the readout, usefulness and scientific reliability. The Safety Pharmacology toolbox for detecting possible 5-HT2B receptor agonism liabilities of candidate drugs requires meticulous optimization and validation of all its (in silico, in vitro and in vivo) components to perfect its human predictability power. In particular, since 5-HT2B receptor agonism is biased in nature, the most predictive readout(s) of valvular liability should be identified and prioritized in keeping with best scientific

  9. Biodiesel from Soybean Promotes Cell Proliferation in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, Adriana; Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I.; Amaral, Beatriz Silva; Encarnación-Medina, Jarline; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G.; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicological responses of exhaust emissions of biodiesel are different due to variation in methods of generation and the tested biological models. A chemical profile was generated using ICP-MS and GC-MS for the biodiesel samples obtained in Brazil. A cytotoxicity assay and cytokine secretion experiments were evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Cells were exposed to polar (acetone) and nonpolar (hexane) extracts from particles obtained from fuel exhaust: fossil diesel (B5), pure soybean biodiesel (B100), soybean biodiesel with additive (B100A) and ethanol additive (EtOH). Biodiesel and its additives exhibited higher organic and inorganic constituents on particles when compared to B5. The biodiesel extracts did not exert any toxic effect at concentrations 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 μg mL -1. In fact quite the opposite, a cell proliferation effect induced by the B100 and B100A extracts is reported. A small increase in concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; and Interleukin-8, IL-8) in the medium of biodiesel-treated cells was observed, however, no statistical difference was found. An interesting finding indicates that the presence of metals in the nonpolar (hexane) fraction of biodiesel fuel (B100) represses cytokine release in lung cells. This was revealed by the use of the metal chelator. Results suggest that metals associated with biodiesel’s organic constituents might play a significant role in molecular mechanisms associated to cellular proliferation and immune responses. PMID:27179667

  10. Serotonin 2B Receptors in Mesoaccumbens Dopamine Pathway Regulate Cocaine Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doly, Stéphane; Quentin, Emily; Eddine, Raphaël; Tolu, Stefania; Fernandez, Sebastian P; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Valjent, Emmanuel; Belmer, Arnauld; Viñals, Xavier; Callebert, Jacques; Faure, Philippe; Meye, Frank J; Hervé, Denis; Robledo, Patricia; Mameli, Manuel; Launay, Jean-Marie; Maldonado, Rafael; Maroteaux, Luc

    2017-10-25

    Addiction is a maladaptive pattern of behavior following repeated use of reinforcing drugs in predisposed individuals, leading to lifelong changes. Common among these changes are alterations of neurons releasing dopamine in the ventral and dorsal territories of the striatum. The serotonin 5-HT 2B receptor has been involved in various behaviors, including impulsivity, response to antidepressants, and response to psychostimulants, pointing toward putative interactions with the dopamine system. Despite these findings, it remains unknown whether 5-HT 2B receptors directly modulate dopaminergic activity and the possible mechanisms involved. To answer these questions, we investigated the contribution of 5-HT 2B receptors to cocaine-dependent behavioral responses. Male mice permanently lacking 5-HT 2B receptors, even restricted to dopamine neurons, developed heightened cocaine-induced locomotor responses. Retrograde tracing combined with single-cell mRNA amplification indicated that 5-HT 2B receptors are expressed by mesolimbic dopamine neurons. In vivo and ex vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that 5-HT 2B -receptor inactivation in dopamine neurons affects their neuronal activity and increases AMPA-mediated over NMDA-mediated excitatory synaptic currents. These changes are associated with lower ventral striatum dopamine activity and blunted cocaine self-administration. These data identify the 5-HT 2B receptor as a pharmacological intermediate and provide mechanistic insight into attenuated dopamine tone following exposure to drugs of abuse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we report that mice lacking 5-HT 2B receptors totally or exclusively in dopamine neurons exhibit heightened cocaine-induced locomotor responses. Despite the sensitized state of these mice, we found that associated changes include lower ventral striatum dopamine activity and lower cocaine operant self-administration. We described the selective expression of 5-HT 2B receptors in a subpopulation of

  11. Effects of nano bamboo charcoal on PAHs-degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bojia; Tao, Xueqin; Huang, Ting; Lu, Guining; Zhou, Zhili; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Nano bamboo charcoal (NBC) has been commonly used in the production of textiles, plastics, paint, etc. However, little is known regarding their effects towards the microorganisms. The effects of NBC on phenanthrene degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B were investigated in the present study. Results showed that the addition of NBC could improve the phenanthrene removal by Sphingomonas sp. GY2B, with removal efficiencies increased by 10.29-18.56% in comparison to the control at 24h, and phenanthrene was almost completely removed at 48h. With the presence of low dose of NBC (20 and 50mgL(-1)), strain GY2B displayed a better growth at 6h, suggesting that NBC was beneficial to the growth of GY2B and thus resulting in the quick removal of phenanthrene from water. However, the growth of strain GY2B in high dose of NBC (200mgL(-1)) was inhibited at 6h, and the inhibition could be attenuated and eliminated after 12h. NBC-effected phenanthrene solubility experiment suggested that NBC makes a negligible contribution to the solubilization of phenanthrene in water. Results of electronic microscopy analysis (SEM and TEM) indicated NBC may interact with the cell membrane, causing the enhanced membrane permeability and then NBC adsorbed on the membrane would enter into the cells. The findings of this work would provide important information for the future usage and long-term environmental risk assessment of NBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epithelium-Specific Ets-Like Transcription Factor 1, ESE-1, Regulates ICAM-1 Expression in Cultured Lung Epithelial Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF patients suffer from chronic airway inflammation with excessive neutrophil infiltration. Migration of neutrophils to the lung requires chemokine and cytokine signaling as well as cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, which plays an important role in mediating adhesive interactions between effector and target cells in the immune system. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ICAM-1 and epithelium-specific ETS-like transcription factor 1 (ESE-1 and found that ICAM-1 expression is upregulated in cell lines of CF (IB3-1 as well as non-CF (BEAS-2B and A549 epithelial origin in response to inflammatory cytokine stimulation. Since ESE-1 is highly expressed in A549 cells without stimulation, we examined the effect of ESE-1 knockdown on ICAM-1 expression in these cells. We found that ICAM-1 expression was downregulated when ESE-1 was knocked down in A549 cells. We also tested the effect of ESE-1 knockdown on cell-cell interactions and demonstrate that the knocking down ESE-1 in A549 cells reduce their interactions with HL-60 cells (human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. These results suggest that ESE-1 may play a role in regulating airway inflammation by regulating ICAM-1 expression.

  13. Superior activity of non-interacting close acidic protons in Al-rich Pt/H-*BEA zeolite in isomerization of n-hexane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sazama, Petr; Kaucký, Dalibor; Morávková, Jaroslava; Pilař, Radim; Klein, Petr; Pastvová, Jana; Tabor, Edyta; Sklenák, Štěpán; Jakubec, Ivo; Mokrzycki, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 533, MAR 2017 (2017), s. 28-37 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12113S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : Isomerization * Alkanes Hexane * Zeolites * Al-rich beta (*BEA) * Mordenite Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Inorganic and nuclear chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 4.339, year: 2016

  14. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2018-02-22

    Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme and is expressed in liver. Although human CYP2B6 variants account for variable enzyme properties among individuals and populations, CYP2B6 genetic variants have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques, widely used in drug metabolism studies. CYP2B6 was resequenced in 120 cynomolgus macaques and 23 rhesus macaques by direct sequencing. Twenty-three non-synonymous variants were found, of which 12 and 3 were unique to cynomolgus macaques and rhesus macaques, respectively. By functional characterization using the 14 variant proteins, 8 variants (V114I, R253C, M435I, V459M, L465P, C475S, R487C, and R487H) showed different rate (>1.5-fold) of testosterone 16β-hydroxylation to wild type. However, the four variants (M435I, L465P, C475S, and R487H) were analyzed in liver microsomes, and the catalytic rates were not substantially different from wild type. Macaque CYP2B6 was polymorphic, and the genotype could partly account for variable enzyme activities of macaque CYP2B6. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. PODAAC-RSX12-L2B12

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the RapidScat Level 2B 12.5km Version 1.2 science-quality ocean surface wind vectors, which are intended as a replacement and continuation of...

  16. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamel, Magdi N

    2008-01-01

    A central vision of B2B e-commerce is that of an electronic marketplace that would bring suppliers together with major buyers of goods and services for the purpose of conducting "frictionless commerce...

  17. PODAAC-QSX12-L2B31

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the latest reprocessed version 3.1 of the Level 2B science-quality ocean surface wind vector retrievals from the QuikSCAT scatterometer. The...

  18. PODAAC-QSX12-L2B40

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the latest reprocessed version 4.0 of the Level 2B science-quality ocean surface wind vector retrievals from the QuikSCAT scatterometer. The...

  19. PODAAC-RSX12-L2B13

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the RapidScat Level 2B 12.5km Version 1.3 science-quality ocean surface wind vectors, which are intended as a replacement and continuation of...

  20. PODAAC-QSX12-L2B01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the latest reprocessed version 3 of the Level 2B science-quality ocean surface wind vector retrievals from the QuikSCAT scatterometer. The...

  1. Scope of Internal Marketing in B2B Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, Niharika

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have focused on "internal marketing" from services marketing perspective. There is, therefore, a great dearth of in-depth research on its application to other business types. This research attempts to find the scope of internal marketing in B2B companies. The purpose of this research is to closely examine the elements, their linkage, tools and applications of Internal marketing when applied to B2B settings. Internal marketing, the application of marketing managem...

  2. Quercetogetin protects against cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis in epithelial cells by inhibiting mitophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Eun Suk; Kim, Se-Hee; Ryter, Stefan W; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kyung, Sun Young; Kim, Yu Jin; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Jeong-Woong

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that the autophagy-dependent turnover of mitochondria (mitophagy) mediates pulmonary epithelial cell death in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure, and contributes to emphysema development in vivo during chronic cigarette smoke (CS)-exposure, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of mitophagy in regulating apoptosis in CSE-exposed human lung bronchial epithelial cells. Furthermore, we investigated the potential of the polymethoxylated flavone antioxidant quercetogetin (QUE) to inhibit CSE-induced mitophagy-dependent apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that CSE induces mitophagy in epithelial cells via mitochondrial dysfunction, and causes increased expression levels of the mitophagy-regulator protein PTEN-induced putative kinase-1 (PINK1) and the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-1-like protein (DRP-1). CSE induced epithelial cell death and increased the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9. Caspase-3 activity was significantly increased in Beas-2B cells exposed to CSE, and decreased by siRNA-dependent knockdown of DRP-1. Treatment of epithelial cells with QUE inhibited CSE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy by inhibiting phospho (p)-DRP-1 and PINK1 expression. QUE suppressed mitophagy-dependent apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9 and downregulating caspase activity in human bronchial epithelial cells. These findings suggest that QUE may serve as a potential therapeutic in CS-induced pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Suppression of IL-8 production from airway cells by tiotropium bromide in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzaki I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Isao Suzaki1, Kazuhito Asano2, Yusuke Shikama3, Taisuke Hamasaki1, Ayako Kanei1, Harumi Suzaki11Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Division of Physiology, School of Nursing and Rehabilitation Sciences, Showa University, Yokohama, Japan; 3Department of Respiratory Diseases, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, Yokohama, JapanBackground: COPD is characterized by persistent and progressive airway inflammation. Although neutrophilic airway inflammation is generally accepted to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of COPD, the influence of the agents used for the treatment of COPD on neutrophil functions such as chemotaxis is not fully understood.Purpose: The present study aimed to examine the influence of tiotropium bromide on the production of interleukin (IL-8 from human airway epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts (LFs after lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation in vitro.Methods: BEAS-2B cells, human bronchial epithelial cell line, and LFs, at a concentration of 5 × 105 cells/mL, were stimulated with LPS in the presence of various concentrations of tiotropium bromide. IL-8 in culture supernatants was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. IL-8 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The influence of tiotropium bromide on LPS-induced signaling pathways was also analyzed by examining nuclear factor-kappa (NF-κB activation and signaling protein phosphorylation by ELISA.Results: Tiotropium bromide at >15 pg/mL inhibited IL-8 production from both BEAS-2B cells and LFs after LPS stimulation. Tiotropium bromide also suppressed IL-8 mRNA expression through the inhibition of NF-κB activation and signaling protein, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, phosphorylation.Conclusion: The present results strongly suggest that tiotropium bromide exerts the inhibitory effect on neutrophilic

  4. Population-specific regulation of Chmp2b by Lbx1 during onset of synaptogenesis in lateral association interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    Full Text Available Chmp2b is closely related to Vps2, a key component of the yeast protein complex that creates the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. Dominant negative mutations in Chmp2b cause autophagosome accumulation and neurodegenerative disease. Loss of Chmp2b causes failure of dendritic spine maturation in cultured neurons. The homeobox gene Lbx1 plays an essential role in specifying postmitotic dorsal interneuron populations during late pattern formation in the neural tube. We have discovered that Chmp2b is one of the most highly regulated cell-autonomous targets of Lbx1 in the embryonic mouse neural tube. Chmp2b was expressed and depended on Lbx1 in only two of the five nascent, Lbx1-expressing, postmitotic, dorsal interneuron populations. It was also expressed in neural tube cell populations that lacked Lbx1 protein. The observed population-specific expression of Chmp2b indicated that only certain population-specific combinations of sequence specific transcription factors allow Chmp2b expression. The cell populations that expressed Chmp2b corresponded, in time and location, to neurons that make the first synapses of the spinal cord. Chmp2b protein was transported into neurites within the motor- and association-neuropils, where the first synapses are known to form between E11.5 and E12.5 in mouse neural tubes. Selective, developmentally-specified gene expression of Chmp2b may therefore be used to endow particular neuronal populations with the ability to mature dendritic spines. Such a mechanism could explain how mammalian embryos reproducibly establish the disynaptic cutaneous reflex only between particular cell populations.

  5. PTK2b function during fertilization of the mouse oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinping; McGinnis, Lynda K; Carlton, Carol; Beggs, Hilary E; Kinsey, William H

    2014-08-01

    Fertilization triggers rapid changes in intracellular free calcium that serve to activate multiple signaling events critical to the initiation of successful development. Among the pathways downstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient is the calcium-calmodulin dependent protein tyrosine kinase PTK2b or PYK2 kinase. PTK2b plays an important role in fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte and the objective of the present study was to establish whether PTK2b also functions in mammalian fertilization. PTK2b was activated during the first few hours after fertilization of the mouse oocyte during the period when anaphase resumption was underway and prior to the pronuclear stage. Suppression of PTK2b kinase activity in oocytes blocked sperm incorporation and egg activation although sperm-oocyte binding was not affected. Oocytes that failed to incorporate sperm after inhibitor treatment showed no evidence of a calcium transient and no evidence of anaphase resumption suggesting that egg activation did not occur. The results indicate that PTK2b functions during the sperm-egg fusion process or during the physical incorporation of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and is therefore critical for successful development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. M2b Monocytes Provoke Bacterial Pneumonia and Gut Bacteria-Associated Sepsis in Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimoto, Yusuke; Asai, Akira; Tsuda, Yasuhiro; Ito, Ichiaki; Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Garcia, Melanie C; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Kobayashi, Makiko; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Suzuki, Fujio

    2015-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption markedly impairs host antibacterial defense against opportunistic infections. γ-irradiated NOD-SCID IL-2Rγ(null) mice inoculated with nonalcoholic PBMCs (control PBMC chimeras) resisted Klebsiella pneumonia and gut bacteria-associated sepsis, whereas the chimeras created with alcoholic PBMCs (alcoholic PBMC chimeras) were very susceptible to these infections. M1 monocytes (IL-12(+)IL-10(-)CD163(-)CD14(+) cells), major effector cells in antibacterial innate immunity, were not induced by a bacterial Ag in alcoholic PBMC cultures, and M2b monocytes (CCL1(+)CD163(+)CD14(+) cells), which predominated in alcoholic PBMCs, were shown to be inhibitor cells on the Ag-stimulated monocyte conversion from quiescent monocytes to M1 monocytes. CCL1, which functions to maintain M2b macrophage properties, was produced by M2b monocytes isolated from alcoholic PBMCs. These M2b monocytes reverted to quiescent monocytes (IL-12(-)IL-10(-)CCL1(-)CD163(-)CD14(+) cells) in cultures supplemented with CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide, and the subsequent quiescent monocytes easily converted to M1 monocytes under bacterial Ag stimulation. Alcoholic PBMC chimeras treated with CCL1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide were resistant against pulmonary infection by K. pneumoniae and sepsis stemming from enterococcal translocation. These results indicate that a majority of monocytes polarize to an M2b phenotype in association with alcohol abuse, and this polarization contributes to the increased susceptibility of alcoholics to gut and lung infections. Bacterial pneumonia and gut bacteria-associated sepsis, frequently seen in alcoholics, can be controlled through the polarization of macrophage phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Pegylated interferon-alpha2b: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and preliminary efficacy data. Hepatitis C Intervention Therapy Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glue, P; Fang, J W; Rouzier-Panis, R; Raffanel, C; Sabo, R; Gupta, S K; Salfi, M; Jacobs, S

    2000-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, and antiviral efficacy of pegylated interferon-alpha2b monotherapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Fifty-eight patients (38 men, 20 women; age range, 25 to 65 years) with compensated chronic hepatitis C were enrolled in this open-label, randomized, active controlled study. Patients received 0.035 to 2.0 microg/kg pegylated interferon-alpha2b subcutaneously weekly or the active control, interferon-alpha2b 3 million IU subcutaneously three times/week, for 24 weeks. Safety and antiviral efficacy assessments were performed during treatment and in a subsequent 4-week follow-up period. Detailed pharmacokinetic assessments were performed at weeks 1 and 4. Pegylated interferon-alpha2b produced dose-related reductions in white blood cells, neutrophils, and platelets, and dose-related increases in oral temperature, serum neopterin, and serum 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity, which were qualitatively similar to those produced by nonpegylated interferon-alpha2b. Reported adverse events (flu-like symptoms, asthenia) were qualitatively similar in pegylated interferon-alpha2b- and nonpegylated interferon-alpha2b-treated groups. Dose-related antiviral activity, as measured by loss of detectable serum hepatitis C virus RNA (safety and pharmacodynamic profiles were comparable. Pegylated interferon-alpha2b demonstrated delayed clearance compared with nonpegylated interferon-alpha2b, consistent with once-weekly administration.

  8. Contributions of PHOX2B in the pathogenesis of Hirschsprung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel María Fernández

    Full Text Available Hirschsprung disease (HSCR is a congenital malformation of the hindgut resulting from a disruption of neural crest cell migration during embryonic development. It has a complex genetic aetiology with several genes involved in its pathogenesis. PHOX2B plays a key function in the development of neural crest derivatives, and heterozygous mutations cause a complex dysautonomia associating HSCR, Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS and neuroblastoma (NB in various combinations. In order to determine the role of PHOX2B in isolated HSCR, we performed a mutational screening in a cohort of 207 Spanish HSCR patients. Our most relevant finding has been the identification of a de novo and novel deletion (c.393_410del18 in a patient with HSCR. Results of in silico and functional assays support its pathogenic effect related to HSCR. Therefore our results support that PHOX2B loss-of-function is a rare cause of HSCR phenotype.

  9. [Antiviral activity of recombinant interferon-alpha-2b in combination with certain antioxidant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A N; Deriabin, P G; Galegov, G A

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of interferon-alpha-2b in combination with various antioxidants against the influenza virus and Herpes simplex was studied. The standard strains and a clinical strain of Herpes simplex isolated from a patient with resistance to acyclovir were used. The in vitro studie showed that antioxidants, such as alpho-tocoferol acetate (vitamin E), Unithiol and ascorbic acid had a significant antiinfluenzae and antiherpetic action on the influenza virus A/H5N1 and Herpes simplex variants. They protected up to 100% of the cell monolayer from the virus cytopathic effect. The taurin solutions had no antiviral activity irrespective of the infection dose. Combinations of interferon-alpha-2b with alpha-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E), Unithiol or ascorbic acid showed a significant synergistic effect: the antiviral activity of interferon increased several times. The antiinfluenza activity of interferon-a-2b in the presence of various concentrations of taurin did not change.

  10. Synthesis of 9H-Indeno [1, 2-b] Pyrazine and 11H-Indeno [1, 2-b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Synthesis of 9H-Indeno [1, 2-b] Pyrazine and. 11H-Indeno [1, 2-b] Quinoxaline Derivatives in. One-step Reaction from 2-Bromo-4-chloro-1-indanone. S. Jasouri1,2, J. Khalafy1,*, M. Badali2 and R.H. Prager3. 1Department of Chemistry, Urmia University, Urmia 57154, Iran. 2Daana Pharmaceutical Co., P.O. Box 5181, Tabriz ...

  11. Power Generation Unit of Nano-Satellites STUDSAT 2A/2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Sneha; Bhavana, K. H.; Ravi Kumar, H. M.; Ranjith, H. G.; Ghosh, Sujay

    2014-08-01

    STUDSAT 2A/2B [8] are the twin nano-satellites. Electrical power system is one of the most important subsystems of STUDSAT 2A/2B which provides conditioned power to all the subsystem. Power generating unit is one of the most important units in Electrical Power system. The power generation unit of STUDSAT-2A/2B consists of 3 solar panels out of which 2 are deployable and 1 is body mounted and a maximum Power point Tracker(MPPT).The total orbital period of STUDSAT-2A/2B is 98min.The sunlit period is about 63.8min.The power can be generated by the solar panels only during this period. Since the power generated by the solar panel is affected by the solar irradiation, temperature etc. It's difficult to generate the maximum power at all the point in an orbit, hence maximum power point trackers are used. These maximum power point trackers track the maximum power point on the solar panel using perturb and observe algorithm and hence maximum power is generated at all the points in an orbit.This paper presents the power profile for both body mounted and deployable solar panels. It gives a brief description of how the power generated by the solar cells is conditioned and the power protection unit with simulation results and testing results for the solar panel used in STUDSAT-2A/2B.

  12. Rhinovirus infection induces cytotoxicity and delays wound healing in bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantopoulos Andreas G

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rhinoviruses (RV, the most common triggers of acute asthma exacerbations, are considered not cytotoxic to the bronchial epithelium. Recent observations, however, have questioned this knowledge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of RV to induce epithelial cytotoxicity and affect epithelial repair in-vitro. Methods Monolayers of BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells, seeded at different densities were exposed to RV serotypes 1b, 5, 7, 9, 14, 16. Cytotoxicity was assessed chromatometrically. Epithelial monolayers were mechanically wounded, exposed or not to RV and the repopulation of the damaged area was assessed by image analysis. Finally epithelial cell proliferation was assessed by quantitation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA by flow cytometry. Results RV1b, RV5, RV7, RV14 and RV16 were able to induce considerable epithelial cytotoxicity, more pronounced in less dense cultures, in a cell-density and dose-dependent manner. RV9 was not cytotoxic. Furthermore, RV infection diminished the self-repair capacity of bronchial epithelial cells and reduced cell proliferation. Conclusion RV-induced epithelial cytotoxicity may become considerable in already compromised epithelium, such as in the case of asthma. The RV-induced impairment on epithelial proliferation and self-repair capacity may contribute to the development of airway remodeling.

  13. 4-Methoxyestradiol-induced oxidative injuries in human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yahsin; Chang, Louis W.; Cheng Lichuan; Tsai, M.-H.; Lin Pinpin

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicated that people exposed to dioxins were prone to the development of lung diseases including lung cancer. Animal studies demonstrated that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increased liver tumors and promoted lung metaplasia in females. Metabolic changes in 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) resulted from an interaction between TCDD and E 2 could be associated with gender difference. Previously, we reported that methoxylestradiols (MeOE 2 ), especially 4-MeOE 2 , accumulated in human lung cells (BEAS-2B) co-treated with TCDD and E 2 . In the present study, we demonstrate unique accumulation of 4-MeOE 2 , as a result of TCDD/E 2 interaction and revealed its bioactivity in human lung epithelial cell line (H1355). 4-Methoxyestradiol treatment significantly decreased cell growth and increased mitotic index. Elevation of ROS and SOD activity, with a concomitant decrease in the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio, was also detected in 4-MeOE 2 -treated cells. Quantitative comet assay showed increased oxidative DNA damage in the 4-MeOE 2 -treated H1355 cells, which could be significantly reduced by the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). However, inhibition of cell growth and increase in mitotic arrest induced by 4-MeOE 2 were unaffected by NAC. We concluded that 4-MeOE 2 accumulation resulting from TCDD and E 2 interaction would contribute to the higher vulnerability on lung pathogenesis in females when exposed to TCDD

  14. Lithium insertion in nanostructured TiO(2)(B) architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Anthony G; Henkelman, Graeme; Stevenson, Keith J

    2013-05-21

    Electric vehicles and grid storage devices have potentialto become feasible alternatives to current technology, but only if scientists can develop energy storage materials that offer high capacity and high rate capabilities. Chemists have studied anatase, rutile, brookite and TiO2(B) (bronze) in both bulk and nanostructured forms as potential Li-ion battery anodes. In most cases, the specific capacity and rate of lithiation and delithiation increases as the materials are nanostructured. Scientists have explained these enhancements in terms of higher surface areas, shorter Li(+) diffusion paths and different surface energies for nanostructured materials allowing for more facile lithiation and delithiation. Of the most studied polymorphs, nanostructured TiO2(B) has the highest capacity with promising high rate capabilities. TiO2(B) is able to accommodate 1 Li(+) per Ti, giving a capacity of 335 mAh/g for nanotubular and nanoparticulate TiO2(B). The TiO2(B) polymorph, discovered in 1980 by Marchand and co-workers, has been the focus of many recent studies regarding high power and high capacity anode materials with potential applications for electric vehicles and grid storage. This is due to the material's stability over multiple cycles, safer lithiation potential relative to graphite, reasonable capacity, high rate capability, nontoxicity, and low cost (Bruce, P. G.; Scrosati, B.; Tarascon, J.-M. Nanomaterials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.2008, 47, 2930-2946). One of the most interesting properties of TiO2(B) is that both bulk and nanostructured forms lithiate and delithiate through a surface redox or pseudocapacitive charging mechanism, giving rise to stable high rate charge/discharge capabilities in the case of nanostructured TiO2(B). When other polymorphs of TiO2 are nanostructured, they still mainly intercalate lithium through a bulk diffusion-controlled mechanism. TiO2(B) has a unique open crystal structure and low energy Li

  15. FGF10/FGFR2b signaling plays essential roles during in vivo embryonic submandibular salivary gland morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajihosseini Mohammad K

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyses of Fgf10 and Fgfr2b mutant mice, as well as human studies, suggest that FGF10/FGFR2b signaling may play an essential, nonredundant role during embryonic SMG development. To address this question, we have analyzed the SMG phenotype in Fgf10 and Fgfr2b heterozygous and null mutant mice. In addition, although previous studies suggest that the FGF10/FGFR2b and FGF8/FGFR2c signaling pathways are functionally interrelated, little is known about the functional relationship between these two pathways during SMG development. We have designed in vivo and in vitro experiments to address this question. Results We analyzed Fgf10 and Fgfr2b heterozygous mutant and null mice and demonstrate dose-dependent SMG phenotypic differences. Hypoplastic SMGs are seen in Fgf10 and Fgfr2b heterozygotes whereas SMG aplasia is seen in Fgf10 and Fgfr2b null embryos. Complementary in vitro studies further indicate that FGF10/FGFR2b signaling regulates SMG epithelial branching and cell proliferation. To delineate the functional relationship between the FGF10/FGFR2b and FGF8/FGFR2c pathways, we compared the SMG phenotype in Fgfr2c+/Δ/Fgf10+/- double heterozygous mice to that seen in wildtype, Fgf10+/- (Fgfr2c+/+/Fgf10+/- and Fgfr2c+/Δ (Fgfr2c+/Δ/Fgf10+/+ single heterozygous mutant littermates and demonstrate genotype-specific SMG phenotypes. In addition, exogenous FGF8 was able to rescue the abnormal SMG phenotype associated with abrogated FGFR2b signaling in vitro and restore branching to normal levels. Conclusion Our data indicates that FGF10/FGFR2b signaling is essential for the SMG epithelial branching and histodifferentiation, but not earliest initial bud formation. The functional presence of other endogenous signaling pathways could not prevent complete death of embryonic SMG cells in Fgf10 and Fgfr2b null mice. Though we were able to rescue the abnormal phenotype associated with reduced in vitro FGF10/FGFR2b signaling with exogenous FGF8

  16. Electrification Beyond Light Duty: Class 2b-3 Commercial Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birky, Alicia [Energetics Incorporated; Laughlin, Michael [Energetics Incorporated; Tartaglia, Katie [Energetics Incorporated; Price, Rebecca [Energetics Incorporated; Lim, Brandon [Energetics Incorporated; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    The class 2b-3 truck market covers a wide range of commercial truck applications across a half-million vehicle sales annually. This report collected public information and stakeholder input to assess the opportunity for electrification in this market. Although class 2b-3 pickup truck and van bodies are very similar to personal light vehicles, their functional requirements are quite different due to the demands of the commercial market. These demands vary by application and often vary from day to day for a single application. Fleet customers purchase these vehicles to perform a particular job for their business and are concerned about the overall cost of doing that job. Therefore, the vehicles must meet the job requirements cost effectively. Customers also are sensitive to initial cost. Electrification offers the potential to reduce vehicle operating costs and possibly improve vehicle functionality. However, the current market for class 2b-3 electrified trucks is very small, and the trucks are costly. Increased production volumes are key to cost reductions and may be assisted by sharing components with larger or smaller truck classes. Expanding demand is also crucial and stakeholders identified several niche markets with duty cycles that are likely well-suited to electrified class 2b-3 trucks. To expand beyond these niches, class 2b-3 electric solutions must be robust, flexible, and adaptable in order to cover a wide range of vocations, applications, and duty cycles.

  17. Review of benchmark tests on JENDL-2B library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yasuyuki

    1982-01-01

    JENDL-2B is a mixed library consisting of JENDL-2 for the most important nuclides, i.e., 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, Cr, Fe and Ni and of JENDL-1 for other nuclides. Complete reevaluation work was made for these eight nuclides. The simultaneous evaluation method was adopted in the evaluation for the five heavy nuclides. The resonance structure was carefully studied for the structural materials in the unresolved resonance region up to several MeV. Benchmark tests have been made on JENDL-2B. Various core center characteristics were tested with one-dimensional model for total of 27 assemblies. Satisfactory results were obtained as a whole. The results of spectrum indices, however, suggested some inconsistent spectrum prediction. Moreover, the reactivity worths were overestimated for most of materials, and apparent C/E discrepancies were observed between the Pu and U cores. Applicability of JENDL-2B was further tested to more sophisticated problems for MOZART and ZPPR-3 assemblies. The reaction rate distributions were better predicted with JENDL-2B than with JENDL-1. The positive sodium void reactivity worth was much overestimated with JENDL-2B due to too large moderation components. The control rod worths were well predicted in MOZART, but were considerably underpredicted in ZPPR-3. (author)

  18. ORM-Based Semantics of B2B Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsters, H.; van Blommestein, F.

    After widespread implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning and Personal Information Management, the next wave in the application of ICT is headed towards business to business (B2B) communication. B2B has a number of specific aspects, one of them being negotiation. This aspect has been largely neglected by present implementations of standard EDI- or XML-messaging and by B2B webservice implementations. In this paper a precise model is given of the negotiation process. The requirements of a potential Buyer and the offer of a potential Seller are matched and, if the negotiation is successful, a contract is concluded. The negotiation process model is represented in ORM, extended with dynamic constraints. Our model may be implemented in the databases of the trading partners and in message- or service definitions.

  19. B2B Integration in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Petra; Legner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The competitiveness of businesses is increasingly dependent on their electronic networks with customers, suppliers, and partners. While the strategic and operational impact of external integration and IOS adoption has been extensively studied, much less attention has been paid to the organizational......). The reference model comprises technical, organizational, and institutional levels to reflect the multiple facets of B2B integration. In this paper we investigate the current state of electronic collaboration in global supply chains focussing on the technical view. Using an in-depth case analysis we identify...... and technical design of electronic relationships. The objective of our longitudinal research project is the development of a framework for understanding and explaining B2B integration. Drawing on existing literature and empirical cases we present a reference model (a classification scheme for B2B Integration...

  20. NiO nanoparticles induce apoptosis through repressing SIRT1 in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wei-Xia; He, Min-Di; Mao, Lin [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Qian, Feng-Hua [Department of Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Li, Yu-Ming [Institute of Hepatobiliary Surgery, XinQiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Pi, Hui-Feng; Liu, Chuan; Chen, Chun-Hai; Lu, Yong-Hui; Cao, Zheng-Wang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zheng-Ping [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhou, Zhou, E-mail: lunazhou00@163.com [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2015-07-15

    With application of nano-sized nickel-containing particles (Nano-Ni) expanding, the health concerns about their adverse effects on the pulmonary system are increasing. However, the mechanisms for the pulmonary toxicity of these materials remain unclear. In the present study, we focused on the impacts of NiO nanoparticles (NiONPs) on sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, and investigated whether SIRT1 was involved in NiONPs-induced apoptosis. Although the NiONPs tended to agglomerate in fluid medium, they still entered into the human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and released Ni{sup 2+} inside the cells. NiONPs at doses of 5, 10, and 20 μg/cm{sup 2} inhibited the cell viability. NiONPs' produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process, indicated by increased numbers of Annexin V positive cells and caspase-3 activation. The expression of SIRT1 was markedly down-regulated by the NiONPs, accompanied by the hyperacetylation of p53 (tumor protein 53) and overexpression of Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein). However, overexpression of SIRT1 through resveratrol treatment or transfection clearly attenuated the NiONPs-induced apoptosis and activation of p53 and Bax. Our results suggest that the repression of SIRT1 may underlie the NiONPs-induced apoptosis via p53 hyperacetylation and subsequent Bax activation. Because SIRT1 participates in multiple biologic processes by deacetylation of dozens of substrates, this knowledge of the impact of NiONPs on SIRT1 may lead to an improved understanding of the toxic mechanisms of Nano-Ni and provide a molecular target to antagonize Nano-Ni toxicity. - Highlights: • NiONPs were taken up by BEAS-2B cells and released Ni{sup 2+}. • NiONPs produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process. • NiONPs repressed SIRT1 expression and activated p53 and Bax. • Overexpression of SIRT1 attenuated NiONPs-induced apoptosis via deacetylation p53.

  1. [Determination of volatile organic compounds in lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-jie; Qiu, Yuan-hua; Chen, En-guo; Ying, Ke-jing; Yu, Jin; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    To identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in lung cancer tissue and lung cancer cell lines. The lung cancer tissue samples from 18 patients were cultured and 4 lung cell lines (A549, NCI-H446, SK-MES-1, BEAS-2B) were also included in the study. Air samples in the headspace of culture flasks were analyzed for VOCs with solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique (SPME-GC/MS). Two kinds of VOCs 2-pentadecanone and nonadecane were detected in lung cancer cell lines A549, NCI-H446 and SK-MES-1. The concentration of 2-pentadecanone were (1.382 + or -0.171) X 10(-5)mg/L, (1.681 + or - 0.190) X 10(-4)mg/L and (2.835 + or - 0.401) X 10(-6)mg/L, respectively; the concentrations of nonadecane were (8.382 + or - 0.606 ) X 10(-6)mg/L, (1.845 + or - 0.130) X 10(-5)mg/L and (6.220 + or - 0.362) X 10(-6)mg/L), respectively. The eicosane was detected in A549 and NCI-H446 with the concentration of (8.313 + or - 1.130) X 10(-6)mg/L and (1.020 + or - 0.141) X 10(-5)mg/L), respectively. All the 3 VOCs were not detected in cell line BEAS-2B. The concentrations of 12 VOCs including decane, 2- pentadecanone, nonadecane and eicosane were high in 18 lung cancer tissue samples; the concentrations of 2-pentadecanone were 5.421 X 10(-6)mg/L-3.621 X 10(-5)mg/L,those of nonadecane were 5.805 X 10(-6)mg/L-1.830 X 10(-5)mg/L, those of eicosane were 2.730 X 10(-6)mg/L-2.343 X 10(-5)mg/L. There were no differences of VOCs levels among patients with different cancer differentiation (P>0.05). The concentration of eicosane in the non-squamous carcinoma was higher than that in squamous carcinoma, the same results were confirmed in the lung cancer cell lines. This study has identified VOCs produced by lung cancer tissue, which may support to use breath test as a complementary noninvasive diagnostic method for lung cancer.

  2. Particulate metal bioaccessibility in physiological fluids and cell culture media: Toxicological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Bérénice; Alleman, Laurent Yves; Perdrix, Esperanza; Riffault, Véronique; Happillon, Mélanie; Strecker, Alain; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Garçon, Guillaume; Coddeville, Patrice

    2017-07-01

    According to the literature, tiny amounts of transition metals in airborne fine particles (PM 2.5 ) may induce proinflammatory cell response through reactive oxygen species production. The solubility of particle-bound metals in physiological fluids, i.e. the metal bioaccessibility is driven by factors such as the solution chemical composition, the contact time with the particles, and the solid-to-liquid phase ratio (S/L). In this work, PM 2.5 -bound metal bioaccessibility was assessed in various physiological-like solutions including cell culture media in order to evidence the potential impact on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) when studying the cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of PM 2.5 towards the target bronchial compartment. Different fluids (H 2 O, PBS, LHC-9 culture medium, Gamble and human respiratory mucus collected from COPD patients), various S/L conditions (from 1/6000 to 1/100,000) and exposure times (6, 24 and 72h) were tested on urban PM 2.5 samples. In addition, metals' total, soluble and insoluble fractions from PM 2.5 in LHC-9 were deposited on NHBE cells (BEAS-2B) to measure their cytotoxicity and inflammatory potential (i.e., G6PDH activity, secretion of IL-6 and IL-8). The bioaccessibility is solution-dependent. A higher salinity or organic content may increase or inhibit the bioaccessibiliy according to the element, as observed in the complex mucus matrix. Decreasing the S/L ratio also affect the bioaccessibility depending on the solution tested while the exposure time appears less critical. The LHC-9 culture medium appears to be a good physiological proxy as it induces metal bioaccessibilities close to the mucus values and is little affected by S/L ratios or exposure time. Only the insoluble fraction can be linked to the PM 2.5 -induced cytotoxicity. By contrast, both soluble and insoluble fractions can be related to the secretion of cytokines. The metal bioaccessibility in LHC-9 of the total, soluble, and insoluble

  3. Endemic versus epidemic viral spreads display distinct patterns of HTLV-2b replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Moules, Vincent; Sibon, David; Nass, Catharie C.; Mortreux, Franck; Mauclere, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Murphy, Edward L.; Wattel, Eric

    2006-01-01

    As the replication pattern of leukemogenic PTLVs possesses a strong pathogenic impact, we investigated HTLV-2 replication in vivo in asymptomatic carriers belonging into 2 distinct populations infected by the same HTLV-2b subtype. They include epidemically infected American blood donors, in whom HTLV-2b has been present for only 30 years, and endemically infected Bakola Pygmies from Cameroon, characterized by a long viral endemicity (at least few generations). In blood donors, both the circulating proviral loads and the degree of infected cell proliferation were largely lower than those characterizing asymptomatic carriers infected with leukemogenic PTLVs (HTLV-1, STLV-1). This might contribute to explain the lack of known link between HTLV-2b infection and the development of malignancies in this population. In contrast, endemically infected individuals displayed high proviral loads resulting from the extensive proliferation of infected cells. The route and/or the duration of infection, viral genetic drift, host immune response, genetic background, co-infections or a combination thereof might have contributed to these differences between endemically and epidemically infected subjects. As the clonality pattern observed in endemically infected individuals is very reminiscent of that of leukemogenic PTLVs at the pre-leukemic stage, our results highlight the possible oncogenic effect of HTLV-2b infection in such population

  4. Developmental splicing deregulation in leukodystrophies related to EIF2B mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Huyghe

    Full Text Available Leukodystrophies (LD are rare inherited disorders that primarily affect the white matter (WM of the central nervous system. The large heterogeneity of LD results from the diversity of the genetically determined defects that interfere with glial cells functions. Astrocytes have been identified as the primary target of LD with cystic myelin breakdown including those related to mutations in the ubiquitous translation initiation factor eIF2B. EIF2B is involved in global protein synthesis and its regulation under normal and stress conditions. Little is known about how eIF2B mutations have a major effect on WM. We performed a transcriptomic analysis using fibroblasts of 10 eIF2B-mutated patients with a severe phenotype and 10 age matched patients with other types of LD in comparison to control fibroblasts. ANOVA was used to identify genes that were statistically significantly differentially expressed at basal state and after ER-stress. The pattern of differentially expressed genes between basal state and ER-stress did not differ significantly among each of the three conditions. However, 70 genes were specifically differentially expressed in eIF2B-mutated fibroblasts whatever the stress conditions tested compared to controls, 96% being under-expressed. Most of these genes were involved in mRNA regulation and mitochondrial metabolism. The 13 most representative genes, including genes belonging to the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (HNRNP family, described as regulators of splicing events and stability of mRNA, were dysregulated during the development of eIF2B-mutated brains. HNRNPH1, F and C mRNA were over-expressed in foetus but under-expressed in children and adult brains. The abnormal regulation of HNRNP expression in the brain of eIF2B-mutated patients was concomitant with splicing dysregulation of the main genes involved in glial maturation such as PLP1 for oligodendrocytes and GFAP in astrocytes. These findings demonstrate a developmental

  5. The novel anthraquinone derivative IMP1338 induces death of human cancer cells by p53-independent S and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Kyung; Ryu, Hwani; Son, A-Rang; Seo, Bitna; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Song, Jie-Young; Ahn, Jiyeon

    2016-04-01

    To identify novel small molecules that induce selective cancer cell death, we screened a chemical library containing 1040 compounds in HT29 colon cancer and CCD18-Co normal colon cells, using a phenotypic cell-based viability assay system with the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). We discovered a novel anthraquinone derivative, N-(4-[{(9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-1-anthracenyl)sulfonyl}amino]phenyl)-N-methylacetamide (IMP1338), which was cytotoxic against the human colon cancer cells tested. The MTT cell viability assay showed that treatment with IMP1338 selectively inhibited HCT116, HCT116 p53(-/-), HT29, and A549 cancer cell proliferation compared to that of Beas2B normal epithelial cells. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the cytotoxicity of IMP1338, we examined the effect of IMP1338 on the cell cycle distribution and death of cancer cells. IMP1338 treatment significantly arrested the cell cycle at S and G2/M phases by DNA damage and led to apoptotic cell death, which was determined using FACS analysis with Annexin V/PI double staining. Furthermore, IMP1338 increased caspase-3 cleavage in wild-type p53, p53 knockout HCT116, and HT29 cells as determined using immunoblotting. In addition, IMP1338 markedly induced the phosphorylation of histone H2AX and Chk1 in both cell lines while the combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiation inhibited the viability of HCT116, HCT116 p53(-/-), and HT29 cells compared to 5-FU or radiation alone. Our findings indicated that IMP1338 induced p53-independent cell death through S and G2/M phase arrest as well as DNA damage. These results provide a basis for future investigations assessing the promising anticancer properties of IMP1338. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. FXR induces the UGT2B4 enzyme in hepatocytes: a potential mechanism of negative feedback control of FXR activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Olivier; Torra, Ines Pineda; Sirvent, Audrey; Claudel, Thierry; Blanquart, Christophe; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Kuipers, Folkert; Kosykh, Vladimir; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart

    2003-06-01

    Bile acids are essential for bile formation and intestinal absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. However, the intrinsic toxicity of hydrophobic bile acids demands a tight control of their intracellular concentrations. Bile acids are ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) that regulates the expression of genes controlling bile acid synthesis and transport. The human uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4 (UGT2B4) converts hydrophobic bile acids into more hydrophilic glucuronide derivatives. In this study, we identify UGT2B4 as an FXR target gene. Human hepatocytes or hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells were treated with chenodeoxycholic acid or the synthetic FXR agonist GW4064, and the levels of UGT2B4 messenger RNA, protein, and activity were determined by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and glucuronidation assays. Treatment of hepatocytes and HepG2 cells with FXR agonists resulted in an increase of UGT2B4 messenger RNA, protein, and activity. A bile acid response element in the UGT2B4 promoter (B4-BARE) to which FXR, but not retinoid X receptor, binds, was identified by site-directed mutagenesis, electromobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retinoid X receptor activation abolished the induction of UGT2B4 expression and inhibited binding of FXR to the B4-BARE, suggesting that retinoid X receptor modulates FXR target gene activation. Overexpression of UGT2B4 in HepG2 cells resulted in the attenuation of bile acid induction of the FXR target gene small heterodimeric partner. These data suggest that UGT2B4 gene induction by bile acids contributes to a feed-forward reduction of bile acid toxicity and a decrease of the activity of these biological FXR activators.

  7. Intelligent Information Integration in B2B Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fensel, Dieter; Omelayenko, Borys; Ding, Ying; Klein, Michel; Flett, Alan; Schulten, Ellen; Botquin, Guy; Brown, Mike; Dabiri, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    Internet and web technology penetrates many aspects of our daily life. Its importance as a medium for business transactions will grow exponentially during the next few years. In terms of the involved market volume, the B2B area will hereby be the most interesting area. Also, it will be the place,

  8. Expression and purification of recombinant Shiga toxin 2B from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    (SDS-PAGE) and StxB2 yield was 450 µg ml-1 confirmed by Bradford assay. Recombinant Stx2B protein was produced in highly pure yield using HaloTag technology. Key words: Escherichia coli O157:H7, StxB gene, expression, HaloTag technology, purification. INTRODUCTION. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli ...

  9. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The

  10. Improved Refolding Efficacy of Recombinant Human Interferon α-2b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interferon α-2b via pH Modulation. Aziz Dashbolaghi1, Shohreh Khatami2, Sorush Sardari3, Reza Ahangari Cohan1 and Dariush Norouzian1*. 1Department of Pilot Biotechnology, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Drug Design and Bioinformatics Unit, Medical Biotechnology. Department, Biotechnology Research Center, ...

  11. Development of New B2B Venture Corporate Brand Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törmälä, Minna; Gyrd-Jones, Richard I.

    2017-01-01

    The development and role of brand identity in new B2B ventures is not well explored despite the challenge for such organisations in establishing reputational legitimacy. Previous research defines corporate brand identity as stable and endogenous to the organisation based either on the reputational...

  12. Strategic Insights from Mystery Shopping in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial...

  13. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: exp_2b

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC REFEREE. No syntax errors found. CIF dictionary Interpreting this report. Datablock: exp_2b. Bond precision:.

  14. Functional interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and cigarette smoke components in lung epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Muñoz

    Full Text Available The smoking habit is the most important, but not a sufficient cause for lung cancer development. Several studies have reported the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 presence and E6 and E7 transcripts expression in lung carcinoma cases from different geographical regions. The possible interaction between HPV infection and smoke carcinogens, however, remains unclear. In this study we address a potential cooperation between tobacco smoke and HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins for alterations in proliferative and tumorigenic properties of lung epithelial cells. A549 (alveolar, tumoral and BEAS-2B (bronchial, non-tumoral cell lines were stably transfected with recombinant pLXSN vectors expressing HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and exposed to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC at different concentrations. HPV16 E6 and E7 expression was associated with loss of p53 stability, telomerase (hTERT and p16(INK4A overexpression in BEAS-2B cells as demonstrated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and western blotting (WB. In A549 cells we observed downregulation of p53 but not a significant increase of hTERT transcripts. In addition, the HPV16 E6/E7 transfected cell lines showed an increased proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth in a HPV16 E6 and E7 expression-dependent manner. Moreover, both HPV16 E6/E7 and mock transfected cells showed an increased proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth in the presence of 0.1 and 10 µg/mL CSC. However, this increase was significantly greater in HPV16 E6/E7 transfected cells (p<0.001. Data were confirmed by FCSE proliferation assay. The results obtained in this study are suggestive of a functional interaction between tobacco smoke and HPV16 E6/E7 oncoproteins for malignant transformation and tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. More studies are warranted in order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in this cooperation.

  15. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.

  16. The component formula of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax ginseng induces apoptosis and inhibits cell invasion and migration through targeting PTEN in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Yan, Xiaojing; Yang, Ye; Qian, Lei; Tian, Yuan; Mao, Jian-Hua; Chen, Weiping

    2017-11-24

    Lung cancer still remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. It is an urgent need for development of novel therapeutic agents to improve current treatment of this disease. Here we investigate whether the effective component formula of traditional Chinese Medicine could serve as new potential therapeutic drugs to treat lung cancer. We optimize the most effective component formula of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax Ginseng (FMG), which is composed of Salvianolic acid A, 20(S)-Ginsenoside and Ginseng polysaccharide. We discovered that FMG selectively inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis but had no any cytotoxic effects on normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Moreover, FMG inhibited lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Mechanistically, we found that FMG significantly promoted p-PTEN expression and subsequently inhibited PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The phosphatase activity of PTEN protein was increased after FMG bound to PTEN protein, indicating that PTEN is one of the FMG targeted proteins. In addition, FMG regulated expression of some marker proteins relevant to cell apoptosis, migration and invasion. Collectively, these results provide mechanistic insight into the anti-NSCLC of FMG by enhancing the phosphatase activity of PTEN, and suggest that FMG could be as a potential option for lung cancer treatment.

  17. Modified Receptor Internalization upon Coexpression of 5-HT1B Receptor and 5-HT2B Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Janoshazi , Agnes; Deraet , Maud; Callebert , Jacques; Setola , Vincent; Guenther , Silke; Saubamea , Bruno; Manivet , Philippe; Launay , Jean-Marie; Maroteaux , Luc

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptors are often coexpressed with 5-HT(1B) receptors, and cross-talk between the two receptors has been reported in various cell types. However, many mechanistic details underlying 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(2B) receptor cross-talk have not been elucidated. We hypothesized that 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(1B) receptors each affect the others' signaling by modulating the others' trafficking. We thus examined the agonist stimulated internalization kinetics of fluoresc...

  18. The histone demethylases JMJD1A and JMJD2B are transcriptional targets of hypoxia-inducible factor HIF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Sophie; Kristensen, Malene Maag; Jensen, Kim Steen

    2008-01-01

    of these modifications is exerted by histone methyltransferases and the recently discovered histone demethylases. Here we show that the hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1a binds to specific recognition sites in the genes encoding the jumonji family histone demethylases JMJD1A and JMJD2B and induces their expression....... Accordingly, hypoxic cells express elevated levels of JMJD1A and JMJD2B mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we find increased expression of JMJD1A and JMJD2B in renal cancer cells that have lost the von Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor protein VHL and therefore display a deregulated expression of HIF. Studies...... on ectopically expressed JMJD1A and JMJD2B indicate that both proteins retain their histone lysine demethylase activity in hypoxia and thereby might impact the hypoxic gene expression program....

  19. Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 2B4 and 2B7 Are Responsible for Naftopidil Glucuronidation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Wen Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Naftopidil (NAF is widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prevention of prostate cancer in elderly men. These patients receive a combination of drugs, which involves high risk for drug–drug interaction. NAF exhibits superior efficacy but must be administered at a much higher dosage than other therapeutic drugs. We previously showed that extensive glucuronidation of NAF enantiomers caused poor bioavailability. However, the metabolic pathway and mechanism of action of NAF enantiomer remain to be elucidated. The present study was performed to identify the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs responsible for the glucuronidation of NAF enantiomers and to investigate the potential inhibition of UGT activity by NAF. The major metabolic sites examined were liver and kidney, which were compared with intestine. Screening of 12 recombinant UGTs showed that UGT2B7 primarily contributed to the metabolism of both enantiomers. Moreover, enzyme kinetics for R(+-NAF, UGT2B7 (mean Km, 21 μM; mean Vmax, 1043 pmol/min/mg showed significantly higher activity than observed for UGT2B4 and UGT1A9. UGT2B4 (mean Km, 55 μM; mean Vmax, 1976 pmol/min/mg and UGT2B7 (mean Km, 38 μM; mean Vmax, 1331 pmol/min/mg showed significantly higher catalysis of glucuronidation of S(--NAF than UGT1A9. In human liver microsomes, R(+-NAF and S(--NAF also inhibited UGT1A9: mean Ki values for R(+-NAF and S(--NAF were 10.0 μM and 11.5 μM, respectively. These data indicate that UGT2B7 was the principal enzyme mediating glucuronidation of R(+-NAF and S(--NAF. UGT2B4 plays the key role in the stereoselective metabolism of NAF enantiomers. R(+-NAF and S(--NAF may inhibit UGT1A9. Understanding the metabolism of NAF enantiomers, especially their interactions with metabolic enzymes, will help to elucidate potential drug–drug interactions and to optimize the administration of this medicine.

  20. Degradation mechanisms of high-energy bipolar nickel metal hydride battery with AB5 and A2B7 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Young, K.; West, J.; Regalado, J.; Cherisol, K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Failure modes of NiMH battery with AB 5 and A 2 B 7 alloys were reported. •Stable gamma-NiOOH was formed with the incorporation of Al from negative electrode. •The formation of gamma-NiOOH caused capacity degradation in AB 5 -containing battery. •Pulverization of the main A 2 B 7 phase is the main failure mode for A 2 B 7 -containing battery. -- Abstract: The failure modes of nickel/metal hydride batteries made from conventional AB 5 and La-only Mg-containing A 2 B 7 metal hydride alloys were studied at the end of 70% state-of-charge cycle life testing (reaching below 3.1 Ah capacity in a 5.5 Ah design cell) by the combination of inductively coupled plasma, scanning electron microscope, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and composition mapping, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The capacity degradation of cell with AB 5 alloy was found to have been caused by the combination of metal hydride alloy oxidation and non-reversible γ-NiOOH phase formation, which was promoted by the incorporation of Al leached out from the oxidation product of the Al-containing negative electrode. In the cell with Al-free A 2 B 7 alloy, the end of cycle life was the result of pulverization in the main A 2 B 7 phase

  1. Graphene-induced apoptosis in lung epithelial cells through EGFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Ming; Bangalore, Preeti; Chen, Eric Y.; Lu, David; Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Suh, Andrew; Gehring, Matthew; Cangco, John P.; Garcia, Santiago G.; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Expanding interest in nanotechnology applied to electronic and biomedical fields has led to fast-growing development of various nanomaterials. Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms with unique physical and chemical properties. Recently, graphene has been used in many studies on electronics, photonics, composite materials, energy generation and storage, sensors, and biomedicine. However, the current health risk assessment for graphene has been relatively limited and inconclusive. This study evaluated the toxicity effects of graphene on the airway epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, which represents the first barrier of the human body to interact with airborne graphene particles. Our result showed that graphene can induce the cellular Ca2+ by phospholipase C (PLC) associated pathway by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Subsequently, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors activate the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores. Those Ca2+ signals further trigger the calcium-regulated apoptosis in the cell. Furthermore, the stimulation can cause EGFR upregulation, which have been demonstrated to associate with diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cardiovascular diseases. This study highlights the additional health risk considering that it can function as a contributing factor for other respiratory diseases.

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cartularo

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress.

  3. MAPK/FoxA2-mediated cigarette smoke-induced squamous metaplasia of bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunling; Lu, Jinchang; Zhou, Lei; Wu, Bo; Zhou, Feng; Gu, Liang; Xu, Donghui; Sun, Yingxin

    2017-01-01

    To explore the effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on the development of squamous metaplasia in human airway epithelial cells and the role of MAPK- and FoxA2-signaling pathways in the process. In an in vitro study, we treated the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS2B with CS extract, followed by treatment with the ERK inhibitor U0126, the JNK inhibitor SP600125, or the p38 inhibitor SB203580. In vivo, we used a CS-induced rat model. After treatment with CS with or without MAPK inhibitors for 90 days, lung tissues were harvested. p-ERK, p-p38 and p-JNK protein levels in cells and lung tissue were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, mRNA- and protein-expression profiles of FoxA2, E-cadherin, CD44, and ZO1 were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively, and morphological changes in bronchial epithelial cells were observed using lung-tissue staining. In both the in vitro and in vivo studies, phosphorylation of the ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 proteins was significantly increased ( P FoxA2 significantly decreased ( P FoxA2 expression. MAPK and FoxA2 mediate CS-induced squamous metaplasia. MAPK inhibitors upregulate FoxA2, resulting in a reduction in the degree of squamous metaplasia.

  4. Transcriptional response to organic compounds from diverse gasoline and biogasoline fuel emissions in human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libalova, Helena; Rossner, Pavel; Vrbova, Kristyna; Brzicova, Tana; Sikorova, Jitka; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Beranek, Vit; Klema, Jiri; Ciganek, Miroslav; Neca, Jiri; Machala, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Modern vehicles equipped with Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine have emerged as an important source of particulate emissions potentially harmful to human health. We collected and characterized gasoline exhaust particles (GEPs) produced by neat gasoline fuel (E0) and its blends with 15% ethanol (E15), 25% n-butanol (n-But25) and 25% isobutanol (i-But25). To study the toxic effects of organic compounds extracted from GEPs, we analyzed gene expression profiles in human lung BEAS-2B cells. Despite the lowest GEP mass, n-But25 extract contained the highest concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while i-But25 extract the lowest. Gene expression analysis identified activation of the DNA damage response and other subsequent events (cell cycle arrest, modulation of extracellular matrix, cell adhesion, inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis) following 4 h exposure to all GEP extracts. The i-But25 extract induced the most distinctive gene expression pattern particularly after 24 h exposure. Whereas E0, E15 and n-But25 extract treatments resulted in persistent stress signaling including DNA damage response, MAPK signaling, oxidative stress, metabolism of PAHs or pro-inflammatory response, i-But25 induced changes related to the metabolism of the cellular nutrients required for cell recovery. Our results indicate that i-But25 extract possessed the weakest genotoxic potency possibly due to the low PAH content. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Structured Crowdsourcing: A B2B Innovation Roadmap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Engell, Toke; Jensen, Nik Grewy

    Crowdsourcing is an increasingly popular source of both ideas and funding. Crowdsourcing in a B2B context is less well understood and, as such, much of our discussion will highlight business-to-business crowdsourcing. More generally discussion will address crowdsourcing relative to innovation...... from crowd-sourcing efforts. The roadmap emphasizes on early stages in the overall innovation management activity that is related to development and specification of the task to be crowdsourced, the identification of the crowd, the creation of the environment to connect the crowdsourcer, the task...... and the crowd, motivation of the crowd, and actual activities in reaching the crowd. Managing the input from the crowd is regarded as a later stage in the overall innovation management but also as a focal point in the arguments for improving B2B crowdsourcing. In crowd selection processes this paper aims...

  6. Customer satisfaction in B2B cloud services

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Helinä

    2013-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on kirjallisuuskatsauksen kautta esitellä B2B-pilvipalveluiden asiakastyytyväisyyteen vaikuttavia seikkoja, ja kuinka näitä seikkoja tulisi ottaa huomioon asiakastyytyväisyyden parantamisessa. Tässä tutkimuksessa verkkopohjaiseen liiketoimintaan liittyvää asiakastyytyväisyyden tutkimusta käytettiin pohjana etsiessä asiakastyytyväisyyteen vaikuttavia seikkoja pilvipalveluissa. Tutkimuksessa vertaillaan asiakastyytyväisyyteen vaikuttavia seikkoja vertailemalla tyytyväisy...

  7. Mass Customized Technical Textiles in the B2B Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, R.; Barteld, M.; Grafmüller, L.; Mosig, T.; Weiß, M.

    2017-10-01

    Mass Customization is a great opportunity for textile companies for both staying competitive in high-wage countries and offering inexpensive, customized products. Within the area of Technical Textiles, this study focuses on the B2B sector and shows the status quo, potentials and strengths. Both management and technological issues are addressed. For the former, business models and the value co-creation process are dealt with, for the latter, the focus is on modelling.

  8. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  9. Structural investigations and constitution along Fe14(Nd1-x(Tb or Dy)x)2B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieb, B.; Schneider, G.; Henig, E.T.; Petzow, G.

    1989-01-01

    In the quarternary systems Fe-Nd-Tb-B and Fe-Nd-Dy-B the sections along Fe 14 (Nd 1-x Tb x ) 2 B and Fe 14 (Nd 1-x Dy x ) 2 B have been investigated by metallography, X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Nd was substituted in steps of 10 at.% until complete substitution by Tb or Dy. The variation of the lattice parameters a and c of the tetragonal unit cell of Fe 14 RE 2 B(Φ) from Fe 14 Nd 2 B to Fe 14 (Tb or Dy) 2 B as well as the increasing temperatures of formation measured, reveal unlimited solid solubility above 800 0 C. Between the peritectic formation Fe+L↔Φ on the Nd-rich side and the peritectic formation Fe 17 (Tb or Dy) 2 +L↔Φ on the Tb- or Dy-rich sides, a transition takes place around Fe 14 (Nd 0.8 (Tb or Dy) 0.2 ) 2 B. As in the ternary cases, stable and metastable formation of Φ must be differentiated for various superheating temperatures. The metastable phase formation in all the three ternary systems, Fe-Nd-B, Fe-Tb-B and Fe-Dy-B follows the same way: (Fe 17 RE 2 + B) solid solution and liquid form Φ. (orig.) [de

  10. Doc2B acts as a calcium sensor for vesicle priming requiring synaptotagmin-1, Munc13-2 and SNAREs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houy, Sébastien; Groffen, Alexander J; Ziomkiewicz, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Doc2B is a cytosolic protein with binding sites for Munc13 and Tctex-1 (dynein light chain), and two C2-domains that bind to phospholipids, Ca2+ and SNAREs. Whether Doc2B functions as a calcium sensor akin to synaptotagmins, or in other calcium-independent or calcium-dependent capacities is debated....... We here show by mutation and overexpression that Doc2B plays distinct roles in two sequential priming steps in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. Mutating Ca2+-coordinating aspartates in the C2A-domain localizes Doc2B permanently at the plasma membrane, and renders an upstream priming step Ca2......+-independent, whereas a separate function in downstream priming depends on SNARE-binding, Ca2+-binding to the C2B-domain of Doc2B, interaction with ubMunc13-2 and the presence of synaptotagmin-1. Another function of Doc2B - inhibition of release during sustained calcium elevations - depends on an overlapping...

  11. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-04

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.

  12. The ISS 2B PVTCS Ammonia Leak: An Operational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareha, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) for the International Space Station's 2B power channel began leaking ammonia at a rate of approximately 1.5lbm/year (out of a starting approximately 53lbm system ammonia mass). Initially, the operations strategy was "feed the leak," a strategy successfully put into action via Extra Vehicular Activity during the STS-134 mission. During this mission the system was topped off with ammonia piped over from a separate thermal control system. This recharge was to have allowed for continued power channel operation into 2014 or 2015, at which point another EVA would have been required. Without these periodic EVAs to refill the 2B coolant system, the channel would eventually leak enough fluid as to risk pump cavitation and system failure, resulting in the loss of the 2B power channel - the most critical of the Space Station's 8 power channels. In mid-2012, the leak rate increased to approximately 5lbm/year. Once discovered, an EVA was planned and executed within a 5 week timeframe to drastically alter the architecture of the PVTCS via connection to a dormant thermal control system not intended to be utilized as anything other than spare components. The purpose of this rerouting of the TCS was to increase system volume and to isolate the photovoltaic radiator, thought to be the likely leak source. This EVA was successfully executed on November 1st, 2012 and left the 2B PVTCS in a configuration where the system was now being adequately cooled via a totally different radiator than what the system was designed to utilize. Unfortunately, data monitoring over the next several months showed that the isolated radiator was not leaking, and the system itself continued to leak steadily until May 9th, 2013. It was on this day that the ISS crew noticed the visible presence of ammonia crystals escaping from the 2B channel's truss segment, signifying a rapid acceleration of the leak from 5lbm/year to 5lbm/day. Within 48 hours of the

  13. ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells in human normal tissues and protects from C1q-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, Yuka; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ohara, Kentaro; Abe, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shuji; Kazuno, Saiko; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Ochiai, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-05-01

    ADAM28 (disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28), which was originally reported to be lymphocyte-specific, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and plays a key role in cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. We studied ADAM28 expression in human normal tissues and examined its biological function. By using antibodies specific to ADAM28, ADAM28 was immunolocalized mainly to epithelial cells in several tissues, including epididymis, bronchus and stomach, whereas lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen were negligibly immunostained. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and ELISA analyses confirmed the expression in these tissues, and low or negligible expression by lymphocytes was found in the lymph node and spleen. C1q was identified as a candidate ADAM28-binding protein from a human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system, and specific binding was demonstrated by binding assays, immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance. C1q treatment of normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, both of which showed low-level expression of ADAM28, caused apoptosis through activation of p38 and caspase-3, and cell death with autophagy through accumulation of LC3-II and autophagosomes, respectively. C1q-induced cell death was attenuated by treatment of the cells with antibodies against the C1q receptor gC1qR/p33 or cC1qR/calreticulin. Treatment of C1q with recombinant ADAM28 prior to addition to culture media reduced C1q-induced cell death, and knockdown of ADAM28 using siRNAs increased cell death. These data demonstrate that ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells of several normal organs, and suggest that ADAM28 plays a role in cell survival by suppression of C1q-induced cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial cells. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Distinct biological properties of two RET isoforms activated by MEN 2A and MEN 2B mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, M; Pasini, A; Chappuis, S; Geneste, O; Fournier, L; Schuffenecker, I; Takahashi, M; van Grunsven, L A; Urdiales, J L; Rudkin, B B; Lenoir, G M; Billaud, M

    1997-01-23

    Germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene, which codes for a receptor tyrosine kinase, cause multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) and 2B (MEN 2B) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). MEN 2 mutations have been shown to result in RET oncogenic activation. The RET gene encodes several isoforms whose biological properties, when altered by MEN 2 mutations, have not been thoroughly addressed yet. In this study, we have introduced a MEN 2A mutation (Cys634-->Arg) and the unique MEN 2B mutation (Met918-->Thr) in two RET isoforms of 1114 and 1072 amino acids which differ in the carboxy-terminus part. Herein, we report that each RET isoform activated by MEN 2A or MEN 2B mutation was transforming in fibroblasts and induced neuronal differentiation of pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. However, among the different RET-MEN 2 mutants, the long RET isoform activated by the MEN 2B mutation stimulated the most prominent neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, while the short RET isoform counterpart elicited a very weak differentiation effect in PC12 cells. We further demonstrate that the morphological changes of PC12 cells caused by constitutively activated RET oncoproteins involved the engagement of a Ras-dependent pathway. These findings provide evidence that the biological properties of RET-MEN 2 mutants depend on the interplay between the RET isoforms and the nature of the activating MEN 2 mutation.

  15. Short hairpin RNA targeting 2B gene of coxsackievirus B3 exhibits potential antiviral effects both in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Hailan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxsackievirus B3 is an important infectious agent of viral myocarditis, pancreatitis and aseptic meningitis, but there are no specific antiviral therapeutic reagents in clinical use. RNA interference-based technology has been developed to prevent the viral infection. Methods To evaluate the impact of RNA interference on viral replication, cytopathogenicity and animal survival, short hairpin RNAs targeting the viral 2B region (shRNA-2B expressed by a recombinant vector (pGCL-2B or a recombinant lentivirus (Lenti-2B were tansfected in HeLa cells or transduced in mice infected with CVB3. Results ShRNA-2B exhibited a significant effect on inhibition of viral production in HeLa cells. Furthermore, shRNA-2B improved mouse survival rate, reduced the viral tissues titers and attenuated tissue damage compared with those of the shRNA-NC treated control group. Lenti-2B displayed more effective role in inhibition of viral replication than pGCL-2B in vivo. Conclusions Coxsackievirus B3 2B is an effective target of gene silencing against coxsackievirus B3 infection, suggesting that shRNA-2B is a potential agent for further development into a treatment for enterviral diseases.

  16. A novel interaction between adrenergic receptors and the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, U; Ramirez, M T; Kobilka, B K; von Zastrow, M

    1997-08-01

    The alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF-2B), a guanine nucleotide exchange protein that functions in regulation of translation, was observed to associate with the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domains of the alpha2A- and alpha2B-adrenergic receptors in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library prepared from 293 cells. This protein association was confirmed in vitro by affinity chromatography and was shown to be specific for a subset of G protein-coupled receptors, including the alpha2A-, alpha2B-, alpha2C-, and beta2-adrenergic receptors, but not the vasopressin (V2) receptor. Association of these proteins in vivo was confirmed by specific co-immunoprecipitation of eIF-2Balpha with full-length beta2-adrenergic receptors expressed in transfected 293 cells and by fluorescence microscopy showing co-localization of these proteins in intact cells. Remarkably, eIF-2Balpha co-localized with receptors exclusively in regions of the plasma membrane that are in contact with the extracellular medium, but failed to associate with membranes making cell-cell contacts. Overexpression of eIF-2Balpha in 293 cells caused a small (approximately 15%) but significant enhancement of beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase, without affecting forskolin or V2 receptor-mediated activation. These observations suggest a new role for a previously identified guanine nucleotide exchange protein in membrane biology and cell signaling.

  17. An antagonist of the platelet-activating factor receptor inhibits adherence of both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae to cultured human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla SD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shakti D Shukla,1,* Rory L Fairbairn,1,* David A Gell,1 Roger D Latham,1 Sukhwinder S Sohal,1,2 Eugene H Walters,1 Ronan F O’Toole11Breathe Well Centre, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS, Australia*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: COPD is emerging as the third largest cause of human mortality worldwide after heart disease and stroke. Tobacco smoking, the primary risk factor for the development of COPD, induces increased expression of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr in the lung epithelium. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Streptococcus pneumoniae adhere to PAFr on the luminal surface of human respiratory tract epithelial cells.Objective: To investigate PAFr as a potential drug target for the prevention of infections caused by the main bacterial drivers of acute exacerbations in COPD patients, NTHi and S. pneumoniae.Methods: Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE. PAFr expression levels were determined using immunocytochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The epithelial cells were challenged with either NTHi or S. pneumoniae labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and bacterial adhesion was measured using immunofluorescence. The effect of a well-evaluated antagonist of PAFr, WEB-2086, on binding of the bacterial pathogens to BEAS-2B cells was then assessed. In silico studies of the tertiary structure of PAFr and the binding pocket for PAF and its antagonist WEB-2086 were undertaken.Results: PAFr expression by bronchial epithelial cells was upregulated by CSE, and significantly associated with increased bacterial adhesion. WEB-2086 reduced the epithelial adhesion by both NTHi and S. pneumoniae to levels observed for non-CSE-exposed cells. Furthermore, it was nontoxic toward the bronchial epithelial

  18. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: andrea.schmitz@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  19. WATER RESOURCES STATUS AND AVAILABILITY ASSESSMENT IN CURRENT AND FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR BEAS RIVER BASIN OF NORTH WESTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Aggarwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The water resources status and availability of any river basin is of primary importance for overall and sustainable development of any river basin. This study has been done in Beas river basin which is located in North Western Himalaya for assessing the status of water resources in present and future climate change scenarios. In this study hydrological modelling approach has been used for quantifying the water balance components of Beas river basin upto Pandoh. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC model has been used in energy balance mode for Beas river basin at 1km grid scale. The VIC model has been run with snow elevation zones files to simulate the snow module of VIC. The model was run with National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP forcing data (Tmax, Tmin, Rainfall and wind speed at 0.5degree resolution from 1 Jan. 1999 to 31 Dec 2006 for calibration purpose. The additional component of glacier melt was added into overall river runoff using semi-empirical approach utilizing air temperature and glacier type and extent data. The ground water component is computed from overall recharge of ground water by water balance approach. The overall water balance approach is validated with river discharge data provided by Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB from 1994-2014. VIC routing module was used to assess pixel wise flow availability at daily, monthly and annual time scales. The mean monthly flow at Pandoh during study period varied from 19 - 1581 m3/s from VIC and 50 to 1556 m3/sec from observation data, with minimum water flow occurring in month of January and maximum flow in month of August with annual R2 of 0.68. The future climate change data is taken from CORDEX database. The climate model of NOAA-GFDL-ESM2M for IPCC RCP scenario 4.5 and 8.5 were used for South Asia at 0.44 deg. grid from year 2006 to 2100. The climate forcing data for VIC model was prepared using daily maximum and minimum near surface air temperature, daily

  20. Water Resources Status and Availability Assessment in Current and Future Climate Change Scenarios for Beas River Basin of North Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, S. P.; Thakur, P. K.; Garg, V.; Nikam, B. R.; Chouksey, A.; Dhote, P.; Bhattacharya, T.

    2016-10-01

    The water resources status and availability of any river basin is of primary importance for overall and sustainable development of any river basin. This study has been done in Beas river basin which is located in North Western Himalaya for assessing the status of water resources in present and future climate change scenarios. In this study hydrological modelling approach has been used for quantifying the water balance components of Beas river basin upto Pandoh. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model has been used in energy balance mode for Beas river basin at 1km grid scale. The VIC model has been run with snow elevation zones files to simulate the snow module of VIC. The model was run with National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) forcing data (Tmax, Tmin, Rainfall and wind speed at 0.5degree resolution) from 1 Jan. 1999 to 31 Dec 2006 for calibration purpose. The additional component of glacier melt was added into overall river runoff using semi-empirical approach utilizing air temperature and glacier type and extent data. The ground water component is computed from overall recharge of ground water by water balance approach. The overall water balance approach is validated with river discharge data provided by Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB) from 1994-2014. VIC routing module was used to assess pixel wise flow availability at daily, monthly and annual time scales. The mean monthly flow at Pandoh during study period varied from 19 - 1581 m3/s from VIC and 50 to 1556 m3/sec from observation data, with minimum water flow occurring in month of January and maximum flow in month of August with annual R2 of 0.68. The future climate change data is taken from CORDEX database. The climate model of NOAA-GFDL-ESM2M for IPCC RCP scenario 4.5 and 8.5 were used for South Asia at 0.44 deg. grid from year 2006 to 2100. The climate forcing data for VIC model was prepared using daily maximum and minimum near surface air temperature, daily precipitation and

  1. Utility of Phox2b immunohistochemical stain in neural crest tumours and non-neural crest tumours in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Mikako; Matsuno, Ryosuke; Tran, Henry; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated the utility of Phox2b in paediatric tumours. Previously, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was the most widely utilised sympathoadrenal marker specific for neural crest tumours with neuronal/neuroendocrine differentiation. However, its sensitivity is insufficient. Recently Phox2b has emerged as another specific marker for this entity. Phox2b immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on 159 paediatric tumours, including (group 1) 65 neural crest tumours with neuronal differentiation [peripheral neuroblastic tumours (pNT)]: 15 neuroblastoma undifferentiated (NB-UD), 10 NB poorly differentiated (NB-PD), 10 NB differentiating (NB-D), 10 ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed (GNBi), 10 GNB nodular (GNBn) and 10 ganglioneuroma (GN); (group 2) 23 neural crest tumours with neuroendocrine differentiation [pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PG)]; (group 3) 27 other neural crest tumours including one composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma; and (group 4) 44 non-neural crest tumours. TH IHC was performed on groups 1, 2 and 3. Phox2b was expressed diffusely in pNT (n = 65 of 65), strongly in NB-UD and NB-PD and with less intensity in NB-D, GNB and GN. Diffuse TH was seen in all NB-PD, NB-D, GNB and GN, but nine of 15 NB-UD and a nodule in GNBn did not express TH (n = 55 of 65). PCC/PG expressed diffuse Phox2b (n = 23 of 23) and diffuse TH, except for one tumour (n = 22 of 23). In composite rhabdomyosarcoma, TH was expressed only in neuroblastic cells and Phox2b was diffusely positive in neuroblastic cells and focally in rhabdomyosarcoma. All other tumours were negative for Phox2b (n = none of 44). Phox2b was a specific and sensitive marker for pNT and PCC/PG, especially useful for identifying NB-UD often lacking TH. Our study also presented a composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma of neural crest origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A GENERIC MODEL FOR THE B2B ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    MARCO AURELIO F ALBERNAZ

    2004-01-01

    O ambiente de Comércio Eletrônico entre empresas apoiado pela Internet, conhecido como B2B, é muito complexo. Para nele operar, é importante a existência de um instrumento que permita visualizar de forma integrada os diversos elementos que interagem entre si nesse ambiente de negócios, facilite a sua compreensão e dê apoio à tomada de decisões e à elaboração de estratégias que agreguem valor às empresas que aí realizam as suas transações. A necessidade desse instrumento deu ...

  3. Applying conceptual design to B2B sales negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu

    problem that will be addressed is the building of understanding of a customer’s current needs and requirements, and then trying to devise an appropriate proposal to match these. The work of the sales agents in B2B sales negotiations is highly complex, as they need to understand both the modular machinery......, service, configuration and customisation of the products in their company as well as to develop an apposite understanding of the key values and characteristics of the client organisation. Based on a design-ethnographical study of real sales practice in lift truck business the paper draws parallels between...

  4. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B.; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda; Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Chen, Lung-Chi; Costa, Max

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM 10 and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM 10 collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM 10 exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► PM exposure modulated gene expression and associated pathways in BEAS-2B cells. ► One-day exposure to PM induced genes involved in responding to oxidative stress. ► 4-day exposure to PM changed genes associated to cholesterol and lipid synthesis.

  5. Histone demethylase JMJD2B functions as a co-factor of estrogen receptor in breast cancer proliferation and mammary gland development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Kawazu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is a key regulator of normal function of female reproductive system and plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that JMJD2B (also known as KDM4B constitutes a key component of the estrogen signaling pathway. JMJD2B is expressed in a high proportion of human breast tumors, and that expression levels significantly correlate with estrogen receptor (ER positivity. In addition, 17-beta-estradiol (E2 induces JMJD2B expression in an ERα dependent manner. JMJD2B interacts with ERα and components of the SWI/SNF-B chromatin remodeling complex. JMJD2B is recruited to ERα target sites, demethylates H3K9me3 and facilitates transcription of ER responsive genes including MYB, MYC and CCND1. As a consequence, knockdown of JMJD2B severely impairs estrogen-induced cell proliferation and the tumor formation capacity of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, Jmjd2b-deletion in mammary epithelial cells exhibits delayed mammary gland development in female mice. Taken together, these findings suggest an essential role for JMJD2B in the estrogen signaling, and identify JMJD2B as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  6. The Morphology of TiO2 (B) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiao; Liu, Zheng; Bruce, Peter G; Grey, Clare P

    2015-10-28

    The morphology of a nanomaterial (geometric shape and dimension) has a significant impact on its physical and chemical properties. It is, therefore, essential to determine the morphology of nanomaterials so as to link shape with performance in specific applications. In practice, structural features with different length scales are encoded in a specific angular range of the X-ray or neutron total scattering pattern of the material. By combining small- and wide-angle scattering (typically X-ray) experiments, the full angular range can be covered, allowing structure to be determined accurately at both the meso- and the nanoscale. In this Article, a comprehensive morphology analysis of lithium-ion battery anode material, TiO2 (B) nanoparticles (described in Ren, Y.; Liu, Z.; Pourpoint, F.; Armstrong, A. R.; Grey, C. P.; Bruce, P. G. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 2164), incorporating structure modeling with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), pair distribution function (PDF), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques, is presented. The particles are oblate-shaped, contracted along the [010] direction, this particular morphology providing a plausible rationale for the excellent electrochemical behavior of these TiO2(B) nanoparticles, while also provides a structural foundation to model the strain-driven distortion induced by lithiation. The work demonstrates the importance of analyzing various structure features at multiple length scales to determine the morphologies of nanomaterials.

  7. Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Phase 2B Navigation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaperoth, Paige Thomas; Long, Anne; Carpenter, Russell

    2009-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) formation flying mission, which consists of four spacecraft flying in a tetrahedral formation, has challenging navigation requirements associated with determining and maintaining the relative separations required to meet the science requirements. The baseline navigation concept for MMS is for each spacecraft to independently estimate its position, velocity and clock states using GPS pseudorange data provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center-developed Navigator receiver and maneuver acceleration measurements provided by the spacecraft's attitude control subsystem. State estimation is performed onboard in real-time using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System flight software, which is embedded in the Navigator receiver. The current concept of operations for formation maintenance consists of a sequence of two maintenance maneuvers that is performed every 2 weeks. Phase 2b of the MMS mission, in which the spacecraft are in 1.2 x 25 Earth radii orbits with nominal separations at apogee ranging from 30 km to 400 km, has the most challenging navigation requirements because, during this phase, GPS signal acquisition is restricted to less than one day of the 2.8-day orbit. This paper summarizes the results from high-fidelity simulations to determine if the MMS navigation requirements can be met between and immediately following the maintenance maneuver sequence in Phase 2b.

  8. USING UML SCENARIOS IN B2B SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jakimi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Scenarios has become a popular technique for requirements elicitation and specification building. Since scenarios capture only partial descriptions of the system behavior, an approach for scenario composition and/or integration is needed to produce more complete specifications. The Unified Modeling Language (UML, which has become a standard notation for object-oriented modeling, provides a suitable framework for scenario acquisition using Use Case diagrams and Sequence or Collaboration diagrams. In this paper, we suggest an algorithmic and tool support for composing and integrating scenarios that are represented in form of sequence diagrams. We suggest four operators (;: sequential operator, ||: concurrent operator, ?: conditional operator and  * :iteration operator to compose a set of scenarios that describe a use case of a given system. In this paper, we suggest also to apply the scenario approach to B2B systems (Business to Business. We propose to develop B2B systems as a three activities process deriving formal specifications and code skeletons from UML scenarios. Activities of this proposed process are generally automatic and are supported by a set of developed algorithms and tools.

  9. Vortex lattice structures in YNi2B2C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yethiraj, M.; Paul, D.M.; Tomy, C.V.; Forgan, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors observe a flux lattice with square symmetry in the superconductor YNi 2 B 2 C when the applied field is parallel to the c-axis of the crystal. A square lattice observed previously in the isostructural magnetic analog ErNi 2 B 2 C was attributed to the interaction between magnetic order in that system and the flux lattice. Since the Y-based compound does not order magnetically, it is clear that the structure of the flux lattice is unrelated to magnetic order. In fact, they show that the flux lines have a square cross-section when the applied field is parallel to the c-axis of the crystal, since the measured penetration depth along the 100 crystal direction is larger than the penetration depth along the 110 by approximately 60%. This is the likely reason for the square symmetry of the lattice. Although they find considerable disorder in the arrangement of the flux lines at 2.5T, no melting of the vortex lattice was observed

  10. Low-solubility particles and a Trojan-horse type mechanism of toxicity: the case of cobalt oxide on human lung cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of toxicity of metal oxide particles towards lung cells are far from being understood. In particular, the relative contribution of intracellular particulate versus solubilized fractions is rarely considered as it is very challenging to assess, especially for low-solubility particles such as cobalt oxide (Co3O4). Methods This study was possible owing to two highly sensitive, independent, analytical techniques, based on single-cell analysis, using ion beam microanalysis, and on bulk analysis of cell lysates, using mass spectrometry. Results Our study shows that cobalt oxide particles, of very low solubility in the culture medium, are readily incorporated by BEAS-2B human lung cells through endocytosis via the clathrin-dependent pathway. They are partially solubilized at low pH within lysosomes, leading to cobalt ions release. Solubilized cobalt was detected within the cytoplasm and the nucleus. As expected from these low-solubility particles, the intracellular solubilized cobalt content is small compared with the intracellular particulate cobalt content, in the parts-per-thousand range or below. However, we were able to demonstrate that this minute fraction of intracellular solubilized cobalt is responsible for the overall toxicity. Conclusions Cobalt oxide particles are readily internalized by pulmonary cells via the endo-lysosomal pathway and can lead, through a Trojan-horse mechanism, to intracellular release of toxic metal ions over long periods of time, involving specific toxicity. PMID:24669904

  11. Low-solubility particles and a Trojan-horse type mechanism of toxicity: the case of cobalt oxide on human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Richard; Bresson, Carole; Darolles, Carine; Gautier, Céline; Roudeau, Stéphane; Perrin, Laura; Janin, Myriam; Floriani, Magali; Aloin, Valérie; Carmona, Asuncion; Malard, Véronique

    2014-03-27

    The mechanisms of toxicity of metal oxide particles towards lung cells are far from being understood. In particular, the relative contribution of intracellular particulate versus solubilized fractions is rarely considered as it is very challenging to assess, especially for low-solubility particles such as cobalt oxide (Co3O4). This study was possible owing to two highly sensitive, independent, analytical techniques, based on single-cell analysis, using ion beam microanalysis, and on bulk analysis of cell lysates, using mass spectrometry. Our study shows that cobalt oxide particles, of very low solubility in the culture medium, are readily incorporated by BEAS-2B human lung cells through endocytosis via the clathrin-dependent pathway. They are partially solubilized at low pH within lysosomes, leading to cobalt ions release. Solubilized cobalt was detected within the cytoplasm and the nucleus. As expected from these low-solubility particles, the intracellular solubilized cobalt content is small compared with the intracellular particulate cobalt content, in the parts-per-thousand range or below. However, we were able to demonstrate that this minute fraction of intracellular solubilized cobalt is responsible for the overall toxicity. Cobalt oxide particles are readily internalized by pulmonary cells via the endo-lysosomal pathway and can lead, through a Trojan-horse mechanism, to intracellular release of toxic metal ions over long periods of time, involving specific toxicity.

  12. The prognosis of N2b and N2c lymph node disease in oral squamous cell carcinoma is determined by the number of metastatic lymph nodes rather than laterality: evidence to support a revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Gil, Ziv; Amit, Moran; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Kowalski, Luiz P; Kohler, Hugo F; Kreppel, Matthias; Cernea, Claudio R; Brandao, Jose; Bachar, Gideon; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea; Fliss, Dan; Fridman, Eran; Robbins, K Thomas; Shah, Jatin P; Patel, Snehal G; Clark, Jonathan R

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess for prognostic heterogeneity within the N2b and N2c classifications for oral cancer based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes and to determine whether laterality of neck disease provides additional prognostic information. An international multicenter study of 3704 patients with oral cancer undergoing surgery with curative intent was performed. The endpoints of interest were disease-specific survival and overall survival. Model fit was assessed by the Akaike Information Criterion and comparison of models with and without the covariate of interest using a likelihood ratio test. The median number of metastatic lymph nodes was significantly higher in patients with N2c disease compared to those with N2b disease (P number of metastatic lymph nodes improved model fit beyond existing N classification. Next, the authors confirmed significant heterogeneity in prognosis based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes (≤ 2, 3-4, and ≥ 5) in patients with both N2b and N2c disease (P number of metastatic lymph nodes demonstrated significant improvement in prognostic accuracy compared with the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, and no improvement was noted with the addition of a covariate for contralateral or bilateral neck disease (P = .472). The prognosis of patients with oral cancer with N2b and N2c disease appears to be similar after adequate adjustment for the burden of lymph node metastases, irrespective of laterality. Based on this finding, the authors propose a modified lymph node staging system that requires external validation before implementation in clinical practice. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  13. Synaptic NR2A- but not NR2B-containing NMDA receptors increase with blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Von Engelhardt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available NMDA receptors are key molecules involved in physiological and pathophysiological brain processes such as plasticity and excitotoxicity. Neuronal activity regulates NMDA receptor levels in the cell membrane. However, little is known on which time scale this regulation occurs and whether the two main diheteromeric NMDA receptor subtypes in forebrain, NR1/NR2A and NR1/NR2B, are regulated in a similar fashion. As these differ considerably in their electrophysiological properties, the NR2A/NR2B ratio affects the neurons’ reaction to NMDA receptor activation. Here we provide evidence that the basal turnover rate in the cell membrane of NR2A- and NR2B-containing receptors is comparable. However, the level of the NR2A subtype in the cell membrane is highly regulated by NMDA receptor activity, resulting in a several-fold increased insertion of new receptors after blocking NMDA receptors for 8 hours. Blocking AMPA receptors also increases the delivery of NR2A-containing receptors to the cell membrane. In contrast, the amount of NR2B-containing receptors in the cell membrane is not affected by ionotropic glutamate receptor block. Moreover, electrophysiological analysis of synaptic currents in hippocampal cultures and CA1 neurons of hippocampal slices revealed that after 8 hours of NMDA receptor blockade the NMDA EPSCs increase as a result of augmented NMDA receptor-mediated currents. In conclusion, synaptic NR2A- but not NR2B-containing receptors are dynamically regulated, enabling neurons to change their NR2A/NR2B ratio within a time scale of hours.

  14. CONSTRUCTION AND STUDY OF Althaea officinalis TRANSGENIC ROOTS CULTURE WITH HUMAN INTERFERON α2B GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Matvieieva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to obtain Althaea officinalis L. «hairy» root culture with human interferon α2b gene (ifn-α2b, to measure fructans content and antiviral activity of extracts from the transgenic roots. Transformation of leaf and root explants was carried out by means of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Antiviral activity was measured by the reduction in cytopathic effect of vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain in bovine kidney cells line MDBK. Transformation frequency was 100% for leaf and root explants. RT-PCR confirmed ifn- α2b gene transcription. The clones of transgenic roots differed in mass increasing from 0, 036 ± 0,008 up to 0,371 ± 0,019 g in 30 days cultivation and in fructan synthesis from 67,2± 4,47 up to 154,6 ± 6,62 mg/g roots dry weight. Extracts from «hairy»roots culture were characterized by high antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus — up to 26 000 IU/ g of roots fresh weight. In some cases the genetic transformation shown to lead increasing the growth rate and increasing the level of fructan synthesis in transgenic A. officinalis roots. Extracts from cultivated in vitro marshmallow transgenic roots were characterized by high level of antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus. Thus, there were obtained transgenic A. officinalis roots, characterized by high growth rate, significant accumulation of fructans and high antiviral activity.

  15. SH2B1 modulates chromatin state and MyoD occupancy to enhance expressions of myogenic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Wei; Chang, Yu-Jung; Yeh, Chia-Ming; Lian, Yen-Ling; Chan, Michael W Y; Kao, Cheng-Fu; Chen, Linyi

    2017-02-01

    As mesoderm-derived cell lineage commits to myogenesis, a spectrum of signaling molecules, including insulin growth factor (IGF), activate signaling pathways and ultimately instruct chromatin remodeling and the transcription of myogenic genes. MyoD is a key transcription factor during myogenesis. In this study, we have identified and characterized a novel myogenic regulator, SH2B1. Knocking down SH2B1 delays global chromatin condensation and decreases the formation of myotubes. SH2B1 interacts with histone H1 and is required for the removal of histone H1 from active transcription sites, allowing for the expressions of myogenic genes, IGF2 and MYOG. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggest the requirement of SH2B1 for the induction of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation as well as the reduction of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation at the promoters and/or enhancers of IGF2 and MYOG genes during myogenesis. Furthermore, SH2B1 is required for the transcriptional activity of MyoD and MyoD occupancy at the enhancer/promoter regions of IGF2 and MYOG during myogenesis. Together, this study demonstrates that SH2B1 fine-tunes global-local chromatin states, expressions of myogenic genes and ultimately promotes myogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutron diffraction studies of magnetic ordering in superconducting ErNi2B2C and TmNi2B2C in an applied magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Katrine Nørgaard

    The field-induced magnetic structures of ErNi2B2C and TmNi2B2C in are especially interesting because the field suppresses the superconducting order parameter and therefore the magnetic properties can be studied while varying the strength ofsuperconductivity. ErNi2B2C: For magnetic fields along al...

  17. Matchmaking Framework for B2B E-Marketplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete ZOLTAN ALPAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years trading on the Internet become more popular. Online businesses gradually replace more and more from the conventional business. Much commercial information is exchanged on the internet, especially using the e-marketplaces. The demand and supply matching process becomes complex and difficult on last twenty years since the e-marketplaces play an important role in business management. Companies can achieve significant cost reduction by using e-marketplaces in their trade activities and by using matchmaking systems on finding the corresponding supply for their demand and vice versa. In the literature were proposed many approaches for matchmaking. In this paper we present a conceptual framework of matchmaking in B2B e-marketplaces environment.

  18. Relationship Quality as Predictor of B2B Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa S. B. Ahmed Doma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship marketing has become extremely important recently due to the fierce competition in today's marketplace. Companies are required to build long-term profitable relationship with customers and to achieve customer loyalty. Also, switching behaviors frequently occur among most of targeted customers. Fewer studies, however, discuss the effects of relationship quality efforts on customer loyalty. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the impact of relationship quality on customer loyalty in B2B context in the Egyptian shipping services sector. Building on prior research, we propose relationship quality as a higher construct comprising trust, commitment and satisfaction. An analytical model is developed as a guideline to test the relationships between relationship quality dimensions and customer loyalty.

  19. Interactions between crude drug extracts used in Japanese traditional Kampo medicines and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 2B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Rie; Watanabe, Tomoki; Ishiuchi, Kan'ichiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Watanabe, Junko; Makino, Toshiaki

    2018-03-25

    The use of herbal medicines has become popular worldwide, and the information on drug interactions between herbal medicines and chemical drugs is needed. We screened the inhibitory effects of crude drugs used in Kampo medicines used in Japan on organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1 to predict potential interactions between Kampo medicines and chemical drugs used together. We chose 98 kinds of crude drugs frequently used as ingredients of Kampo formulations in Japan and prepared their boiling water extracts. We then screened their inhibitory effects on OATP2B1 by measuring the uptake of estrone 3-sulphate (E3S) by HEK293 cells stably expressing OATP2B1. At the concentration of 100µg/ml, the extracts prepared from 12 kinds of crude drugs, Scuteralliae Radix, Arecae Semen, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Perillae Herba, Panacis Japonici Rhizoma, Moutan Cortex, Polygalae Radix, Rhei Rhizoma, Cannabis Fructus, Chrysanthemi Flos, Eriobotryae Folium, and Querci Cortex, suppressed the function of OATP2B1 by less than 20%. The extract of bofutsushosan, a representative Kampo formulation, inhibited OATP2B1 function with sufficient levels to suppress absorption of OATP2B1 substrates in clinics. We further evaluated the inhibitory effects of several ingredients containing Rhei Rhizoma, Perillae Herba, and Moutan Cortex on OATP2B1. Because of crude drugs used in Kampo medicines might suppress absorption of OATP2B1 substrates, these results may contribute to the safe and effective use of Kampo medicine in clinics. A list of abbreviations: EC, (-)-epicatechin; ECG, epicatechin gallate; EGC, epigallocatechin; EGCG, Epigallocatechin gallate; FBS, fetal bovine serum; grapefruit juice; HEK293, Human embryonic kidney; IC 50, The half inhibitory concentration; OATP, organic anion-transporting polypeptide; β-PGG, penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose; t.i.d, 3 times a day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B: Differential increase in enteric nerve subgroups in muscle and mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, John M; Farmer, Pam J; Peck, Cristal J; Chow, Chung W; Southwell, Bridget R

    2017-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) is a rare syndrome caused by an activating mutation of the RET gene, leading to enteric gangliomatosis. This child presented with constipation at 1-mo old, was diagnosed with MEN2B by rectal biopsy at 4 mo, had thyroidectomy at 9 mo and a colectomy at 4 years. We studied the extent of neuronal and nerve fibre proliferation and which classes of enteric nerves are affected by examining the colon with multiple neuronal antibodies. Resected transverse colon was fixed, frozen, sectioned and processed for fluorescence immunohistochemistry labelling with antibodies against TUJ1, Hu, ChAT, NOS, VIP, SP and CGRP and cKit. Control transverse colon was from the normal margin of Hirschsprung (HSCR) colon (4-year-old) and a child with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, 12 year). Myenteric ganglia were increased in size to as wide as the circular muscle. There was a large increase in nerve cells and nerve fibres. ChAT-, NOS-, VIP- and SP-immunoreactive nerve fibres all increased in the myenteric ganglia. NOS-IR nerves preferentially increased in the muscle, while VIP and SP increased in submucosal ganglia and mucosal nerve fibres. The density of ICC was normal. RET overactivation in MEN2B lead to a large increase in intrinsic nerve fibres in the myenteric and submucosal ganglia, with a relative increase in NOS-IR nerve fibres in the circular muscle and VIP and SP in the submucosal ganglia and mucosa. The changes were associated with severe constipation resulting in colectomy at 4 years. PMID:28868184

  1. Combination of Ag/Al2O3 and Fe-BEA for High-Activity Catalyst System for H2-Assisted NH3-SCR of NO x for Light-Duty Diesel Car Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogel, S.; Doronkin, D. E.; Høj, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature active Ag/Al2O3 and high-temperature active Fe-BEA zeolite were combined and tested for H2-assisted NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO x . The catalysts were either washcoated onto separate monoliths that were placed up- or downstream of each other (dual-brick layout...

  2. Pressure induced phase transition behavior in selected A2B3 type topological insulator minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Liu, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, the recently projects from HIT Overseas Collaborative Base at Argonne, including phase transitions of selected A2B3 type topological insulator minerals upon compression at room and low temperature, studies on amorphous and melt samples under high pressure conditions using synchrotron x-ray 3D imaging techniques in diamond anvil cell and large volume press, etc, will be introduced. The advance of synchrotron greatly improved our knowledge of the minerals under pressure, which is critical for understanding the evolution of Earth.

  3. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.         JEL Codes: D23, L86Keywords: Cost, Transaction Costs, Transactions

  4. Getting started with Oracle SOA B2B Integration a hands-on tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Krishnaprem; Perlovsky, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This hands on tutorial gives you the best possible start you could hope for with Oracle B2B. Learn using real life scenarios and examples to give you a solid footing of B2B.This book is for B2B architects, consultants and developers who would like to design and develop B2B integrations using Oracle B2B. This book assumes no prior knowledge of Oracle B2B and explains all concepts from scratch using illustrations, real world examples and step-by-step instructions. The book covers enough depth and details to be useful for both beginner and advanced B2B users.

  5. NMR analysis of the dynamic exchange of the NS2B cofactor between open and closed conformations of the West Nile virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun-Cheng Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two-component NS2B-NS3 proteases of West Nile and dengue viruses are essential for viral replication and established targets for drug development. In all crystal structures of the proteases to date, the NS2B cofactor is located far from the substrate binding site (open conformation in the absence of inhibitor and lining the substrate binding site (closed conformation in the presence of an inhibitor. METHODS: In this work, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy of isotope and spin-labeled samples of the West Nile virus protease was used to investigate the occurrence of equilibria between open and closed conformations in solution. FINDINGS: In solution, the closed form of the West Nile virus protease is the predominant conformation irrespective of the presence or absence of inhibitors. Nonetheless, dissociation of the C-terminal part of the NS2B cofactor from the NS3 protease (open conformation occurs in both the presence and the absence of inhibitors. Low-molecular-weight inhibitors can shift the conformational exchange equilibria so that over 90% of the West Nile virus protease molecules assume the closed conformation. The West Nile virus protease differs from the dengue virus protease, where the open conformation is the predominant form in the absence of inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Partial dissociation of NS2B from NS3 has implications for the way in which the NS3 protease can be positioned with respect to the host cell membrane when NS2B is membrane associated via N- and C-terminal segments present in the polyprotein. In the case of the West Nile virus protease, discovery of low-molecular-weight inhibitors that act by breaking the association of the NS2B cofactor with the NS3 protease is impeded by the natural affinity of the cofactor to the NS3 protease. The same strategy can be more successful in the case of the dengue virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

  6. Natural releases from contaminated groundwater, Example Reference Biosphere 2B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.; Naito, M.; Thorne, M.C.; Walke, R.

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment is a tool which, by means of an iterative procedure, allows the evaluation of the performance of a disposal system and its potential impact on human health and the environment. Radionuclides from a deep geological disposal facility may not reach the surface environment until many tens of thousands of years after closure of the facility. The BIOMASS Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment developed Examples of 'Reference Biospheres' to illustrate the use of the methodology and to demonstrate how biosphere models can be developed and justified as being fit for purpose. The practical examples are also intended to be useful in their own right. The Example Reference Biosphere 2B presented here involves the consideration of alternative types of geosphere-biosphere interfaces and calculation of doses to members of hypothetical exposure groups arising from a wide range of exposure pathways within agricultural and semi-natural environments, but without allowing for evolution of the corresponding biosphere system. The example presented can be used as a generic analysis in some situations although it was developed around a relatively specific conceptual model. It should be a useful practical example, but the above numerical results are not intended to be understood as prescribed biosphere 'conversion factors'

  7. The expression of Wnt2b in the optic cup lip requires a border between the pigmented and nonpigmented epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamoto, Junko; Hyer, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Wnt2b is normally expressed at the optic cup lip and is implicated in ciliary body induction. The lens has often been considered an organizer for the anterior eye, but recent studies demonstrate that the anterior cell fates are correctly specified in the absence of the lens. This study uses Wnt2b as a marker to reveal the mechanism behind the specification of the anterior domain of the optic cup. Methods Developing chick embryos were used as a model system. Eyes were microsurgically m...

  8. Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 2a (ASIC2a) Promotes Surface Trafficking of ASIC2b via Heteromeric Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Kweon, Hae-Jin; Kim, Dong-Il; Bae, Yeonju; Park, Jae-Yong; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated cation channels that play important roles as typical proton sensors during pathophysiological conditions and normal synaptic activities. Among the ASIC subunits, ASIC2a and ASIC2b are alternative splicing products from the same gene, ACCN1. It has been shown that ASIC2 isoforms have differential subcellular distribution: ASIC2a targets the cell surface by itself, while ASIC2b resides in the ER. However, the underlying mechanism for this d...

  9. First Principles Study on Structure Stability and Mechanical Properties of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pressure effects on the lattice parameters and elastic constants of the tetragonal RNi 2 B 2 C (R=Y, Lu are investigated by means of the first principles. The predicted lattice constants and elastic constants of YNi 2 B 2 C and LuNi 2 B 2 C at 0 GPa agree well with the available data. By the elastic stability criteria under isotropic pressure, it is predicted that YNi 2 B 2 C and LuNi 2 B 2 C with tetragonal structure are not mechanically stable above 93 GPa and 50 GPa, respectively. Pugh’s modulus ratio, Poisson’s ratio, Vickers hardness, elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature of YNi 2 B 2 C in the pressure range of 0–100 GPa and LuNi 2 B 2 C in the pressure range of 0-60 GPa are further investigated. It is shown that the ductility and Debye temperature of tetragonal RNi 2 B 2 C (R=Y, Lu increase with increasing pressure, and LuNi 2 B 2 C is more ductile and lower Debye temperature than YNi 2 B 2 C under different pressures.

  10. VHL type 2B mutations retain VBC complex form and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Hacker

    Full Text Available von Hippel-Lindau disease is characterized by a spectrum of hypervascular tumors, including renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastoma, and pheochromocytoma, which occur with VHL genotype-specific differences in penetrance. VHL loss causes a failure to regulate the hypoxia inducible factors (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha, resulting in accumulation of both factors to high levels. Although HIF dysregulation is critical to VHL disease-associated renal tumorigenesis, increasing evidence points toward gradations of HIF dysregulation contributing to the degree of predisposition to renal cell carcinoma and other manifestations of the disease.This investigation examined the ability of disease-specific VHL missense mutations to support the assembly of the VBC complex and to promote the ubiquitylation of HIF. Our interaction analysis supported previous observations that VHL Type 2B mutations disrupt the interaction between pVHL and Elongin C but maintain partial regulation of HIF. We additionally demonstrated that Type 2B mutant pVHL forms a remnant VBC complex containing the active members ROC1 and Cullin-2 which retains the ability to ubiquitylate HIF-1alpha.Our results suggest that subtypes of VHL mutations support an intermediate level of HIF regulation via a remnant VBC complex. These findings provide a mechanism for the graded HIF dysregulation and genetic predisposition for cancer development in VHL disease.

  11. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-10-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family.

  12. Serotonin 5-HT2B receptors are required for bone-marrow contribution to pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Launay , Jean-Marie; Hervé , Philippe; Callebert , Jacques; Mallat , Ziad; Collet , Corinne; Doly , Stéphane; Belmer , Arnauld; Diaz , Silvina ,; Hatia , Sarah; Côté , Francine; Humbert , Marc; Maroteaux , Luc

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by lung endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling. Recently, bone marrow progenitor cells have been localized to PAH lungs, raising the question of their role in disease progression. Independently, serotonin (5-HT) and its receptors have been identified as contributors to the PAH pathogenesis. We hypothesized that 1 of these receptors, 5-HT(2B), is involved in bone marrow stem cell mobil...

  13. In vitro ozone exposure increases release of arachidonic acid products from a human bronchial epithelial cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinnon, K.P.; Madden, M.C.; Noah, T.L.; Devlin, R.B. (TRC Environmental Corporation, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Eicosanoids released after ozone exposure of a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-S6, were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of supernatants from exposed cells prelabeled with [3H]arachidonic acid. BEAS cells released thromboxane B2 (TxB2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene C4 (LTC4), LTD4, LTE4, and 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) after exposure to ozone at concentrations of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm. The eicosanoids were identified by coelution with authentic standards. The largest product from ozone-exposed BEAS cells was the most polar peak, designated Peak 1. Release of cyclooxygenase products such as TxB2, PGE2, and HHT was inhibited by acetylsalicylic acid. Peaks that migrated with authentic standards for LTB4, LTC4, and LTD4 were inhibited by the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The leukotrienes LTB4 and LTC4/D4 could also be detected by immunoassay of concentrated peak fractions. Thus BEAS cells released eicosanoids from cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism following exposure to ozone. Airway epithelial cells may be an important source of eicosanoids following ozone stimulation in humans.

  14. Loss of Arabidopsis thaliana Dynamin-Related Protein 2B reveals separation of innate immune signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vesicular trafficking has emerged as an important means by which eukaryotes modulate responses to microbial pathogens, likely by contributing to the correct localization and levels of host components necessary for effective immunity. However, considering the complexity of membrane trafficking in plants, relatively few vesicular trafficking components with functions in plant immunity are known. Here we demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana Dynamin-Related Protein 2B (DRP2B, which has been previously implicated in constitutive clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME, functions in responses to flg22 (the active peptide derivative of bacterial flagellin and immunity against flagellated bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto DC3000. Consistent with a role of DRP2B in Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI, drp2b null mutant plants also showed increased susceptibility to Pto DC3000 hrcC-, which lacks a functional Type 3 Secretion System, thus is unable to deliver effectors into host cells to suppress PTI. Importantly, analysis of drp2b mutant plants revealed three distinct branches of the flg22-signaling network that differed in their requirement for RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGUE D (RBOHD, the NADPH oxidase responsible for flg22-induced apoplastic reactive oxygen species production. Furthermore, in drp2b, normal MAPK signaling and increased immune responses via the RbohD/Ca2+-branch were not sufficient for promoting robust PR1 mRNA expression nor immunity against Pto DC3000 and Pto DC3000 hrcC-. Based on live-cell imaging studies, flg22-elicited internalization of the plant flagellin-receptor, FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2, was found to be partially dependent on DRP2B, but not the closely related protein DRP2A, thus providing genetic evidence for a component, implicated in CME, in ligand-induced endocytosis of FLS2. Reduced trafficking of FLS2 in response to flg22 may contribute in part to the non-canonical combination of immune signaling defects

  15. Kalirin Binds the NR2B Subunit of the NMDA Receptor, Altering Its Synaptic Localization and Function

    KAUST Repository

    Kiraly, D. D.

    2011-08-31

    The ability of dendritic spines to change size and shape rapidly is critical in modulating synaptic strength; these morphological changes are dependent upon rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor localized to the postsynaptic density (PSD), modulates dendritic spine morphology in vitro and in vivo. Kal7 activates Rac and interacts with several PSD proteins, including PSD-95, DISC-1, AF-6, and Arf6. Mice genetically lacking Kal7 (Kal7KO) exhibit deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as behavioral abnormalities in models of addiction and learning. Purified PSDs from Kal7KO mice contain diminished levels of NR2B, an NMDA receptor subunit that plays a critical role in LTP induction. Here we demonstrate that Kal7KO animals have decreased levels of NR2B-dependent NMDA receptor currents in cortical pyramidal neurons as well as a specific deficit in cell surface expression of NR2B. Additionally, we demonstrate that the genotypic differences in conditioned place preference and passive avoidance learning seen in Kal7KO mice are abrogated when animals are treated with an NR2B-specific antagonist during conditioning. Finally, we identify a stable interaction between the pleckstrin homology domain of Kal7 and the juxtamembrane region of NR2B preceding its cytosolic C-terminal domain. Binding of NR2B to a protein that modulates the actin cytoskeleton is important, as NMDA receptors require actin integrity for synaptic localization and function. These studies demonstrate a novel and functionally important interaction between the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and Kalirin, proteins known to be essential for normal synaptic plasticity.

  16. Beyond the exchange--the future of B2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, R; Morrison, D

    2000-01-01

    Using the Internet to facilitate business-to-business commerce promises many benefits, such as dramatic cost reductions and greater access to buyers and sellers. Yet little is known about how B2B e-commerce will evolve. The authors argue that changes in the financial services industry over the past two decades provide important clues. Exchanges, they say, are not the primary source of value in information-intensive markets; value tends to accumulate among a diverse group of specialists that focus on such tasks as packaging, standard setting, arbitrage, and information management. Because scale and liquidity are vitally important to efficient trading, today's exchanges will consolidate into a relatively small set of mega-exchanges. Originators will handle the origination and aggregation of complex transactions before sending them on to mega-exchanges for execution. E-speculators, seeking to capitalize on an abundance of market information, will tend to concentrate where relatively standardized products can be transferred easily among a large group of buyers. In many markets, a handful of independent solution providers with well-known brand names and solid reputations will thrive alongside mega-exchanges. Sell-side asset exchanges will create the networks and provide the tools to allow suppliers to trade orders among themselves, sometimes after initial transactions with customers are made on the mega-exchanges. For many companies, traditional skills in such areas as product development, manufacturing, and marketing may become relatively less important, while the ability to understand and capitalize on market dynamics may become considerably more important.

  17. Hanstholm phase 2B. Offshore wave energy test 1994 - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The wave power converter consists of a float 2.5 meter in diameter, connected by a rope to a seabed-mounted piston pump, installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore Hanstholm, Denmark. The converter is designed to absorb an average maximum power of 1 kW. Measured data in real sea conditions are compared to results based on computer simulations and previous tank testing. Losses caused by rope elasticity and hysteresis, friction in the pump and back flow through the valves are assessed. The economic perspectives of a large wave power plant are presented, based on a revised prototype incorporating the results and experience gained during the test period. The wave energy conversion test `Hanstholm phase 2B` has showed, that it it technically possible to exploit the offshore wave energy resource. This source of energy could become attractive for commercial enterprise. The wave power converter demonstrated a reliable performance over a period of nine months. It produced energy under all wave conditions and survived storm waves of 9,6 m. A 300 MW wave power plant in the Danish part of the North sea is estimated to produce electricity at a cost between 2,1 - 2,4 DKK/kWh. The electrical transmission to shore contribute to approximately 20% of the cost. New data predict a potential of 23 kW per meter wave front. The energy plan Energy 21 proposed by the Danish Department of Energy, includes a scenario incorporating wave energy in the energy system year 2030. A strategy for the development of wave energy, has been proposed as part of the project OWEC-1 supported by the European Joule R and D programme. A proposal for future Danish initiatives to develop second generation point absorber systems is outlined. (ARW) 29 refs.

  18. A role of periaqueductal grey NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in mediating persistent inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The present study was undertaken to investigate NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and their modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Noxious stimuli induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA caused up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG, while NR2A-containing NMDA receptors were not altered. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that NMDA receptor mediated mEPSCs were increased significantly in the PAG synapse during the chronic phases of inflammatory pain in mice. PAG local infusion of Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in rats. Hyperoside (Hyp, one of the flavonoids compound isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., significantly reversed up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and exhibited analgesic activities against persistent inflammatory stimuli in mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG involves in the modulation to the peripheral persistent inflammatory pain.

  19. Fibroblast Growth Factor 10-Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2b Mediated Signaling Is Not Required for Adult Glandular Stomach Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Frederic G.; Ford, Henri R.; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis. PMID:23133671

  20. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  1. Histone H2B monoubiquitination facilitates the rapid modulation of gene expression during Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Bourbousse

    Full Text Available Profiling of DNA and histone modifications has recently allowed the establishment of reference epigenomes from several model organisms. This identified a major chromatin state for active genes that contains monoubiquitinated H2B (H2Bub, a mark linked to transcription elongation. However, assessment of dynamic chromatin changes during the reprogramming of gene expression in response to extrinsic or developmental signals has been more difficult. Here we used the major developmental switch that Arabidopsis thaliana plants undergo upon their initial perception of light, known as photomorphogenesis, as a paradigm to assess spatial and temporal dynamics of monoubiquitinated H2B (H2Bub and its impact on transcriptional responses. The process involves rapid and extensive transcriptional reprogramming and represents a developmental window well suited to studying cell division-independent chromatin changes. Genome-wide H2Bub distribution was determined together with transcriptome profiles at three time points during early photomorphogenesis. This revealed de novo marking of 177 genes upon the first hour of illumination, illustrating the dynamic nature of H2Bub enrichment in a genomic context. Gene upregulation was associated with H2Bub enrichment, while H2Bub levels generally remained stable during gene downregulation. We further report that H2Bub influences the modulation of gene expression, as both gene up- and downregulation were globally weaker in hub1 mutant plants that lack H2Bub. H2Bub-dependent regulation notably impacted genes with fast and transient light induction, and several circadian clock components whose mRNA levels are tightly regulated by sharp oscillations. Based on these findings, we propose that H2B monoubiquitination is part of a transcription-coupled, chromatin-based mechanism to rapidly modulate gene expression.

  2. Recombinant human interferon alpha 2b prevents and reverses experimental pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Bauer

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a progressive and fatal disease with no cure. Vascular remodeling in PH involves intraluminal growth of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, leading to obliterative vascular lesions. Cell growth in these lesions is quasi-neoplastic, with evidence of monoclonality, apoptosis resistance and cancer-like metabolic derangements. Herein we tested the effect of human interferon alpha 2b (IFNα, a pleiotropic cytokine and anti-cancer therapeutic, on the development and progression of PH in the rat SU5416/hypoxia (SUH model and mouse hypoxia model of the disease. In both models IFNα attenuated the development of PH and reversed established PH as assessed by measuring right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy. The effect of IFNα was dependent on the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR since mice lacking a subunit of the IFNAR were not protected by IFNα. Morphometric analysis of pulmonary aterioles from hypoxic mice or SUH rats showed that IFNα inhibited pulmonary vascular remodeling in both models and that IFNα reversed remodeling in SUH rats with established disease. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that IFNα decreased the number of PCNA and Tunel positive cells in the wall of pulmonary arterioles. In vitro, IFNα inhibited proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and as well as human pulmonary artery endothelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. Together these findings demonstrate that IFNα reverses established experimental PH and provide a rationale for further exploration of the use of IFNα and other immunotherpies in PH.

  3. NEIL2 protects against oxidative DNA damage induced by sidestream smoke in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf H Sarker

    Full Text Available Secondhand smoke (SHS is a confirmed lung carcinogen that introduces thousands of toxic chemicals into the lungs. SHS contains chemicals that have been implicated in causing oxidative DNA damage in the airway epithelium. Although DNA repair is considered a key defensive mechanism against various environmental attacks, such as cigarette smoking, the associations of individual repair enzymes with susceptibility to lung cancer are largely unknown. This study investigated the role of NEIL2, a DNA glycosylase excising oxidative base lesions, in human lung cells treated with sidestream smoke (SSS, the main component of SHS. To do so, we generated NEIL2 knockdown cells using siRNA-technology and exposed them to SSS-laden medium. Representative SSS chemical compounds in the medium were analyzed by mass spectrometry. An increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in SSS-exposed cells was detected through the fluorescent detection and the induction of HIF-1α. The long amplicon-quantitative PCR (LA-QPCR assay detected significant dose-dependent increases of oxidative DNA damage in the HPRT gene of cultured human pulmonary fibroblasts (hPF and BEAS-2B epithelial cells exposed to SSS for 24 h. These data suggest that SSS exposure increased oxidative stress, which could contribute to SSS-mediated toxicity. siRNA knockdown of NEIL2 in hPF and HEK 293 cells exposed to SSS for 24 h resulted in significantly more oxidative DNA damage in HPRT and POLB than in cells with control siRNA. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that decreased repair of oxidative DNA base lesions due to an impaired NEIL2 expression in non-smokers exposed to SSS would lead to accumulation of mutations in genomic DNA of lung cells over time, thus contributing to the onset of SSS-induced lung cancer.

  4. Structural stability of the square flux line lattice in YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C studied with small angle neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, M.R.; Gammel, P.L.; Barber, B.P.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the flux line lattice in YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C, the nonmagnetic end members of the borocarbide superconductors using small angle neutron scattering and transport. For fields, H parallel to c, we find a square symmetric lattice which disorders rapidly above H/H-c2 similar to 0.2, well...

  5. Methadone pharmacogenetics: CYP2B6 polymorphisms determine plasma concentrations, clearance and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharasch, Evan D.; Regina, Karen J.; Blood, Jane; Friedel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Interindividual variability in methadone disposition remains unexplained, and methadone accidental overdose in pain therapy is a significant public health problem. Cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is the principle determinant of clinical methadone elimination. The CYP2B6 gene is highly polymorphic, with several variant alleles. CYP2B6.6, the protein encoded by the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism, deficiently catalyzes methadone metabolism in vitro. This investigation determined the influence of CYP2B6*6, and other allelic variants encountered, on methadone concentrations, clearance, and metabolism. Methods Healthy volunteers in genotype cohorts CYP2B6*1/*1 (n=21), CYP2B6*1/*6 (n=20), and CYP2B6*6/*6 (n=17), and also CYP2B6*1/*4 (n=1), CYP2B6*4/*6 (n=3), CYP2B6*5/*5 (n=2) subjects received single doses of intravenous and oral methadone. Plasma and urine methadone and metabolite concentrations were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Results Average S-methadone apparent oral clearance was 35 and 45% lower in CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes, respectively, compared with CYP2B6*1/*1, and R-methadone apparent oral clearance was 25 and 30% lower. R- and S-methadone apparent oral clearance was 3- and 4-fold greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Intravenous and oral R- and S-methadone metabolism was significantly lower in CYP2B6*6 carriers compared with CYP2B6*1 homozygotes, and greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Methadone metabolism and clearance were lower in African-Americans due to the CYP2B6*6 genetic polymorphism. Conclusions CYP2B6 polymorphisms influence methadone plasma concentrations, due to altered methadone metabolism and thus clearance. Genetic influence is greater for oral than intravenous, and S- than R-methadone. CYP2B6 pharmacogenetics explains, in part, interindividual variability in methadone elimination. CYP2B6 genetic effects on methadone metabolism and clearance may identify subjects at risk for methadone toxicity and drug interactions. PMID:26389554

  6. Li2b2-Façade: Simulation of i2b2 Data Warehouse Server and Client for Interaction with Other Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Raphael W; Xu, Tingyan; Stöhr, Mark R; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Since its release in 2004, the i2b2 data warehouse software has become a valuable tool for clinical researchers. Physicians can use its browser-based query frontend intuitively without additional training or reading through documentation. While the i2b2 software describes it's API as "REST", it is neither stateless nor does it follow the common guidelines for RESTful APIs. Thus, interfacing other software with i2b2's custom RPC-style XML-API is a very cumbersome process. To overcome these issues, we developed a lightweight software abstraction layer "lightweight i2b2 façade" (li2b2-façade).

  7. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutation is characterised by neuronal lysosomal storage pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clayton, Emma L.; Mizielinska, Sarah; Edgar, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We report that mice which express FTD-causative mutant CHMP2B at physiological levels develop a novel lysosomal storage pathology characterised by large neuronal autofluorescent aggregates. The a...

  8. Incidence and prevalence of multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Kroustrup, Jens Peter; Vestergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Extract: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome associating medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), ganglioneuromatosis of the aerodigestive tract and facial, ophthalmologic and skeletal abnormalities. MEN2B is caused by the M...

  9. Generation of BAC transgenic tadpoles enabling live imaging of motoneurons by using the urotensin II-related peptide (ust2b gene as a driver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Bougerol

    Full Text Available Xenopus is an excellent tetrapod model for studying normal and pathological motoneuron ontogeny due to its developmental morpho-physiological advantages. In mammals, the urotensin II-related peptide (UTS2B gene is primarily expressed in motoneurons of the brainstem and the spinal cord. Here, we show that this expression pattern was conserved in Xenopus and established during the early embryonic development, starting at the early tailbud stage. In late tadpole stage, uts2b mRNA was detected both in the hindbrain and in the spinal cord. Spinal uts2b+ cells were identified as axial motoneurons. In adult, however, the uts2b expression was only detected in the hindbrain. We assessed the ability of the uts2b promoter to drive the expression of a fluorescent reporter in motoneurons by recombineering a green fluorescent protein (GFP into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clone containing the entire X. tropicalis uts2b locus. After injection of this construction in one-cell stage embryos, a transient GFP expression was observed in the spinal cord of about a quarter of the resulting animals from the early tailbud stage and up to juveniles. The GFP expression pattern was globally consistent with that of the endogenous uts2b in the spinal cord but no fluorescence was observed in the brainstem. A combination of histological and electrophysiological approaches was employed to further characterize the GFP+ cells in the larvae. More than 98% of the GFP+ cells expressed choline acetyltransferase, while their projections were co-localized with α-bungarotoxin labeling. When tail myotomes were injected with rhodamine dextran amine crystals, numerous double-stained GFP+ cells were observed. In addition, intracellular electrophysiological recordings of GFP+ neurons revealed locomotion-related rhythmic discharge patterns during fictive swimming. Taken together our results provide evidence that uts2b is an appropriate driver to express reporter genes in larval

  10. Transient Inhibition of FGFR2b-ligands signaling leads to irreversible loss of cellular β-catenin organization and signaling in AER during mouse limb development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soula Danopoulos

    Full Text Available The vertebrate limbs develop through coordinated series of inductive, growth and patterning events. Fibroblast Growth Factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b signaling controls the induction of the Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER but its putative roles in limb outgrowth and patterning, as well as in AER morphology and cell behavior have remained unclear. We have investigated these roles through graded and reversible expression of soluble dominant-negative FGFR2b molecules at various times during mouse limb development, using a doxycycline/transactivator/tet(O-responsive system. Transient attenuation (≤ 24 hours of FGFR2b-ligands signaling at E8.5, prior to limb bud induction, leads mostly to the loss or truncation of proximal skeletal elements with less severe impact on distal elements. Attenuation from E9.5 onwards, however, has an irreversible effect on the stability of the AER, resulting in a progressive loss of distal limb skeletal elements. The primary consequences of FGFR2b-ligands attenuation is a transient loss of cell adhesion and down-regulation of P63, β1-integrin and E-cadherin, and a permanent loss of cellular β-catenin organization and WNT signaling within the AER. Combined, these effects lead to the progressive transformation of the AER cells from pluristratified to squamous epithelial-like cells within 24 hours of doxycycline administration. These findings show that FGFR2b-ligands signaling has critical stage-specific roles in maintaining the AER during limb development.

  11. Role of the Fe-zeolite structure and iron state in the N2O decomposition: Comparison of Fe-FER, Fe-BEA, and Fe-MFI catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jíša, Kamil; Nováková, Jana; Schwarze, Michael; Vondrová, Alena; Sklenák, Štěpán; Sobalík, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 262, č. 1 (2009), s. 27-34 ISSN 0021-9517 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400400413; GA AV ČR 1QS400400560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Fe in FER * BEA a MFI * N2O decomposition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.288, year: 2009

  12. Exposure of Human Lung Cells to Tobacco Smoke Condensate Inhibits the Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Holcomb

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Although the DNA damaging properties of tobacco smoke have been well documented, relatively few studies have examined its effect on DNA repair pathways. This is especially true for the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway which recognizes and removes many structurally diverse DNA lesions, including those introduced by chemical carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on NER in human lung cells. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, a surrogate for tobacco smoke, on the NER pathway in two different human lung cell lines; IMR-90 lung fibroblasts and BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. To measure NER, we employed a slot-blot assay to quantify the introduction and removal of UV light-induced 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. We find a dose-dependent inhibition of 6-4 photoproduct repair in both cell lines treated with CSC. Additionally, the impact of CSC on the abundance of various NER proteins and their respective RNAs was investigated. The abundance of XPC protein, which is required for functional NER, is significantly reduced by treatment with CSC while the abundance of XPA protein, also required for NER, is unaffected. Both XPC and XPA RNA levels are modestly reduced by CSC treatment. Finally, treatment of cells with MG-132 abrogates the reduction in the abundance of XPC protein produced by treatment with CSC, suggesting that CSC enhances proteasome-dependent turnover of the protein that is mediated by ubiquitination. Together, these findings indicate that tobacco smoke can inhibit the same DNA repair pathway that is also essential for the removal of some of the carcinogenic DNA damage introduced by smoke itself, increasing the DNA damage burden of cells exposed to tobacco smoke.

  13. Production and characterization of biosurfactant produced by a novel Pseudomonas sp. 2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, A; Srinikethan, G; Smitha, H

    2012-06-15

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from terrestrial samples collected in areas contaminated with petroleum compounds. Isolates were screened for biosurfactant production using Cetyl Tri Ammonium Bromide (CTAB)-Methylene blue agar selection medium and the qualitative drop-collapse test. An efficient bacterial strain was selected based on rapid drop collapse activity and highest biosurfactant production. The biochemical characteristics and partial sequenced 16S rRNA gene of isolate, 2B, identified the bacterium as Pseudomonas sp. Five different low cost carbon substrates were evaluated for their effect on biosurfactant production. The maximum biosurfactant synthesis (4.97 g/L) occurred at 96 h when the cells were grown on modified PPGAS medium containing 1% (v/v) molasses at 30 °C and 150 rpm. The cell free broth containing the biosurfactant could reduce the surface tension to 30.14 mN/m. The surface active compound showed emulsifying activity against a variety of hydrocarbons and achieved a maximum emulsion index of 84% for sunflower oil. Compositional analysis of the biosurfactant reveals that the extracted biosurfactant was a glycolipid type, which was composed of high percentages of lipid (∼65%, w/w) and carbohydrate (∼32%, w/w). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant indicates the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methoxyl functional groups. The mass spectra (MS) shows that dirhamnolipid (l-rhamnopyranosyl-l-rhamnopyranosyl-3-hydroxydecanoyl-3-hydroxydecanoate, Rha-Rha-C(10)-C(10)) was detected in abundance with the predominant congener monorhamnolipid (l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoate, Rha-C(10)-C(10)). The crude oil recovery studies using the biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas sp. 2B suggested its potential application in microbial enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CDKN2B methylation is associated with carotid artery calcification in ischemic stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shuyu Zhou; Yumeng Zhang; Li Wang; Zhizhong Zhang; Biyang Cai; Keting Liu; Hao Zhang; Minhui Dai; Lingli Sun; Xiaomeng Xu; Huan Cai; Xinfeng Liu; Guangming Lu; Gelin Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/2B (CDKN2A/2B) near chromosome 9p21 have been associated with both atherosclerosis and artery calcification, but the underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. Considering that CDKN2A/2B is a frequently reported site for DNA methylation, this study aimed to evaluate whether carotid artery calcification (CarAC) is related to methylation levels of CDKN2A/2B in patients with ischemic stroke. Methods DNA methylation levels of CDKN2A/2B were mea...

  15. The expression of Wnt2b in the optic cup lip requires a border between the pigmented and nonpigmented epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Junko; Hyer, Jeanette

    2010-12-14

    Wnt2b is normally expressed at the optic cup lip and is implicated in ciliary body induction. The lens has often been considered an organizer for the anterior eye, but recent studies demonstrate that the anterior cell fates are correctly specified in the absence of the lens. This study uses Wnt2b as a marker to reveal the mechanism behind the specification of the anterior domain of the optic cup. Developing chick embryos were used as a model system. Eyes were microsurgically manipulated to assess the role of the lens in the development of the anterior optic cup. Eyes were molecularly manipulated, using fibroblast growth factor expressing replication-incompetent retrovirus, introduced into the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) domain. Ectopic fibroblast growth factor transformed the RPE into nonpigmented epithelium (NPE; ciliary body). As the virus does not spread, discrete borders between RPE and NPE were experimentally created. Wnt2b expression was assessed after surgical and molecular manipulation. Contrary to expectations, we found that the lens is not able to induce Wnt2b expression in optic cup tissue: When the optic cup lip is experimentally misspecified such that it no longer contains the juxtaposition of pigmented and nonpigmented tissue, Wnt2b is not expressed. In addition, if the prelens ectoderm is removed from the optic vesicle before morphogenesis, the resulting lensless optic cup expresses Wnt2b even though it was not in contact with lens tissue. We also show that ectopic lenses do not induce Wnt2b in optic cup tissue. The ciliary body/anterior eye domain is specified at the border of RPE and the NPE of the ciliary body. During development, this border is normally found at the optic cup lip. We can manipulate tissue specification using retroviral-mediated gene transfer, and create ectopic borders between nonpigmented and pigmented tissue. At such borders, Wnt2b is ectopically expressed in the absence of lens contact. Finally, we describe a role for

  16. The brain-specific neural zinc finger transcription factor 2b (NZF-2b/7ZFMyt1 suppresses cocaine self-administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Chandrasekar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain-specific neural-zinc-finger transcription factor-2b (NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 is induced in the mesolimbic dopaminergic region after chronic cocaine exposure and lentiviral-mediated expression of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in the nucleus accumbens results in decreased locomotor activity (Chandrasekar and Dreyer, 2009. In this study the role of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in active cocaine seeking and of its interaction with histone deacetylase on the altered behavior has been observed. Localized expression of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in the nucleus accumbens resulted in attenuated cocaine self-administration, whereas silencing this transcription factor with lentiviruses expressing siRNAs increased the animal′s motivation to self-infuse cocaine. Low doses of sodium butyrate, a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylase, were sufficient to reverse the NZF2b/7ZFMyt1-mediated decrease in cocaine self-administration. NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 expression resulted in strong induction of transcription factors REST1 and NAC1 and of the dopamine D2 receptor, with concomitant inhibition of BDNF and its receptor TrkB. We show that NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 colocalizes with histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2, probably overcoming the suppression of transcriptional activity caused by Lingo1. These findings show that molecular adaptations mediated by NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 expression possibly lead to decreased responsiveness to the reinforcing properties of cocaine and play a prominent role in affecting the behavioral changes induced by the drug.

  17. Impaired ventilatory and thermoregulatory responses to hypoxic stress in newborn Phox2b heterozygous knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelina eRamanantsoa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Phox2b gene is necessary for the development of the autonomic nervous system, and especially, of respiratory neuronal circuits. In the present study, we examined the role of Phox2b in ventilatory and thermoregulatory responses to hypoxic stress, which are closely related in the postnatal period. Hypoxic stress was generated by strong thermal stimulus, combined or not with reduced inspired O2. To this end, we exposed 6-day-old Phox2b+/- pups and their wild-type littermates (Phox2b+/+ to hypoxia (10% O2 or hypercapnia (8% CO2 under thermoneutral (33°C or cold (26°C conditions. We found that Phox2b+/- pups showed less normoxic ventilation (VE in the cold than Phox2b+/+ pups. Phox2b+/- pups also showed lower oxygen consumption (VO2 in the cold, reflecting reduced thermogenesis and a lower body temperature. Furthermore, while the cold depressed ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in both genotype groups, this effect was less pronounced in Phox2b+/- pups. Finally, because serotonin (5-HT neurons are pivotal to respiratory and thermoregulatory circuits and depend on Phox2b for their differentiation, we studied 5-HT metabolism using high-pressure liquid chromatography, and found that it was altered in Phox2b+/- pups. We conclude that Phox2b haploinsufficiency alters the ability of newborns to cope with metabolic challenges, possibly due to 5-HT signaling impairments.

  18. Characterization of the UV-crosslinked heterodimer of histones H2B and H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; Brown, D.M.; DeLange, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    At relatively high salt concentrations (1.2 M), histone 2B (H2B) and histone 4 (H4) can be covalently crosslinked by irradiation with ultraviolet light to yield a mixture of the three possible dimers: H2B-H2B, H4-H4, and H2B-H4. The formation of the H2B-H4 heterodimer was found to be favored at lower histone concentrations (> 90% H2B-H4 at 0.1 mg/ml total histone protein). CNBr cleavage of the H2B-H4 dimer produced three fragments which were separated by reverse phase HPLC. These fragments were identified by amino acid compositional analysis to be H4(85-102), H2B(62-125), and the crosslinked N-terminal regions H2B(1-59)-H4(1-84). Amino acid sequence analysis of the crosslinked fragment indicated that tyrosine-40 of H2B is likely involved in the covalent crosslinkage which joins the histone monomers to form the heterodimer

  19. Reactive oxygen species contribute to arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation in human bronchial epithelial cells and lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingzhi; Qiu, Ping; Chen, Bailing; Lu, Yongju; Wu, Kai; Thakur, Chitra; Chang, Qingshan; Sun, Jiaying; Chen, Fei, E-mail: fchen@wayne.edu

    2014-05-01

    Our previous studies suggested that arsenic is able to induce serine 21 phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein through activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt signaling pathways in the bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. In the present report, we further demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the arsenic-induced protein kinase activation that leads to EZH2 phosphorylation. Several lines of evidence supported this notion. First, the pretreatment of the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, abolishes arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation along with the inhibition of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. Second, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the most important form of ROS in the cells in response to extracellular stress signals, can induce phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein and the activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. By ectopic expression of the myc-tagged EZH2, we additionally identified direct interaction and phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein by Akt in response to arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, both arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were able to induce the translocation of ectopically expressed or endogenous EZH2 from nucleus to cytoplasm. In summary, the data presented in this report indicate that oxidative stress due to ROS generation plays an important role in the arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. - Highlights:: • Arsenic (As{sup 3+}) induces EZH phosphorylation. • JNK, STAT3, and Akt contribute to EZH2 phosphorylation. • Oxidative stress is involved in As{sup 3+}-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. • As{sup 3+} induces direct interaction of Akt and EZH2. • Phosphorylated EZH2 localized in cytoplasm.

  20. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study on tetrahydro-beta-carboline antagonists of the serotonin 2B (5HT2B) contractile receptor in the rat stomach fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Kumar, R

    2001-12-01

    The antagonist actions of three sub-series of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines at the serotonin 2B (5HT2B) contractile receptor in the rat stomach fundus are analyzed in relation to the physicochemical properties of the molecules. Significant correlations are obtained between the 5HT2B receptor antagonist affinity and the hydrophobic, steric, electronic, hydrogen bond acceptor and some indicator variables of substituents. Based on these findings, the mode of actions of these congeneric series and future strategy to synthesize more potential compounds are discussed.

  1. Role of polymorphic human CYP2B6 in cyclophosphamide bioactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H-J; Yasar, U; Lundgren, S; Griskevicius, L; Terelius, Y; Hassan, M; Rane, A

    2003-01-01

    The role of polymorphic CYP2B6 in cyclophosphamide (CPA) bioactivation was investigated in human liver microsomes. A total of 67 human liver specimens were first genotyped with respect to the CYP2B6*5 and CYP2B6*6 variant alleles. CYP2B6 apoprotein levels in 55 liver microsomal preparations were assessed by immunoblotting. 4-Hydroxy-CPA and hydroxy-bupropion were quantified by using HPLC and LC-MS, respectively. 7-Ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin O-deethylase activity was measured fluorometrically. The frequencies of CYP2B6*5 and CYP2B6*6 mutant alleles were 9.0 and 16.4%, respectively. CYP2B6 protein expression was detected in 80% of the samples, with a large variation (0.003-2.234, arbitrary units). There was a high correlation between CYP2B6 apoprotein content and CPA 4-hydroxylation (n=55, r=0.81, P<0.0001). When based on the CYP2B6 apoprotein levels, the *6 carriers had significantly higher CPA 4-hydroxylation (P<0.05). CPA 4-hydroxylation also correlated significantly with other CYP2B6-specific reactions (n=20, P<0.0001). V(max) and K(m) for CPA 4-hydroxylation in recombinant CYP2B6 enzyme were 338 nmol/min/nmol enzyme and 1.4 mM, respectively. CYP2B6 showed much higher in vitro intrinsic clearance than previously observed in recombinant CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 variants in yeast expression system. Our results demonstrate that the polymorphic CYP2B6 is a major enzyme in the bioactivation of CPA. Moreover, we identified a strong impact of CYP2B6*6 on CPA 4-hydroxylation.

  2. Functional characterization of cytochromes P450 2B from the desert woodrat Neotoma lepida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilderman, P. Ross, E-mail: pwilderman@ucsd.edu [Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Jang, Hyun-Hee [Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Malenke, Jael R. [Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Salib, Mariam; Angermeier, Elisabeth; Lamime, Sonia [Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Dearing, M. Denise [Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Halpert, James R. [Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian detoxification processes have been the focus of intense research, but little is known about how wild herbivores process plant secondary compounds, many of which have medicinal value or are drugs. cDNA sequences that code for three enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B subfamily, here termed 2B35, 2B36, and 2B37 have been recently identified from a wild rodent, the desert woodrat (Malenke et al., 2012). Two variant clones of each enzyme were engineered to increase protein solubility and to facilitate purification, as reported for CYP2B enzymes from multiple species. When expressed in Escherichia coli each of the woodrat proteins gave the characteristic maximum at 450 nm in a reduced carbon monoxide difference spectrum but generally expressed at lower levels than rat CYP2B1. Two enzymes, 2B36 and 2B37, showed dealkylation activity with the model substrates 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin and 7-benzyloxyresorufin, whereas 2B35 was inactive. Binding of the monoterpene (+)-α-pinene produced a Type I shift in the absorbance spectrum of each enzyme. Mutation of 2B37 at residues 114, 262, or 480, key residues governing ligand interactions with other CYP2B enzymes, did not significantly change expression levels or produce the expected functional changes. In summary, two catalytic and one ligand-binding assay are sufficient to distinguish among CYP2B35, 2B36, and 2B37. Differences in functional profiles between 2B36 and 2B37 are partially explained by changes in substrate recognition site residue 114, but not 480. The results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of detoxification in wild mammalian herbivores and highlight the complexity of this system. - Highlights: • Three CYP2B enzymes from Neotoma lepida were cloned, engineered, and expressed. • A mix of catalytic and binding assays yields unique results for each enzyme. • Mutational analysis indicates CYP{sub 2}B substrate recognition remains to be clarified. • Reported N. lepida gene

  3. Purification and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis LcrV-cholera toxin A(2)/B chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Juliette K; Davis, Chadwick T; Arlian, Britni M

    2010-11-01

    Yersinia pestis is a virulent human pathogen and potential biological weapon. Despite a long history of research on this organism, there is no licensed vaccine to protect against pneumonic forms of Y. pestis disease. In the present study, plasmids were constructed to express cholera toxin A(2)/B chimeric molecules containing the LcrV protective antigen from Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pestis. These chimeras were expressed and purified to high yields from the supernatant of transformed Escherichia coli. Western and GM(1) ELISA assays were used to characterize the composition, receptor-binding and relative stability of the LcrV-CTA(2)/B chimera in comparison to cholera toxin. In addition, we investigated the ability of the Y. pestis LcrV-CTA(2)/B chimera to bind to and internalize into cultured epithelial cells and macrophages by confocal microscopy. These studies indicate that the uptake and trafficking of the LcrV antigen from the chimera is comparable to the trafficking of native toxin. Together these findings report that stable, receptor-binding, non-toxic LcrV-cholera toxin A(2)/B chimeras can be expressed at high levels in E. coli and purified from the supernatant. In addition, the internalization of antigen in vitro reported here supports the development of these molecules as novel mucosal vaccine candidates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children with Class III malocclusion: involvement of the PHOX2B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Casale, Valentina; Oneda, Roberta; Gioventù, Silvia; Matturri, Luigi; Farronato, Giampietro

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide new molecular approaches to the children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome by evaluating the possible involvement of the PHOX2B gene, notoriously associated to congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), in Class III malocclusion. Fifty subjects with Class III malocclusion, aged from 8 to 14 years, and with history of sleep apneic episodes, and 20 age-matched controls were submitted to genomic DNA examination from oral cells to specifically analyze the PHOX2B genotype. Point "silent" mutations affecting different nucleotides of the PHOX2B gene were observed in 32 % of patients with Class III malocclusion and never in controls (0 %). The genetic data obtained in this study in children with Class III malocclusion and sleep-related breathing disorders provide new information useful to the genetic characterization of this pathology. The PHOX2B gene silent mutations can lead to structural and functional modification of their product providing to a group of children with Class III malocclusion similar features to those of CCHS (sleep apnea episodes and craniofacial malformations).

  5. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Institute of Oral Biosciences and BK21 Program, Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Chen, Gang [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other types of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Apigenin has a potential in preventing environmental arsenic induced carcinogenesis. • Apigenin suppresses CXCR4 in malignant transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. • The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to inhibition of NF-κB activity.

  6. Alcohol Inhibits Organic Dust-Induced ICAM-1 Expression on Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Wyatt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Exposure to dusts/bioaerosols in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs results in inflammatory lung diseases in workers. Hog CAFOs dust extract (HDE increases expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, neutrophil adhesion, and TNFα release in bronchial epithelial cells. Alcohol consumption is increasingly recognized to impair lung immunity. We hypothesized that alcohol impairs HDE-induced TNFα, ICAM-1 expression, and neutrophil adhesion by directly inhibiting TNFα converting enzyme (TACE activity. Methods: Bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B and primary human bronchial epithelial cells were pretreated with ethanol (EtOH or TACE inhibitor. ICAM-1 surface expression; TNFα release; and TACE activity were analyzed following HDE stimulation. The effect of alcohol and TACE inhibition on HDE-regulated epithelial cell/neutrophil adhesion interactions was investigated. Finally; utilizing an established animal model; C57BL/6 mice were fed ad libitum ethanol (20% in drinking water for 8 weeks followed by daily intranasal inhalation of HDE or saline during the final two weeks. Mice were sacrificed and lung sections immunostained for ICAM-1. Results: Pretreatment with alcohol or TACE inhibitor significantly decreased HDE-induced ICAM-1 expression and TNFα release. HDE augmented neutrophil adhesion to epithelial cells, which was decreased with alcohol (32% decrease or TACE inhibitor (55% decrease pretreatment. TACE activity increased following HDE exposure, but TACE activity was inhibited following alcohol pretreatment. Alcohol-fed mice demonstrated decreased HDE-induced airway epithelium ICAM-1 expression. Conclusions: Alcohol diminishes HDE-induced ICAM-1 expression, TNFα release, and neutrophil adhesion via inhibition of TACE activity. These results suggest that alcohol may be an important modulator of lung innate immune responses following CAFO exposure.

  7. Reverse of Acute and Chronic Morphine Tolerance by Lithocholic Acid via Down-regulating UGT2B7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizhao Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lithocholic acid (LCA deposited in human livers always induces drastic pains which need analgesic drug, like morphine to release. Our research showed that LCA can effectively inhibit uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7 in morphine tolerance-like human normal liver cells, HL-7702, then increase μ-opioid receptor (MOR and calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα expression. In vivo assay, UGT2B7 was significantly repressed in the livers of acute or chronic morphine tolerance mice pretreated with LCA (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.. To investigate the connections between LCA function performance and changes of UGT2B7 enzymatic activity in mice livers, two morphine metabolites, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G were quantified by solid phase extraction (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS. The result indicated no matter in acute or chronic morphine tolerance, the concentrations of M3G and M6G were all decreased, the later one fell even more. Besides that, 50mg/kg of LCA administration can prevent auto-phosphorylation of CaMKIIα at Thr286 in acute or chronic morphine tolerance mice prefrontal cortexes (mPFCs due to synthesis increase of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. As a consequence, UGT2B7 depression mediated by LCA can affect its selective catalysis ability to morphine, that may be responsible to acute or chronic morphine tolerance alleviation. These findings might assist to modify antinociception of morphine in clinic.

  8. Mas-Related Gene (Mrg C Activation Attenuates Bone Cancer Pain via Modulating Gi and NR2B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu'e Sun

    Full Text Available This study is to investigate the role of Mas-related gene (Mrg C in the pathogenesis and treatment of bone cancer pain (BCP.BCP mouse model was established by osteosarcoma cell inoculation. Pain-related behaviors were assessed with the spontaneous lifting behavior test and mechanical allodynia test. Expression levels of MrgC, Gi, and NR2B in the spinal cord were detected with Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry.Pain-related behavior tests showed significantly increased spontaneous flinches (NSF and decreased paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT in mouse models of BCP. Western blot analysis showed that, compared with the control group and before modeling, all the expression levels of MrgC, Gi, and NR2B in the spinal cord of BCP mice were dramatically elevated, which were especially increased at day 7 after operation and thereafter, in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, the treatment of MrgC agonist BAM8-22 significantly up-regulated Gi and down-regulated NR2B expression levels, in the spinal cord of BCP mice, in a time-dependent manner. On the other hand, anti-MrgC significantly down-regulated Gi expression, while dramatically up-regulated NR2B expression, in the BCP mice. Similar results were obtained from the immunohistochemical detection. Importantly, BAM8-22 significantly attenuated the nociceptive behaviors in the BCP mice.Our results indicated the MrgC-mediated Gi and NR2B expression alterations in the BCP mice, which might contribute to the pain hypersensitivity. These findings may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of BCP in clinic.

  9. Alteration of canonical and non-canonical WNT-signaling by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Timothy N.; Dentener, Mieke A.; Stassen, Frank R.; Rohde, Gernot G.; Mossman, Brooke T.; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Reynaert, Niki L.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development of the mature lung is a complex process orchestrated by a number of intricate developmental signaling pathways. Wingless-type MMTV-integration site (WNT) signaling plays critical roles in controlling branching morphogenesis cell differentiation, and formation of the conducting and respiratory airways. In addition, WNT pathways are often re-activated in mature lungs during repair and regeneration. WNT- signaling has been elucidated as a crucial contributor to the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as other hyper-proliferative lung diseases. Silicosis, a detrimental occupational lung disease caused by excessive inhalation of crystalline silica dust, is hallmarked by repeated cycles of damaging inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and formation of dense, hyalinized nodules of whorled collagen. However, mechanisms of epithelial cell hyperplasia and matrix deposition are not well understood, as most research efforts have focused on the pronounced inflammatory response. Microarray data from our previous studies has revealed a number of WNT-signaling and WNT-target genes altered by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we utilize pathway analysis to designate connections between genes altered by silica in WNT-signaling networks. Furthermore, we confirm microarray findings by QRT-PCR and demonstrate both activation of canonical (β-catenin) and down-regulation of non-canonical (WNT5A) signaling in immortalized (BEAS-2B) and primary (PBEC) human bronchial epithelial cells. These findings suggest that WNT-signaling and cross-talk with other pathways (e.g. Notch), may contribute to proliferative, fibrogenic and inflammatory responses to silica in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • Pathway analysis reveals silica-induced WNT-signaling in lung epithelial cells. • Silica-induced canonical WNT-signaling is mediated by autocrine/paracrine signals. • Crystalline silica decreases non-canonical WNT

  10. Site-directed mutagenesis of putative substrate recognition sites in cytochrome P450 2B11: importance of amino acid residues 114, 290, and 363 for substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, J A; Harlow, G R; Szklarz, G D; John, G H; Kedzie, K M; Burnett, V L; He, Y A; Kaminsky, L S; Halpert, J R

    1994-08-01

    Eleven amino acid residues unique to dog cytochrome P450 (P450) 2B11, compared with rat 2B1 and 2B2, rabbit 2B4 and 2B5, and mouse 2B10, in the putative substrate recognition sites [J. Biol. Chem. 267:83-90 (1992)] were mutated to the residues found in 2B1 or 2B5. The mutants were expressed initially in COS cells and screened for activity toward androstenedione and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (245-HCB). P450 2B11 mutants V107I, M199L-N200E-V204R, V234I, A292L, Q473R, and I475S showed no differences from wild-type P450 2B11 in metabolite profiles with either substrate. Mutants V114I, D290I, and L363V exhibited altered androstenedione metabolite profiles and were expressed in Escherichia coli for further study with androstenedione, testosterone, 7-ethoxycoumarin, (R)- and (S)-warfarin, and 245-HCB. With V114I, hydroxylation of steroids and warfarin and 2-hydroxylation of 245-HCB were decreased, whereas 7-ethoxycoumarin O-dealkylation and 3-hydroxylation of 245-HCB were unaltered. For D290I, activities toward all substrates were decreased, except for 16 beta-hydroxylation of testosterone. The activity of L363V was increased 5-6-fold for 16 alpha-hydroxylation of androstenedione and testosterone but was decreased to 40-50% of wild-type activity with 7-ethoxycoumarin and warfarin and to 6-8% of control for 2-hydroxylation of 245-HCB. Alignment of P450 2B11 with P450 101 and super-imposition of the 11 mutated 2B11 residues on a P450 101 three-dimensional model suggest that only residues 114, 290, and 363 represent substrate contact residues, in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The data indicate the importance of the three residues 114, 290, and 363 in substrate specificity and regio- and stereoselectivity of P450 2B11 and also demonstrate that the effects of the mutations vary considerably with different substrates.

  11. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Chae-Ok [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Deok-Jong [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Young, E-mail: choieun@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-04

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  12. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Han, Deok-Jong; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  13. Some physico-chemical characteristics of a modified histone H2b on acute radiation affection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapunov, S.N.; Mel'nik, G.G.; Blyum, Ya.B.; Tsudzevich, B.A.; Kucherenko, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of optical characteristics of histone H2b isolated from liver nuclei 12 h following irradiation in a dose of 0.21 C/kg. It was demonstrated that under similar conditions, the control and exposed histones H2b have different steric organization which correlates with radiation-induced modifications of lateral radicals in H2b histone molecules

  14. Defects in neuromuscular junction remodelling in the Smn(2B/-) mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lyndsay M; Beauvais, Ariane; Bhanot, Kunal; Kothary, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating childhood motor neuron disease caused by mutations and deletions within the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Although other tissues may be involved, motor neurons remain primary pathological targets, with loss of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) representing an early and significant event in pathogenesis. Although defects in axonal outgrowth and pathfinding have been observed in cell culture and in lower organisms upon Smn depletion, developmental defects in mouse models have been less obvious. Here, we have employed the Smn(2B/-) mouse model to investigate NMJ remodelling during SMA pathology, induced reinnervation, and paralysis. We show that whilst NMJs are capable of remodelling during pathogenesis, there is a marked reduction in paralysis-induced remodelling and in the nerve-directed re-organisation of acetylcholine receptors. This reduction in remodelling potential could not be attributed to a decreased rate of axonal growth. Finally, we have identified a loss of terminal Schwann cells which could contribute to the defects in remodelling/maintenance observed. Our work demonstrates that there are specific defects in NMJ remodelling in an intermediate SMA mouse model, which could contribute to or underlie pathogenesis in SMA. The development of strategies that can promote the remodelling potential of NMJs may therefore be of significant benefit to SMA patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Total chemical synthesis of human interferon alpha-2b via native chemical ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lehmann, Clara; Chen, Xishan; Romerio, Fabio; Lu, Wuyuan

    2015-07-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFNα) is a cytokine that orchestrates innate and adaptive immune responses and potently inhibits proliferation of normal and tumor cells. These properties have warranted the use of IFNα in clinical practice for the treatment of several viral infections and malignancies. However, overexpression of IFNα leads to immunopathology observed in the context of chronic viral infections and autoimmune conditions. Thus, it is desirable to develop therapeutic approaches that aim at suppressing excessive IFNα production. To that end, artificial evolution of peptides from phage display libraries represents a strategy that seeks to disrupt the interaction between IFNα and its cell surface receptor and thus inhibit the ensuing biological effects. Mirror-image phage display that screens peptide libraries against the D-enantiomer is particularly attractive because it allows for identification of proteolysis-resistant D-peptide inhibitors. This approach, however, relies on the availability of chemically synthesized D-IFNα composed entirely of D-amino acids. Here, we describe the synthesis and biological properties of IFNα2b of 165 amino acid residues produced by native chemical ligation, which represents an important first step toward the discovery of D-peptide anta