Sample records for bearing condition indicators

  1. Comparison of Test Stand and Helicopter Oil Cooler Bearing Condition Indicators (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan


    The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.

  2. Comparison of Test Stand and Helicopter Oil Cooler Bearing Condition Indicators (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan


    The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.

  3. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.


    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  4. Condition Indicators for Gearbox Condition Monitoring Systems


    P. Večeř; M. Kreidl; R. Šmíd


    Condition monitoring systems for manual transmissions based on vibration diagnostics are widely applied in industry. The systems deal with various condition indicators, most of which are focused on a specific type of gearbox fault. Frequently used condition indicators (CIs) are described in this paper. The ability of a selected condition indicator to describe the degree of gearing wear was tested using vibration signals acquired during durability testing of manual transmission with helical ge...

  5. Condition Indicators for Gearbox Condition Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Večeř


    Full Text Available Condition monitoring systems for manual transmissions based on vibration diagnostics are widely applied in industry. The systems deal with various condition indicators, most of which are focused on a specific type of gearbox fault. Frequently used condition indicators (CIs are described in this paper. The ability of a selected condition indicator to describe the degree of gearing wear was tested using vibration signals acquired during durability testing of manual transmission with helical gears. 

  6. Roller Bearing Monitoring by New Subspace-Based Damage Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gautier


    Full Text Available A frequency-band subspace-based damage identification method for fault diagnosis in roller bearings is presented. Subspace-based damage indicators are obtained by filtering the vibration data in the frequency range where damage is likely to occur, that is, around the bearing characteristic frequencies. The proposed method is validated by considering simulated data of a damaged bearing. Also, an experimental case is considered which focuses on collecting the vibration data issued from a run-to-failure test. It is shown that the proposed method can detect bearing defects and, as such, it appears to be an efficient tool for diagnosis purpose.

  7. Predictive Condition Monitoring of Induction Motor Bearing Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Rakeshkumar A. Patel


    Full Text Available Induction motor is critical component in industrial processes and is frequently integrated in commercially available equipment. Safety, reliability, efficiency and performance are the major concerns of induction motor applications. Due to high reliability requirements and cost of breakdown, condition monitoring, diagnosis and Protection increasing importance. Protection of an induction motor (IM against possible problems, such as stator faults, rotor faults and mechanical faults, occurring in the course of its operation is very important, because it is very popular in industries. Bearing fault is well known mechanical fault of IM.41�0faults related to bearing in IM. To avoid break down of IM condition monitoring of motor bearing condition is very important during the normal operation. Various classical and AI techniques like fuzzy logic, neural network, neuro-fuzzy are used for condition monitoring and diagnosis of IM. Among the above mentioned AI techniques, Fuzzy logic is the best technique for condition monitoring and diagnosis of IM bearing condition. Therefore, the present paper focuses on fuzzy logic technique. In this paper Fuzzy logic is design for the condition monitoring and diagnosis of induction motor bearing condition using motor current and speed. After applying Fuzzy logic it has been seen that continuous monitoring of the current and speed values of the motor conditioned monitoring and diagnosis of induction motor bearing condition can be done.

  8. Bayesian Sampling using Condition Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    . This allows for a Bayesian formulation of the indicators whereby the experience and expertise of the inspection personnel may be fully utilized and consistently updated as frequentistic information is collected. The approach is illustrated on an example considering a concrete structure subject to corrosion....... It is shown how half-cell potential measurements may be utilized to update the probability of excessive repair after 50 years....

  9. Sea-ice indicators of polar bear habitat (United States)

    Stern, Harry L.; Laidre, Kristin L.


    Nineteen subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are found throughout the circumpolar Arctic, and in all regions they depend on sea ice as a platform for traveling, hunting, and breeding. Therefore polar bear phenology - the cycle of biological events - is linked to the timing of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall. We analyzed the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in all 19 polar bear subpopulation regions from 1979 to 2014, using daily sea-ice concentration data from satellite passive microwave instruments. We define the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in a region as the dates when the area of sea ice drops below a certain threshold (retreat) on its way to the summer minimum or rises above the threshold (advance) on its way to the winter maximum. The threshold is chosen to be halfway between the historical (1979-2014) mean September and mean March sea-ice areas. In all 19 regions there is a trend toward earlier sea-ice retreat and later sea-ice advance. Trends generally range from -3 to -9 days decade-1 in spring and from +3 to +9 days decade-1 in fall, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The trends are not sensitive to the threshold. We also calculated the number of days per year that the sea-ice area exceeded the threshold (termed ice-covered days) and the average sea-ice concentration from 1 June through 31 October. The number of ice-covered days is declining in all regions at the rate of -7 to -19 days decade-1, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The June-October sea-ice concentration is declining in all regions at rates ranging from -1 to -9 percent decade-1. These sea-ice metrics (or indicators of habitat change) were designed to be useful for management agencies and for comparative purposes among subpopulations. We recommend that the National Climate Assessment include the timing of sea-ice retreat and advance in future reports.

  10. The application of a general mathematical morphological particle as a novel indicator for the performance degradation assessment of a bearing (United States)

    Li, Hongru; Wang, Yukui; Wang, Bing; Sun, Jian; Li, Yaolong


    Bearing performance degradation assessment is a key step of condition-based maintenance. In this paper, a novel indicator of bearing performance degradation assessment is presented based on the mathematical morphology (MM) theory for higher efficiency. Because the traditional mathematical morphology particle (MMP) is unable to exactly describe the bearing's performance degradation, we extended its definition to the general space to address the limited ability of the former definition. On the basis of the innovative definition, we used the morphology erosion operation instead of the morphology open operation to calculate the general mathematical morphology particle (GMMP) of the bearing's whole life data. The analysis of the simulation and practical application demonstrated that the proposed index is feasible and effective to indicate the performance degradation of the bearing.

  11. Condition monitoring of induction motor bearing based on bearing damage index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel R.K.


    Full Text Available The rolling element bearings are used broadly in many machinery applications. It is used to support the load and preserve the clearance between stationary and rotating machinery elements. Unfortunately, rolling element bearings are exceedingly prone to premature failures. Vibration signal analysis has been widely used in the faults detection of rotating machinery and can be broadly classified as being a stationary or non-stationary signal. In the case of the faulty rolling element bearing the vibration signal is not strictly phase locked to the rotational speed of the shaft and become “transient” in nature. The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss the identification of an Inner Raceway Fault (IRF and an Outer Raceway Fault (ORF with the different fault severity levels. The conventional statistical analysis was only able to detect the existence of a fault but unable to discriminate between IRF and ORF. In the present work, a detection technique named as bearing damage index (BDI has been proposed. The proposed BDI technique uses wavelet packet node energy coefficient analysis method. The well-known combination of Hilbert transform (HT and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT has been carried out in order to identify the IRF and ORF faults. The results show that wavelet packet node energy coefficients are not only sensitive to detect the faults in bearing but at the same time they are able to detect the severity level of the fault. The proposed bearing damage index method for fault identification may be considered as an ‘index’ representing the health condition of rotating machines.

  12. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn D Rode

    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013 when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia, highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI is an emerging technology. Research in AI is focused on developing computational approaches to intelligent behavior. The computer programs with which AI could be associated are primarily processes associated with complexity, ambiguity, ndecisiveness, and uncertainty. This present paper surveys the development of a condition monitoring procedure for different types ofbearings, which involves an artificial intelligence method as well as reviewed in order to examine the capability of AI methods and techniques to effectively address various hard-to-solve design tasks and issues relating different types of bearing fault. Although this review cannot be collectively exhaustive, it may be considered as a valuable guide for researchers who are interested in the domain of AI and wish to explore the opportunities offered by fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms for further improvement of conditioning monitoring for different types of bearing under different operating conditioning. Recent trends in research on conditioning monitoring using AI for different bearing have also been included.

  14. Bearing Fault Classification Based on Conditional Random Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Wang


    Full Text Available Condition monitoring of rolling element bearing is paramount for predicting the lifetime and performing effective maintenance of the mechanical equipment. To overcome the drawbacks of the hidden Markov model (HMM and improve the diagnosis accuracy, conditional random field (CRF model based classifier is proposed. In this model, the feature vectors sequences and the fault categories are linked by an undirected graphical model in which their relationship is represented by a global conditional probability distribution. In comparison with the HMM, the main advantage of the CRF model is that it can depict the temporal dynamic information between the observation sequences and state sequences without assuming the independence of the input feature vectors. Therefore, the interrelationship between the adjacent observation vectors can also be depicted and integrated into the model, which makes the classifier more robust and accurate than the HMM. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, four kinds of bearing vibration signals which correspond to normal, inner race pit, outer race pit and roller pit respectively are collected from the test rig. And the CRF and HMM models are built respectively to perform fault classification by taking the sub band energy features of wavelet packet decomposition (WPD as the observation sequences. Moreover, K-fold cross validation method is adopted to improve the evaluation accuracy of the classifier. The analysis and comparison under different fold times show that the accuracy rate of classification using the CRF model is higher than the HMM. This method brings some new lights on the accurate classification of the bearing faults.

  15. Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The famous physicist made for his scholars this riddle. A fellow encountered a bear in a wasteland. There was nobody else there. Both were frightened and ran away. Fellow to the north, bear to the west. Suddenly the fellow stopped, aimed his gun to the south and shot the bear. What colour was the bear?

  16. Fault Diagnosis for Rolling Bearings under Variable Conditions Based on Visual Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Cheng


    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis for rolling bearings has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, few studies have focused on fault diagnosis for rolling bearings under variable conditions. This paper introduces a fault diagnosis method for rolling bearings under variable conditions based on visual cognition. The proposed method includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal data are transformed into a recurrence plot (RP, which is a two-dimensional image. Then, inspired by the visual invariance characteristic of the human visual system (HVS, we utilize speed up robust feature to extract fault features from the two-dimensional RP and generate a 64-dimensional feature vector, which is invariant to image translation, rotation, scaling variation, etc. Third, based on the manifold perception characteristic of HVS, isometric mapping, a manifold learning method that can reflect the intrinsic manifold embedded in the high-dimensional space, is employed to obtain a low-dimensional feature vector. Finally, a classical classification method, support vector machine, is utilized to realize fault diagnosis. Verification data were collected from Case Western Reserve University Bearing Data Center, and the experimental result indicates that the proposed fault diagnosis method based on visual cognition is highly effective for rolling bearings under variable conditions, thus providing a promising approach from the cognitive computing field.

  17. Influence of Conditioned Surface Textures on Plain Journal Bearing Performance Working on HL Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vélez-Restrepo J.M.


    Full Text Available As an answer to the need for reducing friction losses on bearings, dynamic seals, piston rings, cutting tools and others, a lot of work has been dedicated to mechanical systems study whose surfaces have been textured in a controlled way. Theoretical models and experimental results have shown improvements on the tribological performance of these systems regarding untextured systems, working under the same conditions. This paper presents a numerical model for getting relationships among the operational conditions (load, speed, and dynamic viscosity, the minimum lubricate film thickness, the friction coefficient and the conditioned micro-topography of a plain sliding bearing working under a hydrodynamic regime. Moreover, regarding other similar works the constructed model allows studying the combined effect of the micro-wedges that work as micro-bearings, and the typical convergent macro-wedge of these study elements.

  18. Using Magnetic Bearing Orbit Information to Maximize Centrifugal Compressor Efficiency at Off-Design Conditions



    Active magnetic bearings used on oil-free centrifugal refrigeration compressors have lower stiffness than conventional oil-lubricated journal or rolling element bearings. The lower stiffness of these bearings makes them sensitive to internal flow instabilities that are precursors of rotating stall or compressor surge. At operating conditions far away from surge the internal flow is very stable and the magnetic bearings keep the shaft centered, resulting in a minimal bearing orbit. The interna...

  19. The use of acoustic emission for bearing condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, A W; Quiney, Z [Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Ganji, A; Murray, B, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [SKF Engineering and Research Centre, Kelvinbaan 16, 3439 MT Nieuwegein (Netherlands)


    This paper reports research currently in progress at Swansea University in collaboration with SKF Engineering and Research Centre as part of a continuing investigation into high frequency Acoustic Emission. The primary concerns are experimentally producing subsurface cracks, the type of which would occur in a service failure of a ball bearing, within a steel ball and to closely monitor the properties of this AE from crack initiation to the formation of a ball on the ball surface. It is worth noting that there is evidence that the frequency content of the AE changes during this period, although this has yet to be proved consistent or even fully explained. Conclusive evidence could lead to a system which detects such cracks in a bearing operating in real life conditions, advantageous for many reasons including safety, downtime and maintenance and associated costs. The results from two experimental procedures are presented, one of which loads a single ball held stationary in a test rig to induce subsurface cracks, which are in turn detected by a pair of broadband AE sensors and recorded via a Labview based software system. This approach not only allows detailed analysis of the AE waveforms but also approximate AE source location from the time difference between two sensors. The second experimental procedure details an adaptation of a four-ball lubricant tester in an attempt to produce naturally occurring subsurface cracks from rolling contact whilst minimising the AE arising from surface wear. This thought behind this experiment is reinforced with 3D computational modelling of the rotating system.

  20. Variable viscosity condition in the modeling of a slider bearing

    CERN Document Server

    Uprety, Kedar Nath


    To reduce tear and wear of machinery lubrication is essential. Lubricants form a layer between two surfaces preventing direct contact and reduce friction between moving parts and hence reduce wear. In this short letter the lubrication of two slider bearings with parallel and nonparallel is studied. First, we show that bearings with parallel plates cannot support any load. For bearings with nonparallel plates we are interested on how constant and temperature dependent viscosity affects the properties of the bearings. Also, a critical temperature for which the bearings would fail due to excess in temperature is found for both latter cases. If the viscosity is constant, the critical temperature is given by an explicit formula, while for the non-constant viscosity the critical temperature can be always found from a closed form formula involving Weber functions

  1. Influence of Conditioned Surface Textures on Plain Journal Bearing Performance Working on HL Conditions


    Vélez-Restrepo J.M.; Toro-Botero F.M.; Suárez-Bustamante F.A.


    As an answer to the need for reducing friction losses on bearings, dynamic seals, piston rings, cutting tools and others, a lot of work has been dedicated to mechanical systems study whose surfaces have been textured in a controlled way. Theoretical models and experimental results have shown improvements on the tribological performance of these systems regarding untextured systems, working under the same conditions. This paper presents a numerical model for getting relationships among the ope...

  2. Bearing Condition Recognition and Degradation Assessment under Varying Running Conditions Using NPE and SOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Zhang


    Full Text Available Manifold learning methods have been widely used in machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. However, the results reported in these studies focus on the machine faults under stable loading and rotational speeds, which cannot interpret the practical machine running. Rotating machine is always running under variable speeds and loading, which makes the vibration signal more complicated. To address such concern, the NPE (neighborhood preserving embedding is applied for bearing fault classification. Compared with other algorithms (PCA, LPP, LDA, and ISOP, the NPE performs well in feature extraction. Since the traditional time domain signal denoising is time consuming and memory consuming, we denoise the signal features directly in feature space. Furthermore, NPE and SOM (self-organizing map are combined to assess the bearing degradation performance. Simulation and experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Profile of peroxidative injury and antioxidant indicators in singleton, twins and multiple bearing goats throughout pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Ghani MA; T.M. El-sherry TM; Hayder M; Abou-Khalil NS


    Objective:To investigate the changes in profile of the oxidant and antioxidant indicators throughout pregnancy in goats.Methods: Estrus in goats was synchronized using an intravaginal progestogen impregnated sponge and the buck was introduced in the herd during the experiment for breeding purpose. Serum nitric oxide (NO) as standard angiogenic marker, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as a cryoprotectant indicator, total peroxide (TPX) as a pathogenetic effector were measured, followed by calculation of OSI% (TPX/TAC)×100 as a reflector of the oxidant/antioxidant status, andmalondialdhyde were estimated.Results:Compared with values in singleton and twins bearing goats, TAC values in multiple bearing goats were higher in 4thmonth and lower in 5th month (P<0.05). Values of TPX were lower in multiple bearing goats in 4th month and higher in 5th month (P<0.05) when compared with singleton and twins bearing goats.In contrary, NO values started to increase from the 2nd month until 4th month of gestation in all pregnant goats. However, the NO was lower in 5th month (P<0.05) in multiple bearing goats.Values of NO were negatively correlated with OSI % in allbearing goats.Conclusion: Knowing the relationship between the fetal number and oxidative stress indicators could be useful in the clinical management of such pregnancies and could be useful in the early detection or prediction adverse pregnancy outcome. Particularly, the 4th and 5th month of gestation increases the liability to reactive oxygen species in goats.

  4. A study on the noise characteristics of polymer ball bearings under various lubrication conditions (United States)

    Dinç, S. K.; Temiz, V.; Kamburoǧlu, E.


    Polymer bearings are generally praised by the manufacturers for running silently. However such statements never go beyond qualitative assumptions. Therefore, studying polymer ball bearing noise would have been meaningful solely on the perspective of silent running machinery. On the other hand, the service life of a polymer ball bearing is unpredictable and there's no preventive maintenance practice that provides data regarding the condition of a polymer ball bearing. In this study, we assume that an investigation of their noise characteristics could also reveal clues concerning their performances. The main objective of this study is to determine the noise characteristics of polymer ball bearings lubricated with different lubricant greases of varying viscosity grades through experimental means. Sound pressure level measurements of SKF brand polymer bearings with polypropylene rings, polypropylene cage and glass balls were made with a 1/2 inch microphone in 1/3-octave bands, at frequencies up to 12.5 kHz, under various radial loads and rotational speeds. The bearings were mounted on a shaft driven by an AC motor with stepless speed control, adjustable between 0 - 1400 rpm. The ball bearings were running inside an acoustic chamber designed for the insulation of environmental noise and the noise of the motor at target frequencies. The resulting sound pressure level spectra were evaluated and the effects of the lubrication conditions on the noise of the ball bearing and possible diagnostic insight that could be gained through studying bearing noise characteristics were discussed.

  5. Overtaking as Indicator of Road Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Topolnik


    Full Text Available Overtaking is presemed as one of the indicators of roadtraffic flow. The possibility of overtaking depends on the existenceof an intetval in the opposing traffic flow sufficient to performovertaking. It also analyses the probability of overtakingby applying adequate equations and graphical presentations

  6. Special Features of the Carbonitriding of Parts of Instrument Bearings Designed for Extreme Service Conditions (United States)

    Smirnov, A. E.; Shevchenko, S. Yu.; Shchipunov, V. S.; Kunyaev, V. E.; Seval'nev, G. S.


    A study is made of complexly alloyed steel 8Kh4V9F2-Sh, which is used for fabricating parts of engineering bearings operating under extreme conditions. Vacuum processes are shown to be preferable to gas carburizing for hardening the races of precision bearings. Vacuum carburizing is shown to be an effective technique for forming quality diffusion layers.

  7. Modeling the Relationship between Vibration Features and Condition Parameters Using Relevance Vector Machines for Health Monitoring of Rolling Element Bearings under Varying Operation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu


    Full Text Available Rotational speed and load usually change when rotating machinery works. Both this kind of changing operational conditions and machine fault could make the mechanical vibration characteristics change. Therefore, effective health monitoring method for rotating machinery must be able to adjust during the change of operational conditions. This paper presents an adaptive threshold model for the health monitoring of bearings under changing operational conditions. Relevance vector machines (RVMs are used for regression of the relationships between the adaptive parameters of the threshold model and the statistical characteristics of vibration features. The adaptive threshold model is constructed based on these relationships. The health status of bearings can be indicated via detecting whether vibration features exceed the adaptive threshold. This method is validated on bearings running at changing speeds. The monitoring results show that this method is effective as long as the rotational speed is higher than a relative small value.

  8. Survey of Condition Indicators for Condition Monitoring Systems (Open Access) (United States)


    Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) published a document named ‘Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin Study – Vibration Analysis’ in 2012... Mean Square (RMS) RMS describes the energy content of the signal. RMS is used to evaluate the overall condition of the components. Therefore, it...13) ̅ is the mean value of signal N is the number of data point in the dataset x Energy

  9. Identification of loading conditions resulting in roller slippage in gearbox bearings of large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowski, Dariusz; Natarajan, Anand


    The dynamic loads on the rollers inside the bearings of large wind turbine gearboxes operating under transient conditions are presented with a focus on identifying conditions leading to slippage of rollers. The methodology was developed using a multi-body model of the drivetrain coupled with aero......The dynamic loads on the rollers inside the bearings of large wind turbine gearboxes operating under transient conditions are presented with a focus on identifying conditions leading to slippage of rollers. The methodology was developed using a multi-body model of the drivetrain coupled...

  10. Fault Diagnosis for Rolling Bearing under Variable Conditions Based on Image Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhou


    Full Text Available Rolling bearing faults often lead to electromechanical system failure due to its high speed and complex working conditions. Recently, a large amount of fault diagnosis studies for rolling bearing based on vibration data has been reported. However, few studies have focused on fault diagnosis for rolling bearings under variable conditions. This paper proposes a fault diagnosis method based on image recognition for rolling bearings to realize fault classification under variable working conditions. The proposed method includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal data are transformed into a two-dimensional image based on recurrence plot (RP technique. Next, a popular feature extraction method which has been widely used in the image field, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT, is employed to extract fault features from the two-dimensional RP and subsequently generate a 128-dimensional feature vector. Third, due to the redundancy of the high-dimensional feature, kernel principal component analysis is utilized to reduce the feature dimensionality. Finally, a neural network classifier trained by probabilistic neural network is used to perform fault diagnosis. Verification experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault diagnosis method for rolling bearings under variable conditions, thereby providing a promising approach to fault diagnosis for rolling bearings.

  11. Comprehensive bearing condition monitoring algorithm for incipient fault detection using acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit R. Bhende


    Full Text Available The bearing reliability plays major role in obtaining the desired performance of any machine. A continuous condition monitoring of machine is required in certain applications where failure of machine leads to loss of production, human safety and precision. Machine faults are often linked to the bearing faults. Condition monitoring of machine involves continuous watch on the performance of bearings and predicting the faults of bearing before it cause any adversity. This paper investigates an experimental study to diagnose the fault while bearing is in operation. An acoustic emission technique is used in the experimentation. An algorithm is developed to process various types of signals generated from different bearing defects. The algorithm uses time domain analysis along with combination low frequency analysis technique such as fast Fourier transform and high frequency envelope detection. Two methods have adopted for envelope detection which are Hilbert transform and order analysis. Experimental study is carried out for deep groove ball bearing cage defect. Results show the potential effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to determine presence of fault, exact location and severity of fault.

  12. ANN based Performance Evaluation of BDI for Condition Monitoring of Induction Motor Bearings (United States)

    Patel, Raj Kumar; Giri, V. K.


    One of the critical parts in rotating machines is bearings and most of the failure arises from the defective bearings. Bearing failure leads to failure of a machine and the unpredicted productivity loss in the performance. Therefore, bearing fault detection and prognosis is an integral part of the preventive maintenance procedures. In this paper vibration signal for four conditions of a deep groove ball bearing; normal (N), inner race defect (IRD), ball defect (BD) and outer race defect (ORD) were acquired from a customized bearing test rig, under four different conditions and three different fault sizes. Two approaches have been opted for statistical feature extraction from the vibration signal. In the first approach, raw signal is used for statistical feature extraction and in the second approach statistical features extracted are based on bearing damage index (BDI). The proposed BDI technique uses wavelet packet node energy coefficients analysis method. Both the features are used as inputs to an ANN classifier to evaluate its performance. A comparison of ANN performance is made based on raw vibration data and data chosen by using BDI. The ANN performance has been found to be fairly higher when BDI based signals were used as inputs to the classifier.

  13. Predictive Condition Monitoring of Induction Motor Bearing Using Fuzzy Logic



    Induction motor is critical component in industrial processes and is frequently integrated in commercially available equipment. Safety, reliability, efficiency and performance are the major concerns of induction motor applications. Due to high reliability requirements and cost of breakdown, condition monitoring, diagnosis and Protection increasing importance. Protection of an induction motor (IM) against possible problems, such as stator faults, rotor faults and mechanical faults, occurring i...

  14. Acoustic emission-based condition monitoring methods: Review and application for low speed slew bearing (United States)

    Caesarendra, Wahyu; Kosasih, Buyung; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Zhu, Hongtao; Moodie, Craig A. S.; Zhu, Qiang


    This paper presents an acoustic emission-based method for the condition monitoring of low speed reversible slew bearings. Several acoustic emission (AE) hit parameters as the monitoring parameters for the detection of impending failure of slew bearings are reviewed first. The review focuses on: (1) the application of AE in typical rolling element bearings running at different speed classifications, i.e. high speed (>600 rpm), low speed (10-600 rpm) and very low speed (<10 rpm); (2) the commonly used AE hit parameters in rolling element bearings and (3) AE signal processing, feature extraction and pattern recognition methods. In the experiment, impending failure of the slew bearing was detected by the AE hit parameters after the new bearing had run continuously for approximately 15 months. The slew bearing was then dismantled and the evidence of the early defect was analysed. Based on the result, we propose a feature extraction method of the AE waveform signal using the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) algorithm and demonstrate that the LLE feature can detect the sign of failure earlier than the AE hit parameters with improved prediction of the progressive trend of the defect.

  15. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth


    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  16. A tale of two polar bear populations: Ice habitat, harvest, and body condition (United States)

    Rode, K.D.; Peacock, E.; Taylor, M.; Stirling, I.; Born, E.W.; Laidre, K.L.; Wiig, O.


    One of the primary mechanisms by which sea ice loss is expected to affect polar bears is via reduced body condition and growth resulting from reduced access to prey. To date, negative effects of sea ice loss have been documented for two of 19 recognized populations. Effects of sea ice loss on other polar bear populations that differ in harvest rate, population density, and/or feeding ecology have been assumed, but empirical support, especially quantitative data on population size, demography, and/or body condition spanning two or more decades, have been lacking. We examined trends in body condition metrics of captured bears and relationships with summertime ice concentration between 1977 and 2010 for the Baffin Bay (BB) and Davis Strait (DS) polar bear populations. Polar bears in these regions occupy areas with annual sea ice that has decreased markedly starting in the 1990s. Despite differences in harvest rate, population density, sea ice concentration, and prey base, polar bears in both populations exhibited positive relationships between body condition and summertime sea ice cover during the recent period of sea ice decline. Furthermore, females and cubs exhibited relationships with sea ice that were not apparent during the earlier period (1977-1990s) when sea ice loss did not occur. We suggest that declining body condition in BB may be a result of recent declines in sea ice habitat. In DS, high population density and/or sea ice loss, may be responsible for the declines in body condition. ?? 2011 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.

  17. Time-varying demodulation analysis for rolling bearing fault diagnosis under variable speed conditions (United States)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chen, Xiaowang; Wang, Tianyang


    Rolling bearings often work under variable speed conditions, resulting in nonstationary vibrations. How to effectively extract the time-varying fault frequency from nonstationary vibration signals is a key issue in rolling bearing fault diagnosis. To address this issue, a quality time-frequency analysis of excellent time-frequency readability and robust to noise is necessary. To this end, the concentration of frequency and time (ConceFT) method is exploited. Based on this time-frequency analysis method, and considering the modulation feature of rolling bearing vibrations, we propose joint time-varying amplitude and frequency demodulated spectra to reveal the time-varying fault characteristic frequency. Firstly, the optimal frequency band sensitive to rolling bearing fault is selected by spectral kurtosis. Then, both the amplitude envelope and instantaneous frequency of the sensitive signal component within the selected optimal frequency band are calculated. Next, the ConceFT method is applied to the amplitude envelope and instantaneous frequency to generate the time-varying amplitude and frequency demodulated spectra. Finally, rolling bearing fault can be diagnosed by analysis of the time-varying frequency revealed by the time-varying demodulated spectra. This method is free from complex time-varying sidebands, and is robust to noise interference. It is illustrated by numerical simulated signal analysis, and is further validated via lab experimental rolling bearing vibration signal analyses. The localized defects on both inner and outer race are successfully diagnosed.

  18. Continued Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Antolick, Lance J.; Wade, Daniel R.


    This paper details analyses of condition indicator performance for the helicopter nose gearbox within the U.S. Army's Condition-Based Maintenance Program. Ten nose gearbox data sets underwent two specific analyses. A mean condition indicator level analysis was performed where condition indicator performance was based on a 'batting average' measured before and after part replacement. Two specific condition indicators, Diagnostic Algorithm 1 and Sideband Index, were found to perform well for the data sets studied. A condition indicator versus gear wear analysis was also performed, where gear wear photographs and descriptions from Army tear-down analyses were categorized based on ANSI/AGMA 1010-E95 standards. Seven nose gearbox data sets were analyzed and correlated with condition indicators Diagnostic Algorithm 1 and Sideband Index. Both were found to be most responsive to gear wear cases of micropitting and spalling. Input pinion nose gear box condition indicators were found to be more responsive to part replacement during overhaul than their corresponding output gear nose gear box condition indicators.

  19. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Wavelet Based Denoising Schemes Using ANN and SVM for Bearing Condition Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay G. S.


    Full Text Available The wavelet based denoising has proven its ability to denoise the bearing vibration signals by improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and reducing the root-mean-square error (RMSE. In this paper seven wavelet based denoising schemes have been evaluated based on the performance of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN and the Support Vector Machine (SVM, for the bearing condition classification. The work consists of two parts, the first part in which a synthetic signal simulating the defective bearing vibration signal with Gaussian noise was subjected to these denoising schemes. The best scheme based on the SNR and the RMSE was identified. In the second part, the vibration signals collected from a customized Rolling Element Bearing (REB test rig for four bearing conditions were subjected to these denoising schemes. Several time and frequency domain features were extracted from the denoised signals, out of which a few sensitive features were selected using the Fisher’s Criterion (FC. Extracted features were used to train and test the ANN and the SVM. The best denoising scheme identified, based on the classification performances of the ANN and the SVM, was found to be the same as the one obtained using the synthetic signal.

  20. Automatic Condition Monitoring of Industrial Rolling-Element Bearings Using Motor’s Vibration and Current Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Yang


    Full Text Available An automatic condition monitoring for a class of industrial rolling-element bearings is developed based on the vibration as well as stator current analysis. The considered fault scenarios include a single-point defect, multiple-point defects, and a type of distributed defect. Motivated by the potential commercialization, the developed system is promoted mainly using off-the-shelf techniques, that is, the high-frequency resonance technique with envelope detection and the average of short-time Fourier transform. In order to test the flexibility and robustness, the monitoring performance is extensively studied under diverse operating conditions: different sensor locations, motor speeds, loading conditions, and data samples from different time segments. The experimental results showed the powerful capability of vibration analysis in the bearing point defect fault diagnosis. The current analysis also showed a moderate capability in diagnosis of point defect faults depending on the type of fault, severity of the fault, and the operational condition. The temporal feature indicated a feasibility to detect generalized roughness fault. The practical issues, such as deviations of predicted characteristic frequencies, sideband effects, time-average of spectra, and selection of fault index and thresholds, are also discussed. The experimental work shows a huge potential to use some simple methods for successful diagnosis of industrial bearing systems.

  1. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of a rotor-bearing-seal system under two loading conditions (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Li, Hui; Niu, Heqiang; Song, Rongze; Wen, Bangchun


    The operating speed of the rotating machinery often exceeds the second or even higher order critical speeds to pursue higher efficiency. Thus, how to restrain the higher order mode instability caused by the nonlinear oil-film force and seal force at high speed as far as possible has become more and more important. In this study, a lumped mass model of a rotor-bearing-seal system considering the gyroscopic effect is established. The graphite self-lubricating bearing and the sliding bearing are simulated by a spring-damping model and a nonlinear oil-film force model based on the assumption of short bearings, respectively. The seal is simulated by Muszynska nonlinear seal force model. Effects of the seal force and oil-film force on the first and second mode instabilities are investigated under two loading conditions which are determined by API Standard 617 (Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services, Seventh Edition). The research focuses on the effects of exciting force forms and their magnitudes on the first and second mode whips in a rotor-bearing-seal system by using the spectrum cascades, vibration waveforms, orbits and Poincaré maps. The first and second mode instability laws are compared by including and excluding the seal effect in a rotor system with single-diameter shaft and two same discs. Meanwhile, the instability laws are also verified in a rotor system with multi-diameter shaft and two different discs. The results show that the second loading condition (out-of-phase unbalances of two discs) and the nonlinear seal force can mainly restrain the first mode instability and have slight effects on the second mode instability. This study may contribute to a further understanding about the higher order mode instability of such a rotor system with fluid-induced forces from the oil-film bearings and seals.

  2. Condition Monitoring under In-situ Lubrication Status of Bearing Using Infrared Thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeon; Hong, Dong Pyo; Yu, Chung Hwan [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)


    The infrared thermography technology rather than traditional nondestructive methods has benefits with non-contact and non-destructive testings in measuring for the fault diagnosis of the rotating machine. In this work, condition monitoring measurements using this advantage of thermography were proposed. From this study, the novel approach for the damage detection of a rotating machine was conducted based on the spectrum analysis. As results, by adopting the ball bearing used in the rotating machine applied extensively, an spectrum analysis with thermal imaging experiment was performed. Also, as analysing the temperature characteristics obtained from the infrared thermography for in-situ rotating ball bearing under the lubrication condition, it was concluded that infrared thermography for condition monitoring in the rotating machine at real time could be utilized in many industrial fields

  3. Differences on the conversion of celestite in solutions bearing monovalent ions under hydrothermal conditions (United States)

    Rendón-Angeles, J. C.; Pech-Canul, M. I.; López-Cuevas, J.; Matamoros-Veloza, Z.; Yanagisawa, K.


    The replacement of SO 42- ions by monovalent ions in mineral SrSO 4 crystals was investigated under hydrothermal conditions by using aqueous solutions bearing F - and OH - ions. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures (150-250 °C) for different reaction intervals (1-96 h), with M-/SO 42- molar ratios of 1, 5 and 10, where M-=F - or OH -. The celestite crystals were completely converted into SrF 2 crystals, at 200 °C using a F -/SO 42- molar ratio=5 for 24 h. The morphology of the converted SrF 2 crystals indicated that the heteroionic conversion proceeded by a pseudomorphic replacement process, because the transformed crystals maintained their original shape and dimensions. In contrast, the SrSO 4 crystals were instantaneously converted into the Sr(OH) 2 phase by a bulk dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, resulting in the formation of large transparent acicular Sr(OH) 2 crystals. The differences on the conversion process are mainly associated with the chemical interaction between the mineral crystal and the hydrothermal fluid. In addition, the chemical stability of the converted phase with low solubility is also essential for the heteroionic conversion to proceed by the pseudomorphic replacement process.

  4. "Frictional processes" in carbonate-bearing rocks at seismic deformation conditions (United States)

    Di Toro, G.; Spagnuolo, E.; Violay, M.; Rempe, M.; Smith, S. A. F.; Nielsen, S. B.; Fondriest, M.; Plumper, O.


    Moderate to large earthquakes often rupture and propagate along faults in carbonate-bearing rocks (dolostones, limestones, marbles, etc.). Compared to silicate-bearing rocks, which melt, weaken and wear when sheared at seismic slip rates (ca. 1 m/s), carbonate-bearing rocks do not melt, the minimum friction coefficient can be much lower (down to 5% of static friction) and the wear rate is negligible at seismic slip rates. In cohesive carbonate-bearing rocks, experiments simulating seismic deformation conditions and stopped at slip initiation (solid lubricant) at asperity contacts. With progressive slip and bulk temperature increase, nanograins accommodate large strain rates (ca. 104 s-1) by grain boundary sliding as suggested by several authors. The presence of a microporous fabric boosts pore-controlled diffusive process propelled by CO2 gas exhaust due to decarbonation. Enhanced pore-controlled diffusive processes allow (1) efficient mass transfer during grain boundary sliding and (2) sintering of the nanograins into a foam-like slip surface at the end of the experiment.

  5. Phosphorus-bearing phases as archaeopetrogenetic indicator for possible bone-rock interactions in pyrometamorphic slags from ritual immolation sites (United States)

    Tropper, Peter; Spielmann, Magdalena


    Although 200 ritual immolation sites occur throughout the Eastern Alps only 2 have been investigated from a mineralogical/petrological point of view. The investigated sites (Oetz, Goldbichl/Igls) are located on hill-tops and show abundant ceramic and bone fragments. In these sites pyrometamorphic slags occur (in Oetz only little, at the Goldbichl, massive amounts). The textures within these slags indicate strongly disequilibrium conditions. Investigations of slags from two ritual immolation sites in the Eastern Alps, the La-Tène (450 - 15 B.C.) age site in Oetz and the Bronze-Age site at the Goldbichl/Igls yielded the occurrence of phosphorus-rich olivines and phosphates such as whitlockite (Oetz) and stanfieldite (Goldbichl). Temperatures derived from the slags are >1000-1100°C under highly reducing (QFM) conditions. On the other hand bone apatite crystallinity of calcinated bones yields much lower temperatures this might be due to their position in "cooler" spots of the fire (e.g. at the surface). The high temperatures deduced from the slags are compatible with core temperatures (>1100°C) of large bone fires with a possible wind-driven air circulation. Experimental investigations using DTA-TG to study chlorite breakdown verify these temperatures. In order to verify the presence of P-bearing phases during bone-rock interactions experiments were carried out at 1100-1300°C and highly-reducing conditions in graphite crucibles. Experiments concerning the interaction of bone material and three different rock types such as paragneiss, quartzphyllite and granite led to the formation of whitlockite and P-bearing olivine. Olivine contains 0-4.6 wt.%, P2O5 where the highest P-contents were observed in the quartzphyllite experiments. The occurrence of P-rich olivine and whitlockite in the quartzphyllite experiments is therefore diagnostic for bone-rock interaction at high temperatures. Based on the mineralogical observations from the two sites P-rich minerals which

  6. Landscape conditions predisposing grizzly bears to conflicts on private agricultural lands in the western USA (United States)

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Merrill, T.


    We used multiple logistic regression to model how different landscape conditions contributed to the probability of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural ranch lands. We used locations of livestock pastures, traditional livestock carcass disposal areas (boneyards), beehives, and wetland-riparian associated vegetation to model the locations of 178 reported human-grizzly bear conflicts along the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana, USA during 1986-2001. We surveyed 61 livestock producers in the upper Teton watershed of north-central Montana, to collect spatial and temporal data on livestock pastures, boneyards, and beehives for the same period, accounting for changes in livestock and boneyard management and beehive location and protection, for each season. We used 2032 random points to represent the null hypothesis of random location relative to potential explanatory landscape features, and used Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC/AICC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics for model selection. We used a resulting "best" model to map contours of predicted probabilities of conflict, and used this map for verification with an independent dataset of conflicts to provide additional insights regarding the nature of conflicts. The presence of riparian vegetation and distances to spring, summer, and fall sheep or cattle pastures, calving and sheep lambing areas, unmanaged boneyards, and fenced and unfenced beehives were all associated with the likelihood of human-grizzly bear conflicts. Our model suggests that collections of attractants concentrated in high quality bear habitat largely explain broad patterns of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural land in our study area. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Statistic-based Spectral Indicator for Bearing Fault Detection in Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines using the Stator Current


    Picot, Antoine; Obeid, Ziad; Régnier, Jérémi; Poignant, Sylvain; Darnis, Olivier; Maussion, Pascal


    International audience; In this paper, an original method for bearing fault detection in high speed synchronous machines is presented. This method is based on the statistical process of Welch's periodogram of the stator currents in order to obtain stable and normalized fault indicators. The principle of the method is to statistically compare the current spectrum to a healthy reference so as to quantify the changes over the time. A statistic-based indicator is then constructed by monitoring sp...

  8. Condition Indicators for Inspection Planning of Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Based on previous work by the authors a Bayesian formulation of condition indicators is developed further whereby in conjunction with a systems modelling of concrete structures the experience and expertise of the inspection personnel may be fully utilized. It is shown how the predicted evolution...

  9. Priming effect in indicative and subjunctive exceptive conditionals. (United States)

    Espino, Orlando; Sánchez-Curbelo, Isana


    We report the results of three experiments that examine the mental representations underlying the comprehension stages of negative exceptive conditionals using subjunctive mood ('B a menos que A', 'B a no ser que A'; 'B excepto que A'='B unless A') and indicative mood ('B excepto si A' and 'B salvo si A'='B except if A'). The mental representations during the comprehension stage were analyzed using a priming methodology. All experiments showed that participants read the true possibility 'not-B & A' faster when it was primed by exceptive conditionals requiring the subjunctive mood than when it was primed by exceptive conditionals requiring the indicative mood; other possibilities ('B & A', 'B & not-A', 'not-B & not-A') were primed equally by both connectives. The experiments showed that (a) when people understand negative exceptive conditionals using the subjunctive mood, such as 'B a menos que A'/'B a no ser que A'/'B excepto que A', they access the true possibilities 'not-B & A' and 'B & not-A', and (b) when they understand negative exceptive conditionals using the indicative mood, such as 'B excepto si A'/'B salvo si A', they access 'B & not-A', but not 'not-B & A'. We discuss the implications of this for current theories of reasoning.


    Mosticone, Romina; Pescucci, Lisa; Porreca, Flavia


    Trauma, diseases, diet, daily work and environmental factors shape bodies. From birth to death, these processes leave on the skeleton markers that can be recognized and studied, thus providing an overview of the health conditions of past populations. The present work analyzes data collected in seven necropolises. During our study, we exploited nonspecific stress and dental pathologies as key indicators of health conditions. In particula; we analyzed the three most common indicators of stress: porotic hyperostosis; enamel hypoplasia; and Harris lines on shins. Additionally, we examined the most important dental alveolar pathologies, including carious lesions, periodontal diseases, antemortem tooth loss, abscesses, and calculi. The data we analyzed suggest that, despite the different urban and suburban origins, all the samples belong to a middle-range or low social class, whose living conditions were modest. The only necropolis which stands out is Casal Bertone Mausoleo, where the samples present the lowest frequencies with respect to both the stress indicators and the oral pathologies, suggesting better living conditions.

  11. Seasonal streamflow forecasting by conditioning climatology with precipitation indices (United States)

    Crochemore, Louise; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Pappenberger, Florian; Perrin, Charles


    Many fields, such as drought-risk assessment or reservoir management, can benefit from long-range streamflow forecasts. Climatology has long been used in long-range streamflow forecasting. Conditioning methods have been proposed to select or weight relevant historical time series from climatology. They are often based on general circulation model (GCM) outputs that are specific to the forecast date due to the initialisation of GCMs on current conditions. This study investigates the impact of conditioning methods on the performance of seasonal streamflow forecasts. Four conditioning statistics based on seasonal forecasts of cumulative precipitation and the standardised precipitation index were used to select relevant traces within historical streamflows and precipitation respectively. This resulted in eight conditioned streamflow forecast scenarios. These scenarios were compared to the climatology of historical streamflows, the ensemble streamflow prediction approach and the streamflow forecasts obtained from ECMWF System 4 precipitation forecasts. The impact of conditioning was assessed in terms of forecast sharpness (spread), reliability, overall performance and low-flow event detection. Results showed that conditioning past observations on seasonal precipitation indices generally improves forecast sharpness, but may reduce reliability, with respect to climatology. Conversely, conditioned ensembles were more reliable but less sharp than streamflow forecasts derived from System 4 precipitation. Forecast attributes from conditioned and unconditioned ensembles are illustrated for a case of drought-risk forecasting: the 2003 drought in France. In the case of low-flow forecasting, conditioning results in ensembles that can better assess weekly deficit volumes and durations over a wider range of lead times.

  12. Automated Bearing Fault Diagnosis Using 2D Analysis of Vibration Acceleration Signals under Variable Speed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheraz Ali Khan


    Full Text Available Traditional fault diagnosis methods of bearings detect characteristic defect frequencies in the envelope power spectrum of the vibration signal. These defect frequencies depend upon the inherently nonstationary shaft speed. Time-frequency and subband signal analysis of vibration signals has been used to deal with random variations in speed, whereas design variations require retraining a new instance of the classifier for each operating speed. This paper presents an automated approach for fault diagnosis in bearings based upon the 2D analysis of vibration acceleration signals under variable speed conditions. Images created from the vibration signals exhibit unique textures for each fault, which show minimal variation with shaft speed. Microtexture analysis of these images is used to generate distinctive fault signatures for each fault type, which can be used to detect those faults at different speeds. A k-nearest neighbor classifier trained using fault signatures generated for one operating speed is used to detect faults at all the other operating speeds. The proposed approach is tested on the bearing fault dataset of Case Western Reserve University, and the results are compared with those of a spectrum imaging-based approach.

  13. Clustering diagnosis of rolling element bearing fault based on integrated Autoregressive/Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity model (United States)

    Wang, Guofeng; Liu, Chang; Cui, Yinhu


    Feature extraction plays an important role in the clustering analysis. In this paper an integrated Autoregressive (AR)/Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) model is proposed to characterize the vibration signal and the model coefficients are adopted as feature vectors to realize clustering diagnosis of rolling element bearings. The main characteristic is that the AR item and ARCH item are interrelated with each other so that it can depict the excess kurtosis and volatility clustering information in the vibration signal more accurately in comparison with two-stage AR/ARCH model. To testify the correctness, four kinds of bearing signals are adopted for parametric modeling by using the integrated and two-stage AR/ARCH model. The variance analysis of the model coefficients shows that the integrated AR/ARCH model can get more concentrated distribution. Taking these coefficients as feature vectors, K means based clustering is utilized to realize the automatic classification of bearing fault status. The results show that the proposed method can get more accurate results in comparison with two-stage model and discrete wavelet decomposition.

  14. Effect of femoral head size on the wear of metal on metal bearings in total hip replacements under adverse edge-loading conditions. (United States)

    Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne L; Jennings, Louise M


    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have shown low-wear rates under standard hip simulator conditions; however, retrieval studies have shown large variations in wear rates and mechanisms. High-wear in vivo has caused catastrophic complications and has been associated with steep cup-inclination angle (rotational malpositioning). However, increasing the cup-inclination angle in vitro has not replicated the increases in wear to the same extent as those observed in retrievals. Clinically relevant wear rates, patterns, and particles were observed in vitro for ceramic-on-ceramic bearings when microseparation (translational malpositioning) conditions were introduced into the gait cycle. In the present study, 28 and 36-mm MoM bearings were investigated under adverse conditions. Increasing the cup angle from 45° to 65° resulted in a significant increase in the wear rate of the 28 mm bearings. However, for the 36 mm bearings, head-rim contact did not occur under the steep cup-angle condition, and the wear rate did not increase. The introduction of microseparation to the gait cycle significantly increased the wear rate of the MoM bearings. Cup angle and head size did not influence the wear rate under microseparation conditions. This study indicated that high-in vivo wear rates were associated with edge loading due to rotational malpositioning such as high-cup-inclination angle and translational malpositioning that could occur due to several surgical factors. Translational malpositioning had a more dominant effect on the wear rate. Preclinical simulation testing should be undertaken with translational and rotational malpositioning conditions as well as standard walking cycle conditions defined by the ISO standard. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Data Fusion Tool for Spiral Bevel Gear Condition Indicator Data (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Thomas, Josiah


    Tests were performed on two spiral bevel gear sets in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Test Rig to simulate the fielded failures of spiral bevel gears installed in a helicopter. Gear sets were tested until damage initiated and progressed on two or more gear or pinion teeth. During testing, gear health monitoring data was collected with two different health monitoring systems. Operational parameters were measured with a third data acquisition system. Tooth damage progression was documented with photographs taken at inspection intervals throughout the test. A software tool was developed for fusing the operational data and the vibration based gear condition indicator (CI) data collected from the two health monitoring systems. Results of this study illustrate the benefits of combining the data from all three systems to indicate progression of damage for spiral bevel gears. The tool also enabled evaluation of the effectiveness of each CI with respect to operational conditions and fault mode.

  16. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet (United States)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.


    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  17. The case for indicator condition-guided HIV screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, J V; Hoekstra, M; Raben, D


    One-half of the estimated 2.5 million people who now live with HIV in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region are still diagnosed late. A central question is which clinical scenarios should trigger an HIV test recommendation in order to avoid late presentation. Drawing on the work...... of the HIV Indicator Diseases across Europe Study (HIDES), new guidance brings together in one place a list of the conditions that should result in an HIV screening recommendation....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ruilin


    According to the basic theory on autofrettage and according to the 4th strength theory, several parameters and their relations are studied under ideal condition, including σej/σy, the equivalent stress of total stresses at elastoplastic juncture; σei/σy, the equivalent stress of total stresses at inside surface; σej′/σy, the equivalent stress of residual stresses at elastoplastic juncture; σei′/σy, the equivalent stress of residual stresses at inside surface; and p/σy, load-bearing capaciσy of an autofrettaged σylinder. σy theoretical stuσy on relations between the parameters, noticeable results and laws are achieved: to satisσy |σei′|=σy, the relation between kj and k is, k2lnkj2-k2-kj2+2=0, when k→∞, 1.648 72, as based on the 3rd strength theoσy, where k is the outside/inside radius ratio of a σylinder, kj is the ratio of elastoplastic juncture radius to inside radius of a σylinder; If the plastic region covers the whole wall of a σylinder, for compressiveσyield not to occur after removing autofrettage pressure, the ultimate k is k=2.218 46 as based on the 3rd strength theoσy; With k=2.218 46, a σylinder's ultimate load-bearing capaciσy equals its entireσyield pressure, or p/σy=2lnk/; The maximum and optimum load-bearing capaciσy of an autofrettaged σylinder is just 2 times the loading which an unautofrettaged σylinder can bear elasticalσy, or p/σy=2(k2-1)/k2, and the limit of the load-bearing capaciσy of an autofrettaged σylinder is also just 2 times that of an unautofrettaged σylinder. The conclusions are the same as based on the 3rd strength theoσy, but some equations are different from each other.

  19. Condition Indicators for Inspection Planning of Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Based on previous work by the authors a Bayesian formulation of condition indicators is developed further whereby in conjunction with a systems modelling of concrete structures the experience and expertise of the inspection personnel may be fully utilized. It is shown how the predicted evolution...... of the deterioration of the structure may be consistently updated based on inspection results. This facilitates that inspection results may be used in the long term planning of inspection and maintenance of structures. The approach is illustrated on an example considering half-cell measurement inspections...

  20. High incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene woolly rhinoceroses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A.E. van der Geer


    Full Text Available Mammals as a rule have seven cervical vertebrae, a number that remains remarkably constant. Changes of this number are associated with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects that are, at least in humans, strongly selected against. Recently, it was found that Late Pleistocene mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius from the North Sea have an unusually high incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers, approximately ten times higher than that of extant elephants. Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, indicating a homeotic change from a cervical rib-less vertebra into a thoracic rib-bearing vertebra. The high incidence of cervical ribs indicates a vulnerable condition and is thought to be due to inbreeding and adverse conditions that may have impacted early pregnancies in declining populations. In this study we investigated the incidence of cervical ribs in another extinct Late Pleistocene megaherbivore from the North Sea and the Netherlands, the woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis. We show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in the woolly rhinoceros is unusually high for mammals (15,6%, n = 32 and much higher than in extant Rhinoceratidae (0%, n = 56. This indicates that woolly rhinoceros lived under vulnerable conditions, just like woolly mammoths. The vulnerable condition may well have contributed to their eventual extinction.

  1. Fluorine-bearing grossular-rich garnet - an indicator for UHP - LT metamorphism of metagranitoids. (United States)

    Burchard, M.


    Melting experiments on biotite-phengite-gneiss at pressures of 1.5 to 4.5 GPa and temperatures of 675°C to 1000°C were performed to clarify the phase assemblages of S-type metagranitoids at high pressures. The starting material used was S-type granitic biotite-phengite-gneiss, which represents the country rock for the pyrope-quarztites from the Dora-Maira-Massif, Western Italy. These pyrope-quarztites contain the silicate ellenbergerite, which, together with the growth of pyrope, indicates P and T of more than 3 GPa and 700°C. Experimental evidence confirms that the presence of ellenbergerite indicates high water activities. For this reason all experiments were performed with a water fraction of 1.9 to 9.9 wt.%. The most important phases in the run products are melt, K-feldspar / K-felspar-hydrate, coesite / quartz, phengite, jadeite-rich clinopyroxene, almandine-grossular garnet, epidote, rutile and sphene. At pressures between 3.5 and 4.5 GPa and T of less than 675°C or 775°C, respectively, small, rare crystals of grossular garnets were observed. These grs-rich garnets form corona structures around the alm-grs garnets of the starting material. EMP-analysis shows that these garnets contain up to 1.2 wt.% F at 700°C, decreasing with temperature to 0.4 wt.% at 750°C. A garnet analysis from a run at 4 GPa and 700°C yields 69% grossular, 8% hydrogrossular, 6% fluorgrossular, 6% almandine, 2% spessartine and 3% andradite. The coexistence of such garnets with sphene and epidote in HP experiments shows that the high-pressure reaction sph + zoi -> grs + coe + H2O suggested by Chopin et al (1991) is not relevant at these conditions. From Chopin et al (1991) and Schertl at al (1991) it is known that there are extremely rare inclusions of grs-rich garnet in plagioclase and alm-grs garnet in the original rock, but these authors unfortunately did not analyze the F content. During a reinvestigation of the biotite-phengite gneiss grs inclusions in sph were found that

  2. Response of ecosystem productivity to dry/wet conditions indicated by different drought indices. (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; He, Bin; Zhang, Yafeng; Huang, Ling; Chen, Ziyue; Liu, Junjie


    Various climatic and hydrological variables such as precipitation, soil moisture, stream flow, and water level can be used to assess drought conditions, however, the response of ecosystem productivity to such metrics is not very clear. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of GPP anomalies to five drought indicators: the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), deficit of soil moisture (DSM), and the difference between precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET) (D(P-ET)). The global spatial distributions of drying and wetting trends from 2000 to 2014 determined by these five indices were similar. Additionally, the percent of drought-impacted areas decreased over the study period, indicating a reduction in drought conditions. GPP increased over the study period in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) but decreased in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), resulting in a net increase in global GPP. GPP anomalies were more sensitive to drought indices in the SH than in the NH. Among the five indices, GPP anomalies were most closely correlated with SPI in the NH (R=0.60, P<0.05) and SPEI in the SH (R=0.93, P<0.01). Regionally speaking, annual and seasonal GPP anomalies were most sensitive to DSM and PDSI, highlighting the importance of soil moisture observations to regional drought monitoring and assessment. The results of this study are important for evaluating the impacts of drought on ecosystem production and the global carbon cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pump Coupling & Motor bearing damage detection using Condition Monitoring at DTPS (United States)

    Bari, H. M.; Deshpande, A. A.; Jalkote, P. S.; Patil, S. S.


    This paper shares a success story out of the implementation of Co-ordinated Condition Monitoring techniques at DTPS, wherein imminent Mis-alignment of HT auxiliary BFP - 1B and Motor bearing failure of ID FAN - 1B was diagnosed. On 30/12/2010, Booster Pump DE horizontal reading increased from 4.8 to 5.1 and then upto 5.9 mm/sec. It was suspected that Booster pump was mis-aligned with Motor. To confirm misalignment, Phase Analysis was also done which showed that Coupling phase difference was 180 Degrees. Vibration & Phase Analysis helped in diagnosing the exact root cause of abnormity in advance, saving plant from huge losses which could have caused total cost of £ 104,071. On 06/01/2011, ID fan 1B Motor NDE & DE horizontal vibration readings deviated from 0.5 to 0.8 and 0.6 to 0.8 mm/sec (RMS) respectively. Noise level increased from 99.1 to 101.9 db. It was suspected that Motor bearings had loosened over the shaft. Meanwhile, after opening of Motor, Inner race of NDE side was found cracked and loosened over the shaft. Vibration Analysis & Noise Monitoring helped in diagnosing the exact root cause of abnormity in advance, saving plant from huge losses which could have caused total cost of £ 308,857.

  4. Environmental factors and habitat use influence body condition of individuals in a species at risk, the grizzly bear. (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Janz, David M


    Metrics used to quantify the condition or physiological states of individuals provide proactive mechanisms for understanding population dynamics in the context of environmental factors. Our study examined how anthropogenic disturbance, habitat characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations interpreted as a sex-specific indicator of potential habitat net-energy demand affect the body condition of grizzly bears (n = 163) in a threatened population in Alberta, Canada. We quantified environmental variables by modelling spatial patterns of individual habitat use based on global positioning system telemetry data. After controlling for gender, age and capture effects, we assessed the influence of biological and environmental variables on body condition using linear mixed-effects models in an information theoretical approach. Our strongest model suggested that body condition was improved when patterns of habitat use included greater vegetation productivity, increased influence of forest harvest blocks and oil and gas well sites, and a higher percentage of regenerating and coniferous forest. However, body condition was negatively affected by habitat use in close proximity to roads and in areas where potential energetic demands were high. Poor body condition was also associated with increased selection of parks and protected areas and greater seasonal vegetation productivity. Adult females, females with cubs-of-year, juvenile females and juvenile males were in poorer body condition compared with adult males, suggesting that intra-specific competition and differences in habitat use based on gender and age may influence body condition dynamics. Habitat net-energy demand also tended to be higher in areas used by females which, combined with observed trends in body condition, could affect reproductive success in this threatened population. Our results highlight the importance of considering spatiotemporal variability in environmental factors and habitat use when assessing

  5. Comparison of FEA with condition monitoring for real-time damage detection of bearing using infrared thermography techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yoon Jae; Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan(Korea, Republic of)


    Since real-time monitoring systems, such as early fault detection, have been very important, an infrared thermography technique was proposed as a new diagnosis method. This study focused on damage detection and temperature characteristic analysis of ball bearings using the non-destructive, infrared thermography method. In this paper, for the reliability assessment, infrared experimental data were compared with finite element analysis (FEA) results from ANSYS. In this investigation, the temperature characteristics of ball bearing were analyzed under various loading conditions. Finally, it was confirmed that the infrared thermography technique was useful for the real-time detection of damage to bearings.

  6. Garnet-sillimanite bearing gneisses from Darjeeling, eastern Himalaya: Textural relationship and P–T conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Divya Prakash; Suparna Tewari


    The area around Darjeeling consists of medium grade metamorphic rocks and provides a classic example of inverted Himalayan metamorphism. The area under investigation shows upper amphibolite facies metamorphism (sillimanite-muscovite subfacies), rocks are intimately associated with the migmatites and granites. The presence of quartzite, calc-silicate rocks, graphitic schist and abundance of aluminous minerals like kyanite or sillimanite in these rocks indicate their metasedimentary character. Granetsillimanite bearing gneisses occupy most of the area of Darjeeling but not persistent throughout. Textural relationship suggests sequential growth of progressively higher-grade metamorphic minerals during D1 and D2 deformation. The relative XMg in the minerals varies in the order: biotite>staurolite>garnet, and the XMn decreases in the order: garnet>staurolite>biotite. The P–T evolution of these garnetsillimanite gneiss has been constrained through the use of conventional geothermobarometry, internally consistent TWEEQU programme and Perple_X software in the KFMASH model system, the combination of these three approaches demonstrates that the Darjeeling gneisses experienced peak pressure and temperature at 7.0 ± 0.3 kbar and 700 ± 30°C. The observation in this study has important bearing on the inverted metamorphism in the Himalayan metamorphic belt.

  7. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae reflecting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Koivula


    Full Text Available Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1 Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2 Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3 Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4 Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5 Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6 Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7 Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  8. Groundwater vulnerability indices conditioned by Supervised Intelligence Committee Machine (SICM). (United States)

    Nadiri, Ata Allah; Gharekhani, Maryam; Khatibi, Rahman; Sadeghfam, Sina; Moghaddam, Asghar Asghari


    This research presents a Supervised Intelligent Committee Machine (SICM) model to assess groundwater vulnerability indices of an aquifer. SICM uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to overarch three Artificial Intelligence (AI) models: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) and Gene Expression Programming (GEP). Each model uses the DRASTIC index, the acronym of 7 geological, hydrological and hydrogeological parameters, which collectively represents intrinsic (or natural) vulnerability and gives a sense of contaminants, such as nitrate-N, penetrating aquifers from the surface. These models are trained to modify or condition their DRASTIC index values by measured nitrate-N concentration. The three AI-techniques often perform similarly but have differences as well and therefore SICM exploits the situation to improve the modeled values by producing a hybrid modeling results through selecting better performing SVM, NF and GEP components. The models of the study area at Ardabil aquifer show that the vulnerability indices by the DRASTIC framework produces sharp fronts but AI models smoothen the fronts and reflect a better correlation with observed nitrate values; SICM improves on the performances of three AI models and cope well with heterogeneity and uncertain parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of melting conditions on striae in iron-bearing silicate melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Yue, Yuanzheng


    Chemical striae are present in a broad range of glass products, but due to their negative impact on e.g., the optical and mechanical properties, elimination of striae from melts is a key issue in glass technology. By varying melting temperatures, retentions times and redox conditions of an iron......-bearing calciumaluminosilicate melt, we quantify the effect of each of the three melting parameters on the stria content in the melt. The quantification of the stria content in the melt is conducted by means of image analysis on casted melt samples. We find that in comparison to an extension of retention time an increase...... factors such as compositional fluctuation of melts and bubbling due to iron reduction on the stria content. During the melting process, striae with a chemical gradient in a more mobile species equilibrate faster than striae caused by a chemical gradient in a less mobile species. The temperature and time...

  10. The carbon-bearing phases in the subducted slabs under the lower mantle condition (United States)

    Maeda, F.; Ohtani, E.; Kamada, S.; Sakamaki, T.; Ohishi, Y.; Hirao, N.


    Carbon, which is one of the most important volatile elements in the solar system, is suggested to be stored in the deep part of the Earth. The evidence for the deep carbon is found in super-deep diamonds or estimations of carbon fluxes between the surface and interior of the Earth. The candidates of a carbon-source into the mantle are subducting slabs. Therefore, it is important for the studying of Deep Carbon Cycle to reveal the reactions related to carbon-bearing phases in the slabs descending into the lower mantle. The MgCO3-SiO2 system is considered to constrain the carbon-bearing phases in the slabs since following reactions can occur under the lower mantle conditions: MgCO3 (magnesite) + SiO2 (stishovite) → MgSiO3 (perovskite) + CO2CO2 → C (diamond) + O2The phase boundary in the MgCO3-SiO2 system has ambiguity because of the contradiction between the previous studies. We aimed to reconcile this contradiction and determine the potential carbon-bearing phases in the deep subducting slabs. We have investigated the reaction between MgCO3 and SiO2 up to about 100 GPa and 3000 K using the double sided laser heated diamond anvil cell combined with the in-situ synchrotron XRD technique and Raman spectroscopy. The starting material was a powered 1:1 (in mole fraction) mixture of natural magnesite (Brazil, Bahia) and reagent α-quartz. XRD patterns of high P-T samples and recovered samples were acquired at BL10XU, SPring-8. We measured the Raman spectra of the samples at high-P and room temperature and those recovered at an ambient condition. Diamond and MgSiO3 perovskite were observed at 70 GPa and temperatures above 1750 K. The high P-T XRD patterns showed the appearance of MgSiO3 perovskite at 50-60 GPa and around 2000 K. Our study revealed that magnesite could decarbonate to form diamond in cold slabs at the depths greater than 1800- km depth due to the above reactions in the MgCO3-SiO2 system.

  11. Conditions of crystallization of the Ural platinum-bearing ultrabasic massifs: evidence from melt inclusions (United States)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Puchkov, Victor; Prikhod'ko, Vladimir; Stupakov, Sergey; Kotlyarov, Alexey


    Conditions of the Ural platinum-bearing ultramafic massifs formation attract attention of numerous researchers. A most important peculiarity of such plutons is their dunite cores, to which commercial Pt deposits are related. There are a different opinions about genesis of these massifs and usual methods not always can solve this question. As a result of melt inclusions study in the Cr-spinel the new data on physical and chemical parameters of dunite crystallization of the Nizhnii Tagil platinum-bearing ulrabasic massif (Ural) was obtained. The comparative analysis of Cr-spinels, containing melt inclusions, has shown essential differences of these minerals from chromites of the ultrabasic ophiolite complexes and of modern oceanic crust. Contents of major chemical components in the heated and quenched melt inclusions are close to those in the picrite and this testifies dunite crystallization from ultrabasic (to 24 wt.% MgO) magma. On the variation diagrams for inclusions in Cr-spinel the following changes of chemical compositions are established: during SiO2 growth there is falling of FeO, MgO, and increase of CaO, Na2O contents. Values of TiO2, Al2O3, K2O and P2O5 remain as a whole constant. Comparing to the data on the melt inclusions in Cr-spinel from the Konder massif, we see that values of the most part of chemical components (SiO2, TiO2, K2O, P2O5) are actually overlapped. At the same time, for the Nizhnii Tagil platinum-bearing massif the big maintenances of FeO and CaO in inclusions are marked. Distinct dependence of the majority of components from the MgO content in inclusions is observed: values TiO2, Al2O3 FeO, CaO and Na2O fall at transition to more magnesia melts. On the peculiarities of distribution of petrochemical characteristics melt inclusions in considered Cr-spinels are co-ordinated with the data on evolution of compositions of melts and rocks of model stratified ultramafic plutons during their crystallization in the magmatic chambers. On the

  12. Profile of peroxidative injury and antioxidant indicators in singleton, twins and multiple bearing goats throughout pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdel-Ghani


    Conclusion: Knowing the relationship between the fetal number and oxidative stress indicators could be useful in the clinical management of such pregnancies and could be useful in the early detection or prediction adverse pregnancy outcome. Particularly, the 4th and 5th month of gestation increases the liability to reactive oxygen species in goats.

  13. Integrated Condition Monitoring and Prognosis Method for Incipient Defect Detection and Remaining Life Prediction of Low Speed Slew Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Caesarendra


    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of multivariate state estimation technique (MSET, sequential probability ratio test (SPRT and kernel regression for low speed slew bearing condition monitoring and prognosis. The method is applied in two steps. Step (1 is the detection of the incipient slew bearing defect. In this step, combined MSET and SPRT is used with circular-domain kurtosis, time-domain kurtosis, wavelet decomposition (WD kurtosis, empirical mode decomposition (EMD kurtosis and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE feature. Step (2 is the prediction of the selected features’ trends and the estimation of the remaining useful life (RUL of the slew bearing. In this step, kernel regression is used with time-domain kurtosis, WD kurtosis and the LLE feature. The application of the method is demonstrated with laboratory slew bearing acceleration data.

  14. Increasing nest predation will be insufficient to maintain polar bear body condition in the face of sea ice loss. (United States)

    Dey, Cody J; Richardson, Evan; McGeachy, David; Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, Hugh G; Semeniuk, Christina A D


    Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice breakup, which forces polar bears into nearshore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and sea duck reproductive success. However, it is unclear whether nest foraging can provide an energetic benefit to polar bear populations, especially given the capacity of bird populations to redistribute in response to increasing predation pressure. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and common eiders, a common and culturally important bird species for northern peoples. Our model is composed of two types of agents (polar bear agents and common eider hen agents) whose movements and decision heuristics are based on species-specific bioenergetic and behavioral ecological principles, and are influenced by historical and extrapolated sea ice conditions. Our model reproduces empirical findings that polar bear predation of bird nests is increasing and predicts an accelerating relationship between advancing ice breakup dates and the number of nests depredated. Despite increases in nest predation, our model predicts that polar bear body condition during the ice-free period will continue to decline. Finally, our model predicts that common eider nests will become more dispersed and will move closer to the mainland in response to increasing predation, possibly increasing their exposure to land-based predators and influencing the livelihood of local people that collect eider eggs and down. These results show that predator-prey interactions can have nonlinear responses to

  15. Fault feature extraction and enhancement of rolling element bearing in varying speed condition (United States)

    Ming, A. B.; Zhang, W.; Qin, Z. Y.; Chu, F. L.


    In engineering applications, the variability of load usually varies the shaft speed, which further degrades the efficacy of the diagnostic method based on the hypothesis of constant speed analysis. Therefore, the investigation of the diagnostic method suitable for the varying speed condition is significant for the bearing fault diagnosis. In this instance, a novel fault feature extraction and enhancement procedure was proposed by the combination of the iterative envelope analysis and a low pass filtering operation in this paper. At first, based on the analytical model of the collected vibration signal, the envelope signal was theoretically calculated and the iterative envelope analysis was improved for the varying speed condition. Then, a feature enhancement procedure was performed by applying a low pass filter on the temporal envelope obtained by the iterative envelope analysis. Finally, the temporal envelope signal was transformed to the angular domain by the computed order tracking and the fault feature was extracted on the squared envelope spectrum. Simulations and experiments were used to validate the efficacy of the theoretical analysis and proposed procedure. It is shown that the computed order tracking method is recommended to be applied on the envelope of the signal in order to avoid the energy spreading and amplitude distortion. Compared with the feature enhancement method performed by the fast kurtogram and corresponding optimal band pass filtering, the proposed method can efficiently extract the fault character in the varying speed condition with less amplitude attenuation. Furthermore, do not involve the center frequency estimation, the proposed method is more concise for engineering applications.

  16. Multi-fault detection of rolling element bearings under harsh working condition using IMF-based adaptive envelope order analysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuejun


    When operating under harsh condition (e.g., time-varying speed and load, large shocks), the vibration signals of rolling element bearings are always manifested as low signal noise ratio, non-stationary statistical parameters, which cause difficulties for current diagnostic methods. As such, an IMF-based adaptive envelope order analysis (IMF-AEOA) is proposed for bearing fault detection under such conditions. This approach is established through combining the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), envelope order tracking and fault sensitive analysis. In this scheme, EEMD provides an effective way to adaptively decompose the raw vibration signal into IMFs with different frequency bands. The envelope order tracking is further employed to transform the envelope of each IMF to angular domain to eliminate the spectral smearing induced by speed variation, which makes the bearing characteristic frequencies more clear and discernible in the envelope order spectrum. Finally, a fault sensitive matrix is established to select the optimal IMF containing the richest diagnostic information for final decision making. The effectiveness of IMF-AEOA is validated by simulated signal and experimental data from locomotive bearings. The result shows that IMF-AEOA could accurately identify both single and multiple faults of bearing even under time-varying rotating speed and large extraneous shocks.

  17. Geological conditions of coal and gas(oil)-bearing basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tingbin


    There are various types of coal basins in China. Indosinian movement can be regarded as their evolutionary limit, and the basins can be divided into two developmental stages, three structural patterns and two sedimentary environments. However, only those coal measure strata that have been deeply buried in the earth are possible to be converted into coal and gas (oil)-bearing basins. Among which, only part of the coal measures possess the essential geological conditions to the formation of commercial humic oil. However, humic gas will be the major exploration target for natural gas in China. Among various coal basins, foreland basins have the best prospect for humic gas. Rift (faulted) basins accumulate the most abundance of humic gas, and are most favorable to generate humic oil. Craton basins have relatively low abundance of humic gas, but the evolution is rather great. The three kinds of coal basins mentioned above constitute China's three primary accumulation areas of humic gas: western, central and offshore areas. The major basins for humic gas field exploration include Tarim, Ordos, Sichuan, East China Sea and Yingqiong basins.

  18. Hydrodynamic and hydrostatic modelling of hydraulic journal bearings considering small displacement condition (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Yin; Chuang, Jen-Chen; Tu, Jia-Ying


    This paper proposes modified coefficients for the dynamic model of hydraulic journal bearing system that integrates the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic properties. In recent years, design of hydraulic bearing for machine tool attracts worldwide attention, because hydraulic bearings are able to provide higher capacity and accuracy with lower friction, compared to conventional bearing systems. In order to achieve active control of the flow pressure and enhance the operation accuracy, the dynamic model of hydraulic bearings need to be developed. Modified coefficients of hydrostatic stiffness, hydrodynamic stiffness, and squeeze damping of the dynamic model are presented in this work, which are derived referring to small displacement analysis from literature. The proposed modified coefficients and model, which consider the pressure variations, relevant geometry size, and fluid properties of the journal bearings, are able to characterise the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic properties with better precision, thus offering the following pragmatic contribution: (1) on-line prediction of the eccentricity and the position of the shaft in the face of external force that results in vibration; (2) development of active control system to regulate the supply flow pressure and to minimize the eccentricity of the shaft. Theoretical derivation and simulation results with different vibration cases are discussed to verify the proposed techniques.

  19. Biosimilars and the extrapolation of indications for inflammatory conditions (United States)

    Tesser, John RP; Furst, Daniel E; Jacobs, Ira


    Extrapolation is the approval of a biosimilar for use in an indication held by the originator biologic not directly studied in a comparative clinical trial with the biosimilar. Extrapolation is a scientific rationale that bridges all the data collected (ie, totality of the evidence) from one indication for the biosimilar product to all the indications originally approved for the originator. Regulatory approval and marketing authorization of biosimilars in inflammatory indications are made on a case-by-case and agency-by-agency basis after evaluating the totality of evidence from the entire development program. This totality of the evidence comprises extensive comparative analytical, functional, nonclinical, and clinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity studies used by regulators when evaluating whether a product can be considered a biosimilar. Extrapolation reduces or eliminates the need for duplicative clinical studies of the biosimilar but must be justified scientifically with appropriate data. Understanding the concept, application, and regulatory decisions based on the extrapolation of data is important since biosimilars have the potential to significantly impact patient care in inflammatory diseases. PMID:28255229

  20. Conditions, Criteria, Indicators and Levels of Forming Communicative Competence (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena


    Individuals need communicative competence for personal fulfillment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. However, the success of communicative competence within a multicultural environment requires that a system of criteria, indicators and levels of forming communicative competence have to be considered. Aim of the…

  1. Stock Indices as Generalizing Indicators of the Stock Markets Condition in the European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuba M. V.


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the degree of interdependence of stock markets in separate countries of the European Union, namely: France, Germany, Great Britain, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary on the basis of studying the changes in stock indexes, as well as determining the existence of tendencies of approximating the dynamics of the national stock index «PFTS Index» to the corresponding dynamics of stock indexes in surveyed countries. The article analyzes the dynamics of changes in stock indices in the UK (FTSE, Germany (DAX 30, France (CAC 40 and pan-European ones (EURO STOXX 50, as well as changes in stock indices in Poland (WIG 20, Czech Republic (PX, Hungary (BUX. Calculations of the coefficients of pair correlation between changes in stock indices in the studied countries have been performed. The calculation results show a substantial connection between the indicators of changes in stock indices and allow to make a conclusion that in the dynamics of stock indices of national stock markets of the studied EU countries some common trends are observed, moreover, in the behavior of the considered indices common local trends are noticed as well. The author calculated the coefficient of pair correlation between the indicators of changes in the national stock index «PFTS Index» and the stock indices of the «old» and «new» EU countries. The calculations showed that the PFTS Index does not demonstrate a high level of correlation with stock indices of the «old» EU countries and has a tendency of approaching the corresponding dynamics of stock indices of the «new» EU countries.

  2. Extragalactic interstellar extinction curves: Indicators of local physical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.zza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Viti, Serena; Williams, David A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)


    Normalized interstellar extinction curves (ISECs) in the Milky Way and other galaxies show a variety of shapes. This variety is attributed to differences along different sight lines in the abundances of the several dust and gas components contributing to extinction. In this paper we propose that these abundance differences are not arbitrary but are a specific consequence of the physical conditions on those sight lines. If this proposal is correct, then it implies that ISECs contain information about physical conditions in the regions generating extinction. This may be particularly important for high redshift galaxies where information on the conditions may be difficult to obtain. We adopt a model of extinction carriers in which the solid and gaseous components are not immutable but respond time-dependently to the local physics. We validate this model by fitting extinction curves measured on sight lines in the Magellanic Clouds and obtained for the gamma-ray burst afterglow GRB 080605. We present results for this model as follows: (1) we show that computed ISECs are controlled by a small number of physical parameters, (2) we demonstrate the sensitivity of computed ISECs to these parameters, (3) we compute as examples ISECs for particular galaxy types, and (4) we note that different galaxy types have different shapes of ISEC.

  3. Validation of Helicopter Gear Condition Indicators Using Seeded Fault Tests (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula; Brandon, E. Bruce


    A "seeded fault test" in support of a rotorcraft condition based maintenance program (CBM), is an experiment in which a component is tested with a known fault while health monitoring data is collected. These tests are performed at operating conditions comparable to operating conditions the component would be exposed to while installed on the aircraft. Performance of seeded fault tests is one method used to provide evidence that a Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) can replace current maintenance practices required for aircraft airworthiness. Actual in-service experience of the HUMS detecting a component fault is another validation method. This paper will discuss a hybrid validation approach that combines in service-data with seeded fault tests. For this approach, existing in-service HUMS flight data from a naturally occurring component fault will be used to define a component seeded fault test. An example, using spiral bevel gears as the targeted component, will be presented. Since the U.S. Army has begun to develop standards for using seeded fault tests for HUMS validation, the hybrid approach will be mapped to the steps defined within their Aeronautical Design Standard Handbook for CBM. This paper will step through their defined processes, and identify additional steps that may be required when using component test rig fault tests to demonstrate helicopter CI performance. The discussion within this paper will provide the reader with a better appreciation for the challenges faced when defining a seeded fault test for HUMS validation.

  4. State Space Formulation of Nonlinear Vibration Responses Collected from a Dynamic Rotor-Bearing System: An Extension of Bearing Diagnostics to Bearing Prognostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Tse


    Full Text Available Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To extend bearing diagnostics to bearing prognostics, this paper reports the design of a state space formulation of nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system in order to intelligently predict bearing remaining useful life (RUL. Firstly, analyses of nonlinear vibration responses were conducted to construct a bearing health indicator (BHI so as to assess the current bearing health condition. Secondly, a state space model of the BHI was developed to mathematically track the health evolution of the BHI. Thirdly, unscented particle filtering was used to predict bearing RUL. Lastly, a new bearing acceleration life testing setup was designed to collect natural bearing degradation data, which were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed bearing prognostic method. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed bearing prognostic method is promising and the proposed bearing prognostic method is able to reflect future bearing health conditions.

  5. Automatic Condition Monitoring of Industrial Rolling-Element Bearings Using Motor’s Vibration and Current Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu


    An automatic condition monitoring for a class of industrial rolling-element bearings is developed based on the vibration as well as stator current analysis. The considered fault scenarios include a single-point defect, multiple-point defects, and a type of distributed defect. Motivated...... is extensively studied under diverse operating conditions: different sensor locations, motor speeds, loading conditions, and data samples from different time segments. The experimental results showed the powerful capability of vibration analysis in the bearing point defect fault diagnosis. The current analysis...... by the potential commercialization, the developed system is promoted mainly using off-the-shelf techniques, that is, the high-frequency resonance technique with envelope detection and the average of short-time Fourier transform. In order to test the flexibility and robustness, the monitoring performance...

  6. Biochemical indicators of condition, nutrition and nitrogen excretion in caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Case


    Full Text Available Urinary urea nitrogen to creatinine ratios, urinary Nt-methylhistidine to creatinine ratios, serum urea nitrogen concentrations (SUN mg/dl, and serum Nt-methylhistidine concentrations were compared with physical measures of body composition in adult female barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus from the Bathurst and Southampton Island herds during late winter. Body weight and UUC were used to estimate urinary urea nitrogen (urea-N excretion in free ranging caribou. Only mean UUC reflected differences in fat reserves between populations. None of the biochemical indicators were directly related to body composition. However, elevated UUC were only observed in caribou with depleted fat reserves as demonstrated by low kidney fat index (KFK40 and/or reduced femur marrow fat (FMF<80. UUC greater than 0.25 were indicative of undernourished animals with depleted fat reserves. SUN and UN -MHC showed no clear relationship with fat reserves. The mean estimated daily urea-N excretion for adult female caribou in late winter was extremely low (0.11+0.01SE g urea-N/day, n=76, range=0.011-0.510. The results of my study suggest that UUC can be used to detect nutritionally stressed caribou with depleted fat reserves on lichen winter ranges.

  7. Disposable indicators for monitoring lighting conditions in museums. (United States)

    Bacci, Mauro; Cucci, Costanza; Dupont, Anne-Laurence; Lavédrine, Bertrand; Picollo, Marcello; Porcinai, Simone


    Photoinduced alterations of light-sensitive artifacts represent one of the main problems that conservators and curators have to face for environmental control in museums and galleries. Therefore, increasing attention has been recently devoted to developing strategies of indoor light monitoring, especially aimed at minimizing the cumulated light exposure for the objects on exhibit. In this work a prototype of a light dosimeter, constituted by a photosensitive dyes/polymer mixture applied on a paper substrate, is presented. This indicator, specially designed for a preventive assessment of the risk of damage for highly light-sensitive objects, undergoes a progressive color variation as its exposure to the light increases. Different, easily distinguishable color steps are exhibited depending on the light dose received, so that the dosimeter can be used straightforwardly to have a first, instrumentation-free estimation of the total light exposure. A reflectance spectroscopy study in the 350-860 nm range was carried out on prototype dosimeters exposed to light emitted from a tungsten-halogen lamp to investigate the response of the dosimeter to the light and to study the fading mechanism. Two different approaches were evaluated for the calibration of the prototype: colorimetry and principal component analysis of the reflectance spectra. The usefulness of the two methods in providing a quantitative indication of the light dose received was evaluated.

  8. An approach based on wavelet packet decomposition and Hilbert-Huang transform (WPD-HHT) for spindle bearings condition monitoring (United States)

    Law, Leh-Sung; Kim, Jong Hyun; Liew, Willey Y. H.; Lee, Sun-Kyu


    In order to prevent possible damages to the spindle systems, reliable monitoring techniques are required to provide valuable information on the condition of the spindle condition. A technique is proposed for monitoring spindle bearings conditions via the use of acoustic emission (AE) signals, which implements Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis to extract the crucial characteristic from the measured data to correlate spindle running condition. The HHT becomes a promising technique in extracting the properties of nonlinear and non-stationary signal. However, the original HHT has several deficiencies, which eventually lead to misinterpretation to the final results. The improved version of HHT is proposed and used to overcome the weakness of the original HHT. The simulation and experimental results are used to verify the effectiveness of the WPD-HHT and therefore Hilbert marginal spectral, compared to traditional Fourier transform. Experimental results are presented to examine and explore the effectiveness of AE for monitoring spindle bearings conditions. It is concluded that good correlation existed between the results obtained by AE data and the increase in the preload, and change in the dimensions and geometry of the spindle bearings and their housings as the temperature increases. In support of this finding, vibration and acceleration data are also used to assess the amount changes in the antistrophic stiffness and radial error motion.

  9. Probability of Face Contact for a High-Speed Pressurised Liquid Film Bearing Including a Slip Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Y. Bailey


    Full Text Available An initial deterministic mathematical model for the dynamic motion of a simple pressurised liquid film bearing is derived and utilised to evaluate the possibility of bearing contact for thin film operation. For a very thin film bearing the flow incorporates a Navier slip boundary condition as parametrised by a slip length that in general is subject to significant variability and is difficult to determine with precision. This work considers the formulation of a modified Reynolds equation for the pressurised liquid flow in a highly rotating coned bearing. Coupling of the axial motion of the stator is induced by prescribed axial oscillations of the rotor through the liquid film. The bearing gap is obtained from solving a nonlinear second-order non-autonomous ordinary differential equation, via a mapping solver. Variability in the value of the slip length parameter is addressed by considering it as a random variable with prescribed mean and standard deviation. The method of derived distributions is used to exactly quantify the impact of variability in the slip length with a parametric study investigating the effect of both the deterministic and distribution parameters on the probability of contact. Additionally, as the axial rotor oscillations also have a random aspect due to possible varying excitations of the system, the probability of contact is investigated for both random amplitude of the periodic rotor oscillations and random slip length, resulting in a two parameter random input problem. The probability of contact is examined to obtain exact solutions and evaluate a range of bearing configurations.

  10. Effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices using magnetic resonance imaging in patients with patellofemoral instability. (United States)

    Becher, Christoph; Fleischer, Benjamin; Rase, Marten; Schumacher, Thees; Ettinger, Max; Ostermeier, Sven; Smith, Tomas


    This study analysed the effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices, determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with patellofemoral instability (PI). Healthy volunteers (control group, n = 9) and PI patients (PI group, n = 16) were scanned in an open-configuration MRI scanner during upright weight bearing and supine non-weight bearing positions at full extension (0° flexion) and at 15°, 30°, and 45° flexion. Patellofemoral indices included the Insall-Salvati Index, Caton-Deschamp Index, and Patellotrochlear Index (PTI) to determine patellar height and the patellar tilt angle (PTA), bisect offset (BO), and the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance to assess patellar rotation and translation with respect to the femur and alignment of the extensor mechanism. A significant interaction effect of weight bearing by flexion angle was observed for the PTI, PTA, and BO for subjects with PI. At full extension, post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed a significant effect of weight bearing on the indices, with increased patellar height and increased PTA and BO in the PI group. Except for the BO, no such changes were seen in the control group. Independent of weight bearing, flexing the knee caused the PTA, BO, and TT-TG distance to be significantly reduced. Upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle affected patellofemoral MRI indices in PI patients, with significantly increased values at full extension. The observations of this study provide a caution to be considered by professionals when treating PI patients. These patients should be evaluated clinically and radiographically at full extension and various flexion angles in context with quadriceps engagement. Explorative case-control study, Level III.

  11. Economic Indicators of Condition and Tendencies of Serbian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Global economic crisis has, following financial crisis, hit real sector, and as after effect, large number, mostly developed countries in the world are in recession. Serbian industry is also influenced by global economic crisis. Outer debt is significantly and constantly increasing since beginning of transition process. Main cause to it is rather large disproportion between import and export. Trends in structure of outer debt indicate on notable decrease of national debt on account to private one, during whole transition period. On short term there is no significant risk for country on account of outer debt, but for long term elimination of this risk, it is necessary to considerably increase total export. Former policies should be linked to unconventional employment initiatives, as for new labour, as for redundant ones from restructuring economy branches. State has prominent role in transition process, by helping market exhibit its functions through physical and institutional infrastructure, as well trough public sector, removing most of the market obstacles, and stimulating technical-technological development and education.

  12. Enhanced model of gear transmission dynamics for condition monitoring applications: Effects of torque, friction and bearing clearance (United States)

    Fernandez-del-Rincon, A.; Garcia, P.; Diez-Ibarbia, A.; de-Juan, A.; Iglesias, M.; Viadero, F.


    Gear transmissions remain as one of the most complex mechanical systems from the point of view of noise and vibration behavior. Research on gear modeling leading to the obtaining of models capable of accurately reproduce the dynamic behavior of real gear transmissions has spread out the last decades. Most of these models, although useful for design stages, often include simplifications that impede their application for condition monitoring purposes. Trying to filling this gap, the model presented in this paper allows us to simulate gear transmission dynamics including most of these features usually neglected by the state of the art models. This work presents a model capable of considering simultaneously the internal excitations due to the variable meshing stiffness (including the coupling among successive tooth pairs in contact, the non-linearity linked with the contacts between surfaces and the dissipative effects), and those excitations consequence of the bearing variable compliance (including clearances or pre-loads). The model can also simulate gear dynamics in a realistic torque dependent scenario. The proposed model combines a hybrid formulation for calculation of meshing forces with a non-linear variable compliance approach for bearings. Meshing forces are obtained by means of a double approach which combines numerical and analytical aspects. The methodology used provides a detailed description of the meshing forces, allowing their calculation even when gear center distance is modified due to shaft and bearing flexibilities, which are unavoidable in real transmissions. On the other hand, forces at bearing level were obtained considering a variable number of supporting rolling elements, depending on the applied load and clearances. Both formulations have been developed and applied to the simulation of the vibration of a sample transmission, focusing the attention on the transmitted load, friction meshing forces and bearing preloads.

  13. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Gligorijevic


    Full Text Available The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  14. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry. (United States)

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano


    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  15. Polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea II: Demography and population growth in relation to sea ice conditions (United States)

    Hunter, Christine M.; Caswell, Hal; Runge, Michael C.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, Ian


    This is a demographic analysis of the southern Beaufort (SB) polar bear population. The analysis uses a female-dominant stage-classified matrix population model in which individuals are classified by age and breeding status. Parameters were estimated from capture-recapture data collected between 2001 and 2006. We focused on measures of long-term population growth rate and on projections of population size over the next 100 years. We obtained these results from both deterministic and stochastic demographic models. Demographic results were related to a measure of sea ice condition, ice(t), defined as the number of ice-free days, in year t, in the region of preferred polar bear habitat. Larger values of ice correspond to lower availability of sea ice and longer ice-free periods. Uncertainty in results was quantified using a parametric bootstrap approach that includes both sampling uncertainty and model selection uncertainty.

  16. Chemical and morphological characteristics of solid metal-bearing phases deposited in snow and stream sediment as indicators of their origin. (United States)

    Miler, Miloš; Gosar, Mateja


    Detailed scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy of metal-bearing particles in snow deposits and stream sediment from a steelworks area was performed. Identified metal-bearing phases were apportioned according to their chemical and morphological characteristics to anthropogenic phases and secondary weathering products. Anthropogenic metal-bearing phases are the most abundant in both media and are represented by various irregular ferrous oxides, ferrous alloys, spherical ferrous oxides, and ferrous silicates with variable contents of Cr, Mn, Ni, V, W, and Mo. Secondary weathering products are Al silicates, Fe oxy-hydroxides, and Fe oxy-hydroxy sulfates with minor contents of transition metals, resulting from weathering of anthropogenic phases and Pb-Zn ore minerals from a closed Pb-Zn mine located upstream from the study area. Comparison of anthropogenic metal-bearing phases in both media showed agreement in their compositions and morphologies and indicated their sources are high-temperature processes in steel production. It also showed that spherical metal-bearing phases were transported by the same transport medium, which is the atmosphere, while other phases were transported into stream sediment mostly by other pathways, such as precipitation runoff over contaminated surfaces.

  17. Decrypting the Formation Conditions of the Basement Carbonate-Bearing Rocks at Nili Fossae (United States)

    Brown, A. J.


    The Nili Fossae region is the site of a number of proposed Landing Sites for the Mars 2020 Rover. A distinguishing feature of many of these sites is the access to large exposures of carbonate (Ehlmann et al. 2008). Serpentinization has been proposed as a formation mechanism of these carbonates, including carbonated (Brown et al. 2010, Viviano, et al. 2013) and low temperature, near surface serpentinization. The potential for carbonated serpentization at Nili Fossae links the region to Earth analogs in terrestrial greenstone belts such as the Pilbara in Western Australia, where talc-carbonate bearing komatiite cumulate units of the Dresser Formation overlie the siliceous, stromatolite-bearing Strelley Pool Chert unit (Van Kranendonk and Pirajno, 2004). If a similar relationship exists on Mars, investigations of rocks stratigraphically beneath the carbonate-bearing units at Nili Fossae ("the basement rocks") may provide the best chance to examine well preserved organic material from the Noachian. This hypothesis is testable by Mars 2020. In preparation for the the Mars 2020 landing site, we are examining the thermodynamic relationships that favor formation of serpentine and talc-carbonate and different pressures and temperatures in the crust (Barnes 2007). This will allow us to constrain the low grade metamorphism required to replicate the proposed models of serpentinisation and help us understand the regional metamophic gradient that is critical to furthering our knowledge of the ancient rocks of Nili Fossae. Refs:Barnes, S. J. "Komatiites: Petrology, Volcanology, Metamorphism, and Geochemistry." S.E.G. 13 (2007): 13. Brown, A. J., et al.. "Hydrothermal Formation of Clay-Carbonate Alteration Assemblages in the Nili Fossae Region of Mars." EPSL 297 (2010): 174-82. Ehlmann, B. L. et al. "Orbital Identification of Carbonate-Bearing Rocks on Mars." Science 322, no. 5909 1828-32. Van Kranendonk, M.J., and F. Pirajno. "Geochemistry of Metabasalts and Hydrothermal

  18. Corrosion of Cr bearing low alloy pipeline steel in CO{sub 2} environment at static and flowing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lining, E-mail: [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Guo, Shaoqiang [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chang, Wei [CNOOC Research Institute, Beijing 100027 (China); Chen, Taihui [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Hu, Lihua [CNOOC Research Institute, Beijing 100027 (China); Lu, Minxu [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)


    We study the corrosion performance of Cr bearing low alloy pipeline steel (Cr3MoNi) in CO{sub 2} saturated formation water, under both static and flowing conditions. Cross-sectional morphologies of corrosion scales at progressively increased test duration are observed by scanning electron microscopy. The characteristic of the corrosion scales are investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our results show that the corrosion rate of Cr3MoNi steel at flowing condition is higher than that of static condition, and the degree of Cr enrichment in the scales at flowing condition is also higher. Flow also makes ions distribute evenly in the solution close to the specimen, leading to a uniform distribution of Cr compound in the amorphous corrosion scales. In this way, flow suppresses the presence of the potential pits and also leads to a more flat scale/substrate interface.

  19. Tumor radio-sensitivity assessment by means of volume data and magnetic resonance indices measured on prostate tumor bearing rats. (United States)

    Belfatto, Antonella; White, Derek A; Mason, Ralph P; Zhang, Zhang; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Baroni, Guido; Cerveri, Pietro


    Radiation therapy is one of the most common treatments in the fight against prostate cancer, since it is used to control the tumor (early stages), to slow its progression, and even to control pain (metastasis). Although many factors (e.g., tumor oxygenation) are known to influence treatment efficacy, radiotherapy doses and fractionation schedules are often prescribed according to the principle "one-fits-all," with little personalization. Therefore, the authors aim at predicting the outcome of radiation therapy a priori starting from morphologic and functional information to move a step forward in the treatment customization. The authors propose a two-step protocol to predict the effects of radiation therapy on individual basis. First, one macroscopic mathematical model of tumor evolution was trained on tumor volume progression, measured by caliper, of eighteen Dunning R3327-AT1 bearing rats. Nine rats inhaled 100% O2 during irradiation (oxy), while the others were allowed to breathe air. Second, a supervised learning of the weight and biases of two feedforward neural networks was performed to predict the radio-sensitivity (target) from the initial volume and oxygenation-related information (inputs) for each rat group (air and oxygen breathing). To this purpose, four MRI-based indices related to blood and tissue oxygenation were computed, namely, the variation of signal intensity ΔSI in interleaved blood oxygen level dependent and tissue oxygen level dependent (IBT) sequences as well as changes in longitudinal ΔR1 and transverse ΔR2(*) relaxation rates. An inverse correlation of the radio-sensitivity parameter, assessed by the model, was found with respect the ΔR2(*) (-0.65) for the oxy group. A further subdivision according to positive and negative values of ΔR2(*) showed a larger average radio-sensitivity for the oxy rats with ΔR2(*)<0 and a significant difference in the two distributions (p < 0.05). Finally, a leave-one-out procedure yielded a radio

  20. Combined magnetic resonance imaging approach for the assessment of in vivo knee joint kinematics under full weight-bearing conditions. (United States)

    Al Hares, Ghaith; Eschweiler, Jörg; Radermacher, Klaus


    The development of detailed and specific knowledge on the biomechanical behavior of loaded knee structures has received increased attention in recent years. Stress magnetic resonance imaging techniques have been introduced in previous work to study knee kinematics under load conditions. Previous studies captured the knee movement either in atypical loading supine positions, or in upright positions with help of inclined supporting backrests being insufficient for movement capture under full-body weight-bearing conditions. In this work, we used a combined magnetic resonance imaging approach for measurement and assessment in knee kinematics under full-body weight-bearing in single legged stance. The proposed method is based on registration of high-resolution static magnetic resonance imaging data acquired in supine position with low-resolution data, quasi-static upright-magnetic resonance imaging data acquired in loaded positions for different degrees of knee flexion. The proposed method was applied for the measurement of tibiofemoral kinematics in 10 healthy volunteers. The combined magnetic resonance imaging approach allows the non-invasive measurement of knee kinematics in single legged stance and under physiological loading conditions. We believe that this method can provide enhanced understanding of the loaded knee kinematics. © IMechE 2015.

  1. Physical conditions in three high-z H2-bearing DLAs: implications for grain size

    CERN Document Server

    Rawlins, Katherine; Srianand, Raghunathan


    We present results of our numerical simulation of three H2-bearing damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs) in the redshift interval ~ 2-3. The systems we have modelled are the DLAs at zabs = 2.3377 towards the quasar LBQS 1232+0815, at zabs = 2.41837 towards SDSS J143912.04+111740.5 and at zabs = 2.6265 towards FBQS J081240.6+320808. We have used the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY to simulate the physical environment of these DLAs, and constrain the density, radiation field, geometry and dust-grain properties of the DLAs self-consistently based on the observed column densities of various atomic and molecular species such as H I, fine structure lines of C I and the rotational level population of H2. In our models, we explore the effect of grain size distribution on the predicted column densities of different species. Within the allowed uncertainties in the inferred dust-to-gas ratio, both models with standard ISM grains and smaller-sized grains reproduce the observations equally well. Improved constraints on dust-...


    Ecological indicators for long-term monitoring programs are needed to detect and assess changing environmental conditions, We developed and tested community-level environmental indicators for monitoring forest bird populations and associated habitat. We surveyed 197 sampling plo...

  3. Calculation of water-bearing primary basalt and estimation of source mantle conditions beneath arcs: PRIMACALC2 model for WINDOWS (United States)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Ariskin, Alexey A.


    present a new method for estimating the composition of water-bearing primary arc basalt and its source mantle conditions. The PRIMACALC2 model uses a thermodynamic fractional crystallization model COMAGMAT3.72 and runs with an Excel macro to examine the mantle equilibrium and trace element calculations of a primary basalt. COMAGMAT3.72 calculates magma fractionation in 0-10 kb at various compositions, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and water content, but is only applicable for forward calculations. PRIMACALC2 first calculates the provisional composition of a primary basalt from an observed magma. The basalt composition is then calculated by COMAGMAT3.72 for crystallization. Differences in elemental concentrations between observed and the closest-match calculated magmas are then adjusted in the primary basalt. Further iteration continues until the calculated magma composition converges with the observed magma, resulting in the primary basalt composition. Once the fitting is satisfied, back calculations of trace elements are made using stepwise addition of fractionated minerals. Mantle equilibrium of the primary basalt is tested using the Fo-NiO relationship of olivine in equilibrium with the primary basalt, and thus with the source mantle. Source mantle pressure, temperature, and degree of melting are estimated using petrogenetic grids based on experimental data obtained in anhydrous systems. Mantle melting temperature in a hydrous system is computed by adjusting T with a parameterization for a water-bearing system. PRIMACALC2 can be used either in dry or water-bearing arc magmas and is also applicable to mid-ocean ridge basalts and nonalkalic ocean island basalts.

  4. Do morphological condition indices predict locomotor performance in the lizard Podarcis sicula? (United States)

    Vervust, Bart; Lailvaux, Simon P.; Grbac, Irena; Van Damme, Raoul


    Biologists have developed a number of simple metrics to assess the health and energetic status of individual organisms and populations. While these condition indices have been widely used to address questions in evolutionary ecology and conservation biology, the ability of such indices to predict ecologically relevant locomotor performance abilities remains unknown. We show here that the functional links between six commonly used morphological condition indices and locomotor performance in two populations of Adriatic lizards ( Podarcis sicula) are weak at best. Indeed, no indices consistently predict either maximum sprint speed or maximum exertion across sexes, seasons or populations. These results cast doubt on the ecological relevance of morphological condition indices in terms of locomotor performance, measured in laboratory conditions, at least in this species. We urge caution in using condition indices as proxies for individual physiological or phenotypic quality in ecological and evolutionary studies.

  5. Knee angle-specific MVIC for triceps surae EMG signal normalization in weight and non weight-bearing conditions. (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer


    Varying the degree of weight-bearing (WB) and/or knee flexion (KF) angle during a plantar-flexion maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) has been proposed to alter soleus and/or gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis activation. This study compared the surface EMG signals from the triceps surae of 27 men and 27 women during WB and non weight bearing (NWB) plantar-flexion MVICs performed at 0° and 45° of KF. The aim was to determine which condition was most effective at eliciting the greatest EMG signals from soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively, for subsequent use for the normalization of EMG signals. WB was more effective than NWB at eliciting the greatest signals from soleus (p=0.0021), but there was no difference with respect to gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis (p⩾0.2482). Although the greatest EMG signals during MVICs were more frequently elicited at 0° of KF from gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis, and at 45° from soleus (ptriceps surae muscle.

  6. On the conditions of magma mixing and its bearing on andesite production in the crust. (United States)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Champallier, Rémi; Andujar, Joan; Arbaret, Laurent


    Mixing between magmas is thought to affect a variety of processes, from the growth of continental crust to the triggering of volcanic eruptions, but its thermophysical viability remains unclear. Here, by using high-pressure mixing experiments and thermal calculations, we show that hybridization during single-intrusive events requires injection of high proportions of the replenishing magma during short periods, producing magmas with 55-58 wt% SiO2 when the mafic end-member is basaltic. High strain rates and gas-rich conditions may produce more felsic hybrids. The incremental growth of crustal reservoirs limits the production of hybrids to the waning stage of pluton assembly and to small portions of it. Large-scale mixing appears to be more efficient at lower crustal conditions, but requires higher proportions of mafic melt, producing more mafic hybrids than in shallow reservoirs. Altogether, our results show that hybrid arc magmas correspond to periods of enhanced magma production at depth.

  7. Effect of complementary irrigation on yield components and alternate bearing of a traditional olive orchard in semi-arid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodolini, E.M.; Polverigiani, S.; Ali, S.; Mutawea, M.; Qutub, M.; Pierini, F.; Neri, D.


    Traditional olive orchards are usually not irrigated in the Mediterranean basin, but at those latitudes, the yearly rainfall is frequently insufficient to support equilibrated vegetative growth and high fruit and oil production. This three-year field study investigated the effect of complementary irrigation on olive tree vegetative growth, fruit and oil yield during a biennial alternate bearing cycle in a traditional grove under semi-arid conditions. Adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Nabali Baladi) were subjected to complementary irrigation in 2011 and 2012 ('on' and 'off' years, respectively) with 6, 10, 15 or 20 m3 of water per tree per season, which corresponded to 14.2%, 23.8%, 35.7% and 47.6% of the whole seasonal evapotranspiration (42 m3 of water per year), respectively. Rain-fed trees were used as control. In 2013, no complementary irrigation was supplied, and any residual effects on the yield components were determined. Results showed that none of the irrigation regimes affected vegetative growth, or olive fruit size (mesocarp and endocarp), as fresh and dry weights. The fruit and oil yield per tree increased compared to the rain-fed conditions only when the threshold of 15 m3 was exceeded, thus inducing a higher crop load compared to the rain-fed control during the 'off' and even further during the 'on' year. No residual effects were registered in 2013. The study showed that complementary irrigation of at least 35% of the seasonal water requirement can produce remarkable positive effects on fruit yield especially during 'on' bearing years. (Author)

  8. Impact attenuation during weight bearing activities in barefoot vs. shod conditions: a systematic review. (United States)

    Fong Yan, Alycia; Sinclair, Peter J; Hiller, Claire; Wegener, Caleb; Smith, Richard M


    Although it could be perceived that there is extensive research on the impact attenuation characteristics of shoes, the approach and findings of researchers in this area are varied. This review aimed to clarify the effect of shoes on impact attenuation to the foot and lower leg and was limited to those studies that compared the shoe condition(s) with barefoot. A systematic search of the literature yielded 26 studies that investigated vertical ground reaction force, axial tibial acceleration, loading rate and local plantar pressures. Meta-analyses of the effect of shoes on each variable during walking and running were performed using the inverse variance technique. Variables were collected at their peak or at the impact transient, but when grouped together as previous comparisons have done, shoes reduced local plantar pressure and tibial acceleration, but did not affect vertical force or loading rate for walking. During running, shoes reduced tibial acceleration but did not affect loading rate or vertical force. Further meta-analyses were performed, isolating shoe type and when the measurements were collected. Athletic shoes reduced peak vertical force during walking, but increased vertical force at the impact transient and no change occurred for the other variables. During running, athletic shoes reduced loading rate but did not affect vertical force. The range of variables examined and variety of measurements used appears to be a reason for the discrepancies across the literature. The impact attenuating effect of shoes has potentially both adverse and beneficial effects depending on the variable and activity under investigation.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Biotite-Rich Schist Reacting with B-Bearing Fluids at Upper Crustal Conditions and Correlated Tourmaline Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orlando


    Full Text Available Fluid–rock interaction experiments between a biotite-rich schist (from Mt. Calamita Formation, Elba Island, Italy and B-bearing aqueous fluids were carried out at 500–600 °C and 100–130 MPa. The experiments have been carried out in order to reproduce the reaction, which would have produced tourmalinisation of the biotite schist, supposedly by circulation of magmatic fluids issued from leucogranitic dykes. The reacting fluids were either NaCl-free or NaCl-bearing (20 wt % aqueous solutions, with variable concentration of H3BO3 (0.01–3.2 M. The experimental results show that tourmaline (belonging to the alkali group crystallise under high-temperature and upper crustal conditions (500–600 °C, 100–130 MPa when H3BO3 concentration in the system is greater than 1.6 M. The composition of tourmaline is either dravitic (Mg-rich or schorlitic (Fe-rich, depending if an NaCl-bearing or NaCl-free aqueous solution is used. In the first case, a significant amount of Fe released from biotite dissolution remains in the Cl-rich solution resulting from the experiment. By contrast, when pure water is used, Na/K exchange in feldspars makes Na available for tourmaline crystallisation. The high concentration of Fe in the residual fluid has an important metallogenic implication because it indicates that the interaction between the saline B-rich fluid of magmatic derivation and biotite-rich schists, besides producing tourmalinisation, is capable of mobilising significant amounts of Fe. This process could have produced, in part or totally, the Fe deposits located close to the quartz–tourmaline veins and metasomatic bodies of the Mt. Calamita Formation. Moreover, the super-hot reservoir that likely occurs in the deepest part of the Larderello–Travale geothermal field would also be the site of an extensive reaction between the B-rich fluid and biotite-bearing rocks producing tourmaline. Thus, tourmaline occurrence can be a useful guide during deep

  10. Development of small bore, high speed tapered roller bearing (United States)

    Morrison, F. R.; Gassel, S. S.; Bovenkerk, R. L.


    The performance of four rolling bearing configurations for use on the input pinion shaft of a proposed commercial helicopter transmission was evaluated. The performance characteristics of a high speed tapered roller bearing operating under conditions comparable to those existing at this input pinion shaft were defined. The tapered roller bearing shaft support configuration was developed for the gearbox using commercially available bearing designings. The configuration was optimized and interactive thermomechanically system analyzed. Automotive pinion quality tapered roller bearings were found to be reliable under load and speed conditions in excess of those anticipated in the helicopter transmission. However, it is indicated that the elastohydrodynamic lubricant films are inadequate.

  11. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas (United States)

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.


    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  12. A Financial Condition Indicator System for School Districts: A Case Study of New York (United States)

    Ammar, Salwa; Duncombe, William; Jump, Bernard; Wright, Ronald


    State governments are in the midst of one of the most severe fiscal crises of the last half century. The magnitude of the fiscal challenges facing state and local governments highlights the importance of sound fiscal planning and access to key financial indicators. The objective of this article is to develop a financial condition indicator system…

  13. Determination of the indicators for working with area flooding under nonisothermic filtering conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushakov, V.V.; Borisov, Yu.P.; Rozenberg, M.D.; Teslyuk, Ye.V.


    Engineering methods were developed for computing the nonisothermic displacement of oil by water under conditions of area systems of flooding for layered-heterogeneous beds. It is indicated that the mathematical model realized on a computer which takes into consideration the most important physical phenomena provides the possibility of fully performing the studies and analyzing the technological indicators.

  14. Summer Fish Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: Indices of Ecological Condition (United States)

    We used fish community data from trawl samples in >100 estuaries, bayous, and coastal lagoons of the Louisianan Biogeographic Province (Gulf of Mexico) to develop indicators of ecological condition. One data set, from which we derived reference values for fish community indicator...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Tang


    Full Text Available The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with profile-steel bearing and cylindrical-Wall bearing have similar values in Mises stress, but the steel silo with profile-steel bearing has a smaller radial displacement and a better capability of buckling resistance. Meanwhile, the total steel volumes reduced 8.0% comparing to the steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing. Therefore, steel soil with profile-steel bearing not only has a less steel volumes but also a good stability.

  16. Interlayer design for the graphite-like carbon film with high load-bearing capacity under sliding-friction condition in water (United States)

    Wang, Yongxin; Pu, Jibin; Wang, Jiafan; Li, Jinlong; Chen, Jianmin; Xue, Qunji


    GLC films with single Ti interlayer, single Cr interlayer, thickness gradient Cr/C interlayer and composition gradient Cr/C interlayer were fabricated by magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, mechanical properties and tribological performance under sliding friction in distilled water and seawater of the as-deposited GLC films were investigated. Results showed that the adhesion strength and the load-bearing capacity under sliding-friction condition in water of GLC film could be improved effectively by interlayer design. GLC film with composition gradient Cr/C interlayer exhibited highest adhesion strength and load-bearing capacity under sliding-friction conditions in water, which was closely related to nano-interlocked microstructure and hard carbide phase formations inside the interlayer. The adhesion strength in scratch test and the critical bearing load under sliding-friction in water of the GLC film with composition gradient Cr/C interlayer exceeded 50 N and 2.73 GPa, respectively.

  17. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.


    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  18. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, M. [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Geology


    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite-smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite-smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kibriscik, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in Camhdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kibriscik coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  19. Supported Load Condition and Life Analysis for Momentum Flywheel Bearing%动量飞轮轴承的受载情况及寿命分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧稳通; 李建华


    The momentum flywheel is a key operating mechanism of space aircraft.Under the space environment,it is vital for aircraft to keep the optimum operating state and long life.The paper analyzes loaded condition of momentum flywheel and life of angular contact ball bearing with preload.

  20. Mine geophysics methods in studying the coal bearing rock mass condition in low magnitude tectonic fault zones (United States)

    Alexeev, A. D.; Zhitlyonok, D. M.; Pitalenko, E. I.


    Disjunctive type tectonic faults are quite serious problem at underground coal winning. In the fault adjacent areas both coal seam and coal bearing rocks are usually essentially fractured that makes them less stable in coalfaces at underground mining. Some researchers have pointed out to enhanced stress state in these areas as well provided that loosening zones are absent. Coal seams are mostly inclined to disjunctive faults in Central region of Donets Coal Basin where tectonic processes were very intense. There are a lot of small faults with magnitudes close to seam thickness about 2 m in this region along with large thrust or fault disjunctives with stratigraphic magnitudes over 10 m (Dyleyev, Northern, Brunvald, Bulavin faults and others). Highest disjunctive dislocation is typical for coalfields near mines "Toretskaya" and "Novodzerzhinskaya", Coal Production Co. "Dzerzhinskugol", where dislocation density reaches about 8.5 faults per 1 km across the field. Small disjunctive faults often coincide with sites of sudden coal and gas outbursts, longwall inrushes, and poor support condition in development workings. It is known that affected zones on either side accommodate each disjunctive fault, these zones being distinctive for increased fissuring, higher stresses, coal and rocks differing strength. Affected zone width dependence on the fault parameters was determined using geological approach. Mine electrical survey and acoustical probing methods were used to study rock mass faulted condition in the vicinity of development workings and stopes intercepting low magnitude (below 5 m) disjunctive faults in coal field of mine "Toretskaya". These findings have allowed to establish a new fault magnitude dependence of rupture tectonic dislocation's affected zone width in the form of B = 3.2 H, where B is dislocation's affected zone width (m); H is the dislocation's stratigraphic magnitude (m). It was established as well that stress level in rock mass near disjunctive

  1. Touchdown Ball-Bearing System for Magnetic Bearings (United States)

    Kingsbury, Edward P.; Price, Robert; Gelotte, Erik; Singer, Herbert B.


    The torque-limited touchdown bearing system (TLTBS) is a backup mechanical-bearing system for a high-speed rotary machine in which the rotor shaft is supported by magnetic bearings in steady-state normal operation. The TLTBS provides ball-bearing support to augment or supplant the magnetic bearings during startup, shutdown, or failure of the magnetic bearings. The TLTBS also provides support in the presence of conditions (in particular, rotational acceleration) that make it difficult or impossible to control the magnetic bearings or in which the magnetic bearings are not strong enough (e.g., when the side load against the rotor exceeds the available lateral magnetic force).

  2. Using Gambusia affinis growth and condition to assess estuarine habitat quality: A comparison of indices (United States)

    Piazza, Bryan P.; La Peyre, M.K.


    Numerous indices have been used to estimate fish growth and condition however, differences in sensitivity and reliability of the methods have hampered efforts to identify appropriate indicators for routine evaluation of habitat quality in the field. We compared common morphometric (length, weight, somatic growth, length-weight condition) and biochemical (RNA:DNA ratio, relative DNA content, energy density) growth indices on the same wild-caught mosquitofish Gambusia affinis to examine their usefulness as indicators of habitat quality. A laboratory experiment was used to quantify growth rates of wild-caught G. affinis under different feeding treatments. Field studies consisted of both a short-term enclosure experiment (10 d) and weekly (7 wk) fish collections to compare growth indices in managed inflow and reference marshes during a winter/spring freshwater pulse event in upper Breton Sound, Louisiana, USA. Marshes flooded by restored freshwater pulses were capable of producing optimum growth (0.001 g DW d-1 DW = dry weight) and energetically valuable habitat (>6000 cal g-1 DW) for trophic transport. Because of differences in timing of response, morphometric and biochemical indices were generally not directly correlated, but there was clear agreement in direction and magnitude of response. The most striking difference in timing was that biochemical indices (RNA:DNA) responded more slowly to treatments than did morphometric growth indices. While gross patterns are comparable between indicators, differences in sensitivity and response time between indicators suggest that choice of indicator needs to be accounted for in interpretation and analysis of effects. ?? Inter-Research 2010,


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khariv


    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of search of the influence of developed complex liposomal drug on dynamics of hematological parameters of rat organisms under conditions of simulated oxidative stress caused by the use of carbon tetrachloride. Intramuscular injection of 50% tetrachloromethane to rats at a dose of 0.25 ml per 100 g of body weight causes antigenic load on the body and leads to disruption of physiologic level of hematological indices of experimental animal organisms. This indicates the number reduce of red blood cells, hemoglobin content, hemoglobin concentration in erythrocyte, increasing the number of leukocytes, mass of hemoglobin in erythrocyte and increased of color index. To normalize the hematological indices of rat organisms for the development of oxidative stress it is advisable to apply the liposomal drug that incorporates contains butafosfan, interferon, milk thistle and vitamins. When using liposomal drug to rats, under conditions of oxidative stress, the normalization of hematological indices comes in blood, namely on 14th day within physiological variables were indicators of the number of erythrocytes of hemoglobin content, white blood cell count and indices of red blood cells compared to controls, indicating a recovery of hematopoietic function of marrow.

  4. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener


    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite–smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite–smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kıbrıscık, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in C¸ amlıdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites such as Opal CT+smectite-clinoptilolite-analcime-K-feldspar. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kıbrıscık coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  5. Can Agrometeorological Indices of Adverse Weather Conditions Help to Improve Yield Prediction by Crop Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava Lalić


    Full Text Available The impact of adverse weather conditions (AWCs on crop production is random in both time and space and depends on factors such as severity, previous agrometeorological conditions, and plant vulnerability at a specific crop development stage. Any exclusion or improper treatment of any of these factors can cause crop models to produce significant under- or overestimates of yield. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on a range of agrometeorological indices (AMI related to AWCs that might affect real yield as well as simulated yield. For this purpose, the analysis addressed four indicators of extreme temperatures and three indicators of dry conditions during the growth period of maize and winter wheat in Austria, Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, and Sweden. It is shown that increases in the number and intensity of AWCs cannot be unambiguously associated with increased deviations in simulated yields. The identified correlations indicate an increase in modeling uncertainty. This finding represents important information for the crop modeling community. Additionally, it opens a window of opportunity for a statistical (“event scenario” approach based on correlations between agrometeorological indices of AWCs and crop yield data series. This approach can provide scenarios for certain locations, crop types, and AWC patterns and, therefore, improve yield forecasting in the presence of AWCs.

  6. Evaluation of redox indicators for determining sulfate-reducing and dechlorinating conditions. (United States)

    Jones, Brian D; Ingle, James D


    An in situ methodology based on covalently bonded redox indicators has been developed for determining when sulfate-reducing conditions exist in environmental samples. Three immobilized redox indicators [thionine (Thi, formal potential at pH 7 (E(0')7) equals 52 mV), cresyl violet (CV, E(0')7 = -81 mV), and phenosafranine (PSaf, E(0')7 = -267 mV)] were tested for their response to sulfide in synthetic solutions and under sulfate-reducing conditions in wastewater slurries. The byproduct of the sulfate-reducing process, sulfide, was found to couple well to CV in the concentration range of 1-100 microM total sulfide ([S(-II)]) and the pH range of 6-8. Thi, the indicator with the highest formal potential, reacts rapidly with sulfide at levels well below 1 microM while PSaf, the indicator with the lowest formal potential, does not couple to sulfide at levels in excess of 100 microM [S(-II)]. The degree of reduction of the indicators (i.e., the fraction of cresyl violet oxidized) in contact with a given level of sulfide can be modeled qualitatively with an equilibrium expression for [S(-II)]-indicator based on the Nernst equation assuming that rhombic sulfur is the product of sulfide oxidation. In a groundwater sample with dechlorinating microbes, reduction of Thi and partial reduction of CV correlated with dechlorination of TCE to cis-DCE.

  7. A Weekly Indicator of Surface Moisture Status from Satellite Data for Operational Monitoring of Crop Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nutini


    Full Text Available The triangle method has been applied to derive a weekly indicator of evaporative fraction on vegetated areas in a temperate region in Northern Italy. Daily MODIS Aqua Land Surface Temperature (MYD11A1 data has been combined with air temperature maps and 8-day composite MODIS NDVI (MOD13Q1/MYD13Q1 data to estimate the Evaporative Fraction (EF at 1 km resolution, on a daily basis. Measurements at two eddy covariance towers located within the study area have been exploited to assess the reliability of satellite based EF estimations as well as the robustness of input data. Weekly syntheses of the daily EF indicator (EFw were then derived at regional scale for the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 as a proxy of overall surface moisture condition. EFw showed a temporal behavior consistent with growing cycles and agro-practices of the main crops cultivated in the study area (rice, forages and corn. Comparison with official regional corn yield data showed that variations in EFw cumulated over summer are related with crop production shortages induced by water scarcity. These results suggest that weekly-averaged EF estimated from MODIS data is sensible to water stress conditions and can be used as an indicator of crops’ moisture conditions at agronomical district level. Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed approach to provide information useful to issue operational near real time bulletins on crop conditions at regional scale are discussed.

  8. Studies on Tomato Seedling Quality Indices Under Simulated Shipping and Storage Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Wei; GE Xiao-guang; LI Tian-lai


    Indices of the tomato seedling quality maintenance level after production before field planting were studied through simulated experiments, small--scale operation, indoor analyses and measurements, and field observation. The results showed that under simulated shipping and storage conditions, seedling quality change following different durations (days) of shipping and storage was correlated significantly or even very significantly with certain physiological and morphological indices. With various measured indices following different periods of shipping and storage treatment subjected to multinomial successive regressive correlation analysis, the principal factors influencing seedling quality maintenance level are identified to be chlorophyll content→dry short weight→ leaf freshness index in order of their importance. Significance analysis with multinomial fitted equation indicated that correlations between any one of above three factors and the growth index after field planting reached very significant difference level.

  9. Evaluation of HIV testing recommendations in specialty guidelines for the management of HIV indicator conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lord, E; Stockdale, A J; Malek, R


    OBJECTIVES: European guidelines recommend HIV testing for individuals presenting with indicator conditions (ICs) including AIDS-defining conditions (ADCs). The extent to which non-HIV specialty guidelines recommend HIV testing in ICs and ADCs is unknown. Our aim was to pilot a methodology in the UK......%). There was no association between recommendation to test and publication year (P = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of guidelines for ICs do not recommend testing. Clinicians managing ICs may be unaware of recommendations produced by HIV societies or the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among these patients. We...

  10. Myocardial capillary permeability for small hydrophilic indicators during normal physiological conditions and after ischemia and reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup


    of the injected indicator molecules in an extracted and a transmitted fraction of molecules. In open chest dog hearts measurements performed during normal physiological conditions gave mean capillary extraction values of 43.5-47.5% and the corresponding calculated PdS values were 47.1 - 57.5 ml.(100g.min)-1. From......Myocardial capillary permeability for small hydrophilic solutes (51Cr-EDTA or 99mTc-DTPA) has been measured using intracoronary indicator bolus injection and external radioactivity registration (the single injection, residue detection method). The method is based on kinetic separation...

  11. Multi-GCM Projections of Global Drought Conditions With Use of the Palmer Drought Indices (United States)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Svoboda, M.; Trnka, M.; Hayes, M.; Wilhite, D.; Zalud, Z.


    We use two Palmer Drought Indices (the PDSI and Z-index) to assess the drought conditions in future climates as projected by seven Global Climate Models (GCMs). Both indices are based on precipitation and temperature data (this makes them more suitable for climate change impact studies compared to the Standardized Precipitation Index, which is based only on precipitation) and the available water content of the soil. In contrast to the PDSI, the Z-index does not account for any persistence within the climate; rather, it characterizes the immediate (for a given week or month) conditions. The indices are calculated by computer programs available from the National Drought Mitigation Center and the Computer Science and Engineering Department, both located at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. To allow for the assessment of climate change impacts, we modified the original computer code: the indices (which we named "relative" drought indices) are now calibrated using the present climate weather series and then applied to the future climate weather series. The resultant time series thus displays the drought conditions in terms of the present climate. The relative drought indices are applied to gridded (whole globe) GCM-simulated surface monthly weather series (available from the IPCC database), and the available water content is based on soil- texture-based water holding capacity global data developed by Webb et al. (1993, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7: 97-108). The indices are calibrated with 1991-2020 period (considered to be the present climate) and then applied to two future periods: 2031-2060 and 2060-2099. To quantify impacts of climate change on the drought conditions, we analyze shifts in the grid-specific means of the drought indices and in the frequency of months belonging to drought spells. The drought spell is defined here as continuous periods in which the index does not exceed -1, and falls below -3 for at least one month. Results obtained by single GCMs

  12. Conditioned Fear Associated Phenotypes as Robust, Translational Indices of Trauma-, Stressor-, and Anxiety-related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anne Briscione


    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a heterogeneous disorder that affects individuals exposed to trauma (e.g., combat, interpersonal violence, and natural disasters. It is characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive reminders of the trauma, avoidance of trauma-related cues, and negative cognition and mood. This heterogeneity indicates the presence of multiple neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of PTSD. Fear conditioning is a robust, translational experimental paradigm that can be employed to elucidate these mechanisms by allowing for the study of fear-related dimensions of PTSD (e.g., fear extinction, fear inhibition, and generalization of fear across multiple units of analysis. Fear conditioning experiments have identified varying trajectories of the dimensions described, highlighting exciting new avenues of targeted, focused study. Additionally, fear conditioning studies provide a translational platform to develop novel interventions. The current review highlights the versatility of fear conditioning paradigms, the implications for pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, the robustness of these paradigms to span an array of neuroscientific measures (e.g., genetic studies, and finally the need to understand the boundary conditions under which these paradigms are effective. Further understanding these paradigms will ultimately allow for optimization of fear conditioning paradigms, a necessary step towards the advancement of PTSD treatment methods.

  13. Conditioned fear associated phenotypes as robust, translational indices of trauma-, stressor-, and anxiety-related behaviors. (United States)

    Briscione, Maria Anne; Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth Davin


    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a heterogeneous disorder that affects individuals exposed to trauma (e.g., combat, interpersonal violence, and natural disasters). It is characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive reminders of the trauma, avoidance of trauma-related cues, and negative cognition and mood. This heterogeneity indicates the presence of multiple neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of PTSD. Fear conditioning is a robust, translational experimental paradigm that can be employed to elucidate these mechanisms by allowing for the study of fear-related dimensions of PTSD (e.g., fear extinction, fear inhibition, and generalization of fear) across multiple units of analysis. Fear conditioning experiments have identified varying trajectories of the dimensions described, highlighting exciting new avenues of targeted, focused study. Additionally, fear conditioning studies provide a translational platform to develop novel interventions. The current review highlights the versatility of fear conditioning paradigms, the implications for pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, the robustness of these paradigms to span an array of neuroscientific measures (e.g., genetic studies), and finally the need to understand the boundary conditions under which these paradigms are effective. Further understanding these paradigms will ultimately allow for optimization of fear conditioning paradigms, a necessary step towards the advancement of PTSD treatment methods.

  14. Numeric score-based conditional and overall change-in-status indices for ordered categorical data. (United States)

    Lyles, Robert H; Kupper, Lawrence L; Barnhart, Huiman X; Martin, Sandra L


    Planned interventions and/or natural conditions often effect change on an ordinal categorical outcome (e.g., symptom severity). In such scenarios, it is sometimes desirable to assign a priori scores to observed changes in status, typically giving higher weight to changes of greater magnitude. We define change indices for such data based upon a multinomial model for each row of a c × c table, where the rows represent the baseline status categories. We distinguish an index designed to assess conditional changes within each baseline category from two others designed to capture overall change. One of these overall indices measures expected change across a target population. The other is scaled to capture the proportion of total possible change in the direction indicated by the data, so that it ranges from -1 (when all subjects finish in the least favorable category) to +1 (when all finish in the most favorable category). The conditional assessment of change can be informative regardless of how subjects are sampled into the baseline categories. In contrast, the overall indices become relevant when subjects are randomly sampled at baseline from the target population of interest, or when the investigator is able to make certain assumptions about the baseline status distribution in that population. We use a Dirichlet-multinomial model to obtain Bayesian credible intervals for the conditional change index that exhibit favorable small-sample frequentist properties. Simulation studies illustrate the methods, and we apply them to examples involving changes in ordinal responses for studies of sleep deprivation and activities of daily living.

  15. Investigation of Gearbox Vibration Transmission Paths on Gear Condition Indicator Performance (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Islam, AKM Anwarul; Feldman, Jason; Larsen, Chris


    Helicopter health monitoring systems use vibration signatures generated from damaged components to identify transmission faults. For damaged gears, these signatures relate to changes in dynamics due to the meshing of the damaged tooth. These signatures, referred to as condition indicators (CI), can perform differently when measured on different systems, such as a component test rig, or a full-scale transmission test stand, or an aircraft. These differences can result from dissimilarities in systems design and environment under dynamic operating conditions. The static structure can also filter the response between the vibration source and the accelerometer, when the accelerometer is installed on the housing. To assess the utility of static vibration transfer paths for predicting gear CI performance, measurements were taken on the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Test Rig. The vibration measurements were taken to determine the effect of torque, accelerometer location and gearbox design on accelerometer response. Measurements were taken at the housing and compared while impacting the gear set near mesh. These impacts were made at gear mesh to simulate gear meshing dynamics. Data measured on a helicopter gearbox installed in a static fixture were also compared to the test rig. The behavior of the structure under static conditions was also compared to CI values calculated under dynamic conditions. Results indicate that static vibration transfer path measurements can provide some insight into spiral bevel gear CI performance by identifying structural characteristics unique to each system that can affect specific CI response.

  16. Mineralogical and isotopic indicators of palaeoclimatological conditions during Precambrian time, Aldan Shield, Siberia (United States)

    Guliy, Vasyl


    Sedimentary sulfates in Precambrian rocks are direct evidences that free oxygen was important component in the atmosphere-hydrosphere system at that time and may be reflections of evaporate deposition in old sedimentary basins. Rocks with sulfates were early identified in the Fedorovskaya Formation of the Aldan Shield (V. Vinogradov et al., 1975). Geological works in different sectors of the Aldan Shield reveal presence of anhydrite, barite, gypsum and celestine in metamorphic sedimentary rocks of the Fedorovskaya Formation. The rocks are metamorphosed to the granulite and amphibolite faces, and their U-Pb age is 1.8 - 2.0 Ga. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of different sectors confirm that each of these carbonate rocks represents a clearly defined and isotopically distinct sedimentary facies. Anhydrite, gypsum and celestine were collected from the borehole cores of the Seligdar, Mustolaakh, Birikeen and Chukurdan apatite deposits. Samples of barites came from outcrops of the Hematitovoe deposits. All these minerals commonly are heterogeneous and composed of several generations. First generations of anhydrite form concordant layers, lenses or segregations in marbles, gneisses and geologically oldest sulfate-bearing apatite-carbonate rocks underlying the Seligdar ore body. Last generations of the sulfates form pods and branching veinlets in the apatite-bearing carbonate rocks of the Seligdar deposit with a thickness of 1.5 - 5 cm, and veins up to 3 - 5 m thick. Fine-grained and platy gypsum, white and pink in color, predominates over anhydrite, which concentrates toward the axial portions of the veins and forms aggregates of tabular burred crystals of lilac color. At the Mustolaakh, Birikeen and Chukurdan deposits sulfates were sporadically found in borehole cores as separated nets and clear late veins. Three generations of barite occur in barite-quarts-hematite ores. First generations of the minerals are smaller in size (1 - 2 mm), scattered in the ores

  17. Experimental Evidence for Fast Lithium Diffusion and Isotope Fractionation in Water-bearing Rhyolitic Melts at Magmatic Conditions (United States)

    Cichy, S. B.; Till, C. B.; Roggensack, K.; Hervig, R. L.; Clarke, A. B.


    The aim of this work is to extend the existing database of experimentally-determined lithium diffusion coefficients to more natural cases of water-bearing melts at the pressure-temperature range of the upper crust. In particular, we are investigating Li intra-melt and melt-vapor diffusion and Li isotope fractionation, which have the potential to record short-lived magmatic processes (seconds to hours) in the shallow crust, especially during decompression-induced magma degassing. Hydrated intra-melt Li diffusion-couple experiments on Los Posos rhyolite glass [1] were performed in a piston cylinder at 300 MPa and 1050 °C. The polished interfaces between the diffusion couples were marked by addition of Pt powder for post-run detection. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses indicate that lithium diffuses extremely fast in the presence of water. Re-equilibration of a hydrated ~2.5 mm long diffusion-couple experiment was observed during the heating period from room temperature to the final temperature of 1050 °C at a rate of ~32 °C/min. Fractionation of ~40‰ δ7Li was also detected in this zero-time experiment. The 0.5h and 3h runs show progressively higher degrees of re-equilibration, while the isotope fractionation becomes imperceptible. Li contamination was observed in some experiments when flakes filed off Pt tubing were used to mark the diffusion couple boundary, while the use of high purity Pt powder produced better results and allowed easier detection of the diffusion-couple boundary. The preliminary lithium isotope fractionation results (δ7Li vs. distance) support findings from [2] that 6Li diffuses substantially faster than 7Li. Further experimental sets are in progress, including lower run temperatures (e.g. 900 °C), faster heating procedure (~100 °C/min), shorter run durations and the extension to mafic systems. [1] Stanton (1990) Ph.D. thesis, Arizona State Univ., [2] Richter et al. (2003) GCA 67, 3905-3923.

  18. Impact of parboiling conditions on Maillard precursors and indicators in long-grain rice cultivars. (United States)

    Lamberts, Lieve; Rombouts, Ine; Brijs, Kristof; Gebruers, Kurt; Delcour, Jan A


    The effect of steaming conditions (mild, intermediate and severe) during parboiling of five different long-grain rice cultivars (brown rice cultivars Puntal, Cocodrie, XL8 and Jacinto, and a red rice) on rice colour, and Maillard precursors and indicators was investigated. Rice colour increased with severity of parboiling conditions. Redness increased more than yellowness when parboiling brown rice. Parboiling turned red rice black. It changed the levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose. Losses of the non-reducing sugar, sucrose were caused by both leaching into the soaking water and enzymic conversion, rather than by thermal degradation during steaming. Concentrations of the reducing sugars, glucose and fructose, in intermediately parboiled rice were higher than those of mildly parboiled rice. After severe parboiling, glucose levels were lower than those of intermediately parboiled rice, while fructose levels were higher. These changes were ascribed to the sum of losses in the Maillard reaction (MR), formations as a result of starch degradation and isomerisation of glucose into fructose. It was clear that the ε-amino group of protein-bound lysine was more affected by parboiling conditions and loss in MRs, than that of free lysine. Low values of the MR indicators furosine and free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) in processed brown and red rices were related to mild parboiling, whereas high furosine and low free HMF levels were indicative of rices being subjected to intermediate processing conditions. High furosine and high free HMF contents corresponded to severe hydrothermal treatments. The strong correlation (r=0.89) between the free HMF levels and the increase in redness of parboiled brown rices suggested that Maillard browning was reflected more in the red than in the yellow colour.

  19. Application of Dang Van criterion to rolling contact fatigue in wind turbine roller bearings under elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerullo, Michele


    A 2D plane strain finite element program has been developed to investigate very high cycle fatigue in wind turbine roller bearings due to rolling contact. Focus is on fatigue in the inner ring, where the effect of residual stresses and hardness variation along the depth is accounted for. Both...... classic Hertzian and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theories have been used to model the pressure distribution acting on the inner raceway and results are compared according to the Dang Van multiaxial fatigue criterion. The contact on the bearing raceway is simulated by substituting the roller...... its values to the fatigue limit parameters for the material. It is found that both for Hertzian and elastohydrodynamic lubrication contacts, the Dang Van criterion predicts that fatigue failure will first occur in the subsurface region and that, regardless of the specific pressure distribution used...

  20. Experimental quantification of dynamic forces and shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings under several contact conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar


    This paper treats the experimental study on a shaft impacting its stator for different cases. The paper focuses mainly on the measured contact forces and the shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings. As such, the measured contact forces are thoroughly studied. These measured contact....... The analyses show that by use of a conventional annular guide, the shaft undergoes a direct transition from normal operation to a full annular backward whirling state for the case of external excitation. However, in a self-excited vibration case, where the speed is gradually increased and decreased through...... the first critical speed, the investigation revealed that different paths initiated the onset of backward whip and whirling motion. In order to improve the whirling and the full annular contact behavior, an unconventional pinned backup bearing is realized. The idea is to utilize pin connections that center...

  1. Development of bearing lubrication condition monitoring system based on LabVIEW%基于LabVIEW的轴承润滑状态监测系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭娅楠; 刘丽冉


    Bearing plays an important support role in rotating machinery, but the poor working environment makes the bearing become one of the most easily damaged parts. Whether the rotating machinery can be safe and stable is decided by the bearing running. At the same time, the bearings which are in the car also play an extremely important role in the drive train and running gear , it is very important for working status real-time monitoring to ensure stable operation of the vehicle and to protect the safety of the driver. In this paper, LabVIEW virtual instrument technology has developed a bearing lubrication condition monitoring system, according to the bearing status information collected by sensors in real time to accurately diagnose the bearing lubrication is a important safeguard to improve vehicle operation safety and economy.%轴承是旋转机械中一个重要的支撑部件,其恶劣的工作环境使得轴承成为最容易损坏的部件之一。旋转机械是否能够安全稳定的运行起决定性作用的就是轴承的运行状态。同时由于轴承在汽车的传动系、行驶系中也具有极其重要的作用,对轴承工作状态进行实时监测以保证车辆的稳定运行、保障驾驶员的安全性是非常重要的。文章利用虚拟仪器LabVIEW技术开发了一个轴承润滑状态监测系统,根据传感器采集的轴承状态信息,实时准确地诊断轴承润滑状态,是提高汽车运行安全性和经济性的重要保障措施。

  2. Using fish larvae as indicators of estuarine ecosystem condition in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Vinícius Souza Santos


    Full Text Available Estuaries enhance growth and maximize the survivorship of initial development stages of fish species, functioning as nursery grounds for many species. However, estuaries throughout the world host a wide variety of human activities, and fish communities can be severely impacted. Protection of aquatic biodiversity and proper management of these coastal systems require robust tools to assess habitat integrity and ecological quality status. Thus, the present study investigated the use of fish larvae as indicators of estuarine ecosystem condition in Brazil, testing the hypothesis that estuaries with different human impacts and environmental conditions carry distinct larval fish assemblages. For this, four estuaries were analysed with: similar environmental conditions (the same water mass surveyed, similar pool of species (the same geographical region and no seasonal influences (different periods analysed separately. Surveys were conducted in Macaé, São João, Bracuí and Perequê-Açu estuaries located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling surveys were conducted every two months between May 2013 and March 2015. All samples were taken in the estuary middle region (salinity 15-25 during nightly ebb tides. At each estuary, ichthyoplankton subsurface tows were perfomed using a Bongo net. Water parameters were measured by a multiparameter probe and surface water samples collected for further analytical analyses. Fish larvae were identified and species were assigned into functional guilds. The water conditions were assessed based on water temperature, pH, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen and total particulate matter. Faecal coliforms, nutrient load (NO3, NO2, NH3, PO4, SiO3 and presence/absence of dams, dredging and mangroves were used as anthropogenic pressure descriptors. The species composition and ecological guilds of Macaé and Perequê-Açu differed significantly of São João and Bracuí, separating the impacted versus non-impacted estuaries


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vladimirovich Gagarinskii


    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of the effective work of managers of industrial enterprises, which is the basis of economic development in modern Russia. The authors suggest that the management of the system of performance indicators in managers in the conditions of realization of various business processes can reduce the risk of crises in the enterprise, and improve the efficiency of labour management and productivity in the company in a whole. According to the authors, improving the efficiency of management in the conditions of implementation of the various business processes of industrial enterprises is an integral element of the overall strategic development of the company. The article presents the results of work performance assessment of managers in the implementation of business process management. In this article there is developed performance business process management on the example of the metal cutting enterprise management levels: the corporate level, the first operational level, the second operational level, and the line level. For these indicators the performers are defined and criteria are given.

  4. MR cholangiopancreatography: technique, potential indications, and diagnostic features of benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Grossholz, M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Mentha, G. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Peyer, R. de [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Terrier, F. [Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)


    The objective of this article is to review technical aspects, discuss potential clinical indications for MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and demonstrate the spectrum of diagnostic findings in benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions. We describe our current imaging protocol in comparison with other available techniques. Using a non-breath-hold, heavily T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequence with or without respiratory gating we obtained coronal and axial source images and maximum intensity projections (MIPs) in 102 patients with suspected abnormalities of the biliary or pancreatic ducts. Based on this series we demonstrate the diagnostic appearance of a variety of benign, postoperative, and malignant conditions of the biliary and pancreatic ducts and discuss potential clinical indications for MRCP. The non-breath-hold FSE technique enables a consistent image quality even in patients who cannot cooperate well. Respiratory gating increased the rate of diagnostic examinations from 79 to 95 %. Acquisition of coronal and axial source images enables detection of bile duct stones as small as 2 mm, although calculi that are impacted and not surrounded by hyperintense bile may sometimes be difficult to detect. The MIP reconstructions help to determine the level of obstruction in malignant jaundice, delineate anatomical variants and malformations, and to diagnose inflammatory conditions, e. g., sclerosing cholangitis, the Mirizzi syndrome and inflammatory changes in the main pancreatic duct. The MRCP technique also correctly demonstrates the morphology of bilio-enteric or bilio-biliary anastomoses. Because MRCP provides sufficient diagnostic information in a wide range of benign and malignant biliary and pancreatic disorders, it could obviate diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in many clinical settings. The ERCP technique may be increasingly reserved for patients in whom nonsurgical interventional procedures are anticipated. (orig


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article reports a case of transient osteoporosis involving both tibial and femoral condyle in 30 patients , reviews the existing literature , discusses disease pathologyand discusses the treatment options. SUBJECTS & METHODS: 30 patients with a 1 - 8 weeks history of knee pain and on the verge of planning a TKR were further investigated and d ifferentiated as Transient osteoporosis . RESULTS : All patients were managed with observation , protected weight bearing , and pain control. Non - weight bearing status often is required during the initial 1 to 2 weeks of treatment to assist conservative manageme nt . O nly few required TKR at later time . CONCLUSION : Early differentiation of transient osteoporosis from early Osteoarthritis of knee will avoid unnecessary surgical intervention and ensure appropriate treatment KEY WORDS: Transient Osteoporosis , knee pain , pregnancy , elderly population , TKR , Bone marrow edema syndrome , transient bone demineralization

  6. Spectral Indices to Improve Crop Residue Cover Estimation under Varying Moisture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Quemada


    Full Text Available Crop residues on the soil surface protect the soil against erosion, increase water infiltration and reduce agrochemicals in runoff water. Crop residues and soils are spectrally different in the absorption features associated with cellulose and lignin. Our objectives were to: (1 assess the impact of water on the spectral indices for estimating crop residue cover (fR; (2 evaluate spectral water indices for estimating the relative water content (RWC of crop residues and soils; and (3 propose methods that mitigate the uncertainty caused by variable moisture conditions on estimates of fR. Reflectance spectra of diverse crops and soils were acquired in the laboratory over the 400–2400-nm wavelength region. Using the laboratory data, a linear mixture model simulated the reflectance of scenes with various fR and levels of RWC. Additional reflectance spectra were acquired over agricultural fields with a wide range of crop residue covers and scene moisture conditions. Spectral indices for estimating crop residue cover that were evaluated in this study included the Normalized Difference Tillage Index (NDTI, the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI and the Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI. Multivariate linear models that used pairs of spectral indices—one for RWC and one for fR—significantly improved estimates of fR using CAI and SINDRI. For NDTI to reliably assess fR, scene RWC should be relatively dry (RWC < 0.25. These techniques provide the tools needed to monitor the spatial and temporal changes in crop residue cover and help determine where additional conservation practices may be required.

  7. Monitoring the condition of the Canadian forest environment: The relevance of the concept of 'ecological indicators'. (United States)

    Kimmins, J P


    The Canadian forest environment is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability, especially in the west. Our forests vary according to climate, landform, and surficial geology, and according to the type, intensity, extent of, and the time since the last disturbance. Most Canadian forests have had a history of repeated acute, episodic disturbance from fire, insects, wind, diseases and/or logging, with a frequency of disturbance varying from a few decades to many centuries. These sources of variability have resulted in a complex and continually changing mosaic of forest conditions and stages of successional development.Monitoring the 'quality' of this dynamic forested landscape mosaic is extremely difficult, and in most cases the concept of a relatively simple index of forest ecosystem quality or condition (i.e. an 'ecological indicator') is probably inappropriate. Such ecological indicators are better suited for monitoring chronic anthropogenically induced disturbances that are continuous in their effect (e.g. 'acid rain', heavy metal pollution, air pollution, and the 'greenhouse effect') in ecosystems that, in the absence of such chronic disturbance, exhibit very slow directional change (e.g. lakes, higher order streams and rivers). Monitoring the effects of a chronic anthropogenic disturbance to forest ecosystems to determine if it is resulting in a sustained, directional alteration of environmental 'quality' will require a definition of the expected pattern of episodic disturbance and recovery therefrom (i.e. patterns of secondary succession in the absence of the chronic disturbance). Only when we have such a 'temporal fingerprint' of forest ecosystem condition for 'normal' patterns of disturbance and recovery can we determine if the ecosystem condition is being degraded by chronic human-induced alteration of the environment. Thus, degradation is assessed in terms of deviations from the expected temporal pattern of conditions rather than in terms of an


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman


    Full Text Available Infant mortality rate is a serious issue worldwide. Pakistan being a developing country comprises of diverse socioeconomic classes. Various studies have suggested some association of maternal anthropometric parameters with neonatal outcomes. The aim behind this research is to determine the impact of socioeconomic conditions on maternal health indicators and neonatal parameters in the population of Pakistan. This study included 90 pregnant females belonging to different socioeconomic conditions and were grouped according to their socioeconomic classes. Data was collected from the case histories of participants admitted in different hospitals of Karachi. The data of maternal and neonatal parameters was assessed statistically and their associations with the socioeconomic conditions were assessed. Maternal hemoglobin and maternal gravidity have shown a strong association with socioeconomic conditions with high significance (p < 0.05. However, neonatal parameters have shown diverse results among the three classes. Neonatal gestational age was found to be significant in comparison between upper versus lower (p = 0.001 and upper versus middle classes (p = 0.006, but it was insignificant in case of middle versus lower class (p = 0.88. Likewise, neonatal birth weight is significant between upper versus lower (p = 0.001 and upper versus middle classes (p = 0.019, but it was insignificant in case of middle versus lower class (p = 0.258. Neonatal apgar score is found to be significant in upper versus lower (p = 0.001 and middle versus lower classes (p = 0.001 and insignificant between middle and lower class (p = 0.125. This study concludes that socioeconomic factors play a vital role in determining the maternal health characteristics which in turn affects the neonatal outcomes. It is therefore recommended that antenatal care should be provided to all pregnant females. The whole community should work hand in hand to establish good health care centers, create

  9. The Effect of Body Weight on Heat Strain Indices in Hot and Dry Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Being overweight is a characteristic that may influence a person’s heat exchange. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of body weight on heat strain indices in hot and dry climatic conditions. Materials and Methods This study was completed with a sample of 30 participants with normal weights, as well as 25 participants who were overweight. The participants were physically inactive for a period of 120 minutes in a climatic chamber with hot and dry conditions (22 - 32°C and with 40% relative humidity (RH.The physiological strain index (PSI and heat strain score index (HSSI questionnaires were used. Simultaneous measurements were completed during heat exposure for periods of five minutes. The resting periods acted as the initial measurements for 15 minutes. Results In both groups, oral temperature, heart rate, and thermal perceptual responses increased during heat exposure. The means and standard deviations of heart rate and oral temperature were gathered when participants were in hot and dry climatic conditions and were not physically active. The heart rates and oral temperatures were 79.21 ± 5.93 bpm and 36.70 ± 0.45°C, respectively, for those with normal weights. For overweight individuals, the measurements for heart rate and oral temperature reached 82.21 ± 8.9 bpm and 37.84 ± 0.37°C, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that, compared to participants with normal weights, physiological and thermal perceptual responses were higher in overweight participants. Therefore, overweight individuals should avoid hot/dry weather conditions to decrease the amount of heat strain.

  10. Novel Indications for Benzodiazepine Antagonist Flumazenil in GABA Mediated Pathological Conditions of the Central Nervous System. (United States)

    Hulse, Gary; Kelty, Erin; Hood, Sean; Norman, Amanda; Basso, Maria Rita; Reece, Albert Stuart


    This review paper discusses the central role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in diverse physiological systems and functions and the therapeutic potential of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (Ro 15- 1788) for a wide range of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Our group and others have studied the potential of flumazenil as a treatment for benzodiazepine dependence. A small but growing body of research has indicated that flumazenil may also have clinical application in CNS disorders such as Parkinson's disease, idiopathic hypersomnia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite this body of research the therapeutic potential of flumazenil remains poorly understood and largely unrealized. The purpose of this paper is not to provide an exhaustive review of all possible therapeutic applications for flumazenil but rather to stimulate research interest, and discussion of the exciting therapeutic potential of this drug for a range of chronic debilitating conditions.

  11. Estimation of gear tooth transverse crack size from vibration by fusing selected gear condition indices (United States)

    Choi, Sukhwan; Li, C. James


    Gears are common power transmission elements and are frequently responsible for transmission failures. Since a tooth crack is not directly measurable while a gear is in operation, one has to develop an indirect method to estimate its size from some measurables. This study developed such a method to estimate the size of a tooth transverse crack for a spur gear in operation. Using gear vibrations measured from an actual gear accelerated test, this study examined existing gear condition indices to identify those correlated well to crack size and established their utility for crack size estimation through index fusion using a neural network. When tested with vibrations measured from another accelerated test, the method had an averaged estimation error of about 5%.

  12. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle W.F. Reumer


    Full Text Available The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects. Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3% and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%. Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side and seventh (anterior side cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene.

  13. Comparative Study of Vibration Condition Indicators for Detecting Cracks in Spur Gears (United States)

    Nanadic, Nenad; Ardis, Paul; Hood, Adrian; Thurston, Michael; Ghoshal, Anindya; Lewicki, David


    This paper reports the results of an empirical study on the tooth breakage failure mode in spur gears. Of four dominant gear failure modes (breakage, wear, pitting, and scoring), tooth breakage is the most precipitous and often leads to catastrophic failures. The cracks were initiated using a fatigue tester and a custom-designed single-tooth bending fixture to simulate over-load conditions, instead of traditional notching using wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). The cracks were then propagated on a dynamometer. The ground truth of damage level during crack propagation was monitored with crack-propagation sensors. Ten crack propagations have been performed to compare the existing condition indicators (CIs) with respect to their: ability to detect a crack, ability to assess the damage, and sensitivity to sensor placement. Of more than thirty computed CIs, this paper compares five commonly used: raw RMS, FM0, NA4, raw kurtosis, and NP4. The performance of combined CIs was also investigated, using linear, logistic, and boosted regression trees based feature fusion.

  14. Tertiary weathering profiles in central Nigeria as indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions (United States)

    Zeese, Reinhard


    In central Nigeria the Fluviovolcanic Series of the Jos Plateau are composed by deeply weathered volcanic rocks and sediments. The sequence is often capped by ferricretes. Ferricretes, remains of former soils, are also intercalated in the series. Profile sections between two ferricretes are deep (> 10 m). The repeated saprolite/solum sequence sometimes exceeds 100 m. It can be separated into a lower section without bauxitisation, but often with total bleaching of the saprolite, a middle section with bauxite and hematite in the saprolite and an upper kaolinitic section with hematite and goethite. Bleaching by total removal of Fe 2+ and bauxitisation by total desilification are both indicators of wet and hot climates with a high biomass production. In the first case the groundwater was permanently high, in the latter a well drained fluctuating groundwater can be assumed. Changing groundwater conditions may be the result of plateau uplift. Paleoenvironmental changes are, thus, reflected in relatively datable paleosols. Undatable paleosoils with comparable characteristics on the planation surfaces of Central and Northeast Nigeria also result from paleoenvironmental conditions. Consequently, concepts of landscape evolution must take into account changing environments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Noureldaim Abdalla


    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytopenia is one of the most frequent causes for hematologic consultation in the practice of medicine and can result from a wide variety of conditions. Objective: The study was conducted on behave of platelets count in tie with platelet volume indices to measure their consistency. Methods: The study was “prospective cross-sectional hospital based design” and conducted at Khartoum hospitals (A.Gasim, Jafar I A, and R.ICK. Studied populations texture has stipulated concurred diagnosis of heart disorders (HD, lymphoid neoplasms (LN, hypoplastic bone marrow (HPB, renal transplantation (RT, patients under chemotherapy (CT, and fully checked healthy Sudanese population (HSP. Platelet (PLT count and platelet volume index (PVI were measured using automated method of Sysmex KX-21N and the data was analyzed using SPSS. Results: does established (24 mean and standard for the study population among which (HSP was platelet distribution width (PDW (11.4±1.5 fl, mean platelet volume (MPV (9.3±0.8 fl, platelet large cell ratio (P- LCR (20.6±6.7% and PLT count (245±45 X109/L, and established correlations between PLT count and PVI in thrombocytopenic conditions. Conclusion: we conclude that, PVI has the ability to change from normal to higher or lower than (HSP in thrombocytopenic conditions and Sudanese has PVI mean lower than the mean of reference range, and there are inverse and reverse correlations between PLT count and PVI but not in (HSP and reverse correlation in between PVI except between PDW and P-LCR in (HPB

  16. A method for finding the optimal predictor indices for local wave climate conditions (United States)

    Camus, Paula; Méndez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.; Menéndez, Melisa; Espejo, Antonio; Pérez, Jorge; Rueda, Ana; Guanche, Yanira


    In this study, a method to obtain local wave predictor indices that take into account the wave generation process is described and applied to several locations. The method is based on a statistical model that relates significant wave height with an atmospheric predictor, defined by sea level pressure fields. The predictor is composed of a local and a regional part, representing the sea and the swell wave components, respectively. The spatial domain of the predictor is determined using the Evaluation of Source and Travel-time of wave Energy reaching a Local Area (ESTELA) method. The regional component of the predictor includes the recent historical atmospheric conditions responsible for the swell wave component at the target point. The regional predictor component has a historical temporal coverage ( n-days) different to the local predictor component (daily coverage). Principal component analysis is applied to the daily predictor in order to detect the dominant variability patterns and their temporal coefficients. Multivariate regression model, fitted at daily scale for different n-days of the regional predictor, determines the optimum historical coverage. The monthly wave predictor indices are selected applying a regression model using the monthly values of the principal components of the daily predictor, with the optimum temporal coverage for the regional predictor. The daily predictor can be used in wave climate projections, while the monthly predictor can help to understand wave climate variability or long-term coastal morphodynamic anomalies.

  17. An Overview of Performance Characteristics, Experiences and Trends of Aerospace Engine Bearings Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebert Franz-Josef


    In this paper, the operating conditions, technical requirements, performance characteristics, design ideas, application experiences and development trends of aerospace engine bearings, including material technology, integration design and reliability, are reviewed. The development history of aerospace engine bearing is recalled briefly at first. Then today's material technologies and the high bearing performances of the bearings obtained through the new materials are introduced, which play important rolls in the aeroengine bearing developments. The integration design ideas and practices are explained to indicate its significant advantages and importance to the aerospace engine bearings. And the reliability of the shaft-bearing system is pointed out and treated as the key requirement with goals for both engine and bearing. Finally, as it is believed that the correct design comes from practice, the pre-qualification rig testing conducted by FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG is briefly illustrated as an example. All these lead to the development trends of aerospace engine bearings from different aspects.

  18. Online damage detection using recursive principal component analysis and recursive condition indicators (United States)

    Krishnan, M.; Bhowmik, B.; Tiwari, A. K.; Hazra, B.


    In this paper, a novel baseline free approach for continuous online damage detection of multi degree of freedom vibrating structures using recursive principal component analysis (RPCA) in conjunction with online damage indicators is proposed. In this method, the acceleration data is used to obtain recursive proper orthogonal modes in online using the rank-one perturbation method, and subsequently utilized to detect the change in the dynamic behavior of the vibrating system from its pristine state to contiguous linear/nonlinear-states that indicate damage. The RPCA algorithm iterates the eigenvector and eigenvalue estimates for sample covariance matrices and new data point at each successive time instants, using the rank-one perturbation method. An online condition indicator (CI) based on the L2 norm of the error between actual response and the response projected using recursive eigenvector matrix updates over successive iterations is proposed. This eliminates the need for offline post processing and facilitates online damage detection especially when applied to streaming data. The proposed CI, named recursive residual error, is also adopted for simultaneous spatio-temporal damage detection. Numerical simulations performed on five-degree of freedom nonlinear system under white noise and El Centro excitations, with different levels of nonlinearity simulating the damage scenarios, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed algorithm. Successful results obtained from practical case studies involving experiments performed on a cantilever beam subjected to earthquake excitation, for full sensors and underdetermined cases; and data from recorded responses of the UCLA Factor building (full data and its subset) demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology as an ideal candidate for real-time, reference free structural health monitoring.



    Zhengjun Tang; Daibiao Zhou; Chenwei Peng; Wenping Wu


    The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with prof...

  20. Journal bearing (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.


    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than, and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  1. Indicators of airborne fungal concentrations in urban homes: understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures. (United States)

    Crawford, Judith A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Anagnost, Susan E; Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L


    Indoor fungal exposure can compromise respiratory health. Low-income urban areas are of concern because of high asthma and allergy rates and housing disrepair. Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures is important for assessing health risks and for developing mitigation strategies. We examined the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside of homes in low-income areas of Syracuse, NY as well as the effect of snow cover on fungal levels. At 103 homes, air samples for viable fungi were collected, occupants were interviewed and homes were inspected for visible mold, musty odors, water problems and other factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate high fungal levels to home conditions. Predominant indoor fungi included Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and hyaline unknowns. Basidiomycetes and an uncommon genus Acrodontium were also found frequently due to analysis methods developed for this project. With snow cover, outdoor total fungal levels were depressed and indoor concentrations were three times higher than outdoor on average with a maximum of 29 times higher. Visible mold was related to elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 4.11 95% CI 1.37-14.0) and bacteria (OR 3.79 95% CI 1.41-11.2). Musty, moldy odors were associated with elevated concentrations of total fungi (OR 3.48 95% CI 1.13-11.6) and basidiomycetes. Cockroaches, an indicator of moisture, were associated with elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 3.66 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and Aspergillus (OR 4.36 95% CI 1.60-13.4). Increasing relative humidity was associated with higher concentrations of Penicillium, yeasts and basidiomycetes. Visible mold, musty odors, indoor humidity and cockroaches are modifiable factors that were important determinants of indoor fungal exposures. Indoor air investigators should interpret indoor:outdoor fungal ratios cautiously when snow cover is present.

  2. [Indicator condition guided human immunodeficiency virus requesting in primary health care: results of a collaboration]. (United States)

    Cayuelas-Redondo, Laia; Menacho-Pascual, Ignacio; Noguera-Sánchez, Pablo; Goicoa-Gago, Carmen; Pollio-Peña, Gernónimo; Blanco-Delgado, Rebeca; Barba-Ávila, Olga; Sequeira-Aymar, Ethel; Muns, Mercè; Clusa, Thais; García, Felipe; León, Agathe


    The search of HIV infected patients guided by indicator conditions (IC) is a strategy used to increase the early detection of HIV. The objective is to analyze whether a collaboration to raise awareness of the importance of early detection of HIV in 3 primary care centers influenced the proportion of HIV serology requested. Multicenter retrospective study was conducted comparing the baseline and a post-collaboration period. The collaboration consisted of training sessions and participation in the HIDES study (years 2009-2010). Patients between 18 and 64 years old with newly diagnosed herpes zoster, seborrheic eczema, mononucleosis syndrome, and leucopenia/thrombocytopenia in 3 primary care centers in 2008 (baseline period) and 2012 (post-collaboration period). The sociodemographic variables, HIV risk conditions, requests for HIV serology, and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 1,219 ICs were included (558 in 2008 and 661 in 2012). In 2008 the number of HIV tests in patients with an IC was 3.9%, and rose to 11.8% in 2012 (P<.0001). The HIV infection rate was 2.2% (95% CI: 0.4-7.3) (n=2). It was estimated that 25 new cases (12 in 2008 and 13 in 2012) would have been diagnosed if they had performed the test on all patients with IC. Predictors of HIV request were, having an IC in 2012, a younger age, having an mononucleosis syndrome, and not being Spanish. The HIV request demand tripled, after the collaboration with primary care centers, however in 88% the test was not requested, resulting in diagnostic losses. New strategies are needed to raise awareness of the importance of early detection of HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Naturais, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Souza, Iara [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, 13565-905 São Carlos (Brazil); Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira [Associação Educational de Vitória, Departamento de Biologia, 29053-360 Vitória (Brazil); Rodella, Roberto Antônio [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, C. Postal 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto, E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos Córdoba (ICYTAC), CONICET, Dpto. Qca. Orgánica, Fac. Cs. Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); and others


    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used

  4. Magnetic bearings for cryogenic turbomachines (United States)

    Iannello, Victor; Sixsmith, Herbert


    Magnetic bearings offer a number of advantages over gas bearings for the support of rotors in cryogenic turboexpanders and compressors. Their performance is relatively independent of the temperature or pressure of the process gas for a large range of conditions. Active magnetic bearing systems that use capacitive sensors have been developed for high speed compressors for use in cryogenic refrigerators. Here, the development of a magnetic bearing system for a miniature ultra high speed compressor is discussed. The magnetic bearing has demonstrated stability at rotational speeds exceeding 250,000 rpm. This paper describes the important features of the magnetic bearing and presents test results demonstrating its performance characteristics.

  5. Grizzly bear (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.


    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  6. The Impact of Sunlight Conditions on the Consistency of Vegetation Indices in Croplands—Effective Usage of Vegetation Indices from Continuous Ground-Based Spectral Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunori Ishihara


    Full Text Available A ground-based network of spectral observations is useful for ecosystem monitoring and validation of satellite data. However, these observations contain inherent uncertainties due to the change of sunlight conditions. This study investigated the impact of changing solar zenith angles and diffuse/direct light conditions on the consistency of vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and green-red vegetation index (GRVI derived from ground-based spectral measurements in three different types of cropland (paddy field, upland field, cultivated grassland in Japan. In general, the vegetation indices decreased with decreasing solar zenith angle. This response was affected significantly by the growth stage and diffuse/direct light conditions. The decreasing response of the NDVI to the decreasing solar zenith angle was high during the middle growth stage (0.4 < NDVI < 0.8. On the other hand, a similar response of the GRVI was evident except in the early growth stage (GRVI < 0. The response of vegetation indices to the solar zenith angle was evident under clear sky conditions but almost negligible under cloudy sky conditions. At large solar zenith angles, neither the NDVI nor the GRVI were affected by diffuse/direct light conditions in any growth stage. These experimental results were supported well by the results of simulations based on a physically-based canopy reflectance model (PROSAIL. Systematic selection of the data from continuous diurnal spectral measurements in consideration of the solar light conditions would be effective for accurate and consistent assessment of the canopy structure and functioning.

  7. Research on bearing condition monitoring based on deep learning%基于深度学习理论的轴承状态识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亮; 高宏力; 张一文; 黄海凤


    针对滚动轴承振动数据耦合程度高,信号特征提取和识别模型建立困难的问题,提出了一种基于深度学习理论的状态监测方法。提取振动信号的时域、频域和时频域特征构成特征向量;通过稀疏自编码非监督学习网络对输入向量进行特征学习,并将单层网络叠加构成深度神经网络;最后采用少量有标签数据对整个深度神经网络进行微调训练,建立轴承状态监测模型。试验结果表明,提出的方法对于轴承状态识别准确率达到90.86%,且性能退化阶段识别率最高,能满足视情维修的工程需求。%The vibration signal of rolling element bearing occurs with a high degree of coupling,which means that the features and recognition model are difficult to build.For solving these problems,we proposed a novel bearing condition-monitoring model based on deep learning.Time domain,frequency domain and time-frequency domain features are extracted.Then these feature vectors are entered into an unsupervised auto-encoder to learn the high-level features.At the same time,the middle layers of the auto-encoder network are stacked into a multilayered network.Finally,a small number of labeled training samples are used to fine-tune the deep learning network.The bearing condition recognition experiment shows that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results,and its high accuracy in terms of the performance degradation condition is very helpful when it comes to condition-based maintenance.

  8. Damper bearing rotordynamics (United States)

    Elrod, David A.


    High side loads reduce the life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) bearings. High stiffness damper seals were recommended to reduce the loads on the pump and turbine end bearings in the HPOTP. The seals designed for use on the pump end are expected to adequately reduce the bearing loads; the predicted performance of the planned turbine end seal is marginal. An alternative to the suggested turbine end seal design is a damper bearing with radial holes from the pressurized center of the turbopump rotor, feeding a smooth land region between two rough-stator/smooth-rotor annular seals. An analysis was prepared to predict the leakage and rotor dynamic coefficients (stiffness, damping, and added mass) of the damper bearing. Governing equations of the seal analysis modified to model the damper bearing; differences between the upstream conditions of the damper bearing and a typical annular seal; prediction of the damper bearing analysis; and assumptions of the analysis which require further investigation are described.

  9. Correlating stock exchange indices under both normal and financial crisis conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Victoria ANGHELACHE


    Full Text Available Until the years 1980 the financial crisis were considered as being limited to the level of the capital market (individually, without bearing a systemic character. If considering the intensification of the globalization process, we attended at the increase of the degree of commercial and financial integration of the states all over the world. Thus, gradually, the local financial crisis have propagated at the level of the world financial system. The consequences of these financial crisis did not limited to the markets of the countries where they launched, but spread rapidly on the world markets – an effect known in the literature as contagion. In this article we have tried to evaluate the importance of the contagion effects on the capital markets, by utilizing certain econometric methods, from the correlation tests, to the co-integration tests. Meantime, we have tried to show that during the period of the most severe financial crisis from the Second World War up to date, the degree of correlation of the markets amplifies.

  10. Mapping soil resistance under different soil water content conditions using indicator kriging (United States)

    Miras-Avalos, J. M.; Bonnin-Acosta, J.; Sande-Fouz, P.; Pereira-Lanças, K.; Paz-Gonzalez, A.


    In many agricultural problems, it is of interest to map the zones where the variable under study shows the probability of being greater than a threshold value. Soil resistances higher than 2 MPa might difficult the establishment of cultures; therefore, further management or tillage techniques should be undertaken. The aim of this work was to map soil resistance using geostatistical techniques, therefore, an analysis of the spatial distribution of soil compaction and the influence of soil water content on the resistance to penetration was carried out. The studied clay-textured soil was managed under no-tillage practices. Soil resistance was described by the cone index which was obtained using a penetrometer. This attribute was assessed at 5 different depths, i.e. 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm and deeper than 40 cm, whereas soil water content was described at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. In the end, 73 data points were surveyed. Soil water conditions varied during the five different samplings. Statistical analysis showed that datasets followed a normal distribution, therefore, no transformation was required. Studied attributes showed low and non-significant correlation coefficients which impeded the application of cross-variogram and cokriging techniques. Because of the limited number of measured data, only the omnidirectional semivariogram was computed, and hence the spatial variability is assumed to be identical in all directions. Spatial dependence was observed in 33 out of 35 data series, both for cone index and soil water content. Fitted theoretical structures corresponded to exponential models in 20 cases, 10 Gaussian models and 3 spherical models. Nugget effect varied from 0 to 44.4 depending on the dataset and spatial dependence maximum range was 90 m. A strong spatial dependence was observed in 18 of the data sets whereas only 2 showed a weak autocorrelation. Taking into account the 2 MPa threshold, indicator kriging was used to map the soil resistance

  11. Differences in Anatomy and Kinematics in Asian and Caucasian TKA Patients: Influence on Implant Positioning and Subsequent Loading Conditions in Mobile Bearing Knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Maas


    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine the mechanical stress conditions under tibiofemoral loading with an overlay of knee kinematics in deep flexion on two different mobile bearing designs in comparison to in vivo failure modes. This study investigates the seldom but severe complication of fatigue failure of polyethylene components at mobile bearing total knee arthroplasty designs. Assuming a combination of a floor-based lifestyle and tibial malrotation as a possible reason for a higher failure rate in Asian countries we developed a simplified finite element model considering a tibiofemoral roll-back angle of 22° and the range of rotational motion of a clinically established floating platform design (e.motion FP at a knee flexion angle of 120° in order to compare our results to failure modes found in retrieved implants. Compared to the failure mode observed in the clinical retrievals the locations of the occurring stress maxima as well as the tensile stress distribution show analogies. From our observations, we conclude that the newly introduced finite element model with an overlay of deep knee flexion (lateral roll-back and considerable internally rotated tibia implant positioning is an appropriate analysis for knee design optimizations and a suitable method to predict clinical failure modes.

  12. Condition Monitoring of Rolling Element Bearings Using Optimal Gabor Filters%采用Gabor滤波器的轴承状态监控方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 隋文涛; 郭前建


    针对滚动轴承状态监控中最优共振频带难确定的问题,提出一种新的寻优方法和目标函数,可快速准确地定位共振频带,提取状态信息。通过两步网格搜索法,以包络稀疏性为目标函数,对Gabor滤波器参数寻优;然后对振动信号进行滤波并得到信号包络;最后运用包络自相关谱抑制噪声,突出运行状态信息。用仿真信号和实际信号对该方法进行了验证,结果表明,该方法能准确判明轴承运行状态。%Aiming to the difficulty in finding the resonant frequency band in condition monitoring of roll-ing element bearings, a new optimization method and objective function was proposed. The resonant fre-quency band can be located through this proposed method. Firstly, the parameters of Gabor filter are op-timized through the two-step grid search method, in which the envelope sparseness is as objective func-tion. The vibration signal was filtered through the optimal filter and the envelop signal was calculated. The envelop autocorrelation spectrum was adopted to restrain noise and highlight operation condition infor-mation. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method were proved through the simulation sig-nal and experimental signals. It is shown that the bearing operation condition can be recognized accurate-ly by the proposed method.

  13. Socket Interface Pressure and Amputee Reported Outcomes for Comfortable and Uncomfortable Conditions of Patellar Tendon Bearing Socket: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Tafti, Nahid; Aminian, Gholamreza


    The objectives of the current study were to compare intra-socket pressure differences between comfortable and uncomfortable socket conditions, and the usefulness of subject perception of satisfaction, activity limitations, and socket comfort in distinguishing between these two socket conditions. Five unilateral trans-tibial amputees took part in the study. They answered the Socket Comfort Score (SCS) and Trinity Amputation and Prosthetic Experience Scale (TAPES) questionnaires before the interface pressure (in standing and walking) was measured for the uncomfortable socket condition at five regions of the residual limb. Participants were then provided with a comfortable socket and wore it for two weeks. Participants who were satisfied with the socket fit after two weeks repeated the SCS and TAPES questionnaires and interface pressure measurements. The differences between the test results of the two conditions were not statistically significant, except for the interface pressure at the popliteal region during the early stance phase, TAPES socket fit subscale, and the SCS. Due to large variability of the data and the lack of statistical significance, no firm conclusion can be made on the possible relationship between the interface pressure values and the patient-reported outcomes of the two socket conditions. A larger sample size and longer acclimation period are required to locate significant differences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego


    Full Text Available The method of thermogas impact on the oil bearing layer is a perspective one to improve oil recovery. It is now under experimental implementation in Belarus. Stability of the thermal front and that of the oil displacement is a point of principle for the given technology. The article offers solution based on the method of small perturbations for the problem of the oil-displacement front stability under thermogas impact on the oil layer. The perturbation growth increment is shown to be quite different from that of the gas filtration combustion. Being determined by the perturbation wave number (or wave length, by difference in speed of the blowing filtration and that of the heat development front, by the ratios of densities, filtration coefficients, compressibility of the displacement agent and the displaced oil mass, and by other parameters. The author analyses the main parameters influencing the stability of the front. Recommendations are given on possible methods and procedures improving stability of the displacement front (neutralizing perturbation growth. The mechanisms of suppression or compensation of the front perturbation growth are as follows: the crude oil viscosity reduction and increase of that of the displacement agent, the displacement agent compressibility increase, increase of the thermogas impact heat-front width in the first instance at the expense of the temperature growth and alteration in the chemism (low temperature catalysts utilization, etc., reduction in speed of the front propagation and/or correspondingly of the displacement agent feed. Utilization of the gas or water-gas displacement agent as well as the agent impregnation with hydrophobic gases provides a relatively better stability of the front as compared to that employing water based compounds. Analytical data and derived recommendations are offered for utilization within the framework of general techniques and procedures of the thermogas impact process management

  15. Application of Polar Cap (PC) indices in analyses and forecasts of geophysical conditions (United States)

    Stauning, Peter


    The Polar Cap (PC) indices could be considered to represent the input of power from the solar wind to the Earth's magnetosphere. The indices have been used to analyse interplanetary electric fields, effects of solar wind pressure pulses, cross polar cap voltages and polar cap diameter, ionospheric Joule heating, and other issues of polar cap dynamics. The PC indices have also been used to predict auroral electrojet intensities and global auroral power as well as ring current intensities. For specific space weather purposes the PC indices could be used to forecast substorm development and predict associated power line disturbances in the subauroral regions. The presentation shall outline the general background for applying the PC indices in analyses or forecasts of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions and provide illustrative examples of the use of the Polar Cap indices in specific cases

  16. Gene transcription in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from disparate populations (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Waters, Shannon C.; Meyerson, Randi; Rode, Karyn D.; Atwood, Todd C.


    Polar bears in the Beaufort (SB) and Chukchi (CS) Seas experience different environments due primarily to a longer history of sea ice loss in the Beaufort Sea. Ecological differences have been identified as a possible reason for the generally poorer body condition and reproduction of Beaufort polar bears compared to those from the Chukchi, but the influence of exposure to other stressors remains unknown. We use molecular technology, quantitative PCR, to identify gene transcription differences among polar bears from the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as well as captive healthy polar bears. We identified significant transcriptional differences among a priori groups (i.e., captive bears, SB 2012, SB 2013, CS 2013) for ten of the 14 genes of interest (i.e., CaM, HSP70, CCR3, TGFβ, COX2, THRα, T-bet, Gata3, CD69, and IL17); transcription levels of DRβ, IL1β, AHR, and Mx1 did not differ among groups. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated separation among the groups of polar bears. Specifically, we detected transcript profiles consistent with immune function impairment in polar bears from the Beaufort Sea, when compared with Chukchi and captive polar bears. Although there is no strong indication of differential exposure to contaminants or pathogens between CS and SB bears, there are clearly differences in important transcriptional responses between populations. Further investigation is warranted to refine interpretation of potential effects of described stress-related conditions for the SB population.

  17. Validation of Body Condition Indices and Quantitative Magnetic Resonance in Estimating Body Composition in a Small Lizard (United States)



    Measurements of body condition are typically used to assess an individual’s quality, health, or energetic state. Most indices of body condition are based on linear relationships between body length and mass. Although these indices are simple to obtain, nonlethal, and useful indications of energetic state, their accuracy at predicting constituents of body condition (e.g., fat and lean mass) are often unknown. The objectives of this research were to (1) validate the accuracy of another simple and noninvasive method, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), at estimating body composition in a small-bodied lizard, Anolis sagrei, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of two indices of body condition (based on length–mass relationships) at predicting body fat, lean, and water mass. Comparisons of results from QMR scans to those from chemical carcass analysis reveal that QMR measures body fat, lean, and water mass with excellent accuracy in male and female lizards. With minor calibration from regression equations, QMR will be a reliable method of estimating body composition of A. sagrei. Body condition indices were positively related to absolute estimates of each constituent of body composition, but these relationships showed considerable variation around regression lines. In addition, condition indices did not predict fat, lean, or water mass when adjusted for body mass. Thus, our results emphasize the need for caution when interpreting body condition based upon linear measurements of animals. Overall, QMR provides an alternative noninvasive method for accurately measuring fat, lean, and water mass in these small-bodied animals. PMID:28035770

  18. Manganese-oxide-coated redox bars as an indicator of reducing conditions in soils. (United States)

    Dorau, Kristof; Mansfeldt, Tim


    Identification of reducing conditions in soils is of concern not only for pedogenesis but also for nutrient and pollutant dynamics. We manufactured manganese (Mn)-oxide-coated polyvinyl chloride bars and proved their suitability for the identification of reducing soil conditions. Birnessite was synthesized and coated onto white polyvinyl chloride bars. The dark brown coatings were homogenous and durable. As revealed by microcosm devices with adjusted redox potentials (E), under oxidizing conditions (E ∼450 mV at pH 7) there was no Mn-oxide removal. Reductive dissolution of Mn-oxides, which is expressed by the removal of the coatings, started under weakly reducing conditions (E ∼175 mV) and was more intensive under moderately reducing conditions (∼80 mV). According to thermodynamics, the removal of Mn-oxide coatings (225 mm d) exceeded the removal of iron (Fe)-oxide coatings (118 mm d) in soil column experiments. This was confirmed in a soil with a shallow and strongly fluctuating water table where both types of redox bars were inserted. Consequently, it was possible to identify reducing conditions in soils using Mn-oxide-coated bars. We recommend this methodology for short-term monitoring because tri- and tetravalent Mn is the preferred electron acceptor compared with trivalent Fe, and this additionally offers the possibility of distinguishing between weakly and moderately reducing conditions. If dissolved Fe is abundant in soils, the possibility of nonenzymatic reduction of Mn has to be taken into account.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob Sullivan Mammoth Pacific, L.P.


    Synopsis of project activity: 1998--Awarded cost share grant from DOE. 1st Qtr 1999--Developed fail safe lubricating system. 2nd Qtr 1999--Performed first large scale test with nitrile based bearings. It failed due to material swelling. Failure was blamed on improper tolerance. 3rd Qtr 1999--Material tests were performed with autoclaves and exposure tests to Casa Diablo fluids. Testing of Viton materials began. Alternate bearing designs were developed to limit risk of improper tolerances. 4th Qtr 1999--Site testing indicated a chemical attack on the bearing material caused the test failure and not improper bearing tolerance. 1st Qtr 2000--The assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory was obtained in evaluating the chemical attack. The National Laboratory also began more elaborate laboratory testing on bearing materials. 2nd Qtr 2000--Testing indicated Viton was an inappropriate material due to degradation in Casa Diablo fluid. Testing of EPDM began. 3rd Qtr 2001--EPDM bearings were installed for another large scale test. Bearings failed again due to swelling. Further testing indicated that larger then expected oil concentrations existed in lubricating water geothermal fluid causing bearing failure. 2002-2003--Searched for and tested several materials that would survive in hot salt and oil solutions. Kalrez{reg_sign}, Viton{reg_sign}ETP 500 and Viton{reg_sign}GF were identified as possible candidates. 2003-2005--Kalrez{reg_sign}has shown superior resistance to downhole conditions at Casa Diablo from among the various materials tested. Viton ETP-500 indicated a life expectancy of 13 years and because it is significantly less expensive then Kalrez{reg_sign}, it was selected as the bearing material for future testing. Unfortunately during the laboratory testing period Dupont Chemical chose to stop manufacturing this specific formulation and replaced it with Viton ETP 600S. The material is available with six different fillers; three based on zinc oxide and three

  20. 49 CFR 236.512 - Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive conditions obtain. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.512 Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where...

  1. Winterkill indicator model, Crop Condition Assessment Division (CCAD) data base interface driver, user's manual (United States)

    Hansen, R. F. (Principal Investigator)


    Instructions are given for using the Winterkill indicator model CCAD data base interface driver. The purpose of the system is to interface the Winterkill Indicator Model with the CCAD operational data base. The interface driver routine decides what meteorological stations should be processed and calls the proper subroutines to process the stations.

  2. Wheat stress indicator model, Crop Condition Assessment Division (CCAD) data base interface driver, user's manual (United States)

    Hansen, R. F. (Principal Investigator)


    The use of the wheat stress indicator model CCAD data base interface driver is described. The purpose of this system is to interface the wheat stress indicator model with the CCAD operational data base. The interface driver routine decides what meteorological stations should be processed and calls the proper subroutines to process the stations.

  3. a note on condition indices for adult male impala, aepycero-s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haematocrit value (packed cell volume) using gaduated small calibre ... mass and heart girth are changing parameters which could be divided ..... Evaluating condition in free ranging red deer with special reference to New Zealand. N.Z. J- Sci.

  4. Assessing the condition of riverine systems using multimetric indices: An example from Oregon's Calapooia basin (United States)

    Streams and rivers of the Western United States are susceptible to the combined influences of climate change and an expanding human population. Empirical tools for assessing instream conditions play a critical role in monitoring change, preventing degradation, and mitigating imp...

  5. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A


    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  6. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase


    number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

  7. The formation conditions of enstatite chondrites: Insights from trace element geochemistry of olivine-bearing chondrules in Sahara 97096 (EH3)

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Gounelle, Matthieu


    We report in situ LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses of silicate phases in olivine-bearing chondrules in the Sahara 97096 (EH3) enstatite chondrite. Most olivine and enstatite present rare earth element (REE) patterns comparable to their counterparts in type I chondrules in ordinary chondrites. They thus likely share a similar igneous origin, likely under similar redox conditions. The mesostasis however frequently shows negative Eu and/or Yb (and more rarely Sm) anomalies, evidently out of equilibrium with olivine and enstatite. We suggest that this reflects crystallization of oldhamite during a sulfidation event, already inferred by others, during which the mesostasis was molten, where the complementary positive Eu and Yb anomalies exhibited by oldhamite would have possibly arisen due to a divalent state of these elements. Much of this igneous oldhamite would have been expelled from the chondrules, presumably by inertial acceleration or surface tension effects, and would have contributed to the high abundance ...

  8. Magnetic Bearing (United States)


    AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

  9. A new method of reconstituting the P-T conditions of fluid circulation in an accretionary prism (Shimanto, Japan) from microthermometry of methane-bearing aqueous inclusions (United States)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Thiéry, Régis; Vacelet, Maxime; Ramboz, Claire; Cluzel, Nicolas; Le Trong, Emmanuel; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Kimura, Gaku


    In paleo-accretionary prisms and the shallow metamorphic domains of orogens, circulating fluids trapped in inclusions are commonly composed of a mixture of salt water and methane, producing two types of fluid inclusions: methane-bearing aqueous and methane-rich gaseous fluid inclusions. In such geological settings, where multiple stages of deformation, veining and fluid influx are prevalent, textural relationships between aqueous and gaseous inclusions are often ambiguous, preventing the microthermometric determination of fluid trapping pressure and temperature conditions. To assess the P-T conditions of deep circulating fluids from the Hyuga unit of the Shimanto paleo-accretionary prism on Kyushu, Japan, we have developed a new computational code, applicable to the H2O-CH4-NaCl system, which allows the characterization of CH4-bearing aqueous inclusions using only the temperatures of their phase transitions estimated by microthermometry: Tmi, the melting temperature of ice; Thyd, the melting temperature of gas hydrate and Th,aq, homogenization temperature. This thermodynamic modeling calculates the bulk density and composition of aqueous inclusions, as well as their P-T isochoric paths in a P-T diagram with an estimated precision of approximatively 10%. We use this computational tool to reconstruct the entrapment P-T conditions of aqueous inclusions in the Hyuga unit, and we show that these aqueous inclusions cannot be cogenetic with methane gaseous inclusions present in the same rocks. As a result, we propose that pulses of a high-pressure, methane-rich fluid transiently percolated through a rock wetted by a lower-pressure aqueous fluid. By coupling microthermometric results with petrological data, we infer that the exhumation of the Hyuga unit from the peak metamorphic conditions was nearly isothermal and ended up under a very hot geothermal gradient. In subduction or collision zones, modeling aqueous fluid inclusions in the ternary H2O-CH4-NaCl system and not

  10. Deficiency indices of a differential operator satisfying certain matching interface conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Kumar Baruah


    Full Text Available A pair of differential operators with matching interface conditions appears in many physical applications such as: oceanography, the study of step index fiber in optical fiber communication, and one dimensional scattering in quantum theory. Here we initiate the study the deficiency index theory of such operators which precedes the study of the spectral theory.

  11. The use of morphological and histological features as nutritional condition indices of Pagrus pagrus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vera Diaz

    Full Text Available Morphometrical and histological techniques were employed to characterize Pagrus pagrus larvae nutritional condition. Larvae were reared in laboratory under controlled conditions with the main objective of testing whether these methodologies allowed finding differences between larvae from different feeding treatments. Once yolk was consumed (three days after hatching larvae were assigned to a feeding treatment: starved during the whole experiment; delayed feeding, starved during three days; fed during the entire experiment. Algae (Nannochloropsis oculata and rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis were provided to larvae for feed treatments. Larvae were fixed daily; for morphometrical purposes in 5% formaldehyde solution, and in Bouin for histological sections. Results herein obtained showed that both methodologies are sensitive enough to distinguish larvae characterized by different nutritional condition states obtained from the feeding treatments. Consequently, these methodologies could be employed in wild red porgy larvae in order to asses their nutritional condition. These techniques could also be employed to check larval quality obtained with aquaculture purposes to estimate the effects of changes in rearing protocols or kind of food supply and thus, to guaranty a higher survival of early developmental stages of reared larvae.

  12. Effects of extreme habitat conditions on otolith morphology: a case study on extremophile live bearing fishes (Poecilia mexicana, P. sulphuraria). (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J; Plath, Martin


    Our study was designed to evaluate if, and to what extent, restrictive environmental conditions affect otolith morphology. As a model, we chose two extremophile livebearing fishes: (i) Poecilia mexicana, a widespread species in various Mexican freshwater habitats, with locally adapted populations thriving in habitats characterized by the presence of one (or both) of the natural stressors hydrogen sulphide and darkness, and (ii) the closely related Poecilia sulphuraria living in a highly sulphidic habitat (Baños del Azufre). All three otolith types (lapilli, sagittae, and asterisci) of P. mexicana showed a decrease in size ranging from the non-sulphidic cave habitat (Cueva Luna Azufre), to non-sulphidic surface habitats, to the sulphidic cave (Cueva del Azufre), to sulphidic surface habitats (El Azufre), to P. sulphuraria. Although we found a distinct differentiation between ecotypes with respect to their otolith morphology, no clear-cut pattern of trait evolution along the two ecological gradients was discernible. Otoliths from extremophiles captured in the wild revealed only slight similarities to aberrant otoliths found in captive-bred fish. We therefore hypothesize that extremophile fishes have developed coping mechanisms enabling them to avoid aberrant otolith growth - an otherwise common phenomenon in fishes reared under stressful conditions.

  13. Circulation indices over the Mediterranean and Europe and their relationship with rainfall conditions across the Mediterranean (United States)

    Kutiel, H.; Maheras, P.; Guika, S.


    Circulation types were identified by means of zonal and meridional indices calculated separately over ten different regions of 20° × 20° over the Mediterranean and Europe. Seasonal and annual rainfall totals in four stations Lisbon, Luqa (Malta), Athens and Jerusalem, were compared with circulation types for the period 1873 1991. Correlation coefficients of circulation indices with precipitation, for each station in each season were calculated and mapped. An oscillation in the meridional index during the winter and the spring, between the western and eastern Mediterranean, was detected. Time series analysis of the circulation indices demonstrates a significant reduction in zonality and an increase in meridionality mainly in spring and in summer, over most of the study area.

  14. Foil bearings (United States)

    Elrod, David A.


    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  15. Foil bearings (United States)

    Elrod, David A.


    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  16. Dynamic preload indicators fail to predict fluid responsiveness in open-chest conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Eric E. C.; Rex, Steffen; Kruitwagen, Cas L. J. J.; Kalkman, Cor J.; Buhre, Wolfgang F.


    Objective: Dynamic preload indicators like pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) are increasingly being used for optimizing cardiac preload since they have been demonstrated to predict fluid responsiveness in a variety of perioperative settings. However, in open-chest cond

  17. Population of soil litter invertebrates as an indicator of critical condition indegrading forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Ibragimov


    Full Text Available Conception of three critical levels of the anthropogenic degradation of native ecosystems is proposed. The total crisis of the ecosystem correlates with the entire destruction of the soil environment. The soil invertebrates population may serve as an indicator of this process.


    Samoukina, A M; Mikhailova, E S; Chervinets, V M; Mironov A Yu; Alekseeva, Yu A


    The study was carried out to analyze qualitative and quantitative parameters of oral fluid and feces in 74 healthy individuals of different age groups. In most of the cases, alterations of micro-ecology are established characterizing by decreasing of amount of indigenous micro-flora and increasing of number of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms of genera of Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Candida. The degree of evidence of these alterations reliably increases with age. It is established that microbiota, initial and terminal biotopes of digestive tract are closely interrelated and have number of common characteristics depending on age, hormonal and immune status and reflect conditions of micro-biocenosis of digestive tract in general. The character and degree of evidence of alterations of micro-biocenosis can be an effective diagnostic criterion for complex evaluation of human health conditions with following formation of risk groups in need of particular volume of correction activities.

  19. Energy efficiency index to artificially conditioned buildings; Indice de eficiencia energetica para edificios climatizados artificialmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jota, Patricia Romeiro da Silva; Santos, Carla da Silva; Costa, Kelly Luciene C. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG/CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Energia Inteligente


    Conditioning buildings has been growing in number and are responsible for a significant portion of the energy used worldwide. The building energy use can be measured by the index of energy performance and specific fuel consumption (EC). The specific consumption is an index where the energy is normalized by the factors that affect energy use in order to obtain an index to explain variations in consumption. In this paper, we present a methodology to obtain a specific consumption that takes into account one of the factors that most affect energy use in these buildings, that is, the external temperature. The study is based on analysis of consumption of air conditioning system according to temperature. Through this analysis we obtain a function to facilitate the standardization of energy use, depending on the temperature outside. This methodology was tested in previous work on real buildings without stratification of energy, and this work will be presented a case study of a building whose energy measurement is stratified. The proposed index is the ratio between the energy consumption of air conditioning system corrected by the temperature through the function K(T). It was possible to demonstrate the efficiency of the index to eliminate the effect of temperature and thus to evaluate the evolution of specific consumption over the months analyzed. (author)

  20. A comparison of several indices for assessing body condition of Mongolian gazelle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Riney kidney fat index (RKFI), whole kidney fat index (WKFI), femur marrow fat index (FMFI), and tibia marrow fat index (TMFI) of 51 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa), collected in Hulunbeier grassland, Inner Mongolian, China, were measured during spring, autumn and winter in 1997-98. These different indexes were compared for using them in assessing the body condition. There was a linear relationship (y=0.9444x-20.139; r=0.9454; p<0.01) between RKFI and KMFI. A linear relationship (y=0.9348x+1.1843; r=0.9875; P<0.01) between TMFI and FMFI also occurred for gazelles. There was a curvilinear relationship (y=31.44Ln(x) -44.403; r=0.8643; P<0.01) between FMFI and RKFI. FMFI remained high, while RKFI decreased to a certain extent. After most of the kidney fat was used, the femur marrow fat abruptly decreased. The results showed that the kidney fat index is more adequate for evaluating the population nutrition in good condition, but marrow fat index was more useful for assessing in poorer nutritional condition.

  1. Integrating Condition Indicators and Usage Parameters for Improved Spiral Bevel Gear Health Monitoring (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Delgado, Irebert, R.


    The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of combining Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) data with usage monitoring system data when detecting rotorcraft transmission health. Three gear sets were tested in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig. Damage was initiated and progressed on the gear and pinion teeth. Damage progression was measured by debris generation and documented with inspection photos at varying torque values. A contact fatigue analysis was applied to the gear design indicating the effect temperature, load and reliability had on gear life. Results of this study illustrated the benefits of combining HUMS data and actual usage data to indicate progression of damage for spiral bevel gears.

  2. Biomineralization of azo dye bearing wastewater in periodic discontinuous batch reactor: Effect of microaerophilic conditions on treatment efficiency. (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Venkata Mohan, S


    The present study illustrates the influence of microaerophilic condition on periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR) operation in treating azo dye containing wastewater. The process performance was evaluated with the function of various dye load operations (50-750 mg/l) by keeping the organic load (1.6 kg COD/m(3)-day) constant. Initially, lower dye operation (50mg dye/l) resulted in higher dye [45 mg dye/l (90%)] and COD [SDR: 1.29 kg COD/m(3)-day (92%)] removal efficiencies. Higher dye load operation (750 mg dye/l) also showed non-inhibitory performance with respect to dye [600 mg dye/l (80%)] and COD [1.25 kg COD/m(3)-day (80%)] removal efficiencies. Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities (39.6 U; 4.96 μg/ml; 750 mg/l). UV-Vis spectroscopy (200-800 nm), FTIR and (1)H NMR studies revealed the disappearance of azo bond (-NN-). First derivative cyclic voltammogram supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-C, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins (FAD (H)).

  3. Can Body Condition and Somatic Indices be Used to Evaluate Metal-Induced Stress in Wild Small Mammals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tête

    Full Text Available Wildlife is exposed to natural (e.g., food availability and quality, parasitism and anthropogenic stressors (e.g., habitat fragmentation, toxicants. Individual variables (e.g., age, gender affect behaviour and physiology of animals. Together, these parameters can create both great inter-individual variations in health indicators and interpretation difficulties. We investigated the relevance of body condition and somatic indices (liver, kidneys as indicators of health status in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, n = 560 captured along a metal pollution gradient in four landscape types (30 sampling squares 500-m sided. The indices were calculated using a recently proposed standard major axis regression instead of an ordinary least square regression. After considering age and gender for the body condition index, no landscape type influence was detected in the indices. However, important index variability was observed between sampling squares; this effect was included as a random effect in linear models. After integrating all individual and environmental variables that may affect the indices, cadmium (Cd concentrations in both the liver and kidneys were negatively related to body condition and liver indices only for individuals from highly contaminated sites. Lead in the liver was negatively related to the liver index, and Cd in kidneys was positively linked to the kidney index, potentially suggesting metal-induced stress. However, interpretation of these indices as a wildlife ecotoxicology tool should be performed with caution due to the sensitivity of potentially confounding variables (e.g., individual factors and environmental parameters.

  4. Consequences of keeping Mytilus in the laboratory as assessed by different cellular condition indices (United States)

    Cajaraville, M. P.; Díez, G.; Marigómez, I. A.; Angulo, E.


    Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. were maintained in the laboratory for three months in a semicontinuous water flow system. Animals were fed a commercial filter-feeder food and sampled after 0, 21, 35, 49, 77, and 91 days. In order to establish whether laboratory conditions and the food used were deleterious to mussels, their health status was assessed by quantifying different histological parameters of the digestive gland tissue. It was concluded that mussels kept for more than 35 days under the described laboratory conditions showed signs of stress presumably caused by the reproductive state of the mussels investigated. The food used and the nutrition-related health status of the animals were adequate, as shown by transmission electron microscopical studies after the 91-day maintenance period. A stress response was also evoked by a 10-day starvation period, which was reflected by an increased proportion of type I and type IV digestive tubules, and a reduced “Mean Epithelial Thickness” (MET). Finally, the results demonstrate the sensitivity of quantitative histological diagnosis in comparison to subjective tubule grading procedures in the assessment of the degree of stress experienced by mussels.

  5. US of the elbow: indications, technique, normal anatomy, and pathologic conditions. (United States)

    Konin, Gabrielle P; Nazarian, Levon N; Walz, Daniel M


    The elbow, a synovial hinge joint, is a common site of disease. Ultrasonography (US) has become an important imaging modality for evaluating pathologic conditions of the elbow. This powerful imaging tool has the advantages of outstanding spatial resolution, clinical correlation with direct patient interaction, dynamic assessment of disease, and the ability to guide interventions. Unlike most other imaging modalities, US allows the contralateral elbow to be imaged simultaneously, providing an internal control and comparison with normal anatomy. A useful approach to US evaluation of the elbow is to divide it into four compartments: anterior, lateral, medial, and posterior. US of the elbow has varied clinical applications, including evaluation and treatment of lateral and medial epicondylitis, imaging of biceps and triceps musculotendinous injuries, evaluation of ulnar collateral ligament laxity, diagnosis of joint effusions and intraarticular bodies, and evaluation of peripheral nerves for neuropathy and subluxation. US can also be used to evaluate soft-tissue masses about the elbow. Knowledge of the normal US anatomy of the elbow, familiarity with the technique of elbow US, and awareness of the US appearances of common pathologic conditions of the elbow along with their potential treatment options will optimize radiologists' diagnostic assessment and improve patient care. Supplemental material available at

  6. Soil pollution indices conditioned by medieval metallurgical activity - A case study from Krakow (Poland). (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Mazurek, Ryszard; Gąsiorek, Michał; Setlak, Marcin; Zaleski, Tomasz; Waroszewski, Jaroslaw


    The studied soil profile under the Main Market Square (MMS) in Krakow was characterised by the influence of medieval metallurgical activity. In the presented soil section lithological discontinuity (LD) was found, which manifests itself in the form of cultural layers (CLs). Moreover, in this paper LD detection methods based on soil texture are presented. For the first time, three different ways to identify the presence of LD in the urban soils are suggested. The presence of LD had an influence on the content and distribution of heavy metals within the soil profile. The content of heavy metals in the CLs under the MMS in Krakow was significantly higher than the content in natural horizons. In addition, there were distinct differences in the content of heavy metals within CLs. Profile variability and differences in the content of heavy metals and phosphorus within the CLs under the MMS were activity indicators of Krakow inhabitants in the past. This paper presents alternative methods for the assessment of the degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils using selected pollution indices. On the basis of the studied total concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Sn, Ag) and total phosphorus content, the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Enrichment Factor (EF), Sum of Pollution Index (PIsum), Single Pollution Index (PI), Nemerow Pollution Index (PINemerow) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI) were calculated using different local and reference geochemical backgrounds. The use of various geochemical backgrounds is helpful to evaluate the assessment of soil pollution. The individual CLs differed from each other according to the degree of pollution. The different values of pollution indices within the studied soil profile showed that LDS should not be evaluated in terms of contamination as one, homogeneous soil profile but each separate CL should be treated individually.

  7. A new method for studying the 3D transient flow of misaligned journal bearings in flexible rotor-bearing systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang LI; Shu-lian LIU; Xiao-hong PAN; Shui-ying ZHENG


    The effects of journal misalignment on the transient flow of a finite grooved journal bearing are presented in this study.A new 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis method is applied.Also,the quasi-coupling calculation of transient fluid dynamics of oil film in journal bearing and rotor dynamics is considered in the analysis.Based on the structured mesh,a new approach for mesh movement is proposed to update the mesh volume when the journal moves during the fluid dynamics simulation of an oil film.Existing dynamic mesh models provided by FLUENT are not suitable for the transient oil flow in journal bearings.The movement of the journal is obtained by solving the moving equations of the rotor-bearing system with the calculated film pressure as the boundary condition of the load.The data exchange between fluid dynamics and rotor dynamics is realized by data files.Results obtained from the CFD model were consistent with previous experimental results on misalignedjournal bearings.Film pressure,oil film force,friction torque,misalignment moment and attitude angle were calculated and compared for misaligned and aligned journal bearings.The results indicate that bearing performances are greatly affected by misalignment which is caused by unbalanced excitation,and the CFD method based on the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) technique can effectively predict the transient flow field ofa misaligned journal bearing in a rotor-bearing system.

  8. The influence of visual impairment on separate indicators of a functional condition of touch systems of pupils of middle classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydmyla Shesterova


    Full Text Available Purpose: to define and to compare separate indicators of a functional condition of touch systems of pupils of middle classes with visual impairment and their contemporaries with normal vision. Materials and Methods: pupils of middle classes with visual impairment and pupils of middle classes with normal vision took part in the research. During the research such methods were applied: analysis and synthesis of references, perimetry, determination of visual acuity by means of a special table, acumetry, esthesiometry, determination of resistance of a vestibular mechanism to rotary loadings, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the analysis of separate indicators of a functional condition of visual, acoustical, vestibular and tactile analyzers of pupils with visual impairment and without them is carried out. Conclusions: it is established that the studied indicators of a functional condition of touch systems at pupils of middle classes with visual impairment are better, than at their contemporaries with normal vision

  9. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyniuk O.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  10. Indices for physiological assessment of nutritional condition in pregnant collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). (United States)

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Grant, W E


    Hematological and serum biochemical responses to two levels of dietary energy (high energy [HE], 3300 kcal digestible energy [DE]/kg; moderate energy [ME], 2300 kcal DE/kg) and protein (high protein [HP], 16.0% crude protein; moderate protein [MP], 8.4% crude protein) during gestation in 15 collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) were examined. Dietary energy and protein levels influenced body weight gain during gestation. Red blood cell counts and lymphocyte concentrations were higher and neutrophil concentrations were lower among females fed an HP diet compared to those fed an MP diet. Alkaline phosphatase and alpha-2 globulin concentrations were higher among females fed an MP diet. Aspartate aminotransferase and cholesterol concentrations were higher and calcium and thyroxine concentrations were lower among females fed ME diets compared to those fed HE diets. These results suggest that physiological indices used in combination with morphological measurements can be useful in assessing collared peccary nutritional health during gestation.

  11. Hungarian surveillance of germinal mutations. Lack of detectable increase in indicator conditions caused by germinal mutations following the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeizel, A. (National Inst. of Hygiene, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Human Genetics and Teratology)


    The Hungarian surveillance of germinal mutations is based on three indicator conditions seen in offspring, i.e., 15 sentinel anomalies, Down syndrome and component anomaly pairs of unidentified multiple congenital anomalies. It is an 'opportunistic program', because the necessary data are available from the Hungarian Congenital Malformation Registry. This system is described and the criteria of a good registry are summarized. The analysis of indicator conditions caused by germinal mutations did not reveal any measurable mutagenic effects in Hungary following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The pros and cons of germinal mutation surveillance are discussed. (orig.).

  12. Bromine partitioning between olivine and melt at OIB source conditions: Indication for volatile recycling (United States)

    Joachim, Bastian; Ruzié, Lorraine; Burgess, Ray; Pawley, Alison; Clay, Patricia L.; Ballentine, Christopher J.


    Halogens play a key role in our understanding of volatile transport processes in the Earth's mantle. Their moderate (fluorine) to highly (iodine) incompatible and volatile behavior implies that their distribution is influenced by partial melting, fractionation and degassing processes as well as fluid mobilities. The heavy halogens, particularly bromine and iodine, are far more depleted in the Earth's mantle than expected from their condensation temperature (Palme and O'Neill 2014), so that their very low abundances in basalts and peridotites (ppb-range) make it analytically challenging to investigate their concentrations in Earth's mantle reservoirs and their behavior during transport processes (Pyle and Mather, 2009). We used a new experimental technique, which combines the irradiation technique (Johnson et al. 2000), laser ablation and conventional mass spectrometry. This enables us to present the first experimentally derived bromine partition coefficient between olivine and melt. Partitioning experiments were performed at 1500° C and 2.3 GPa, a P-T condition that is representative for partial melting processes in the OIB source region (Davis et al. 2011). The bromine partition coefficient between olivine and silicate melt at this condition has been determined to DBrol/melt = 4.37•10-4± 1.96•10-4. Results show that bromine is significantly more incompatible than chlorine (˜1.5 orders of magnitude) and fluorine (˜2 orders of magnitude) due to its larger ionic radius. We have used our bromine partitioning data to estimate minimum bromine abundances in EM1 and EM2 source regions. We used minimum bromine bulk rock concentrations determined in an EM1 (Pitcairn: 1066 ppb) and EM2 (Society: 2063 ppb) basalt (Kendrick et al. 2012), together with an estimated minimum melt fraction of 0.01 in OIB source regions (Dasgupta et al. 2007). The almost perfect bromine incompatibility results in minimum bromine abundances in EM1 and EM2 OIB source regions of 11 ppb and 20

  13. Preparation of Transparent Bulk TiO2/PMMA Hybrids with Improved Refractive Indices via an in Situ Polymerization Process Using TiO2 Nanoparticles Bearing PMMA Chains Grown by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. (United States)

    Maeda, Satoshi; Fujita, Masato; Idota, Naokazu; Matsukawa, Kimihiro; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki


    Transparent TiO2/PMMA hybrids with a thickness of 5 mm and improved refractive indices were prepared by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles bearing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains grown using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), and the effect of the chain length of modified PMMA on the dispersibility of modified TiO2 nanoparticles in the bulk hybrids was investigated. The surfaces of TiO2 nanoparticles were modified with both m-(chloromethyl)phenylmethanoyloxymethylphosphonic acid bearing a terminal ATRP initiator and isodecyl phosphate with a high affinity for common organic solvents, leading to sufficient dispersibility of the surface-modified particles in toluene. Subsequently, SI-ATRP of MMA was achieved from the modified surfaces of the TiO2 nanoparticles without aggregation of the nanoparticles in toluene. The molecular weights of the PMMA chains cleaved from the modified TiO2 nanoparticles increased with increases in the prolonging of the polymerization period, and these exhibited a narrow distribution, indicating chain growth controlled by SI-ATRP. The nanoparticles bearing PMMA chains were well-dispersed in MMA regardless of the polymerization period. Bulk PMMA hybrids containing modified TiO2 nanoparticles with a thickness of 5 mm were prepared by in situ polymerization of the MMA dispersion. The transparency of the hybrids depended significantly on the chain length of the modified PMMA on the nanoparticles, because the modified PMMA of low molecular weight induced aggregation of the TiO2 nanoparticles during the in situ polymerization process. The refractive indices of the bulk hybrids could be controlled by adjusting the TiO2 content and could be increased up to 1.566 for 6.3 vol % TiO2 content (1.492 for pristine PMMA).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Effort represents in sports one of the essential environmental factors, vital both in the body’s harmonious development, and in maintaining its health. Motor activity, through the phenomena of adaptation, compensation and overcompensation that it generates, stimulates and in some cases guides in growth and development, has twocomponents: a genetic one, referring to inborn characteristics, the genetic information making up the genotype and manifested as the fenotype (the external manifestation form, and an acquired one, obtained through exercises influenced by environmental conditions. The present study undertaken by means of multivaried analysis of conditional motor skills evinced that the indices of conditional motor skills may remain strongly connected during many years with certain functional indices, and then these correlations may suffer essential alterations

  15. Indicator condition based HIV testing: Missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis in men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Espinel, Marco; Belza, María José; Cabeza-de-Vaca, Cristina; Arranz, Beatriz; Guerras, Juan Miguel; Garcia-Soltero, Jennifer; Hoyos, Juan


    Contact with the healthcare system by a sample of seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) prior to their HIV diagnosis are analysed, and missed opportunities (MO) for an earlier HIV diagnosis are identified. Between 2012-2013, an online survey was conducted among HIV-positive MSM, mainly recruited from gay websites. Those who were diagnosed with HIV between 2010-2013 were analysed. MO were defined as episodes prior to the HIV diagnosis in which the healthcare system was contacted due to an indicator condition of HIV infection and the test was not suggested. The proportion of missed opportunities were compared according to the type of indicator condition, the department consulted and the healthcare professional's knowledge that the patient was MSM. Overall, 639 participants (66% of 966) reported 1,145 episodes with some indicator condition, the majority of these being identified in primary care (n=527; 46%). The highest percentage of MOs is also observed in primary care (63%). Although the indicator condition with the highest number of MOs was STIs (n=124), the highest percentage of MOs was observed in consultations due to diarrhoea with no known cause (69.8%). The percentage of MOs when the doctor knew that the patient was MSM was 40 vs. 70% when the doctor did not know. The majority of HIV-positive MSM analysed in this study went to healthcare services for HIV-infection indicator conditions prior to their HIV diagnosis. Primary care was the most-frequently-visited department and is also where the most opportunities were missed to perform an HIV test, even when it was known that the patient was a MSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Life-history dependent relationships between body condition and immunity, between immunity indices in male Eurasian tree sparrows. (United States)

    Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Mo; Sun, Yanfeng; Wu, Wei; Kou, Guanqun; Guo, Lingling; Xing, Danning; Wu, Yuefeng; Li, Dongming; Zhao, Baohua


    In free-living animals, recent evidence indicates that innate, and acquired, immunity varies with annual variation in the demand for, and availability of, food resources. However, little is known about how animals adjust the relationships between immunity and body condition, and between innate and acquired immunity to optimize survival over winter and reproductive success during the breeding stage. Here, we measured indices of body condition (size-corrected mass [SCM], and hematocrit [Hct]), constitutive innate immunity (plasma total complement hemolysis activity [CH50]) and acquired immunity (plasma immunoglobulin A [IgA]), plus heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios, in male Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) during the wintering and the breeding stages. We found that birds during the wintering stage had higher IgA levels than those from the breeding stage. Two indices of body condition were both negatively correlated with plasma CH50 activities, and positively with IgA levels in wintering birds, but this was not the case in the breeding birds. However, there was no correlation between CH50 activities and IgA levels in both stages. These results suggest that the relationships between body condition and immunity can vary across life-history stage, and there are no correlations between innate and acquired immunity independent of life-history stage, in male Eurasian tree sparrows. Therefore, body condition indices predict immunological state, especially during the non-breeding stage, which can be useful indicators of individual immunocompetences for understanding the variations in innate and acquired immunity in free-living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique


    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  18. Relevance of the choice of spark plasma sintering parameters in obtaining a suitable microstructure for iodine-bearing apatite designed for the conditioning of I-129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campayo, L., E-mail: [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LDMC – Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Le Gallet, S. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-UB, 9 Av. Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Perret, D.; Courtois, E. [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LDMC – Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Cau Dit Coumes, C. [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SPDE/LP2C – Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Grin, Yu. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Nöthnitzer Straße 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Bernard, F. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-UB, 9 Av. Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)


    Highlights: • Modeling of reactive sintering by SPS of an iodoapatite for waste immobilization. • Use of a statistical approach to surmount the complexity of the process. • The supposed most resistant microstructure towards leaching is obtained at 450 °C. • Pressure has no influence in the liquid sintering regime. - Abstract: The high chemical durability of iodine-bearing apatite phases makes them potentially attractive for immobilizing radioactive iodine. Reactive spark plasma sintering provides a dense ceramic as a wasteform. A design-of-experiments (DOE) approach was adopted to identify the main process/material parameters and their first order interactions in order to specify experimental conditions guaranteeing complete reaction, relative density of the wasteform exceeding 92% and the largest possible grain size. For a disposal of the wasteform in a deep geological repository, these characteristics allow minimization of the iodine release by contact with groundwater. It was found that sintering at a temperature of 450 °C with an initial specific surface area of 3.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} for the powder reactants is sufficient in itself to achieve the targeted characteristics of the wasteform. However, this relies on a liquid sintering regime the efficiency of which can be limited by the lead iodide initial content in the mix as well as by its particle size.

  19. Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators; Industrias de fundicion: aspectos ambientales e indicadores de condicion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, B. s.; Banda-Noriega, R. B.; Guerrero, E. M.


    Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

  20. Calibration and evaluation of five indicators of benthic community condition in two California bay and estuary habitats. (United States)

    Ranasinghe, J Ananda; Weisberg, Stephen B; Smith, Robert W; Montagne, David E; Thompson, Bruce; Oakden, James M; Huff, David D; Cadien, Donald B; Velarde, Ronald G; Ritter, Kerry J


    Many types of indices have been developed to assess benthic invertebrate community condition, but there have been few studies evaluating the relative performance of different index approaches. Here we calibrate and compare the performance of five indices: the Benthic Response Index (BRI), Benthic Quality Index (BQI), Relative Benthic Index (RBI), River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System (RIVPACS), and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). We also examine whether index performance improves when the different indices, which rely on measurement of different properties, are used in combination. The five indices were calibrated for two geographies using 238 samples from southern California marine bays and 125 samples from polyhaline San Francisco Bay. Index performance was evaluated by comparing index assessments of 35 sites to the best professional judgment of nine benthic experts. None of the individual indices performed as well as the average expert in ranking sample condition or evaluating whether benthic assemblages exhibited evidence of disturbance. However, several index combinations outperformed the average expert. When results from both habitats were combined, two four-index combinations and a three-index combination performed best. However, performance differences among several combinations were small enough that factors such as logistics can also become a consideration in index selection.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome Enable Javascript to view the ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized ...

  2. Health-related quality of life and functional status quality indicators for older persons with multiple chronic conditions. (United States)

    Dy, Sydney M; Pfoh, Elizabeth R; Salive, Marcel E; Boyd, Cynthia M


    To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). Review. Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Melnikova


    Full Text Available Amylolytic activity indicators of oral liquid of dentists in different conditions of professional activity at outpatient dental care and lectures have been studied. We observed an increase in amylolytic activity of oral liquid of dentists men and women after outpatient dental care, that indicates the activation of the sympathetic-adrenal system in response to the professional stress. We also identified the gender-specific response to the α-amylase load in professional dentists: male amylolytic activity of oral fluid was higher than female. In the group of male and female dentist cadets we registered the decrease of amylolytic activity of oral fluid. The correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between the level of α-amylase and rigidity in a group of male dentists. We suggested that male dentists reduced their adaptation to the psychosocial conditions under job stress. Keywords: dentist, professional activity, professional stress, outpatient dental care, lectures, amylolytic activity of oral fluid.

  4. Development history and bibliography of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator for forest health monitoring. (United States)

    Randolph, KaDonna C


    Comprehensive assessment of individual-tree crown condition by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has its origins in the concerns about widespread forest decline in Europe and North America that developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Programs such as the US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, US National Vegetation Survey, Canadian Acid Rain National Early Warning System, and joint US-Canadian North American Sugar Maple Decline Project laid the groundwork for the development of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator. The crown-condition assessment protocols were selected and refined through literature review, peer review, and field studies in several different forest types during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Between 1980 and 2011, 126 publications relating specifically to the crown-condition indicator were added to the literature. The majority of the articles were published by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service or other State or Federal government agency, and more than half were published after 2004.

  5. Condition Assessment for Aero -Engine Rolling Bearings Based on Posterior Probability SVM%基于后验概率 SVM的航空发动机滚动轴承状态评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪瑾; 陈果; 王洪伟; 冯康佳; 陈立波


    为了准确地进行航空发动机滚动轴承状态评估,提出了一种基于后验概率支持向量机的航空发动机滚动轴承状态评估方法。首先利用仿真数据建立了后验支持向量机模型,进行了分类试验和后验概率预测验证,然后利用航空轴承失效监控试验系统进行了滚动轴承性能退化试验,得到轴承不同工作状态的振动数据,最后利用获取的试验数据进行了滚动轴承状态评估,充分验证了该评估方法的正确性。%For assessment of condition for aero -engine rolling bearings,a method is proposed based on posterior prob-ability SVM.Firstly,the posterior probability SVMmodel is established by using simulation data,and the classification experiment and posterior probability prediction verification are carried out.Then,the performance degradation experi-ments for rolling bearings are conducted by using the aero -engine bearing failure monitoring test system,the vibration data of bearings under different working conditions is obtained.Finally,the rolling bearing condition assessment is car-ried out by using collected experiment data,and the validity of assessment method is fully verified.

  6. How to comprehensively evaluate river corridor conditions? A comparison of different biotic and morphological indices in northern Italy (United States)

    Golfieri, Bruno; Surian, Nicola; Hardersen, Sönke; Maiolini, Bruno


    The assessment of river conditions is crucial for planning appropriate management actions. The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) requires the assessment of biological, physical-chemical and hydromorphological elements to define the ecological status of rivers. The WFD suggests the use of different bioindicators (i.e. benthic macroinvertebrates, diatoms, aquatic macrophytes and fish), the so called "biological quality elements" (BQEs). However, recent studies showed that BQEs-based indices have two main limitations: (i) their standard application is limited to flowing channels and (ii) they are not sensitive to hydromorphological alteration. Hydromorphological conditions are usually evaluated applying methods for physical habitat assessment (i.e. the River Habitat Survey or derived methods) that consist in site-scale inventories of river forms and anthropic structures. The lack of consideration of wider spatial (i.e. reach or catchment scale) and temporal scales (e.g. channel evolution over the last 50-100 years) make such methods inadequate for a sound diagnosis of morphological alterations. The Morphological Quality Index (MQI) and the dragonfly-based Odonate River Index (ORI) were developed in the recent years to overcome the above-mentioned limitations and to assess the condition of the whole river corridor (i.e. the channel and its adjacent floodplain) at reach scale. In this study we correlated the assessments of MQI, ORI and two BQEs-based biotic indices (i.e. STAR_ICMi for benthic macroinvertebrates and ICMi for diatoms) in 15 lowland river reaches in northern Italy. The selected reaches are characterized by a wide range of morphological degradation. MQI and ORI were highly correlated, probably because both methods work at reach scale and consider the integrity of the whole river corridor, either in terms of morphology or considering ecological aspects. In contrast, no significant relationships were found between MQI and ORI and the BQEs

  7. Criteria and indicators for sustainable forestry under Mediterranean conditions applicable in Spain at the forest management unit scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Valls-Donderis


    Full Text Available Aim of study: to identify criteria and indicators (C&I of sustainable forest management (SFM under Mediterranean conditions. The indicators are meant to monitor changes in the provision of ecosystem services at a local scale (forest management unit, FMU. We support that if a forest provides a bundle of ecosystem services its management can be considered sustainable; thus, we adjust C&I to an ecosystem services classification. Area of study: La Hunde y La Palomera, a public FMU in the region of Valencia (east of Spain, 100km southwest of the city of Valencia. Material and methods: first, a literature review of the following themes took part: SFM, features of Mediterranean forests, ecosystem services and C&I. Some C&I were proposed and, later on, a participatory process in Ayora, the municipality where the mentioned FMU is located, was carried out with different stakeholders (forestry professionals, users for recreation, hunters, environmentalists and professionals of cultural and rural development activities in order for them to value the C&I proposed according to their management preferences for La Hunde y La Palomera. Research highlights: 15 criteria and 133 indicators were identified: a balance has been achieved among economic, social and ecological concerns. People value the ecological issues associated to forestry on top and the economic ones at the bottom. Results suggest that SFM under Mediterranean conditions is based on more than one product and on the provision of several ecosystem services.

  8. Investigation of Spiral Bevel Gear Condition Indicator Validation via AC-29-2C Using Fielded Rotorcraft HUMS Data (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Wade, Daniel R.; Antolick, Lance J.; Thomas, Josiah


    This report presents the analysis of gear condition indicator data collected on a helicopter when damage occurred in spiral bevel gears. The purpose of the data analysis was to use existing in-service helicopter HUMS flight data from faulted spiral bevel gears as a Case Study, to better understand the differences between HUMS data response in a helicopter and a component test rig, the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig. The reason spiral bevel gear sets were chosen to demonstrate differences in response between both systems was the availability of the helicopter data and the availability of a test rig that was capable of testing spiral bevel gear sets to failure. The objective of the analysis presented in this paper was to re-process helicopter HUMS data with the same analysis techniques applied to the spiral bevel rig test data. The damage modes experienced in the field were mapped to the failure modes created in the test rig. A total of forty helicopters were evaluated. Twenty helicopters, or tails, experienced damage to the spiral bevel gears in the nose gearbox. Vibration based gear condition indicators data was available before and after replacement. The other twenty tails had no known anomalies in the nose gearbox within the time frame of the datasets. These twenty tails were considered the baseline dataset. The HUMS gear condition indicators evaluated included gear condition indicators (CI) Figure of Merit 4 (FM4), Root Mean Square (RMS) or Diagnostic Algorithm 1 (DA1) and +/- 3 Sideband Index (SI3). Three additional condition indicators, not currently calculated on-board, were calculated from the archived data. These three indicators were +/- 1 Sideband Index (SI1), the DA1 of the difference signal (DiffDA1) and the peak-to-peak of the difference signal (DP2P). Results found the CI DP2P, not currently available in the on-board HUMS, performed the best, responding to varying levels of damage on thirteen of the fourteen helicopters evaluated. Two

  9. Riverine threat indices to assess watershed condition and identify primary management capacity of agriculture natural resource management agencies. (United States)

    Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles


    Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity.

  10. Constructing a Food Poverty Indicator for Ireland using the Survey on Income and Living Conditions 2004-2010


    Maître, Bertrand; Carney, Caroline


    There is no national definition or measure of food poverty in Ireland. This paper aims to construct a deprivation based measure of food poverty using deprivation indicators from the CSO’s Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). Food poverty has emerged as an issue of policy debate in Ireland, but the understanding of this issue is stymied by the absence of a methodology for measuring the problem in a quantitative and comparative way. The paper proposes a composite measure of food pover...

  11. Investigation of Spiral Bevel Gear Condition Indicator Validation Via AC-29-2C Using Damage Progression Tests (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.


    This report documents the results of spiral bevel gear rig tests performed under a NASA Space Act Agreement with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to support validation and demonstration of rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) for maintenance credits via FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 29-2C, Section MG-15, Airworthiness Approval of Rotorcraft (HUMS) (Ref. 1). The overarching goal of this work was to determine a method to validate condition indicators in the lab that better represent their response to faults in the field. Using existing in-service helicopter HUMS flight data from faulted spiral bevel gears as a "Case Study," to better understand the differences between both systems, and the availability of the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig, a plan was put in place to design, fabricate and test comparable gear sets with comparable failure modes within the constraints of the test rig. The research objectives of the rig tests were to evaluate the capability of detecting gear surface pitting fatigue and other generated failure modes on spiral bevel gear teeth using gear condition indicators currently used in fielded HUMS. Nineteen final design gear sets were tested. Tables were generated for each test, summarizing the failure modes observed on the gear teeth for each test during each inspection interval and color coded based on damage mode per inspection photos. Gear condition indicators (CI) Figure of Merit 4 (FM4), Root Mean Square (RMS), +/- 1 Sideband Index (SI1) and +/- 3 Sideband Index (SI3) were plotted along with rig operational parameters. Statistical tables of the means and standard deviations were calculated within inspection intervals for each CI. As testing progressed, it became clear that certain condition indicators were more sensitive to a specific component and failure mode. These tests were clustered together for further analysis. Maintenance actions during testing were also documented. Correlation coefficients were

  12. UHP-UHT peak conditions and near-adiabatic exhumation path of diamond-bearing garnet-clinopyroxene rocks from the Eger Crystalline Complex, North Bohemian Massif (United States)

    Haifler, Jakub; Kotková, Jana


    Intermediate garnet-clinopyroxene rocks from the Eger Crystalline Complex, North Bohemian Massif, contain microdiamonds enclosed in garnet and zircon. The variable mineral assemblage of these rocks allows for an evaluation of the P-T evolution using numerous univariant equilibria and thermodynamic modelling, in addition to the ternary feldspar solvus, Ti-in-garnet, Zr-in-rutile and Ti-in-zircon thermometry. Zircon mantle domains with diamond inclusions contain 111-189 ppm Ti, reflecting temperatures of 1037-1117 °C. The peak pressure consistent with diamond stability corresponds to c. 4.5-5.0 GPa. Ti-in-garnet thermometry using the Ti content of diamond-bearing garnet core yielded temperatures of 993-1039 °C at c. 5.0 GPa. An omphacite inclusion in garnet (reflecting c. 2.3-2.4 GPa at c. 1050 °C) and metastably preserved kyanite represent relics of eclogite-facies conditions. The dominant high-pressure granulite-facies mineral assemblage of low-Ca garnet, diopsidic clinopyroxene, antiperthitic feldspar and quartz equilibrated at 1.8-2.1 GPa and c. 1050 °C, based on the XGrs isopleth of the garnet mantle, garnet-feldspar-kyanite-quartz univariant equilibria and ternary feldspar solvus. Our thermodynamic modelling shows that a steep decrease of XGrs from a maximum core value of 0.32 to 0.17 at the rim as well as a rimward XMg increase (from 0.42 to 0.50) are consistent with significant decompression without heating. The latter is related to omphacite and kyanite breakdown reactions producing garnet and plagioclase. The Ti content in the rim zone of zircon (13-42 ppm), exsolved plagioclase and K-feldspar associated with matrix diopside and garnet rim, and late biotite reflect temperatures of c. 830-900 °C at c. 1.4 GPa. A similar temperature is recorded by matrix rutile grains, containing 2028-4390 ppm Zr and representing a relatively homogeneous population in contrast to rutile enclosed in garnet with variable Zr content. Our results show that the garnet

  13. Correlation analysis of indicators of physical condition, health and physical fitness of soldiers involved in peacekeeping operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedak S.S.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the main physical qualities, which positively influence the physical state, health and military - professional career peacekeepers when performing tasks in different climatic conditions. Material : the study involved 98 military service under the contract the first age group (men. Analyzed contingent divided into groups according to climatic conditions of service: in the highlands - 37 person, in hot climates - 35 person, in towns and areas with limited space - 26 person. A correlation analysis between the results of running 100 meters, pulling, running 3 kilometre and indicators of the health and physical condition of the soldiers. Results : It was determined that the participation in peacekeeping missions in mountainous areas and in areas with a hot climate is the quality of the underlying physical endurance. With the participation in peacekeeping missions in populated areas and in areas with limited space - this is the strength and speed. Conclusions : on improving these physical qualities should focus during lessons in physical training of peacekeepers in the centers of immediate preparation for missions.

  14. Physiological responses of juvenile rainbow trout to fasting and swimming activity: Effects on body composition and condition indices (United States)

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.


    The physiological traits that allow fish to survive periods of limited food resources are poorly understood. We assessed changes in proximate body composition, relative organ mass, blood metabolites, and relative weight (Wr) of sedentary and actively swimming (15 cm/s) juvenile rainbow trout (154-182 mm total length) over 147 d of fasting. Fasting caused measurable responses that were augmented when fish were swimming. Lipids and plasma triacylglycerides declined over time. Proteins were catabolized simultaneously with lipid reserves, but ammonia concentrations in plasma did not increase. The liver somatic index (LSI) did not change substantially over 105 d, suggesting that gluconeogenesis maintained blood glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen reserves for a substantial period of fasting. The gut somatic index (GSI) and Wr declined linearly during fasting, but the LSI did not decline until after 105 d of fasting. Consequently, the use of different body condition indices could lead to different conclusions about the condition of juvenile rainbow trout. Swimming activity caused fish to have lower lipid and protein reserves than those of sedentary fish. No mortalities were observed among sedentary fish, but mortalities occurred among actively swimming fish after 97 d of fasting when 3.2% or less lipid remained in their bodies. Body condition indices did not account for differences in proximate body composition between sedentary and actively swimming fish and were relatively poor predictors of lipid content and risk of mortality. The probability of mortality was most accurately predicted by percent lipid content. Therefore, we suggest that fisheries scientists consider using percent lipid content when evaluating the physiological status and risk of mortality due to starvation among juvenile rainbow trout.

  15. Macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics as indicators of water-quality conditions in connected depression wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (United States)

    Justus, Billy; Burge, David; Cobb, Jennifer; Marsico, Travis; Bouldin, Jennifer


    Methods for assessing wetland conditions must be established so wetlands can be monitored and ecological services can be protected. We evaluated biological indices compiled from macroinvertebrate and diatom metrics developed primarily for streams to assess their ability to indicate water quality in connected depression wetlands. We collected water-quality and biological samples at 24 connected depressions dominated by water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) or bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) (water depths = 0.5–1.0 m). Water quality of the least-disturbed connected depressions was characteristic of swamps in the southeastern USA, which tend to have low specific conductance, nutrient concentrations, and pH. We compared 162 macroinvertebrate metrics and 123 diatom metrics with a water-quality disturbance gradient. For most metrics, we evaluated richness, % richness, abundance, and % relative abundance values. Three of the 4 macroinvertebrate metrics that were most beneficial for identifying disturbance in connected depressions decreased along the disturbance gradient even though they normally increase relative to stream disturbance. The negative relationship to disturbance of some taxa (e.g., dipterans, mollusks, and crustaceans) that are considered tolerant in streams suggests that the tolerance scale for some macroinvertebrates can differ markedly between streams and wetlands. Three of the 4 metrics chosen for the diatom index reflected published tolerances or fit the usual perception of metric response to disturbance. Both biological indices may be useful in connected depressions elsewhere in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain Ecoregion and could have application in other wetland types. Given the paradoxical relationship of some macroinvertebrate metrics to dissolved O2 (DO), we suggest that the diatom metrics may be easier to interpret and defend for wetlands with low DO concentrations in least-disturbed conditions.

  16. Analysis of the indices of thermal comfort for the conditions of the Mexican Republic; Analisis de los indices de confort termico para las condiciones de la republica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Freixanet, Victor; Rodriguez Viqueira, Manuel [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco (Mexico)


    The objective of this article is to analyze different indices of thermal comfort for the Mexican Republic. Among them the Fanger (PMV and PPD) physiological methods of comfort and the new effective temperature index are included. The standard effective temperature (SET), as well as the adaptive methods of Humphreys and Nicol, Auliciems, De Dear and Brager. A comparative analysis is done of the different indices through thematic maps determined by interpolation, using a climatic data base of 700 cities obtained from the observatories and stations of the National Meteorological Service. This article pretends to establish general criteria of the thermal comfort to later define design strategies for each one of the climatic regions of the Mexican Republic. [Spanish] El objetivo de este articulo es analizar distintos indices de confort termico para la Republica Mexicana. Entre ellos se incluyen los metodos fisiologicos de confort de Fanger (PMV y PPD), el indice de nueva temperatura efectiva. La temperatura efectiva estandar (SET), asi como los metodos adaptativos de Humphreys y Nicol, Auliciems, De Dear y Brager. Se hace un analisis comparativo de los distintos indices a traves de mapas tematicos determinados por interpolacion, usando una base de datos climaticos de 700 ciudades obtenidos de los observatorios y estaciones del Servicio Meteorologico Nacional. Este articulo presenta establecer criterios generales del confort termico para posteriormente definir estrategias de diseno para cada una de las regiones climaticas de la Republica Mexicana.

  17. Formation of a Phyllosilicate-, K-feldspar-, and Sulfate-Bearing Hematite Ridge on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, Under Hydrothermal, Acid-Sulfate Conditions: Process and Mineralogical Analog for the Hematite Ridge on Mt. Sharp, Gale Crater, Mars. (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Adams, M. E.; Catalano, J. G.; Graff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E. A.; Hamilton, J. C.; Mertzman, S. A.; Fraeman, A.


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is currently moving upslope on Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater toward a hematite-bearing ridge. This hematite exposure was originally detected in CRISM spectra and subsequently mapped as part of a ~200 m wide, 6.5 km long ridge extending roughly parallel to the base of Mt. Sharp. CRISM spectra in the region suggest that hematite, smectite, and hydrated sulfates occur as secondary phases in lower layers of Mt. Sharp, separated by an unconformity from overlying anhydrous strata. A potential process and mineralogical analog is a hematite-bearing and weathering-resistant stratum (ridge) is exposed on the Puu Poliahu cinder cone on Mauna Kea (MK) volcano, Hawaii. The MK ridge is the product of hydrothermal alteration of basaltic precursors under acid-sulfate conditions. We are acquiring chemical and mineralogical (VNIR, Mid-IR, and backscatter Moessbauer spectroscopy, and transmission XRD) data on the MK ridge area that correspond to rover and orbiting spacecraft measurements at Gale Crater and elsewhere. The hematite-bearing stratum does not have detectable sulfate minerals by XRD, and hematite is variably present as up to mm-sized black crystals which, together with associated trioctahedral smectite and K-feldspar (from XRD), imply hydrothermal conditions. Adjacent to the MK hematite-bearing stratum are sulfates (jarosite and alunite) that are evidence for aqueous alteration under acid-sulfate conditions, and more soluble sulfates are absent but such phases would not persist if formed because of annual precipitation. Dioctahedral smectite is associated with red hematite and alunite-rich samples. The black and red hematite zones have the highest and lowest MgO/Al2O3 and K2O/Na2O ratios, respectively. Hematite, smectite, jarosite, and K-feldspar have been detected by Curiosity XRD downslope from the Mt. Sharp hematite ridge. MK field work and samples were obtained with PISCES partnership and OMKM, MKMB, BLNR, and KKMC permissions.

  18. Late Neogene shift from polythermal to cold polar conditions of the Antarctic ice sheet indicated by glacial stratigraphy and sea-ice history (United States)

    Harwood, D.; Hambrey, M.; McKelvey, B.; Webb, P.; Whitehead, J.


    Discussions on the Neogene history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet center on the age of the switch from a 'dynamic' mode (polythermal) to the modern, 'stable' mode (cold-polar) of Antarctic glaciation. Interpretations derived from landscape evolution, ash deposits and polar desert pavements in the Dry Valley region support a persistent cold-polar climate by middle Miocene time. In contrast, interpretations based on glacigene strata of the Sirius Group in the Transantarctic Mts. and Pagodroma Group of the Prince Charles Mts. support the persistence of a dynamic, polythermal ice sheet until the late Pliocene. Marine sediments on the continental shelf preserve a record of sea-ice history, as indicated by sea-ice diatom assemblages, that bears on the timing of the switch in glacial regime. Through most of the Late Neogene and into the late Pliocene, the sea-ice diatom flora was weakly developed to absent. The reduced influence of sea-ice during the Late Neogene would impact the terrestrial glacial regime by lowered albedo of the ocean surface and higher ocean to atmospheric heat and moisture transfer, both of which would result in prolonged regional warming and polythermal ice. This paper will review the history of Neogene sea-ice and present stratigraphic evidence on characteristics of glacigene deposition in terrestrial and glacimarine environments during the Miocene and Pliocene, which suggest deposition by an ice sheet of quite different character than the present ice sheet, and a glacial regime of significant erosion and deposition. In situ marine fossils of the Pagodroma Group indicate that this warmer than present climate and polythermal character of the East Antarctic ice sheet continued into the Pliocene. The floating ice margin retreated up the Lambert Valley by as much as 300 km south of the present limit, where distal glacimarine facies deposited diatomaceous mud. The grounding zone of the paleo-Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf system fluctuated across a

  19. Relationship between the pre- and postpartum body condition scores and periparturient indices and fertility in high-yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefańska Barbara


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS determined on the dry-off day, calving day, and in the first month of lactation, its changes during the dry period and early lactation, and periparturient indices and fertility in high-producing dairy cows. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in two herds: A and B, located in Western Poland. The studies were conducted on 116 and 108 Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows respectively, with an average milk yield of >10 000 kg/305-day lactation. The experiment included the dry period (-56 d to the calving day, the calving day, and early lactation (from +1 to +56 d. The experimental factor was BCS (0 to 5-point scale. The BCS was performed by one person on day -56, on parturition day (in the first 12 h after calving and on day 30 of lactation. Results: A decrease in BCS (≥-0.25 in herd A during the dry period accelerated the planned calving period by 7.3 d. In the group of cows with BCS 3.50 in the first month of lactation (30 d resulted in the extension of uterine involution period (56 d. Improvement of BCS during the dry period shortened the anoestrus (60 d in herd A and the period of insemination service (60 d in herd B. However, in this group (IM BCS ≥ 0.25 of cows the day of the highest artificial insemination index (2.50 in herd B was analysed. Conclusion: The body condition on the dry-off day and at calving, as well as its deterioration in the first month of lactation, have a considerable effect on fertility indices in dairy cows, thus confirming the advisability of its regular monitoring during routine operations connected with the management of a dairy cattle herd.

  20. The study of climate suitability for grapevine cropping using ecoclimatic indicators under climatic change conditions in France (United States)

    Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Caubel, J.; Cufi, J.; Huard, F.; Launay, M.; deNoblet, N.


    Climatic conditions play a fundamental role in the suitability of geographical areas for cropping. In the case of grape, climatic conditions such as water supply and temperatures have an effect of grape quality. In the context of climate change, we could expect changes in overall climatic conditions and so, in grape quality. We proposed to use GETARI (Generic Evaluation Tool of Ecoclimatic Indicators) in order to assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape (Vitis vinifera) regarding its quality. GETARI calculates an overall climate suitability index at the annual scale, from a designed evaluation tree. This aggregation tool proposes the major ecophysiological processes taking place during phenological periods, together with the climatic effects that are known to affect their achievement. The effects of climate on the ecophysiological processes are captured by the ecoclimatic indicators, which are agroclimatic indicators calculated over phenological periods. They give information about crop response to climate through ecophysiological or agronomic thresholds. These indicators are normalized and aggregated according to aggregation rules in order to compute an overall climate index. To assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape regarding its quality, we designed an evaluation tree from GETARI, by considering the effect of water deficit between flowering and veraison and the effect of water deficit, water excess, heat stress, temperature ranges between day and night, night temperatures and mean temperatures between veraison and harvest. The two sites are located in Burgundy and Rhone valley which are two of the most important vineyards in the world. Ecoclimatic indicators are calculated using phenological cycle of the crop. For this reason we chose Grenache and Pinot Noir as long and short cycle varieties respectively. Flowering, veraison and harvest dates were simulated (Parker et al., 2011; Yiou et al., 2012). Daily


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtirts A. D.


    Full Text Available Species composition and specific ecological structure of oribatid mites community in industrial site and buffer zone of «Artyomovsk nonferrous metal plant» and botanical nature sanctuary «Steppe Otradovskaya» were established. The ecological structure of «Artyomovsk nonferrous metal plant» area is perturbed, and typical for the anthropogenically-transformed ecosystems, and has low rates of average population density, wealth rate, ecological diversity indexes; it also has changed in dominance structure and life forms distribution. The oribatid community structure in the botanical nature sanctuary «Steppe Otradovskaya» during the spring period is typical for Donbass steppe conservations. In summer it resembles structurally in disrupted landscapes due to adverse edaphic conditions, occurring in Donbass in August. The integral sensitivity threshold indicator for oribatid mite communities shows that an environmental state of the technogenic area («Artyomovsk nonferrous metal plant» in summer and autumn is subnormal. The ecological status of «Steppe Otradovskaya» in spring can be considered as normal, and in the thalweg of the steppe gully as relatively favorable. During summer, the environmental condition of the study area is subnormal.

  2. Journal and Wave Bearing Impedance Calculation Software (United States)

    Hanford, Amanda; Campbell, Robert


    The wave bearing software suite is a MALTA application that computes bearing properties for user-specified wave bearing conditions, as well as plain journal bearings. Wave bearings are fluid film journal bearings with multi-lobed wave patterns around the circumference of the bearing surface. In this software suite, the dynamic coefficients are outputted in a way for easy implementation in a finite element model used in rotor dynamics analysis. The software has a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting bearing geometry parameters, and uses MATLAB s structure interface for ease of interpreting data. This innovation was developed to provide the stiffness and damping components of wave bearing impedances. The computational method for computing bearing coefficients was originally designed for plain journal bearings and tilting pad bearings. Modifications to include a wave bearing profile consisted of changing the film thickness profile given by an equation, and writing an algorithm to locate the integration limits for each fluid region. Careful consideration was needed to implement the correct integration limits while computing the dynamic coefficients, depending on the form of the input/output variables specified in the algorithm.

  3. Improving assessment accuracy for lake biological condition by classifying lakes with diatom typology, varying metrics and modeling multimetric indices. (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Stevenson, R Jan


    Site grouping by regions or typologies, site-specific modeling and varying metrics among site groups are four approaches that account for natural variation, which can be a major source of error in ecological assessments. Using a data set from the 2007 National Lakes Assessment project of the USEPA, we compared performances of multimetric indices (MMI) of biological condition that were developed: (1) with different lake grouping methods, ecoregions or diatom typologies; (2) by varying or not varying metrics among site groups; and (3) with different statistical techniques for modeling diatom metric values expected for minimally disturbed condition for each lake. Hierarchical modeling of MMIs, i.e. grouping sites by ecoregions or typologies and then modeling natural variability in metrics among lakes within groups, substantially improved MMI performance compared to using either ecoregions or site-specific modeling alone. Compared with MMIs based on ecoregion site groups, MMI precision and sensitivity to human disturbance were better when sites were grouped by diatom typologies and assessing performance nationwide. However, when MMI performance was evaluated at site group levels, as some government agencies often do, there was little difference in MMI performance between the two site grouping methods. Low numbers of reference and highly impacted sites in some typology groups likely limited MMI performance at the group level of analysis. Varying metrics among site groups did not improve MMI performance. Random forest models for site-specific expected metric values performed better than classification and regression tree and multiple linear regression, except when numbers of reference sites were small in site groups. Then classification and regression tree models were most precise. Based on our results, we recommend hierarchical modeling in future large scale lake assessments where lakes are grouped by ecoregions or diatom typologies and site-specific metric models are

  4. Pyrite framboid diameter distribution in the Lower Oligocene black shales of the Vrancea Nappe as an indicator of changes in redox conditions, Eastern Outer Carpathians, Romania (United States)

    Wendorff, Małgorzata; Marynowski, Leszek; Rospondek, Mariusz


    Studies of recent and ancient sediments revealed that the diameter distribution of pyrite framboids may be reliably used to characterise oxygen-restricted environments and distinguish ancient euxinic conditions (water column hydrogen sulphide bearing thus oxygen-free) from anoxic, non-sulfidic or dysoxic (oxygen-poor) conditions. Such diagnoses are of great importance when reconstructing palaeoenvironments in ancient basins and the processes of source rocks formation. During Oligocene to early Miocene time an extensive accumulation of organic matter (OM)-rich sediments occurred in the entire Paratethys including the Carpathian Foredeep, which was closed forming fold-thrust belt of the Outer Carpathians. These OM-rich black shales are represented by so-called Menilite shales, widely considered as hydrocarbon source rocks, which constitute as well a detailed archive for palaeoenvironmental changes. The purpose of this preliminary study is to characterise the depositional environment of the Lower Oligocene black shales basing on the pyrite framboid diameter distribution. Five samples of finely laminated black shales were selected from the Nechit section outcropping in the Bistrica half-window of the Vrancea Nappe in the Eastern Outer Carpathians, E Romania. At least 100 framboid diameters were measured on polished blocks using scanning electron microscope in a back-scattered electron mode. Framboids from four samples starting from the lowermost part of the section exhibit a narrow range of diameters from 1.0 to 11.5 μm; mean value ranges from 3.65 to 4.85 μm. Small-sized framboids (10 μm) are absent or rare (max. 2%). Within the sample from the uppermost part of the section framboids reveal more variable sizes, 2 - 25 μm, with mean value of 6.63 μm. Small framboids are still numerous (54%), however the amount of framboids >10 μm increases to 15%. The domination of small framboids with narrow size range in analysed samples, as well as lamination of rocks, suggest

  5. Positive autoantibodies to ZnT8 indicate elevated risk for additional autoimmune conditions in patients with Addison's disease. (United States)

    Fichna, Marta; Rogowicz-Frontczak, Anita; Żurawek, Magdalena; Fichna, Piotr; Gryczyńska, Maria; Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Dorota; Ruchała, Marek


    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) associates with exceptional susceptibility to develop other autoimmune conditions, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), marked by positive serum autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2A). Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) is a new T1D autoantigen, encoded by the SLC30A8 gene. Its polymorphic variant rs13266634C/T seems associated with the occurrence of serum ZnT8 antibodies (ZnT8A). This study was designed to determine the prevalence of serum ZnT8A and their clinical implication in 140 AAD patients. Other beta cell and thyroid-specific autoantibodies were also investigated, and ZnT8A results were confronted with the rs13266634 genotype. ZnT8A were detectable in 8.5 %, GADA in 20.7 %, IA-2A in 5.7 %, IAA in 1.6 % and various anti-thyroid antibodies in 7.1-67.8 % individuals. Type 1 diabetes was found in 10 % AAD patients. ZnT8A were positive in 57.1 % of T1D patients and 3.4 % non-diabetic AAD. Analysis of ZnT8A enabled to identify autoimmunity in two (14.3 %) T1D individuals previously classified as autoantibody-negative. ZnT8A-positive patients revealed significantly higher number of autoimmune conditions (p < 0.001), increased prevalence of T1D (p < 0.001) and other beta cell-specific autoantibodies. Carriers of the rs13266634 T-allele displayed increased frequency (p = 0.006) and higher titres of ZnT8A (p = 0.002). Our study demonstrates high incidence of ZnT8A in AAD patients. ZnT8A are associated with coexisting T1D and predictive of T1D in non-diabetic subjects. Moreover, positive ZnT8A in AAD indicate elevated risk for additional autoimmune conditions. Autoantibodies to beta cell antigens, comprising ZnT8, could be included in routine screening panels in AAD.

  6. 基于质量守恒边界条件的船舶艉轴承润滑性能分析%Lubrication Analysis of a Ship Stern Bearing Based on JFO Boundary Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salaheldin A Mohamad; 朱晶智; 卢熙群


    以船舶艉轴承为研究对象,基于质量守恒边界条件,编制相应的润滑仿真程序,研究艉轴承的润滑性能,探讨轴承润滑性能随轴承运行参数(如转速、轴承宽度、外载荷及空穴压力等)变化的规律。研究表明:质量守恒边界条件相比于雷诺边界条件,更加接近实际情况;空穴压力的增大并不总是有损轴承的承载力;随着空穴压力和轴承宽度的增大,偏心率和最大油膜压力都减小;随着外载荷的增加,油膜压力和空穴区域大小逐渐增大,呈现出很强的非线性趋势;随着转速的增大,油膜压力峰值减小;空穴区域随转速增大而增大,其位置会向最大轴承间隙处移动。%The lubricating properties of the ship stern bearing were studied by using the JFO boundary condition and programming the corresponding lubrication simulation program.The influences of operation parameters,such as speed,bear-ing width,external load and cavity pressure on the lubricating properties were analyzed.The research results show that, compared with the Reynolds boundary condition,the JFO boundary condition is closer to reality.Cavity pressure doesn’t always undermine the bearing carrying capacity.The increase of cavity pressure and bearing width all causes the decrease of eccentricity and maximum oil film pressure,the increase of external load leads to the augment of oil film pressure and cavity at a nonlinear trend,and the increase of speed causes the reduction of the maximum oil film pressure.The size of cavity expands with the increasing of speed and its position moves toward the maximum clearance of bearing.

  7. Boundary relations and boundary conditions for general (not necessarily definite) canonical systems with possibly unequal deficiency indices

    CERN Document Server

    Mogilevskii, Vadim


    We investigate in the paper general (not necessarily definite) canonical systems of differential equation in the framework of extension theory of symmetric linear relations. For this aim we first introduce the new notion of a boundary relation $\\G:\\gH^2\\to\\HH$ for $A^*$, where $\\gH$ is a Hilbert space, $A$ is a symmetric linear relation in $\\gH, \\cH_0$ is a boundary Hilbert space and $\\cH_1$ is a subspace in $\\cH_0$. Unlike known concept of a boundary relation (boundary triplet) for $A^*$ our definition of $\\G$ is applicable to relations $A$ with possibly unequal deficiency indices $n_\\pm(A)$. Next we develop the known results on minimal and maximal relations induced by the general canonical system $ J y'(t)-B(t)y(t)=\\D (t)f(t)$ on an interval $\\cI=(a,b),\\; -\\infty\\leq aconditions proper extensions of $\\Tmi$ in the case of the regular endpoint $a$ and arbitrary (possibly unequal)...

  8. Kinetics study of metaxalone degradation under hydrolytic, oxidative and thermal stress conditions using stability- indicating HPLC method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vamsi Krishna Marothu; Rajendra N. Dash; Saritha Vemula; Shravani Donkena; Ramesh Devi; Madhavi Gorrepati


    An isocratic stability indicating RP-HPLC-UV method is presented for the determina- tion of metaxalone (MET) in the presence of its degradation products. The method uses Dr. Maisch C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μm) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer with 4 mL of 0.4% triethyl amine (pH 3.0; 10 mM) (58:42, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, pH of the buffer was adjusted with o-phosphoric acid. UV detection was performed at 225 nm. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The calibration plot was linear over the concentration range of 1-100 μg/mL having a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.999. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.3 and 1μg/mL, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precision (% RSD) was 0.65 and 0.79 respectively. The proposed method was used to investigate the degradation kinetics of MET under different stress conditions employed. Degradation of MET followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics, and rate constant (K), time left for 50% potency (t1/2), and time left for 90% potency 090) were calculated.

  9. Comparison of condition specific indicators among illegal induced abortion: septic and non-septic abortion in Songkla Center Hospital. (United States)

    Phaumvichit, Tatpong; Chandeying, Verapol


    Determine the clinical indications of illegal induced abortion, comparison between septic and non-septic abortion. The present retrospective descriptive study was conducted among pregnant women who were admitted in the hospital with the illegal induced abortion. The demographic data, gestational age, the method used, and personnel performing were gathered, as well as symptomatology, basic laboratory, condition progression, and medical and surgical intervention. There were 92 patients with illegal induced abortion between March 2009 and December 2010. The three main induced methods for termination of pregnancy was vaginal suppository, likely to be misoprostol-a synthetic prostaglandin E, analog (43.5%), oral Thai herbal medicine (19.6%) and combined medication (16.3%), respectively. Of septic/non-septic abortion, the first visit body temperature of 38.0 degrees Celsius or more (74.1/12.3%), heart rate of 100 per minutes or more (74.1/12.3%), fever index 3 degree-hours or more in the first 24 hours (81.5/12.3%) and fever index 5 degree-hours or more in the first 24 hours (59.3/1.5%), were statistically significant (all p-values of abortion was incomplete abortion 68 in 92 cases (73.9%). The first visit body temperature of 38.0 degrees C or more, heart rate of 100 per minutes or more and fever index of 3 and 5 degree-hours, are clinically helpful in the early diagnosis and treatment of septic abortion.

  10. The effect of type and ratio of vermicompost on selected growth indices and nutrients content of tomato at greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Rasouli-Sadaghiani


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of type and ratio of vermicompost on tomato growth, with five different types of vermicompost (platanus leaves, maple leaves, pruning apple trees and grape, waste of herbal extracts and azolla residues and four ratios of vermicompost to peat and perlite (2:1 v/v as 0, 1:3, 2:3 and 3:3, at greenhouse conditions. Results showed that type of vermicompost had a significant effect (P≤ 0.05 on plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, number of internodes and stem diameter. The interaction between type and ratio of vermicompost had significant effect on root and shoot dry weight, stem diameter, nitrogen (N percent, and potassium (K percent. The highest effect on shoot dry weight, stem diameter and the N percentage was observed in the ratio of 2:3 vermicompost of azolla residues. The amount of K in the ratio of 2:3 vermicompost of maple leaves increased 66.18% as compared to the control treatment. Also, different ratios of vermicompost increased percentage of phosphorus and concentration of iron and zinc, as compared to peat+ perlite treatment. Generally, different types and ratios of vermicompost compared to peat+ perlite medium had a positive effect on growth indices and mineral concentration in the tomato plant.

  11. Compression Tests of Plain Chloroprene Rubber Bearings of Highway Bridge under Acid Corrosion Condition%硝酸腐蚀条件下公路桥梁板式氯丁橡胶支座受压试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延年; 司月华; 张军; 刘圣杰; 郑怡


    目的 研究硝酸腐蚀条件下公路桥梁板式氯丁橡胶支座受压性能的变化规律.方法 采用pH =4.5的硝酸溶液对公路桥梁板式氯丁橡胶支座进行20 d、40d、60 d、80 d、100 d的全浸泡处理,利用5 000 kN的压力试验机进行轴心受压试验,从承载力、极限抗压强度、抗压弹性模量、竖向刚度对腐蚀试件与标准件进行对比分析.结果 经硝酸腐蚀后,氯丁橡胶支座的抗压弹性阶段变短,且破坏更加严重;其承载力、极限抗压强度、抗压弹性模量随处理天数的增加而逐渐下降.结论 采用最小二乘法对使用0 ~50年后的橡胶支座的抗压强度和弹性模量进行分析,其衰减函数及衰减曲线大致符合指数函数的变化规律.%This paper studies compression performance change rules of highway bridge slab neoprene bearing under acid corrosion conditions.Do the full immersion treatment of 20 d,40 d,60 d,80 d,100 d on highway bridge slab neoprene bearing using pH =4.5 nitric acid solution,use 5 000 kN pressure tester for axial compression experiments,and compare the corrosion specimen to standard parts form analyzing bearing capacity,ultimate compressive strength,compressive elastic modulus,the vertical stiffness and so on.The experiment results show that the compressive elastic stage of neoprene bearings becomes shorter and the damage is more serious after the acid corrosion;Its bearing capacity,ultimate compressive strength,compressive elastic modulus gradually decline along with the processing days increasing.Analyze compressive strength and elastic modulus of the rubber bearing which are used for 0 ~ 50 years by using the least square method,its attenuation formula and decay curve are broadly in line with the changing rule of the exponential function.

  12. Bond graph modeling and experimental verification of a novel scheme for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings in special operating conditions (United States)

    Mishra, C.; Samantaray, A. K.; Chakraborty, G.


    Vibration analysis for diagnosis of faults in rolling element bearings is complicated when the rotor speed is variable or slow. In the former case, the time interval between the fault-induced impact responses in the vibration signal are non-uniform and the signal strength is variable. In the latter case, the fault-induced impact response strength is weak and generally gets buried in the noise, i.e. noise dominates the signal. This article proposes a diagnosis scheme based on a combination of a few signal processing techniques. The proposed scheme initially represents the vibration signal in terms of uniformly resampled angular position of the rotor shaft by using the interpolated instantaneous angular position measurements. Thereafter, intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are generated through empirical mode decomposition (EMD) of resampled vibration signal which is followed by thresholding of IMFs and signal reconstruction to de-noise the signal and envelope order tracking to diagnose the faults. Data for validating the proposed diagnosis scheme are initially generated from a multi-body simulation model of rolling element bearing which is developed using bond graph approach. This bond graph model includes the ball and cage dynamics, localized fault geometry, contact mechanics, rotor unbalance, and friction and slip effects. The diagnosis scheme is finally validated with experiments performed with the help of a machine fault simulator (MFS) system. Some fault scenarios which could not be experimentally recreated are then generated through simulations and analyzed through the developed diagnosis scheme.

  13. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears (United States)

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, E.H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.


    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  14. Bearing capacity analysis using the method of characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Sun; Zhi-Ye Zhao; Yi-Pik Cheng


    Using the method of characteristics,the bearing capacity for a strip footing is analyzed.The method of characteristics leads to an exact true limit load when the calculations of the three terms in the bearing capacity formula are consistent with one collapse mechanism and the soil satisfies the associated flow rule.At the same time,the method of characteristics avoids the assumption of arbitrary slip surfaces,and produces zones within which equilibrium and plastic yield are simultaneously satisfied for given boundary stresses.The exact solution without superposition approximation can still be expressed by Terzaghi's equation of bearing capacity,in which the bearing capacity factor Nyλ is dependent on the dimensionless parameterλand the friction angle φ.The influence of groundwater on the bearing capacity of the shallow strip footing is considered,which indicates that when the groundwater effect is taken into account,the error induced by the superposition approximation can be reduced as compared with dry soil condition.The results are presented in the form of charts which give the modified value (yλcw/Nyλc) of bearing capacity factor.Finally,an approximated analytical expression,which provides results in close agreement with those obtained by numerical analysis in this paper,has been suggested for practical application purposes.

  15. Myrmecophagy by Yellowstone grizzly bears (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.


    I used data collected during a study of radio-marked grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Yellowstone region from 1977 to 1992 to investigate myrmecophagy by this population. Although generally not an important source of energy for the bears (averaging 8 mm long) nested in logs over small ants (6 mm long) nested under stones. Optimal conditions for consumption of ants occurred on the warmest sites with ample substrate suitable for ant nests. For ants in mounds, this occurred at low elevations at non-forested sites. For ants in logs, this occurred at low elevations or on southerly aspects where there was abundant, large-diameter, well-decomposed woody debris under an open forest canopy. Grizzly bears selected moderately decomposed logs 4a??5 dm in diameter at midpoint. Ants will likely become a more important food for Yellowstone's grizzly bears as currently important foods decline, owing to disease and warming of the regional climate.

  16. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  17. Stable isotope signatures and element stoichiometry of Fucus vesiculosus as indicators for environmental conditions in the Kiel Bight, Baltic Sea (United States)

    Winde, Vera; Mahler, Annika; Voss, Maren; Böttcher, Michael E.


    In the frame of the BMBF project BIOACID II we aim for an understanding of the natural distribution and variation of isotopic composition and C-N-S stoichiometry in Fucus vesiculosus growing around the coast line of the Kiel fjord (part of the Kiel bight). Environmental conditions (aquatic chemistry, temperature, salinity) were monitored, too. Some changes in aquatic chemistry are related to stress factors like human activity (e.g., waste input) and further factors leading to specific changes in the composition of Fucus vesiculosus. Sampling was carried out at different stations at the west and east coast of the Kiel Fjord. For each sampling station the aquatic chemistry (TA, pH, salinity, d13C(DIC), main and trace elements and nutrients) as well as the composition of the Fucus organic tissues (stoichiometry and stable isotope composition of carbon, nitrogen) are analysed. The Fucus tissue was sampled in three size classes (small, medium, large). It is shown, that Fucus vesiculosus indicates clear differences in the N contents and stable isotopes between the west and the east site of the Kiel Fjord. Stable nitrogen isotope signatures in Fucus vesiculosus, are useful proxies to identify the influence factors in the Fucus habitat. From the data it is obtained that the influence of human activity (wastewater treatment plant, harbour), small stream and drainage channels, which flow from the near coastal area into the bight, leads to different Fucus vesiculosus compositions. In future work, it is intended to extend the investigation to trace element signatures to further estimate environmental impacts.

  18. Nano-Fe3O4 encapsulated-silica particles bearing sulfonic acid groups as an efficient, eco-friendly and magnetically recoverable catalyst for synthesis of various xanthene derivatives under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Nemati


    Full Text Available This report describes an efficient method for the synthesis of 1,8-dioxo-octahydroxanthene, 14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthene, 12-aryl-tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthenes-11-one and 13-aryl-5H-dibenzo[b,i]xanthene-5,7,12,14(13H-tetraone derivatives in the presence of a catalytic amount of nano-iron oxide encapsulated silica particles bearing sulfonic acid groups. Results present an efficient, environmentally friendly and magnetically recoverable catalyst under solvent-free conditions at 110–130 °C.

  19. Liver cancer arterial perfusion modelling and CFD boundary conditions methodology: a case study of the haemodynamics of a patient-specific hepatic artery in literature-based healthy and tumour-bearing liver scenarios. (United States)

    Aramburu, Jorge; Antón, Raúl; Rivas, Alejandro; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Bilbao, José Ignacio


    Some of the latest treatments for unresectable liver malignancies (primary or metastatic tumours), which include bland embolisation, chemoembolisation, and radioembolisation, among others, take advantage of the increased arterial blood supply to the tumours to locally attack them. A better understanding of the factors that influence this transport may help improve the therapeutic procedures by taking advantage of flow patterns or by designing catheters and infusion systems that result in the injected beads having increased access to the tumour vasculature. Computational analyses may help understand the haemodynamic patterns and embolic-microsphere transport through the hepatic arteries. In addition, physiological inflow and outflow boundary conditions are essential in order to reliably represent the blood flow through arteries. This study presents a liver cancer arterial perfusion model based on a literature review and derives boundary conditions for tumour-bearing liver-feeding hepatic arteries based on the arterial perfusion characteristics of normal and tumorous liver segment tissue masses and the hepatic artery branching configuration. Literature-based healthy and tumour-bearing realistic scenarios are created and haemodynamically analysed for the same patient-specific hepatic artery. As a result, this study provides boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics simulations that will allow researchers to numerically study, for example, various intravascular devices used for liver disease intra-arterial treatments with different cancer scenarios. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of body condition score at calving on indicators of fat and protein mobilization of periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows. (United States)

    Pires, J A A; Delavaud, C; Faulconnier, Y; Pomiès, D; Chilliard, Y


    The objective was to study the effects of body condition score (BCS) at calving on dairy performance, indicators of fat and protein mobilization, and metabolic and hormonal profiles during the periparturient period of Holstein-Friesian cows. Twenty-eight multiparous cows were classed according to their BCS (0 to 5 scale) before calving as low (BCS ≤ 2.5; n=9), medium (2.75 ≤ BCS ≤ 3.5; n=10), and high (BCS ≥ 3.75; n=9), corresponding to a mean of 2.33, 3.13, and 4.17 points of BCS, and preceding calving intervals of 362, 433, and 640 d, respectively. Cows received the same diets based on preserved grass to allow ad libitum feed intake throughout the study, and lactation diet contained 30% of concentrate (dry-matter basis). Measurements and sampling were performed between wk -4 and 7 relative to calving. No significant effects were observed of BCS group on dry matter intake (kg/d), milk yield, BCS loss, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. The high-BCS group had the lowest postpartum energy balance and the greatest plasma concentrations of leptin prepartum, nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum, insulin-like growth factor 1, and milk fat content. Milk fat yield was greater for the high- than the low-BCS group (1,681 vs. 1,417 g/d). Low-BCS cows had the greatest concentration of medium-chain fatty acids (e.g., sum of 10:0 to 15:0, and 16:0), and the lowest concentration and secretion of preformed fatty acids (e.g., cis-9 18:1) in milk fat. Milk protein secretion was lowest in the low-BCS group, averaging 924, 1,051, and 1,009 g/d for low-, medium-, and high-BCS groups, respectively. Plasma 3-methylhistidine was greater in wk 1 and 2 postpartum compared with other time points, indicating mobilization of muscle protein. Plasma creatinine tended to be lower and the 3-methylhistidine: creatinine ratio was greater in low- compared with medium- and high-BCS cows, suggesting less muscle mass but more intense mobilization of muscle

  1. Experimental Investigation of Bearing Slip in a Wind Turbine Gearbox During a Transient Grid Loss Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helsen, Jan; Guo, Yi; Keller, Jonathan; Guillaume, Patrick


    This work investigates the behaviour of the high speed stage of a wind turbine gearbox during a transient grid loss event. Dynamometer testing on a full scale wind turbine nacelle is used. A combination of external and internal gearbox measurements is analysed. Particular focus is on the characterization of the high speed shaft tapered roller bearing slip behaviour. This slipping behaviour is linked to dynamic events by many researchers and described as potential bearing failure initiator. However only limited full scale dynamic testing is documented. Strain gauge bridges in grooves along the circumference of the outer ring are used to characterize the bearing behaviour in detail. It is shown that during the transient event the high speed shaft experiences a combined torsional and bending deformation. These unfavourable loading conditions induce roller slip in the bearings during the torque reversals indicating the potential of the applied load case to go beyond the preload of the tapered roller bearing.

  2. An experimental investigation of chemical communication in the polar bear (United States)

    Owen, Megan A.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Slocomb, C.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin; Pessier, Allan P.


    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus), with its wide-ranging movements, solitary existence and seasonal reproduction, is expected to favor chemosignaling over other communication modalities. However, the topography of its Arctic sea ice habitat is generally lacking in stationary vertical substrates routinely used for targeted scent marking in other bears. These environmental constraints may have shaped a marking strategy, unique to polar bears, for widely dispersed continuous dissemination of scent via foot pads. To investigate the role of chemical communication, pedal scents were collected from free-ranging polar bears of different sex and reproductive classes captured on spring sea ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas, and presented in a controlled fashion to 26 bears in zoos. Results from behavioral bioassays indicated that bears, especially females, were more likely to approach conspecific scent during the spring than the fall. Male flehmen behavior, indicative of chemosignal delivery to the vomeronasal organ, differentiated scent donor by sex and reproductive condition. Histologic examination of pedal skin collected from two females indicated prominent and profuse apocrine glands in association with large compound hair follicles, suggesting that they may produce scents that function as chemosignals. These results suggest that pedal scent, regardless of origin, conveys information to conspecifics that may facilitate social and reproductive behavior, and that chemical communication in this species has been adaptively shaped by environmental constraints of its habitat. However, continuously distributed scent signals necessary for breeding behavior may prove less effective if current and future environmental conditions cause disruption of scent trails due to increased fracturing of sea ice.

  3. Body and diet composition of sympatric black and grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Servheen, Christopher; Robbins, Charles T.; van Manen, Frank T.


    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has experienced changes in the distribution and availability of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) food resources in recent decades. The decline of ungulates, fish, and whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis) has prompted questions regarding their ability to adapt. We examined body composition and diet of grizzly bears using bioelectrical impedance and stable isotopes to determine if 1) we can detect a change in diet quality associated with the decline in either ungulates or whitebark pine, and 2) the combined decline in ungulates, fish, and pine seeds resulted in a change in grizzly bear carrying capacity in the GYE. We contrasted body fat and mass in grizzly bears with a potential competitor, the American black bear (Ursus americanus), to address these questions. Grizzly bears assimilated more meat into their diet and were in better body condition than black bears throughout the study period, indicating the decline in ungulate resources did not affect grizzly bears more than black bears. We also found no difference in autumn fat levels in grizzly bears in years of good or poor pine seed production, and stable isotope analyses revealed this was primarily a function of switching to meat resources during poor seed-producing years. This dietary plasticity was consistent over the course of our study. We did not detect an overall downward trend in either body mass or the fraction of meat assimilated into the diet by grizzly bears over the past decade, but we did detect a downward trend in percent body fat in adult female grizzly bears after 2006. Whether this decline is an artifact of small sample size or due to the population reaching the ecological carrying capacity of the Yellowstone ecosystem warrants further investigation.

  4. The importance of registration of sexual orientation and recognition of indicator conditions for an adequate HIV risk-assessment. (United States)

    Joore, Ivo K; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Brinkman, Kees; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Prins, Jan M


    HIV testing among risk groups and guided by HIV indicator conditions (IC) is widely recommended by European guidelines. In this study we investigated how these strategies are used by general practitioners (GP) and in other healthcare settings. The objectives of our study were to describe: 1) the proportion of consultations in primary care and other healthcare settings in the five years prior to diagnosis; 2) patient and GP perspectives on the primary healthcare providers' awareness and registration of sexual orientation and ethnicity in the electronic medical record (EMR); and 3) the proportion of HIV-infected patients who had been diagnosed with an IC prior to HIV diagnosis. A survey study (2014-2016) was conducted among newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients presenting at two HIV outpatient clinics in Amsterdam. We collected information on the number of consultations and extent of HIV testing in healthcare settings in the 5 years prior to HIV diagnosis; on patient and GP perspectives on the primary healthcare providers' awareness of sexual orientation and ethnicity; and on preselected ICs and symptoms of acute HIV infection prior to diagnosis. GPs were also approached for further information. In the 5 years prior to HIV diagnosis, 82.9% of the 111 patients had one or more consultations with their GP, but only 34.8% had one or more HIV tests performed in general practice during this period. In more than 50% of cases the patients took the initiative for the positive HIV test. GPs stated that they were aware of the sexual orientation of 59.6% of their patients who were men who have sex with men (MSM); however, sexual orientation was only documented in the EMR in 34.0% of these cases. GPs also reported that they were aware that a patient was from an HIV endemic country in more than half of the cases. GPs diagnosed 48.3% of all ICs and 39.5% of this group was offered an HIV test at that time. Documentation of sexual orientation and ethnicity, and IC-guided testing by

  5. Analysis and Research of Angular Contact Bearings Contact Angle under Different Working Condition%不同工况下角接触轴承接触角分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The quasi statics model of angular contact bearing was established under the three working conditions, and the non-linear equations was got. The result of these nonlinear equations were analyzed by solving the nonlinear equations based on Newton-Ralph algorithm and the change rule is got under three different operating conditions, which was the base of angular contact ball bearing design and analysis.%以 Hertz 接触理论为依据,根据角接触球轴承的三种工况建立了轴承的拟静力学模型,得到角接触球轴承的非线性方程组,通过采用牛顿-拉夫逊迭代算法求解非线性方程组,得到角接触球轴承在不同工况下的内、外接触角变化规律,为角接触球轴承的设计与分析提供了理论基础。

  6. Nontimber forest products in the United States: Montreal Process indicators as measures of current conditions and sustainability (United States)

    Susan J. Alexander; Sonja N. Oswalt; Marla R. Emery


    The United States, in partnership with 11 other countries, participates in the Montreal Process. Each country assesses national progress toward the sustainable management of forest resources by using a set of criteria and indicators agreed on by all member countries. Several indicators focus on nontimber forest products (NTFPs). In the United States, permit and...


    The use of coliform plate count data to assess stream sanitary and ecological condition is limited by the need to store samples at 4oC and analyze them within a 24-hour period. We are testing LH-PCR as an alternative tool to assess the bacterial load of streams, offering a cost ...

  8. Markov Switching Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (SWARCH) Model to Detect Financial Crisis in Indonesia Based on Import and Export Indicators (United States)

    Sugiyanto; Zukhronah, Etik; Susanti, Yuliana; Rahma Dwi, Sisca


    A country is said to be a crisis when the financial system is experiencing a disruption that affects systems that can not function efficiently. The performance efficiency of macroeconomic indicators especially in imports and exports can be used to detect the financial crisis in Indonesia. Based on the import and export indicators from 1987 to 2015, the movement of these indicators can be modelled using SWARCH three states. The results showed that SWARCH (3,1) model was able to detect the crisis that occurred in Indonesia in 1997 and 2008. Using this model, it can be concluded that Indonesia is prone to financial crisis in 2016.

  9. How to define successful transition? An exploration of consensus indicators and outcomes in young adults with chronic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattoe, J.N.T.; Hilberink, S.R.; Staa, A.L. van


    Abstract - In this short report, we use data from a previous cohort study to explore the relationship between five out of eight consensus indicators for successful transition and patient-reported outcomes in young adulthood.

  10. Compression Tests of the Rectangular Plain Chloroprene Rubber Bearings in Salty Frozen Condition%盐冻条件下矩形氯丁橡胶支座受压性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小俊; 陈伯奎; 高飞; 谢应爽; 郑怡; 马良


    为了研究矩形氯丁橡胶支座在盐冻条件下的各项力学性能指标变化,将矩形氯丁橡胶支座分别进行20,40,60,80 d盐冻处理,并采用压力试验机对其进行轴心受压试验,研究盐冻对矩形氯丁橡胶支座的承载力、极限抗压强度、竖向刚度、抗压弹性模量的影响.试验结果表明:在盐冻条件下,矩形氯丁橡胶支座更易发生脆性破坏,弹性阶段缩短,发生钢板外露、裂缝、层状破坏等现象更严重;承载力、极限抗压强度、竖向刚度、抗压弹性模量随盐冻程度的加深而逐渐降低.采用最小二乘法对试验结果进行回归得到盐冻条件下矩形氯丁橡胶支座50 a抗压强度及抗压弹性模量衰减曲线和衰减模型,统计分析表明衰减曲线和衰减模型符合实际情况.%In order to do the research on the change of the mechanical indexes of the rectangular plain chloroprene rubber bearings,the rectangular plain chloroprene rubber bearings were processed under salty frozen condition for 20,40,60 and 80 days.Moreover,the axial compression tests were also carried out by pressure testing machine.The effect of the salt-frost on bearing capacity,ultimate compressive strength,vertical stiffness,and compressive elastic modulus of the rectangular plain chloroprene rubber bearings was also studied.The results showed that in salty frozen condition,brittle fracture of the plain chloroprene rubber bearings was easier to appear; the elastic stage was shorten and the phenomenon of steel plate exposure,cracks and layered destruction were more serious; the bearing capacities,ultimate compressive strength,vertical stiffness,and elastic modulus of compression decreased with the deepening of the salty frozen degree.The attenuation curve of compressive strength and compressive elastic modulus and the attenuation model were acquired in 50 years by regression analysis with the least square method.The statistical analysis result shows that the

  11. Beth Starts Like Brown Bear! (United States)

    Fawcett, Gay


    Recounts a reading teacher's illuminating experience with a first grader who enjoyed reading Bill Martin's "Brown Bear" books, despite being labeled as dyslexic. Dyslexia is an elusive condition that is biological in origin and distinct from other reading problems. New research shows that reading difficulties, including dyslexia, occur as part of…

  12. Predicting the biological condition of streams: Use of geospatial indicators of natural and anthropogenic characteristics of watersheds (United States)

    Carlisle, D.M.; Falcone, J.; Meador, M.R.


    We developed and evaluated empirical models to predict biological condition of wadeable streams in a large portion of the eastern USA, with the ultimate goal of prediction for unsampled basins. Previous work had classified (i.e., altered vs. unaltered) the biological condition of 920 streams based on a biological assessment of macroinvertebrate assemblages. Predictor variables were limited to widely available geospatial data, which included land cover, topography, climate, soils, societal infrastructure, and potential hydrologic modification. We compared the accuracy of predictions of biological condition class based on models with continuous and binary responses. We also evaluated the relative importance of specific groups and individual predictor variables, as well as the relationships between the most important predictors and biological condition. Prediction accuracy and the relative importance of predictor variables were different for two subregions for which models were created. Predictive accuracy in the highlands region improved by including predictors that represented both natural and human activities. Riparian land cover and road-stream intersections were the most important predictors. In contrast, predictive accuracy in the lowlands region was best for models limited to predictors representing natural factors, including basin topography and soil properties. Partial dependence plots revealed complex and nonlinear relationships between specific predictors and the probability of biological alteration. We demonstrate a potential application of the model by predicting biological condition in 552 unsampled basins across an ecoregion in southeastern Wisconsin (USA). Estimates of the likelihood of biological condition of unsampled streams could be a valuable tool for screening large numbers of basins to focus targeted monitoring of potentially unaltered or altered stream segments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Majorov


    Full Text Available The results of development of the indicator of highstrength pig-iron are submitted in the report. The indicator using allows to carry out the testing of the pig-iron structure in conditions of manufacture without additional preparation of the casting surface.

  14. Lake Diatoms as Indicators of Land Use Effects, Changing Environmental Conditions, and the Effectiveness of Management Practices (United States)

    Lakes continue to face escalating pressures associated with land cover change and growing human populations. The U.S. EPA National Lakes Assessment, which sampled more than 1000 lakes in a probabilistic survey, was the first large scale effort to characterize the condition of lak...

  15. Detection of generator bearing inner race creep by means of vibration and temperature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Dragiev, Ivaylo G.; Hilmisson, Reynir


    damages and development. Detection of bearing creep can be achieved reliably based on continuous trending of the amplitude of vibration running speed harmonic and temperature absolute values. In order to decrease the number of condition indicators which need to be assessed, it is proposed to exploit......Vibration and temperature analysis are the two dominating condition monitoring techniques applied to fault detection of bearing failures in wind turbine generators. Relative movement between the bearing inner ring and generator axle is one of the most severe failure modes in terms of secondary...... a weighted average descriptor calculated based on the 3rd up to 6th harmonic orders. Two cases of different bearing creep severity are presented, showing the consistency of the combined vibration and temperature data utilization. In general, vibration monitoring reveals early signs of abnormality several...

  16. Health assessment of cooling fan bearings using wavelet-based filtering. (United States)

    Miao, Qiang; Tang, Chao; Liang, Wei; Pecht, Michael


    As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed, locked rotor, failure to start, and other problems; therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the health assessment of cooling fan bearings. This paper presents a vibration-based fan bearing health evaluation method using comblet filtering and exponentially weighted moving average. A new health condition indicator (HCI) for fan bearing degradation assessment is proposed. In order to collect the vibration data for validation of the proposed method, a cooling fan accelerated life test was conducted to simulate the lubricant starvation of fan bearings. A comparison between the proposed method and methods in previous studies (i.e., root mean square, kurtosis, and fault growth parameter) was carried out to assess the performance of the HCI. The analysis results suggest that the HCI can identify incipient fan bearing failures and describe the bearing degradation process. Overall, the work presented in this paper provides a promising method for fan bearing health evaluation and prognosis.

  17. Measurement of Pressure Fluctuations inside a Model Thrust Bearing Using PVDF Sensors. (United States)

    Youssef, Andrew; Matthews, David; Guzzomi, Andrew; Pan, Jie


    Thrust bearings play a vital role in propulsion systems. They rely on a thin layer of oil being trapped between rotating surfaces to produce a low friction interface. The "quality" of this bearing affects many things from noise transmission to the ultimate catastrophic failure of the bearing itself. As a result, the direct measure of the forces and vibrations within the oil filled interface would be very desirable and would give an indication of the condition of the bearing in situ. The thickness of the oil film is, however, very small and conventional vibration sensors are too cumbersome to use in this confined space. This paper solves this problem by using a piezoelectric polymer film made from Polyvinylidine Fluoride (PVDF). These films are very thin (50 m) and flexible and easy to install in awkward spaces such as the inside of a thrust bearing. A model thrust bearing was constructed using a 3D printer and PVDF films inserted into the base of the bearing. In doing so, it was possible to directly measure the force fluctuations due to the rotating pads and investigate various properties of the thrust bearing itself.

  18. Health Assessment of Cooling Fan Bearings Using Wavelet-Based Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Miao


    Full Text Available As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed, locked rotor, failure to start, and other problems; therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the health assessment of cooling fan bearings. This paper presents a vibration-based fan bearing health evaluation method using comblet filtering and exponentially weighted moving average. A new health condition indicator (HCI for fan bearing degradation assessment is proposed. In order to collect the vibration data for validation of the proposed method, a cooling fan accelerated life test was conducted to simulate the lubricant starvation of fan bearings. A comparison between the proposed method and methods in previous studies (i.e., root mean square, kurtosis, and fault growth parameter was carried out to assess the performance of the HCI. The analysis results suggest that the HCI can identify incipient fan bearing failures and describe the bearing degradation process. Overall, the work presented in this paper provides a promising method for fan bearing health evaluation and prognosis.

  19. Bearing Health Assessment Based on Chaotic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu


    Full Text Available Vibration signals extracted from rotating parts of machinery carry a lot of useful information about the condition of operating machine. Due to the strong non-linear, complex and non-stationary characteristics of vibration signals from working bearings, an accurate and reliable health assessment method for bearing is necessary. This paper proposes to utilize the selected chaotic characteristics of vibration signal for health assessment of a bearing by using self-organizing map (SOM. Both Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm and Takens' theory are employed to calculate the characteristic vector which includes three chaotic characteristics, such as correlation dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent and Kolmogorov entropy. After that, SOM is used to map the three corresponding characteristics into a confidence value (CV which represents the health state of the bearing. Finally, a case study based on vibration datasets of a group of testing bearings was conducted to demonstrate that the proposed method can reliably assess the health state of bearing.

  20. 基于matlab的滚动轴承智能监测应用实例分析%Rolling Bearing Intelligent Condition Monitoring Application Examples Analysis Based on Matlab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      Intelligent rolling bearing condition monitoring,collecting the vibration signal by using sensor,the data will form the sample. Import these data into MATLAB program,and do time domain analysis and frequency domain analysis.Then extraction time domain and frequency domain feature to form a model to train the neural network. By training the artificial neural network, you can establish an identification system to determine whether the bearing failure.%  智能化滚动轴承状态监测利用传感器进行振动信号采集,将采集的数据形成样本;在MATLAB程序中导入采集的数据样本,进行时域分析与频域分析,并且提取时域和频域的特征向量,形成训练神经网络的模式;再将数据输入人工神经网络进行训练,可以建立一个识别系统判断轴承是否有故障。

  1. Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.


    Axial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control.

  2. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu


    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  3. The effect of type and ratio of vermicompost on selected growth indices and nutrients content of tomato at greenhouse conditions


    M.H. Rasouli-Sadaghiani; Moradi, N.; R. Hamzenejhad


    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of type and ratio of vermicompost on tomato growth, with five different types of vermicompost (platanus leaves, maple leaves, pruning apple trees and grape, waste of herbal extracts and azolla residues) and four ratios of vermicompost to peat and perlite (2:1 v/v) as 0, 1:3, 2:3 and 3:3, at greenhouse conditions. Results showed that type of vermicompost had a significant effect (P≤ 0.05) on plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, ...

  4. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.


    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Superconducting bearings (United States)

    Hull, John R.


    The physics and technology of superconducting bearings is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in rotating bearings. The basic phenomenology of levitational forces is presented, followed by a brief discussion of the theoretical models that can be used for conceptual understanding and calculations. The merits of various HTS bearing designs are presented, and the behaviour of HTS bearings in typical situations is discussed. The article concludes with a brief survey of various proposed applications for HTS bearings.

  6. Chlorophyll a in suspended particulate matter of the Caspian Sea as an indicator of biogenic sedimentation conditions (United States)

    Kravchishina, M. D.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Pautova, L. A.; Politova, N. V.; Lein, A. Yu.; Lisitzin, A. P.


    The conditions of biogenic sedimentation (concentration of chlorophyll a (chl a), particulate organic carbon (POC), and its isotope composition (δ13CPOC)), as well as the quantitative characteristics of phytoplankton, and the total concentration of suspended particulate matter have been studied in the Caspian Sea in May and June 2012. The vertical (from the surface layer to bottom) distribution and precipitation of the biogenic component of suspended particulate matter have been determined. It was found that only 5% of the particulate matter and around 3% of POC reached the Middle Caspian after passing through a marginal filter (Volga River delta-Northern Caspian). The subsurface chl a maximum layer (around 20-60 m) with a cold-water phytoplankton community was revealed in the Middle and Southern Caspian. The subsurface region of accumulation of chl a and phytoplankton in the subthermocline layer has been extended from the southern periphery of the Derbent Depression to the Absheron Sill.

  7. Tectonic drift versus climatic variations: rhodoliths as indicators of limits between tropical and nontropical sedimentary conditions: examples from Pacific Miocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrouilh-le Jan, F.G.


    Modern examples show that rhodoliths or red algal nodules are forming around the 18/sup 0/C winter isocline and that huge amounts of these red coralline algae are living and accumulating in the subtidal zones, from -60 m to sea level, of temperate seas, such as the English Channel and Rockall. In the Pacific Ocean, several high carbonate platforms, so-called uplifted atolls, show uniform, extended, and thick accumulation of rhodoliths. These accumulations have been recognized in the Solomon Islands (Rennell) and in the Loyalty Islands (Mare and Lifu, New Caledonia), but also in the Vanuatu (Vila), in the Austral Archipelago (Rurutu), where their age can be proved or estimated as middle Miocene. They are also mentioned in the literature on the Emperor Rise (northwest Pacific). On other high carbonate islands, such as Makatea (Tuamotu), red algae and rhodolith formations appear at the top of a sedimentary pile of lower Miocene coral accumulation. The same observations and perhaps the same age can be said for Nauru (central Pacific). Such a wide distribution, from the east to the west part of the Pacific Ocean and between the tropics, seems to be due to climate variations during the Miocene, more than tectonic drift due to oceanic spreading. Temperate conditions shown by this shallow platform sedimentation, just under the coral growth conditions, seem to be confirmed by isotopic studies on pelagic and benthic Foraminifera and could confirm the existence of climate variations affecting the surface water of the Pacific in an extensive area that does not consider the presence of trenches, arcs, and ridges.

  8. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen


    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...... about their childhood teddy bears, and children's accounts of what they do with teddy bears, both written for school and told 'out of school', The chapter sees teddy bears as artefacts that provide a cultural channeling for the child's need of a transitional object and argues that the meanings of teddy...... bears have traditionally centred on interpersonal relations within the nuclear family, but have recently been institutionalized and commercialized....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gatkal*, P. R. Mhatre, V. V. Chopade and P. D. Chaudhari


    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, highly accurate UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of mesalamine in bulk and tablet dosage form. Solution of mesalamine in distilled water shows maximum absorbance at 330 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 2-16 μg/ml with the slope, intercept, correlation coefficient, detection and quantitation limits were also calculated. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the analysis of the drug in pure and in its tablets dosage forms. Result of percentage recovery and placebo interference shows that the method was not affected by the presence of common excipients. The method was validated by determining its sensitivity, accuracy and precision which proves suitability of the developed method for the routine estimation of mesalamine in bulk and solid dosage form. The method was then validated for different parameters as per the ICH (International Conference for Harmonization guidelines. Mesalamine was subjected to stress degradation under different conditions recommended by ICH. The samples generated were used for degradation studies using the developed method.

  10. Radiation tolerance in water bears. (United States)

    Horikawa, D. D.; Sakashita, T.; Katagiri, C.; Watanabe, M.; Nakahara, Y.; Okuda, T.; Hamada, N.; Wada, S.; Funayama, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    Tardigrades water bears are tiny invertebrates forming a phylum and inhabit various environments on the earth Terrestrial tardigrades enter a form called as anhydrobiosis when the surrounding water disappears Anhyydrobiosis is defined as an ametabolic dry state and followed by recovering their activity when rehydrated Anhydrobiotic tardigrades show incredible tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions such as temperatures -273 r C to 151 r C vacuum high pressure 600 MPa and chemicals that include alcohols and methyl bromide In these views there have been some discussions about their potential for surviving outer space In the present study we demonstrated the survival limit not merely against gamma-rays but against heavy ions in the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum in order to evaluate the effects of radiations on them The animals were exposure to 500 to 7000 Gy of gamma-rays or 500 to 8000 Gy of heavy ions 4 He in their hydrated or anhydrobiotic state The results showed that both of hydrated and anhydrobiotic animals have high radio-tolerance median lethal dose LD50 48 h of gamma-rays or heavy ions in M tardigradum was more than 4000 Gy indicating that this species is categorized into the most radio-tolerant animals We suggest that tardigrades will be suitable model animals for extremophilic multicellular organisms and may provide a survival strategy in extraterrestrial environments

  11. On Controllable Elastohydrodynamic Fluid Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Martin Asger

    This thesis gives a theoretical description of the active tilting-pad journal bearing (ATPJB). It provides the qualified reader with the tools to model an ATPJB, while staying clear of pitfalls. The model is based on well known techniques and allows for local stability analyses, harmonic stationary...... are performed for a tilting-pad journal bearing (TPJB) and an ATPJB under static conditions, followed by a generalisation to dynamic conditions (transient as well as stationary harmonic). These analyses will be of interest to experimentalists, since they permit experiments performed on scaled down test rigs...... the addition of a control system may just as well harm rotor-bearing performance as improve it....

  12. ChemCam Observations of Manganese in Rock Targets (Sols 778-1384): An Indicator of Redox and Habitability Conditions (United States)

    Lanza, N.; Lamm, S. N.; Frydenvang, J.; Wiens, R. C.; Kirk, M. F.


    Recent results from the Curiosity Mars rover have identified enrichments of manganese in rock targets throughout Gale crater. Some of these are inferred to be Mn-oxide minerals. High concentrations of Mn on Earth are typically found as secondary mineral deposits, requiring abundant liquid water and highly oxidizing conditions to form. The earliest terrestrial manganese deposits are associated with the rise of free oxygen in the atmosphere 2.5 Gya. Thus the discovery of Mn-oxides on Mars raises the possibility that the martian atmosphere once contained more oxygen. Here we assess Mn abundance in all rocks analyzed by ChemCam along the rover's traverse over sols 778-1384. During this time 477 rocks were analyzed with a total of 3296 sampling locations. Of these, 125 ( 4%) on 61 rocks (12%) were found to contain abundances of Mn 2-sigma over the mean, corresponding to 1.3 wt% MnO. This is similar to results for rock targets from the first 777 sols of the traverse. Relationships between Mn and major and minor elements were also assessed for all rock targets. Higher Mn is associated with lower Si and higher Fe, Na, Al, and Li. Elevated Mn was found in a range of rock types, including conglomerates, fine-grained sandstones, and veins. LIBS data were examined for potential shot-to-shot trends to determine whether Mn is associated with surface features such as coatings or layers; no strong trends were identified. Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) images of rock targets were analyzed for texture, grain size, and albedo. No specific rock features were correlated with Mn abundance. Of sampling locations with Mn abundances above 2-sigma, over 50% were in the Stimson formation, the youngest geologic unit identified in Gale to date. Our results suggest that Mn in this region may have be concentrated prior to incorporation into sediments, and the observed compositional and spatial variations may be the result of differing source regions. Work is ongoing to better understand the nature of

  13. Stability of arsenate-bearing Fe(III)/Al(III) co-precipitates in the presence of sulfide as reducing agent under anoxic conditions. (United States)

    Doerfelt, Christoph; Feldmann, Thomas; Roy, Ranjan; Demopoulos, George P


    Currently, the co-precipitation of arsenate with ferric iron at molar ratios Fe(III)/As(V) ≥ 3 by lime neutralization produces tailings solids that are stable under oxic conditions. However not much is known about the stability of these hazardous co-precipitates under anoxic conditions. These can develop in tailings storage sites by the action of co-discharged reactive sulfides, organic reagent residuals or bacterial activity. The ferric matrix can then undergo reductive dissolution reactions, which could release arsenic into the pore water. Co-ions like aluminum could provide a redox-immune sink to scavenge any mobilized arsenic as a result of reduction of ferric. As such, in this work Fe(III)/As(V) = 4 and aluminum substituted Fe(III)/Al(III)/As(V) = 2/2/1 co-precipitates were produced in a mini continuous co-precipitation process circuit and subjected to excess sulfide addition under inert gas to evaluate their stability. It was found that the ferric-arsenate co-precipitate could retain up to 99% (30 mg/L in solution) of its arsenic content despite the high pH (10.5) and extremely reducing (Eh ferric iron was reduced. Partial aluminum substitution was found to cut the amount of mobilized arsenic by 50% (down to 15 mg/L) hence mixed Fe(III)/Al(III)-arsenate co-precipitates may offer better resistance to reductive destabilization over the long term than all iron co-precipitates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterns of Reef Ecosystem Recovery Indicate That Adverse Early Triassic Ocean Conditions Extended into Middle Triassic Time (United States)

    Kelley, B. M.; Yu, M.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Jost, A. B.; Lau, K. V.; Li, X.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.


    The pattern of reef ecosystem recovery from the end-Permian extinction is poorly constrained due to the limited stratigraphic, spatial, and geographic range of reef buildups in Early Triassic and Anisian (early Middle Triassic) strata. In this study, we combined field studies and petrographic analysis to examine the pattern of reef evolution in latest Permian to Late Triassic carbonate platforms in the Nanpanjiang Basin of South China, an area of extensive shallow-water carbonate deposition in the tropical eastern Tethys. We find that early Mesozoic reef recovery in the eastern Tethys was a five-step process: (1) in the immediate aftermath of extinction, calcimicrobial biostromes (P/T boundary microbialites) developed in shallow-water platform settings; (2) in late Induan time, biohermal stromatolites developed in platform interior settings; (3) in latest Spathian time, large-scale Tubiphytes, microbial, and cement reefs lacking skeletal metazoans initiated on the margins and steep upper slopes of carbonate platforms, signaling the return of reefs to platform-margin settings; (4) in the Aegean or Bithynian (early Anisian), diminutive (mm-scale) calcareous sponges and calcareous algae appeared in the Tubiphytes reef, marking the reappearance of skeletal metazoans and calcareous algae to reefs in the eastern Tethys; and (5) in the late Anisian, the appearance of scleractinian corals coincided with increased abundance, size, and diversity of metazoan and algal reef builders. Early Mesozoic reefs of the eastern Tethys were dominated by microbes, Tubiphytes, and early-marine cements until the late Anisian, several million years into the Middle Triassic. The appearance of small metazoan buildups in Early Triassic strata in other parts of the world indicates that potential reef-building organisms were present much earlier. The limited stratigraphic range of those buildups, however, reinforces the interpretation that episodic environmental disturbances such as euxinia

  15. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  16. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.


    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  17. Estimation of Remaining Useful Life of Bearings Based on Nested Dichotomy Classifier – A Machine Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Satishkumar


    Full Text Available Rolling element bearings play a vital role for maintaining the reliability metrics in all rotating machineries. The downtime due to these bearing failures are now in increasing trend. In general manufacturing environment most of the time the bearings are replaced only after an indication or symptom due to the complexities of deployments for condition monitoring techniques. This paper emphasis on estimating the remaining useful life of bearing using Nested dichotomy classifier. Vibration signals were acquired for a bearing from day one of its operation till it fails naturally through a piezoelectric accelerometer and the features are extracted using the defined statistical features. The best contributing features are selected and classified using the Nested dichotomy, data near balanced nested dichotomy and class balanced nested dichotomy classifiers. The effectiveness of these classifiers was analyzed and compared.

  18. The increase in cobalt release in metal-on-polyethylene hip bearings in tests with third body abrasives. (United States)

    de Villiers, Danielle; Traynor, Alison; Collins, Simon N; Shelton, Julia C


    Hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving metal-on-metal hip replacements have been attributed to corrosion products as observed by elevated cobalt and chromium ions in the blood. Although the majority of cases are reported in metal-on-metal, incidences of these reactions have been reported in the metal-on-polyethylene patient population. To date, no in vitro study has considered cobalt release for this bearing combination. This study considered four 28 mm and seven 52 mm diameter metal-on-polyethylene bearings tested following ISO standard hip simulator conditions as well as under established abrasive conditions. These tests showed measurable cobalt in all bearings under standard conditions. Cobalt release, as well as polyethylene wear, increased with diameter, increasing from 52 to 255 ppb. The introduction of bone cement particles into the articulation doubled polyethylene wear and cobalt release while alumina particles produced significant damage on the heads demonstrated by cobalt levels of 70,700 ppb and an increased polyethylene wear from a mean value of 9-160 mm(3)/mc. Cobalt release was indicative of head damage and correlated with polyethylene wear at the next gravimetric interval. The removal of third body particles resulted in continued elevated cobalt levels in the 52 mm diameter bearings tested with alumina compared to standard conditions but the bearings tested with bone cement particles returned to standard levels. The polyethylene wear in the bone cement tested bearings also recovered to standard levels, although the alumina tested bearings continued to wear at a higher rate of 475 mm(3)/mc. Cobalt release was shown to occur in metal-on-polyethylene bearings indicating damage to the metal head resulting in increased polyethylene wear. While large diameter metal-on-polyethylene bearings may provide an increased range of motion and a reduced dislocation risk, increased levels of cobalt are likely to be released and this needs to be fully

  19. 小波分析在滚动轴承状态监测振动信号分析中的应用%The application of wavelet analysis in the vibration signals of rolling bearing condition monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉斌; 师杭军; 郭伟; 许留存


    通过分析用于滚动轴承状态监测的共振解调技术,发现由于滚动轴承不同元件的故障特征频率不同,因此用共振解调技术对滚动轴承进行状态监测时就需要具有不同中心频率的带通滤波器,使得检测线路及设备过于复杂。而小波分析技术仅通过采用不同的尺度因子,即可实现具有不同中心频率和带宽的带通滤波器,可以对振动信号在不同的频率范围内进行分析,刚好可以弥补上述方法的不足。文中给出了用小波分析技术对滚动轴承状态监测所得振动信号进行分析的一个例子。%The characteristic of demodulated resonance technique used incondition monitoring of rolling bearing was reviewed.It was found that the band elimination suppression filter having different center frequency for different failure diagnostic frequency of different element was needed.This make the testing circuit and equipment sophisticated.Wavelet analysis,however,can get band elimination suppression filter.having different center frequency and frequency bandwidth by adopting different frequency factor.This can overcome the shortcoming of demodulated resonance technique.In this paper one example was provided that applying wavelet analysis technique to analyze the vibration signals of rolling bearing condition monitoring.

  20. Evaluating the Referring Physician's Clinical History and Indication as a Means for Communicating Chronic Conditions That Are Pertinent at the Point of Radiologic Interpretation. (United States)

    Obara, Piotr; Sevenster, Merlijn; Travis, Adam; Qian, Yuechen; Westin, Charles; Chang, Paul J


    The clinical history and indication (CHI) provided with a radiological examination are critical components of a quality interpretation by the radiologist. A patient's chronic conditions offer the context in which acute symptoms and findings can be interpreted more accurately. Seven pertinent (potentially diagnosis altering) chronic conditions, which are fairly prevalent at our institution, were selected. We analyze if and how in 140 CHIs there was mention of a patient's previously reported chronic condition and if and how the condition was subsequently described in the radiology report using a four-item scheme (Mention/Specialization, Generalization, Common comorbidity, No mention). In 40.7% of CHIs, the condition was rated Mention/Specialization. Therefore, we reject our first hypothesis that the CHI is a reliable source for obtaining pertinent chronic conditions (≥ 90.0%). Non-oncological conditions were significantly more likely rated No mention in the CHI than oncological conditions (58.7 versus 8.3%, P radiology report (χ(2) test, P radiology department to the care chain.

  1. EEMD-based multiscale ICA method for slewing bearing fault detection and diagnosis (United States)

    Žvokelj, Matej; Zupan, Samo; Prebil, Ivan


    A novel multivariate and multiscale statistical process monitoring method is proposed with the aim of detecting incipient failures in large slewing bearings, where subjective influence plays a minor role. The proposed method integrates the strengths of the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) multivariate monitoring approach with the benefits of Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), which adaptively decomposes signals into different time scales and can thus cope with multiscale system dynamics. The method, which was named EEMD-based multiscale ICA (EEMD-MSICA), not only enables bearing fault detection but also offers a mechanism of multivariate signal denoising and, in combination with the Envelope Analysis (EA), a diagnostic tool. The multiscale nature of the proposed approach makes the method convenient to cope with data which emanate from bearings in complex real-world rotating machinery and frequently represent the cumulative effect of many underlying phenomena occupying different regions in the time-frequency plane. The efficiency of the proposed method was tested on simulated as well as real vibration and Acoustic Emission (AE) signals obtained through conducting an accelerated run-to-failure lifetime experiment on a purpose-built laboratory slewing bearing test stand. The ability to detect and locate the early-stage rolling-sliding contact fatigue failure of the bearing indicates that AE and vibration signals carry sufficient information on the bearing condition and that the developed EEMD-MSICA method is able to effectively extract it, thereby representing a reliable bearing fault detection and diagnosis strategy.

  2. Influence of unbalance levels on nonlinear dynamics of a rotor-backup rolling bearing system (United States)

    Fonseca, Cesar A.; Santos, Ilmar F.; Weber, Hans I.


    Rotor drops in magnetic bearing and unbalance in rotors have been objective of study for many years. The combination of these two well-known phenomena led to an interesting chaotic response, when the rotor touches the inner race of the back-up bearing. The present work explores the nonlinear rotor backup bearing dynamics both theoretically and experimentally using a fully instrumented test rig, where the position of shaft, its angular velocity and the contact forces between the shaft and the backup bearing are sampled at 25 kHz. The test rig is built by a removable passive magnetic bearing, which allows for simulation of magnetic bearing failure (loss of carrying capacity and rotor fall). The rotor is studied numerically as well as experimentally. A theoretical approach is given beforehand and supplies the basis of the study. Finally the presented results are commented on the point of view of nonlinear dynamics applied to the practical use. The theoretical and numerical analyses are shown through orbit plots, phase plans, Poincaré maps, force response in time and double sided spectrum. The latter is important to characterize the condition at different levels of unbalance between forward and backward whirl. Our preliminary results indicate that for smaller amount of unbalance the rotor swings at the bottom of the bearing, the more the unbalance increases, other dynamical behavior occur and some can be extremely harmful, since the rotor can be lifted from the contact state and return, starting to impact innumerable times without reaching a steady state.

  3. Establishing a definition of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health: A guide to research and management activities (United States)

    Patyk, Kelly A.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Nol, Pauline; Sonne, C.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Regehr, Eric V.; Gustafson, L.; Atwood, Todd C.


    The meaning of health for wildlife and perspectives on how to assess and measure health, are not well characterized. For wildlife at risk, such as some polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations, establishing comprehensive monitoring programs that include health status is an emerging need. Environmental changes, especially loss of sea ice habitat, have raised concern about polar bear health. Effective and consistent monitoring of polar bear health requires an unambiguous definition of health. We used the Delphi method of soliciting and interpreting expert knowledge to propose a working definition of polar bear health and to identify current concerns regarding health, challenges in measuring health, and important metrics for monitoring health. The expert opinion elicited through the exercise agreed that polar bear health is defined by characteristics and knowledge at the individual, population, and ecosystem level. The most important threats identified were in decreasing order: climate change, increased nutritional stress, chronic physiological stress, harvest management, increased exposure to contaminants, increased frequency of human interaction, diseases and parasites, and increased exposure to competitors. Fifteen metrics were identified to monitor polar bear health. Of these, indicators of body condition, disease and parasite exposure, contaminant exposure, and reproductive success were ranked as most important. We suggest that a cumulative effects approach to research and monitoring will improve the ability to assess the biological, ecological, and social determinants of polar bear health and provide measurable objectives for conservation goals and priorities and to evaluate progress.

  4. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA. (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A


    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  5. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager


    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting....... We present our initial design and implementation of the EcoBears that consist of two bear modules (a mother and her cub). We also present our preliminary concept validations and lessons learned to be considered for future directions....

  6. Conical Magnetic Bearing Development and Magnetic Bearing Testing for Extreme Temperature Environments (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Jansen, Mark


    The main proposed research of this grant were: to design a high-temperature, conical magnetic bearing facility, to test the high-temperature, radial magnetic bearing facility to higher speeds, to investigate different backup bearing designs and materials, to retrofit the high-temperature test facility with a magnetic thrust bearing, to evaluate test bearings at various conditions, and test several lubricants using a spiral orbit tribometer. A high-temperature, conical magnetic bearing facility has been fully developed using Solidworks. The facility can reuse many of the parts of the current high-temperature, radial magnetic bearing, helping to reduce overall build costs. The facility has the ability to measure bearing force capacity in the X, Y, and Z directions through a novel bearing mounting design. The high temperature coils and laminations, a main component of the facility, are based upon the current radial design and can be fabricated at Texas A&M University. The coil design was highly successful in the radial magnetic bearing. Vendors were contacted about fabrication of the high temperature lamination stack. Stress analysis was done on the laminations. Some of the components were procured, but due to budget cuts, the facility build up was stopped.

  7. Effects of fluid inertia and bearing flexibility on the performance of finite length journal bearing (United States)

    Javorova, Juliana; Alexandrov, Vassil


    The paper describes the theoretical study concerning the effect of lubricant inertia forces and deformability of the bearing elastic layer on the performance of a plane journal bearing. The problem is investigated for a Newtonian lubricant under isothermal and isoviscous conditions. The analysis considers the generalized Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the clearance space and the linear elasticity equation governing the displacement field in the bearing shell. An iterative numerical procedure with successive over relaxation is used to pressure distribution within the lubricated conjunction. Bearing performance characteristics have been presented for typically selected values of generalized Reynolds number Re* and elasticity parameters of the elastic liner. It has been observed that the combined effect of fluid inertia forces and bearing flexibility affects the performance characteristics of dynamically loaded journal bearing.

  8. Effect of fluid compressibility on journal bearing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimofte, F. (NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))


    An analysis was undertaken to determine the effect of fluid film compressibility on the performance of fluid film bearings. A new version of the Reynolds equation was developed, using a polytropic expansion, for both steady-state and dynamic conditions. Polytropic exponents from 1 (isothermal) to 1000 (approaching an incompressible liquid) were evaluated for two bearing numbers, selected from a range of practical interest for cryogenic application, and without cavitation. Bearing loads were insensitive to fluid compressibility for low bearing numbers, as was expected. The effect of compressibility on attitude angle was significant, even when the bearing number was low. A small amount of fluid compressibility was enough to obtain stable running conditions. Incompressible liquid lacked stability at all conditions. Fluid compressibility can be used to control the bearing dynamic coefficients, thereby influencing the dynamic behavior of the rotor-bearing system. 14 refs.

  9. A Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Results for Magnetic Bearings (United States)

    Hibbs, Robert I., Jr.; Scharrer, Joseph K.; Galvin, Bonnie A.; Galvin, Mark W.


    A comprehensive program was undertaken to experimentally characterize the static and dynamic characteristics of a heteropolar magnetic bearing and to develop nonlinear theoretical models capable of accurately predicting magnetic bearing performance. This paper presents the results for the static characteristics of the magnetic bearing and a comparison with the predictions from the analytical model. The results indicate that the nonlinear theoretical model can accurately predict the static characteristics of the magnetic bearing.

  10. Losses of Superconductor Journal Bearing (United States)

    Han, Y. H.; Hull, J. R.; Han, S. C.; Jeong, N. H.; Oh, J. M.; Sung, T. H.


    A high-temperature superconductor (HTS) journal bearing was studied for rotational loss. Two HTS bearings support the rotor at top and bottom. The rotor weight is 4 kg and the length is about 300 mm. Both the top and bottom bearings have two permanent magnet (PM) rings with an iron pole piece separating them. Each HTS journal bearing is composed of six pieces of superconductor blocks of size 35×25×10 mm. The HTS blocks are encased in a cryochamber through which liquid nitrogen flows. The inner spool of the cryochamber is made from G-10 to reduce eddy current loss, and the rest of the cryochamber is stainless steel. The magnetic field from the PM rings is < 10 mT on the stainless part. The rotational drag was measured over the same speed range at several chamber pressures. Results indicate that a chamber pressure of 0.4 mtorr is sufficiently low to minimize windage loss, and the 10 mT design criterion for the magnetic field on the stainless part of the cryochamber is too high.

  11. Modeling of dynamically loaded hydrodynamic bearings at low Sommerfeld numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim

    . The challenging main bearing operation conditions in a wind turbine pose a demanding development task for the design of a hydrodynamic bearing. In general these conditions include operation at low Reynolds numbers with frequent start and stop at high loads as well as difficult operating conditions dictated...

  12. Detection and Quantization of Bearing Fault in Direct Drive Wind Turbine via Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Teng


    Full Text Available Bearing fault is usually buried by intensive noise because of the low speed and heavy load in direct drive wind turbine (DDWT. Furthermore, varying wind speed and alternating loads make it difficult to quantize bearing fault feature that indicates the degree of deterioration. This paper presents the application of multiscale enveloping spectrogram (MuSEnS and cepstrum to detect and quantize bearing fault in DDWT. MuSEnS can manifest fault modulation information adaptively based on the capacity of complex wavelet transform, which enables the weak bearing fault in DDWT to be detected. Cepstrum can calculate the average interval of periodic components in frequency domain and is suitable for quantizing bearing fault feature under varying operation conditions due to the logarithm weight on the power spectrum. Through comparing a faulty DDWT with a normal one, the bearing fault feature is evidenced and the quantization index is calculated, which show a good application prospect for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in real DDWT.

  13. Integrated use of biomarkers and condition indices in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for monitoring pollution and development of biomarker index to assess the potential toxic of coastal sites. (United States)

    Benali, Imene; Boutiba, Zitouni; Merabet, Amina; Chèvre, Nathalie


    In this study, we are interested in spatial and temporal variations of the biological and physiological responses of mussels collected from contrasting marine sites regarding their levels of pollution. We measured both the conditions indices and the enzymatic biomarker expression: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. The enzymatic biomarkers were chosen because they respond to environmental stress. Results show a significant interactions between biomarker variations and conditions indices in the industrial harbor site throughout the seasons. But no significant changes in the reference site. Furthermore, we classified the sites along the seasons according to their potential ecotoxicity, calculated based on the sum of the normalised values of the biomarkers. The results show a very high biomarker index in the impacted site with irregular changes between seasons. This biomarker index is therefore a valuable tool that could be used to classify the toxic potential of coastal sites.

  14. Strengthening mechanism of cemented hydrate-bearing sand at microscales (United States)

    Yoneda, Jun; Jin, Yusuke; Katagiri, Jun; Tenma, Norio


    On the basis of hypothetical particle-level mechanisms, several constitutive models of hydrate-bearing sediments have been proposed previously for gas production. However, to the best of our knowledge, the microstructural large-strain behaviors of hydrate-bearing sediments have not been reported to date because of the experimental challenges posed by the high-pressure and low-temperature testing conditions. Herein, a novel microtriaxial testing apparatus was developed, and the mechanical large-strain behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments with various hydrate saturation values (Sh = 0%, 39%, and 62%) was analyzed using microfocus X-ray computed tomography. Patchy hydrates were observed in the sediments at Sh = 39%. The obtained stress-strain relationships indicated strengthening with increasing hydrate saturation and a brittle failure mode of the hydrate-bearing sand. Localized deformations were quantified via image processing at the submillimeter and micrometer scale. Shear planes and particle deformation and/or rotation were detected, and the shear band thickness decreased with increasing hydrate saturation.

  15. Frictional Characteristics of Thrust Bearing in Scroll Compressor (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Itoh, Takahide; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents frictional characteristics of thrust bearing in scroll compressor focusing on the behavior of sliding portion which affects the generation of oil film. The coefficient of friction and tilt angle of sliding portion in the thrust bearing are obtained through both elemental friction test and cylinder pressure measurement of actual scroll compressor. Both tests showed that the coefficient of friction in low contact pressure rose with increase of tilt angle of sliding portion. The value of contact pressure which the coefficient of friction turns into increase was in agreement of the value which tilt angle become to increase. Numerical analysis using mixed lubrication theory was also performed. Analytical result indicated the same characteristics as the experiments, and the correlation between the coefficient of friction and the behavior of sliding portion was confirmed. Based on the experimental and the analytical results obtained here, the optimization of thrust bearing for commercial scroll compressor was applied. 2% improvement of total efficiency in rated condition was archived by optimization of thrust bearing.

  16. Frontal brain activity and behavioral indicators of affective states are weakly affected by thermal stimuli in sheep living in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eVögeli


    Full Text Available Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative, intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive. We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g. locomotor activity, aversive behaviors and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found.

  17. The salmon bears: giants of the great bear rainforest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAllister, I; Read, N


    The Salmon Bears explores the delicate balance that exists between the grizzly, black and spirit bears of the Great Bear Rainforest and their natural environment on the central coast of British Columbia...

  18. Identifying patients with advanced chronic conditions for a progressive palliative care approach: a cross-sectional study of prognostic indicators related to end-of-life trajectories (United States)

    Amblàs-Novellas, J; Murray, S A; Espaulella, J; Martinez-Muñoz, M; Blay, C; Gómez-Batiste, X


    Objectives 2 innovative concepts have lately been developed to radically improve the care of patients with advanced chronic conditions (PACC): early identification of palliative care (PC) needs and the 3 end-of-life trajectories in chronic illnesses (acute, intermittent and gradual dwindling). It is not clear (1) what indicators work best for this early identification and (2) if specific clinical indicators exist for each of these trajectories. The objectives of this study are to explore these 2 issues. Setting 3 primary care services, an acute care hospital, an intermediate care centre and 4 nursing homes in a mixed urban–rural district in Barcelona, Spain. Participants 782 patients (61.5% women) with a positive NECPAL CCOMS-ICO test, indicating they might benefit from a PC approach. Outcome measures The characteristics and distribution of the indicators of the NECPAL CCOMS-ICO tool are analysed with respect to the 3 trajectories and have been arranged by domain (functional, nutritional and cognitive status, emotional problems, geriatric syndromes, social vulnerability and others) and according to their static (severity) and dynamic (progression) properties. Results The common indicators associated with early end-of-life identification are functional (44.3%) and nutritional (30.7%) progression, emotional distress (21.9%) and geriatric syndromes (15.7% delirium, 11.2% falls). The rest of the indicators showed differences in the associations per illness trajectories (ppalliative approach. PMID:27645556

  19. Temporal effects of hunting on foraging behavior of an apex predator: Do bears forego foraging when risk is high? (United States)

    Hertel, Anne G; Zedrosser, Andreas; Mysterud, Atle; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Steyaert, Sam M J G; Swenson, Jon E


    Avoiding predators most often entails a food cost. For the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos), the hunting season coincides with the period of hyperphagia. Hunting mortality risk is not uniformly distributed throughout the day, but peaks in the early morning hours. As bears must increase mass for winter survival, they should be sensitive to temporal allocation of antipredator responses to periods of highest risk. We expected bears to reduce foraging activity at the expense of food intake in the morning hours when risk was high, but not in the afternoon, when risk was low. We used fine-scale GPS-derived activity patterns during the 2 weeks before and after the onset of the annual bear hunting season. At locations of probable foraging, we assessed abundance and sugar content, of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), the most important autumn food resource for bears in this area. Bears decreased their foraging activity in the morning hours of the hunting season. Likewise, they foraged less efficiently and on poorer quality berries in the morning. Neither of our foraging measures were affected by hunting in the afternoon foraging bout, indicating that bears did not allocate antipredator behavior to times of comparably lower risk. Bears effectively responded to variation in risk on the scale of hours. This entailed a measurable foraging cost. The additive effect of reduced foraging activity, reduced forage intake, and lower quality food may result in poorer body condition upon den entry and may ultimately reduce reproductive success.

  20. Changes in Hardware in Order to Accommodate Compliant Foil Air Bearings of a Larger Size (United States)

    Zeszotek, Michelle


    Compliant foil air bearings are at the forefront of the Oil-Free turbomachinery revolution of supporting gas turbine engines with air lubricated hydrodynamic bearings. Foil air bearings have existed for almost fifty years, yet their commercialization has been confined to relatively small, high-speed systems characterized by low temperatures and loads, such as in air cycle machines, turbocompressors and micro-turbines. Recent breakthroughs in foil air bearing design and solid lubricant coating technology, have caused a resurgence of research towards applying Oil-Free technology to more demanding applications on the scale of small and mid range aircraft gas turbine engines. In order to foster the transition of Oil-Free technology into gas turbine engines, in-house experiments need to be performed on foil air bearings to further the understanding of their complex operating principles. During my internship at NASA Glenn in the summer of 2003, a series of tests were performed to determine the internal temperature profile in a compliant bump- type foil journal air bearing operating at room temperature under various speeds and load conditions. From these tests, a temperature profile was compiled, indicating that the circumferential thermal gradients were negligible. The tests further indicated that both journal rotational speed and radial load are responsible for heat generation with speed playing a more significant role in the magnitude of the temperatures. As a result of the findings from the tests done during the summer of 2003, it was decided that further testing would need to be done, but with a bearing of a larger diameter. The bearing diameter would now be increased from two inches to three inches. All of the currently used testing apparatus was designed specifically for a bearing that was two inches in diameter. Thus, my project for the summer of 2004 was to focus specifically on the scatter shield put around the testing rig while running the bearings. Essentially

  1. Relações de produtividade, área folhear e alternância na macieira bravo de esmolfe: Yield efficiency, leaf area and alternate bearing indices of apple cv. bravo de esmolfe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santos


    Full Text Available A macieira Bravo de Esmolfe é a mais conhecida e valorizada das variedades regionais, mas o conhecimento técnico disponível é escasso e torna-se necessário aprofundá-lo, em especial no que se refere às formas de gestão e controlo de uma das suas características mais negativas, a forte tendência para alternar as produções. Assim, pretendeu-se identificar algumas relações de produtividade que não desencadeiem alternância, quando cultivada no porta-enxerto ananicante EMLA9, que tem sido considerado entre os melhores actualmente disponíveis para o seu cultivo em regime intensivo. Para o efeito foram seleccionadas 30 macieiras de 8 anos, de estatura semelhante, e que apresentaram diferentes níveis de produtividade no ano de 2004. Em Novembro de 2004 foram recolhidas as folhas e medida a sua área, e contabilizadas as respectivas inflorescências em Abril de 2005, o que forneceu uma perspectiva da produção para essa campanha. Tendo em conta tais valores, e recorrendo ao seu historial produtivo, foram calculados alguns parâmetros que permitiram a análise do comportamento e regularidade de produção das macieiras seleccionadas. Os resultados obtidos nesta primeira abordagem sugerem que intervalos de produtividade da ordem de 8 a 11 g de maçã por folha durante a campanha, a que correspondem 20 a 30 maçãs por cm de diâmetro do tronco, bem como valores entre 10 e 15 folhas por maçã produzida, evitam a alternância de produção, desde que sejam feitas mondas atempadas, conseguindo-se assim bom equilíbrio produção/vegetação.The Bravo de Esmolfe apple tree is the most reputed and valued regional variety, but the available technical knowledge about it does not suffice. It must be deepened, especially on what concerns tools for management and control of one of this cultivar’s most negative characteristics, the strong tendency to alternate bearing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify some yield relations that

  2. Effect of salinity on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa genotypes inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti strains under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fazaeli


    Full Text Available This greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of salinity and bacterial inoculation on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa (Medicago sativa using a factorial completely randomized design with three replications. The effect of three salinity levels (0, 6 and 12 dS/m induced by a mixture of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 salts on growth indices and protein content of three alfalfa genotypes (Hamadani, Gharahyonjeh and Gharghalogh at three levels of inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria (no inoculation, inoculation with salinity-tolerant strain and inoculation with salinity-sensitive strain was investigated. After the isolation and purification of alfalfa-symbiotic-bacteria from alfalfa fields in Tehran province, two isolates of S. meliloti, one salinity-resistant and the other one salinity-sensitive, which are effective in symbiosis with alfalfa, were selected. Analysis of the results showed that by increasing the salinity level, the shoot and root dry weight, number of active nodules, and nitrogen (N concentration were decreased significantly (P<0.01. Inoculation with salinity-resistant strain of S. meliloti caused significant increase in shoot and root dry weight, number of active nodules, and N concentration of plants. Moreover, under saline conditions, the salinity-resistant S. meliloti strain increased significantly most alfalfa growth-indices and yield compared to control (without inoculation and inoculation with salinity-sensitive bacteria. There was no significant difference among alfalfa genotypes in yield and other growth indices under saline conditions. In general, the R59 isolate seems to be the best isolate of S. meliloti for greenhouse-grown alfalfa in saline conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Sadık ÜNLÜ


    Full Text Available Bronzes which copper based alloys is widely used because of properties physical, thermal and tribological as journal bearing material. This material that has tribological performance good conclusions gives at journal bearings. In this study, CuSn10 bronze that were manufactured journal bearings friction and wear properties has been examined and compared. SAE 1050 steel shaft has been used as counter abrader. Experiments have been carried out 10 N and 20 N loads, 750 and 1500 rpm, dry and lubricated conditions by using radial journal bearing wear test rig. As a results, high friction coefficient and weigh loss have been obtained at dry condition more than lubricated condition.

  4. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F


    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  5. Relationship of rolling bearing stiffness with diameter of roller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭茂林; 王刚; 张瑞


    The theoretical formula of roller bearing stiffness is induced and compared with its empirical formula.In the experience formula the stiffness of roller bearing has nothing to do with the roller diameter. The relation-ship of roller bearing stiffness with roller diameter was studied using Hz contacting theory. It is concluded thatconclusion in experience formula is only approximate result of data processing under special conditions, and therelation between stiffness of roller bearing and roller diameter must be taken into consideration while designingor selecting roller bearings.

  6. Assessing the impact of environmental forcing on the condition of anchovy larvae in the Cadiz Gulf using nucleic acid and fatty acid-derived indices (United States)

    Teodósio, M. A.; Garrido, S.; Peters, J.; Leitão, F.; Ré, P.; Peliz, A.; Santos, A. M. P.


    Understanding the environmental processes affecting fish larvae survival is critical for population dynamics, conservation purposes and to ecosystem-based fishery management. Using anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) of the Cadiz Gulf as a study case and considering the "Ocean Triad" hypothesis, we investigate the larval ecophysiological status and potential survival in relation to oceanographic variables. Therefore, this study aims to describe the nutritional condition of anchovy larvae during spawning season (peak in summer) through nucleic acid- and fatty acid (FA)-derived indices and to analyze the effects of the major environmental parameters (Depth, Temperature, Salinity, Plankton biomass) on anchovy survival potential at early phases. Fish larvae were collected in August from 30 m to 400 m depth at 35 stations off the southern Iberian coast. A previous upwelling event influenced the oceanographic conditions of the more western stations off Cape São Vicente (CSV). Along the coast, the water became warmer from west to the east through Cape Santa Maria (CSM) ending at Guadiana estuary, where easterly winds originated the development of a counter current. The standardized RNA/DNA (sRD) of anchovy larvae decreased throughout larval ontogeny, reflecting a reduction of growth during the development. Essential FA concentrations also decreased, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in particular was highly conserved even after the reduction of total FA concentration in anchovy larvae related to the onset of swimming abilities (post-flexion phase). The oceanographic conditions (west upwelling, east counter current, and stratification) led to a nearshore aggregation of plankton and anchovy larvae with good ecophysiological conditions in the central area of the southern coast, where an optimal range of temperature and chlorophyll, as an indirect food proxy for anchovy larval development, were registered. The study proves that the oceanographic conditions of the study area are

  7. The coming and going of a marl lake: multi-indicator palaeolimnology reveals abrupt ecological change and alternative views of reference conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eWiik


    Full Text Available Eutrophication is the most pressing threat to highly calcareous (marl lakes in Europe. Despite their unique chemistry and biology, comprehensive studies into their unimpacted conditions and eutrophication responses are underrepresented in conservation literature. A multi-indicator palaeolimnological study spanning ca 1260 to 2009 was undertaken at Cunswick Tarn (UK, a small, presently eutrophic marl lake, in order to capture centennial timescales of impact. Specific aims were to 1 establish temporal patterns of change (gradual/abrupt across biological groups, thereby testing theories of resistance of marl lake benthic communities to enrichment, and 2 compare the core record of reference condition with prevailing descriptions of high ecological status. Analyses of sediment calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, pigments, diatoms, testate amoebae, cladocerans, and macrofossils, revealed three abrupt changes in ecosystem structure. The first (1900s, with biomass increases in charophytes and other benthic nutrient-poor indicators, supported ideas of resistance to eutrophication in Chara lakes. The second transition (1930s, from charophyte to angiosperm dominance, occurred alongside reductions in macrophyte cover, increases in eutrophic indicators, and a breakdown in marling, in support of ideas of threshold responses to enrichment. Core P increased consistently into the 1990s when rapid transitions into pelagic shallow lake ecology occurred and Cunswick Tarn became biologically unidentifiable as a marl lake. The moderate total P at which these changes occurred suggests high sensitivity of marl lakes to eutrophication. Further, the early record challenges ideas of correlation between ecological condition, charophyte biomass and sediment Ca. Instead, low benthic production, macrophyte cover, and Ca sedimentation, was inferred. Management measures must focus on reducing external nutrient and sediment loads at early stages of impact in order to preserve marl lakes.

  8. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu


    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  9. Gear bearing drive (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  10. My Little Teddy Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ As Valentine's Day came closer,every shop was full of colourful gifts such as cookies in the shape of heart, chocolates,Teddy Bears and so on.When I step into a shop on February 14th,I felt most lonely as I was alone.With mv eves fixed on a lovely Teddy Bear, I wished that someone could send me this stuffed toy.

  11. Temperature distribution and scuffing of tapered roller bearing (United States)

    Wang, Ailin; Wang, Jiugen


    In the field of aerospace, high-speed trains and automobile, etc, analysis of temperature filed and scuffing failure of tapered roller bearings are more important than ever, and the scuffing failure of elements of such rolling bearings under heavy load and high speed still cannot be effectively predicted yet. A simplified model of tapered roller bearings consisted of one inner raceway, one outer raceway and a tapered roller was established, in which the interaction of several heat sources is ignored. The contact mechanics model, temperature model and model of scuffing failure are synthesized, and the corresponding computer programs are developed to analyze the effects of bearings parameters, different material and operational conditions on thermal performance of bearings, and temperature distribution and the possibility of surface scuffing are obtained. The results show that load, speed, thermal conductivity and tapered roller materials influence temperature rise and scuffing failure of bearings. Ceramic material of tapered roller results in the decrease of scuffing possibility of bearings to a high extent than the conventional rolling bearing steel. Compared with bulk temperature, flash temperature on the surfaces of bearing elements has a little influence on maximum temperature rise of bearing elements. For the rolling bearings operated under high speed and heavy load, this paper proposes a method which can accurately calculate the possibility of scuffing failure of rolling bearings.

  12. Temperature Distribution and Scuffing of Tapered Roller Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ailin; WANG Jiugen


    In the field of aerospace, high-speed trains and automobile, etc, analysis of temperature filed and scuffing failure of tapered roller bearings are more important than ever, and the scuffing failure of elements of such rolling bearings under heavy load and high speed still cannot be effectively predicted yet. A simplified model of tapered roller bearings consisted of one inner raceway, one outer raceway and a tapered roller was established, in which the interaction of several heat sources is ignored. The contact mechanics model, temperature model and model of scuffing failure are synthesized, and the corresponding computer programs are developed to analyze the effects of bearings parameters, different material and operational conditions on thermal performance of bearings, and temperature distribution and the possibility of surface scuffing are obtained. The results show that load, speed, thermal conductivity and tapered roller materials influence temperature rise and scuffing failure of bearings. Ceramic material of tapered roller results in the decrease of scuffing possibility of bearings to a high extent than the conventional rolling bearing steel. Compared with bulk temperature, flash temperature on the surfaces of bearing elements has a little influence on maximum temperature rise of bearing elements. For the rolling bearings operated under high speed and heavy load, this paper proposes a method which can accurately calculate the possibility of scuffing failure of rolling bearings.

  13. Analysis of thermoelastohydrodynamic performance of journal misaligned engine main bearings (United States)

    Bi, Fengrong; Shao, Kang; Liu, Changwen; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Jian


    To understand the engine main bearings' working condition is important in order to improve the performance of engine. However, thermal effects and thermal effect deformations of engine main bearings are rarely considered simultaneously in most studies. A typical finite element model is selected and the effect of thermoelastohydrodynamic(TEHD) reaction on engine main bearings is investigated. The calculated method of main bearing's thermal hydrodynamic reaction and journal misalignment effect is finite difference method, and its deformation reaction is calculated by using finite element method. The oil film pressure is solved numerically with Reynolds boundary conditions when various bearing characteristics are calculated. The whole model considers a temperature-pressure-viscosity relationship for the lubricant, surface roughness effect, and also an angular misalignment between the journal and the bearing. Numerical simulations of operation of a typical I6 diesel engine main bearing is conducted and importance of several contributing factors in mixed lubrication is discussed. The performance characteristics of journal misaligned main bearings under elastohydrodynamic(EHD) and TEHD loads of an I6 diesel engine are received, and then the journal center orbit movement, minimum oil film thickness and maximum oil film pressure of main bearings are estimated over a wide range of engine operation. The model is verified through the comparison with other present models. The TEHD performance of engine main bearings with various effects under the influences of journal misalignment is revealed, this is helpful to understand EHD and TEHD effect of misaligned engine main bearings.

  14. Genomic evidence for island population conversion resolves conflicting theories of polar bear evolution. (United States)

    Cahill, James A; Green, Richard E; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Jay, Flora; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Salamzade, Rauf; St John, John; Stirling, Ian; Slatkin, Montgomery; Shapiro, Beth


    Despite extensive genetic analysis, the evolutionary relationship between polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and brown bears (U. arctos) remains unclear. The two most recent comprehensive reports indicate a recent divergence with little subsequent admixture or a much more ancient divergence followed by extensive admixture. At the center of this controversy are the Alaskan ABC Islands brown bears that show evidence of shared ancestry with polar bears. We present an analysis of genome-wide sequence data for seven polar bears, one ABC Islands brown bear, one mainland Alaskan brown bear, and a black bear (U. americanus), plus recently published datasets from other bears. Surprisingly, we find clear evidence for gene flow from polar bears into ABC Islands brown bears but no evidence of gene flow from brown bears into polar bears. Importantly, while polar bears contributed <1% of the autosomal genome of the ABC Islands brown bear, they contributed 6.5% of the X chromosome. The magnitude of sex-biased polar bear ancestry and the clear direction of gene flow suggest a model wherein the enigmatic ABC Island brown bears are the descendants of a polar bear population that was gradually converted into brown bears via male-dominated brown bear admixture. We present a model that reconciles heretofore conflicting genetic observations. We posit that the enigmatic ABC Islands brown bears derive from a population of polar bears likely stranded by the receding ice at the end of the last glacial period. Since then, male brown bear migration onto the island has gradually converted these bears into an admixed population whose phenotype and genotype are principally brown bear, except at mtDNA and X-linked loci. This process of genome erosion and conversion may be a common outcome when climate change or other forces cause a population to become isolated and then overrun by species with which it can hybridize.

  15. Genomic evidence for island population conversion resolves conflicting theories of polar bear evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Cahill

    Full Text Available Despite extensive genetic analysis, the evolutionary relationship between polar bears (Ursus maritimus and brown bears (U. arctos remains unclear. The two most recent comprehensive reports indicate a recent divergence with little subsequent admixture or a much more ancient divergence followed by extensive admixture. At the center of this controversy are the Alaskan ABC Islands brown bears that show evidence of shared ancestry with polar bears. We present an analysis of genome-wide sequence data for seven polar bears, one ABC Islands brown bear, one mainland Alaskan brown bear, and a black bear (U. americanus, plus recently published datasets from other bears. Surprisingly, we find clear evidence for gene flow from polar bears into ABC Islands brown bears but no evidence of gene flow from brown bears into polar bears. Importantly, while polar bears contributed <1% of the autosomal genome of the ABC Islands brown bear, they contributed 6.5% of the X chromosome. The magnitude of sex-biased polar bear ancestry and the clear direction of gene flow suggest a model wherein the enigmatic ABC Island brown bears are the descendants of a polar bear population that was gradually converted into brown bears via male-dominated brown bear admixture. We present a model that reconciles heretofore conflicting genetic observations. We posit that the enigmatic ABC Islands brown bears derive from a population of polar bears likely stranded by the receding ice at the end of the last glacial period. Since then, male brown bear migration onto the island has gradually converted these bears into an admixed population whose phenotype and genotype are principally brown bear, except at mtDNA and X-linked loci. This process of genome erosion and conversion may be a common outcome when climate change or other forces cause a population to become isolated and then overrun by species with which it can hybridize.

  16. Progressive collapse resisting capacity of reinforced concrete load bearing wall structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Rahai; Alireza Shahin; Farzad Hatami


    Reinforced concrete (RC) load bearing wall is widely used in high-rise and mid-rise buildings. Due to the number of walls in plan and reduction in lateral force portion, this system is not only stronger against earthquakes, but also more economical. The effect of progressive collapse caused by removal of load bearing elements, in various positions in plan and stories of the RC load bearing wall system was evaluated by nonlinear dynamic and static analyses. For this purpose, three-dimensional model of 10-story structure was selected. The analysis results indicated stability, strength and stiffness of the RC load-bearing wall system against progressive collapse. It was observed that the most critical condition for removal of load bearing walls was the instantaneous removal of the surrounding walls located at the corners of the building where the sections of the load bearing elements were changed. In this case, the maximum vertical displacement was limited to 6.3 mm and the structure failed after applying the load of 10 times the axial load bored by removed elements. Comparison between the results of the nonlinear dynamic and static analyses demonstrated that the “load factor” parameter was a reasonable criterion to evaluate the progressive collapse potential of the structure.

  17. Dynamic Model and Fault Feature Research of Dual-Rotor System with Bearing Pedestal Looseness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanfei Wang


    Full Text Available The paper presents a finite element model of dual-rotor system with pedestal looseness stemming from loosened bolts. Dynamic model including bearing pedestal looseness is established based on the dual-rotor test rig. Three-degree-of-freedom (DOF planar rigid motion of loose bearing pedestal is fully considered and collision recovery coefficient is also introduced in the model. Based on the Timoshenko beam elements, using the finite element method, rigid body kinematics, and the Newmark-β algorithm for numerical simulation, dynamic characteristics of the inner and outer rotors and the bearing pedestal plane rigid body motion under bearing pedestal looseness condition are studied. Meanwhile, the looseness experiments under two different speed combinations are carried out, and the experimental results are basically the same. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results, indicating that vibration displacement waveforms of loosened rotor have “clipping” phenomenon. When the bearing pedestal looseness fault occurs, the inner and outer rotors vibration spectrum not only contains the difference and sum frequency of the two rotors’ fundamental frequency but also contains 2X and 3X component of rotor with loosened support, and so forth; low frequency spectrum is more, containing dividing component, and so forth; the rotor displacement spectrums also contain fewer combination frequency components, and so forth; when one side of the inner rotor bearing pedestal is loosened, the inner rotor axis trajectory is drawn into similar-ellipse shape.

  18. A simulation study on optimal oil spraying mode for high-speed rolling bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Pang


    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, a numerical simulation model of the oil spraying system is established.Design/methodology/approach: Spraying lubrication is a common form of the rolling bearing lubrication. Butwith the increase of the bearing speed, the roller cage is frequently shattered, which may lead to failure of thebearing. The shatter of roller cage may be related to the spraying mode of oil. For high-speed rolling bearing,the roller cage shatter can be cracked due to the shortage of oil, caused by lubricating oil not sprayed into theroller cage shatter. This condition can be ameliorated by changing the spraying mode of oil supply system. Themodel considered the spraying speed, spraying angle, oil pressure, oil viscosity, structure of roller cage shatter,rotating speed as the main parameters. By optimization, the best way of oil spraying was obtained which canmeet lubrication requirement of high-speed rolling bearing. At the same time, the numerical simulation resultsalso revealed that the optimal spraying mode is different for different rolling bearings.Findings: The simulating results indicate that due to the effect of the air pressure and airflow thickness, theoptimal spraying position is at a region closer to the inner ring of the bearings.Practical implications: This paper will provide useful information to applying numerical simulation of the oilspraying system.Originality/value: The computer simulation allows to better understand the interdependence betweenparameters of process and choosing optimal solution.

  19. Fault Tolerant Homopolar Magnetic Bearings (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hsiu; Palazzolo, Alan; Kenny, Andrew; Provenza, Andrew; Beach, Raymond; Kascak, Albert


    Magnetic suspensions (MS) satisfy the long life and low loss conditions demanded by satellite and ISS based flywheels used for Energy Storage and Attitude Control (ACESE) service. This paper summarizes the development of a novel MS that improves reliability via fault tolerant operation. Specifically, flux coupling between poles of a homopolar magnetic bearing is shown to deliver desired forces even after termination of coil currents to a subset of failed poles . Linear, coordinate decoupled force-voltage relations are also maintained before and after failure by bias linearization. Current distribution matrices (CDM) which adjust the currents and fluxes following a pole set failure are determined for many faulted pole combinations. The CDM s and the system responses are obtained utilizing 1D magnetic circuit models with fringe and leakage factors derived from detailed, 3D, finite element field models. Reliability results are presented vs. detection/correction delay time and individual power amplifier reliability for 4, 6, and 7 pole configurations. Reliability is shown for two success criteria, i.e. (a) no catcher bearing contact following pole failures and (b) re-levitation off of the catcher bearings following pole failures. An advantage of the method presented over other redundant operation approaches is a significantly reduced requirement for backup hardware such as additional actuators or power amplifiers.

  20. Relationships between POPs, biometrics and circulating steroids in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz M.; Hansen, Ingunn Tjelta; Bytingsvik, Jenny


    ), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma....../estrogen ratios being approximately 60 times higher in adult males than in subadult males. PCA plots and OPLS models indicated that TS was positively related to biometrics, such as body condition index in male polar bears. A negative relationship was also observed between POPs and DHT. Consequently, POPs and body...

  1. Use of chemical indicators of beer aging for ex-post checking of storage conditions and prediction of the sensory stability of beer. (United States)

    Cejka, Pavel; Culík, Jiří; Horák, Tomáš; Jurková, Marie; Olšovská, Jana


    The rate of beer aging is affected by storage conditions including largely time and temperature. Although bottled beer is commonly stored for up to 1 year, sensorial damage of it is quite frequent. Therefore, a method for retrospective determination of temperature of stored beer was developed. The method is based on the determination of selected carbonyl compounds called as "aging indicators", which are formed during beer aging. The aging indicators were determined using GC-MS after precolumn derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentaflourobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and their profile was correlated with the development of old flavor evolving under defined conditions (temperature, time) using both a mathematical and statistical apparatus. Three approaches, including calculation from regression graph, multiple linear regression, and neural networks, were employed. The ultimate uncertainty of the method ranged from 3.0 to 11.0 °C depending on the approach used. Furthermore, the assay was extended to include prediction of beer tendency to sensory aging from freshly bottled beer.

  2. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report updates a study to examine the cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies. The project was initiated in 1994 to acquire accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of the study is used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers monitored 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers worked with representatives from Husky Oil and Rigel Energy on the development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over eight years indicates that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered thus far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears suffer from high mortality, and the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The research concluded in November 2001 provides sufficient information to accurately asses the status of the grizzly bear population and habitat. The data will be analyzed and integrated in 2002 into models that reflect the variables affecting grizzly bears and a final report will be published.

  3. Mercury biomagnification in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Blum, J. D.; Xie, Z.; Hren, M.; Chamberlain, C. P.


    Mercury biomagnification occurs in a variety of ecosystems resulting in greater potential for toxicological effects in higher-level trophic feeders. However, Hg transport pathways through different foodweb channels are not well known, particularly in high-latitude systems affected by atmospheric Hg deposition associated with snow and ice. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios and Hg concentrations determined for 26 late 19th and early 20th century polar bear hair specimens collected from cataloged museum collections elucidate relationships between high latitude marine foodweb structure and Hg transport pathways. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions suggest that polar bears derive nutrition from both open water (pelagic) and ice associated (sympagic) foodweb channels. Correlation between Hg concentrations and nitrogen isotope compositions indicate mercury biomagnification occurred in most of the polar bears investigated. Interpretation of stable isotope based foodweb structure in concert with Hg concentrations further suggests that Hg biomagnification occurred to a greater degree in polar bears participating in pelagic foodweb channels.

  4. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India. (United States)

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam


    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  5. Magnetic Bearing Consumes Low Power (United States)

    Studer, P. A.


    Energy-efficient linear magnetic bearing maintains a precise small separation between its moving and stationary parts. Originally designed for cryogenic compressors on spacecraft, proposed magnetic bearing offers an alternative to roller or gas bearing in linear motion system. Linear noncontacting bearing operates in environments where lubricants cannot be used.

  6. Tribology of alternative bearings. (United States)

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen


    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  7. Design of Water -Lubricated Ball Bearings%水润滑球轴承的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵圣卿; 李云峰; 陈原; 郑志功


    According to main technical specifications of support bearings for underwater feeding drive system,the key techniques such as material selection,main parameters and key structural parameters determination of bearings are de-signed and checked under water -lubricated operating condition.The operating condition of bearings is simulated to es-tablish test bed,and the wear resistant performance of water -lubricated full complement radial ball bearings is experi-mentally verified.The test proves that the various performance indicators of water -lubricated ball bearings meet use re-quirements.%根据某水下送料传动系统用支承轴承的主要技术指标,对水润滑工况轴承的材料选取、主参数及主要结构参数的确定等关键技术进行了设计分析及校核,并模拟轴承使用工况建立试验台架,对设计的水润滑满装向心球轴承进行耐磨损性能试验验证。试验证明:设计的水润滑球轴承各项性能指标均满足使用要求。

  8. Hematology of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (2005-2007): Biomarker for an arctic ecosystem health sentinel (United States)

    Kirk, Cassandra M.; Amstrup, S.; Swor, Rhonda; Holcomb, Darce; O'Hara, T. M.


    Declines in sea-ice habitats have resulted in declining stature, productivity, and survival of polar bears in some regions. With continuing sea-ice declines, negative population effects are projected to expand throughout the polar bear's range. Precise causes of diminished polar bear life history performance are unknown, however, climate and sea-ice condition change are expected to adversely impact polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health and population dynamics. As apex predators in the Arctic, polar bears integrate the status of lower trophic levels and are therefore sentinels of ecosystem health. Arctic residents feed at the apex of the ecosystem, thus polar bears can serve as indicators of human health in the Arctic. Despite their value as indicators of ecosystem welfare, population-level health data for U.S. polar bears are lacking. We present hematological reference ranges for southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Hematological parameters in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears varied by age, geographic location, and reproductive status. Total leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and serum immunoglobulin G were significantly greater in males than females. These measures were greater in nonlactating females ages ???5, than lactating adult females ages ???5, suggesting that females encumbered by young may be less resilient to new immune system challenges that may accompany ongoing climate change. Hematological values established here provide a necessary baseline for anticipated changes in health as arctic temperatures warm and sea-ice declines accelerate. Data suggest that females with dependent young may be most vulnerable to these changes and should therefore be a targeted cohort for monitoring in this sentinel. ?? 2010 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  9. Wear fault diagnosis of an emulsion pump crank bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiao-ming; DU Chang-long; ZHANG Yong-zhong; TIE Zhan-xu


    The total load on a crank bearing was calculated by performing a load analysis of the crank connecting rod mechanism.The Reynolds equation for hydrodynamic lubrication of the crank bearing was established at the Reynolds boundary condition and was then solved using the Holland method. From this the regular track of the bearing axis was obtained. As the crank bearing gradually wears the eccentricity ratio corresponding to the minimum oil film thickness increases gradually. The oil-bound film eventually breaks down, which allows friction and collision between the metal surfaces of the crank pin and the bearing. The rigid impact leads to excitation of high frequency vibrations at the natural frequencies of the connecting rod. The experiments show that the wear condition of the crank bearing can be identified correctly through the vibration signature at the natural frequencies of the connecting rod. The degree of wear can be predicted accurately through the energy content of the high frequency bands.

  10. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.


    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  11. Partial tooth gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  12. Testing the influence of habituation on genetic structure of brown bear (Ursus arctos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuţa Cotovelea


    Full Text Available Adult bear individuals live solitary and haveprolonged parent–offspring relationships, therefore the share of learned skills compared to the inherited ones is much larger than in other carnivores. This promotes acquisition of deviated behavior and simultaneously establishment of a kinship structure. However, deviated bear behavior and human food conditioning are the symptoms of habituation. The aim of this paper is to test the genetic structuring of habituated and non-habituated individuals located in the central region of Romania (Braşov and Prahova districts, a hotspot in terms of human-bear conflicts. Seven microsatellites were used to genotype 145 samples (ear clips and tissue, out of which 82 were classified as habituated and 63 as wild individuals, respectively. Our results suggest the presence of kinship structures in habituated bear group and a reduction of genetic diversity (He = 0.75, while the group located in the wild registered a higher genetic diversity (He = 0.78 and more private alleles. The genetic differentiation suggested by the Neighbor joining cluster analysis has been strengthened by the two percent (AMOVA differences between the two groups and highlights the negative impact of brown bear kinship structure, caused by the human expansion on wilderness. The genetic analyses indicated that the two groups share genetic variants due to the dispersal and breeding patterns of male adult bears. The emergence of genetic differences between the two groups can be avoided by preventing bears to become human-food conditioned; over time, kinship structure can pose a threat to genetic diversity.

  13. Changes in oxidation indices and minor components of low free fatty acid and freshly extracted crude palm oils under two different storage conditions. (United States)

    Tan, Choon-Hui; Ariffin, Abdul A; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Tan, Chin-Ping; Kuntom, Ainie; Choo, Adrian Cheng-Yong


    This article reports on the changes of oxidation indices and minor components of low free fatty acid (FFA) and freshly extracted crude palm oils after storage at ambient (28 ± 1 C) and 60 C for 77 days. The changes in peroxide value (PV), FFA, extinction coefficient at 233 and 269 nm (K233 and K269), bleachability index (DOBI), carotene and vitamin E contents were monitored. PV, FFA, K233 and K269 of both oil samples increased as storage progressed while the values of carotene and vitamin E contents decreased. At the end of storage period at 60 °C, the carotene content of low FFA crude palm oil was 4.24 ppm. The storage conditions used led to the loss of entire vitamin E fractions of both oil samples as well as a reduction in DOBI values except for freshly extracted crude palm oil stored at ambient temperature.

  14. Lubrication of an 85-mm ball bearing with RP-1 (United States)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Schuller, Fredrick T.


    A parametric experimental investigation of an 85 millimeter bore angular contact ball bearing running in RP-1 fuel was performed at speeds of 10,000 to 24,000 rpm. Thrust loads were varied from 4450 to 17,800 Newtons (1000 to 4000 lbs.). Radial loads were varied from 1335 to 13,350 Newtons (300 to 3000 lbs.). RP-1 lubrication for the bearing was provided through a stationary jet ring located adjacent to the test bearing outer ring. Increases in both the thrust and radial loads resulted in increased bearing temperature, while increases in shaft speed resulted in much more dramatic increases in bearing temperature. These trends are typical for ball bearings operating under these types of conditions. Results are given for outer ring temperatures of the test bearing at the various test conditions employed. In addition, the heat energy removed from the bearing by the RP-1 was determined by measuring the increase in temperature as the RP-1 passed through the bearing. Results showed that the amount of heat energy removed by the RP-1 increased with both shaft speed and RP-1 flow rate to the bearing.

  15. Fatigue Life Analysis of Rolling Bearings Based on Quasistatic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo


    Full Text Available Rolling bearings are widely used in aeroengine, machine tool spindles, locomotive wheelset, and so forth. Rolling bearings are usually the weakest components that influence the remaining life of the whole machine. In this paper, a fatigue life prediction method is proposed based on quasistatic modeling of rolling bearings. With consideration of radial centrifugal expansion and thermal deformations on the geometric displacement in the bearings, the Jones’ bearing model is updated, which can predict the contact angle, deformation, and load between rolling elements and bearing raceways more accurately. Based on Hertz contact theory and contact mechanics, the contact stress field between rolling elements and raceways is calculated. A coupling model of fatigue life and damage for rolling bearings is given and verified through accelerated life test. Afterwards, the variation of bearing life is investigated under different working conditions, that is, axial load, radial load, and rotational speed. The results suggested that the working condition had a great influence on fatigue life of bearing parts and the order in which the damage appears on bearing parts.

  16. Fossil gastropods from the Indian Upper Siwaliks and their stable carbon and oxygen isotope values indicate presence of cold climatic conditions in the Early Pleistocene. (United States)

    Singh Kotla, Simran


    The Early Pleistocene in general is characterized by widespread glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere. Early to Middle Pleistocene freshwater Pinjor Formation (Upper Siwalik) exposed all along the Himalayan Foothills preserves a diverse faunal and floral assemblage. We carried out paleontological (gastropods) and stable isotope (carbon and oxygen isotope) studies of a 6 m thick swamp/pond deposit (that represents ~ 12,000 yrs) of Pinjor Formation, exposed near the Village Nadah, Panchkula (Haryana) and dated to ~ 1.8 Ma (Azzaroli and Napoleon,1982). We have identified four gastropod species in the assemblage, Lymnae sp., Gyraulus sp., Viviparous bengalensis and Hippeutis complantus. The first two are widespread throughout the globe. Lymnae can exist in temperature range of 19 to 24 ° C and occur in Palearctic and Neoartic regions ( Gyraulus occur in Holoarctic region with temperature ranging from 17.8 to 30 ° C (,, whereas Viviparous bengalensis typically exists in the Oriental region suggesting an overall warm and humid condition (Moore,1997). Hippeutis complantus on the other hand exists in palearctic regions upto 63 ° N (Aplinarska and Cisewka 2006) under cold (6 ° to 23.3 ° C) and dry climatic conditions (Spyra., 2014).The powdered gastropod shell samples were analyzed using Continues Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS) at the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India. The δ13C values of gastropod shells fall between -2.56‰ and 6.14‰ VPDB and suggest the dominance of C4 vegetation. The δ18O value of gastropod shell fall between -0.64‰ and -7.80‰ VPDB, suggesting fluctuation of climate between warm and cold conditions . Presence of Hippeutis complantus may suggest the extension of palearctic region up to Panchkula (Haryana, India) in the Early Pleistocene which presently lies in the Oriental Province. Therefore, our results indicate that the overall climatic condition

  17. The Little Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林战峰; 乐伟国


    @@ 一、故事内容 A little bear has a magic stick.It can make his wishes come true. One day,the little bear is walking in the forest.He sees a bird.It is flying in the sky.It has two beautiful wings."I want two beautiful wings.I wish I can fly like a bird,"he says to the magic stick.Two beautiful wings come out from his back and he can fly like a bird now.He is very happy.

  18. Modular gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  19. Metabolic changes in summer active and anuric hibernating free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Stenvinkel

    Full Text Available The brown bear (Ursus arctos hibernates for 5 to 6 months each winter and during this time ingests no food or water and remains anuric and inactive. Despite these extreme conditions, bears do not develop azotemia and preserve their muscle and bone strength. To date most renal studies have been limited to small numbers of bears, often in captive environments. Sixteen free-ranging bears were darted and had blood drawn both during hibernation in winter and summer. Samples were collected for measurement of creatinine and urea, markers of inflammation, the calcium-phosphate axis, and nutritional parameters including amino acids. In winter the bear serum creatinine increased 2.5 fold despite a 2-fold decrease in urea, indicating a remarkable ability to recycle urea nitrogen during hibernation. During hibernation serum calcium remained constant despite a decrease in serum phosphate and a rise in FGF23 levels. Despite prolonged inactivity and reduced renal function, inflammation does not ensue and bears seem to have enhanced antioxidant defense mechanisms during hibernation. Nutrition parameters showed high fat stores, preserved amino acids and mild hyperglycemia during hibernation. While total, essential, non-essential and branched chain amino acids concentrations do not change during hibernation anorexia, changes in individual amino acids ornithine, citrulline and arginine indicate an active, although reduced urea cycle and nitrogen recycling to proteins. Serum uric acid and serum fructose levels were elevated in summer and changes between seasons were positively correlated. Further studies to understand how bears can prevent the development of uremia despite minimal renal function during hibernation could provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of human kidney disease.

  20. Modeling driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication considering driver run tendency and roadway surface conditions. (United States)

    Elhenawy, Mohammed; Jahangiri, Arash; Rakha, Hesham A; El-Shawarby, Ihab


    The ability to model driver stop/run behavior at signalized intersections considering the roadway surface condition is critical in the design of advanced driver assistance systems. Such systems can reduce intersection crashes and fatalities by predicting driver stop/run behavior. The research presented in this paper uses data collected from two controlled field experiments on the Smart Road at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to model driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication for different roadway surface conditions. The paper offers two contributions. First, it introduces a new predictor related to driver aggressiveness and demonstrates that this measure enhances the modeling of driver stop/run behavior. Second, it applies well-known artificial intelligence techniques including: adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), random forest, and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms as well as traditional logistic regression techniques on the data in order to develop a model that can be used by traffic signal controllers to predict driver stop/run decisions in a connected vehicle environment. The research demonstrates that by adding the proposed driver aggressiveness predictor to the model, there is a statistically significant increase in the model accuracy. Moreover the false alarm rate is significantly reduced but this reduction is not statistically significant. The study demonstrates that, for the subject data, the SVM machine learning algorithm performs the best in terms of optimum classification accuracy and false positive rates. However, the SVM model produces the best performance in terms of the classification accuracy only.

  1. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.


    Full Text Available Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a condition of local blood circulation in the bottom extremities showed that the most expressed its compensation is noted at complex application of mechanical pulse traction influence and electrotherapy for patients with a dorsopathy of lumbar and sacral department of a backbone that is confirmed by restoration to normal values of all indicators rheovasogramm. Conclusion. High clinical results of application of the combined medical and rehabilitation complex are based on compensation of local blood circulation that is shown in elimination of deficiency of blood supply due to improvement of a tone of arterial vessels and elimination of venous stagnation, and also due to increase of linear speed of a blood-groove and development of collateral blood circulation. Application of electrical impulse and mechanical traction influences, more at their combination promotes fermentative activity of the systems responsible for a protein exchange that is important for prevention of degenerate and dystrophic process progressing.

  2. An evaluation of the mobility of pathogen indicators, Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS-2, in a highly weathered tropical soil under unsaturated conditions (United States)

    Wong, T.-P.; Byappanahalli, M.; Yoneyama, B.; Ray, C.


    Laboratory column experiments were conducted to study the effects of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) polymer and surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the movement of Escherichia coli and the FRNA phage MS-2. The study was designed to evaluate if PAM or PAM + LAS would enhance the mobility of human pathogens in tropical soils under unsaturated conditions. No breakthrough of phage was observed in a 10 cm column after passing 100 pore volumes of solution containing 1 ?? 108 plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml. In later experiments, after passing 10-20 pore volumes of influent containing 1 ?? 108/ml MS-2 or E. coli through 15 cm columns, the soil was sliced and the organisms eluted. Phage moved slightly deeper in the polymer-treated column than in the control column. There was no measurable difference in the movement of E. coli in either polymer-treated or control columns. The properties of the soil (high amounts of metal oxides, kaolinitic clay), unsaturated flow conditions, and relatively high ionic strengths of the leaching solution attributed to significant retention of these indicators. The impacts of PAM and LAS on the mobility of E. coli or MS-2 phage in the chosen soils were not significant. ?? IWA Publishing 2008.

  3. Polar bears experience skeletal muscle atrophy in response to food deprivation and reduced activity in winter and summer (United States)

    Whiteman, John P.; Harlow, Henry J.; Durner, George M.; Regehr, Eric V.; Rourke, Bryan C.; Robles, Manuel; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, Merav


    When reducing activity and using stored energy during seasonal food shortages, animals risk degradation of skeletal muscles, although some species avoid or minimize the resulting atrophy while experiencing these conditions during hibernation. Polar bears may be food deprived and relatively inactive during winter (when pregnant females hibernate and hunting success declines for other demographic groups) as well as summer (when sea ice retreats from key foraging habitats). We investigated muscle atrophy in samples of biceps femoris collected from free-ranging polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) throughout their annual cycle. Atrophy was most pronounced in April–May as a result of food deprivation during the previous winter, with muscles exhibiting reduced protein concentration, increased water content, and lower creatine kinase mRNA. These animals increased feeding and activity in spring (when seal prey becomes more available), initiating a period of muscle recovery. During the following ice melt of late summer, ~30% of SBS bears abandon retreating sea ice for land; in August, these ‘shore’ bears exhibited no muscle atrophy, indicating that they had fully recovered from winter food deprivation. These individuals subsequently scavenged whale carcasses deposited by humans and by October, had retained good muscle condition. In contrast, ~70% of SBS bears follow the ice north in late summer, into deep water with less prey. These ‘ice’ bears fast; by October, they exhibited muscle protein loss and rapid changes in myosin heavy-chain isoforms in response to reduced activity. These findings indicate that, unlike other bears during winter hibernation, polar bears without food in summer cannot mitigate atrophy. Consequently, prolonged summer fasting resulting from climate change-induced ice loss creates a risk of greater muscle atrophy and reduced abilities to travel and hunt.

  4. Misalignment in Gas Foil Journal Bearings: An Experimental Study (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.


    As gas foil journal bearings become more prevalent in production machines, such as small gas turbine propulsion systems and microturbines, system-level performance issues must be identified and quantified in order to provide for successful design practices. Several examples of system-level design parameters that are not fully understood in foil bearing systems are thermal management schemes, alignment requirements, balance requirements, thrust load balancing, and others. In order to address some of these deficiencies and begin to develop guidelines, this paper presents a preliminary experimental investigation of the misalignment tolerance of gas foil journal bearing systems. Using a notional gas foil bearing supported rotor and a laser-based shaft alignment system, increasing levels of misalignment are imparted to the bearing supports while monitoring temperature at the bearing edges. The amount of misalignment that induces bearing failure is identified and compared to other conventional bearing types such as cylindrical roller bearings and angular contact ball bearings. Additionally, the dynamic response of the rotor indicates that the gas foil bearing force coefficients may be affected by misalignment.

  5. Attenuation of bulk organic matter, nutrients (N and P), and pathogen indicators during soil passage: Effect of temperature and redox conditions in simulated soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

    KAUST Repository

    Abel, Chol D T


    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is a costeffective natural wastewater treatment and reuse technology. It is an environmentally friendly technology that does not require chemical usage and is applicable to both developing and developed countries. However, the presence of organic matter, nutrients, and pathogens poses a major health threat to the population exposed to partially treated wastewater or reclaimed water through SAT. Laboratory-based soil column and batch experiments simulating SAT were conducted to examine the influence of temperature variation and oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions on removal of bulk organic matter, nutrients, and indicator microorganisms using primary effluent. While an average dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of 17.7 % was achieved in soil columns at 5 °C, removal at higher temperatures increased by 10 % increments with increase in temperature by 5 °C over the range of 15 to 25 °C. Furthermore, soil column and batch experiments conducted under different redox conditions revealed higher DOC removal in aerobic (oxic) experiments compared to anoxic experiments. Aerobic soil columns exhibited DOC removal 15 % higher than that achieved in the anoxic columns, while aerobic batch showed DOC removal 7.8 % higher than the corresponding anoxic batch experiments. Ammonium-nitrogen removal greater than 99 % was observed at 20 and 25 °C, while 89.7 % was removed at 15 °C, but the removal substantially decreased to 8.8 % at 5 °C. While ammonium-nitrogen was attenuated by 99.9 % in aerobic batch reactors carried out at room temperature, anoxic experiments under similar conditions revealed 12.1 % ammonium-nitrogen reduction, corresponding to increase in nitrate-nitrogen and decrease in sulfate concentration. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.

  6. Comparison of cyanobacterial microcystin synthetase (mcy) E gene transcript levels, mcy E gene copies, and biomass as indicators of microcystin risk under laboratory and field conditions. (United States)

    Ngwa, Felexce F; Madramootoo, Chandra A; Jabaji, Suha


    Increased incidences of mixed assemblages of microcystin-producing and nonproducing cyanobacterial strains in freshwater bodies necessitate development of reliable proxies for cyanotoxin risk assessment. Detection of microcystin biosynthetic genes in water blooms of cyanobacteria is generally indicative of the presence of potentially toxic cyanobacterial strains. Although much effort has been devoted toward elucidating the microcystin biosynthesis mechanisms in many cyanobacteria genera, little is known about the impacts of co-occurring cyanobacteria on cellular growth, mcy gene expression, or mcy gene copy distribution. The present study utilized conventional microscopy, qPCR assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study how competition between microcystin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa CPCC 299 and Planktothrix agardhii NIVA-CYA 126 impacts mcyE gene expression, mcyE gene copies, and microcystin concentration under controlled laboratory conditions. Furthermore, analyses of environmental water samples from the Missisquoi Bay, Quebec, enabled us to determine how the various potential toxigenic cyanobacterial biomass proxies correlated with cellular microcystin concentrations in a freshwater lake. Results from our laboratory study indicated significant downregulation of mcyE gene expression in mixed cultures of M. aeruginosa plus P. agardhii on most sampling days in agreement with depressed growth recorded in the mixed cultures, suggesting that interaction between the two species probably resulted in suppressed growth and mcyE gene expression in the mixed cultures. Furthermore, although mcyE gene copies and McyE transcripts were detected in all laboratory and field samples with measureable microcystin levels, only mcyE gene copies showed significant positive correlations (R(2) > 0.7) with microcystin concentrations, while McyE transcript levels did not. These results suggest that mcyE gene copies are better indicators of potential risks from microcystins

  7. Comparison of cyanobacterial microcystin synthetase (mcy) E gene transcript levels, mcy E gene copies, and biomass as indicators of microcystin risk under laboratory and field conditions (United States)

    Ngwa, Felexce F; Madramootoo, Chandra A; Jabaji, Suha


    Increased incidences of mixed assemblages of microcystin-producing and nonproducing cyanobacterial strains in freshwater bodies necessitate development of reliable proxies for cyanotoxin risk assessment. Detection of microcystin biosynthetic genes in water blooms of cyanobacteria is generally indicative of the presence of potentially toxic cyanobacterial strains. Although much effort has been devoted toward elucidating the microcystin biosynthesis mechanisms in many cyanobacteria genera, little is known about the impacts of co-occurring cyanobacteria on cellular growth, mcy gene expression, or mcy gene copy distribution. The present study utilized conventional microscopy, qPCR assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study how competition between microcystin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa CPCC 299 and Planktothrix agardhii NIVA-CYA 126 impacts mcyE gene expression, mcyE gene copies, and microcystin concentration under controlled laboratory conditions. Furthermore, analyses of environmental water samples from the Missisquoi Bay, Quebec, enabled us to determine how the various potential toxigenic cyanobacterial biomass proxies correlated with cellular microcystin concentrations in a freshwater lake. Results from our laboratory study indicated significant downregulation of mcyE gene expression in mixed cultures of M. aeruginosa plus P. agardhii on most sampling days in agreement with depressed growth recorded in the mixed cultures, suggesting that interaction between the two species probably resulted in suppressed growth and mcyE gene expression in the mixed cultures. Furthermore, although mcyE gene copies and McyE transcripts were detected in all laboratory and field samples with measureable microcystin levels, only mcyE gene copies showed significant positive correlations (R2 > 0.7) with microcystin concentrations, while McyE transcript levels did not. These results suggest that mcyE gene copies are better indicators of potential risks from microcystins

  8. Foothills model forest grizzly bear study : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report updates a five year study launched in 1999 to ensure the continued healthy existence of grizzly bears in west-central Alberta by integrating their needs into land management decisions. The objective was to gather better information and to develop computer-based maps and models regarding grizzly bear migration, habitat use and response to human activities. The study area covers 9,700 square km in west-central Alberta where 66 to 147 grizzly bears exist. During the first 3 field seasons, researchers captured and radio collared 60 bears. Researchers at the University of Calgary used remote sensing tools and satellite images to develop grizzly bear habitat maps. Collaborators at the University of Washington used trained dogs to find bear scat which was analyzed for DNA, stress levels and reproductive hormones. Resource Selection Function models are being developed by researchers at the University of Alberta to identify bear locations and to see how habitat is influenced by vegetation cover and oil, gas, forestry and mining activities. The health of the bears is being studied by researchers at the University of Saskatchewan and the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre. The study has already advanced the scientific knowledge of grizzly bear behaviour. Preliminary results indicate that grizzlies continue to find mates, reproduce and gain weight and establish dens. These are all good indicators of a healthy population. Most bear deaths have been related to poaching. The study will continue for another two years. 1 fig.

  9. Evaluation of a hybrid hydrostatic bearing for cryogenic turbopump application (United States)

    Spica, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.; Meyer, S. D.


    A hybrid hydrostatic bearing was designed to operate in liquid hydrogen at speeds to 80,000 rpm and radial loads to 440 n (100 lbf). The bearing assembly consisted of a pair of 20-mm angular-contact ball bearings encased in a journal, which was in turn supported by a fluid film of liquid hydrogen. The size and operating conditions of the bearing were selected to be compatible with the operating requirements of an advanced technology turbopump. Several test parameters were varied to characterize the bearing's steady-state operation. The rotation of the tester shaft was varied between 0 and 80,000 rpm. Bearing inlet fluid pressure was varied between 2.07 and 4.48 MPa (300 and 650 psia), while the fluid sump pressure was independently varied between 0.34 and 2.07 MPa (50 and 300 psia). The maximum radial load applied to the bearing was 440 N (110 lbf). Measured hybrid-hydrostatic-bearing stiffness was 1.5 times greater than predicted, while the fluid flow rate through the bearing was 35 to 65 percent less than predicted. Under two-phase fluid conditions, the stiffness was even greater and the flow rate was less. The optimal pressure ratio for the bearing should be between 0.2 and 0.55 depending on the balance desired between bearing efficiency and stiffness. Startup and shutdown cyclic tests were conducted to demonstrate the ability of the hybrid-hydrostatic-bearing assembly to survive at least a 300-firing-duty cycle. For a typical cycle, the shaft was accelerated to 50,000 rpm in 1.8 sec. The bearing operated for 337 start-stop cycles without failure.

  10. Identifying lubricant options for compressor bearing designs (United States)

    Karnaz, J.; Seeton, C.; Dixon, L.


    Today’s refrigeration and air conditioning market is not only driven by the environmental aspects of the refrigerants, but also by the energy efficiency and reliability of system operation. Numerous types of compressor designs are used in refrigeration and air conditioning applications which means that different bearings are used; and in some cases, multiple bearing types within a single compressor. Since only one lubricant is used, it is important to try to optimize the lubricant to meet the various demands and requirements for operation. This optimization entails investigating different types of lubricant chemistries, viscosities, and various formulation options. What makes evaluating these options more challenging is the refrigerant which changes the properties of the lubricant delivered to the bearing. Once the lubricant and refrigerant interaction are understood, through various test methods, then work can start on collaborating with compressor engineers on identifying the lubricant chemistry and formulation options. These interaction properties are important to the design engineer to make decisions on the adequacy of the lubricant before compressor tests are started. This paper will discuss the process to evaluate lubricants for various types of compressors and bearing design with focus on what’s needed for current refrigerant trends. In addition, the paper will show how the lubricant chemistry choice can be manipulated through understanding of the bearing design and knowledge of interaction with the refrigerant to maximize performance. Emphasis will be placed on evaluation of synthetic lubricants for both natural and synthetic low GWP refrigerants.

  11. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan


    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  12. Silver Bear for Screenplay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Chinese director Wang Quan'an won the Silver Bear Prize at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival that lasted during February 11 to 21 tor the best screenplay for his movie Apart Together.The film also opened the festival.

  13. Dynamic Analysis of a Rotor-Bearing-SFD System with the Bearing Inner Race Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Zhang


    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a rotor-bearing-SFD system with the inner race defect of bearing is investigated. The contact force between the rolling element and the race is calculated in Hertzian contact and elastohydrodynamic lubrication condition. The supporting force of the SFD is simulated by integrating the pressure distribution derived from Reynolds’s equation. The equations of motion of the rotor-bearing-SFD system are derived and solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The dynamic behavior and the fault characteristics are analyzed with two configurations of the SFD: (1 mounted on the unfaulted bearing and (2 mounted on the faulty bearing. According to the analysis of time-frequency diagram, waterfall plot, and spectral diagram, the results show that the characteristics of inner race defects on bearing frequencies are related to the characteristic multiple frequency of the inner race defect and the fundamental frequency. The speed and defect width have different influence on the distribution and amplitude of frequency. The SFD can enhance the system stability under the bearing fault but the enhancement decreases with the increasing speed. Meanwhile, the beneficial effect of the SFD varies according to the mounted position in the rotor system.

  14. Local Attitudes towards Bear Management after Illegal Feeding and Problem Bear Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fraser


    Full Text Available The “pot bears” received international media attention in 2010 after police discovered the intentional feeding of over 20 black bears during the investigation of an alleged marijuana-growing operation in Christina Lake, British Columbia, Canada. A two-phase random digit dialing survey of the community was conducted in 2011 to understand local perspectives on bear policy and management, before and after a summer of problem bear activity and government interventions. Of the 159 households surveyed in February 2011, most had neutral or positive attitudes towards bears in general, and supported the initial decision to feed the food-conditioned bears until the autumn hibernation. In contrast to wildlife experts however, most participants supported relocating the problem bears, or allowing them to remain in the area, ahead of killing; in part this arose from notions of fairness despite the acknowledged problems of relocation. Most locals were aware of the years of feeding but did not report it, evidently failing to see it as a serious form of harm, even after many bears had been killed. This underscores the importance of preventive action on wildlife feeding and the need to narrow the gap between public and expert opinion on the likely effects of relocation versus killing.

  15. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.


    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  16. Investigation of Spiral Bevel Gear Condition Indicator Validation via AC-29-2C Combining Test Rig Damage Progression Data with Fielded Rotorcraft Data (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.


    This is the final of three reports published on the results of this project. In the first report, results were presented on nineteen tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Test Rig on spiral bevel gear sets designed to simulate helicopter fielded failures. In the second report, fielded helicopter HUMS data from forty helicopters were processed with the same techniques that were applied to spiral bevel rig test data. Twenty of the forty helicopters experienced damage to the spiral bevel gears, while the other twenty helicopters had no known anomalies within the time frame of the datasets. In this report, results from the rig and helicopter data analysis will be compared for differences and similarities in condition indicator (CI) response. Observations and findings using sub-scale rig failure progression tests to validate helicopter gear condition indicators will be presented. In the helicopter, gear health monitoring data was measured when damage occurred and after the gear sets were replaced at two helicopter regimes. For the helicopters or tails, data was taken in the flat pitch ground 101 rotor speed (FPG101) regime. For nine tails, data was also taken at 120 knots true airspeed (120KTA) regime. In the test rig, gear sets were tested until damage initiated and progressed while gear health monitoring data and operational parameters were measured and tooth damage progression documented. For the rig tests, the gear speed was maintained at 3500RPM, a one hour run-in was performed at 4000 in-lb gear torque, than the torque was increased to 8000 in-lbs. The HUMS gear condition indicator data evaluated included Figure of Merit 4 (FM4), Root Mean Square (RMS) or Diagnostic Algorithm 1(DA1), + 3 Sideband Index (SI3) and + 1 Sideband Index (SI1). These were selected based on their sensitivity in detecting contact fatigue damage modes from analytical, experimental and historical helicopter data. For this report, the helicopter dataset was reduced to

  17. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies (United States)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo


    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  18. Rotor Bearing System Analysis Using the Transfer Matrix Method with Thickness Assumption of Disk and Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Sadeghi, Hossein; Ahmadian, Mohammad Taghi


    One of the methods to find the natural frequencies of rotating systems is the application of the transfer matrix method. In this method the rotor is modeled as several elements along the shaft which have their own mass and moment of inertia. Using these elements, the entire continuous system is discretized and the corresponding differential equation can be stated in matrix form. The bearings at the end of the shaft are modeled as equivalent spring and dampers which are applied as boundary conditions to the discretized system. In this paper the dynamics of a rotor-bearing system is analyzed, considering the gyroscopic effect. The thickness of the disk and bearings is also taken into account. Continuous model is used for shaft. Results Show that, the stiffness of the shaft and the natural frequencies of the system increase, while the amplitude of vibration decreases as a consequence of increasing the thickness of the bearing.

  19. Wear Analysis of Wind Turbine Gearbox Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Xu, Hanbing [ORNL; Parten, Randy J [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Geer, Tom [ORNL


    The objective of this effort was to investigate and characterize the nature of surface damage and wear to wind turbine gearbox bearings returned from service in the field. Bearings were supplied for examination by S. Butterfield and J. Johnson of the National Wind Technology Center (NREL), Boulder, Colorado. Studies consisted of visual examination, optical and electron microscopy, dimensional measurements of wear-induced macro-scale and micro-scale features, measurements of macro- and micro-scale hardness, 3D imaging of surface damage, studies of elemental distributions on fracture surfaces, and examinations of polished cross-sections of surfaces under various etched and non-etched conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Oleynikov


    Full Text Available Currently, due to the global climate change and increasing frequency of weather events focus is on prediction of climate extremes. Large-scale meteorological anomalies can cause long-term paralysis of social and economic infrastructure of the major mountain regions and even individual states. In winter periods, these anomalies are associated with prolonged heavy snowfalls and associated with them catastrophic avalanches which cause significant social and economic damage. The climate system maintains a certain momentum during periods of adjustment and transition to other conditions in the ratio of heat and moisture and contains a climate «signal» of the climates of the past and the future. In our view seasonal and yearly extremes perform the role of these indicators, study of which enables for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the real situation of the climate periods related to the modern ones. The paper provides an overview of the criteria for selection of extreme winters. Identification of extremely cold winters during the period of instrumental observation and assessment of their snowiness and avalanche activity done for the Elbrus region, which is a model site for study of the avalanche regime in the Central Caucasus. The studies aim to identify the extreme winters in the Greater Caucasus, assess their frequency of occurrence, characterize the scale and intensity of the avalanche formation. The data obtained can be used to identify winter-analogues in the reconstruction and long-term forecast of avalanches. 

  1. [Early diagnosis of HIV in Primary Care in Spain. Results of a pilot study based on targeted screening based on indicator conditions, behavioral criteria and region of origin]. (United States)

    Agustí, Cristina; Martín-Rabadán, María; Zarco, José; Aguado, Cristina; Carrillo, Ricard; Codinachs, Roger; Carmona, Jose Manuel; Casabona, Jordi


    To estimate the prevalence of HIV infection in patients diagnosed with an indicator condition (IC) for HIV and/or risk behavior for their acquisition and/or coming from high prevalence countries. To determine the acceptability and feasibility of offering HIV testing based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria in Primary Care (PC). Cross-sectional study in a convenience sample. Six PC centers in Spain. The inclusion criteria were: patients between 16 and 65years old who presented at least one of the proposed ICs and/or at least one of the proposed behavioral and/or origin criteria. A total of 388 patients participated. HIV serology was offered to all patients who met the inclusion criteria. Description of IC frequency, behavioral and origin criteria. Prevalence of HIV infection. Level of acceptability and feasibility of the HIV screening based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria. A total of 174 patients had an IC (44.84%). The most common behavioral criterion was: having unprotected sex at some time in life with people who did not know their HIV status (298; 76.8%). Four HIV+ patients (1.03%) were diagnosed. All had an IC and were men who had sex with men. The level of acceptability in PC was high. Offering HIV testing to patients with IC and behavioral criteria is feasible and effective in PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetic bearings grow more attractive (United States)


    Advances in materials and electronics have enabled designers to devise simpler, smaller magnetic bearings. As a result, costs have dropped, widening the applications for these very-low-friction devices. Avcon (Advanced Controls Technology) has patented a permanent-magnet bias actively controlled bearing. Here high-energy rare earth permanent-magnet materials supply the basic bearing load levitation, while servo-driven electromagnets generate stabilization and centering forces for motion contol. Previous heavy-duty magnetic bearings used electromagnets entirely for suspension and control, which led to large bearings and control systems with higher power requirements. Avcon has developed several types of permanent-magnet bias bearings. The simplest is the radial repulsion bearing. Avcon's homopolar permanent-magnet bias active bearing is the most versatile of the company's designs.

  3. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline (United States)

    Rode, K.D.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, E.V.


    Rates of reproduction and survival are dependent upon adequate body size and condition of individuals. Declines in size and condition have provided early indicators of population decline in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) near the southern extreme of their range. We tested whether patterns in body size, condition, and cub recruitment of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska were related to the availability of preferred sea ice habitats and whether these measures and habitat availability exhibited trends over time, between 1982 and 2006. The mean skull size and body length of all polar bears over three years of age declined over time, corresponding with long-term declines in the spatial and temporal availability of sea ice habitat. Body size of young, growing bears declined over time and was smaller after years when sea ice availability was reduced. Reduced litter mass and numbers of yearlings per female following years with lower availability of optimal sea ice habitat, suggest reduced reproductive output and juvenile survival. These results, based on analysis of a longterm data set, suggest that declining sea ice is associated with nutritional limitations that reduced body size and reproduction in this population. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Analysis of Thermoelastohydrodynamic Performance of Journal Misaligned Engine Main Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Fengrong; SHAO Kang; LIU Changwen; WANG Xia; ZHANG Jian


    To understand the engine maln bearings’ working condition is important in order to improve the performance of engine. However, thermal effects and thermal effect deformations of engine maln bearings are rarely considered simultaneously in most studies. A typical finite element model is selected and the effect of thermoelastohydrodynamic(TEHD) reaction on engine maln bearings is investigated. The calculated method of maln bearing’s thermal hydrodynamic reaction and journal misalignment effect is finite difference method, and its deformation reaction is calculated by using finite element method. The oil film pressure is solved numerically with Reynolds boundary conditions when various bearing characteristics are calculated. The whole model considers a temperature-pressure-viscosity relationship for the lubricant, surface roughness effect, and also an angular misalignment between the journal and the bearing. Numerical simulations of operation of a typical I6 diesel engine maln bearing is conducted and importance of several contributing factors in mixed lubrication is discussed. The performance characteristics of journal misaligned maln bearings under elastohydrodynamic(EHD) and TEHD loads of an I6 diesel engine are received, and then the journal center orbit movement, minimum oil film thickness and maximum oil film pressure of maln bearings are estimated over a wide range of engine operation. The model is verified through the comparison with other present models. The TEHD performance of engine maln bearings with various effects under the influences of journal misalignment is revealed, this is helpful to understand EHD and TEHD effect of misaligned engine maln bearings.

  5. Invariant polar bear habitat selection during a period of sea ice loss. (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; Rode, Karyn D; St Martin, Michelle


    Climate change is expected to alter many species' habitat. A species' ability to adjust to these changes is partially determined by their ability to adjust habitat selection preferences to new environmental conditions. Sea ice loss has forced polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to spend longer periods annually over less productive waters, which may be a primary driver of population declines. A negative population response to greater time spent over less productive water implies, however, that prey are not also shifting their space use in response to sea ice loss. We show that polar bear habitat selection in the Chukchi Sea has not changed between periods before and after significant sea ice loss, leading to a 75% reduction of highly selected habitat in summer. Summer was the only period with loss of highly selected habitat, supporting the contention that summer will be a critical period for polar bears as sea ice loss continues. Our results indicate that bears are either unable to shift selection patterns to reflect new prey use patterns or that there has not been a shift towards polar basin waters becoming more productive for prey. Continued sea ice loss is likely to further reduce habitat with population-level consequences for polar bears.

  6. Rolling Bearing Fault Detection Based on the Teager Energy Operator and Elman Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Liu


    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to bearing fault diagnosis based on the Teager energy operator (TEO and Elman neural network. The TEO can estimate the total mechanical energy required to generate signals, thereby resulting in good time resolution and self-adaptability to transient signals. These attributes reflect the advantage of detecting signal impact characteristics. To detect the impact characteristics of the vibration signals of bearing faults, we used the TEO to extract the cyclical impact caused by bearing failure and applied the wavelet packet to reduce the noise of the Teager energy signal. This approach also enabled the extraction of bearing fault feature frequencies, which were identified using the fast Fourier transform of Teager energy. The feature frequencies of the inner and outer faults, as well as the ratio of resonance frequency band energy to total energy in the Teager spectrum, were extracted as feature vectors. In order to avoid a frequency leak error, the weighted Teager spectrum around the fault frequency was extracted as feature vector. These vectors were then used to train the Elman neural network and improve the robustness of the diagnostic algorithm. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach effectively detects bearing faults under variable conditions.

  7. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server


    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  8. Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings (United States)

    Post, Richard F


    Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

  9. Trend of Self-bearing Motors(Magnetic Bearings)


    上野, 哲; Satoshi, UENO; 立命館大学


    This paper introduces a trend of a self-bearing motor that combines the functions of a motor and active magnetic bearing. The self-bearing motor has advantages, such as miniaturization, low cost, and high speed rotation in addition to the advantages of the active magnetic bearing. Various types of self-bearing motors such as a radial type, axial type, permanent magnet type, induction type, and reluctance type, have been proposed. In this paper, technologies and applications of the self-bearin...

  10. 硝酸腐蚀条件下公路桥梁氯丁橡胶支座抗剪试验%Shearing Tests of Plain Chloroprene Rubber Bearings of Highway Bridge under Acid Corrosion Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司月华; 王桂玲; 刘铭


    本研究将氯丁橡胶支座完全浸泡在pH为4.5的硝酸溶液中,对5组试件分别浸泡20d、40d、60d、80d、100d,将浸泡试件与标准件进行抗剪试验,将腐蚀试件与标准件的抗剪承载力、极限抗剪强度、水平等效刚度、抗剪弹性模量的数据进行对比分析,结果表明,氯丁橡胶支座在硝酸溶液浸泡后,其抗剪弹性阶段明显缩短,破坏程度更严重;从数据分析得,浸泡天数越多,其抗剪承载力、极限抗剪强度、抗剪弹性模量越小.%The neoprene bearings are completely soaked in nitric acid solution with pH=4.5, the five groups of speci-mens are soaked respectively for 20 d, 40 d, 60 d, 80 d, 80 d, thesoaked specimen andstandard partsare arried out with shear test.The data of shear bearing capacity,ultimate shear strength, equivalent stiffness and shear modulus of elasticity for the corrosion specimens are compared and analyzed with thoseof standard parts.The results show that af-ter soaking in nitric acid solution,neoprene bearing has significantly reduced shear elastic stage, and more serious damage. From the data analysis, it can be obtained that the more days it is soaked, itsshear bearing capacity, ultimate shear strength, shear elastic modulus become smaller .

  11. Leakage-free journal bearings (United States)

    Pinkus, O.; Etsion, I.


    A new concept of a journal bearing is developed which prevents side leakage of the lubricant, thus eliminating the need for sealing and collecting this leakage. The cooling of the bearing is accomplished by the prevailing circumferential flow. An analysis is performed and solutions are given for the bearing geometries and inlet pressures required to achieve the above purpose.

  12. Hydrolyzable polyureas bearing hindered urea bonds. (United States)

    Ying, Hanze; Cheng, Jianjun


    Hydrolyzable polymers are widely used materials that have found numerous applications in biomedical, agricultural, plastic, and packaging industrials. They usually contain ester and other hydrolyzable bonds, such as anhydride, acetal, ketal, or imine, in their backbone structures. Here, we report the first design of hydrolyzable polyureas bearing dynamic hindered urea bonds (HUBs) that can reversibly dissociate to bulky amines and isocyanates, the latter of which can be further hydrolyzed by water, driving the equilibrium to facilitate the degradation of polyureas. Polyureas bearing 1-tert-butyl-1-ethylurea bonds that show high dynamicity (high bond dissociation rate), in the form of either linear polymers or cross-linked gels, can be completely degraded by water under mild conditions. Given the simplicity and low cost for the production of polyureas by simply mixing multifunctional bulky amines and isocyanates, the versatility of the structures, and the tunability of the degradation profiles of HUB-bearing polyureas, these materials are potentially of very broad applications.

  13. Incipient failure detection (IFD) of SSME ball bearings (United States)


    Because of the immense noise background during the operation of a large engine such as the SSME, the relatively low level unique ball bearing signatures were often buried by the overall machine signal. As a result, the most commonly used bearing failure detection technique, pattern recognition using power spectral density (PSD) constructed from the extracted bearing signals, is rendered useless. Data enhancement techniques were carried out by using a HP5451C Fourier Analyzer. The signal was preprocessed by a Digital Audio Crop. DAC-1024I noise cancelling filter in order to estimate the desired signal corrupted by the backgound noise. Reference levels of good bearings were established. Any deviation of bearing signals from these reference levels indicate the incipient bearing failures.

  14. Bearing performance degradation assessment based on time-frequency code features and SOM network (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Tang, Baoping; Han, Yan; Deng, Lei


    Bearing performance degradation assessment and prognostics are extremely important in supporting maintenance decision and guaranteeing the system’s reliability. To achieve this goal, this paper proposes a novel feature extraction method for the degradation assessment and prognostics of bearings. Features of time-frequency codes (TFCs) are extracted from the time-frequency distribution using a hybrid procedure based on short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) theory. An alternative way to design the health indicator is investigated by quantifying the similarity between feature vectors using a self-organizing map (SOM) network. On the basis of this idea, a new health indicator called time-frequency code quantification error (TFCQE) is proposed to assess the performance degradation of the bearing. This indicator is constructed based on the bearing real-time behavior and the SOM model that is previously trained with only the TFC vectors under the normal condition. Vibration signals collected from the bearing run-to-failure tests are used to validate the developed method. The comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed TFCQE indicator over many other traditional features in terms of feature quality metrics, incipient degradation identification and achieving accurate prediction. Highlights • Time-frequency codes are extracted to reflect the signals’ characteristics. • SOM network served as a tool to quantify the similarity between feature vectors. • A new health indicator is proposed to demonstrate the whole stage of degradation development. • The method is useful for extracting the degradation features and detecting the incipient degradation. • The superiority of the proposed method is verified using experimental data.

  15. The Key Indicator Method for Manual Handling Operations (KIM-MHO - evaluation of a new method for the assessment of working conditions within a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebhardt Hansjürgen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders are common in the working population. The economic and social impact of such disorders is considerable. Long-time, dynamic repetitive exposure of the hand-arm system during manual handling operations (MHO alone or in combination with static and postural effort are recognised as causes of musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. The assessment of these manual work tasks is crucial to estimate health risks of exposed employees. For these work tasks, a new method for the assessment of the working conditions was developed by the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA and released as a draft in the year 2007. The draft of the so-called Key Indicator Method for Manual Handling Operations (KIM-MHO was developed in analogy with the existing KIM for Lifting/Holding/Carrying (KIM-LHC and Pulling/Pushing (KIM-PP of loads. The KIM-MHO is designed to fill the gap existing in risk assessment of manual work processes, since the existing KIMs deal only with manual handling of loads. This research project focused on the following: - Examination of the validity of workplace assessment with the KIM-MHO comparing expert ratings with the results of the observations. - Examination of the objectivity of workplace assessment with the KIM-MHO applied by different examiners. - Examination of the criterion validity of the risk assessment provided by KIM-MHO with respect to the association between exposure and the occurrence and prevalence of health related outcomes. Methods/Design To determine the objectivity and validity of workplace assessment, the KIM-MHO is applied by occupational health and safety officers at different workplaces involving manual handling operations. To determine the criterion validity of risk assessment, a survey of employees at different workplaces takes place with standardised questionnaires and interviews about symptoms in the neck and upper extremities

  16. Induction machine bearing faults detection based on a multi-dimensional MUSIC algorithm and maximum likelihood estimation. (United States)

    Elbouchikhi, Elhoussin; Choqueuse, Vincent; Benbouzid, Mohamed


    Condition monitoring of electric drives is of paramount importance since it contributes to enhance the system reliability and availability. Moreover, the knowledge about the fault mode behavior is extremely important in order to improve system protection and fault-tolerant control. Fault detection and diagnosis in squirrel cage induction machines based on motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has been widely investigated. Several high resolution spectral estimation techniques have been developed and used to detect induction machine abnormal operating conditions. This paper focuses on the application of MCSA for the detection of abnormal mechanical conditions that may lead to induction machines failure. In fact, this paper is devoted to the detection of single-point defects in bearings based on parametric spectral estimation. A multi-dimensional MUSIC (MD MUSIC) algorithm has been developed for bearing faults detection based on bearing faults characteristic frequencies. This method has been used to estimate the fundamental frequency and the fault related frequency. Then, an amplitude estimator of the fault characteristic frequencies has been proposed and fault indicator has been derived for fault severity measurement. The proposed bearing faults detection approach is assessed using simulated stator currents data, issued from a coupled electromagnetic circuits approach for air-gap eccentricity emulating bearing faults. Then, experimental data are used for validation purposes.

  17. In-situ surface wettability parameters of submerged in brackish water surfaces derived from captive bubble contact angle studies as indicators of surface condition level (United States)

    Pogorzelski, S. J.; Mazurek, A. Z.; Szczepanska, A.


    The characterization of wetting properties (by contact angles) of several undersea artificial (glass plates,) and natural (stones, sand layers, soft-bottom structures, aquatic macrophytes, sediments, and seafloor communities) solid substrata in the Baltic Sea brackish water (Gulf of Gdansk). The studies were performed under laboratory and field conditions using a novel captive bubble air-pipette computer microscope system. A set of the surface wettability parameters: the apparent surface free energy γSV, adhesive layer film pressure Π, work of adhesion WA, and work of spreading WS were determined to quantify the wetting properties of model substrata using the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) approach. The useful technique to measure in situ the contact angle giving reproducible and accurate values of CA turned out to be a captive bubble method, for fully hydrated interfacial layers of highly hydrophilic and porous nature met at seabed (Rodrigues-Valverde et al., 2002). CA measurements revealed mostly hydrophilic nature of the studied solid material (CA oil film covering lead to surface hydrophobization (CA↑, γSV ↓,WA↓, WS more negative). The adhesion of biofouling was correlated both with CAH and the dispersive interaction term γSVd of the total γSV. Monitoring of the artificial substrata of the hydrophilic nature with a CA technique can be used to observe the development of the organisms community i.e., microfouling, and to carry out a comprehensive study of surfaces of the submerged macrophytes (Potamogeton lucens in particular). Since aquatic macrophytes can act as bio-indicators of water chemistry their surface wettability may reflect plant surface erosion and organic matter accumulation state being of particular value in biological assessment of ecosystems status.

  18. An Advanced Microturbine System with Water-Lubricated Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Nakano


    Full Text Available A prototype of the next-generation, high-performance microturbine system was developed for laboratory evaluation. Its unique feature is its utilization of water. Water is the lubricant for the bearings in this first reported application of water-lubricated bearings in gas turbines. Bearing losses and limitations under usage conditions were found from component tests done on the bearings and load tests done on the prototype microturbine. The rotor system using the water-lubricated bearings achieved stable rotating conditions at a rated rotational speed of 51,000 rpm. An electrical output of 135 kW with an efficiency of more than 33% was obtained. Water was also utilized to improve electrical output and efficiency through water atomizing inlet air cooling (WAC and a humid air turbine (HAT. The operation test results for the WAC and HAT revealed the WAC and HAT operations had significant effects on both electrical output and electrical efficiency.

  19. Anti-backlash gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

  20. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation). (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W


    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  1. Application of higher order spectral features and support vector machines for bearing faults classification. (United States)

    Saidi, Lotfi; Ben Ali, Jaouher; Fnaiech, Farhat


    Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings timely and accurately are very important to ensure the reliability of rotating machinery. This paper presents a novel pattern classification approach for bearings diagnostics, which combines the higher order spectra analysis features and support vector machine classifier. The use of non-linear features motivated by the higher order spectra has been reported to be a promising approach to analyze the non-linear and non-Gaussian characteristics of the mechanical vibration signals. The vibration bi-spectrum (third order spectrum) patterns are extracted as the feature vectors presenting different bearing faults. The extracted bi-spectrum features are subjected to principal component analysis for dimensionality reduction. These principal components were fed to support vector machine to distinguish four kinds of bearing faults covering different levels of severity for each fault type, which were measured in the experimental test bench running under different working conditions. In order to find the optimal parameters for the multi-class support vector machine model, a grid-search method in combination with 10-fold cross-validation has been used. Based on the correct classification of bearing patterns in the test set, in each fold the performance measures are computed. The average of these performance measures is computed to report the overall performance of the support vector machine classifier. In addition, in fault detection problems, the performance of a detection algorithm usually depends on the trade-off between robustness and sensitivity. The sensitivity and robustness of the proposed method are explored by running a series of experiments. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve made the results more convincing. The results indicated that the proposed method can reliably identify different fault patterns of rolling element bearings based on vibration signals.

  2. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.


    NREL has initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) to investigate the root cause of the low wind turbine gearbox reliability. The GRC follows a multi-pronged approach based on a collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers and consultants. The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database. At the core of the project are two 750kW gearboxes that have been redesigned and rebuilt so that they are representative of the multi-megawatt gearbox topology currently used in the industry. These gearboxes are heavily instrumented and are tested in the field and on the dynamometer. This report discusses the bearing calibrations of the gearboxes.

  3. Damping Bearings In High-Speed Turbomachines (United States)

    Von Pragenau, George L.


    Paper presents comparison of damping bearings with traditional ball, roller, and hydrostatic bearings in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. Concept of damping bearings described in "Damping Seals and Bearings for a Turbomachine" (MFS-28345).

  4. Acquired umbilical hernias in four captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus). (United States)

    Velguth, Karen E; Rochat, Mark C; Langan, Jennifer N; Backues, Kay


    Umbilical hernias are a common occurrence in domestic animals and humans but have not been well documented in polar bears. Surgical reduction and herniorrhaphies were performed to correct acquired hernias in the region of the umbilicus in four adult captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) housed in North American zoos. Two of the four bears were clinically unaffected by their hernias prior to surgery. One bear showed signs of severe discomfort following acute enlargement of the hernia. In another bear, re-herniation led to acute abdominal pain due to gastric entrapment and strangulation. The hernias in three bears were surgically repaired by debridement of the hernia ring and direct apposition of the abdominal wall, while the large defect in the most severely affected bear was closed using polypropylene mesh to prevent excessive tension. The cases in this series demonstrate that while small hernias may remain clinically inconsequential for long periods of time, enlargement or recurrence of the defect can lead to incarceration and acute abdominal crisis. Umbilical herniation has not been reported in free-ranging polar bears, and it is suspected that factors such as body condition, limited exercise, or enclosure design potentially contribute to the development of umbilical hernias in captive polar bears.

  5. Research on Bored Bearing Characteristics in Xi’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lipeng


    Full Text Available To analyze the influence of different soil properties on pile foundation load-bearing characteristics, taking a section of railway in Xi’an and a bridge of Xi’an as test area, and by field static load test to study load transfer characteristics after the test piles under axial pressure, including the distribution of axial force, pile lateral friction, tip resistance traits, ultimate bearing capacity determine, and compare with the theory bearing capacity. Experimental results show that, adjacent soil properties change large, axial force and lateral friction mutation at the junction of corresponding soil layer. Silty clay in different parts is below ground, and its lateral friction plays much difference. Pile lateral friction plays an important role in bearing capacity, but the role of round gravel soil end bearing capacity to pile bearing capacity can’t be ignored. Tests calculate pile bearing capacity significantly larger than standardized formula calculation bearing capacity, which are respectively 55.35% and 119.1%. And give the similar project condition the suggested values of pile bearing capacity and soil friction, to provide reference for similar pile foundation design.

  6. Coefficients of Productivity for Yellowstone's Grizzly Bear Habitat (United States)

    Mattson, David John; Barber, Kim; Maw, Ralene; Renkin, Roy


    This report describes methods for calculating coefficients used to depict habitat productivity for grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Calculations based on these coefficients are used in the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Cumulative Effects Model to map the distribution of habitat productivity and account for the impacts of human facilities. The coefficients of habitat productivity incorporate detailed information that was collected over a 20-year period (1977-96) on the foraging behavior of Yellowstone's bears and include records of what bears were feeding on, when and where they fed, the extent of that feeding activity, and relative measures of the quantity consumed. The coefficients also incorporate information, collected primarily from 1986 to 1992, on the nutrient content of foods that were consumed, their digestibility, characteristic bite sizes, and the energy required to extract and handle each food. Coefficients were calculated for different time periods and different habitat types, specific to different parts of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Stratifications included four seasons of bear activity (spring, estrus, early hyperphagia, late hyperphagia), years when ungulate carrion and whitebark pine seed crops were abundant versus not, areas adjacent to (bear activity in each region, habitat type, and time period were incorporated into calculations, controlling for the effects of proximity to human facilities. The coefficients described in this report and associated estimates of grizzly bear habitat productivity are unique among many efforts to model the conditions of bear habitat because calculations include information on energetics derived from the observed behavior of radio-marked bears.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu LAURIAN


    Full Text Available The CARB bearing is a single row bearing with long, slightly crowned symmetrical rollers. It combines the self-aligning capability of the spherical roller bearing with the unconstrained axial displacement ability of the cylindrical roller bearing. The optimal combination of both raceway profiles provides a favorable load distribution in the bearing, as well as low frictional running. This paper emphasizes the functioning characteristics of the SKF CARB toroidal roller bearing by means of a multibody dynamics simulation. Different conditions like load direction, races relative position or angular misalignment, are taken into consideration.

  8. Performance of High-Speed Grease Lubricated Hybrid Ceramic Ball Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀娟; 王黎钦; 古乐


    To simplify the lubricating system for high-speed bearings and improve its reliability, grease lubricated high-speed hybrid ceramic bearings were theoretically and experimentally researched.Bearings with an outer race of 62 mm and eleven 9.525-mm balls were investigated.Traction coefficient and flash temperature between the bearing races and the balls were calculated and the results show that the traction coefficient of Si3N4 hybrid ceramic bearings is 74% that of the steel AISI 440B ones at 30 000 r/min and 1750 N, and the flash temperature of the hybrid bearings is 49% that of steel ones.Simulating the high-speed bearing rotational conditions, the grease lubricated hybrid ceramic ball bearings were tested and the results show that the power consumption of hybrid ceramic bearing lubricated by grease D at 24 000 r/min and axial load 1750 N is 80% that of steel ones.

  9. Does despotic behavior or food search explain the occurrence of problem brown bears in Europe? (United States)

    Elfström, Marcus; Zedrosser, Andreas; Jerina, Klemen; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Kindberg, Jonas; Budic, Lara; Jonozovič, Marko; Swenson, Jon E


    Bears foraging near human developments are often presumed to be responding to food shortage, but this explanation ignores social factors, in particular despotism in bears. We analyzed the age distribution and body condition index (BCI) of shot brown bears in relation to densities of bears and people, and whether the shot bears were killed by managers (i.e., problem bears; n = 149), in self-defense (n = 51), or were hunter-killed nonproblem bears (n = 1,896) during 1990-2010. We compared patterns between areas with (Slovenia) and without supplemental feeding (Sweden) of bears relative to 2 hypotheses. The food-search/food-competition hypothesis predicts that problem bears should have a higher BCI (e.g., exploiting easily accessible and/or nutritious human-derived foods) or lower BCI (e.g., because of food shortage) than nonproblem bears, that BCI and human density should have a positive correlation, and problem bear occurrence and seasonal mean BCI of nonproblem bears should have a negative correlation (i.e., more problem bears during years of low food availability). Food competition among bears additionally predicts an inverse relationship between BCI and bear density. The safety-search/naivety hypothesis (i.e., avoiding other bears or lack of human experience) predicts no relationship between BCI and human density, provided no dietary differences due to spatiotemporal habitat use among bears, no relationship between problem bear occurrence and seasonal mean BCI of nonproblem bears, and does not necessarily predict a difference between BCI for problem/nonproblem bears. If food competition or predation avoidance explained bear occurrence near settlements, we predicted younger problem than nonproblem bears and a negative correlation between age and human density. However, if only food search explained bear occurrence near settlements, we predicted no relation between age and problem or nonproblem bear status, or between age and human density. We found no

  10. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings (United States)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard


    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  11. The economics of roadside bear viewing (United States)

    Richardson, Leslie; Rosen, Tatjana; Gunther, Kerry; Schwartz, Chuck


    Viewing bears along roadside habitats is a popular recreational activity in certain national parks throughout the United States. However, safely managing visitors during traffic jams that result from this activity often requires the use of limited park resources. Using unique visitor survey data, this study quantifies economic values associated with roadside bear viewing in Yellowstone National Park, monetary values that could be used to determine whether this continued use of park resources is warranted on economic grounds. Based on visitor expenditure data and results of a contingent visitation question, it is estimated that summer Park visitation would decrease if bears were no longer allowed to stay along roadside habitats, resulting in a loss of 155 jobs in the local economy. Results from a nonmarket valuation survey question indicate that on average, visitors to Yellowstone National Park are willing to pay around $41 more in Park entrance fees to ensure that bears are allowed to remain along roads within the Park. Generalizing this value to the relevant population of visitors indicates that the economic benefits of allowing this wildlife viewing opportunity to continue could outweigh the costs of using additional resources to effectively manage these traffic jams.

  12. Bioconversion of Coal: Hydrologic indicators of the extent of coal biodegradation under different redox conditions and coal maturity, Velenje Basin case study, Slovenia (United States)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Grassa, Fausto; Lazar, Jerneja; Jamnikar, Sergej; Zavšek, Simon; McIntosh, Jennifer


    dissolved inorganic carbon was determined by MultiflowBio preparation module. The stable isotope composition of sulphur was determined with a Europa Scientific 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. Concentrations of tritium were determined with the electrolytic enrichment method. PHREEQC for Windows was used to perform thermodynamic modelling. The average coalbed gas composition in the coalbed seam is approximately carbon dioxide: methane > 2:1, where a high proportion of CO2 is adsorbed on the lignite structure, while methane is present free in coal fractures. It can be concluded that isotopic composition of carbon in methane from -70.4‰ to -50.0‰ is generated via acetate fermentation and via reduction of carbon dioxide, while isotopic composition of carbon in methane values range from -50.0‰ to -18.8‰, thermogenic methane can be explained by secondary processes, causing enrichment of residual methane with the heavier carbon isotope. Isotopic composition of deuterium in methane range from -343.9‰ to -223.1‰. Isotopic composition of carbon in carbon dioxide values at excavation fields range from -11.0‰ to +5‰ and are endogenic and microbial in origin. The major ion chemistry, redox conditions, stable isotopes and tritium measured in groundwater from the Velenje Basin, suggest that the Pliocene and Triassic aquifers contain distinct water bodies. Groundwater in the Triassic aquifer is dominated by hydrogen carbonate, calcium, magnesium and isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon indicating degradation of soil organic matter and dissolution of carbonate minerals, similar to surface waters. In addition, groundwater in the Triassic aquifer has isotopic composition of oxygen and isotopic composition of deuterium values which plot near surface waters on the local and global meteoric water lines and detectable tritium reflects recent recharge. In contrast, groundwater in the Pliocene aquifers is enriched in magnesium, sodium, calcium

  13. A Cumulative Damage Reliability Model on the Basis of Contact Fatigue of the Rolling Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li


    A cumulative damage reliability model of contact fatigue of the rolling bearing is more identical with the actual conditions. It is put forward on the basis of contact fatigue life probability distribution of the rolling bearing that obey Weibull distribution and rest on the Miner cumulative damage theory. Finally a case is given to predict the reliability of bearing roller by using these models.

  14. The Welfare of Bears in Zoos: A Case Study of Poland. (United States)

    Maślak, Robert; Sergiel, Agnieszka; Bowles, David; Paśko, Łukasz


    The welfare of captive bears became a big issue of concern in Poland when a case of a bear being ill-treated became a high-profile case in the media. This case created a challenge to verify, study, and understand the main problems associated with bear keeping so that zoos could significantly improve the conditions in which they keep bears or ensure they keep bears at the minimum required standards. The results presented here are from 1 of the few countrywide studies of captive bear conditions conducted in all the captive institutions in Poland that keep bears. Thirteen institutions kept bears at the time of the study (2007-2009), including 54 individuals of 5 species. Major welfare problems were identified, and the results have been used to challenge zoos to address the changes required and focus the government's attention on areas that require legislative improvement.

  15. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, A.T.W. [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J., E-mail: [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)


    {theta}-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The {theta}-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  16. Structure Design and Performance Analysis of High-Speed Miniature Ball Bearing (United States)

    Li, Songsheng; Zhang, Guoye; Chen, Bin; Shen, Yuan


    The working performances of miniature ball bearings are obviously affected by its’ geometric structure parameters. In this paper, quasi-static analysis theory is applied in the design of miniature ball bearings. Firstly, it is studied the influence of geometry structure, preload and rotating speed on the dynamic performance of bearing. Secondly, bearing dynamic characteristics are analyzed which include the bearing stiffness and Spin to roll Ratio. Lastly, the contact stress and bearing life are calculated. The results indicate that structure parameters play an importance role in bearing’s dynamic performances. Miniature ball bearings which have lager ball number, bigger ball diameter and smaller inner race groove radius can get better performances while velocity and preload have great impact on the bearing life. So that parameters of miniature bearing should be chosen cautiously.

  17. Active Magnetic Bearings Stiffness and Damping Identification from Frequency Characteristics of Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowu Jin


    Full Text Available At present, the stiffness and damping identification for active magnetic bearings (AMBs are still in the stage of theoretical analysis. The theoretical analysis indicates that if the mechanical structure and system parameters are determined, AMBs stiffness and damping are only related to frequency characteristic of control system, ignoring operating condition. More importantly, few verification methods are proposed. Considering the shortcomings of the theoretical identification, this paper obtains these coefficients from the experiment by using the magnetic bearing as a sine exciter. The identification results show that AMBs stiffness and damping have a great relationship with the control system and rotating speed. Specifically, at low rotating speed, the stiffness and damping can be obtained from the rotor static suspension by adding the same excitation frequency. However, at high speed, different from the static suspension situation, the AMBs supporting coefficients are not only related to the frequency characteristics of control system, but also related to the system operating conditions.

  18. Biomechanical consequences of rapid evolution in the polar bear lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J Slater

    Full Text Available The polar bear is the only living ursid with a fully carnivorous diet. Despite a number of well-documented craniodental adaptations for a diet of seal flesh and blubber, molecular and paleontological data indicate that this morphologically distinct species evolved less than a million years ago from the omnivorous brown bear. To better understand the evolution of this dietary specialization, we used phylogenetic tests to estimate the rate of morphological specialization in polar bears. We then used finite element analysis (FEA to compare the limits of feeding performance in the polar bear skull to that of the phylogenetically and geographically close brown bear. Results indicate that extremely rapid evolution of semi-aquatic adaptations and dietary specialization in the polar bear lineage produced a cranial morphology that is weaker than that of brown bears and less suited to processing tough omnivorous or herbivorous diets. Our results suggest that continuation of current climate trends could affect polar bears by not only eliminating their primary food source, but also through competition with northward advancing, generalized brown populations for resources that they are ill-equipped to utilize.

  19. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung


    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  20. The glacial/deglacial history of sedimentation in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J.G.; Heil, C.W.


    of glaciation indicated in the Bear Lake record postdates the initial rise of Lake Bonneville and roughly corresponds to the Stansbury shoreline. The lake record indicates that maximum glaciation occurred as Lake Bonneville reached its maximum extent ca. 20 cal ka and that deglaciation was under way while Lake Bonneville remained at its peak. The transition from siliciclastic to carbonate sedimentation probably indicates increasingly evaporative conditions and may coincide with the climatically driven fall of Lake Bonneville from the Provo shoreline. Although lake levels fluctuated during the Younger Dryas, the Bear Lake record for this period is more consistent with drier conditions, rather than cooler, moister conditions interpreted from many studies from western North America. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  1. Prototype testing of magnetic bearings (United States)

    Plant, David P.; Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Frommer, David A.; Kirk, James A.; Anand, Davinder K.


    The testing and evaluation of the performance of a magnetic bearing assembly for flywheel energy storage applications are discussed. The experimental set up for determining the passive radial stiffness, active radial stiffness, and curent force sensitivity of the coils follows the method developed by Frommer (1986). Magnetic bearings design should preclude saturation and current limiting in the desired operating range, so that the system will be linear. A larger linear range will lead to a more stable magnetic bearing.

  2. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M


    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  3. Operating characteristics of heavy loaded cylindrical journal bearing with variable axial profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Strzelecki


    Full Text Available During the operation of turbounit its bearings displace as a result of heat elongation of bearings supports. It changes the static deflection line of rotor determined during assembly of the turbounit, causing an increase in the stresses on the bearing edges and a decrease in the dynamic state of the machine. One of possibilities to avoid the edge stresses is to apply the bearings with variable axial profile, e.g. hyperboloidal, convex profile in the axial cross-section of bearing. Application of journal bearings with hyperboloidal profile allows to extend the bearing operation range without the stress concentration on the edges of bush. These bearings successfully carry the extreme load in conditions of misaligned axis of journal and the bush eliminating the necessity of using self-aligning bearings. Operating characteristics of bearing include the resulting force, attitude angle, oil film pressure and temperature distributions, minimum oil film thickness, maximum oil film temperature. In literature there is a lack of data on the operating characteristics of heavy loaded hyperboloidal journal bearings operating at the conditions of adiabatic oil film and static equilibrium position of the journal. For the hyperboloidal bearing the operating characteristics have been obtained. Different values of length to diameter ratio, assumed shape and inclination ratio coefficients have been assumed. Iterative solution of the Reynolds', energy and viscosity equations was applied. Adiabatic oil film, laminar flow in the bearing gap as well as aligned and misaligned orientation of journal in the bush were considered.

  4. Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure (United States)

    Burke-Veliz, A.; Wang, D.; Wahdy, N.; Reed, P. A. S.; Merritt, D.; Syngellakis, S.


    This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.

  5. Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke-Veliz, A; Reed, P A S; Syngellakis, S [University of Southampton, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Wang, D; Wahdy, N; Merritt, D, E-mail: allan.burke@itesm.m [MAHLE Engine Systems UK Ltd, 2 Central park Drive, Rugby CV23 0WE (United Kingdom)


    This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.

  6. Design for Hydrostatic Bearing of Vertical Type Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Kim, Sung Kyun; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Park, Keun Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The primary pump of PGSFR(Prototype Gen IV Sodium Fast Reactor) performs an important safety function of circulating the coolant across the core to remove the nuclear heat under all operating conditions of the reactor. Design and selection of materials and manufacturing technology for sodium pumps differ to a large extent from conventional pumps because these pumps operate relatively at high temperatures and have high reliability. In order to provide guide to the shaft at the bottom part, there is a hydrostatic bearing above the impeller level. In this paper, the FEM(Finite Element Method) analysis was performed to evaluate the unbalance force for the rotary shaft for the design of the hydrostatic bearing and the design methodology and procedures for the hydrostatic bearing are established. The hydrostatic bearing of the primary pump of PGSFR is designed. Thus, the design methodology and procedure for the hydrostatic bearing of the vertical type pump are established.

  7. Steroid hormone profile in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Jenssen, Bjorn Munro; Bytingsvik, Jenny


    The polar bear is an iconic Arctic species, threatened by anthropogenic impacts such as pollution and climate change. Successful reproduction of polar bears depends on a functioning steroid hormone system, which is susceptible to effects of persistent organic pollutants. The present study...... is the first study to report circulating concentrations of nine steroid hormones (i.e., estrogens, androgens and progestagens) in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, condition, location and reproductive status on steroid profile in female polar...... bears. Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone, androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in blood (serum) of free-living female polar bears (n = 15) from Svalbard, Norway, by gas...

  8. Tribological Behavior of Journal Bearing Material under Different Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baskar


    Full Text Available The friction and wear behavior of journal bearing material has been investigated using pin on disc wear tester with three different lubricating oils i.e. synthetic lubricating oil (SAE20W40, chemically modified rapeseed oil (CMRO, chemically modified rapeseed oil with Nano CuO. Wear tests were carried out at maximum load of 200 N and sliding speeds of 2 – 10 m/s. The results showed that the friction and wear behavior of the journal bearing material have changed according to the sliding conditions and lubricating oils. The journal bearing material has a lower friction coefficient for CMRO with Nano CuO than other two oils. Higher wear of journal bearing material was observed in SAE 20W40 and CMRO. Worn surfaces of the journal bearing material with three lubricating oils were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM and wear mechanisms were discussed.

  9. Vibration analysis of a bearing integrated sensor module (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Abhijit P.; Gao, Robert X.


    Implementing a reliable condition monitoring system for bearing fault diagnosis and prognosis poses a big challenge to the industry. This challenge stems from the fact that bearing failure is statistical in nature, and thus contains elements of uncertainty and unpredictability. To achieve high accuracy in bearing diagnosis in spite of this inherent variance, reliable data acquisition and analysis techniques are needed. This paper focuses on the vibration analysis of a wireless transmitter module with an integrated sensor that is embedded into the bearing outer raceway for high signal-to-noise ratio data acquisition. A mechatronic design of the sensor module under severe space constraints is presented. The paper also analyses an optimizing scheme for the placement of sensor module substrate supports to reduce vibration transmitted from the bearing to the on-board electronics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha V. Sheth* and Jigar J. Pandya


    Full Text Available The degradation behavior of Febuxostat was investigated under different stress degradation (hydrolytic, oxidative, photolytic and thermal conditions recommended by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH using HPLC and LCMS. Febuxostat was found to degrade significantly in acidic and alkaline conditions as well as in neutral hydrolysis. The drug was stable to dry heat, photolytic degradation and under oxidative condition. Resolution of drug and the degradation products formed under different stress studies were successfully achieved on a C-18 column utilizing Methanol- water (with 0.02%v/v TFA in the ratio of 95:5 and at the detection wavelength of 315 nm. The method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity and specificity. The degradation kinetic of Febuxostat in acidic condition at different temperature was studied. The reaction order for Febuxostat in aqueous solvent system followed pseudo first order degradation kinetic. The catalytic rate constant and half-life at particular condition were determined. The Arrhenius plot showed the temperature dependence of Febuxostat.

  11. Cyanines Bearing Quaternary Azaaromatic Moieties


    Sbliwa, Wanda; Matusiak, Grazyna; Bachowska, Barbara


    Selected cyanines bearing quaternary azaaromatic moieties are presented, showing their monomers, dimers and polymers, as well as their possible applications. Cyanines having NLO properties are also briefly described.

  12. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B


    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  13. Application of an improved maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution method for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings (United States)

    Miao, Yonghao; Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo


    The extraction of periodic impulses, which are the important indicators of rolling bearing faults, from vibration signals is considerably significance for fault diagnosis. Maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution (MCKD) developed from minimum entropy deconvolution (MED) has been proven as an efficient tool for enhancing the periodic impulses in the diagnosis of rolling element bearings and gearboxes. However, challenges still exist when MCKD is applied to the bearings operating under harsh working conditions. The difficulties mainly come from the rigorous requires for the multi-input parameters and the complicated resampling process. To overcome these limitations, an improved MCKD (IMCKD) is presented in this paper. The new method estimates the iterative period by calculating the autocorrelation of the envelope signal rather than relies on the provided prior period. Moreover, the iterative period will gradually approach to the true fault period through updating the iterative period after every iterative step. Since IMCKD is unaffected by the impulse signals with the high kurtosis value, the new method selects the maximum kurtosis filtered signal as the final choice from all candidates in the assigned iterative counts. Compared with MCKD, IMCKD has three advantages. First, without considering prior period and the choice of the order of shift, IMCKD is more efficient and has higher robustness. Second, the resampling process is not necessary for IMCKD, which is greatly convenient for the subsequent frequency spectrum analysis and envelope spectrum analysis without resetting the sampling rate. Third, IMCKD has a significant performance advantage in diagnosing the bearing compound-fault which expands the application range. Finally, the effectiveness and superiority of IMCKD are validated by a number of simulated bearing fault signals and applying to compound faults and single fault diagnosis of a locomotive bearing.

  14. Tribology experiment. [journal bearings and liquid lubricants (United States)

    Wall, W. A.


    A two-dimensional concept for Spacelab rack 7 was developed to study the interaction of liquid lubricants and surfaces under static and dynamic conditions in a low-gravity environment fluid wetting and spreading experiments of a journal bearing experiments, and means to accurately measure and record the low-gravity environment during experimentation are planned. The wetting and spreading process of selected commercial lubricants on representative surface are to the observes in a near-zero gravity environment.

  15. Mixed Lubrication Simulation of Hydrostatic Spherical Bearings for Hydraulic Piston Pumps and Motors (United States)

    Kazama, Toshiharu

    Mixed and fluid film lubrication characteristics of hydrostatic spherical bearings for swash-plate-type axial piston pumps and motors are studied theoretically under non-steady-state conditions. The basic equations incorporating interference and contact of surface roughness are derived fundamentally through combination of the GW and PC models. Furthermore, a programming code that is applicable to the caulked-socket-type and open-socket-type bearings is developed. Effects of caulking, operating conditions, and the bearing dimension on the motion of the sphere and tribological performance of the bearings are examined. Salient conclusions are the following: The sphere's eccentricity increases in the low supply pressure period. The time-lag of the load change engenders greater motion of the sphere. Caulking of the bearing socket suppresses the sphere's motion. The bearing stiffness increases and power loss decreases for smaller recess angles. Minimum power loss is given under the condition that the bearing socket radius nearly equals the equivalent load radius.

  16. A phylogeny of the bears (Ursidae) inferred from complete sequences of three mitochondrial genes. (United States)

    Talbot, S L; Shields, G F


    Complete sequences of DNA are described for the cytochrome b tRNA(Thr) and tRNA(Pro) genes of mitochondria of four extant species of ursids and compared to sequences of four other species of ursids previously studied by us. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the giant panda and the spectacled bear are the basal taxa of the ursid radiation. The ursines, a group which includes the sun bear, sloth bear, American black bear, Asiatic black bear, brown bear, and polar bear, experienced a rapid radiation during the mid Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The Asiatic black bear and American black bear are sister taxa. The brown bear and polar bear are the most recently derived of the ursines, with the polar bear originating from within a clade of brown bears during the Pleistocene. This paraphyletic association suggests that the rate of morphological evolution may be accelerated relative to that of molecular evolution when a new ecological niche is occupied. Calibration of the corrected average number of nucleotide differences per site with the fossil record indicates that transitions at third positions of codons in the ursid cytochrome b gene occur at a rate of approximately 6% per million years, which is considerably slower than comparable values reported for other species of mammal.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.І. Marchuk


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mechanism of origin of structural, structural and technological defects of rollers. The technique for integrated indicator of vibration working surfaces of the rings to determine the level of life of the finished part to the operation as part of the bearing and predict the vibroacoustic characteristics of rolling bearings. It was established that technological defects cause low-frequency and high-frequency vibrations. The question about the extent to which it is necessary to strengthen the tolerances on the parameters of bearings on which vibration level is determined not errors bearing parts and their structural properties. Calculated values of the amplitudes vibroacceleration due to the rigidity of the bearing vibrations are so small that in some cases adopted precision calculations turned enough to detect such vibrations. Thus, when tested on the vibro-acoustic installations structural vibration does not play an important role.

  18. The quality of materials applied for slewing bearing raceway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke


    Full Text Available Selected slewing bearings and their application have been described in this article. Basic causes of the damage pitch surfaces of slewing bearings have been analysed and examples of the damage have been presented as well. Special attention was paid to these kinds of damage which appeared most often in the case of the pitch surfaces of the bearings and those ones which very often cause premature exchange of the bearing and its scrapping. On the basis of the conducted studies it was stated that the main cause of the damage to  the pitch surfaces of the bearings is the excessive load of rolling elements. Based on the results of the conducted analysis, actions limiting the occurrence of the damage to the pitch surfaces of the bearings, which lead to their premature exchange, have been proposed. One of the suggested actions, limiting the premature exchange of bearings, is the necessity of exceptionally thorough design and selection of the slewing bearings, including the conditions of their foundation

  19. Effect of salinity on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa genotypes inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti strains under greenhouse conditions


    A. Fazaeli; H. Besharati


    This greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of salinity and bacterial inoculation on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using a factorial completely randomized design with three replications. The effect of three salinity levels (0, 6 and 12 dS/m) induced by a mixture of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 salts on growth indices and protein content of three alfalfa genotypes (Hamadani, Gharahyonjeh and Gharghalogh) at three levels of inoculatio...

  20. Magnetic Mineralogy as Indicator of dry Conditions in Lacustrine Sediments From Santa María del Oro, Nayarit, Central Mexico (United States)

    Ortega, B.; Vazquez, G.; Rodriguez, A.


    Combined magnetic and geochemical analysis were conducted on laminated sediments from Santa Maria del Oro, a crater lake in Nayarit (Mexico), to build up a model of paleoenvironmental conditions for the late Holocene. The occurrence of a severe drought at the end of the archeological Classic period (100 - 900 AD) has been documented in sites of central Mexico (Zirahuen lake and Lerma basin), the Gulf of Mexico coast (Los Tuxtlas) and the Yucatan peninsula. The effects of this climatic event are considered to have stressed the social and political situation in the Yucatan area and other sites in Mesoamerica, and resulted in the "collapse" of the Maya civilization. Santa Maria del Oro sediments between ca. 600 - 1140 AD are characterized by repeated sequences of ocher silt laminae with high inorganic carbon content, authigenic siderite, and low concentration of SD magnetic minerals, followed upward by an increase of concentrations of fine grained SD and SP ferrimagnetic minerals in brown silt laminae. This sequence is considered to represent dissolution-precipitation cycles of magnetic minerals in low erosion, concentrated waters and anoxic water-sediment interface environments. Dissolution of magnetite occurs in reductive conditions, which are considered as warmer and dryer periods. Above the ocher silt, precipitation of fine grained magnetite occurs when conditions change to oxic environments. Ostracode C and O isotopy document a negative precipitation/evaporation balance during this time period.

  1. High-Performance Ball Bearing (United States)

    Bursey, Roger W., Jr.; Haluck, David A.; Olinger, John B.; Owen, Samuel S.; Poole, William E.


    High-performance bearing features strong, lightweight, self-lubricating cage with self-lubricating liners in ball apertures. Designed to operate at high speed (tens of thousands of revolutions per minute) in cryogenic environment like liquid-oxygen or liquid-hydrogen turbopump. Includes inner race, outer race, and cage keeping bearing balls equally spaced.

  2. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.


    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  3. High-Performance Ball Bearing (United States)

    Bursey, Roger W., Jr.; Haluck, David A.; Olinger, John B.; Owen, Samuel S.; Poole, William E.


    High-performance bearing features strong, lightweight, self-lubricating cage with self-lubricating liners in ball apertures. Designed to operate at high speed (tens of thousands of revolutions per minute) in cryogenic environment like liquid-oxygen or liquid-hydrogen turbopump. Includes inner race, outer race, and cage keeping bearing balls equally spaced.

  4. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.


    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  5. What about the Javan Bear?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.


    The other day I read in a dutch popular periodical a paper dealing with the different species of Bears and their geographical distribution. To my great surprise the Malayan Bear was mentioned from Java: the locality Java being quite new to me I wrote to the author of that paper and asked him some in

  6. A quarter-million years of paleoenvironmental change at Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Kaufman, D.S.; Bright, Jordon; Dean, W.E.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Moser, K.; Anderson, R. Scott; Colman, Steven M.; Heil, C.W.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Reheis, M.C.; Simmons, K.R.


    A continuous, 120-m-long core (BL00-1) from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho, contains evidence of hydrologic and environmental change over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. The core was taken at 41.95??N, 111.31??W, near the depocenter of the 60-m-deep, spring-fed, alkaline lake, where carbonate-bearing sediment has accumulated continuously. Chronological control is poor but indicates an average sedimentation rate of 0.54 mm yr-1. Analyses have been completed at multi-centennial to millennial scales, including (in order of decreasing temporal resolution) sediment magnetic properties, oxygen and carbon isotopes on bulk-sediment carbonate, organic- and inorganiccarbon contents, palynology; mineralogy (X-ray diffraction), strontium isotopes on bulk carbonate, ostracode taxonomy, oxygen and carbon isotopes on ostracodes, and diatom assemblages. Massive silty clay and marl constitute most of the core, with variable carbonate content (average = 31 ?? 19%) and oxygen-isotopic values (??18O ranging from -18??? to -5??? in bulk carbonate). These variations, as well as fluctuations of biological indicators, reflect changes in the water and sediment discharged from the glaciated headwaters of the dominant tributary, Bear River, and the processes that influenced sediment delivery to the core site, including lake-level changes. Although its influence has varied, Bear River has remained a tributary to Bear Lake during most of the last quarter-million years. The lake disconnected from the river and, except for a few brief excursions, retracted into a topographically closed basin during global interglaciations (during parts of marine isotope stages 7, 5, and 1). These intervals contain up to 80% endogenic aragonite with high ??18O values (average = -5.8 ?? 1.7???), indicative of strongly evaporitic conditions. Interglacial intervals also are dominated by small, benthic/tychoplanktic fragilarioid species indicative of reduced habitat availability associated with low lake levels

  7. Space Station alpha joint bearing (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.


    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  8. Geophagy by yellowstone grizzly bears (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Green, G.I.; Swalley, R.


    We documented 12 sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem where grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) had purposefully consumed soil (an activity known as geophagy). We also documented soil in numerous grizzly bear feces. Geophagy primarily occurred at sites barren of vegetation where surficial geology had been modified by geothermal activity. There was no evidence of ungulate use at most sites. Purposeful consumption of soil by bears peaked first from March to May and again from August to October, synchronous with peaks in consumption of ungulate meat and mushrooms. Geophageous soils were distinguished from ungulate mineral licks and soils in general by exceptionally high concentrations of potassium (K) and high concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S). Our results do not support the hypotheses that bears were consuming soil to detoxify secondary compounds in grazed foliage, as postulated for primates, or to supplement dietary sodium, as known for ungulates. Our results suggest that grizzly bears could have been consuming soil as an anti-diarrheal.

  9. The Role of Bearing and Scan Mechanism Life Testing in Flight Qualification of the MODIS Instrument (United States)

    VanDyk, Steven G.; Dietz, Brian J.; Street, Kenneth W.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Jansen, Mark J.; Dube, Michael; Sharma, Rajeev; Predmore, Roamer E.


    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is an instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite and has been operating successfully since December 1999. MODIS has been viewing the entire Earth's surface and gathering data to better understand the global dynamics and processes occurring on land, in the oceans, and in the lower atmosphere. All observations are made through an extremely high resolution, optically and mechanically precise, scan mirror motor/encoder assembly. The reliable performance of this assembly depends on two duplex bearing pairs lubricated with Pennzane, a synthetic hydrocarbon, formulated with lead napthanate. This paper describes the results of accelerated and operational life tests. It also describes the post-test analyses of the disassembled bearings. Analyses were performed using micro-Raman, micro-FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC). In general, the three sets of bearings in each of the test stations were in very good condition after accumulating 68, 144, and 209 million revolutions, respectively. Some of the bearings exhibited lubricant degradation, indicated by viscous lubricant deposits on the cage and raceways.

  10. A novel identification method of Volterra series in rotor-bearing system for fault diagnosis (United States)

    Xia, Xin; Zhou, Jianzhong; Xiao, Jian; Xiao, Han


    Volterra series is widely employed in the fault diagnosis of rotor-bearing system to prevent dangerous accidents and improve economic efficiency. The identification of the Volterra series involves the infinite-solution problems which is caused by the periodic characteristic of the excitation signal of rotor-bearing system. But this problem has not been considered in the current identification methods of the Volterra series. In this paper, a key kernels-PSO (KK-PSO) method is proposed for Volterra series identification. Instead of identifying the Volterra series directly, the key kernels of Volterra are found out to simply the Volterra model firstly. Then, the Volterra series with the simplest formation is identified by the PSO method. Next, simulation verification is utilized to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the KK-PSO method by comparison to the least square (LS) method and traditional PSO method. Finally, experimental tests have been done to get the Volterra series of a rotor-bearing test rig in different states, and a fault diagnosis system is built with a neural network to classify different fault conditions by the kernels of the Volterra series. The analysis results indicate that the KK-PSO method performs good capability on the identification of Volterra series of rotor-bearing system, and the proposed method can further improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis.

  11. Relationships among hygiene indicators and enteric pathogens in irrigation water, soil and lettuce and the impact of climatic conditions on contamination in the lettuce primary production. (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Uyttendaele, Mieke


    Eight Belgian lettuce farms located in the West Flanders were sampled to establish the relationships between levels of indicator bacteria, detection of enteric zoonotic pathogens and the temperature and precipitation during primary production. Pathogenic bacteria (PCR EHEC positives, Salmonella spp. or Campylobacter spp.) and indicator bacteria (total psychrotrophic aerobic plate count (TPAC), total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) were determined over a period of one and a half year from seedling leaves, peat-soil of the seedling, lettuce crops, field soil and irrigation water. Neither Salmonella isolates nor PCR EHEC signals were detected from lettuce although one out of 92 field soil samples contained Salmonella spp. and five soil samples provided PCR positives for EHEC virulence factors (vt1 or vt2 and eae gene). A low prevalence of Campylobacter (8/88) was noted in lettuce. It was shown that irrigation water is a major risk factor with regard to the bacterial contamination of the fresh produce as the water samples showed on a regular basis E. coli presence (59.2% of samples≥1CFU/100ml) and occasionally detection of pathogens (25%, n=30/120), in particular Campylobacter spp. The highest correlations between indicator bacteria, pathogens, temperature and the amount of precipitation were observed for the water samples in contrast to the soil or lettuce samples where no correlations were observed. The high correlations between E. coli, total coliforms and enterococci in the water implicated redundancy between analyses. Presence of elevated levels of E. coli increased the probability for the presence of pathogens (Campylobacter spp., EHEC and Salmonella spp.), but had a low to moderate predictive value on the actual presence of pathogens. The presence of pathogens and indicator bacteria in the water samples showed a seasonal effect as they tend to be more present during the months with higher temperature.

  12. Study of the influence of sporulation conditions on heat resistance of Geobacillus stearothermophilus used in the development of biological indicators for steam sterilization. (United States)

    Guizelini, Belquis P; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Sella, Sandra Regina B R; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo


    Biological indicators are important tools in infection control via sterilization process monitoring. The use of a standardized spore crop with a well-defined heat resistance will guarantee the quality of a biological indicator. Ambient factors during sporulation can affect spore characteristics and properties, including heat resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the main sporulation factors responsible for heat resistance in Geobacillus stearothermophilus, a useful biological indicator for steam sterilization. A sequence of a three-step optimization of variables (initial pH, nutrient concentration, tryptone, peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride and potassium phosphate) was carried out to screen those that have a significant influence on heat resistance of produced spores. The variable exerting greatest influence on G. stearothermophilus heat resistance during sporulation was found to be the initial pH. Lower nutrient concentration and alkaline pH around 8.5 tended to enhance decimal reduction time at 121 °C (D(121°C)). A central composite design enabled a fourfold enhancement in heat resistance, and the model obtained accurately describes positive pH and negative manganese sulfate concentration influence on spore heat resistance.

  13. Testing of bearing materials for large two-stroke marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vølund, Anders; Klit, Peder; Persson, Sebastian


    In large two-stroke marine diesel engines, bearings are designed to last the lifetime of the engine. The design has shown very good service experiences. The design parameters of the main bearings are, among others, based on the average maximum specific load which the bearing should operate under...... gradient are not established. Large two-stroke journal bearings are not suitable for fatigue test due to the size, the low rotational speed and the complexity of such a test-rig. The disc fatigue test rig was designed with the purpose to test white metal coatings under realistic bearing conditions......, in a confined time-frame. The test-rig simulates a scale model of a thrust bearing, in contrary to standard design, the bearing lining material is applied to the rotating collar. Parameters, such as bearing load, rotational speed, oil temperature, oil contamination is controlled/monitored in order to achieve...

  14. Experimental Performance Study of a High Speed Oil Lubricated Polymer Thrust Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou


    Full Text Available With the demand for turbomachinery to operate at higher speeds, loads, and power, fluid film bearings that support turbomachinery must be capable of operating in these more demanding applications. Thrust bearings operating at high speeds and loads can experience high surface temperatures and thin fluid film thickness. Typically, babbitt (white metal is the bearing lining material for most turbomachinery bearings but is limited in operating temperature and allowable film thickness. Polymer based materials are alternative materials that can operate at high temperatures and with thin films and have been in use for many decades in high load applications, such as electric submersible pumps (ESP. Test results of polymer lined thrust bearings subjected to modern turbomachinery speeds and loads are presented and compared to babbitt lined bearings of the same design and under similar conditions. The test results show polymer lined thrust bearings can operate at higher bearing unit loads than babbitt.

  15. Density dependence, whitebark pine, and vital rates of grizzly bears (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D; Ebinger, Michael R.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Costello, Cecily M; White, Gary C.


    Understanding factors influencing changes in population trajectory is important for effective wildlife management, particularly for populations of conservation concern. Annual population growth of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA has slowed from 4.2–7.6% during 1983–2001 to 0.3–2.2% during 2002–2011. Substantial changes in availability of a key food source and bear population density have occurred. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), the seeds of which are a valuable but variable fall food for grizzly bears, has experienced substantial mortality primarily due to a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak that started in the early 2000s. Positive growth rates of grizzly bears have resulted in populations reaching high densities in some areas and have contributed to continued range expansion. We tested research hypotheses to examine if changes in vital rates detected during the past decade were more associated with whitebark pine decline or, alternatively, increasing grizzly bear density. We focused our assessment on known-fate data to estimate survival of cubs-of-the-year (cubs), yearlings, and independent bears (≥2 yrs), and reproductive transition of females from having no offspring to having cubs. We used spatially and temporally explicit indices for grizzly bear density and whitebark pine mortality as individual covariates. Models indicated moderate support for an increase in survival of independent male bears over 1983–2012, whereas independent female survival did not change. Cub survival, yearling survival, and reproductive transition from no offspring to cubs all changed during the 30-year study period, with lower rates evident during the last 10–15 years. Cub survival and reproductive transition were negatively associated with an index of grizzly bear density, indicating greater declines where bear densities were higher. Our analyses did not support a similar relationship for the

  16. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy


    Kotenko К.V.; Korchazhkina N.B.; Petrova М.S.; Ruzova Т.К.


    Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years) with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a cond...

  17. Posttraumatic recovery to distress symptoms ratio: a mediator of the links between gender, exposure to fire, economic condition, and three indices of resilience to fire disaster. (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Majdoob, Hadeal; Goroshi, Marina


    This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of demographic predictors on level of resilience following a potentially traumatic event. We hypothesized that the direct effects of three variables (exposure to fire hazards, gender, and economic condition) on resilience following a fire disaster would be mediated by the proportion of posttraumatic recovery to post-fire distress symptoms. The sample consisted of 234 Israeli Druze youth whose hometown was endangered and damaged by the Mount Carmel fire disaster in December 2010. Results partially supported the research hypotheses.

  18. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict. (United States)

    Bump, Joseph K; Murawski, Chelsea M; Kartano, Linda M; Beyer, Dean E; Roell, Brian J


    The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting practices, the effect of compensation on hunter behavior, and depredation

  19. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Bump

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding. The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship

  20. Growth and condition of juvenile sole (Solea solea L. as indicators of habitat quality in coastal and estuarine nurseries in the Bay of Biscay with a focus on sites exposed to Erika oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Gilliers


    Full Text Available Indicators of growth and condition were used to compare the habitat quality of nurseries of juvenile sole (Solea solea L. in the Bay of Biscay, based on one survey in 2000. The four biological indicators are poorly correlated with each other, suggesting that no single measure may give an adequate description of fish health and of its habitat’s quality. Growth indicators showed significant differences between northern and southern areas. Juveniles from the two southernmost nurseries, the Gironde estuary and the Pertuis Antioche, displayed significant lower otolith increment widths and mean sizes. These differences were inversely related to water temperature and unrelated to genetic or age differences, and are unlikely to be due to limiting trophic conditions in the nurseries. Hence, they may be considered in terms of differences in habitat quality and potential anthropogenic impacts. Condition indices do not show this north-south pattern but highlight low condition values in the Pertuis Antioche. Short-term and fluctuating biochemical indicators such as RNA/DNA ratios appeared to be unreliable over a long-term study, while morphometric indices seemed to be relevant, complementary indicators as they integrate the whole juvenile life-history of sole in the nurseries. The growth and condition indices of juveniles in September 2000 from nursery grounds exposed to the Erika oil spill in December 1999 were relatively high. These results lead us to suggest that there was no obvious impact of this event on the health of juvenile sole and on the quality of the exposed nursery grounds a few months after the event.

  1. Research on the Mechanical Properties of "Z" Type Double-Decker Ball Bearings. (United States)

    Yu, Chengtao; Xu, Longxiang; Yu, Xudong


    The mechanical model of a "Z" type double-decker ball bearing under the action of radial load is established in this paper on the basis of the Hertz contact theory. According to the security contact angle theory, the influences of inner and outer bearings' internal clearances on the bearing's static load carrying capacity, radial deformation, radial stiffness, and load distribution of balls are analyzed. This model is verified in both stationary and rotational loading experiments. Moreover, the simulation results show that the static load carrying capacity of Z type bearing is smaller than that of either inner bearing or outer bearing that is contributed to compose the Z type bearing. The static load carrying capacity of a Z type bearing reduces with the increase of the inner and outer bearings' internal clearance. These simulation results also indicate that the contact angle of the maximum loaded ball in the outer bearing easily exceeds its security contact angle compared with the inner bearing, which, as the main factor, may cause the Z type bearing to overload and to fail. In this sense, the investigated Z type bearings are unfit to apply to situations with heavy load, high speed, or high precision.

  2. Dataset of calcified plaque condition in the stenotic coronary artery lesion obtained using multidetector computed tomography to indicate the addition of rotational atherectomy during percutaneous coronary intervention. (United States)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Hamazaki, Yuji; Sekimoto, Teruo; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Suyama, Jumpei; Gokan, Takehiko; Sakai, Koshiro; Kosaki, Ryota; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Tsujita, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Shigeto; Sakurai, Masayuki; Sambe, Takehiko; Oguchi, Katsuji; Uchida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Aoki, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Youichi


    Our data shows the regional coronary artery calcium scores (lesion CAC) on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and the cross-section imaging on MDCT angiography (CTA) in the target lesion of the patients with stable angina pectoris who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). CAC and CTA data were measured using a 128-slice scanner (Somatom Definition AS+; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) before PCI. CAC was measured in a non-contrast-enhanced scan and was quantified using the Calcium Score module of SYNAPSE VINCENT software (Fujifilm Co. Tokyo, Japan) and expressed in Agatston units. CTA were then continued with a contrast-enhanced ECG gating to measure the severity of the calcified plaque condition. We present that both CAC and CTA data are used as a benchmark to consider the addition of rotational atherectomy during PCI to severely calcified plaque lesions.

  3. Dataset of calcified plaque condition in the stenotic coronary artery lesion obtained using multidetector computed tomography to indicate the addition of rotational atherectomy during percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Akutsu


    Full Text Available Our data shows the regional coronary artery calcium scores (lesion CAC on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT and the cross-section imaging on MDCT angiography (CTA in the target lesion of the patients with stable angina pectoris who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. CAC and CTA data were measured using a 128-slice scanner (Somatom Definition AS+; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany before PCI. CAC was measured in a non-contrast-enhanced scan and was quantified using the Calcium Score module of SYNAPSE VINCENT software (Fujifilm Co. Tokyo, Japan and expressed in Agatston units. CTA were then continued with a contrast-enhanced ECG gating to measure the severity of the calcified plaque condition. We present that both CAC and CTA data are used as a benchmark to consider the addition of rotational atherectomy during PCI to severely calcified plaque lesions.

  4. [Use of the AquaDuc T® round drinker with Pekin ducks under field conditions--behaviour as one indicator of welfare]. (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Firnkäs, Nina; Hirsch, Nicola; Damme, Klaus; Schmidt, Paul; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana


    Pekin ducks have an innate affinity for water. They seek water from the first day of life and use it for a multitude of behaviors. Currently implemented requirements to husbandry and the design of an animal-friendly offer of drinking water in commercial fattening establishments exist neither at EU-level nor in Germany. Aim of the study was to examine the use of the AquaDuc T® (Big Dutchman, Vechta, Germany) and its practical suitability concerning the behavior during the fattening of Pekin ducks under commercial conditions. The examinations took place in three farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). On farm 1 and 3, 16 fattening periods were observed (switch-over design: alternately test and control trial) with each one visited between day 28-32 and 35-39. On farm 2, only ten fattening periods could be examined. The ducks were in general supplied with drinking water via nipple drinkers. For the test trials, the AquaDuc T® drinkers were additionally installed and were accessible for a limited time. To record the natural and undisturbed behavior of the ducks in their housing system, the video recordings were started after we finished the farm visits and in total more than 6300 hours of video material were analyzed. All findings show that Pekin ducks clearly favor the round bell drinkers over the nipple drinkers. They enable the birds to immerse their heads, to drink and strain in a species-specific manner, to take care of the plumage with water and to clean beak and eyes. In the test trials, the drinking activity rose significantly during the operating time of the round drinkers (p offer the ducks very good conditions for an animal-friendly water supply. For economic and hygienic reasons, the daily access to the modified round drinkers should be limited.

  5. Adaptive Variable Bias Magnetic Bearing Control (United States)

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.; Inman, Daniel J.


    Most magnetic bearing control schemes use a bias current with a superimposed control current to linearize the relationship between the control current and the force it delivers. With the existence of the bias current, even in no load conditions, there is always some power consumption. In aerospace applications, power consumption becomes an important concern. In response to this concern, an alternative magnetic bearing control method, called Adaptive Variable Bias Control (AVBC), has been developed and its performance examined. The AVBC operates primarily as a proportional-derivative controller with a relatively slow, bias current dependent, time-varying gain. The AVBC is shown to reduce electrical power loss, be nominally stable, and provide control performance similar to conventional bias control. Analytical, computer simulation, and experimental results are presented in this paper.

  6. Magnetic Bearings at Draper Laboratory (United States)

    Kondoleon, Anthony S.; Kelleher, William P.; Possel, Peter D.


    Magnetic bearings, unlike traditional mechanical bearings, consist of a series of components mated together to form a stabilized system. The correct design of the actuator and sensor will provide a cost effective device with low power requirements. The proper choice of a control system utilizes the variables necessary to control the system in an efficient manner. The specific application will determine the optimum design of the magnetic bearing system including the touch down bearing. Draper for the past 30 years has been a leader in all these fields. This paper summarizes the results carried out at Draper in the field of magnetic bearing development. A 3-D radial magnetic bearing is detailed in this paper. Data obtained from recently completed projects using this design are included. One project was a high radial load (1000 pound) application. The second was a high speed (35,000 rpm), low loss flywheel application. The development of a low loss axial magnetic bearing is also included in this paper.

  7. Tibiofemoral conformity and kinematics of rotating-bearing knee prostheses. (United States)

    D'Lima, D D; Trice, M; Urquhart, A G; Colwell, C W


    Increasing tibiofemoral articular conformity theoretically increases articular contact area and reduces contact stresses in total knee arthroplasty. Fixed-bearing knee designs possess relatively low tibiofemoral conformity, in part to allow tibiofemoral rotation without generating excessive stresses at the articulation or the implant-bone interface. This study analyzed knee kinematics of mobile-bearing designs in a closed chain dynamic knee extension model in posterior cruciate-retaining design with high- and low tibiofemoral conformity and posterior cruciate-substituting designs with and without rotational constraint. Overall, for all conditions, the mobile-bearing insert rotated with the femur in the presence of tibiofemoral axial rotation. In addition, the correlation of bearing rotation with femoral rotation was stronger for the high-conformity and rotationally-constrained designs than for the low-conformity designs and strongest for the posterior cruciate-retaining high-conformity condition. Changes in conformity or rotational constraint did not appear to affect femoral roll back, tibiofemoral axial rotation, or varus-valgus angulation. The results suggest that mobile-bearing inserts rotate with the femur and increasing conformity or rotational constraint in mobile-bearing design knee prostheses does not affect knee kinematics adversely, at least under closed chain knee extension conditions in vitro.

  8. Polar bear maternity denning in the Beaufort Sea (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Gardner, Craig L.


    The distribution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is circumpolar in the NOrthern Hemisphere, but known locations of maternal dens are concentrated in relatively few, widely scattered locations. Denning is either uncommon or unknown within gaps. To understand effects of industrial development and propose increases in hunting, the temporal and spatial distribution of denning in the Beaufort Sea must be known. We caputred and radiocollared polar bears between 1981 and 1991 and determined tht denning in the Beaufort Sea region was sufficient to account for the estimated population there. Of 90 dend, 48 were on drifting pack ice, 38 on land, and 4 on land-fast ice. The portions of dens on land was higher (P= 0.029) in later compared with earlier years of the study. Bears denning on pack ice drifting as far as 997 km (x=385km) while in dens. there was no difference in cun production by bears denning on land and pack ice (P =0.66). Mean entry and exit dates were 11 November and 5 April for land dens and 22 November and 26 March for pack-ice dens. Female polar bears captured in the Beaufort Sea appeared to be isolated from those caught eat of Cape Bathurst in Canada. Of 35 polar bears that denned along the mainland coast of Alaska and Canada 80% denned between 137 00'W snf 146 59'W. Bears followed to >1 den did not reuse sites and consecutive dens were 20-1,304 km apart. However radio-collared bears are largely faithful to substrate (pack-ice, land, and land-fast ice) and the general geographic area of previous dens. Bears denning on land may be vunerable to human activities such as hunting and industrial development. However, predictable denning chronology and alck of site fidelity indicate that many potential impacts on denning polar bears could be mitigated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin GÜLLÜ


    Full Text Available During manufacturing, ideal dimension and mutual positioning of machine elements proposed in project desing can be achieved only within certain range of tolerances. These tolerances, being classified in two groups, related to micro and macro geometry of machine elements, don't have to effect the functioning of these elements. So, as for all machine elements, investigation of the effects of macro and micro tolerances for journal bearings is important. In this study, we have investigated the effect of macro geometric irregularities of journal bearings on performance characteristics. In this regard, we have studied the change of bearing performance in respect to deviation from ideal circle for an elliptic shaft with small ovality rolling in circular journal bearing.

  10. Relationships between body temperatures and inflammation indicators under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in pigs exposed to systemic lipopolysaccharide and dietary deoxynivalenol. (United States)

    Tesch, T; Bannert, E; Kluess, J; Frahm, J; Hüther, L; Kersten, S; Breves, G; Renner, L; Kahlert, S; Rothkötter, H-J; Dänicke, S


    We studied the constancy of the relationship between rectal and intraabdominal temperature as well as their linkage to inflammatory markers (leucocyte counts, kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (Kyn-Trp ratio), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in healthy and in pigs exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or deoxynivalenol (DON). Barrows (n = 44) were fed 4 weeks either a DON-contaminated (4.59 mg DON/kg feed) or a control (CON) diet and equipped with an intraabdominal temperature logger and a multicatheter system (V.portae hepatis, V.lienalis, Vv.jugulares) facilitating infusion of 0.9% NaCl (CON) or LPS (7.5 μg/kg BW) and simultaneous blood sampling. Body temperatures were measured and blood samples taken every 15 min for leucocyte counts, TNF-α and Kyn-Trp ratio. Combination of diet and infusion created six groups: CON_CONjug .-CONpor. , CON_CONjug. -LPSpor. , CON_LPSjug. -CONpor. , DON_CONjug. -CONpor. , DON_CONjug. -LPSpor. , DON_LPSjug. -CONpor. . The relationship between both temperatures was not uniform for all conditions. Linear regression revealed that an intraabdominal increase per 1°C increase in rectal temperature was ~25% higher in all LPS-infused pigs compared to NaCl-infusion, albeit diet and site of LPS infusion modified the magnitude of this difference. Inflammatory markers were only strongly present under LPS influence and showed a significant relationship with body temperatures. For example, leucocyte counts in clinically inconspicuous animals were only significantly correlated to core temperature in DON-fed pigs, but in all LPS-infused groups, irrespective of diet and temperature method. In conclusion, the gradient between body core and rectal temperature is constant in clinically inconspicuous pigs, but not under various pathophysiological conditions. In the latter, measurement of inflammatory markers seems to be a useful completion.

  11. Non-contacting "snubber bearing" for passive magnetic bearing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Richard F


    A new non-contacting magnetic "snubber" bearing is provided for application to rotating systems such as vehicular electromechanical battery systems subject to frequent accelerations. The design is such that in the equilibrium position the drag force of the snubber is very small (milliwatts). However in a typical case, if the rotor is displaced by as little as 2 millimeters a large restoring force is generated without any physical contact between the stationary and rotating parts of the snubber bearing.

  12. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition. (United States)

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk


    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  13. Development of Motor Bearings for a New SADA (BepiColombo) (United States)

    Kreuser, J.; Bachman, R.; Bergrath, B.; Heinrich, B.; Zemann, J.


    The special requirements of the new MPO Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) developed for the BepiColombo program demanded also new ball bearing designs. In addition to typical requirements for other bearings in space mechanisms, the BepiColombo mission is characterized by a non-operating time of six years at extreme environmental conditions. In cooperation with RUAG Space CEROBEAR has developed different types of ball bearings for this SADA including motor bearings for the drive, a customized stepper motor.The purpose of this paper is to present and summarize the results of the development of the motor bearings of the SADA.

  14. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series. (United States)

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  15. Analysis and Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter in Ice Cores as Indicators of Past Environmental Conditions Using High Resolution FTICR-MS (United States)

    Boschi, V.; Grannas, A. M.; Willoughby, A. S.; Catanzano, V.; Hatcher, P.


    With rapid changes in global temperatures, research aimed at better understanding past climatic events in order to predict future trends is an area of growing importance. Carbonaceous gases stored in ice cores are known to correlate with temperature change and provide evidence of such events. However, more complex forms of carbon preserved in ice cores such as dissolved organic matter (DOM) can provide additional information relating to changes in environmental conditions over time. The examination of ice core samples presents unique challenges including detection of ultra-low concentrations of organic material and extremely limited sample amounts. In this study, solid phase extraction techniques combined with ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FTICR-MS) were utilized to successfully extract, concentrate and analyze the low concentrations of DOM in only 100 mL of ice core samples originating from various regions of Antarctica and Greenland. We characterize the DOM composition in each sample by evaluating elemental ratios, molecular formula distribution (CHO, CHON, CHOS and CHNOS) and compound class composition (lignin, tannin, lipid, condensed aromatic, protein and unsaturated hydrocarbon content). Upon characterization, we identified molecular trends in ice core DOM chemistry that correlated with past climatic events in addition to observing possible photochemical and microbial influences affecting DOM chemistry. Considering these samples range in age from 350-1175 years old, thus being formed during the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age, we observed that DOM properties reflected anticipated changes in composition as influenced by warming and cooling events occurring during that time period.

  16. A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel (United States)

    Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jans