Sample records for bearing oh nh


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottinelli, Sandrine; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Bouwman, Jordy; Beckwith, Martha; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Oberg, Karin I.; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Linnartz, Harold; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Evans, Neal J.; Lahuis, Fred


    NH3 and CH3OH are key molecules in astrochemical networks leading to the formation of more complex N- and O-bearing molecules, such as CH3CN and CH3OCH3. Despite a number of recent studies, little is known about their abundances in the solid state. This is particularly the case for low-mass protosta

  2. Thermal decomposition of NH2OH and subsequent reactions: ab initio transition state theory and reflected shock tube experiments. (United States)

    Klippenstein, S J; Harding, L B; Ruscic, B; Sivaramakrishnan, R; Srinivasan, N K; Su, M-C; Michael, J V


    Primary and secondary reactions involved in the thermal decomposition of NH2OH are studied with a combination of shock tube experiments and transition state theory based theoretical kinetics. This coupled theory and experiment study demonstrates the utility of NH2OH as a high temperature source of OH radicals. The reflected shock technique is employed in the determination of OH radical time profiles via multipass electronic absorption spectrometry. O-atoms are searched for with atomic resonance absorption spectrometry. The experiments provide a direct measurement of the rate coefficient, k1, for the thermal decomposition of NH2OH. Secondary rate measurements are obtained for the NH2 + OH (5a) and NH2OH + OH (6a) abstraction reactions. The experimental data are obtained for temperatures in the range from 1355 to 1889 K and are well represented by the respective rate expressions: log[k/(cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1))] = (-10.12 +/- 0.20) + (-6793 +/- 317 K/T) (k1); log[k/(cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1))] = (-10.00 +/- 0.06) + (-879 +/- 101 K/T) (k5a); log[k/(cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1))] = (-9.75 +/- 0.08) + (-1248 +/- 123 K/T) (k6a). Theoretical predictions are made for these rate coefficients as well for the reactions of NH2OH + NH2, NH2OH + NH, NH + OH, NH2 + NH2, NH2 + NH, and NH + NH, each of which could be of secondary importance in NH2OH thermal decomposition. The theoretical analyses employ a combination of ab initio transition state theory and master equation simulations. Comparisons between theory and experiment are made where possible. Modest adjustments of predicted barrier heights (i.e., by 2 kcal/mol or less) generally yield good agreement between theory and experiment. The rate coefficients obtained here should be of utility in modeling NOx in various combustion environments.

  3. NH$_3$(3,3) and CH$_3$OH near Supernova Remnants: GBT and VLA Observations

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, Bridget; Sjouwerman, Loránt


    We report on Green Bank Telescope 23.87 GHz NH$_3$(3,3), emission observations in five supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds (G1.4$-$0.1, IC443, W44, W51C, and G5.7$-$0.0). The observations show a clumpy gas density distribution, and in most cases the narrow line widths of $\\sim3-4$\\,km\\,s$^{-1}$ are suggestive of maser emission. Very Large Array observations reveal 36~GHz and/or 44~GHz CH$_3$OH, maser emission in a majority (72\\%) of the NH$_3$, peak positions towards three of these SNRs. This good positional correlation is in agreement with the high densities required for the excitation of each line. Through these observations we have shown that CH$_3$OH, and NH$_3$, maser emission can be used as indicators of high density clumps of gas shocked by supernova remnants, and provide density estimates thereof. Modeling of the optical depth of the NH$_3$(3,3) emission is compared to that of CH$_3$OH, constraining the densities of the clumps to a typical density of the order of $10^5$~cm$^{-3}$ for ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congiu, Emanuele; Dulieu, Francois; Chaabouni, Henda; Baouche, Saoud; Lemaire, Jean Louis [LERMA-LAMAp, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, Observatoire de Paris, ENS, UPMC, UMR 8112 du CNRS, 5 Mail Gay Lussac, 95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France); Fedoseev, Gleb; Ioppolo, Sergio; Lamberts, Thanja; Linnartz, Harold [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Laffon, Carine; Parent, Philippe [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Matiere et Rayonnement, Universite Pierre-et-Marie Curie (Paris 06) and CNRS (UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Cuppen, Herma M., E-mail: [Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, IMM, P.O. Box 9010, NL 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)


    Icy dust grains in space act as catalytic surfaces onto which complex molecules form. These molecules are synthesized through exothermic reactions from precursor radicals and, mostly, hydrogen atom additions. Among the resulting products are species of biological relevance, such as hydroxylamine-NH{sub 2}OH-a precursor molecule in the formation of amino acids. In this Letter, laboratory experiments are described that demonstrate NH{sub 2}OH formation in interstellar ice analogs for astronomically relevant temperatures via successive hydrogenation reactions of solid nitric oxide (NO). Inclusion of the experimental results in an astrochemical gas-grain model proves the importance of a solid-state NO+H reaction channel as a starting point for prebiotic species in dark interstellar clouds and adds a new perspective to the way molecules of biological importance may form in space.

  5. Electron scattering cross sections with HF, OH, NH and CH molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshipura, K.N. [Sardar Patel Univ., Vallabh Vidyanagar (India). Dept. of Physics; Vinodkumar, M. [Sardar Patel Univ., Vallabh Vidyanagar (India). Dept. of Physics


    Total cross sections including elastic scattering, electronic excitation-ionisation and the dipole rotational excitation are calculated for electron impact on HF, OH, NH, and CH molecules. The additivity rules as well as single-centre expansion are employed for this purpose. A comparison was possible for the e-HF system only. Our results are expected to be good at intermediate to high energies (>50 eV). (orig.).

  6. 17O NMR Study of Solvent Exchange in Some Aqueous [Co(tren)(X)(OH(2)/OH)](n)()(+), [Co(cyclen)(X)(OH(2)/OH)](n)()(+), and [Co(N-Mecyclen)(X)(OH(2)/OH)](n)()(+) Systems (X = NH(3), OH(2)/OH; n = 3, 2, 1)(1). (United States)

    Brasch, Nicola E.; Buckingham, David A.; Clark, Charles R.; Rogers, Andrew J.


    A (17)O NMR study (I = 1.0 M, NaClO(4) or NaOSO(2)CF(3), 25.0 degrees C) of solvent exchange in labeled p- and t-[Co(tren)(NH(3))OH(2)](3+), [Co(tren)(OH(2))(2)](3+), [Co(cyclen)(OH(2))(2)](3+), and [Co(N-Mecyclen)(OH(2))(2)](3+) ions (ca. 30% (17)O) in aqueous solution has shown that loss of coordinated OH(2) is slow for all of the complexes (k(ex)/s(-)(1) = 1.1 x 10(-)(5), 1.2 x 10(-)(5), 3.7 x 10(-)(5) (p-site)/8.7 x 10(-)(6) (t-site), 2 x 10(-)(4), and 2 x 10(-)(4), respectively). Values of k(ex) for solvent exchange in [Co(tren)(OH)(2)](+) have been determined as 9.7 x 10(-)(5) s(-)(1) (p-site) and 2.2 x 10(-)(7) s(-)(1) (t-site) Coordinated OH(-) in both p- and t-[Co(tren)(NH(3))OH](2+) also exchanges only slowly with solvent (k(ex)/s(-)(1)= 1.7 x 10(-)(4), and tren)(t-OH(2))(p-OH)](2+), [Co(cyclen)(OH(2))OH](2+), and [Co(N-Mecyclen)(OH(2))OH](2+) is much more rapid (k(ex)/s(-)(1) = 0.03 (p-site)/0.01 (t-site), 12 and 15, respectively). Ligand-OH(-) exchange in these latter systems is interpreted as occurring via (indirect) S(N)1(CB)-type processes on the corresponding aqua complexes: [Co(amine)OH](2+) right harpoon over left harpoon [Co(amine-H)OH(2)](2+) --> exchange. This type of pathway is seen to be more efficient when leaving-group departure is synchronous with proton transfer, and this appears to be more important for exchange in the cyclen and N-Mecyclen complexes where a reasonably acidic, adjacent syn NH proton is involved.

  7. Diagnostic NH and OH Vibrations for Oxazolone and Diketopiperazine Structures: b2 from Protonated Triglycine (United States)

    Wang, Da; Gulyuz, Kerim; Stedwell, Corey N.; Polfer, Nick C.


    We present infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra in the hydrogen stretching region of the simplest b fragment, b2 from protonated triglycine, contrasted to that of protonated cyclo(Gly-Gly). Both spectra confirm the presence of intense, diagnostic vibrations linked to the site of proton attachment. Protonated cyclo(Gly-Gly) serves as a reference spectrum for the diketopiperazine structure, showing a diagnostic O-H+ stretch of the protonated carbonyl group at 3585 cm-1. Conversely, b2 from protonated triglycine exhibits a strong band at 3345 cm-1, associated with the N-H stretching mode of the protonated oxazolone ring structure. Other weaker N-H stretches can also be discerned, such as the amino NH2 and amide NH bands. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the hydrogen stretching region, and hence benchtop optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/A) set-ups, in making structural assignments of product ions in collision-induced dissociation (CID) of peptides.

  8. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with -CH(n), -NH(n) fragments, -COOH and -OH groups. (United States)

    Milowska, Karolina Z; Majewski, Jacek A


    We present results of extensive theoretical studies concerning stability, morphology, and band structure of single wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) covalently functionalized by -CH(n) (for n = 2,3,4), -NH(n) (for n = 1,2,3,4), -COOH, and -OH groups. These studies are based on ab initio calculations in the framework of the density functional theory. For functionalized systems, we determine the dependence of the binding energies on the concentration of the adsorbed molecules, critical densities of adsorbed molecules, global and local changes in the morphology, and electronic structure paying particular attention to the functionalization induced changes of the band gaps. These studies reveal physical mechanisms that determine stability and electronic structure of functionalized systems and also provide valuable theoretical predictions relevant for application. In particular, we observe that functionalization of CNTs causes generally their elongation and locally sp(2) to sp(3) rehybridization in the neighborhood of chemisorbed molecules. For adsorbants making particularly strong covalent bonds with the CNTs, such as the -CH2 fragments, we observe formation of the characteristic pentagon/heptagon (5/7) defects. In systems functionalized with the -CH2, -NH4, and -OH groups, we determine critical density of molecules that could be covalently bound to the lateral surface of CNTs. Our studies show that functionalization of CNTs can be utilized for band gap engineering. Functionalization of CNTs can also lead to changes in their metallic/semiconductor character. In semiconducting CNTs, functionalizing molecules such as -CH3, -NH2, -OH, -COOH, and both -OH and -COOH, introduce "impurity" bands in the band gap of pristine CNTs. In the case of -CH3, -NH2 molecules, the induced band gaps are typically smaller than in the pure CNT and depend strongly on the concentration of adsorbants. However, functionalization of semiconducting CNTs with hydroxyl groups leads to the metallization

  9. The solid solution Na0.39(NH41.61SO4·Te(OH6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwaheb Kolsi


    Full Text Available The title compound, sodium ammonium sulfate–telluric acid (1/1, Na0.39(NH41.61SO4·Te(OH6, is isostructural with other solid solutions in the series M1−x(NH4xSO4·Te(OH6, where ammonium is partially replaced with an alkali metal (M = K, Rb or Cs. The structure is composed of planes of Te(OH6 octahedra alternating with planes of SO4 tetrahedra. The Na+/NH4+ cations are statistically distributed over the same position and are located between the planes. The structure is stabilized by O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the telluric acid adducts and the O atoms of sulfate groups, and between the ammonium cations and O atoms, respectively. Both Te atoms lie on centres of symmetry.

  10. a Search for Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) Towards IRC+10216, Orion-S Orion(kl), SGRB2(N), SGRB2(OH), W51M and W3(IRS5) (United States)

    Pulliam, Robin L.; Remijan, Anthony J.; Corby, Joanna


    Over 50 molecular species containing nitrogen have been detected in the gas phase towards various astronomical environments. A number of chemical models have tried to reproduce the observed abundances of N-bearing species in the various environments of the ISM and CSM with limited success. Recently, there has been an interest in hydroxylamine (NH2OH) because of its possible role in the formation of amino acids in space. Implications of amino acid formation in space and detections of possible precursor species would have a profound impact on our pursuit of understanding the prebiotic molecular origins of life. However, hydroxylamine has yet to be detected in the gas phase in the interstellar medium. A recent gas-grain model by Garrod et al. (2008) suggests that NH2OH is formed through radical recombination on grain surfaces and predicts an abundance ratio range of NH2OH/H2 between 1.2x10-6 - 3.5x10-7; thus, suggesting that NH2OH should be within the detectable limits of existing radio receivers. Here we present the search for hydroxylamine towards seven different sources: IRC+10216, Orion-S, Orion(KL), SgrB2(N), SgrB2(OH), W51M, and W3(IRS5) at 2mm wavelengths using archival data from the NRAO 12m telescope. Hydroxylamine is not confirmed toward any region and upper limits to the total column density were determined for each source. The implications of these upper limits of NH2OH to both the gas phase and grain surface models will also be discussed. V. Blagojevic, S. Petrie, D. K. Bohme (2003) Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 339, L7-L11 J. L. Snow, G. Orlova,V. Blagojevic, and D. K. Bohme (2007) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 9910-9917 R. T. Garrod, S. L. Widicus Weaver, and E. Herbst, (2008) ApJ 682, 283-302 A. J. Remijan, D. P. Leigh,A. J. Markwick-Kemper, and B. E. Tuner (2008) arXiv:0802.2273 [astro-ph] The data used are from survey data taken by Barry E. Turner between 1993-1995 at the NRAO 12m Telescope and available at: and

  11. Chemical analyses of hydroxyapatite formation on SAM surfaces modified with COOH, NH(2), CH(3), and OH functions. (United States)

    Hirata, Isao; Akamatsu, Mai; Fujii, Eri; Poolthong, Suchit; Okazaki, Masayuki


    Hydroxyapatite formation was examined at the surface of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified with four functional groups, -COOH, -NH(2), -CH(3), and -OH. For COOH-SAM and NH(2)-SAM, scanning electron spectroscopic observation showed that flake-like sheet crystals covered the whole wafer and small broccoli-like crystals were observed occasionally on the flake-like crystal base layer. For CH(3)-SAM and OH-SAM, no flake-like sheet crystals were observed; broccoli-like crystals were observed in a dispersed manner for CH(3)-SAM, but in localized spots for OH-SAM. X-ray diffraction patterns showed a strong apatite pattern oriented toward the c-axis direction for COOH-SAM. ESCA analysis revealed distinct Ca, P, O peaks for COOH-, NH(2)-, CH(3)-, and OH-SAM. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis indicated that during the supply of supersaturated calcium phosphate solution, the deposition of precipitates increased monotonically with time for COOH-SAM, increased slightly for NH(2)-SAM, but little increase in deposition was detected for CH(3)-SAM and OH-SAM.

  12. The c2d Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of Ices Around Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects. IV. NH3 and CH3OH

    CERN Document Server

    Bottinelli, Sandrine; Bouwman, Jordy; Beckwith, Martha; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Linnartz, Harold; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J; Lahuis, Fred


    NH3 and CH3OH are key molecules in astrochemical networks leading to the formation of more complex N- and O-bearing molecules, such as CH3CN and HCOOCH3. Despite a number of recent studies, little is known about their abundances in the solid state. (...) In this work, we investigate the ~ 8-10 micron region in the Spitzer IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) spectra of 41 low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs). These data are part of a survey of interstellar ices in a sample of low-mass YSOs studied in earlier papers in this series. We used both an empirical and a local continuum method to correct for the contribution from the 10 micron silicate absorption in the recorded spectra. In addition, we conducted a systematic laboratory study of NH3- and CH3OH-containing ices to help interpret the astronomical spectra. We clearly detect a feature at ~9 micron in 24 low-mass YSOs. Within the uncertainty in continuum determination, we identify this feature with the NH3 nu_2 umbrella mode, and derive abundances with respect to w...

  13. Herschel/PACS spectroscopy of NGC 4418 and Arp 220: H2O, H2^{18}O, OH, ^{18}OH, O^0, HCN and NH3

    CERN Document Server

    González-Alfonso, E; Graciá-Carpio, J; Sturm, E; Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Lutz, D; Poglitsch, A; Contursi, A; Feuchtgruber, H; Veilleux, S; Spoon, H W W; Verma, A; Christopher, N; Davies, R; Sternberg, A; Genzel, R; Tacconi, L


    Herschel/PACS spectroscopy of the (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies NGC 4418 and Arp 220 reveals high excitation in H2O, OH, HCN, and NH3. In NGC 4418, absorption lines were detected with E_lower>800 K (H2O), 600 K (OH), 1075 K (HCN), and 600 K (NH3), while in Arp 220 the excitation is somewhat lower. While clear outflow signatures are seen in Arp 220 as has been seen in previous studies, in NGC 4418 the lines tracing its outer regions are redshifted relative to the nucleus, suggesting an inflow with Mdot~100 K) nuclear continuum components, together with a more extended and colder component that is much more prominent and massive in Arp 220. A chemical dichotomy is found in both sources: on the one hand, the nuclear regions have high H2O abundances, ~0.5x10^{-5}, and high HCN/H2O and HCN/NH3 column density ratios of 0.2-0.7 and 6-9, respectively, indicating a chemistry typical of evolved hot cores where grain mantle evaporation has occurred. On the other hand, the high OH abundance, with OH/H2O ratios of ~0....

  14. Rabbit pulmonary angiotensin-converting enzyme: the NH2-terminal fragment with enzymatic activity and its formation from the native enzyme by NH4OH treatment. (United States)

    Iwata, K; Blacher, R; Soffer, R L; Lai, C Y


    The NH2-terminal sequence of 22 residues of rabbit lung angiotensin-converting enzyme has been determined as (NH2)Thr-Leu-Asp-Pro-Gly-Leu-Leu-Pro-Gly-Asp-Phe-Ala -Ala-Asp-Asn-Ala-Gly-Ala-Arg-Leu-Phe-Ala-. In the course of purification of the enzyme for structural analysis a protein of Mr = 82,000 with angiotensin-converting activity was separated from the major fraction containing the native enzyme (Mr = 140,000). This low-molecular-weight enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate Hip-His-Leu at a rate 23% of that with the native enzyme, and exhibited a similar Km value as well as behaviors towards various effectors of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Edman degradation of both the native and the 82K enzymes revealed that they contain identical amino acid sequences from the NH2-termini. This result and those of peptide mapping and carbohydrate and amino acid analyses indicate that the 82K enzyme is a fragment derived from the NH2-terminal portion of the native enzyme, and hence contains its catalytic site. Evidence has been obtained indicating that the active fragment was formed from the native enzyme during its elution from the antibody-affinity column with NH4OH: on treatment of the native enzyme (140K Mr) with 1 N NH4OH at room temperature, a cleavage occurred and two proteins with Mr = 82K and Mr = 62K were obtained. The 82K Mr fragment was found to be enzymatically active and to contain the same NH2-terminal sequence as the native enzyme. The other fragment (62K Mr) was devoid of the activity and was shown to derive from the COOH-terminal portion of the native enzyme by the peptide mapping and terminal analyses. Cleavage of a peptide bond with NH4OH is unusual and appears to be specific for the native angiotensin-converting enzyme from rabbit lung.

  15. Influence of the use of NaOH and NH{sub 4}OH the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by coprecipitation; Influencia da utilizacao de NaOH e NH{sub 4}OH na sintese de nanoparticulas de oxido de ferro por coprecipitacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panta, P.C.; Zampiva, R.Y.S., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduaco em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais; Campos, H.G.; Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil), Escola de Engenharia


    Numerous chemical methods can be used to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles, including, microemulsion, sol-gel, polyol among others. This work was used because of advantages such as coprecipitation simplicity and large scale production. The goal is to control the characteristics and stability of nanoparticles. Thus, it is a reaction in aqueous iron salts with a base (NaOH, NH{sub 4}OH, etc.) In which parameters such as quality and the molar ratio of base used were varied to control the morphology that the particles, and consequently varying the grain size. Factors such as reaction time and temperature, pH, influence on morphology, and magnetic. There were measures of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to obtain the phases and average diameters. The results show that as the choice of base used and its molar concentration variation occurring in the sizes of the iron oxide nanoparticles. (author)

  16. Theoretical Prediction on the Germylenoid HB=GeLiF and Its Insertion Reaction with R-H(R = F,OH,NH_2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文佐; 杨凤霞; 程建波; 李庆忠; 宫宝安


    In the present work we investigated a novel triplet ground-state germylenoid HB=GeLiF as well as its insertion reactions with RH(R = F,OH and NH2) using the DFT B3LYP and QCISD methods for the first time.Geometry optimization calculations show that the triplet HB=GeLiF has three equilibrium structures,in which the four-membered ring structure is the most stable with the lowest energy.All mechanisms of the three insertion reactions of germylenoid HB=GeLiF with RH(R = F,OH,and NH2) are identical to each other.Based on the calculated results,it is concluded that under the same conditions the insertion reactions should occur easily in the order of H-F H-OH H-NH2.In THF solvent the insertion reactions get more difficult than in the gas phase.

  17. Study of the interactions of PAMAM G3-NH2 and G3-OH dendrimers with 5-fluorouracil in aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Buczkowski, Adam; Waliszewski, Dariusz; Urbaniak, Pawel; Palecz, Bartlomiej


    The results of spectroscopic measurements (increase in solubility, equilibrium dialysis, (1)H NMR titration) and calorimetric measurements (isothermal titration ITC) indicate spontaneous (ΔG<0) bonding of 5-fluorouracil by both cationic PAMAM G3-NH2 dendrimer and hydroxyl PAMAM G3-OH dendrimer in aqueous solutions. PAMAM G3-NH2 dendrimer bonds about n= 25±8 drug molecules. Some of them n1= 5±1 are bonded by terminal amine groups with equilibrium constant K1= 3890±930, while the remaining ones n2= 24 ±3 are bonded by amide groups with equilibrium constant K2= 110±30. Hydroxyl PAMAM G3-OH dendrimer bonds n=6.0±1.6 molecules of 5-fluorouracil through tertiary amine groups with equilibrium constant K= 65±10. The parameters of bonding 5-fluorouracil by PAMAM G3-NH2 and G3-OH dendrimer were compared with those of bonding this drug by the macromolecules of PAMAM of generations G4-NH2, G5-NH2 and G5-OH.

  18. The remarkable dissociation chemistry of 2-aminoxyethanol ions NH2OCH2CH2OH+studied by experiment and theory (United States)

    Jobst, Karl J.; Ruttink, Paul J. A.; Terlouw, Johan K.


    Low-energy 2-aminoxyethanol molecular ions NH2OCH2CH2OH+ exhibit a surprisingly rich gas-phase ion chemistry. They spontaneously undergo five major dissociations in the microsecond timeframe, yielding ions of m/z 61, 60, 46, 32 and 18. Our tandem mass spectrometry experiments indicate that these reactions correspond to the generation of HOCH2CH(OH)+ (protonated glycolaldehyde), HOCH2C(O)H+ (ionized glycolaldehyde), HC(OH)NH2+ (protonated formamide), CH2OH2+ (the methylene oxonium ion) and NH4+. A mechanistic analysis of these processes using the CBS-QB3 model chemistry shows that the molecular ions undergo a 1,4-H shift followed by a facile isomerization into the ion-molecule complex [HOCH2C(O)H+]...[NH3] which acts as the reacting configuration for the five exothermic dissociation processes. Analysis of the D-labelled isotopomer ND2OCH2CH2OD+, in conjunction with our computational results, shows that proton-transport catalysis may be responsible for the partial conversion of the m/z 60 glycolaldehyde ions into the more stable 1,2-dihydroxyethene isomer HOC(H)C(H)OH+.

  19. Resonance scattering spectral detection of ultratrace IgG using immunonanogold-HAuCl4-NH2OH catalytic reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nanogold particles of 10 nm were used to label goat anti-human IgG (GIgG) to obtain nanogold-labeled GIgG (AuGIgG). In a citrate-HCl buffer solution of pH 2.27,AuGIgG showed a strong catalytic effect on the reaction between HAuCl4 and NH2OH to form big gold particles that exhibited a resonance scatter-ing (RS) peak at 796 nm. Under the chosen conditions,AuGIgG combined with IgG to form immuno-complex AuGIgG-IgG that can be removed by centrifuging at 16000 r/min. AuGIgG in the centrifuging solution also showed catalytic effect on the reaction. On those grounds,an immunonanogold catalytic RS assay for IgG was designed. With addition of IgG,the amount of AuGIgG in the centrifuging solution decreased; the RS intensity at 796 nm (I796 nm) decreased linearly. The decreased intensity ΔI796 nm was linear with respect to the IgG concentration in the range of 0.08-16.0 ng·mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.02 ng·mL-1. This assay was applied to analysis of IgG in sera with satisfactory sensitivity,selectivity and rapidity.

  20. Clean production of corn stover pulp using KOH+NH4OH solution and its kinetic during delignification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yong


    Full Text Available The self-made KOH together with NH4OH pulping of corn stover was investigated. The combined alkaline system could effectively remove lignin during pulping. There are three stages of lignin removal during delginification. Approximately 90% of lignin could be removed after temperature reached 150ºC for over 30 minutes. The p-hydroxyl phenol groups in lignin could be completely removed during the delignification reaction. The tendency of the increase of the crystalline degree of cellulose is observed with increase of reaction temperature. The kinetics of delignification is found to be the first order with respect to the remained lignin and the 0.4 order with respect to the remained hydroxide concentration. The activation energy of delignification is 23 kJ/mol. The solution obtained from precipitation of lignin is rich in nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium elements and organic matters. Various techniques including FT-IR, GPC, DSC, were applied to characterize the acid precipitated lignin. The result shows that the lignin with the polydispersity of 1.4 still maintains the p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl units in its matrix.

  1. Formaldehyde chemistry in cometary ices: on the prospective detection of NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH, HOCH{sub 2}OH, and POM by the on-board ROSINA instrument of the Rosetta mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvernay, F.; Danger, G.; Theulé, P.; Chiavassa, T. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, F-13397 Marseille (France); Rimola, A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Departament de Química, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)


    The thermal reactivity of a water-dominated cometary ice analog containing H{sub 2}CO and NH{sub 3} is investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and B3LYP calculations. Three products are characterized by these techniques: aminomethanol (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH), methyleneglycol (HOCH{sub 2}OH), and polyoxymethylene (POM, HO-(CH{sub 2}-O) {sub n}-H). Their formation strongly depends on the initial NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}CO ratio. In addition, the influence of the initial ice composition on the thermal stability of POM has also been investigated. It is shown that POM formed during warming of the ices consists of short-chain polymers (i.e., oligomers of formaldehyde HO-(CH{sub 2}-O) {sub n}-H, n < 5), which are volatile at temperatures higher than 200 K. This suggests that gas-phase detection by the ROSINA instrument on board the Rosetta mission would be the most appropriate method to detect POM. Moreover, the mass spectra presented in this work might help in the interpretation of data that will be recorded by this instrument. Finally, a new scenario to explain the distributed source of formaldehyde observed in comets is discussed.

  2. 利用氢氧化镁热分解氯化铵制氨气工艺的研究%Research on preparation of NH3 by using thermal decomposition of NH4 Cl and Mg ( OH ) 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗弦; 曾波


    Thermodynamic calculation and analysis were made for the reaction system of preparing NH3 by using thermal decomposition of NH4 Cl and Mg ( OH) 2. Process conditions of the preparation of NH3 were investigated with reaction temperature, amount-of-substance ratio, and reaction time as the variables and with nitrogen content of solid product .chlorine yield,and NH3 yield as evaluation indexes. Results showed the chlorine yield and NH3 yield both could reach more than 90% and the decomposition of Mg( OH)2 and NH4C1 could directly produce NH3 without inletting water steam into the reactor when the reaction temperature was 375 ℃, reaction time was 50 min, and amount -of-substance ratio of Mg ( OH) 2 to NH4C1 was 1:0.75.%对利用氢氧化镁热分解氯化铵制氨气反应体系进行了热力学计算分析,以反应温度、反应物的物质的量比、反应时间为变量,以固体产物中的含氮量、氯收率以及氨气收率等为评价指标,对氢氧化镁热分解氯化铵制氨气的工艺条件进行了研究.实验结果表明,在反应温度为375℃,氢氧化镁与氯化铵的物质的量比为1∶0.75,反应时间为50 min时,氯收率和氨气收率均可达到90%以上,同时氢氧化镁分解氯化铵能够直接生成碱式氯化镁,不需向反应器中通入水蒸气.

  3. van der Waals forces and confinement in carbon nanopores: Interaction between CH4, COOH, NH3, OH, SH and single-walled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Wang, Yifeng


    Interactions between CH4, COOH, NH3, OH, SH and armchair (n, n) (n = 4, 7, 14) and zigzag (n, 0) (n = 7, 12, 25) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been systematically investigated within the framework of dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D2). Endohedral and exohedral molecular adsorption on SWCNT walls is energetically unfavorable or weak, despite the use of C6 /r6 pairwise London-dispersion corrections. The effects of pore size and chirality on the molecule/SWCNTs interaction were also assessed. Chemisorption of COOH, NH3, OH and SH at SWCNT edge sites was examined using a H-capped (7, 0) SWCNT fragment and its impact on electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical attacks was predicted by means of Fukui functions.

  4. Interstellar ice analogs: band strengths of H$_2$O, CO$_2$, CH$_3$OH, and NH$_3$ in the far-infrared region

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliano, B M; Martín-Doménech, R; Dartois, E; Caro, G M Muñoz


    We measure the band strengths in the far-infrared region of interstellar ice analogs of astrophysically relevant species, such as H$_2$O, CO$_2$, CH$_3$OH, and NH$_3$, deposited at low temperature (8-10 $\\mathrm{K}$), followed by warm-up, to induce amorphous-crystalline phase transitions when relevant. The spectra of pure H$_2$O, NH$_3$, and CH$_3$OH ices have been measured in the near-, mid- and far-infrared spectroscopic regions using the Interstellar Astrochemistry Chamber (ISAC) ultra-high-vacuum setup. In addition, far-infrared spectra of NH$_3$ and CO$_2$ were measured using a different set-up equipped with a bolometer detector. Band strengths in the far-infrared region were estimated using the corresponding near- and mid-infrared values as a reference. We also performed theoretical calculations of the amorphous and crystalline structures of these molecules using solid state computational programs at density functional theory (DFT) level. Vibrational assignment and mode intensities for these ices were p...

  5. Decomposition of the Precursor [Pt(NH3)4](OH)2, Genesis and Structure of the Metal-Support Interface of Alumina Supported Platinum Particles: A Structural Study Using TPR, MS and XAFS Spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Muñoz-Paez, A.


    During the preparation of alumina supported platinum catalysts, the precursor [Pt(NH3)4](OH)2 decomposes to a neutral Pt(NH3)zO species during the drying process at 120 'C. Treatment in flowing hydrogen at 180 'C leads to partial reduction of the platinum ammine complex and formation of platinum met

  6. Naturaleza y formación de los complejos intermedios del sistema SnCl2 - NH4OH - H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz A.


    Full Text Available Current technological advances require that the raw materials used in the production of electric devices and structural materials present special characteristics of chemical purity, size distribution and morphology of the particles. Tin oxides are mainly used as gas sensor and as surges suppressor (varistor. To achieve an appropriate control on the mentioned characteristics, we use the method of controlled precipitation (MPC, which allowed us to obtain certain characteristics in other oxides. When using the MPC, it is necessary to determine the complexes that are formed and their nature. In this work we present results of study on the formation of complexes in the system SnCl2 - NH4OH - H2O. To study the system during the constant addition of the base (NH4OH to the solution of tin salt, we used potentiometric and conductimetric titration. For the determination of the nature of the formed tin complexes, the solid phase was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD while the liquid phase was analyzed by UV-visible and infrared spectroscopies.

  7. Reactions of hot H atoms with N 2O under single-collision, gas-phase conditions and in photoexcited N 2O-HBR complexes: OH(X 2Π) + N 2, OH(A 2Σ) + N 2, and NH(X 3Σ) + NO(X 2Π) channels (United States)

    Hoffmann, G.; Oh, D.; Iams, H.; Wittig, C.


    Hot H atoms react with N 2O under bulk conditions, yielding OH A 2Σ→X 2Π chemiluminescence. With N 2O-HBr complexes, however, no such emission is observed, and OH (X 2Π) is detected via LIF. In both cases, NH (X 3Σ) is observed. With N 2O-HBr complexes, the [NH (X 3Σ)]/[OH (X 2Π)] ratio is ≈0.5, despite the 95 kcal mol -1 difference favoring the OH + N 2channel.

  8. Solubility of ammonium paratungstate in the system NH3·H2O-H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The equilibrium solubilities of 5(NH4)O@ 12WO3 @ 5H2O (APT@ 5H2O) were determined at the terminal ammoniaconcentration of 2 mol/L at 87-95℃. Experimental data were regressed. The linear functional relation between the solubilityof APT@ 5H2O and the temperature (t / ℃) is given as y = - 588.08 + 7.28t. The solubility of the species as a function of theterminal ammonia concentration (x / mol@ L-1) is also achieved: y = 36.76 + 18.86x. The solubility of APT@ 5H2O producedby ion-exchange method in China is much lower, which is due to much lower silica, much higher NH4C1, and a smallamount of APT@ 7H2O with low solubility in the APT crystals. APT@ 7H2O forms because of a large amount of NH4Cl andthe low activity of water in the crystallization.

  9. Na5(NH4Mn3[B9P6O33(OH3]·1.5H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Kniep


    Full Text Available The overall hexagonal framework of the title compound, pentasodium ammonium trimanganese(II borophosphate sesquihydrate, consists of tube-like borophosphate anions, ∞1{[B3P2O11(OH]4−}, made up of corner-sharing PO4 and BO4 tetrahedra and BO2(OH triangles, forming ten-membered ring windows. The tubes are interconnected via distorted MnO6 octahedra, establishing a three-dimensional open-framework structure with two different types of ring-channels (12- and six-membered that run along [001]. The 12-membered ring channels are occupied by NH4+ ions and water molecules. The ten-membered ring windows in the walls of the tubes are occupied by Na+ ions. The remaining Na+ ions and the water molecules, one of which is half-occupied, reside within the six-membered ring channels. The structural setup is consolidated by an O—H...O hydrogen bond between the OH group and an opposite O atom of the framework. Donor–acceptor distances ranging from 2.80 to 3.35 Å between the ammonium N atom, water O atoms and framework O atoms indicate further hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: W51 Main NH3 and CH3OH data cubes (United States)

    Goddi, C.; Ginsburg, A.; Zhang, Q.


    Observations of NH3 toward the W51 complex were conducted usi Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)1 in the B configuration. By using the broadband JVLA K- and Ka-band receivers, we observed a total of five metastable inversion transitions of NH3: (J,K) = (6, 6), (7, 7), (9, 9), (10, 10), and (13, 13) at the 1cm band with frequencies ranging from ~25GHz for the (6, 6) line to ~33GHz for the (13, 13) line. Transitions were observed in pairs of independently tunable basebands during 6h tracks (two targets per track: W51 - this paper; NGC 7538 IRS1 - Paper I, Goddi et al., 2015A&A...573A.108G) on three different dates in 2012: the (6, 6) and (7, 7) lines on May 31 at K-band, the (9, 9) and (13, 13) lines on June 21, and the (10, 10) transition on August 7, both at Ka-band. Each baseband had eight sub-bands with a 4MHz bandwidth (~40km/s at 30GHz), providing a total coverage of 32MHz (~320km/s at 30GHz). Each sub-band consisted of 128 channels with a separation of 31.25kHz (~0.3km/s at 30GHz). The typical on-source integration time was about 80min. Each transition was observed with fast switching, where 80s scans on target were alternated with 40s scans on the nearby (1.2° on the sky) QSO J1924+1540 (measured flux density 0.6-0.7Jy, depending on frequency). We derived absolute flux calibration from observations of 3C 48 (Sν=0.5-0.7Jy, depending on frequency), and bandpass calibration from observations of 3C 84 (Sν=27-29Jy, depending on frequency). (2 data files).

  11. Concerted interaction between pnicogen and halogen bonds in XCl-FH2P-NH3 (X=F, OH, CN, NC, and FCC). (United States)

    Li, Qing-Zhong; Li, Ran; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Wen-Zuo; Cheng, Jian-Bo


    We analyze the interplay between pnicogen-bonding and halogen-bonding interactions in the XCl-FH(2)P-NH(3) (X=F, OH, CN, NC, and FCC) complex at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Synergetic effects are observed when pnicogen and halogen bonds coexist in the same complex. These effects are studied in terms of geometric and energetic features of the complexes. Natural bond orbital theory and Bader's theory of "atoms in molecules" are used to characterize the interactions and analyze their enhancement with varying electron density at critical points and orbital interactions. The physical nature of the interactions and the mechanism of the synergetic effects are studied using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory. By taking advantage of all the aforementioned computational methods, the present study examines how both interactions mutually influence each other.

  12. Ab initio Quantum Chemical Studies of Reactions in Astrophysical Ices. Reactions Involving CH3OH, CO2, CO, HNCO in H2CO/NH3/H2O Ices (United States)

    Woon, David E.


    While reactions between closed shell molecules generally involve prohibitive barriers in the gas phase, prior experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated that some of these reactions are significantly enhanced when confined within an icy grain mantle and can occur efficiently at temperatures below 100 K with no additional energy processing. The archetypal case is the reaction of formaldehyde (H2CO) and ammonia (NH3) to yield hydroxymethylamine (NH2CH2OH). In the present work we have characterized reactions involving methanol (CH3OH), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and isocyanic acid (HNCO) in search of other favorable cases. Most of the emphasis is on CH3OH, which was investigated in the two-body reaction with one H2CO and the three-body reaction with two H2CO molecules. The addition of a second H2CO to the product of the reaction between CH3OH and H2CO was also considered as an alternative route to longer polyoxymethylene polymers of the -CH2O- form. The reaction between HNCO and NH3 was studied to determine if it can compete against the barrierless charge transfer process that yields OCN(-) and NH4(+). Finally, the H2CO + NH3 reaction was revisited with additional benchmark calculations that confirm that little or no barrier is present when it occurs in ice.

  13. MnOx-CeO2 catalysts supported by Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 at low temperature. (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Liu, Rong; Ye, Fei; Jia, Feng; Ji, Lingchen


    A series of MnOx-CeO2 catalysts supported by Ti-bearing blast furnace slag were prepared by wet impregnation and used for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3. The slag-based catalyst exhibited high deNOx activity and wide effective temperature range. Under the condition of NO=500ppm, NH3=500ppm, O2:7-8vol% and total flow rate=1600 ml/min, the Mn-Ce/Slag catalyst exhibited a NO conversion higher than 95% in the range of 180-260 °C. The activity of Mn/Slag catalysts was greatly enhanced with the addition of CeO2. The results indicated that Ti-bearing blast furnace slag had suitable phase composition as good support of SCR catalyst.

  14. Density functional study of hydrogen bond formation between methanol and organic molecules containing Cl, F, NH2, OH, and COOH functional groups. (United States)

    Kolev, Stefan K; St Petkov, Petko; Rangelov, Miroslav A; Vayssilov, Georgi N


    Various hydrogen-bonded complexes of methanol with different proton accepting and proton donating molecules containing Cl, F, NH(2), OH, OR, and COOH functional groups have been modeled using DFT with hybrid B3LYP and M05-2X functionals. The latter functional was found to provide more accurate estimates of the structural and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes of halides, amines, and alcohols. The characteristics of these complexes are influenced not only by the principle hydrogen bond of the methanol OH with the proton acceptor heteroatom, but also by additional hydrogen bonds of a C-H moiety with methanol oxygen as a proton acceptor. The contribution of the former hydrogen bond in the total binding enthalpy increases in the order chlorides contribution of the second type of hydrogen bond increases in the reverse order. A general correlation was found between the binding enthalpy of the complex and the electrostatic potential at the hydrogen center participating in the formation of the hydrogen bond. The calculated binding enthalpies of different complexes were used to clarify which functional groups can potentially form a hydrogen bond to the 2'-OH hydroxyl group in ribose, which is strong enough to block it from participation in the intramolecular catalytic activation of the peptide bond synthesis. Such blocking could result in inhibition of the protein biosynthesis in the living cell if the corresponding group is delivered as a part of a drug molecule in the vicinity of the active site in the ribosome. According to our results, such activity can be accomplished by secondary or tertiary amines, alkoxy groups, deprotonated carboxyl groups, and aliphatic fluorides, but not by the other modeled functional groups.

  15. Effects of sequential replacement of -NH2 by -OH in the tripodal tetraamine tren on its acidity and metal ion coordinating properties. (United States)

    Song, B; Reuber, J; Ochs, C; Hahn, F E; Lügger, T; Orvig, C


    The preparation is described of two modified derivatives of the tripodal tetraamine tren, 2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-aminoethyl)ethylamine, NN(2)O222, and 2-amino-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylamine, NNO(2)222, in which one and two primary amines, respectively, have been replaced with hydroxyl groups. The aqueous acid-base and metal ion (Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) coordination properties of these two compounds were studied by potentiometric, spectrophotometric, and NMR titrations. Two and three acidity constants, respectively, were determined for NNO(2)222 and NN(2)O222 by potentiometry. NMR titrations proved that deprotonation of the two OH residues in NNO(2)222, and of the one in NN(2)O222, corresponded to pK(a) > 14. Acidity constants related to deprotonation of the terminal primary amine functions were similar in both NNO(2)222 and NN(2)O222 (and to those in the parent compound tren), whereas deprotonation of the tertiary ammonium N atom had a very different acidity constant in each of these three compounds. Charge repulsion, polar effects, and intramolecular hydrogen bond formation are responsible for the discrepancy. Chelated diamine metal complexes for each ligand studied depended only on the basicity of the corresponding two amines, suggesting that the hydroxyl group interacted with the metal ion very weakly in acidic or neutral solutions. The ML2+ species further deprotonated to form M(L - H)+ and M(L - 2H) complexes, in which the protons are released from the coordinated OH group. A pM vs pH correlation showed that replacing an NH2 group with a OH group in tren or NN(2)O222 makes the resulting metal complex less stable. Electronic spectra showed that the Cu(II) complexes of both NNO(2)222 and NN(2)O222 adopted a square pyramidal geometry rather than a trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The X-ray crystal structure analysis of the zinc complex [Zn(OH)(mu-NNO(2)222 - H)Zn(NNO(2)222)]2+, as its [BF4]- salt, shows a dinuclear molecule containing two zinc ions, each coordinated in a

  16. Interstellar ice analogs: H2O ice mixtures with CH3OH and NH3 in the far-IR region (United States)

    Giuliano, B. M.; Martín-Doménech, R.; Escribano, R. M.; Manzano-Santamaría, J.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.


    Context. New spectroscopic observations in the far-infrared (IR) range are expected from future planned missions. Although water ice is the only species detected so far in interstellar ices in this range, the presence of ice mixtures requires laboratory characterization of the corresponding spectra. Aims: We present an investigation on far-IR spectra of binary ice mixtures relevant in various astrophysical environments. The foremost goal is to compare the spectroscopic features of the ice mixtures to those of pure ices, and to search for changes in peak frequencies, intensities, and band strengths of the main bands. Methods: Mixtures H2O:CH3OH and H2O:NH3 of different ratios have been deposited on a diamond substrate at astrophysically relevant conditions. We measured the spectra in the near- and mid-IR regions to derive ice column densities that were subsequently used to calculate the apparent band strengths in the far-IR region. We also designed theoretical models to study these mixtures and to predict their spectra. Results: We recorded spectra of amorphous phases for H2O:CH3OH mixtures of different compositions, that is 1:1, 3:1, and 10:1 at 8 K, and compared these mixtures to those obtained after warming. This process involves the appearance of new spectral features and changes in band shapes and band strengths. We also compared the spectra to those of the pure species and to theoretical predictions. We measured apparent band strengths for all the observed features. For H2O:NH3 mixtures, the ratios selected were 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. In this case the spectral variations are even more marked than for the water:methanol samples. Conclusions: Band strengths in the far-IR are missing in astrophysics literature for ice mixtures. The results presented here are valuable for detecting the presence and composition of such mixtures from future space observations in this spectral region.

  17. A multi-level quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics study of SN2 reaction at nitrogen: NH2Cl + OH(-) in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Lv, Jing; Zhang, Jingxue; Wang, Dunyou


    We employed a multi-level quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics approach to study the reaction NH2Cl + OH(-) in aqueous solution. The multi-level quantum method (including the DFT method with both the B3LYP and M06-2X exchange-correlation functionals and the CCSD(T) method, and both methods with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set) was used to treat the quantum reaction region in different stages of the calculation in order to obtain an accurate potential of mean force. The obtained free energy activation barriers at the DFT/MM level of theory yielded a big difference of 21.8 kcal mol(-1) with the B3LYP functional and 27.4 kcal mol(-1) with the M06-2X functional respectively. Nonetheless, the barrier heights become very close when shifted from DFT to CCSD(T): 22.4 kcal mol(-1) and 22.9 kcal mol(-1) at CCSD(T)(B3LYP)/MM and CCSD(T)(M06-2X)/MM levels of theory, respectively. The free reaction energy obtained using CCSD(T)(M06-2X)/MM shows an excellent agreement with the one calculated using the available gas-phase data. Aqueous solution plays a significant role in shaping the reaction profile. In total, the water solution contributes 13.3 kcal mol(-1) and 14.6 kcal mol(-1) to the free energy barrier heights at CCSD(T)(B3LYP)/MM and CCSD(T)(M06-2X)/MM respectively. The title reaction at nitrogen is a faster reaction than the corresponding reaction at carbon, CH3Cl + OH(-).

  18. Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The famous physicist made for his scholars this riddle. A fellow encountered a bear in a wasteland. There was nobody else there. Both were frightened and ran away. Fellow to the north, bear to the west. Suddenly the fellow stopped, aimed his gun to the south and shot the bear. What colour was the bear?

  19. Well-defined crystallites autoclaved from the nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system as the precursor for (Y,Eu){sub 2}O{sub 3} red phosphor: Crystallization mechanism, phase and morphology control, and luminescent property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Qi [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Li Jiguang, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi [World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Yang, Xiaojing [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Xiaodong; Sun Xudong [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Sakka, Yoshio [Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)


    Autoclaving the rare-earth nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system under the mild conditions of 120-200 Degree-Sign C and pH 6-13 have yielded four types of well-crystallized compounds with their distinctive crystal shapes, including Ln{sub 2}(OH){sub 5}NO{sub 3}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Y and Eu) layered rare-earth hydroxide (hexagonal platelets), Ln{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}NO{sub 3} oxy-hydroxyl nitrate (hexagonal prisms and microwires), Ln(OH){sub 2.94}(NO{sub 3}){sub 0.06}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O hydroxyl nitrate (square nanoplates), and Ln(OH){sub 3} hydroxide (spindle-shaped microrods). The occurrence domains of the compounds are defined. Ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) as a mineralizer effectively widens the formation domains of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} containing compounds while leads to larger crystals at the same time (up to 0.3 mm). Crystallization mechanisms of the compounds and the effects of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were discussed. Optical properties (PLE/PL) of the four phases were characterized in detail and were interpreted from the different site symmetries of Eu{sup 3+}. The compounds convert to cubic-structured (Y{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} by annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C while retaining their original crystal morphologies. The resultant phosphor oxides of diverse particle shapes exhibit differing optical properties, in terms of luminescent intensity, asymmetry factor of luminescence and fluorescence lifetime, and the underlying mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Well-defined crystallites of the various phases have been autoclaved from the nitrate/NH{sub 4}OH reaction system. Crystallization mechanisms of the compounds and the effects of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were discussed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Well-defined crystallites of four phases have been hydrothermally synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The occurrence domains of the compounds are defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallization mechanisms and the

  20. Stopped-Flow Spectrophotometric Study of the Kinetics and Mechanism of CO2 Uptake by cis-[Cr(C2O4(BaraNH2(OH22]+ Cation and the Acid-Catalyzed Decomposition of cis-[Cr(C2O4(BaraNH2OCO2]− Anion in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chmurzyński


    Full Text Available The kinetics of CO2 uptake by the cis-[Cr(C2O4(BaraNH2(OH22]+ complex cation and the acid hydrolysis of the cis-[Cr(C2O4(BaraNH2OCO2]− complex anion (where BaraNH2 denotes methyl 3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-b-D-arabino-hexopyranoside were studied using the stopped-flow technique. The reactions under study were investigated in aqueous solution in the 288–308 K temperature range. In the case of the reaction between CO2 and cis-[Cr(C2O4(BaraNH2(OH22]+ cation variable pH values (6.82–8.91 and the constant ionic strength of solution (H+, Na+, ClO4− = 1.0 were used. Carbon dioxide was generated by the reaction between sodium pyruvate and hydrogen peroxide. The acid hydrolysis of cis-[Cr(C2O4(BaraNH2OCO2]− was investigated for varying concentrations of H+ ions (0.01–2.7 M. The obtained results enabled the determination of the number of steps of the studied reactions. Based on the kinetic equations, rate constants were determined for each step. Finally, mechanisms for both reactions were proposed and discussed. Based on the obtained results it was concluded that the carboxylation (CO2 uptake reactions of cis-[Cr(C2O4(BaraNH2(OH22]+ and the decarboxylation (acid hydrolysis of the cis-[Cr(C2O4(BaraNH2OCO2]− are the opposite of each other.

  1. Nickel(Ⅱ) Complexes Bearing NH2CH2CH2CH2NH2 and o-C6H4(NH2)2 Ligands:Synthesis, Structures and Their Ethylene Polymerization Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiaoming; WANG Zhen; LIU Man


    Two nickel complexes [Ni(NH2CH2CH2CH2NH2)3]Cl2 (1) and [Ni(C6H4N2H4)2Cl2] (2) have been obtained and characterized by IR and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In complex 1, the nickel atom was in a chiral pseudo-octahedral [NiN6] geometry environment, which was coordinated by three 1,3-propylenediamine to form three six-membered rings. However in complex 2, besides connected with two o-phenylenediarnine through four Ni-N bonds to form two five-membered rings, the nickel center was coordinated by two Cl to form trans-Ni-Cl2, which was different from general reported diimine nickel complexes. Activated with MAO, MMAO or Et2AlCl, these nickel complexes exhibited considerable good catalytic activity [up to 3.59×106 g·mol-1·h1for complex 2] for ethylene polymerization with main products as dimers or trimers of ethylene.

  2. Comparison of the binding of [(3)H]nociceptin/orphaninFQ(1-13)NH(2), [(3)H]nociceptin/orphaninFQ(1-17)OH and [(125)I]Tyr(14)nociceptin/orphaninFQ(1-17)OH to recombinant human and native rat cerebrocortical nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptors. (United States)

    Hashiba, E; Lambert, D G; Farkas, J; Toth, G; Smith, G


    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a 17-amino acid endogenous neuropeptide ligand for the nociceptin receptor (NOP). We have prepared a [(3)H]-labelled truncated N/OFQ peptide, [(3)H]N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) and compared its binding characteristics with [(3)H]N/OFQ(1-17)OH and [(125)I]Y(14)N/OFQ(1-17)OH in membranes prepared from Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the recombinant human NOP (CHO(hNOP)) and the rat cerebrocortex. [(3)H]N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2), [(3)H]N/OFQ(1-17)OH and [(125)I]Y(14)N/OFQ(1-17)OH binding to CHO(hNOP) was concentration dependent and saturable with receptor density (B(max)) and radioligand equilibrium dissociation constant (pK(d)) values (mean +/- SEM) of 1043 +/- 58 fmol/mg protein and 10.35 +/- 0.03, 1348 +/- 44 fmol/mg protein and 10.06 +/- 0.04, and 1169 +/- 76 fmol/mg protein and 10.45 +/- 0.06, respectively. In the rat, B(max) and pK(d) values for [(3)H]N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) and [(3)H]N/OFQ(1-17)OH were 130 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein and 10.70 +/- 0.03, and 157 +/- 4 fmol/mg protein and 10.34 +/- 0.02, respectively. The binding of all radioligands was displaced by a range of peptide and non-peptide ligands. There was a strong correlation (r(2) = 0.92, P = 0.002) between pK(i) values estimated with [(3)H]N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) and [(3)H]N/OFQ(1-17)OH. No such correlation was observed in comparison with the [(125)I]-labelled peptide (poor agreement with low affinity N/OFQ(1-9)NH(2), Dynorphin-A and Naloxone benzoylhydrazone). We suggest that [(3)H]N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) may be a useful alternative to [(3)H]N/OFQ(1-17)OH.

  3. Simulation of the time dependent infrared nu2 mode absorptions of (oH2)n:H2O clusters in O2 doped solid hydrogen at 4.2 K. (United States)

    Abouaf-Marguin, L; Vasserot, A-M; Pardanaud, C


    Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we have analyzed the time evolution of the nu(2) mode of (oH(2))(n):H(2)O clusters (n = 11 to 1) embedded in solid normal hydrogen at 4.2 K over a period of 150 h using paramagnetic O(2) to speed up the ortho to para nuclear spin conversion process. For concentrations H(2)O/O(2)/H(2) = 1/20/4000, at time t = 0 right after the solid is prepared, all the H(2)O molecules are preferentially clustered by large numbers of oH(2). With time the cluster distribution irreversibly shifts toward smaller cluster sizes and also generates freely rotating H(2)O (n = 0) which is solvated completely by pH(2) molecules. From a spectral decomposition of the nu(2) (oH(2))(n):H(2)O cluster spectra, a phenomenological simulation of the time behavior of the clusters has been developed. The time evolution is modeled using coupled rate equations in a step by step n to n-1 cluster cascade fashion and analyzed over nine successive time periods. It shows that rotating H(2)O grows only at the expense of cluster n = 1 and that the process dramatically slows down as the conversion of orthohydrogen proceeds. At the end of the conversion process, it was found that cluster n = 1 remained with a very slow decrease.

  4. Bibliographic review and new measurements of the infrared band strengths of pure molecules at 25 K: H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, NH3, CH3OH, HCOOH and H2CO (United States)

    Bouilloud, M.; Fray, N.; Bénilan, Y.; Cottin, H.; Gazeau, M.-C.; Jolly, A.


    Infrared observations of the interstellar medium revealed the presence of several molecules in the solid phase such as H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, NH3, CH3OH, H2CO and HCOOH. Measurements of column densities and molecular abundances relative to water require the knowledge of infrared band strengths. We present a review of refractive indices at visible wavelengths, densities and infrared band strengths for all eight molecules. We also present new band strengths measured on icy films whose thicknesses have been determined using laser interference techniques. For CO2, CO, CH4 and NH3, our measurements are in agreement with previous determinations taking into account an uncertainty of about 20 per cent. For H2O ice films, the porosity and the density remain unreliable, leading to large uncertainties on the measured band strengths. Concerning amorphous CH3OH, H2CO and HCOOH, the densities and refractive indices are unknown leading to large uncertainties on the band strengths. However, we propose new values that are slightly different from previous determination. Our review and experimental work point out the most reliable band strengths for the eight studied molecules. For CH4, CH3OH, HCOOH and H2CO, the band strengths used to calculate abundances in the ices of interstellar medium seem to be inaccurate, leading to some doubts on the determined values.

  5. Direct hydrothermal synthesis of metal intercalated hexagonal molybdates, M$^{+}_{x}$Mo$_{6-x/3}$O$_{18-x}$(OH)$_{x}$.$y$H2O (M = Li, Rb, Cs, NH4)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Upreti; A Ramanan


    Here we report direct hydrothermal synthesis of a few hexagonal molybdates with composition, M$^{+}_{x}$Mo$^{6+}_{6-x/3}$O$_{18-x}$(OH)$_{x\\cdot y}$H2O (M = Li, Rb, Cs, NH4). The molybdates crystallize in the space group 63/ with a ∼ 10.5 and ∼ 3.7 Å. Unlike previous studies, our work suggests that hexagonal molybdates could be stabilized in the presence of monovalent cations with varying ionic size (smaller lithium to larger cesium) under hydrothermal condition. The phases showed exceptional thermal stability till 550°C.

  6. From the potent and selective mu opioid receptor agonist H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) to the potent delta antagonist H-Dmt-Tic-Phe-Lys(Z)-OH. (United States)

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Cocco, Maria Teresa; Salvadori, Severo; Romagnoli, Romeo; Sasaki, Yusuke; Okada, Yoshio; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H


    H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) ([Dmt(1)]DALDA) binds with high affinity and selectivity to the mu opioid receptor and is a potent and long-acting analgesic. Substitution of d-Arg in position 2 with Tic and masking of the lysine amine side chain by Z protection and of the C-terminal carboxylic function instead of the amide function transform a potent and selective mu agonist into a potent and selective delta antagonist H-Dmt-Tic-Phe-Lys(Z)-OH. Such a delta antagonist could be used as a pharmacological tool.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of a new ethylenediammonium intercalated vanadyl phosphate, (H3NCH2CH2NH3)0.5[V$^{4+}_{0.32}$V$^{+}_{0.68}$O2PO4{P(OH)2}0.44

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Ayyappan; Minakshi Asnani; A Ramanan; Y Piffard


    In this paper we report the hydrothermal synthesis and characterisation of a new ethylenediammonium intercalated vanadyl phosphate, (H3NCH2CH2NH3)0.5 [V$^{4+}_{0.32}$V$^{5+}_{0.68}$ O2 PO4 {P(OH)2 }0.44]. The phase purity of the solid was established using powder X-ray diffraction, single crystal X-ray diffraction, TGA, DTA, FTIR, UV-Vis and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Crystal data: orthorhombic, Pnma, = 9.0289, = 8.8962 and = 15.9813 Å, = 1283.7 Å3, = 8. The structure contains layers made of VO5 square pyramids and PO4 tetrahedra; adjacent layers are connected through disordered tetrahedral PO2(OH)2 units. Ethylenediammonium cations occupy cavities in between the layers.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of the first indium borogermanate incorporating an organic amine ligand: InBGe{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}CH(NH{sub 2})CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2})·2H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chih-Min, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiu, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Hsiu-Mei [Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lii, Kwang-Hwa, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    A new indium borogermanate incorporating an organic amine ligand, InBGe{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}CH(NH{sub 2})CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2})·2H{sub 2}O, was synthesized under solvothermal conditions and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and emission spectroscopy. This compound is a new example of the combination of metal, boron, and germanium atoms into one structure in the presence of organic amine molecules. Its 2D sheets with one 3-, one 4-, and two types of 6-membered rings consist of In{sub 2}O{sub 6}N{sub 4} octahedral dimers, Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH) double tetrahedra, and BO{sub 3}(OH) groups that are interconnected by water molecules to form a 3D supramolecular framework. Interestingly, the emission spectrum for this compound displays a strong broad band centered at 455 nm. - Graphical abstract: The first example of indium borogermanate incorporating an organic amine ligand was synthesized under solvothermal conditions. Infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and emission spectroscopy have also been studied.

  9. Synthesis and thermal decomposition of [Bi{sub 6}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 2}](NH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SO{sub 3}){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahariev, Alexander, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Technical University, 8, St. Kliment Ohridski blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kaloyanov, Nikolay [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, St. Kliment Ohridski blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Girginov, Christian [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, St. Kliment Ohridski blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Parvanova, Veneta [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, St. Kliment Ohridski blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new complex [Bi{sub 6}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 2}](NH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SO{sub 3}){sub 4} is prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal decomposition (20-950 Degree-Sign C) of the complex is studied by DTA-TG and DSC analyses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of solid phases is investigated by FTIR and XRD. - Abstract: An investigation of the interaction of Bi(III) with an aqueous solution of sulfanilic acid at a higher temperature is performed. As a result, a new composition [Bi{sub 6}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 2}](NH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SO{sub 3}){sub 4} is precipitated. This Bi(III) complex is characterized by various methods: elemental analysis, DTA, TG-MS, DSC, FTIR, and powder X-ray diffraction. Based on the experimental results, X-ray diffraction indexation as well as thermal decomposition products of the compound are suggested.

  10. Metal-free inorganic ligands for colloidal nanocrystals: S2-, HS-, Se2-, HSe-, Te2-, HTe-, TeS3(2-), OH-, and NH2- as surface ligands. (United States)

    Nag, Angshuman; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Lee, Jong-Soo; Liu, Wenyong; Spokoyny, Boris; Talapin, Dmitri V


    All-inorganic colloidal nanocrystals were synthesized by replacing organic capping ligands on chemically synthesized nanocrystals with metal-free inorganic ions such as S(2-), HS(-), Se(2-), HSe(-), Te(2-), HTe(-), TeS(3)(2-), OH(-) and NH(2)(-). These simple ligands adhered to the NC surface and provided colloidal stability in polar solvents. The versatility of such ligand exchange has been demonstrated for various semiconductor and metal nanocrystals of different size and shape. We showed that the key aspects of Pearson's hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) principle, originally developed for metal coordination compounds, can be applied to the bonding of molecular species to the nanocrystal surface. The use of small inorganic ligands instead of traditional ligands with long hydrocarbon tails facilitated the charge transport between individual nanocrystals and opened up interesting opportunities for device integration of colloidal nanostructures.

  11. Bibliographic review and new measurements of the integrated cross sections of 8 molecules (H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, NH3, CH4, HCOOH and H2CO) in the solid form at 25K (United States)

    Michaelle, B.; Nicolas, F.; Yves, B.; Hervé, C.; Antoine, J.; Claire, G. Marie


    Infrared spectra from ISO and Spitzer telescopes revealed the presence of several molecules in the solid phase such as H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, NH3, CH4, HCOOH and H2CO in the environment of some Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) ([1], [2], [3], [4]. To quantify the column density of those molecules, the knowledge of some spectroscopic parameters, especially the integrated cross section A (cm.molecule-1) is required. For some molecules, inconsistencies on the values of spectroscopic parameters can be found in the literature. The purpose of this study is to compare all the values found in the literature with the ones that we have measured recently in order to propose more convincing values.

  12. Characterisation of Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag cement-like composites for the immobilisation of sulfate bearing nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Hussain, Oday H. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Apperley, David C. [Solid-State NMR Group, Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kinoshita, Hajime [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)


    Soluble sulfate ions in nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on cementitious wasteforms and disposal facilities based on Portland cement. As an alternative, Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composites are studied for immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes. Calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) with some barium substitution is the main binder phase, with barium also present in the low solubility salts BaSO{sub 4} and BaCO{sub 3}, along with Ba-substituted calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates, and a hydrotalcite-type layered double hydroxide. This reaction product assemblage indicates that Ba(OH){sub 2} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as alkaline activators and control the reaction of the slag in addition to forming insoluble BaSO{sub 4}, and this restricts sulfate availability for further reaction as long as sufficient Ba(OH){sub 2} is added. An increased content of Ba(OH){sub 2} promotes a higher degree of reaction, and the formation of a highly cross-linked C–A–S–H gel. These Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composite binders could be effective in the immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes.

  13. Trivalent Cation Substitution Effect into Layered Double Hydroxides Co 2Fe y Al 1- y(OH) 6Cl· nH 2O: Study of the Local Order . Ionic Conductivity and Magnetic Properties (United States)

    Intissar, Mourad; Segni, Rachid; Payen, Christophe; Besse, Jean-Pierre; Leroux, Fabrice


    A series of layered double hydroxide materials of composition Co 2Fe yAl 1- y(OH) 6Cl· nH 2O (0≤ y≤1) was prepared via chimie douce. The crystalline parameter related to the cation to cation distance obeys the expected variation, showing that the substitution is effective over the entire range. Local order around Co and Fe cations is studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Moduli of the Fourier transform at the Fe K-edge are superimposable, in agreement with an ordered model, although present in small domains since no superlattice is depicted. The ionic resistivity of the samples is highly dependent on the water molecule content. The conductivity is found to be thermally assisted, and the variation of the slope in the Arrhenius diagram is explained by a Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher-type behavior. Magnetic susceptibility measurements support the proposed cation composition and indicate the onset of local magnetic order at low temperature (below 10 K). The inter-sheet distance influences the magnetic response at low temperature, showing the presence of weak interactions between lamellae.

  14. Energetics of the O-H bond and of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in HOC6H4C(O)Y (Y = H, CH3, CH2CH=CH2, C[triple bond]CH, CH2F, NH2, NHCH3, NO2, OH, OCH3, OCN, CN, F, Cl, SH, and SCH3) compounds. (United States)

    Bernardes, Carlos E S; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E


    The energetics of the phenolic O-H bond in a series of 2- and 4-HOC 6H 4C(O)Y (Y = H, CH3, CH 2CH=CH2, C[triple bond]CH, CH2F, NH2, NHCH 3, NO2, OH, OCH3, OCN, CN, F, Cl, SH, and SCH3) compounds and of the intramolecular O...H hydrogen bond in 2-HOC 6H 4C(O)Y, was investigated by using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2HBA), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4HBA), 2'-hydroxyacetophenone (2HAP), 2-hydroxybenzamide (2HBM), and 4-hydroxybenzamide (4HBM), at 298.15 K, were determined by micro- or macrocombustion calorimetry. The corresponding enthalpies of vaporization or sublimation were also measured by Calvet drop-calorimetry and Knudsen effusion measurements. The combination of the obtained experimental data led to Delta f H m (o)(2HBA, g) = -238.3 +/- 2.5 kJ.mol (-1), DeltafHm(o)(4HBA, g) = -220.3 +/- 2.0 kJ.mol(-1), Delta f H m (o)(2HAP, g) = -291.8 +/- 2.1 kJ.mol(-1), DeltafHm(o)(2HBM, g) = -304.8 +/- 1.5 kJ.mol (-1), and DeltafHm(o) (4HBM, g) = -278.4 +/- 2.4 kJ.mol (-1). These values, were used to assess the predictions of the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p), B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ, B3P86/6-31G(d,p), B3P86/6-311+G(d,p), B3P86/aug-cc-pVDZ, and CBS-QB3 methods, for the enthalpies of a series of isodesmic gas phase reactions. In general, the CBS-QB3 method was able to reproduce the experimental enthalpies of reaction within their uncertainties. The B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) method, with a slightly poorer accuracy than the CBS-QB3 approach, achieved the best performance of the tested DFT models. It was further used to analyze the trends of the intramolecular O...H hydrogen bond in 2-HOC 6H 4C(O)Y evaluated by the ortho-para method and to compare the energetics of the phenolic O-H bond in 2- and 4-HOC 6H 4C(O)Y compounds. It was concluded that the O-H bond "strength" is systematically larger for 2-hydroxybenzoyl than for the corresponding 4-hydroxybenzoyl isomers mainly due to the presence of

  15. Effects of the addition of H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}OH in the optical and structural properties of the thin films of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited by pyrolytic spray; Efectos de la adicion de H{sub 2}O y NH{sub 4}OH en las propiedades opticas y estructurales de las peliculas delgadas de Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} depositadas por rocio pirolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon F, G.; Carvajal V, R.; Aguilar F, M. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [CINVESTAV, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] [and others


    In this work we studied the optical and structural properties of yttrium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis. Yttrium acetylacetonate was used as raw material and N, N-DMF was used as solvent. The films were deposited on Si (100) and Si (111) substrates at temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550 C. The optical and structural characteristics of the films were dramatically improved when a mist of H{sub 2}O and/or NH{sub 4}0H was simultaneously added during deposition of the films. A refraction index up to 1.88, and deposition rates lower than 10 A/sec were obtained in the films. Infrared spectroscopy measurements indicate that the films resulted free from -OH bonds. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the films were polycrystalline. In addition, the relative chemical composition of the films was determined by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and the surface morphology was analyzed in the Atomic Force Microscope. (Author)

  16. A Straight Forward Route for the Development of Metal-Organic Frameworks Functionalized with Aromatic -OH Groups: Synthesis, Characterization, and Gas (N2, Ar, H2, CO2, CH4, NH3) Sorption Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Xydias, Pantelis; Malliakas, Christos D; Trikalitis, Pantelis N [Crete; (NWU)


    A facile and general methodology for the development of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) functionalized with pendant, aromatic hydroxyl (-OH) groups is presented. Extensive gas-sorption studies in representative and important MOFs functionalized with free aromatic -OH groups such as the IRMOF-8 and DUT-6 (or MOF-205), denoted here as 1 and 2, revealed a high CO2/CH4 selectivity for 1 (13.6 at 273 K and 1 bar) and a high NH3 uptake of 16.4 mol kg–1 at 298 K and 1 bar for 2.

  17. A multiple system of high-mass YSOs surrounded by disks in NGC 7538 IRS1 . Gas dynamics on scales of 10-700 AU from CH3OH maser and NH3 thermal lines (United States)

    Moscadelli, L.; Goddi, C.


    Context. It has been claimed that NGC 7538 IRS1 is a high-mass young stellar object (YSO) with 30 M⊙, surrounded by a rotating Keplerian disk, probed by a linear distribution of methanol masers. The YSO is also powering a strong compact Hii region or ionized wind, and is driving at least one molecular outflow. The axis orientations of the different structures (ionized gas, outflow, and disk) are, however, misaligned, which has led to the different competing models proposed to explain individual structures. Aims: We investigate the 3D kinematics and dynamics of circumstellar gas with very high linear resolution, from tens to 1500 AU, with the ultimate goal of building a comprehensive dynamical model for what is considered the best high-mass accretion disk candidate around an O-type young star in the northern hemisphere. Methods: We used high-angular resolution observations of 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers with the EVN, NH3 inversion lines with the JVLA B-Array, and radio continuum with the VLA A-Array. In particular, we employed four different observing epochs of EVN data at 6.7 GHz, spanning almost eight years, which enabled us to measure line-of-sight (l.o.s.) accelerations and proper motions of CH3OH masers, besides l.o.s. velocities and positions (as done in previous works). In addition, we imaged highly excited NH3 inversion lines, from (6,6) to (13,13), which enabled us to probe the hottest molecular gas very close to the exciting source(s). Results: We confirm previous results that five 6.7 GHz maser clusters (labeled from "A" to "E") are distributed over a region extended N-S across ≈1500 AU, and are associated with three components of the radio continuum emission. We propose that these maser clusters identify three individual high-mass YSOs in NGC 7538 IRS1, named IRS1a (associated with clusters "B" and "C"), IRS1b (associated with cluster "A"), and IRS1c (associated with cluster "E"). We find that the 6.7 GHz masers distribute along a line, with a regular

  18. Kinetics and branching ratios of the reactions NH2+NO2->N2O+H2O and NH2+NO2->H2NO+NO studied by pulse radiolysis combined with time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, H.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Sillesen, A.


    The source reaction F + NH3 --> HF + NH2 was initiated by the pulse radiolysis of NH3/SF6 mixtures, and the primary yield of F atoms was determined by monitoring the decrease in the infrared absorption of methane consumed in the titration reaction F + CH4 --> HF + CH3. The title reactions have been...... studied by monitoring the decay of NH2 and the simultaneous formation of N2O and NO by time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy. The decay rate of NH2 was studied as a function of NO2 concentration to obtain an overall rate constant k(NH2 + NO2) = (1.35 +/- 0.15) X 10(-11) molecule(-1) cm(3) s(-1...

  19. Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobukowski, Erik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    conditions, it was found that the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine to Nbenzylidenebenzylamine, with N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), was nearly quantitative (96%) within 24 h. However, the reaction with oxygen was much slower, with only a 52% yield of imine product over the same time period. Moreover, the rate of reaction was found to be influenced by the nature of the amine N-oxide. For example, the use of the weakly basic pyridine N-oxide (PyNO) led to an imine yield of only 6% after 24 h. A comparison of amine N-oxide and O2 was also examined in the oxidation of PhCH{sub 2}OH to PhCHO catalyzed by bulk gold. In this reaction, a 52% yield of the aldehyde was achieved when NMMO was used, while only a 7% product yield was afforded when O{sub 2} was the oxidant after 48 h. The bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclic amines generates amidines, which upon treatment with Aerosil and water were found to undergo hydrolysis to produce lactams. Moreover, 5-, 6-, and 7-membered lactams could be prepared through a one-pot reaction of cyclic amines by treatment with oxygen, water, bulk gold, and Aerosil. This method is much more atom economical than industrial processes, does not require corrosive acids, and does not generate undesired byproducts. Additionally, the gold and Aerosil catalysts can be readily separated from the reaction mixture. The second project involved studying iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride, Fe(TPP)Cl, as a homogeneous catalyst for the generation of carbenes from diazo reagents and their reaction with heteroatom compounds. Fe(TPP)Cl, efficiently catalyzed the insertion of carbenes derived from methyl 2-phenyldiazoacetates into O-H bonds of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. Fe(TPP)Cl was also found to be an effective catalyst for tandem N-H and O-H insertion/cyclization reactions when 1,2-diamines and 1,2-alcoholamines were treated with diazo reagents. This approach provides a one-pot process for synthesizing piperazinones and

  20. Sulfate Exchange of the Nitrate-Type Layered Hydroxide Nanosheets of Ln2(OH)5NO3· nH2O for Better Dispersed and Multi-color Luminescent Ln2O3 Nanophosphors (Ln = Y0.98RE0.02, RE = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Liu, Weigang; Li, Ji-Guang; Zhu, Qi; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Xudong


    Through restricting thickness growth by performing coprecipitation at the freezing temperature of ~4 °C, solid-solution nanosheets (up to 5-nm thick) of the Ln2(OH)5NO3· nH2O layered hydroxide (Ln = Y0.98RE0.02; RE = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm, respectively) were directly synthesized without performing conventional exfoliation. In situ exchange of the interlayer NO3 - with SO4 2- produced a sulfate derivative [Ln2(OH)5(SO4)0.5· nH2O] of the same layered structure and two-dimensional crystallite morphology but substantially contracted d 002 basal spacing (from ~0.886 to 0.841 nm). The sulfate derivative was systematically compared against its nitrate parent in terms of crystal structure and phase/morphology evolution upon heating. It is shown that the interlayer SO4 2-, owing to its bonding with the hydroxide main layer, significantly raises the decomposition temperature from ~600 to 1000 °C to yield remarkably better dispersed oxide nanopowders via a monoclinic Ln2O2SO4 intermediate. The resultant (Y0.98RE0.02)2O3 nanophosphors were studied for their photoluminescence to show that the emission color, depending on RE3+, spans a wide range in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram, from blue to deep red via green, yellow, orange, and orange red.

  1. Managing OHS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer


    Contrary to a widely held view, rather than seeing the certification of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) as a barrier to increasing employee participation, this article views new ways of structuring participation as a necessary step towards making improvements in OHS management systems....... The article first considers how work organization has changed and then in a similar way traces how bargaining has shifted from being distributive to become integrative to create a fundamental change in the negotiation regime. Finally, by analyzing an OHS-certified firm in greater depth, the article shows how...... solutions for improvements in OHS management and notable bottom-up formulations of OHS benchmarks may help us discover how the organizational form of firms with high-performance work organization can be developed through new participatory structures....

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Gallium Phosphate[H3N(CH2)2NH3]1/2·[Ga5(PO4)4(OH)4]%一种新颖磷酸镓化合物的合成与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 张如意; 毕文彦


    应用水热合成法且以乙二铵为膜板剂合成了一种结构新颖的磷酸镓化合物[H2N(CH2)2 NH3]1/2(◎)·[Ga5(PO4)4(OH)4].利用单晶X射线衍射仪对其结构进行分析,有关晶体数据如下:空间构型,单斜C2/m,a=1.0160(9)nm,b=1.2008(15)nm,c=0.7189(7)nm,β=90.797(6)°,V=0.87708(16)nm3,Z=2·R1=0.0264,wR2=0.0764.其结构是由一个新颖的次级结构单元(SBU)Ga1P1O20(OH):构建而成,在SBU中Ga处于变形的三角双锥构型,P处于四面体构型.SBU通过桥氧连接成层.层与层间通过GaO4(OH)2八面体连接成三维框架结构.

  3. 氨基葡萄糖、N-乙酰氨基葡萄糖和小分子壳聚糖对C_2H_5OH和CCl_4所致肝细胞损伤的预防和修复作用%Preventive and recoverable effects of GlcNH_2,GlcNAc and low molecular CS against C_2H_5OH or CCl_4-induced hepatocytes damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永恒; 党奇峰; 陈军; 陈丽媛; 宋磊; 刘成圣


    研究了氨基葡萄糖(D-glucosamine,Glc-NH2),N-乙酰氨基葡萄糖(N-acetyl-D-glucosamine,GlcNAc)和小分子壳聚糖(chitosan,CS)对酒精(C2H5OH)或四氯化碳(CCl4)诱导的小鼠肝细胞损伤的预防和修复作用。采用组织块培养法获取小鼠肝细胞,通过对小鼠传代培养过程中肝细胞活性的测定,证实该细胞在第6d达到最佳生长状态。分别用无糖培养基,含500或1000μg/mL GlcNH2、GlcNAc或小分子CS的培养基对肝细胞培养3d后用C2H5OH或CCl%The protective effects of D-glucosamine(GlcNH2),N-acetyl-D-glucosamine(GlcNAc) and low molecular chitosan(CS) on C2H5OH-induced or CCl4-induced mouse hepatocytes damage were investigated in the present study.The mouse hepatocytes were obtained through tissue culture.The cells activity was investigated during the subculture and the results showed the mouse hepatocytes had optimal growth condition at 6d culture.The hepatocytes were exposed to C2H5OH or CCl4 for different times after 3d culture of sugar-free medium,500 or 1000μg/mL of GlcNH2,GlcNAc or low molecular CS medium,and the MTT assay was measured after 6d culture.The results indicated the GlcNH2,GlcNAc and low molecular CS all had preventive effect to CCl4-induced damage and only the low molecular CS had preventive effect to the C2H5OH-induced hepatocytes damage.2000μg/mL of GlcNH2,GlcNAc and low molecular CS all had positively effects on C2H5OH-induced hepatocytes damage recovery,indicating the potential applications in the treatment of C2H5OH-induced liver disease.

  4. Effects of the addition of H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}OH in the electrical properties of thin films of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited by pyrolytic spray; Efectos de la adicion de H{sub 2}O y NH{sub 4}OH en las propiedades electricas de peliculas delgadas de Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} depositadas por rocio pirolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera S, H.J.; Alarcon F, G.; Aguilar F, M. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [CINVESTAV-IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia H, M.; Guzman M, J. [IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Araiza I, J.J. [UAZ, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)


    In this work we studied the electrical properties of yttrium oxide thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis from Y(acac){sub 3} and N,N-DMF. The films were deposited on Si(100) substrates at temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550 C. The electrical characteristic of the films was improved when a mist of H{sub 2}O and/or NH{sub 4}0H was simultaneously added to the deposition system. Current and capacitance versus voltage measurements were obtained when the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were integrated in MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) structures. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with a dielectric constant up to 15 were obtained. The films can stand electric fields up to 2 MV/cm. An interface state density in the range of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1} was measured at midgap from the high and low frequency capacitance measurements. (Author)

  5. Addition of nucleophiles on cyanoacetylene N≡CCH=CH-X (X = NH2, OH, SH, …). Synthesis and Physico-chemical Properties of Potential Prebiotic Compounds or Interstellar Molecules. (United States)

    Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    Among the molecules detected to date in the interstellar medium (ISM), cyanopolyynes constitute a rich and important subset. These robust compounds exhibit special properties with respect to their reactivity and kinetic stability, and some have been found in other astrochemical environments, such as comets or in lab simulations of planetary atmospheres.[1] These systems are supposed to be good starting materials for the formation of new, more complex, astrochemical species, or amino acids on primitive Earth. The formal addition of water, hydrogen sulfur or ammonia on cyanoacetylene (H-C≡C-C≡N) gives the corresponding heterosubstitued acrylonitriles. We have extensively investigated the study of such adducts. With water, the formed cyanovinylalcohol (NC-CH=CH-OH) is in a tautomeric equilibrium with the kinetically more stable cyanoacetaldehyde (NC-CH2 CH(=O)). Isolation of these compounds in pure form is challenging but the gas phase infrared spectrum has been recorded. Reaction of ammonia with cyanoacetylene gives aminoacrylonitrile (H2 N-CH=CH-CN), a stable enamine; microwave and infrared spectra were obtained.[2] Similarly the MW spectrum of 3-mercapto-2-propenenitrile (HS-CH=CH-CN) has been recorded.[3] Attempts to detect both species in the ISM have been performed. A combined experimental and theoretical study on the gas-phase basicity and acidity of a series of cyanovinyl derivatives is also presented.[4] We will demonstrate that many particular physicochemical properties are associated to these simple adducts of cyanoacetylene, compounds often proposed as prebiotic molecules or components of the ISM. 1] S. W. Fow, K. Dose, Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life, Marcel Dekker, Stateplace- New York, metricconverterProductID1977. A1977. A. Coustenis, T. Encrenaz, B. BJzard, B. Bjoraker, G. Graner, G. Dang-Nhu, E. AriJ, Icarus 1993, 102, 240 - 269. [2] Benidar, A. ; Guillemin, J.-C. ; M—, O. ; Y‡-ez, M. J. Phys. Chem. A. 2005, 109, 4705-4712. E

  6. Crystal structures of two decavanadates(V with pentaaquamanganese(II pendant groups: (NMe42[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·5H2O and [NH3C(CH2OH3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·2H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício P. Franco


    Full Text Available Two heterometallic decavanadate(V compounds, bis(tetramethylammonium decaaquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexadeca-μ2-oxido-hexaoxidodimanganese(IIdecavanadate(V pentahydrate, (Me4N2[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·5H2O, A, and bis{[tris(hydroxymethylmethyl]ammonium} decaaquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexadeca-μ2-oxido-hexaoxidodimanganese(IIdecavanadate(V dihydrate, [NH3C(CH2OH3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O5}2]·2H2O, B, have been synthesized under mild reaction conditions in an aqueous medium. Both polyanions present two [Mn(OH25]2+ complex units bound to the decavanadate cluster through oxide bridges. In A, the decavanadate unit has 2/m symmetry, whereas in B it has twofold symmetry. Apart from this, the main differences between A and B rest on the organic cations, tetramethylammonium and [tris(hydroxymethylmethyl]ammonium, respectively, and on the number and arrangement of the water molecules of crystallization. In both compounds, the H atoms from the coordinating water molecules participate in extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks, which link the cluster units both directly and through solvent molecules and, in B, through the `tris' cation hydroxyl groups. The cation in B also participates in N—H...O hydrogen bonds. A number of C—H...O interactions are also observed in both structures.

  7. Thermodynamics and technology of extracting gold from low-grade gold ore in system of NH4Cl-NH3-H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    According to the principles of simultaneous chemical equilibrium and electronic charge neutrality, the thermodynamics of Au-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system was studied by using the exponential computation method and through MATLAB programming, and the solid figure of potential-c(NH4Cl)-c(NH4OH) was drawn. The results show that when the sum concentration of Au+ and Au3+ is equal to5 × 10-5 mol/L, ψ(Au+/Au) is about -0.2 V; when the sum comes up to 0.5 mol/L, the value of ψ(Au+/Au) increases to 0.2 V. In this case, ψ(O2/OH-) is as high as 0.7 V. This means that it is feasible to extract gold in this system. In addition, to predict the feasibility of reducing gold from the Au(Ⅰ)-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system with copper or zinc powder, the solid figures of potential-c(NH4Cl)-c(NH4OH)for both systems of Cu-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O and Zn-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O were also drawn. The results indicate that both copper and zinc powders can reduce Au+ into metal gold, and zinc powder can also reduce H2O into H2, while copper powder can not. The leaching results of a cuprous gold ore show that the extraction of gold can reach 80% in this system. The preliminary results of reduction with copper and zinc powders show that with deoxygenizing, the reduction effects are relatively good.

  8. Theoretical study on the mechanism of CH3NH2 and O3 atmospheric reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samira Valehi; Morteza Vahedpour


    Reaction pathways of methylamine with ozone on the singlet potential energy profile have been investigated at the RB3LYP/6-311++G (3df-3pd) computational level. Calculated results reveal that six kinds of products P1 (CH3NO + H2O2), P2 (CH3NH + OH + O2), P3 (NH2CH + HO2+ OH), P4 (CH2NH + H2O +O2), P5 (NH2CH2OH + O2), P6 (NH3+ CH2O +O2) are obtained through variety of transformation of one reactant complex C1. Cleavage and formation of the chemical bonds in the reaction pathways have been discussed using the structural parameters. Based on the calculations, the title reaction leads to NH3+ CH2O + O2 as thermodynamic adducts in an exothermic process by −76.28 kcal/mol in heat realizing and spontaneous reaction by −86.71 kcal/mol in standard Gibbs free energy. From a kinetic viewpoint, the production of CH3NH + OH + O2 adducts with one transition state is the most favoured path.

  9. Journal bearing (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.


    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than, and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  10. Chemistry, Raman and infrared spectroscopic characterization of the phosphate mineral reddingite: (MnFe)3(PO4)2(H2O,OH)3, a mineral found in lithium-bearing pegmatite (United States)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda M.; Lagoeiro, Leonardo E.


    Detailed investigation of an intermediate member of the reddingite-phosphoferrite series, using infrared and Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microcopy and electron microprobe analysis, has been carried out on a homogeneous sample from a lithium-bearing pegmatite named Cigana mine, near Conselheiro Pena, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The determined formula is ({{Mn}}_{1.60} {{Fe}}_{1.21} {{Ca}}_{0.01} {{Mg}}_{0.01} )_{sum 2.83} ({{PO}}4 )_{2.12} \\cdot ({{H}}2 {{O}}_{2.85} {{F}}_{0.01} )_{sum 2.86} , indicating predominance in the reddingite member. Raman spectroscopy coupled with infrared spectroscopy supports the concept of phosphate, hydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate units in the structure of reddingite-phosphoferrite. Infrared and Raman bands attributed to water and hydroxyl stretching modes are identified. Vibrational spectroscopy adds useful information to the molecular structure of reddingite-phosphoferrite.

  11. 紫外-可见光催化活性的硫酸铵改性含钛高炉渣光催化剂的制备%Preparation of UV-visible light responsive photocatalyst from titania-bearing blast furnace slag modified with (NH4)2SO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雪飞; 薛向欣; 杨合


    Sulfate-modified titanium dioxide-bearing blast furnace slag (STBBFS) photocatalysts were prepared by the high energy ball milling method with (NH4)2SO4 and titanium dioxide-bearing blast furnace slag (TBBFS) as raw materials.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),UV-visible diffuse reflectance absorption spectra (UV-Vis),adsorption experiment and photocatalytic degradation measurement were conducted to characterize the structure,surface status,light absorption capacity,adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity of the obtained photocatalysts.The adsorption equilibrium was described by the Langmuir isotherm model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 8.25 mg/g of Cr(Ⅵ) ions onto the STBBFS photocatalysts.As a result,sulfation of TBBFS improved the photocatalytic activities of STBBFSx photocatalysts.At a low calcination temperature,the photocatalytic activity of STBBFS300 photocatalyst was markedly higher compared with TBBFSx prepared at high calcination temperature,indicating that the photocatalytic activity of STBBFSx photocatalyst was determined by the balanced result between adsorption capacity and perovskite content.%以含钛高炉渣和硫酸铵为原料,利用高能球磨法制备硫酸盐掺杂的含钛高炉渣(STBBFS)光催化剂.利用X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)、紫外-可见吸收光谱(UV-Vis)、热重(TGA)分析以及暗态吸附Cr(Ⅵ)废水、光催化还原Cr(Ⅵ)废水实验对STBBFS催化剂的物相、表面结构、光吸收能力、吸附容量以及光催化活性进行表征.结果表明:Cr(Ⅵ)在STBBFS催化剂表面上的吸附遵循Langmuir吸附等温线模型;掺杂硫酸盐后,STBBFS催化剂的吸附容量增大为8.25 mg/g;在300℃煅烧后,STBBFS催化剂由于存在较高的钙钛矿含量、吸附容量及表面酸性,从而具有较高的光催化活性.

  12. Grizzly bear (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.


    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  13. Foil bearings (United States)

    Elrod, David A.


    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  14. Foil bearings (United States)

    Elrod, David A.


    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  15. 1,25(OH)2D3 dependent overt hyperactivity phenotype in klotho-hypomorphic mice. (United States)

    Leibrock, Christina B; Voelkl, Jakob; Kuro-O, Makoto; Lang, Florian; Lang, Undine E


    Klotho, a protein mainly expressed in kidney and cerebral choroid plexus, is a powerful regulator of 1,25(OH)2D3 formation. Klotho-deficient mice (kl/kl) suffer from excessive plasma 1,25(OH)2D3-, Ca(2+)- and phosphate-concentrations, leading to severe soft tissue calcification and accelerated aging. NH4Cl treatment prevents tissue calcification and premature ageing without affecting 1,25(OH)2D3-formation. The present study explored the impact of excessive 1,25(OH)2D3 formation in NH4Cl-treated kl/kl-mice on behavior. To this end kl/kl-mice and wild-type mice were treated with NH4Cl and either control diet or vitamin D deficient diet (LVD). As a result, plasma 1,25(OH)2D3-, Ca(2+)- and phosphate-concentrations were significantly higher in untreated and in NH4Cl-treated kl/kl-mice than in wild-type mice, a difference abrogated by LVD. In each, open field, dark-light box, and O-maze NH4Cl-treated kl/kl-mice showed significantly higher exploratory behavior than untreated wild-type mice, a difference abrogated by LVD. The time of floating in the forced swimming test was significantly shorter in NH4Cl treated kl/kl-mice compared to untreated wild-type mice and to kl/kl-mice on LVD. In wild-type animals, NH4Cl treatment did not significantly alter 1,25(OH)2D3, calcium and phosphate concentrations or exploratory behavior. In conclusion, the excessive 1,25(OH)2D3 formation in klotho-hypomorphic mice has a profound effect on murine behavior.

  16. Atmospheric gas phase chemistry of CH2═NH and HNC. A first-principles approach. (United States)

    Bunkan, Arne Joakim C; Tang, Yizhen; Sellevåg, Stig R; Nielsen, Claus J


    Quantum chemical methods were used to investigate the OH initiated atmospheric degradation of methanimine, CH2═NH, the major primary product in the atmospheric photo-oxidation of methylamine, CH3NH2. Energies of stationary points on potential energy surfaces of reaction were calculated using multireference perturbation theory and coupled cluster theory. The results show that hydrogen abstraction dominates over the addition route in the CH2═NH + OH reaction, and that the major primary product is HCN, while HNC and CHONH2 are minor primary products. HNC is found to react with OH exclusively via addition to the carbon atom followed by O-H scission leading to HNCO; N2O is not a product in the atmospheric photo-oxidation of HNC. Additional G4 calculations of the CH2═NH + O3 reaction show that this is too slow to be of importance at atmospheric conditions. Rate coefficients for the CH2═NH + OH and HNC + OH reactions were calculated as a function of temperature and pressure using a master equation model based on the coupled cluster theory results. The rate coefficients for OH reaction with CH2═NH and HNC at 1000 mbar and room temperature are calculated to be 3.0 × 10(-12) and 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. The atmospheric fate of CH2═NH is discussed and a gas phase photo-oxidation mechanism is presented.

  17. OH+ in Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Porras, A J; Welty, D E; Ritchey, A M


    Near ultraviolet observations of OH+ and OH in diffuse molecular clouds reveal a preference for different environments. The dominant absorption feature in OH+ arises from a main component seen in CH+ (that with the highest CH+/CH column density ratio), while OH follows CN absorption. This distinction provides new constraints on OH chemistry in these clouds. Since CH+ detections favor low-density gas with small fractions of molecular hydrogen, this must be true for OH+ as well, confirming OH+ and H2O+ observations with the Herschel Space Telescope. Our observed correspondence indicates that the cosmic ray ionization rate derived from these measurements pertains to mainly atomic gas. The association of OH absorption with gas rich in CN is attributed to the need for high enough density and molecular fraction before detectable amounts are seen. Thus, while OH+ leads to OH production, chemical arguments suggest that their abundances are controlled by different sets of conditions and that they coexist with differen...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Q.Qu; C.W.Yan; L.Li; L.Zhang; G.H.Liu; C.N.Cao


    Influence of NH4 Cl on the initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc was investigated via quartz crystal microbalance(QCM)in laboratory at 80%RH and 25℃.The results show that NH4 Cl can accelerate the initial corrosion of zinc.Mass gain increase with the exposure time,but mass gain in the later doesn't change obviously due to the formation of the insoluble simonkolleite on zinc surface in the presence of NH4 Cl.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR)and X-ray diffraction(XRD)was used to characterize the corrosion products.Zn5 Cl2(OH)s.H2 O,(NH4)2ZnCl4 and ZnO are the corrosion products on zinc.Brief discussion on the mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion of zinc in the presence of NH4 Cl was introduced.

  19. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique


    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  20. TKS-Vega experiment - NH and NH2 bands in Comet Halley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnopol' skii, V.A.; Tkachuk, A.IU. (AN SSSR, Institut Kosmicheskikh Issledovanii, Moscow (USSR))


    An analysis is conducted of the March 9, 1986 distribution of the NH 336-nm band and the NH2 bands in the 580-700 nm region on Comet Halley. Of all candidates considered, only ammonia suggests itself as a parent of both NH2 and NH. The ammonia production rate is obtained from measurements of NH2 bands by dividing the observed Q(NH2) by 0.92, which is the yield of NH2 in NH3 photolysis. The NH3 presently measured is an order of magnitude lower than that derived from the Giotto IMS data. 28 refs.

  1. Zn-OH2 and Zn-OH complexes with hydroborate-derived tripod ligands: a comprehensive study. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Olmo, Cristina Pérez; Tekeste, Teame; Seebacher, Jan; He, Guosen; Maldonado Calvo, José A; Böhmerle, Karin; Steinfeld, Gunther; Brombacher, Horst; Vahrenkamp, Heinrich


    The complete array of those hydrotris(pyrazolyl/thioimidazolyl)borate ligands that were developed and used in the author's laboratories, with N3, N2S, NS2, and S3 donor sets, was scanned for their ability to form Zn-OH2 and Zn-OH complexes. The coordination motifs found were Zn-OH2, Zn-OH, Zn-OH-Zn, and Zn-O2H3-Zn. Of these, the well-established Zn-OH motif was complemented with novel species bearing N3, NS2, and S3 tripods. The Zn-OH2 motif was observed only with pyrazolylborate ligands and only in unusual situations with coordination numbers higher than 4 for zinc. The new Zn-OH-Zn motif was realized for three different pyrazolylborates, for one NS2 tripod, and for two S3 tripods. Finally, it was verified that the Zn-O2H3-Zn motif again occurs only with pyrazolylborate ligands. The new complexes were identified by a total of 11 structure determinations.

  2. Interaction between OHS regulation and OHS certification in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Ulrik


    In 2001, the Danish Parliament approved a law on OHS certification that provided economic support to enterprises/organizations that were certified according to one of the two national OHS standards. These certified enterprises/organizations were also exempt from the initial inspection by the Dani...... recommendations for optimizing the interaction between OHS certification and regulation/control ....

  3. Cold and ultracold NH--NH collisions in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, Liesbeth M C; van der Avoird, Ad; Groenenboom, Gerrit C; Hutson, Jeremy M


    Elastic and spin-changing inelastic collision cross sections are presented for cold and ultracold magnetically trapped NH. The cross sections are obtained from coupled-channel scattering calculations as a function of energy and magnetic field. We specifically investigate the influence of the intramolecular spin-spin, spin-rotation, and intermolecular magnetic dipole coupling on the collision dynamics. It is shown that $^{15}$NH is a very suitable candidate for evaporative cooling experiments. The dominant trap-loss mechanism in the ultracold regime originates from the intermolecular dipolar coupling term. At higher energies and fields, intramolecular spin-spin coupling becomes increasingly important. Our qualitative results and conclusions are fairly independent of the exact form of the potential and of the size of the channel basis set.

  4. Synthesis of 15N-enriched urea (CO(15NH22 from 15NH3, CO, and S in a discontinuous process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Sant Ana Filho


    Full Text Available CO(15NH22 enriched with the stable isotope 15N was synthesized based on a reaction involving CO, 15NH3, and S in the presence of CH3OH. The method differs from the industrial method; a stainless steel reactor internally lined with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE was used in a discontinuous process under low pressure and temperature. The yield of the synthesis was evaluated as a function of the parameters: the amount of reagents, reaction time, addition of H2S, liquid solution and reaction temperature. The results showed that under optimum conditions (1.36, 4.01, and 4.48 g of 15NH3, CO, and S, respectively, 40 ml CH3OH, 40 mg H2S, 100 ºC and 120 min of reaction 1.82 g (yield 76.5% of the compound was obtained per batch. The synthesized CO(15NH22 contained 46.2% N, 0.55% biuret, melting point of 132.55 ºC and did not exhibit isotopic fractionation. The production cost of CO(15NH22 with 90.0 at. % 15N was US$ 238.60 per gram.

  5. OH+ in Diffuse Molecular Clouds (United States)

    Porras, A. J.; Federman, S. R.; Welty, D. E.; Ritchey, A. M.


    Near ultraviolet observations of OH+ and OH in diffuse molecular clouds reveal a preference for different environments. The dominant absorption feature in OH+ arises from a main component seen in CH+ (that with the highest CH+/CH column density ratio), while OH follows CN absorption. This distinction provides new constraints on OH chemistry in these clouds. Since CH+ detections favor low-density gas with small fractions of molecular hydrogen, this must be true for OH+ as well, confirming OH+ and H2O+ observations with the Herschel Space Telescope. Our observed correspondence indicates that the cosmic ray ionization rate derived from these measurements pertains to mainly atomic gas. The association of OH absorption with gas rich in CN is attributed to the need for a high enough density and molecular fraction before detectable amounts are seen. Thus, while OH+ leads to OH production, chemical arguments suggest that their abundances are controlled by different sets of conditions and that they coexist with different sets of observed species. Of particular note is that non-thermal chemistry appears to play a limited role in the synthesis of OH in diffuse molecular clouds.

  6. Adsorption of arsenic with struvite and hydroxylapatite in phosphate-bearing solutions. (United States)

    Rouff, Ashaki A; Ma, Ning; Kustka, Adam B


    Arsenic sorption at above neutral pH is relevant when considering contaminant mobility in alkaline, phosphorus-bearing wastewaters, and may be viable in the presence phosphate minerals. Arsenic adsorption on struvite (MgNH4PO4 · 6H2O, MAP) and hydroxylapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH, HAP) was evaluated at pH 8-11 from solutions with 2.7-0.125 mM phosphate and 0.05 mM As(III) or As(V). Over 7 d, As(III) removal from solution was minimal, but As(V) removal increased with pH, and was higher in the presence of MAP compared to HAP with a maximum of 74% removal in pH 11 MAP-bearing solutions. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) analysis of solids recovered from pH 10-11 solutions revealed different mechanisms of As(V) sorption with MAP and HAP. Arsenic forms monodentate mononuclear surface complexes with MAP through the formation of a Mg-O-As bond, but is incorporated at the near-surface of HAP forming a johnbaumite-like (Ca5(AsO4)3OH) structure. Experiments using radioactive (33)P at pH 10-11 revealed faster exchange of P at the HAP surface, which could promote more facile As incorporation. Near-surface incorporated As in HAP may be less susceptible to remobilization compared to surface adsorbates formed with MAP. Overall, both MAP and HAP may sorb As at high pH in the presence of phosphate. This is relevant to the fate of As in alkaline contaminated waters in contact with phosphate mineral phases.

  7. Structural, electronic properties of microscale (NH4)2V3O8 fabricated using a novel preparation method (United States)

    Zakharova, G. S.; Enyashin, A. N.; Podval'naya, N. V.; Zhuravlev, N. A.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Gorodetsky, R. S.; Liu, Y.; Zhu, Q.


    A new method has been developed for the synthesis of diammonium trivanadate (NH4)2V3O8. Single crystals of (NH4)2V3O8 were synthesized on a large scale by a soft base hydrolysis of NH4VO3 in NH4OH solution in the presence of VOSO4·3H2O. The effects of vanadium(V) concentration, pH value on the product morphology and phase composition were investigated. The formation mechanism of (NH4)2V3O8 was suggested. The samples were characterized using combination of techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, and thermal analysis. Electronic structure, chemical bonding and adsorption properties of the bulk compound and (001) surface were analyzed by means of DFT calculations.

  8. OH-58 helicopter transmission failure analysis (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Coy, J. J.; Hatvani, B. R.


    The OH-58 main transmission gearbox was run at varying output torques, speeds, and oil cooling rates. The gearbox was subsequently run to destruction by draining the oil from the gearbox while operating at a speed of 6200 revs per minute and 36,000 inch-pounds output torque. Primary cause of gearbox failure was overheating and melting of the planet bearing aluminum cages. Complete failure of the gearbox occurred in 28 1/2 minutes after the oil pressure dropped to zero. The alternating and maximum stresses in the gearbox top case were approximately 10 percent of the endurance limit for the material. Deflection of the bevel gear at 67000 inch-pounds output torque indicate a marginal stiffness for the bevel gear supporting system.

  9. Revisiting the OH-CH correlation in diffuse clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Mookerjea, Bhaswati


    Based on the analysis of available published data and archival data along 24 sightlines (5 of which are new) we derive more accurate estimates of the column densities of OH and CH towards diffuse/translucent clouds and revisit the typically observed correlation between the abundances of these species. The increase in the sample size was possible because of the equivalence of the column densities of CH derived from a combination of the transitions at 3137 & 3143 Angstrom, and a combination of transitions at 3886 & 3890 Angstrom, which we have demonstrated here. We find that with the exception of four diffuse clouds, the entire source sample shows a clear correlation between the column densities of OH and CH similar to previous observations. The analysis presented also verifies the theoretically predicted oscillator strengths of the OH A--X (3078 & 3082 Angstrom), CH B--X (3886 & 3890 Angstrom) and C--X (3137 & 3143 Angstrom) transitions. We estimate N(H) and N(H2) from the observed E(B-V) a...

  10. Superadsorption of LiOH solution on chitosan as a new type of solvent for chitosan by freezing/blasting. (United States)

    Fan, Min; Hu, Qiaoling


    The adsorption behavior and mechanism of chitosan in aqueous LiOH solution was studied systemically. The results showed that the adsorption of chitosan was mainly due to the breakage of its hydrogen bonds, which were destroyed by the reaction of LiOH with the acetyl and the hydroxyl groups of chitosan. Low temperature also played a crucial role in the adsorption of chitosan. The adsorption of chitosan decreased with increased DD. The adsorption ratio of LiOH to chitosan (nLiOH/nCS) increased linearly while the adsorption ratio of water to chitosan (n(H2O)/n(CS)) decreased with the increased DD. All chitosans reached their maximal swelling degree when the concentration of LiOH was 4.8 wt%. Chitosan was stable in LiOH aqueous solution. The LiOH solution may be a potential favorable solvent for chitosan.

  11. Solvent Free, Microwave Assisted Conversion of Aldehydes into Nitriles and Oximes in the Presence of NH2OH·HCl and TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Villas-Boas Hoelz


    Full Text Available Aromatic aldehydes bearing electron-donating groups are easily converted into their respective nitriles using NH2OH·HCl and TiO2 under microwave irradiation, while those bearing an electron-withdrawing group give the corresponding oximes.

  12. Initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc in presence of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Qing; LI Lei; BAI Wei; YAN Chuan-wei


    Initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc in the presence of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 was investigated via quartz crystal microbalance(QCM) in laboratory at relative humidity(RH) of 80% and 25 °. The results show that both Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 can accelerate the initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc. The combined effect of Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 on the corrosion of zinc is greater than that caused by (NH4)2SO4 and less than that caused by Na2SO4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) were used to characterize the corrosion products of zinc.(NH4)2Zn(SO4)2, Zn4SO4(OH)6·5H2O and ZnO present on zinc surface in the presence of (NH4)2SO4 while Zn4SO4(OH)6·5H2O and ZnO are the dominant corrosion products on Na2SO4-treated zinc surface. Probable mechanisms are presented to explain the experimental results.

  13. OH Masers and Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, Mark


    OH(1720 MHz) masers are created by the interaction of supernova remnants with molecular clouds. These masers are pumped by collisions in warm, shocked molecular gas with OH column densities in the range 10^{16}--10^{17} cm^{-2}. Excitation calculations suggest that inversion of the 6049 MHz OH line may occur at the higher column densities that have been inferred from main-line absorption studies of supernova remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. OH(6049 MHz) masers have therefore been proposed as a complementary indicator of remnant-cloud interaction. This motivated searches for 6049 MHz maser emission from supernova remnants using the Parkes 63 m and Effelsberg 100 m telescopes, and the Australia Telescope Compact Array. A total of forty-one remnants have been examined by one or more of these surveys, but without success. To check the accuracy of the OH column densities inferred from the single-dish observations we modelled OH absorption at 1667 MHz observed with the Very Large Array towards three supernov...

  14. Synthesis and structure of ruthenium(IV) complexes featuring N-heterocyclic ligands with an N-H group as the hydrogen-bond donor: hydrogen interactions in solution and in the solid state. (United States)

    Díez, Josefina; Gimeno, José; Merino, Isabel; Rubio, Eduardo; Suárez, Francisco J


    The synthesis and characterization of novel ruthenium(IV) complexes [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(2)L] [L = 3-methylpyrazole (2b), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (2c), 3-methyl-5-phenylpyrazole (2d), 2-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenol (2e), 6-azauracile (3), and 1H-indazol-3-ol (4)] are reported. Complex 2e is converted to the chelated complex [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(κ(2)-N,O-2-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenoxy)] (5) by treatment with an excess of NaOH. All of the ligands feature N-H, O-H, or C═O as the potential hydrogen-bonding group. The structures of complexes 2a-2c, 2e, 3, and 5 in the solid state have been determined by X-ray diffraction. Complexes 2a-2c and 3, which contain the pyrazole N-H group, exhibit intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds with chloride ligands [N-H···Cl distances (Å): intramolecular, 2.30-2.78; intermolecular, 2.59-2.77]. Complexes 2e and 3 bearing respectively O-H and C═O groups also feature N-H···O interactions [intramolecular (2e), 2.27 Å; intermolecular (3), 2.00 Å]. Chelated complex 5, lacking the O-H group, only shows an intramolecular N-H···Cl hydrogen bonding of 2.42 Å. The structure of complex 3, which turns out to be a dimer in the solid state through a double intermolecular N-H···O hydrogen bonding, has also been investigated in solution (CD(2)Cl(2)) by NMR diffusion studies. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy experiments reveal an equilibrium between monomer and dimer species in solution whose extension depends on the temperature, concentration, and coordinating properties of the solvent. Preliminary catalytic studies show that complex 3 is highly active in the redox isomerization of the allylic alcohols in an aqueous medium under very mild reaction conditions (35 °C) and in the absence of a base.

  15. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.


    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Superconducting bearings (United States)

    Hull, John R.


    The physics and technology of superconducting bearings is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in rotating bearings. The basic phenomenology of levitational forces is presented, followed by a brief discussion of the theoretical models that can be used for conceptual understanding and calculations. The merits of various HTS bearing designs are presented, and the behaviour of HTS bearings in typical situations is discussed. The article concludes with a brief survey of various proposed applications for HTS bearings.

  17. N-H stretching modes around 3300 wavenumber from peptide backbones observed by chiral sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. (United States)

    Fu, Li; Wang, Zhuguang; Yan, Elsa C Y


    We present a detailed analysis of the molecular origin of the chiral sum frequency generation (SFG) signals of proteins and peptides at interfaces in the N-H stretching vibrational region. The N-H stretching can be a probe for investigating structural and functional properties of proteins, but remains technically difficult to analyze due to the overlapping with the O-H stretching of water molecules. Chiral SFG spectroscopy offers unique tools to study the N-H stretching from proteins at interfaces without interference from the water background. However, the molecular origin of the N-H stretching signals of proteins is still unclear. This work provides a justification of the origin of chiral N-H signals by analyzing the vibrational frequencies, examining chiral SFG theory, studying proton (hydrogen/deuterium) exchange kinetics, and performing optical control experiments. The results demonstrate that the chiral N-H stretching signals at ~3300 cm(-1) originate from the amide group of the protein backbones. This chiral N-H stretching signal offers an in situ, real-time, and background-free probe for interrogating the protein structures and dynamics at interfaces at the molecular level.

  18. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen


    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...... about their childhood teddy bears, and children's accounts of what they do with teddy bears, both written for school and told 'out of school', The chapter sees teddy bears as artefacts that provide a cultural channeling for the child's need of a transitional object and argues that the meanings of teddy...... bears have traditionally centred on interpersonal relations within the nuclear family, but have recently been institutionalized and commercialized....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyganowski, C. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koda, J.; Towers, S.; Meyer, J. Donovan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Rosolowsky, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Okanagan, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Egusa, F. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Momose, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Robitaille, T. P., E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany)


    We present the results of a Nobeyama 45 m H{sub 2}O maser and NH{sub 3} survey of all 94 northern GLIMPSE extended green objects (EGOs), a sample of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) identified based on their extended 4.5 {mu}m emission. We observed the NH{sub 3}(1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) inversion lines, and detected emission toward 97%, 63%, and 46% of our sample, respectively (median rms {approx} 50 mK). The H{sub 2}O maser detection rate is 68% (median rms {approx} 0.11 Jy). The derived H{sub 2}O maser and clump-scale gas properties are consistent with the identification of EGOs as young MYSOs. To explore the degree of variation among EGOs, we analyze subsamples defined based on mid-infrared (MIR) properties or maser associations. H{sub 2}O masers and warm dense gas, as indicated by emission in the higher-excitation NH{sub 3} transitions, are most frequently detected toward EGOs also associated with both Class I and II CH{sub 3}OH masers. Ninety-five percent (81%) of such EGOs are detected in H{sub 2}O (NH{sub 3}(3,3)), compared to only 33% (7%) of EGOs without either CH{sub 3}OH maser type. As populations, EGOs associated with Class I and/or II CH{sub 3}OH masers have significantly higher NH{sub 3} line widths, column densities, and kinetic temperatures than EGOs undetected in CH{sub 3}OH maser surveys. However, we find no evidence for statistically significant differences in H{sub 2}O maser properties (such as maser luminosity) among any EGO subsamples. Combining our data with the 1.1 mm continuum Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey, we find no correlation between isotropic H{sub 2}O maser luminosity and clump number density. H{sub 2}O maser luminosity is weakly correlated with clump (gas) temperature and clump mass.

  20. Theoretical Study on Dihydrogen Bonds of NH3BH3 with Several Small Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-yong Li; Li-fang Xu; Zhou Ling


    The dihydrogen bonds B-H…H-X (X=F, Cl, Br, C, O, N) in the dimer (NH3BH3)2 and the complexes of NH3BH3 with HF, HCl, HBr, H2CO, H2O, and CHaOH were theoretically studied. The results show that formation of the dihydrogen bond leads to elongation and stretch frequency red shift of the BH and XH bonds, except that in the H2CO system, the CH bond blue shifts. For (NH3BH3)2 and the complexes of the halogenides, red shifts of the XH bonds are caused by the intermolecular hyperconjugation a(BH)→σ* (XH). For the system of H2CO, a blue shift of the CH bond is caused by a decrease of the intramolecular hyperconjugation n(O)→σ*(CH). In the other two systems, the red shift of OH bond is systems, red shifts of the BH bonds are caused by two factors: negative repolarization and negative rehybridization of the BH bond, and decrease of occupancy on σ(BH) caused by the intermolecular hyperconjugation σ(BH)→σ* (XH).

  1. Structural determinants of NH3 and NH4+ transport by mouse Rhbg, a renal Rh glycoprotein. (United States)

    Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange; Le, Trang; Rabon, Edd; Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih L


    Renal Rhbg is localized to the basolateral membrane of intercalated cells and is involved in NH3/NH4(+) transport. The structure of Rhbg is not yet resolved; however, a high-resolution crystal structure of AmtB, a bacterial homolog of Rh, has been determined. We aligned the sequence of Rhbg to that of AmtB and identified important sites of Rhbg that may affect transport. Our analysis positioned three conserved amino acids, histidine 183 (H183), histidine 342 (H342), and tryptophan 230 (W230), within the hydrophobic pore where they presumably serve to control NH3 transport. A fourth residue, phenylalanine 128 (F128) was positioned at the upper vestibule, presumably contributing to recruitment of NH4(+) We generated three mutations each of H183, H342, W230, and F128 and expressed them in frog oocytes. Immunolabeling showed that W230 and F128 mutants were localized to the cell membrane, whereas H183 and H342 staining was diffuse and mostly intracellular. To determine function, we compared measurements of NH3/NH4(+) and methyl amine (MA)/methyl ammonium (MA(+))-induced currents, intracellular pH, and surface pH (pHs) among oocytes expressing the mutants, Rhbg, or injected with H2O. In H183 and W230 mutants, NH4(+)-induced current and intracellular acidification were inhibited compared with that of Rhbg, and MA-induced intracellular alkalinization was completely absent. Expression of H183A or W230A mutants inhibited NH3/NH4(+)- and MA/MA(+)-induced decrease in pHs to the level observed in H2O-injected oocytes. Mutations of F128 did not significantly affect transport of NH3 or NH4(+) These data demonstrated that mutating H183 or W230 caused loss of function but not F128. H183 and H342 may affect membrane expression of the transporter.

  2. Volatility of NH3 from internally mixed sodium succinate-NH4SO4 particles (United States)

    Wang, Na; Zhang, Yunhong


    Contributing the complicacy of atmospheric constituents, aerosol particles may undergo complicated heterogeneous reactions that have profound consequences on their hygroscopic properties and volatility. Ammonia (NH3) is a ubiquitous trace atmospheric gas in the troposphere and has negative effects on human health and climate forcing of ambient aerosols. In addition, atmospheric cycle of NH3 is complex in atmosphere, therefore it necessary to get insights to the complexity of gas-to-aerosol NH3 partitioning, which results in large uncertainties in the sources and distributions of NH3. By using in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR), we report here the volatility of NH3 from the laboratory generated sodium succinate with ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) at a 1:1 molar ratio as well as its effect on the hygroscopicity of the mixtures. The loss of the NH4+ peak at 1451cm-1 and the formation of peaks at 1718 and 1134 cm-1 due to C = O stretching asymmetric vibration of -COOH and ν3 (SO42-) stretching of sodium sulfate indicate that sodium succinate reacts with (NH4)2SO4, releasing NH3 and forming succinic acid and sodium sulfate on dehydration process. The formation of less hygroscopic succinic acid and volatility of NH3 in mixtures leads to a significant decrease in the total water content. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the reaction between (NH4)2SO4 and dicarboxylate salts, which may represent an important particle-gas partitioning for ammonia and thus elucidate another underlying ammonia cycle in atmosphere. These results could be helpful to understand the mutual transformation process of dicarboxylic acids and dicarboxylate salts.

  3. Thermodynamics of Cu(Ⅱ)-NH3-NH4Cl-H2O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Shao-hua; TANG Mo-tang; YANG Sheng-hai; TANG Chao-bo


    The thermodynamics of a complex solution system, Cu(Ⅱ)-NH3-NH4Cl-H2O, was presented both theoretically and experimentally. Firstly, according to the principles of simultaneous equilibrium and aqueous electronic charge neutrality of the system, a nonlinear mathematical thermodynamic model with multi-members was set up. In this model, there were six unknowns: pH value, concentration values of free Cl-, free NH3, total concentration values of Cu2+, Cl- and NH3, four equilibrium equations and three equilibrium equations of total quantum of Cu2+, Cl- and NH3, as well as an equilibrium equation of electric charge, were involved in the model. Then after specifying the values of total concentrate of NH3 and Cl-, the model was solved precisely using MATLAB language, and the other four unknowns were obtained. According to the values obtained above, various valuable figures regarding thermodynamic relation of the system were protracted also with MATLAB, including two and three dimensions figures. These figures and data can supply the theoretic conference for optimizing the ratio of leaching reagents in copper extraction through ammonia hydrometallurgy. Finally, the solubility of CuO were measured in the system of NH3-NH4Cl-H2O. The results show that the model and the thermodynamic data obtained are reliable.

  4. Imaging a multidimensional multichannel potential energy surface: Photodetachment of H-(NH3) and NH4- (United States)

    Hu, Qichi; Song, Hongwei; Johnson, Christopher J.; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua; Continetti, Robert E.


    Probes of the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces governing polyatomic molecules often rely on spectroscopy for the bound regions or collision experiments in the continuum. A combined spectroscopic and half-collision approach to image nuclear dynamics in a multidimensional and multichannel system is reported here. The Rydberg radical NH4 and the double Rydberg anion NH4- represent a polyatomic system for benchmarking electronic structure and nine-dimensional quantum dynamics calculations. Photodetachment of the H-(NH3) ion-dipole complex and the NH4- DRA probes different regions on the neutral NH4 PES. Photoelectron energy and angular distributions at photon energies of 1.17, 1.60, and 2.33 eV compare well with quantum dynamics. Photoelectron-photofragment coincidence experiments indicate dissociation of the nascent NH4 Rydberg radical occurs to H + NH3 with a peak kinetic energy of 0.13 eV, showing the ground state of NH4 to be unstable, decaying by tunneling-induced dissociation on a time scale beyond the present scope of multidimensional quantum dynamics.

  5. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager


    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting....... We present our initial design and implementation of the EcoBears that consist of two bear modules (a mother and her cub). We also present our preliminary concept validations and lessons learned to be considered for future directions....

  6. OH reactivity at a rural site (Wangdu) in the North China Plain: contributions from OH reactants and experimental OH budget (United States)

    Fuchs, Hendrik; Tan, Zhaofeng; Lu, Keding; Bohn, Birger; Broch, Sebastian; Brown, Steven S.; Dong, Huabin; Gomm, Sebastian; Häseler, Rolf; He, Lingyan; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Li, Xin; Liu, Ying; Lu, Sihua; Min, Kyung-Eun; Rohrer, Franz; Shao, Min; Wang, Baolin; Wang, Ming; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Yinson; Wahner, Andreas; Zhang, Yuanhang


    In 2014, a large, comprehensive field campaign was conducted in the densely populated North China Plain. The measurement site was located in a botanic garden close to the small town Wangdu, without major industry but influenced by regional transportation of air pollution. The loss rate coefficient of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH) was quantified by direct measurements of the OH reactivity. Values ranged between 10 and 20 s-1 for most of the daytime. Highest values were reached in the late night with maximum values of around 40 s-1. OH reactants mainly originated from anthropogenic activities as indicated (1) by a good correlation between measured OH reactivity and carbon monoxide (linear correlation coefficient R2 = 0.33) and (2) by a high contribution of nitrogen oxide species to the OH reactivity (up to 30 % in the morning). Total OH reactivity was measured by a laser flash photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence instrument (LP-LIF). Measured values can be explained well by measured trace gas concentrations including organic compounds, oxygenated organic compounds, CO and nitrogen oxides. Significant, unexplained OH reactivity was only observed during nights, when biomass burning of agricultural waste occurred on surrounding fields. OH reactivity measurements also allow investigating the chemical OH budget. During this campaign, the OH destruction rate calculated from measured OH reactivity and measured OH concentration was balanced by the sum of OH production from ozone and nitrous acid photolysis and OH regeneration from hydroperoxy radicals within the uncertainty of measurements. However, a tendency for higher OH destruction compared to OH production at lower concentrations of nitric oxide is also observed, consistent with previous findings in field campaigns in China.

  7. Characterizing supernova remnant and molecular cloud interaction environments using Class I methanol (CH3OH) masers (United States)

    McEwen, Bridget C.

    SNRs and bright ammonia (NH3 (3,3)) emission peaks and discuss how this relationship can be used to more accurately locate CH3OH masers near SNRs. Tighter constraints on the estimated physical conditions is achieved using modeling of the NH3 line in addition to the CH3OH modeling. By combining modeling and observations of different maser and molecular species, I aim to develop a comprehensive picture of the gas distribution in SNR/MC interaction regions.

  8. Self-Assembled Hollow Spheres of β-Ni(OH) 2 and Their Derived Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shengmao


    This paper describes a novel solution-based chemical process to architect hollow spheres of β-Ni(OH) 2 with controllable sizes in submicrometer and micrometer regimes. In the synthesis, starting nickel salt (nitrate) is first converted to 6-coordinated nickel ion complex [Ni(EDA) 3] 2+ (bidentate ligand EDA = C 2H 4(NH 2) 2) to avoid rapid solid formation. Hollow and core - shell β-Ni(OH) 2 spheres can be obtained with this template-free approach under one-pot conditions. The β-Ni(OH) 2 spheres are constructed from petal-like nanobuilding units which in turn are formed from even smaller nanocrystallites. The obtained porous β-Ni(OH) 2 spheres have a large specific surface area and show a unimodal pore-size distribution. Several preparative parameters have been examined and optimized. In particular, the concentration of divalent nickel in the starting solutions plays an important role in controlling thickness of the petal-like β-Ni(OH) 2 flakes and diameter of spheres. The β-Ni(OH) 2 flakes self-assemble into final spherical products through a donut-like structural intermediate. Furthermore, the β-Ni(OH) 2 hollow spheres can be used as solid precursors to synthesize other nanostructured derivatives. In this work, phase pure inorganic nanostructures, carbon nanotube (CNT) - inorganic nanocomposites, and inorganic - inorganic nanocom-posites (e.g., NiO, Ni, NiO/Ni, Ni/β-Ni(OH) 2, CNTs/NiO, CNTs/Ni, Ni@CNTs, Fe(OH) 3/β-Ni(OH) 2, Co(OH) 2/β-Ni(OH) 2, and Mg(OH) 2/β-Ni(OH) 2) have been prepared via solid-state thermal decomposition, gas-phase reduction, solution-based reduction, surface oxidation, chemical vapor deposition, and liquid-phase deposition. A greater picture for general synthesis of Ni-containing nanomaterials is thus obtained. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. A new interaction mechanism of LiNH2 with MgH2: magnesium bond. (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Li, Qingzhong; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Wenzuo


    Quantum chemical calculations were performed for LiNH2-HMgX (X=H, F, Cl, Br, CH3, OH, and NH2) complexes to propose a new interaction mechanism between them. This theoretical survey showed that the complexes are stabilized through the combinative interaction of magnesium and lithium bonds. The binding energies are in the range of 63.2-66.5 kcal mol(-1), i.e., much larger than that of the lithium bond. Upon complexation, both Mg-H and Li-N bonds are lengthened. Substituents increase Mg-H bond elongation and at the same time decrease Li-N bond elongation. These cyclic complexes were characterized with the presence of a ring critical point and natural population analysis charges.

  10. Damper bearing rotordynamics (United States)

    Elrod, David A.


    High side loads reduce the life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) bearings. High stiffness damper seals were recommended to reduce the loads on the pump and turbine end bearings in the HPOTP. The seals designed for use on the pump end are expected to adequately reduce the bearing loads; the predicted performance of the planned turbine end seal is marginal. An alternative to the suggested turbine end seal design is a damper bearing with radial holes from the pressurized center of the turbopump rotor, feeding a smooth land region between two rough-stator/smooth-rotor annular seals. An analysis was prepared to predict the leakage and rotor dynamic coefficients (stiffness, damping, and added mass) of the damper bearing. Governing equations of the seal analysis modified to model the damper bearing; differences between the upstream conditions of the damper bearing and a typical annular seal; prediction of the damper bearing analysis; and assumptions of the analysis which require further investigation are described.

  11. NH3 Measurements for Advanced SCR Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Tillaart, E. van den; Lilova, V.; Nakatani, S.


    Since the introduction of Euro IV legislation [1, 2], Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology using liquid urea injection is (one of) the primary methods for NOx reduction in many applications. Ammonia (NH3) is the reagent and key element for the SCR system and its control calibration to meet

  12. Hot NH3 Spectra for Astrophysical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, R J; Bernath, P F


    We present line lists for ammonia (NH$_{3}$) at high temperatures obtained by recording Fourier transform infrared emission spectra. Calibrated line lists are presented for twelve temperatures (300 -- 1300$^{\\circ}$C in 100$^{\\circ}$C intervals and 1370$^{\\circ}$C) and each line list covers the 740 -- 2100 cm$^{-1}$ range, which includes the majority of the $\

  13. Aquaporin 4 as a NH3 Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assentoft, Mette; Kaptan, Shreyas; Schneider, Hans-Peter;


    Ammonia is a biologically potent molecule, and the regulation of ammonia levels in the mammalian body is, therefore, strictly controlled. The molecular paths of ammonia permeation across plasma membranes remain ill-defined, but the structural similarity of water and NH3 has pointed to the aquapor...

  14. Infrared observations of circumstellar ammonia in OH/IR supergiants (United States)

    Mclaren, R. A.; Betz, A. L.


    Ammonia has been detected in the circumstellar envelopes of VY Canis Majoris, VX Sagittarii, and IRC +10420 by means of several absorption lines in the nu-2 vibration-rotation band near 950 kaysers. The line profiles are well resolved (0.2 km/sec resolution) and show the gas being accelerated to terminal expansion velocities near 30 km/sec. The observations reveal a method for determining the position of the central star on VLBI maps of OH maser emission to an accuracy of approximately 0.2 arcsec. A firm lower limit of 2 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm is obtained for the NH3 column density in VY Canis Majoris.

  15. Excited OH+, H2O+, and H3O+ in NGC 4418 and Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    González-Alfonso, E; Bruderer, S; Müller, H S P; Graciá-Carpio, J; Sturm, E; Lutz, D; Poglitsch, A; Feuchtgruber, H; Veilleux, S; Contursi, A; Sternberg, A; Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Verma, A; Christopher, N; Davies, R; Genzel, R; Tacconi, L


    We report on Herschel/PACS observations of absorption lines of OH+, H2O+ and H3O+ in NGC 4418 and Arp 220. Excited lines of OH+ and H2O+ with E_lower of at least 285 and \\sim200 K, respectively, are detected in both sources, indicating radiative pumping and location in the high radiation density environment of the nuclear regions. Abundance ratios OH+/H2O+ of 1-2.5 are estimated in the nuclei of both sources. The inferred OH+ column and abundance relative to H nuclei are (0.5-1)x10^{16} cm-2 and \\sim2x10^{-8}, respectively. Additionally, in Arp 220, an extended low excitation component around the nuclear region is found to have OH+/H2O+\\sim5-10. H3O+ is detected in both sources with N(H3O+)\\sim(0.5-2)x10^{16} cm-2, and in Arp 220 the pure inversion, metastable lines indicate a high rotational temperature of ~500 K, indicative of formation pumping and/or hot gas. Simple chemical models favor an ionization sequence dominated by H+ - O+ - OH+ - H2O+ - H3O+, and we also argue that the H+ production is most likely...

  16. Analogues of Cis- and Transplatin with a Rich Solution Chemistry: cis-[PtCl2 (NH3 )(1-MeC-N3)] and trans-[PtI2 (NH3 )(1-MeC-N3)]. (United States)

    Siebel, Sabine; Dammann, Claudia; Sanz Miguel, Pablo J; Drewello, Thomas; Kampf, Gunnar; Teubner, Natascha; Bednarski, Patrick J; Freisinger, Eva; Lippert, Bernhard


    Mono(nucleobase) complexes of the general composition cis-[PtCl2 (NH3 )L] with L=1-methylcytosine, 1-MeC (1 a) and L=1-ethyl-5-methylcytosine, as well as trans-[PtX2 (NH3 )(1-MeC)] with X=I (5 a) and X=Br (5 b) have been isolated and were characterized by X-ray crystallography. The Pt coordination occurs through the N3 atom of the cytosine in all cases. The diaqua complexes of compounds 1 a and 5 a, cis-[Pt(H2 O)2 (NH3 )(1-MeC)](2+) and trans-[Pt(H2 O)2 (NH3 )(1-MeC)](2+) , display a rich chemistry in aqueous solution, which is dominated by extensive condensation reactions leading to μ-OH- and μ-(1-MeC(-) -N3,N4)-bridged species and ready oxidation of Pt to mixed-valence state complexes as well as diplatinum(III) compounds, one of which was characterized by X-ray crystallography: h,t-[{Pt(NH3 )2 (OH)(1-MeC(-) -N3,N4)}2 ](NO3 )2 ⋅2 [NH4 ](NO3 )⋅2 H2 O. A combination of (1) H NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry was applied to identify some of the various species present in solution and the gas phase, respectively. As it turned out, mass spectrometry did not permit an unambiguous assignment of the structures of +1 cations due to the possibilities of realizing multiple bridging patterns in isomeric species, the occurrence of different tautomers, and uncertainties regarding the Pt oxidation states. Additionally, compound 1 a was found to have selective and moderate antiproliferative activity for a human cervix cancer line (SISO) compared to six other human cancer cell lines.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, A. J.; Federman, S. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Welty, D. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ritchey, A. M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)


    Near ultraviolet observations of OH{sup +} and OH in diffuse molecular clouds reveal a preference for different environments. The dominant absorption feature in OH{sup +} arises from a main component seen in CH{sup +} (that with the highest CH{sup +}/CH column density ratio), while OH follows CN absorption. This distinction provides new constraints on OH chemistry in these clouds. Since CH{sup +} detections favor low-density gas with small fractions of molecular hydrogen, this must be true for OH{sup +} as well, confirming OH{sup +} and H{sub 2}O{sup +} observations with the Herschel Space Telescope. Our observed correspondence indicates that the cosmic ray ionization rate derived from these measurements pertains to mainly atomic gas. The association of OH absorption with gas rich in CN is attributed to the need for a high enough density and molecular fraction before detectable amounts are seen. Thus, while OH{sup +} leads to OH production, chemical arguments suggest that their abundances are controlled by different sets of conditions and that they coexist with different sets of observed species. Of particular note is that non-thermal chemistry appears to play a limited role in the synthesis of OH in diffuse molecular clouds.

  18. NH4HCO3 gas-generating liposomal nanoparticle for photoacoustic imaging in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia J


    Full Text Available Jizhu Xia, Gang Feng, Xiaorong Xia, Lan Hao, Zhigang Wang Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, we have developed a biodegradable nanomaterial for photoacoustic imaging (PAI. Its biodegradation products can be fully eliminated from a living organism. It is a gas-generating nanoparticle of liposome-encapsulating ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3 solution, which is safe, effective, inexpensive, and free of side effects. When lasers irradiate these nanoparticles, NH4HCO3 decomposes to produce CO2, which can absorb much of the light energy under laser irradiation with a specific wavelength, and then expand under heat to generate a thermal acoustic wave. An acoustic detector can detect this wave and show it as a photoacoustic signal on a display screen. The intensity of the photoacoustic signal is enhanced corresponding to an increase in time, concentration, and temperature. During in vivo testing, nanoparticles were injected into tumor-bearing nude mice through the caudal vein, and photoacoustic signals were detected from the tumor, reaching a peak in 4 h, and then gradually disappearing. There was no damage to the skin or subcutaneous tissue from laser radiation. Our developed gas-generating nanomaterial, NH4HCO3 nanomaterial, is feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive. Therefore, it is a promising material to be used in clinical PAI. Keywords: Photoacoustic tomography, CO2, NH4HCO3, contrast agent, cancer

  19. Cold and ultracold NH--NH collisions: The field-free case

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, Liesbeth M C; van der Avoird, Ad; Hutson, Jeremy M; Groenenboom, Gerrit C


    We present elastic and inelastic spin-changing cross sections for cold and ultracold NH($X\\,^3\\Sigma^-$) + NH($X\\,^3\\Sigma^-$) collisions, obtained from full quantum scattering calculations on an accurate \\textit{ab initio} quintet potential-energy surface. Although we consider only collisions in zero field, we focus on the cross sections relevant for magnetic trapping experiments. It is shown that evaporative cooling of both fermionic $^{14}$NH and bosonic $^{15}$NH is likely to be successful for hyperfine states that allow for $s$-wave collisions. We also demonstrate that the calculated cross sections are sensitive to the details of the interaction potential, but that the qualitative results are fairly independent of the precise form of the surface. The results are also found to be reasonably independent of the size of the angular basis set. We therefore argue that, within the uncertainty limits of the potential, full basis-set convergence is not strictly necessary.

  20. The hydrogen-bridged radical cation [NH 2C dbnd O⋯H⋯O dbnd CHCH 3] rad + and its dissociation by proton-transport catalysis (United States)

    Jobst, Karl J.; Terlouw, Johan K.


    The title ion (HBRC-1) is an easily accessible hydrogen-bridged radical cation when generated by the decarbonylation of ionized ethyl oxamate, NH2COCOOC2H5. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments and CBS-QB3 model chemistry calculations agree that HBRC-1 dissociates into HC(OH)NH2+ + CH3COrad by proton-transport catalysis. Its CH3CHO component catalyzes the isomerization NH2-C-OHrad + → NH2C(O)Hrad + and the ensuing intermediate [NH2C(O)H⋯OCHCH3]rad + loses CH3COrad by a facile proton transfer. In support of this, lactamide ions ND2C(O)CH(OD)CH3rad + dissociate into DC(OH)ND2+ + CH3COrad via the HBRC-1 isotopologue [ND2CO⋯D⋯OCHCH3]rad +. HBRC-1 also plays a key role in the decarbonylation of its isomer ionized urethan, NH2COOC2H5.

  1. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F


    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  2. Olefin Metathesis Mediated By: - Schiff Base Ru-Alkylidenes -Ru-Alkylidenes Bearing Unsymmetrical NH Ligands (United States)

    Monsaert, Stijn; Voort, Pascal Van Der; Ledoux, Nele; Allaert, Bart; Drozdzak, Renata; Verpoort, Francis

    The classic Grubbs second-generation complex 2 was modified through 1. The introduction of a bidentate Schiff base ligand 2. Changes in the amino side groups of the NHC ligand Representative olefin metathesis test reactions show the effects induced by the ligand modifications and demonstrate some interesting new properties of the described catalysts. catalysts.

  3. Replacement of Oxygen by Sulfur in Small Organic Molecules. 3. Theoretical Studies on the Tautomeric Equilibria of the 2OH and 4OH-Substituted Oxazole and Thiazole and the 3OH and 4OH-Substituted Isoxazole and Isothiazole in the Isolated State and in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter I. Nagy


    Full Text Available This follow-up paper completes the author’s investigations to explore the in-solution structural preferences and relative free energies of all OH-substituted oxazole, thiazole, isoxazole, and isothiazole systems. The polarizable continuum dielectric solvent method calculations in the integral-equation formalism (IEF-PCM were performed at the DFT/B97D/aug-cc-pv(q+(dz level for the stable neutral tautomers with geometries optimized in dichloromethane and aqueous solution. With the exception of the predictions for the predominant tautomers of the 3OH isoxazole and isothiazole, the results of the IEF-PCM calculations for identifying the most stable tautomer of the given species in the two selected solvents agreed with those from experimental investigations. The calculations predict that the hydroxy proton, with the exception for the 4OH isoxazole and 4OH isothiazole, moves preferentially to the ring nitrogen or to a ring carbon atom in parallel with the development of a C=O group. The remaining, low-fraction OH tautomers will not be observable in the equilibrium compositions. Relative solvation free energies obtained by the free energy perturbation method implemented in Monte Carlo simulations are in moderate accord with the IEF-PCM results, but consideration of the ΔGsolv/MC values in calculating ΔGstot maintains the tautomeric preferences. It was revealed from the Monte Carlo solution structure analyses that the S atom is not a hydrogen-bond acceptor in any OH-substituted thiazole or isothiazole, and the OH-substituted isoxazole and oxazole ring oxygens may act as a weak hydrogen-bond acceptor at most. The molecules form 1.0−3.4 solute−water hydrogen bonds in generally unexplored numbers at some specific solute sites. Nonetheless, hydrogen-bond formation is favorable with the NH, C=O and OH groups.

  4. Total OH reactivity emissions from Norway spruce (United States)

    Nölscher, Anke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan


    Forest emissions represent a strong potential sink for the main tropospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). In forested environments, the comparison of the directly determined overall sink of OH radicals, the total OH reactivity, and the individually measured OH sink compounds often exposes a significant gap. This "missing" OH reactivity can be high and influenced by both direct biogenic emissions and secondary photo-oxidation products. To investigate the source of the missing OH sinks in forests, total OH reactivity emission rates were determined for the first time from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. The total OH reactivity was measured inside a branch enclosure using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) as the detector. In parallel, separate volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission rates were monitored by a second PTR-MS, including the signal of isoprene, acetaldehyde, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes. The comparison of known and PTR-MS detected OH sink compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity emitted from Norway spruce revealed unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions. These were found to be highest in late summer during daytime coincident with highest temperatures and ozone levels.

  5. Gear bearing drive (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  6. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A


    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  7. My Little Teddy Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ As Valentine's Day came closer,every shop was full of colourful gifts such as cookies in the shape of heart, chocolates,Teddy Bears and so on.When I step into a shop on February 14th,I felt most lonely as I was alone.With mv eves fixed on a lovely Teddy Bear, I wished that someone could send me this stuffed toy.

  8. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny;


    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid...... synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA......-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid...

  9. Evidence of amino acid precursors: C-N bond coupling in simulated interstellar CO2/NH3 ices (United States)

    Esmaili, Sasan


    Low energy secondary electrons are abundantly produced in astrophysical or planetary ices by the numerous ionizing radiation fields typically encountered in space environments and may thus play a role in the radiation processing of such ices [1]. One approach to determine their chemical effect is to irradiate nanometer thick molecular solids of simple molecular constituents, with energy selected electron beams and to monitor changes in film chemistry with the surface analytical techniques [2].Of particular interest is the formation of HCN, which is a signature of dense gases in interstellar clouds, and is ubiquitous in the ISM. Moreover, the chemistry of HCN radiolysis products such as CN- may be essential to understand of the formation of amino acids [3] and purine DNA bases. Here we present new results on the irradiation of multilayer films of CO2 and NH3 with 70 eV electrons, leading to CN bond formations. The electron stimulated desorption (ESD) yields of cations and anions are recorded as a function of electron fluence. The prompt desorption of cationic reaction/scattering products [4], is observed at low fluence (~4x1013 electrons/cm2). Detected ions include C2+, C2O2+, C2O+, CO3+, C2O3+ or CO4+ from pure CO2, and N+, NH+, NH2+, NH3+, NH4+, N2+, N2H+ from pure NH3, and NO+, NOH+ from CO2/NH3 mixtures. Most saliently, increasing signals of negative ion products desorbing during prolonged irradiation of CO2/NH3 films included C2-, C2H-, C2H2-, as well as CN-, HCN- and H2CN-. The identification of particular product ions was accomplished by using 13CO2 and 15NH3 isotopes. The chemistry induced by electrons in pure films of CO2 and NH3 and mixtures with composition ratios (3:1), (1:1), and (1:3), was also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Irradiation of CO2/NH3 mixed films at 22 K produces species containing the following bonds/functional groups identified by XPS: C=O, O-H, C-C, C-O, C=N and N=O. (This work has been funded by NSERC).

  10. Highly enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of ketones with chiral (NH)2 P2 macrocyclic iron(II) complexes. (United States)

    Bigler, Raphael; Huber, Raffael; Mezzetti, Antonio


    Bis(isonitrile) iron(II) complexes bearing a C2 -symmetric diamino (NH)2 P2 macrocyclic ligand efficiently catalyze the hydrogenation of polar bonds of a broad scope of substrates (ketones, enones, and imines) in high yield (up to 99.5 %), excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99 % ee), and with low catalyst loading (generally 0.1 mol %). The catalyst can be easily tuned by modifying the substituents of the isonitrile ligand.

  11. Effect of single amino acid replacements on the thermal stability of the NH2-terminal domain of phage lambda repressor.



    The thermal stabilities of mutant phage lambda repressors that have single amino acid replacements in the NH2-terminal domain have been studied by means of circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry. The variations in stability determined by these physical methods correlate with the resistance to proteolysis at various temperatures and can be compared with the temperature-sensitive activity of the mutants in vivo. In general, mutant proteins bearing solvent-exposed substitutions...

  12. Magnetic Bearing Consumes Low Power (United States)

    Studer, P. A.


    Energy-efficient linear magnetic bearing maintains a precise small separation between its moving and stationary parts. Originally designed for cryogenic compressors on spacecraft, proposed magnetic bearing offers an alternative to roller or gas bearing in linear motion system. Linear noncontacting bearing operates in environments where lubricants cannot be used.

  13. Heterogeneous OH oxidation of organic aerosols (United States)

    Smith, J.; Kroll, J.; Cappa, C.; Che, D.; Ahmed, M.; Leone, S.; Worsnop, D.; Wilson, K.


    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the most important reactive species in both clean and polluted atmospheres, and therefore gas-phase OH chemistry has been extensively studied for decades. Due to this enormous effort the rates and mechanism of OH reactions with gas phase organics are relatively well understood. However, it unclear whether these well established gas-phase chemical mechanisms apply to the more complex heterogeneous reactions of OH radicals with organic aerosols (OA). Although recent studies have begun to examine OH oxidation of OA, numerous outstanding questions still remain regarding both the rate and chemical mechanism of these reactions. Here we present an in depth investigation of the heterogeneous oxidation of organic squalane particles by OH radicals. By combining a photochemical aerosol flow reactor with a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), with both electron impact and vacuum ultraviolet photoionization, we investigate OH heterogeneous chemistry in unprecedented detail. Employing elemental composition measurements with detailed kinetics we have arrived at a simple oxidation model which accurately accounts for the evolution of squalane and its" oxidation products. In addition, by exploring a large range of OH concentrations we are able to directly measure the role of secondary particle-phase chain chemistry which can significantly accelerate the oxidation of OA in the atmosphere. Based on these measurements we have arrived at an explicit chemical mechanism for heterogeneous OH oxidation of OA which accurately accounts for our observations over a wide range of reaction conditions.

  14. Tribology of alternative bearings. (United States)

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen


    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  15. Crystal structure of [UO2(NH35]NO3·NH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Woidy


    Full Text Available Pentaammine dioxide uranium(V nitrate ammonia (1/1, [UO2(NH35]NO3·NH3, was obtained in the form of yellow crystals from the reaction of caesium uranyl nitrate, Cs[UO2(NO33], and uranium tetrafluoride, UF4, in dry liquid ammonia. The [UO2]+ cation is coordinated by five ammine ligands. The resulting [UO2(NH35] coordination polyhedron is best described as a pentagonal bipyramid with the O atoms forming the apices. In the crystal, numerous N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds are present between the cation, anion and solvent molecules, leading to a three-dimensional network.

  16. Characterizing Supernova Remnant and Molecular Cloud Interaction Sites Using Methanol (CH3OH) Masers (United States)

    McEwen, Bridget; Pihlstrom, Ylva; Sjouwerman, Lorant


    Astronomical masers are useful probes of the physical conditions of the gas in which they are formed. Masers form under specific physical conditions and therefore, can be used to trace distinct environments. In particular, collisionally excited 36 and 44 GHz methanol (CH3OH) and 1720 MHz hydroxl (OH) masers are found associated with shocked gas produced by the interaction between supernova remnants (SNRs) and molecular clouds (MCs). The overall goal of my thesis research is to combine modeling and observations to characterize the properties and formation of CH3OH masers in these SNR/MC interaction regions. More accurate information of the density (and density gradients) could, for example, be used as inputs or constraints for models of SNR cosmic ray acceleration. In this talk, I will present results from calculations of the physical conditions necessary for the occurence of 36.169, 44.070, 84.521, and 95.169 GHz CH3OH maser lines near SNRs, using a coupled radiative transfer and level population code. The modeling shows that given a sufficient CH3OH abundance, CH3OH maser emission arises over a wide range of densities and temperatures, with optimal conditions at n ~ 104 to 106 cm-3 and T > 60 K, overlapping with masing conditions for OH masers. Furthermore, the 36 and 44 GHz transitions display more significant maser optical depths compared to the 84 and 95 GHz transitions over the majority of the physical conditions. The line intensity ratios between multiple transitions significantly change with altering physical conditions and can be used to constrain the physical parameters of the gas where CH3OH masers are detected. I use the modeling results as a diagnostic tool to interpret the observational results of a sample of SNRs with previous and recent CH3OH maser detections (G1.4-0.1, W28, Sgr A East, G5.7-0.0, W44 and W51C). I will also discuss the close spatial and kinematic correlation of CH3OH masers and ammonia (NH3 (3,3)) emission peaks, which is a reliable

  17. Hydrogen Abstraction from Hydrocarbons by NH2. (United States)

    Siddique, Kamal; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Gore, Jeff; Westmoreland, Phillip R; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z


    This contribution investigates thermokinetic parameters of bimolecular gas-phase reactions involving the amine (NH2) radical and a large number of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. These reactions play an important role in combustion and pyrolysis of nitrogen-rich fuels, most notably biomass. Computations performed at the CBS-QB3 level and based on the conventional transition-state theory yield potential-energy surfaces and reaction rate constants, accounting for tunnelling effects and the presence of hindered rotors. In an analogy to other H abstraction systems, we demonstrate only a small influence of variational effects on the rate constants for selected reaction. The studied reactions cover the abstraction of hydrogen atoms by the NH2 radical from the C-H bonds in C1-C4 species, and four C5 hydrocarbons of 2-methylbutane, 2-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-2-butene, and 3-methyl-1-butyne. For the abstraction of H from methane, in the temperature windows 300-500 and 1600-2000 K, the calculated reaction rate constants concur with the available experimental measurements, i.e., kcalculated/kexperimetal = 0.3-2.5 and 1.1-1.4, and the previous theoretical estimates. Abstraction of H atom from ethane attains the ratio of kcalculated/kexperimetal equal to 0.10-1.2 and 1.3-1.5 over the temperature windows of available experimental measurements, i.e., 300-900 K and 1500-2000 K, respectively. For the remaining alkanes (propane and n-butane), the average kexperimental/kcalculated ratio remains 2.6 and 1.3 over the temperature range of experimental data. Also, comparing the calculated standard enthalpy of reaction (ΔrH°298) with the available experimental measurements for alkanes, we found the mean unsigned error of computations as 3.7 kJ mol(-1). This agreement provides an accuracy benchmark of our methodology, affording the estimation of the unreported kinetic parameters for H abstractions from alkenes and alkynes. On the basis of the Evans

  18. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.


    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  19. Partial tooth gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  20. Stereodynamics and Rovibrational Effect for H+NH3 →H2+NH2 Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hao; LIU Xin-Guo; ZHANG Qing-Gang


    @@ We employ the semirigid vibrating rotor target (SVRT) model to study the influence of rotational and vibrational excitation of the reagent on reactivity for the reaction H+NH3. The excitation of the pseudo H-NH2 stretching vibration of the SVRT model gives significant enhancement of reaction probability. Detailed study of the influence of initial rotational states on reaction probability shows strong steric effect. The steric effect of polyatomic reactions, treated by the SVRT model, is more complex and richer than theoretical calculations involving linear molecular models.

  1. The Little Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林战峰; 乐伟国


    @@ 一、故事内容 A little bear has a magic stick.It can make his wishes come true. One day,the little bear is walking in the forest.He sees a bird.It is flying in the sky.It has two beautiful wings."I want two beautiful wings.I wish I can fly like a bird,"he says to the magic stick.Two beautiful wings come out from his back and he can fly like a bird now.He is very happy.

  2. Modular gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  3. New Directions: Watching over tropospheric hydroxyl (OH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Joeckel, P.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Krol, M.C.; Mak, J.E.; Dlugokencky, E.; Montzka, S.A.; Novelli, P.C.; Peters, W.; Tans, P.P.


    Mean tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) abundance is often used as a measure of the oxidation capacity (or “self-cleansing”) of the atmosphere. The primary mechanism by which atmospheric pollutant gases are removed from the atmosphere is initiated by the reaction with OH. As a result, large interann

  4. Sonolytic Oxidation of Tc(IVO2nH2O Nanoparticles to Tc(VIIO4 in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zakir


    Full Text Available Sonolysis of a hydrosol of TcO2nH2O was investigated in the Ar- or He- atmosphere. Colloidal TcO2nH2O nanoparticles were irradiated with a 200 kHz and 1.25 W/cm2 ultrasound. It was found that the TcO2nH2O colloids dispersed in an aqueous solution (under Ar or He atmosphere was completely dissolved by ultrasonic irradiation (200 kHz, 200 W. The original brownish black color of the suspension slowly disappeared leaving behind a colorless solution. This change suggests that oxidation of Tc(IV to Tc(VII takes place. The oxidation was almost complete during 30 minutes sonication time under argon atmosphere for initial concentration of 6.0E-5 M. Addition of t-butyl alcohol, an effective radical scavenger which readily reacts with OH radicals, supressed the dissolution of TcO2nH2O colloids. This reaction indicates that TcO2nH2O molecules are oxidized by OH radicals produced in cavitation bubbles.

  5. First OH reactivity measurements in Harvard Forest (United States)

    Herdlinger-Blatt, I. S.; Martin, S. T.; Hansel, A.; McKinney, K. A.


    The OH reactivity provides critical insight into the HOx budget under actual atmospheric conditions, and has implications for the production of ozone and the formation of secondary organic material. Previous studies have indicated that the OH reactivity measured at field sites often exceeds model estimations, but current experiments remain inconclusive about the origin of the discrepancy between the modeled and measured OH reactivity (Lou et al., 2010). As of now there are only a limited number of atmospheric studies of total OH reactivity available, so to improve understanding of the OH reactivity more studies are needed. The first OH reactivity measurements in the northeastern United States are being performed during the summer of 2013 at Harvard Forest. Harvard forest, is located about 100 km west of the Boston metropolitan area, is one of the most intensively studied forests in North America. The main biogenic VOC emitted from Harvard Forest is isoprene followed by monoterpenes and methanol. Sampling for the OH reactivity measurements will be conducted from a 30m tall meteorological tower at the Harvard Forest site. The air is drawn into a reaction cell where the OH reactivity is determined using the Comparative Reactivity Method (Sinha et al., 2008) employing a High-Sensitivity Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (Lindinger et al., 1998, Hansel et al., 1998). In addition to the OH reactivity measurements, the most abundant compounds present in the air sample will be quantified using PTR-MS. The quantification of these compounds is needed to compare the theoretical calculated OH reactivity with the measured OH reactivity data. The measurements will be used to evaluate our understanding of the OH budget at Harvard Forest. References: A. Hansel, A. Jordan, C. Warneke, R. Holzinger, and W. Lindinger.: Improved Detection Limit of the Proton-transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer: On-line Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds at Mixing Ratios of a Few PPTV

  6. Biodistribution and tumor uptake of C60(OH) x in mice (United States)

    Ji, Zhi Qiang; Sun, Hongfang; Wang, Haifang; Xie, Qunying; Liu, Yuangfang; Wang, Zheng


    Radiolabeling of fullerol, 125I-C60(OH) x , was performed by the traditional chloramine-T method. The C-I covalent bond in I-C60(OH) x was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) that was sufficiently stable for in vivo study. Laser light scattering spectroscopy clearly showed that C60(OH) x aggregated to large nanoparticle clumps with a wide range of distribution. The clumps formed were also visualized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). We examined the biodistribution and tumor uptake of C60(OH) x in five mouse bearing tumor models, including mouse H22 hepatocarcinoma, human lung giantcellcarcinoma PD, human colon cancer HCT-8, human gastric cancer MGC803, and human OS732 osteosarcoma. The accumulation ratios of 125I-C60(OH) x in mouse H22 hepatocarcinoma to that in normal muscle tissue (T/N) and blood (T/B) at 1, 6, 24 and 72 h, reveal that 125I-C60(OH) x gradually accumulates in H22 tumor, and retains for a quite long period (e.g., T/N 3.41, T/B 3.94 at 24 h). For the other four tumor models, the T/N ratio at 24 h ranges within 1.21-6.26, while the T/B ratio ranges between 1.23 and 4.73. The accumulation of C60(OH) x in tumor is mostly due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR) and the phagocytosis of mononuclear phagocytes. Hence, C60(OH) x might serve as a photosensitizer in the photodynamic therapy of some kinds of tumor.

  7. Biodistribution and tumor uptake of C{sub 60}(OH){sub x} in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Zhiqiang; Sun Hongfang, E-mail:; Wang Haifang; Xie Qunying; Liu Yuangfang [Peking University, Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering (China); Wang Zheng [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Cancer Institute (China)


    Radiolabeling of fullerol, {sup 125}I-C{sub 60}(OH){sub x}, was performed by the traditional chloramine-T method. The C-I covalent bond in I-C{sub 60}(OH){sub x} was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) that was sufficiently stable for in vivo study. Laser light scattering spectroscopy clearly showed that C{sub 60}(OH){sub x} aggregated to large nanoparticle clumps with a wide range of distribution. The clumps formed were also visualized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). We examined the biodistribution and tumor uptake of C{sub 60}(OH){sub x} in five mouse bearing tumor models, including mouse H22 hepatocarcinoma, human lung giantcellcarcinoma PD, human colon cancer HCT-8, human gastric cancer MGC803, and human OS732 osteosarcoma. The accumulation ratios of {sup 125}I-C{sub 60}(OH){sub x} in mouse H22 hepatocarcinoma to that in normal muscle tissue (T/N) and blood (T/B) at 1, 6, 24 and 72 h, reveal that {sup 125}I-C{sub 60}(OH){sub x} gradually accumulates in H22 tumor, and retains for a quite long period (e.g., T/N 3.41, T/B 3.94 at 24 h). For the other four tumor models, the T/N ratio at 24 h ranges within 1.21-6.26, while the T/B ratio ranges between 1.23 and 4.73. The accumulation of C{sub 60}(OH){sub x} in tumor is mostly due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR) and the phagocytosis of mononuclear phagocytes. Hence, C{sub 60}(OH){sub x} might serve as a photosensitizer in the photodynamic therapy of some kinds of tumor.

  8. Preparation of Mg(OH)2 hybrid pigment by direct precipitation and graft onto cellulose fiber via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Yue; Lv, Lihua; Cui, Yongzhu; Wei, Chunyan; Pang, Guibing


    Mg(OH)2 flame retardant hybrid pigment is synthesized through simultaneous solution precipitation and adsorption of anionic dyes (C.I. Acid Red 6). The Mg(OH)2 hybrid pigment bearing vinyl groups after surface silane modification is immobilized onto the surface of bromo end-functional cellulose fiber by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The morphology and structure of Mg(OH)2 pigments and cellulose fibers grafted with modified pigments are characterized. The thermal properties, flammability and color fastness of cellulose fibers grafted with modified pigments are measured. The results reveal that anionic dye molecules are adsorbed onto Mg(OH)2 crystals and affect the formation of lamella-like Mg(OH)2 crystals. The cellulose fiber grafted with modified Mg(OH)2 hybrid pigment absorbs about four times heat more than original cellulose fiber with about 4% immobilization ratio of pigment, which shortens nearly half of afterflame time and afterglow time.

  9. NH3 and NH4+ permeability in aquaporin-expressing Xenopus oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars M.; Jahn, Thomas Paul; Møller, Anders Laurell Blom;


    We have shown recently, in a yeast expression system, that some aquaporins are permeable to ammonia. In the present study, we expressed the mammalian aquaporins AQP8, AQQP9, AQP3, AQP1 and a plant aquaporin TIP2;1 in Xenopus oocytes to study the transport of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4+) under...... opencircuit and voltage-clamped conditions. TIP2;1 was tested as the wild-type and in a mutated version (tip2;1) in which the water permeability is intact. When AQP8-, AQP9-, AQP3- and TIP2;1-expressing oocytes were placed in a well-stirred bathing medium of low buffer capacity, NH3 permeability was evident...... from the acidification of the bathing medium; the effects observed with AQP1 and tip2;1 did not exceed that of native oocytes. AQP8, AQP9, AQP3, and TIP2;1 were permeable to larger amides, while AQP1 was not. Under voltage-clamp conditions, given sufficient NH3, AQP8, AQP9, AQP3, and TIP2;1 supported...

  10. Silver Bear for Screenplay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Chinese director Wang Quan'an won the Silver Bear Prize at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival that lasted during February 11 to 21 tor the best screenplay for his movie Apart Together.The film also opened the festival.

  11. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan


    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  12. Experimental studies of the formation of cluster ions formed by corona discharge in an atmosphere containing SO2, NH3, and H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Preben; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Støchkel, Kristian


    Abstract We report on studies of ion-induced nucleation in a corona discharge taking place in an atmosphere containing SO2, NH3, and H2O at standard temperature and pressure. Positive ions such as H3O+(H2O)n, NH4+(H2O)n, and H+(H2SO4)(H2O)n and negative ions such as HSO5-(H2O)n, SO4-(H2O)n, HSO4-(H...

  13. NH4HCO3 gas-generating liposomal nanoparticle for photoacoustic imaging in breast cancer (United States)

    Xia, Jizhu; Feng, Gang; Xia, Xiaorong; Hao, Lan; Wang, Zhigang


    In this study, we have developed a biodegradable nanomaterial for photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Its biodegradation products can be fully eliminated from a living organism. It is a gas-generating nanoparticle of liposome-encapsulating ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) solution, which is safe, effective, inexpensive, and free of side effects. When lasers irradiate these nanoparticles, NH4HCO3 decomposes to produce CO2, which can absorb much of the light energy under laser irradiation with a specific wavelength, and then expand under heat to generate a thermal acoustic wave. An acoustic detector can detect this wave and show it as a photoacoustic signal on a display screen. The intensity of the photoacoustic signal is enhanced corresponding to an increase in time, concentration, and temperature. During in vivo testing, nanoparticles were injected into tumor-bearing nude mice through the caudal vein, and photoacoustic signals were detected from the tumor, reaching a peak in 4 h, and then gradually disappearing. There was no damage to the skin or subcutaneous tissue from laser radiation. Our developed gas-generating nanomaterial, NH4HCO3 nanomaterial, is feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive. Therefore, it is a promising material to be used in clinical PAI. PMID:28293107

  14. NH4HCO3 gas-generating liposomal nanoparticle for photoacoustic imaging in breast cancer. (United States)

    Xia, Jizhu; Feng, Gang; Xia, Xiaorong; Hao, Lan; Wang, Zhigang


    In this study, we have developed a biodegradable nanomaterial for photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Its biodegradation products can be fully eliminated from a living organism. It is a gas-generating nanoparticle of liposome-encapsulating ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) solution, which is safe, effective, inexpensive, and free of side effects. When lasers irradiate these nanoparticles, NH4HCO3 decomposes to produce CO2, which can absorb much of the light energy under laser irradiation with a specific wavelength, and then expand under heat to generate a thermal acoustic wave. An acoustic detector can detect this wave and show it as a photoacoustic signal on a display screen. The intensity of the photoacoustic signal is enhanced corresponding to an increase in time, concentration, and temperature. During in vivo testing, nanoparticles were injected into tumor-bearing nude mice through the caudal vein, and photoacoustic signals were detected from the tumor, reaching a peak in 4 h, and then gradually disappearing. There was no damage to the skin or subcutaneous tissue from laser radiation. Our developed gas-generating nanomaterial, NH4HCO3 nanomaterial, is feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive. Therefore, it is a promising material to be used in clinical PAI.

  15. Magnetic bearings for cryogenic turbomachines (United States)

    Iannello, Victor; Sixsmith, Herbert


    Magnetic bearings offer a number of advantages over gas bearings for the support of rotors in cryogenic turboexpanders and compressors. Their performance is relatively independent of the temperature or pressure of the process gas for a large range of conditions. Active magnetic bearing systems that use capacitive sensors have been developed for high speed compressors for use in cryogenic refrigerators. Here, the development of a magnetic bearing system for a miniature ultra high speed compressor is discussed. The magnetic bearing has demonstrated stability at rotational speeds exceeding 250,000 rpm. This paper describes the important features of the magnetic bearing and presents test results demonstrating its performance characteristics.

  16. New insights into Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalyst acidity. Part I: Nature of acidic sites probed by NH 3 titration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jinyong; Gao, Feng; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Currier, Neal; Peden, Charles H. F.; Yezerets, Aleksey


    In this work we investigated an unusual acidity feature of a Cu/SSZ-13 catalyst used in selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 (NH3-SCR). In particular, this catalyst showed two distinct NH3 desorption peaks in NH3-TPD measurements, in contrast to single, unresolved desorption peaks observed for other Cu-exchanged zeolites conventionally used in the SCR studies, including its isostructural but chemically different analogue Cu/SAPO-34. We further observed that the intensities of the two TPD peaks, which represented the amount of stored NH3, changed in opposite directions in response to progressive mild hydrothermal aging, while the total storage capacity was preserved. We proposed an explanation for this remarkable behavior, by using model reference samples and additional characterization techniques. At least three NH3 storage sites were identified: two distinct populations of Cu sites responsible for low-temperature NH3 storage, and Brønsted acid sites responsible for high-temperature NH3 storage. Contrary to the commonly accepted mechanism that Brønsted acid site loss during hydrothermal aging is driven by dealumination, we concluded that the decline in the number of Brønsted acid sites upon mild hydrothermal aging for Cu/SSZ-13 was not due to dealumination, but rather transformation of Cu sites, i.e., gradual conversion of ZCuOH (Cu2+ singly coordinated with Zeolite) to Z2Cu (Cu2+ doubly coordinated with Zeolite). This transformation was responsible for the increased low-temperature desorption peak in NH3-TPD since each ZCuOH adsorbed ~1 NH3 molecule while each Z2Cu adsorbed ~2 NH3 molecules under the conditions used here. These findings were used in Part II of this series of studies to develop a method for quantifying hydrothermal ageing of industrial Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts. Authors would like to thank Randall Jines for his help with collecting the reactor data, Nancy W. Washton for measuring the NMR data and Tamas Varga for in-situ XRD measurements

  17. Controlled synthesis of Ce(OH)CO3 flowers by a hydrothermal method and their thermal conversion to CeO2 flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongen Zhang; Feng Li; Jian Gu; Qing Xie; Shanzhong Li; Xiaobo Zhang; Guiquan Han; Ailing Ying; Zhiwei Tong


    Highly uniform Ce(OH)CO3 flowers were successfully prepared in large quantities using a facile hydrothermal approach from the reaction of Ce(NH4)(NO3)4 with CO(NH2)2 at 160 ℃ in a water-N2H4 complex,The influences of the N2H4 content and temperature on flower formation were discussed.CeO2 flowers were prepared by thermal conversion of Ce(OH)CO3 flowers at 500 ℃ in air.Both Ce(OH)CO3 and CeO2 flowers were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),and scanning electron microscopy (SEM),The UV-vis adsorption spectrum of the CeO2 flowers showed that the band gap energy (Eg) is 2.66 eV,which is lower than that of bulk ceria.

  18. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira


    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He-H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  19. 双分子水和氨气催化CF3OH分子裂解的理论研究%Theoretical Study on Decomposition of CF3OH Catalyzed by Water Dimer and Ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙波; 谭兴凤; 隆正文; 任达森; 张为俊


    The G3 and CBS-QB3 theoretical methods are employed to study the decomposition of CF3OH into FCFO and HF by water, water dimmer, and ammonia. The decomposition of CF3OH into FCFO and HF is unlikely to occur in the atmosphere due to the high activated energy of 88.7 k J/mol at the G3 level of theory. However, the computed results predict that the barrier for unimolecular decomposition of CF3OH is decreased to 25.1 k J/mol from 188.7 k J/mol with the aid of NH3 at the G3 level of theory, which shows that the ammonia play a strong catalytic effect on the split of CF3OH. In addition, the calculated rate constants show that the decomposition of CF3OH by NH3 is faster than those of H2Oand the water dimmer by 109 and 105 times respectively. The rate constants combined with the corresponding concentrations of these species demonstrate that the reaction CF3 OH with NH3 via TS4 is of great importance for the decomposition of CF3OH in the atmosphere.

  20. Magnetic bearings grow more attractive (United States)


    Advances in materials and electronics have enabled designers to devise simpler, smaller magnetic bearings. As a result, costs have dropped, widening the applications for these very-low-friction devices. Avcon (Advanced Controls Technology) has patented a permanent-magnet bias actively controlled bearing. Here high-energy rare earth permanent-magnet materials supply the basic bearing load levitation, while servo-driven electromagnets generate stabilization and centering forces for motion contol. Previous heavy-duty magnetic bearings used electromagnets entirely for suspension and control, which led to large bearings and control systems with higher power requirements. Avcon has developed several types of permanent-magnet bias bearings. The simplest is the radial repulsion bearing. Avcon's homopolar permanent-magnet bias active bearing is the most versatile of the company's designs.

  1. Polymeric cobalt(ii) thiolato complexes - syntheses, structures and properties of [Co(SMes)2] and [Co(SPh)2NH3]. (United States)

    Eichhöfer, Andreas; Buth, Gernot


    Reactions of [Co(N(SiMe3)2)2thf] with 2.1 equiv. of MesSH (Mes = C6H2-2,4,6-(CH3)3) yield dark brown crystals of the one dimensional chain compound [Co(SMes)2]. In contrast reactions of [Co(N(SiMe3)2)2thf] with 2.1 equiv. of PhSH result in the formation of a dark brown almost X-ray amorphous powder of 'Co(SPh)2'. Addition of aliquots of CH3OH to the latter reaction resulted in the almost quantitative formation of crystalline ammonia thiolato complexes either [Co(SPh)2(NH3)2] or [Co(SPh)2NH3]. Single crystal XRD reveals that [Co(SPh)2NH3] forms one-dimensional chains in the crystal via μ2-SPh bridges whereas [Co(SPh)2(NH3)2] consists at a first glance of isolated distorted tetrahedral units. Magnetic measurements suggest strong antiferromagnetic coupling for the two chain compounds [Co(SMes)2] (J = -38.6 cm(-1)) and [Co(SPh)2NH3] (J = -27.1 cm(-1)). Interestingly, also the temperature dependence of the susceptibility of tetrahedral [Co(SPh)2(NH3)2] shows an antiferromagnetic transition at around 6 K. UV-Vis-NIR spectra display d-d bands in the NIR region between 500 and 2250 nm. Thermal gravimetric analysis of [Co(SPh)2(NH3)2] and [Co(SPh)2NH3] reveals two well separated cleavage processes for NH3 and SPh2 upon heating accompanied by the stepwise formation of 'Co(SPh)2' and cobalt sulfide.

  2. Effect of Fe/Al Hydroxides on Desorption of K+ and NH4+ from Two Soils and Kaolinite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-Ping; XU Ren-Kou; LI Jiu-Yu


    Potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) are essential nutrients for plants.Adsorption and desorption in soils affect K+ and NH4+ availabilities to plants and can be affected by the interaction between the electrical double layers on oppositely charged particles because the interaction can decrease the surface charge density of the particles by neutralization of positive and negative charges.We studied the effect of iron (Fe)/aluminum (Al) hydroxides on desorption of K+ and NH4+ from soils and kaolinite and proposed desorption mechanisms based on the overlapping of diffuse layers between negatively charged soils and mineral particles and the positively charged Fe/Al hydroxide particles.Our results indicated that the overlapping of diffuse layers of electrical double layers between positively charged Fe/Al hydroxides,as amorphous Al(OH)3 or Fe(OH)3,and negatively charged surfaces from an Ultisol,an Alfisol,and a kaolinite standard caused the effective negative surface charge density on the soils and kaolinite to become less negative.Thus the adsorption affinity of these negatively charged surfaces for K+ and NH4+ declined as a result of the incorporation of the Fe/Al hydroxides.Consequently,the release of exchangeable K+ and NH4+ from the surfaces of the soils and kaolinite increased with the amount of the Fe/Al hydroxides added.The greater the positive charge on the surfaces of Fe/Al hydroxides,the stronger was the interactive effect between the hydroxides and soils or kaolinite,and thus the more release of K+ and NH4+.A decrease in pH led to increased positive surface charge on the Fe/Al hydroxides and enhanced interactive effects between the hydroxides and soils/kaolinite.As a result,more K+ and NH4+ were desorbed from the soils and kaolinite.This study suggests that the interaction between oppositely charged particles of variable charge soils can enhance the mobility of K+ and NH4+ in the soils and thus increase their leaching loss.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available 2(Cy2NH22SO4Sn(SO42Cy2NH2Cl and 2(Cy2NH22SO4. Sn(SO422Cy2NH2Cl complexes have been obtained on allowing Cy2NH2O2C-SO3H and Cy2NH2HSO4 to react respectively with SnBu2Cl2 and SnBu3Cl in specific ratios.The molecular structures of these compounds have been determined on the basis of the infrared data. The suggested structures are dimeric, the tin atom being octacoordinated by four chelating sulfate anions, the monomeric basic entities being connected by hydrogen bonded cation chloride cation strings.

  4. Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings (United States)

    Post, Richard F


    Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

  5. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server


    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  6. Leakage-free journal bearings (United States)

    Pinkus, O.; Etsion, I.


    A new concept of a journal bearing is developed which prevents side leakage of the lubricant, thus eliminating the need for sealing and collecting this leakage. The cooling of the bearing is accomplished by the prevailing circumferential flow. An analysis is performed and solutions are given for the bearing geometries and inlet pressures required to achieve the above purpose.

  7. Preparation of Mg(OH){sub 2} hybrid pigment by direct precipitation and graft onto cellulose fiber via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao, E-mail: [School of Textile and Materials Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, Liaoning Province (China); Zhang, Yue; Lv, Lihua; Cui, Yongzhu; Wei, Chunyan [School of Textile and Materials Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, Liaoning Province (China); Pang, Guibing [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, Liaoning Province (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorbed anionic dye molecules are conducive to preferential growth of (0 0 1) plane of Mg(OH){sub 2} crystal for Mg(OH){sub 2} pigments. • Uniform coverage of nanosized Mg(OH){sub 2} pigments on fiber surface is achieved via surface-initiated ATRP. • About 4 wt% of Mg(OH){sub 2} pigment on fiber surface shortens nearly half of burning time of cellulose. - Abstract: Mg(OH){sub 2} flame retardant hybrid pigment is synthesized through simultaneous solution precipitation and adsorption of anionic dyes (C.I. Acid Red 6). The Mg(OH){sub 2} hybrid pigment bearing vinyl groups after surface silane modification is immobilized onto the surface of bromo end-functional cellulose fiber by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The morphology and structure of Mg(OH){sub 2} pigments and cellulose fibers grafted with modified pigments are characterized. The thermal properties, flammability and color fastness of cellulose fibers grafted with modified pigments are measured. The results reveal that anionic dye molecules are adsorbed onto Mg(OH){sub 2} crystals and affect the formation of lamella-like Mg(OH){sub 2} crystals. The cellulose fiber grafted with modified Mg(OH){sub 2} hybrid pigment absorbs about four times heat more than original cellulose fiber with about 4% immobilization ratio of pigment, which shortens nearly half of afterflame time and afterglow time.

  8. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Block Groups (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Cleveland, OH EnviroAtlas community. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded...

  9. Effects of reactant rotational excitations on H2 + NH2 → H + NH3 reactivity (United States)

    Song, Hongwei; Guo, Hua


    Rotational mode specificity of the title reaction is examined using an initial state selected time-dependent wave packet method on an accurate ab initio based global potential energy surface. This penta-atomic reaction presents an ideal system to test several dynamical approximations, which might be useful for future quantum dynamics studies of polyatomic reactions, particularly with rotationally excited reactants. The first approximation involves a seven-dimensional (7D) model in which the two non-reactive N-H bonds are fixed at their equilibrium geometry. The second is the centrifugal sudden (CS) approximation within the 7D model. Finally, the J-shifting (JS) model is tested, again with the fixed N-H bonds. The spectator-bond approximation works very well in the energy range studied, while the centrifugal sudden and J-shifting integral cross sections (ICSs) agree satisfactorily with the coupled-channel counterparts in the low collision energy range, but deviate at the high energies. The calculated integral cross sections indicate that the rotational excitation of H2 somewhat inhibits the reaction while the rotational excitations of NH2 have little effect. These findings are compared with the predictions of the sudden vector projection model. Finally, a simple model is proposed to predict rotational mode specificity using K-averaged reaction probabilities.

  10. Anti-backlash gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

  11. Damping Bearings In High-Speed Turbomachines (United States)

    Von Pragenau, George L.


    Paper presents comparison of damping bearings with traditional ball, roller, and hydrostatic bearings in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. Concept of damping bearings described in "Damping Seals and Bearings for a Turbomachine" (MFS-28345).

  12. Infrared spectrophotometry of OH 231.8 + 4.2 identified with OH 0739-14 (United States)

    Gillett, F. C.; Soifer, B. T.


    Infrared spectrophotometry from 2.1 to 4.1 microns and from 7.7 to 13.3 microns of the peculiar OH maser source OH 231.8 + 4.2 identified with OH 0739-14 is reported. Deep absorption features are found at 3.1 microns and from 8 to 13 microns, and are identified with absorption by cold ices and silicates in the line of sight to the infrared source. The infrared flux is also found to vary. These infrared observations present new difficulties in understanding the nature of the object. Several possibly useful observations of OH 231.8 + 4.2 are suggested.

  13. Reflectance spectroscopy (0.35–8 μm) of ammonium-bearing minerals and qualitative comparison to Ceres-like asteroids (United States)

    Berg, Breanne L.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Beck, P.; Vernazza, P.; Bishop, Janice L; Takir, Driss; Reddy, V.; Applin, D.; Mann, Paul


    Ammonium-bearing minerals have been suggested to be present on Mars, Ceres, and various asteroids and comets. We undertook a systematic study of the spectral reflectance properties of ammonium-bearing minerals and compounds that have possible planetary relevance (i.e., ammonium carbonates, chlorides, nitrates, oxalates, phosphates, silicates, and sulfates). Various synthetic and natural NH4+-bearing minerals were analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the long-wave ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and mid-infrared regions (0.35–8 μm) in order to identify spectral features characteristic of the NH4+ molecule, and to evaluate if and how these features vary among different species. Mineral phases were confirmed through structural and compositional analyses using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and elemental combustion analysis. Characteristic absorption features associated with NH4 can be seen in the reflectance spectra at wavelengths as short as ∼1 μm. In the near-infrared region, the most prominent absorption bands are located near 1.6, 2.0, and 2.2 μm. Absorption features characteristic of NH4+ occurred at slightly longer wavelengths in the mineral-bound NH4+ spectra than for free NH4+ for most of the samples. Differences in wavelength position are attributable to various factors, including differences in the type and polarizability of the anion(s) attached to the NH4+, degree and type of hydrogen bonding, molecule symmetry, and cation substitutions. Multiple absorption features, usually three absorption bands, in the mid-infrared region between ∼2.8 and 3.8 μm were seen in all but the most NH4-poor sample spectra, and are attributed to fundamentals, combinations, and overtones of stretching and bending vibrations of the NH4+ molecule. These features appear even in reflectance spectra of water-rich samples which exhibit a strong 3 μm region water absorption feature. While many of the samples examined in this study have NH4 absorption

  14. Reflectance spectroscopy (0.35-8 μm) of ammonium-bearing minerals and qualitative comparison to Ceres-like asteroids (United States)

    Berg, Breanne L.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Beck, Pierre; Vernazza, Pierre; Bishop, Janice L.; Takir, Driss; Reddy, Vishnu; Applin, Daniel; Mann, Paul


    Ammonium-bearing minerals have been suggested to be present on Mars, Ceres, and various asteroids and comets. We undertook a systematic study of the spectral reflectance properties of ammonium-bearing minerals and compounds that have possible planetary relevance (i.e., ammonium carbonates, chlorides, nitrates, oxalates, phosphates, silicates, and sulfates). Various synthetic and natural NH4+-bearing minerals were analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the long-wave ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and mid-infrared regions (0.35-8 μm) in order to identify spectral features characteristic of the NH4+ molecule, and to evaluate if and how these features vary among different species. Mineral phases were confirmed through structural and compositional analyses using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and elemental combustion analysis. Characteristic absorption features associated with NH4 can be seen in the reflectance spectra at wavelengths as short as ∼1 μm. In the near-infrared region, the most prominent absorption bands are located near 1.6, 2.0, and 2.2 μm. Absorption features characteristic of NH4+ occurred at slightly longer wavelengths in the mineral-bound NH4+ spectra than for free NH4+ for most of the samples. Differences in wavelength position are attributable to various factors, including differences in the type and polarizability of the anion(s) attached to the NH4+, degree and type of hydrogen bonding, molecule symmetry, and cation substitutions. Multiple absorption features, usually three absorption bands, in the mid-infrared region between ∼2.8 and 3.8 μm were seen in all but the most NH4-poor sample spectra, and are attributed to fundamentals, combinations, and overtones of stretching and bending vibrations of the NH4+ molecule. These features appear even in reflectance spectra of water-rich samples which exhibit a strong 3 μm region water absorption feature. While many of the samples examined in this study have NH4 absorption bands

  15. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and its analogues (EB1089 and analog V) on canine adenocarcinoma (CAC-8) in nude mice. (United States)

    Kunakornsawat, Sunee; Rosol, Thomas John; Capen, Charles Chabert; Reddy, Gudimetla Satyanarayana; Binderup, Lise; Inpanbutr, Nongnuch


    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues on tumor growth and body weight, changes in plasma ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) production, bone resorption, and the distribution of the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR) on tumors in nude mice-bearing the canine adenocarcinoma (CAC-8). Thirty-seven nude mice were implanted subcutaneously with CAC-8. Two weeks after implantation, the mice were divided into 5 groups and injected intraperitoneally 3 times/week for 4 weeks with 5 different substrates. Group I (nontumor-bearing mice) were injected with vehicle. Groups II through V were CAC-8-bearing mice injected with the following: Grp. II, vehicle; Grp. III, analog V; Grp. IV, 1,25(OH)2D3; and Grp. V, EB1089. Our results showed that mice body weight (% change) of CAC-8-bearing mice was significantly lower than those of nontumor-bearing mice (pCAC-8-bearing mice treated with analog V maintained their body weight better than CAC-8-bearing mice treated with either vehicle, 1,25(OH)2D3, or EB1089. A reduction of tumor growth was observed in CAC-8-bearing mice treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues; however, the reduction was not statistically significant compared to the vehicle-treated CAC-8-bearing mice. All CAC-8-bearing mice increased osteoclastic bone resorption and hypercalcemia. Immunohistochemical staining of CAC-8 with VDR antibody demonstrated a positive reaction in nuclei of tumor cells. In conclusion, CAC-8-bearing mice treated with analog V were more active and maintained their body weight better than other CAC-8-bearing groups. Analog V-treated mice also showed no toxic side effects of hypercalcemia despite an increase in plasmaionized calcium comparable to nontumor-bearing mice. Tumor volumes of CAC-8-bearing mice treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues were smaller than vehicle-treated CAC-8-bearing mice. This finding suggested an inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth.

  16. High P-T Elastic Properties of OH-Bearing Majoritic Garnet (United States)

    Lazarz, J. D.; Thomas, S. M.; Tkachev, S. N.; Townsend, J. P.; Bina, C. R.; Jacobsen, S. D.


    The mantle transition zone (TZ) is believed to be primarily composed of three constituents: wadsleyite, ringwoodite, and majorite garnet (Ringwood, 1975). Laboratory sound velocity measurements for wadsleyite and ringwoodite alone are too high to match TZ seismological models (Li et al., Science, 1998; Sinogeikin et al., JGR, 1998), while majorite yields significantly lower sound velocities (Sinogeikin et al., GRL, 2002; Gwanmesia et al., PEPI, 2009). Taken together, a compositional model such as pyrolite yields a good fit to seismology within uncertainties, with the major discrepancies being that pyrolite yields slightly larger velocity jumps and shallower velocity gradients than seismology (Li and Liebermann, Science, 2007; Irifune et al., Nature, 2008). Hydration of ringwoodite in the transition zone is expected to reduce seismic velocities. If the lower part of the TZ is hydrated, as some recent studies suggest (Pearson et al., Nature, 2014; Schmandt et al., Science, 2014), the proportions of ringwoodite and majoritic garnet in the TZ should be re-evaluated. Velocity gradients in the TZ are likely related to the gradual eclogite-garnetite transition. Over the TZ pressure range (~13-24 GPa), the dissolution of pyroxene into garnet gradually increases, resulting in a complex depth-varying garnet-majorite solid solution, ranging from M4Si4O12 majorite (Mj) to M3Al2Si3O12 garnet (Gt), where M is Mg, Fe, Ca0.5Mg0.5, etc. (Akaogi and Akimoto, PEPI, 1977; Bina and Wood, GRL, 1984; Gasparik, CMP, 1989). Several studies have considered the compositional dependence of majoritic garnet elastic moduli (Liu et al., PEPI, 2000; Sinogeikin et al., EPSL, 2002; Sinogeikin and Bass, GRL, 2002; Murakami et al., EPSL, 2008), but few have considered both composition and hydration state under the high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of the TZ. Here we combine in situ X-ray and Brillouin measurements to determine the elastic constants of various majoritic garnet compositions under pressure and temperature conditions of the TZ, up to 25 GPa and 1000°C. The elastic moduli dependence on composition and hydration of majorite garnet are of first-order importance when seeking to constrain mineralogical models of the mantle.

  17. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings (United States)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard


    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  18. Exchange bias in bulk layered hydroxylammonium fluorocobaltate (NH₃OH)₂CoF₄. (United States)

    Jagličić, Z; Zentková, M; Mihalik, M; Arnold, Z; Drofenik, M; Kristl, M; Dojer, B; Kasunič, M; Golobič, A; Jagodič, M


    The magnetic properties of layered hydroxylammonium fluorocobaltate (NH(3)OH)(2)CoF(4) were investigated by measuring its dc magnetic susceptibility in zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) regimes, its frequency dependent ac susceptibility, its isothermal magnetization curves after ZFC and FC regimes, and its heat capacity. Effects of pressure and magnetic field on magnetic phase transitions were studied by susceptibility and heat capacity measurements, respectively. The system undergoes a magnetic phase transition from a paramagnetic state to a canted antiferromagnetic state exhibiting a weak ferromagnetic behavior at T(C) = 46.5 K and an antiferromagnetic transition at T(N) = 2.9 K. The most spectacular manifestation of the complex magnetic behavior in this system is a shift of the isothermal magnetization hysteresis loop in a temperature range below 20 K after the FC regime-an exchange bias phenomenon. We investigated the exchange bias as a function of the magnetic field during cooling and as a function of temperature. The observed exchange bias was attributed to the large exchange anisotropy which exists due to the quasi-2D structure of the layered (NH(3)OH)(2)CoF(4) material.

  19. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, A.T.W. [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J., E-mail: [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)


    {theta}-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The {theta}-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  20. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung


    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  1. The photoproduction of circumstellar OH maser shells (United States)

    Huggins, P. J.; Glassgold, A. E.


    The structure of OH shells formed from the photodestruction of H2O by ambient UV photons in the thick, expanding envelopes around cool evolved stars is investigated. The properties of the shells are governed mainly by the envelope shielding which in turn is primarily controlled by the mass-loss rate M. The peak OH densities and column densities through the shells are, respectively, slowly decreasing and increasing functions of M. The characteristic radii of the shells also depend on M, increasing from about 4(15) cm for M = 1(-6) solar mass/yr to about 1(17) cm for M = 1(-4) solar mass/yr; this dependence is well matched by recent observational data, and lends support to the OH photoproduction mechanism.

  2. UF6 and UF4 in liquid ammonia: [UF7(NH3)]3- and [UF4(NH3)4]. (United States)

    Kraus, Florian; Baer, Sebastian A


    From the reaction of uranium hexafluoride UF6 with dry liquid ammonia, the [UF7(NH3)]3- anion and the [UF4(NH3)4] molecule were isolated and identified for the first time. They are found in signal-green crystals of trisammonium monoammine heptafluorouranate(IV) ammonia (1:1; [NH4]3[UF7(NH3)].NH3) and emerald-green crystals of tetraammine tetrafluorouranium(IV) ammonia (1:1; [UF4(NH3)4].NH3). [NH4]3[UF7(NH3)].NH3 features discrete [UF7(NH3)]3- anions with a coordination geometry similar to a bicapped trigonal prism, hitherto unknown for U(IV) compounds. The emerald-green [UF4(NH3)4].NH3 contains discrete tetraammine tetrafluorouranium(IV) [UF4(NH3)4] molecules. [UF4(NH3)4].NH3 is not stable at room temperature and forms pastel-green [UF4(NH3)4] as a powder that is surprisingly stable up to 147 degrees C. The compounds are the first structurally characterized ammonia complexes of uranium fluorides.

  3. Study on Synthesis and Binding Ability of a New Anion Receptor Containing NH Binding Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO,Yan-Hong; LIN,Hai; LIN,Hua-Kuan


    A new colorimetric recognition receptor 1 based on the dual capability containing NH binding sites of selectively sensing anionic guest species has been synthesized. Compared with other halide anions, its UV/Vis absorption spectrum in dimethyl sulfoxide showed the response toward the presence of fluoride anion with high selectivity,and also displayed dramatic color changes from colorless to yellow in the presence of TBAF (5 × 10-5 mol/L). The similar UV/Vis absorption spectrum change also occurred when 1 was treated with AcO- while a little change with H2PO-4 and OH-. Receptor 1 has almost not affinity abilities to Cl-, Br- and I-. The binding ability of receptor 1to fluoride with high selectivity over other halides contributes to the anion size and the ability of forming hydrogen bonding. While the different ability of binding with geometrically triangular (AcO-), tetrahedral (H2PO-4 ) and linear (OH-) anions maybe result from their geometry configuration.

  4. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M


    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  5. Cyanines Bearing Quaternary Azaaromatic Moieties


    Sbliwa, Wanda; Matusiak, Grazyna; Bachowska, Barbara


    Selected cyanines bearing quaternary azaaromatic moieties are presented, showing their monomers, dimers and polymers, as well as their possible applications. Cyanines having NLO properties are also briefly described.

  6. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B


    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  7. Effect of single amino acid replacements on the thermal stability of the NH2-terminal domain of phage lambda repressor. (United States)

    Hecht, M H; Sturtevant, J M; Sauer, R T


    The thermal stabilities of mutant phage lambda repressors that have single amino acid replacements in the NH2-terminal domain have been studied by means of circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry. The variations in stability determined by these physical methods correlate with the resistance to proteolysis at various temperatures and can be compared with the temperature-sensitive activity of the mutants in vivo. In general, mutant proteins bearing solvent-exposed substitutions have thermal stabilities identical to wild type, whereas buried substitutions reduce stability. In one case, a single amino acid replacement increases the thermal stability of the repressor.

  8. Mg(OH)2纳米晶的可控制备%Controllable synthesis of Mg(OH)2 nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙灵娜; 洪伟良; 刘日明; 田德余


    Magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals were synthesized by the method of homogeneous precipitation with magnesium acetate and ammonia as raw materials. The products were dried by a natural way to avoid the agglomeration of Mg (OH)2 nanocrystals. The impacts of the factors, such as concentration of NH3 ?H2O, dosages of polyethylene glycol(PEG), temperature, and reaction time on the morphologies and yields of Mg (OH)2 were studied in detail. The possible mechanism of crystal growth was also explored. By carefully controlling the fundamental experimental parameters, the morphologies of needle-like nanostructures with diameters of 4 nm, nanoparticles with diameters of 20 - 30 nm, flower-like nanostructures and nanorods with diameters of 40 nm were efficiently obtained, respectively. The morphology, size and structure of the product were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.%以醋酸镁为原料,氨水为沉淀剂,采用沉淀法制备Mg(OH)2纳米晶,使其自然干燥,以降低烘干对Mg (OH)2产生硬团聚的影响.探讨氨水浓度、聚乙二醇添加量、反应温度和反应时间等对产物形貌及产率的影响,推测其生长机理.通过对反应条件的调控,分别制得直径约4 nm的Mg(OH)2针状结构、直径20~30 nm的纳米颗粒和花状结构,以及直径40 nm的棒状结构.利用透射电子显微镜对产物形貌和粒径进行分析,采用X射线粉末衍射法研究Mg (OH)2的晶体结构.

  9. Metal-ligand bifunctional reactivity and catalysis of protic N-heterocyclic carbene and pyrazole complexes featuring β-NH units. (United States)

    Kuwata, Shigeki; Ikariya, Takao


    Metal-ligand bifunctional cooperation has attracted much attention because it offers a powerful methodology to realize a number of highly efficient and selective catalysts. In this article, recent developments in the metal-ligand cooperative reactions of protic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and pyrazole complexes bearing an acidic NH group at the position β to the metal are surveyed. Protic 2-pyridylidenes as related cooperating non-innocent ligands are also described.

  10. Photodissociation of OH in interstellar clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dishoeck, van E.F.; Dalgarno, A.


    Calculations are presented of the lifetime of OH against photodissociation by the interstellar radiation field as a function of depth into interstellar clouds containing grains of various scattering properties. The effectiveness of the different photodissociation channels changes with depth into a c

  11. 78 FR 2708 - Ohio Disaster # OH-00039 (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This...: 10/03/2013. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  12. Bombay (Oh) blood in a Sudanese family. (United States)

    Sin, A Y; Abdelrazig, H; Ayoub, M; Sabo, B H


    Two examples of Bombay Oh blood were found in siblings of a Sudanese family. They belong to a tribe of Arab and Negro extraction. This is the first report of this rare blood group in people of Arab or Negro origin.

  13. Numerical model of Ca(OH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, T.; Peelen, W.; Larbi, J.; Rooij, M. de; Polder, R.


    A mathematical model is being developed to describe a repair method in concrete, called cathodic protection (CP). The model is in principle also useful to describe electrodeposition in concrete, e.g. the process of re-precipitation of Ca(OH)2 invoked by an electrical current. In CP, the c

  14. 78 FR 47816 - Ohio Disaster # OH-00040 (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 07/29/2013... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  15. 77 FR 16315 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00032 (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 03/13/2012... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  16. 76 FR 44647 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00029 (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  17. Theoretical Characterization of Hydrogen Bonding Interactions between RCHO (R = H, CN, CF3, OCH3, NH2) and HOR′(R′ = H, Cl, CH3, NH2, C(O)H, C6H5)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Damanjit Kaur; Rajinder Kaur


    In this work, density functional theory and ab initio molecular orbital calculations were used to investigate the hydrogen bonded complexes of type RCHO···HOR′(R = H, CN, CF3, OCH3, NH2; R′ = H, Cl, CH3, NH2, C(O)H, C6H5) employing 6-31++g** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. Thus, the present work considers how the substituents at both the hydrogen bond donor and acceptor affect the hydrogen bond strength. From the analysis, it is reflected that presence of –OCH3 and –NH2 substituents at RCHO greatly strengthen the stabilization energies, while –CN and –CF3 decrease the same with respect to HCHO as hydrogen bond acceptor. The highest stabilization results in case of (H2N)CHO as hydrogen bond acceptor. The variation of the substituents at –OH functional group also influences the strength of hydrogen bond; nearly all the substituents increase the stabilization energy relative to HOH. The analysis of geometrical parameters; proton affinities, charge transfer, electron delocalization studies have been carried out.

  18. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.


    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  19. High-Performance Ball Bearing (United States)

    Bursey, Roger W., Jr.; Haluck, David A.; Olinger, John B.; Owen, Samuel S.; Poole, William E.


    High-performance bearing features strong, lightweight, self-lubricating cage with self-lubricating liners in ball apertures. Designed to operate at high speed (tens of thousands of revolutions per minute) in cryogenic environment like liquid-oxygen or liquid-hydrogen turbopump. Includes inner race, outer race, and cage keeping bearing balls equally spaced.

  20. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.


    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  1. What about the Javan Bear?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.


    The other day I read in a dutch popular periodical a paper dealing with the different species of Bears and their geographical distribution. To my great surprise the Malayan Bear was mentioned from Java: the locality Java being quite new to me I wrote to the author of that paper and asked him some in

  2. Generation of nanopores during desorption of NH3 from Mg(NH3)6Cl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Kostova, M.Y.;


    It is shown that nanopores are formed during desorption of NH3 from Mg(NH3)6Cl2, which has been proposed as a hydrogen storage material. The system of nanopores facilitates the transport of desorbed ammonia away from the interior of large volumes of compacted storage material. DFT calculations show...... that there exists a continuous path from the initial Mg(NH3)6Cl2 material to MgCl2 that does not involve large-scale material transport. Accordingly, ammonia desorption from this system is facile....

  3. The weak fundamental NH-stretching transition in amines (United States)

    Schrøder, Sidsel D.; Hansen, Anne S.; Wallberg, Jens H.; Nielsen, Anne R.; Du, Lin; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.


    Absolute intensities of NH-stretching fundamental and overtone transitions of gas phase aniline, methylamine, ethylamine, cyclopropylamine, methylethylamine, diethylamine and pyrrolidine have been measured with long path length conventional absorption spectroscopy. To support the assignments of NH-stretching transitions, transition frequencies and intensities were calculated with the local mode model using ab initio calculated local mode parameters and dipole moment functions obtained at the CCSD(T)-F12a/VDZ-F12 level of theory. For aniline, the absolute intensities of the NH-stretching transitions show the typical decrease of approximately an order of magnitude for each successive vibrational excitation. For methylamine, ethylamine, cyclopropylamine, methylethylamine, diethylamine and pyrrolidine, the observed absolute intensities of the fundamental NH-stretching transition is weak and of similar strength or even weaker than the corresponding first overtone transition. Characteristic for the amines with a normal fundamental intensity is a conjugated double bond next to the amine group.

  4. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  5. GLOBEC NEP Northern California Current Bird Data NH0005, 0007 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Northern California Current Bird Data from R/V New Horizon cruises NH0005 and 0007. As a part of...

  6. Geophagy by yellowstone grizzly bears (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Green, G.I.; Swalley, R.


    We documented 12 sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem where grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) had purposefully consumed soil (an activity known as geophagy). We also documented soil in numerous grizzly bear feces. Geophagy primarily occurred at sites barren of vegetation where surficial geology had been modified by geothermal activity. There was no evidence of ungulate use at most sites. Purposeful consumption of soil by bears peaked first from March to May and again from August to October, synchronous with peaks in consumption of ungulate meat and mushrooms. Geophageous soils were distinguished from ungulate mineral licks and soils in general by exceptionally high concentrations of potassium (K) and high concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S). Our results do not support the hypotheses that bears were consuming soil to detoxify secondary compounds in grazed foliage, as postulated for primates, or to supplement dietary sodium, as known for ungulates. Our results suggest that grizzly bears could have been consuming soil as an anti-diarrheal.

  7. The loss of NH2O from the N-hydroxyacetamide radical cation CH3C(O)NHOH+ (United States)

    Jobst, Karl J.; Burgers, Peter C.; Ruttink, Paul J. A.; Terlouw, Johan K.


    A previous study [Ch. Lifshitz, P.J.A. Ruttink, G. Schaftenaar, J.K. Terlouw, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 1 (1987) 61] shows that metastable N-hydroxyacetamide ions CH3C(O)NHOH+ (HA-1) do not dissociate into CH3CO+ + NHOH by direct bond cleavage but rather yield CH3CO+ + NH2OE The tandem mass spectrometry based experiments of the present study on the isotopologue CH3C(O)NDOD+ reveal that the majority of the metastable ions lose the NH2O radical as NHDO rather than ND2O. A mechanistic analysis using the CBS-QB3 model chemistry shows that the molecular ions HA-1 rearrange into hydrogen-bridged radical cations [OCC(H2)H...N(H)OH]+ whose acetyl cation component then catalyses the transformation NHOH --> NH2O prior to dissociation. The high barrier for the unassisted 1,2-H shift in the free radical, 43 kcal mol-1, is reduced to a mere 7 kcal mol-1 for the catalysed transformation which can be viewed as a quid-pro-quo reaction involving two proton transfers.

  8. NH and Mg Index Trends in Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Serven, Jedidiah; Toloba, Elisa; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia


    We examine the spectrum in the vicinity of the NH3360 index of Davidge & Clark (1994), which was defined to measure the NH absorption around 3360 ̊A and which shows almost no trend with velocity dispersion (Toloba et al. 2009), unlike other N- sensitive indices, which show a strong trend (Graves et al. 2007). Computing the effect of individual elements on the integrated spectrum with synthetic stellar population integrated spectra, we find that, while being well correlated with nitrogen abundance, NH3360 is almost equally well anti-correlated with Mg abundance. This prompts the definition of two new indices, Mg3334, which is mostly sensitive to magnesium, and NH3375, which is mostly sensitive to nitrogen. Rather surprisingly, we find that the new NH3375 index shows a trend versus optical absorption feature indices that is as shallow as the NH3360 index. We hypothesize that the lack of a strong index trend in these near-UV indices is due to the presence of an old metal-poor component of the galactic pop...

  9. Synthesis and catalytic activity of metallo-organic complexes bearing 5-amino 2-ethylpyridine -2-carboximidate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    A series of copper, cobalt, nickel and manganese complexes were synthesized and characterized. Reaction of 5-amino-2-cyanopyridine with $ MCl_{2}$·x$H_{2}O$ (M: $Cu^{2+}$, $Co^{2+}$, $Ni^{2+}$, $Mn^{2+})$ in anhydrous ethanol resulted in the formation of four complexes $[NH_{2}EtPyCuCl_{2}(CH_{3}OH)].H_{2}O 1$, $[(NH_{2}EtPyHCl)_{3}Co]$$(Cl)_{3}.3H_{2}O 2$, $[(NH_{2}EtPy)_{2}$ 2$(H_{2}O)Ni]$ $(Cl_{2})$ 3, and $[(NH_{2}EtPy)_{2}$ 2$(H_{2}O)$ Mn]$(Cl_{2})$ 4 $[NH_{2} EtPy=5-amino-oethylpyridine-2-carboximidate], respectively. The structures of these compounds were determined by X-raydiffraction, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Each complex was then used as a catalyst in the Henry reaction, and its catalytic activity was determined by 1H NMR. Good catalytic effects were achieved (69–87%).

  10. Ternary Ni–Cu–OH and Ni–Co–OH electrodes for electrochemical energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha


    In this project, Ni–Cu–OH and Ni–Co–OH ternary electrodes have been prepared. Different Ni:Cu and Ni:Co ratios were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at room temperature on carbon microfibers. Since Ni(OH)2 is notorious for poor cycling stability, the goal of the work was to determine if doping with Cu or Co could improve Ni(OH)2 cycling stability performance and conductivity against reaction with electrolyte. It is observed that the electrodes with Ni:Cu and Ni:Co composition ratio of 100:10 result in the optimum capacitance and cycling stability in both Ni–Cu–OH and Ni–Co–OH electrodes. This improvement in cycling stability can be attributed to the higher redox reversibility as indicated by the smaller CV redox peak separation. In addition, it is found that decreasing Cu and Co ratios, with fixed CBD time, enhances nanoflakes formation, and hence increases electrode capacitance. For the optimum composition (Ni:Co = 100:10), composites of the ternary electrodes with graphene and carbon nanofibers were also tested, with resultant improvement in potential window, equivalent series resistance, areal capacitance and cycling stability.

  11. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin GÜLLÜ


    Full Text Available During manufacturing, ideal dimension and mutual positioning of machine elements proposed in project desing can be achieved only within certain range of tolerances. These tolerances, being classified in two groups, related to micro and macro geometry of machine elements, don't have to effect the functioning of these elements. So, as for all machine elements, investigation of the effects of macro and micro tolerances for journal bearings is important. In this study, we have investigated the effect of macro geometric irregularities of journal bearings on performance characteristics. In this regard, we have studied the change of bearing performance in respect to deviation from ideal circle for an elliptic shaft with small ovality rolling in circular journal bearing.

  13. Charge-Assisted Hydrogen-Bonded Networks of NH4+ and [Co(NH36]3+ with the New Linker Anion of 4-Phosphono-Biphenyl-4′-Carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Heering


    Full Text Available The new linker molecule 4-phosphono-biphenyl-4′-carboxylic acid (H2O3P-(C6H42-COOH, H3BPPA has been structurally elucidated in hydrogen-bonded networks with the ammonium cation NH4(H2BPPA(H3BPPA (1 and the hexaamminecobalt(III cation [Co(NH36](BPPA·4H2O (2. The protic O-H and N-H hydrogen atoms were found and refined in the low-temperature single-crystal X-ray structures. The hydrogen bonds in both structures are so-called charge-assisted; that is, the H-bond donor and/or acceptor carry positive and/or negative ionic charges, respectively. The H-bonded network in 1 consists of one formally mono-deprotonated 4-phosphonato-biphenyl-4′-carboxylic acid group; that is, a H2BPPA− anion and a neutral H3BPPA molecule, which together form a 3D hydrogen-bonded network. However, an almost symmetric resonance-assisted hydrogen bond (RAHB bond [O···H = 1.17 (3 and 1.26 (3 Å, O···H···O = 180 (3°] signals charge delocalization between the formal H2BPPA− anion and the formally neutral H3BPPA molecule. Hence, the anion in 1 is better formulated as [H2BPPA···H···H2BPPA]−. In the H-bonded network of 2 the 4-phosphonato-biphenyl-4′-carboxylic acid is triply deprotonated, BPPA3−. The [Co(NH36]3+ cation is embedded between H-bond acceptor groups, –COO− and –PO3− and H2O molecules. The incorporation of sixteen H2O molecules per unit cell makes 2 an analogue of the well-studied guanidinium sulfonate frameworks.

  14. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series. (United States)

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  15. Bipolar outflows in OH/IR stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zijlstra, A A; Hekkert, P L; Likkel, L; Comeron, F; Norris, R P; Molster, F J; Cohen, R J; Zijlstra, Albert A.


    We investigate the development of bipolar outflows during the early post-AGB evolution. A sample of ten OH/IR stars is observed at high angular resolution, including bipolar nebulae (OH231.8+4.2), bright post-AGB stars (HD 101584) and reflection nebulae (e.g. Roberts 22). The IRAS colour--colour diagram separates the sample into different types of objects. One group may contain the progenitors to the (few) extreme bipolar planetary nebulae. Two objects show colours and chemistry very similar to the planetary nebulae with late IR-[WC] stars. One object is a confirmed close binary. A model is presented consisting of an outer AGB wind which is swept up by a faster post-AGB wind, with either wind being non-spherically symetric. The interface of the two winds is shown to exhibit a linear relation between velocity and distance from the star. The OH data confirms the predicted linear velocity gradients, and reveals torus-like, uniformly expanding components. All sources are discussed in detail using optical/HST imag...

  16. 磷酸铵镁碱促(Mg(OH)2)热解产物氨氮去除性能%Ammonium removal by struvite pyrolysate with Mg(OH) 2 technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余荣台; 任洪强; 王艳茹; 丁丽丽


    磷酸铵镁热解循环技术可以有效降低磷酸铵镁结晶技术的药剂费用.同时,在磷酸铵镁热解过程中添加Mg(OH)2碱促媒介,能阻止磷酸氢镁向焦磷酸镁的转化,并降低热解产物氨氮去除过程中上清液磷酸盐的残留.在Mg(OH)2∶NH4+摩尔比为1∶1,热解温度为110℃条件下,热解产物沉氨效率接近84%,上清液磷酸盐残留量为0.02 mg/L.

  17. Hydrogen Bearing Material in the Lunar Exosphere (United States)

    Hurley, D.; Benna, M.; Colaprete, A.; Retherford, K. D.; Cook, J. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Killen, R. M.; Sarantos, M.


    We report on observations of water and its daughters in the lunar exosphere. Data from LADEE NMS, LADEE UVS, and LRO LAMP indicating the presence of H, H2, OH, and H2O are presented in terms of their relationship to external drivers. These observations point to the roles of solar wind and micrometeoroids in the source and release of hydrogen-bearing atoms and molecules in the exosphere. In particular, the implantation of H via solar wind is found to be the largest contributor to H2 in the moon's exosphere. However, the spatial distribution is more consistent with a release mechanism centered on the morning hemisphere. Thus the data are consistent with H2 created through a 2-step process involving the implantation of solar wind and subsequent release by micrometeoroids. This accounts for >12% of the solar wind H budget, leaving < 50% of the solar wind proton budget unobserved. LADEE data are consistent with water mainly being released by micrometeoroids. We present an overall picture of the present-day water cycle occurring on the Moon.

  18. Myrmecophagy by Yellowstone grizzly bears (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.


    I used data collected during a study of radio-marked grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Yellowstone region from 1977 to 1992 to investigate myrmecophagy by this population. Although generally not an important source of energy for the bears (averaging 8 mm long) nested in logs over small ants (6 mm long) nested under stones. Optimal conditions for consumption of ants occurred on the warmest sites with ample substrate suitable for ant nests. For ants in mounds, this occurred at low elevations at non-forested sites. For ants in logs, this occurred at low elevations or on southerly aspects where there was abundant, large-diameter, well-decomposed woody debris under an open forest canopy. Grizzly bears selected moderately decomposed logs 4a??5 dm in diameter at midpoint. Ants will likely become a more important food for Yellowstone's grizzly bears as currently important foods decline, owing to disease and warming of the regional climate.

  19. Segmented Hybrid Gasostatic Bearing Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodan Nikolay Vasilevich


    Full Text Available The purpose of research-development of methods of numerical optimization rotatable support pads gasostatic hybrid bearing. In the world‘s aerospace engineering the gas-dynamic bearings are currently most common. They are characterized by the supporting layer of different designs, which ensures the workability of the rotors during starts and stops. The main problem of this bearing type, apart from the construction complexity is the wear of this supporting layer. Gas-static bearing has no such defect, since there is no physical contact between solid surfaces. This study presents the results of the hybrid bearing’s calculation, combining both technologies. The slotted nozzle of non-conventional shape that mirrors the solution of Reynolds equation’s isoline is studied. The dependences of the main parameters on the speed of the shaft’s rotation are discussed. The aerodynamic resistance of pads for different regimes of operation is investigated.

  20. Gas bearing operates in vacuum (United States)

    Perkins, G. S.


    Bearing has restrictions to reduce air leaks and is connected to external pumpout facility which removes exhausted air. Token amount of air which is lost to vacuum is easily removed by conventional vacuum pump.

  1. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Mulcahy, Thomas M. (Western Springs, IL)


    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  2. The combination of 1α, 25(OH)2 – Vitamin D3, calcium and acetylsalicyclic acid affects azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumours in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Morten; Meyer, Otto A.


    Effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at various dietary levels of calcium (CaCO(3)) on development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumours in colon were examined in groups of 16 male F344 rats initiated with azoxymethane and observed for 16 weeks. Calcium was the most...... potent modulator of ACF development. The total number of ACF increased with low calcium and decreased with high calcium. The number of large ACF decreased with any addition of calcium, acetylsalicylic acid and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3). High levels of calcium alone or in combination with 1alpha,25(OH......)(2)-vitamin D(3) increased the incidence of tumour-bearing animals. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at 5,000 ppm calcium increased the incidence as well....

  3. Nonlinear Control of Magnetic Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khac Duc Do; Dang Hoe Nguyen; Thanh Binh Nguyen


    In this paper, recent results controling nonlinear systems with output tracking error constraints are applied to the design of new tracking controllers for magnetic bearings. The proposed controllers can force the rotor to track a bounded and sufficiently smooth refer-ence trajectory asymptotically and guarantee non-contactedness be-tween the rotor and the stator of the magnetic bearings. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed con-trollers.

  4. The NH$_2$D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, F; Punanova, A; Harju, J; Faure, A; Roueff, E; Sipilä, O; Caselli, P; Güsten, R; Pon, A; Pineda, J E


    The 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines of ortho and para--NH$_2$D (o/p-NH$_2$D), respectively at 86 and 110 GHz, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure due to the nitrogen ($^{14}$N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one which is taken into account in the NH$_2$D column density estimates. We investigate how the inclusion of the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH$_2$D. We present 30m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines, as well as APEX o/p-NH$_2$D observations of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting due to the $^{14}$N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ and 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines, the latter being larger by a factor of $\\sim$1.6$\\pm0.3$. Such a large difference is...

  5. Rotational Spectroscopy of the NH3-H2 Molecular Complex (United States)

    Surin, L. A.; Tarabukin, I. V.; Schlemmer, S.; Breier, A. A.; Giesen, T. F.; McCarthy, M. C.; van der Avoird, A.


    We report the first high resolution spectroscopic study of the NH3–H2 van der Waals molecular complex. Three different experimental techniques, a molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, a millimeter-wave intracavity jet OROTRON spectrometer, and a submillimeter-wave jet spectrometer with multipass cell, were used to detect pure rotational transitions of NH3–H2 in the wide frequency range from 39 to 230 GHz. Two nuclear spin species, (o)-NH3–(o)-H2 and (p)-NH3–(o)-H2, have been assigned as carriers of the observed lines on the basis of accompanying rovibrational calculations performed using the ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of Maret et al. The experimental spectra were compared with the theoretical bound state results, thus providing a critical test of the quality of the NH3–H2 PES, which is a key issue for reliable computations of the collisional excitation and de-excitation of ammonia in the dense interstellar medium.

  6. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor)...

  7. Infrared characteristics of sources associated with OH, H2O, SiO and CH3OH masers

    CERN Document Server

    Esimbek, Jarken; Wu, Gang; Di Tang, Xin


    We collect all published OH, H2O, SiO and CH3OH masers in literature. The as-sociated infrared sources of these four masers were identi?ed with MSX PSC catalogues. We look for common infrared properties among the sources associated with four masers and make a statistical study. The MSX sources associated with stellar OH, stellar H2O and SiO masers concentrated in a small regions and the MSX sources associated with interstellar OH, interstellar H2O and CH3OH masers also concentrated in a small regions in an [A]-[D].vs.[A][-[E] diagram. These results give us new criterion to search for coexisting stellar maser samples for OH, H2O and SiO masers and interstellar maser samples for OH, H2O and CH3OH masers.

  8. OH-induced oxidation of cyclo-Met-Met. A search for a complexed OH-radical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holcman, J.; Bobrowski, K.; Schöneich, C.;


    In the OH radical-induced oxidation of cyclo-Met-Met an OH adduct, cyclo-Met-Met(S therefore OH), absorbing at lambda-max = 390 nm with epsilon-390 cyclo-Met-Met(S therefore OH) = 4500 dm3 mol-1 cm-1 is formed. This adduct reversibly eliminates hydroxide ion, pK(b) = 5.4 +/- 0.1, forming correspo...

  9. Interstellar OH+, H2O+ and H3O+ along the sight-line to G10.6-0.4

    CERN Document Server

    Gerin, Maryvonne; Black, John; Herbst, Eric; Goicoechea, Javier R; Falgarone, Edith; Godard, Benjamin; Pearson, John C; Lis, Dariucz C; Phillips, Thomas G; Bell, Thomas A; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Boulanger, Francois; Cernicharo, José; Coutens, Audrey; Dartois, Emmanuel; Encrenaz, Pierre; Giesen, Thomas; Goldsmith, Paul F; Gupta, Harshal; Gry, Cecile; Hennebelle, Patrick; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Joblin, Christine; Kazmierczak, Maja; Kolos, Robert; Krelowski, Jacek; Martin-Pintado, Jesus; Monje, Raquel; Mookerjea, Bhaswati; Pérault, Michel; Persson, Carina; Plume, René; Rimmer, Paul B; Salez, Morvan; Schmidt, Mirisloaw; Teyssier, David; Vastel, Charlotte; Yu, Shan Shan; Contursi, Alessandra; Menten, Karl; Geballe, Thomas; Schlemmer, Stephan; Shipman, Russ; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Philipp-May, Sabine; Cros, Alain; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Samoska, L A; Klein, K; Neufeld, D A; Lorenzani, A; Stutzki, Jürgen


    We report the detection of absorption lines by the reactive ions OH+, H2O+ and H3O+ along the line of sight to the submillimeter continuum source G10.6$-$0.4 (W31C). We used the Herschel HIFI instrument in dual beam switch mode to observe the ground state rotational transitions of OH+ at 971 GHz, H2O+ at 1115 and 607 GHz, and H3O+ at 984 GHz. The resultant spectra show deep absorption over a broad velocity range that originates in the interstellar matter along the line of sight to G10.6$-$0.4 as well as in the molecular gas directly associated with that source. The OH+ spectrum reaches saturation over most velocities corresponding to the foreground gas, while the opacity of the H2O+ lines remains lower than 1 in the same velocity range, and the H3O+ line shows only weak absorption. For LSR velocities between 7 and 50 kms$^{-1}$ we estimate total column densities of $N$(OH+) $> 2.5 \\times 10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$, $N$(H2O+) $\\sim 6 \\times 10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$ and $N$(H3O+) $\\sim 4.0 \\times 10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$. These de...

  10. First detection of ammonia (NH3) in the upper troposphere (United States)

    Höpfner, Michael; Volkamer, Rainer; Grabowski, Udo; Grutter de la Mora, Michel; Orphal, Johannes; Stiller, Gabriele; von Clarmann, Thomas


    Ammonia (NH3) is the major alkaline trace gas in the troposphere. Neutralization of atmospheric acids, like HNO3 and H2SO4, leads to formation of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosols. Further, there are indications that NH3 may enhance nucleation of sulfuric acid aerosols by stabilization of sulfuric acid clusters. By far the largest source of ammonia is agricultural food production. Major global emissions are located in S-E Asia as e.g. shown by satellite nadir observations. Besides its importance with respect to air quality issues, an increase of ammonia emissions in the 21st century might lead to a significant climate radiative impact through aerosol formation. In spite of its significance, there is a lack of observational information on the global distribution of NH3 in the mid- and upper troposphere. Observational evidence, however, would be important for testing e.g. model results on the fate of ammonia from its source regions on ground to altitudes up to the tropopause. In this contribution we will show, to our knowledge, the first unequivocal detection of ammonia in the upper troposphere. This result has been achieved through analysis of infrared limb-emission observations performed with the MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) instrument on board the Envisat satellite from 2002-2012. On a global scale, enhanced values of ammonia have been measured in the upper tropospheric region influenced by the Asian monsoon. We will present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved concentrations of NH3 including an error assessment and further retrieval diagnostics. The results will be discussed with respect to the variability of NH3 locally within the Asian monsoon region's upper troposphere and at different years. Further, we will show comparisons between global distributions of NH3 from published model simulations and our observational dataset from MIPAS.

  11. Formulation of an inhibitor radiopharmaceutical of prostatic antigen of {sup 177}Lu-Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys membrane; Formulacion de un radiofarmaco inhibidor del antigeno prostatico de membrana {sup 177}Lu-Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega S, D.


    The prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a zinc metalloenzyme that is expressed on the cell membrane and highly expressed in prostate cancer. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the peptide sequence Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys inhibit PSMA activity through an electrostatic interaction with the Zn. Several theragnostic radiopharmaceuticals with base in {sup 177}Lu have been developed for radiotherapy of specific molecular targets because gamma and beta emissions of the radionuclide (β = 0.498 MeV and γ= 0.133 MeV). However, there is currently no label a formulation for preparing a radiopharmaceutical of {sup 177}Lu-Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys useful treatment of prostate cancer. The aim of this research was to optimize and document the process of production of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-Glu-Nh-CO-Nh-Lys for sanitary registration application before the Comision Federal para la Proteccion contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). The optimization of the production process was assessed a factorial design of three variables with mixed levels (3 x 3 x 2) where the dependent variable is the radiochemical purity, the analytical method was validated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Next, process validation was carried out by labeling 3 lots of the optimized formulation of the radiopharmaceutical (5.55 GBq (2.16 μg) of {sup 177}LuCl{sub 3}, 90 mg peptide PSMA, 50 mg ascorbic acid and 150 μL of acetate buffer 1 M ph 5), long-term stability was performed by high resolution liquid chromatography) to determine its useful shelf life. 3 validation batches were prepared under protocols of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in the Production Plant of Radiopharmaceuticals of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), meet specifications preset by obtaining a sterile and free development of bacterial endotoxin yields of labeled 100% and which retains its quality characteristics radiochemical purity greater than 90% for at least 15 days. (Author)

  12. Urban NH3 levels and sources in a Mediterranean environment (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Viana, Mar; Pandolfi, Marco; Alastuey, Andrés; Moreno, Teresa; Amato, Fulvio; Ripoll, Anna; Querol, Xavier


    Urban NH3 concentrations were mapped in Barcelona (Spain) by means of passive samplers (dosimeters). Average NH3 levels were 9.5 μg m-3 in summer and 4.4 μg m-3 in winter, higher than those reported in other urban background sites in Europe, this being especially notable in summer. During this season, values were significantly higher at urban background than at traffic sites, probably indicating the impact of emissions from biological sources, such as humans, sewage systems and garbage containers. Thus, the volatilization of NH3 from the aerosol phase seems to be significant enough during summer to dominate over traffic emissions. Conversely, in winter levels were higher at traffic sites, suggesting a contribution from vehicle emissions. Indeed, NH3 levels decreased by 55% with increasing distance (50 m) to the direct emissions from traffic. A significant correlation between NH3 concentrations averaged for the different districts of the city and the number of waste containers per hm2 was also obtained, highlighting the necessity for controlling and reducing the emissions from garbage collection systems. The urban topography of the Barcelona historical city centre, characterised by narrow streets with a high population density, seemed to exert a strong influence on NH3 levels, with levels reaching up to 30 μg m-3 as a consequence of limited dispersion and ventilation conditions. The impact of the sewage system emissions was also detected with an increase of levels when measuring immediately above the source, even though further studies are required to evaluate the relevance of these emissions.

  13. Latest nH analysis in the Double Chooz experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guang


    Precise measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ is the primary goal of the Double Chooz Experiment (DC), which is located in Chooz, France. The inverse beta decay process provides a unique signature of reactor anti-neutrino interactions, giving prompt signals from positron annihilation and delayed signals from neutron capture by either Gadolinium (Gd) or Hydrogen (H). This paper is dedicated to the latest nH analysis in Double Chooz. Typically, The Gd analysis is primary since fewer background events are involved. However, with accurate estimates of backgrounds and a precise reconstruction of energy, the nH analysis gives a powerful independent measurement of $\\theta_{13}$.

  14. Fe/SSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIR/Mössbauer Spectroscopic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng; Kollar, Marton; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Washton, Nancy M.; Wang, Yilin; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF


    Using a traditional aqueous solution ion-exchange method under a protecting atmosphere of N2, an Fe/SSZ-13 catalyst active in NH3-SCR was synthesized. Mössbauer and FTIR spectroscopies were used to probe the nature of the Fe sites. In the fresh sample, the majority of Fe species are extra-framework cations. The likely monomeric and dimeric ferric ions in hydrated form are [Fe(OH)2]+ and [HO-Fe-O-Fe-OH]2+, based on Mössbauer measurements. During the severe hydrothermal aging (HTA) applied in this study, a majority of cationic Fe species convert to FeAlOx and clustered FeOx species, accompanied by severe dealumination of the SSZ-13 framework. The clustered FeOx species do not give a sextet Mössbauer spectrum, indicating that these are highly disordered. However, some Fe species in cationic positions remain after aging as determined from Mössbauer measurements and CO/NO FTIR titrations. NO/NH3 oxidation reaction tests reveal that dehydrated cationic Fe are substantially more active in catalyzing oxidation reactions than the hydrated ones. For NH3-SCR, enhancement of NO oxidation under ‘dry’ conditions promotes SCR rates below ~300 • C. This is due mainly to contribution from the “fast” SCR channel. Above ~300 • C, enhancement of NH3 oxidation under ‘dry’ conditions, however, becomes detrimental to NOx conversions. The HTA sample loses much of the SCR activity below ~300 • C; however, above ~400 • C much of the activity remains. This may suggest that the FeAlOx and FeOx species become active at such elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the high-temperature activity may be maintained by the remaining extra-framework cationic species. For potential practical applications, Fe/SSZ-13 may be used as a co-catalyst for Cu/CHA as integral aftertreatment SCR catalysts on the basis of the stable high temperature activity after hydrothermal aging. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  15. Formation of Interstellar OH and CH (United States)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Yoon, Jeongkwan; Hong, Seungyeong


    From the absorption spectra of bright UV-emitting stars, column densities of interstellar OH (3078 and 3082 Å) and CH (3886 and 3890 Å) have been measured simultaneously along about 20 sightlines. In order to understand the physical and chemical environments in which these two molecules exist, we perform numerical simulations by using Astrochem, a publically available astrochemical reaction code. We investigate the effect of cosmic ray, grain, environmental photon, and initial composition on the formation of these two molecules. We also compare our simulated results with observations of molecule-forming objects such as supernova remnants, molecular clouds, and evolved stars along the observed sightlines.

  16. New syntheses and structural characterization of NH3BH2Cl and (BH2NH2)3 and thermal decomposition behavior of NH3BH2Cl. (United States)

    Lingam, Hima K; Wang, Cong; Gallucci, Judith C; Chen, Xuenian; Shore, Sheldon G


    New convenient procedures for the preparation of ammonia monochloroborane (NH(3)BH(2)Cl) and cyclotriborazane [(BH(2)NH(2))(3)] are described. Crystal structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Strong H···Cl···H bifurcated hydrogen bonding and weak N-H···H dihydrogen bonding are observed in the crystal structure of ammonia monochloroborane. When heated at 50 °C or under vacuum, ammonia monochloroborane decomposes to (NH(2)BHCl)(x), which was characterized by NMR, elemental analysis, and powder X-ray diffraction. Redetermination of the crystal structure of cyclotriborazane at low temperature by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis provides accurate hydrogen positions. Similar to ammonia borane, cyclotriborazane shows extensive dihydrogen bonding of N-H···H and B-H···H bonds with H(δ+)···H(δ-) interactions in the range of 2.00-2.34 Å.

  17. NH[sub 3] semi-hermetic compressor from ILKA Mafa. NH[sub 3]-Halbhermetikverdichter von ILKA Mafa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Towards the end of the lecture programme at the 1998 DKV Congress there was a well-visited and interesting lecture by Dipl.-Ing. Siegfried Laute on the revolutionary development by ILKA Mafa Kltemaschinenbau GmbH from Halle of the NH[sub 3] semi-hermetic compressor and on the results obtained with it in the course of its five years' use in practice (see DKV Report KK 2/99, p. 19). This development is of the greatest importance for the further spread of NH[sub 3] as a substitute for R22 as well as for applications which have always worked with NH[sub 3].

  18. New series of potent delta-opioid antagonists containing the H-Dmt-Tic-NH-hexyl-NH-R motif. (United States)

    Li, Tingyou; Shiotani, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Anna; Fujita, Yoshio; Tsuda, Yuko; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Marczak, Ewa; Bryant, Sharon D; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Okada, Yoshio


    Heterodimeric compounds H-Dmt-Tic-NH-hexyl-NH-R (R=Dmt, Tic, and Phe) exhibited high affinity to delta- (K(i)delta=0.13-0.89nM) and mu-opioid receptors (K(i)mu=0.38-2.81nM) with extraordinary potent delta antagonism (pA(2)=10.2-10.4). These compounds represent the prototype for a new class of structural homologues lacking mu-opioid receptor-associated agonism (IC(50)=1.6-5.8muM) based on the framework of bis-[H-Dmt-NH]-alkyl (Okada, Y.; Tsuda, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Yokoi, T.; Sasaki, Y.; Ambo, A.; Konishi, R.; Nagata, M.; Salvadori, S.; Jinsmaa, Y.; Bryant, S. D.; Lazarus, L. H. J. Med. Chem.2003, 46, 3201), which exhibited both high mu affinity and bioactivity.

  19. Synthesis and crystal structure of 4-fluorobenzylammonium dihydrogen phosphate, [FC6H4CH2NH3]H2PO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rayes


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [p-FC6H4CH2NH3]+·H2PO4−, contains one 4-fluorobenzylammonium cation and one dihydrogen phosphate anion. In the crystal, the H2PO4− anions are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds to build corrugated layers extending parallel to the ab plane. The FC6H4CH2NH3+ cations lie between these anionic layers to maximize the electrostatic interactions and are linked to the H2PO4− anions through N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular network. Two hydrogen atoms belonging to the dihydrogen phosphate anion are statistically occupied due to disorder along the OH...HO direction.

  20. The effect of Si and Al concentrations on the removal of U(VI) in the alkaline conditions created by NH3 gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsenovich, Yelena P.; Cardona, Claudia; Lapierre, Robert; Szecsody, Jim; Lagos, Leonel E.


    Remediation of uranium in the deep unsaturated zone is a challenging task, especially in the presence of oxygenated, high-carbonate alkalinity soil and pore water composition typical for arid and semi-arid environments of the western regions of the U.S. This study evaluates the effect of various pore water constituencies on changes of uranium concentrations in alkaline conditions, created in the presence of reactive gases such as NH3 to effectively mitigate uranium contamination in the vadose zone sediments. This contaminant is a potential source for groundwater pollution through slow infiltration of soluble and highly mobile uranium species towards the water table. The objective of this research was to evaluate uranium sequestration efficiencies in the alkaline synthetic pore water solutions prepared in a broad range of Si, Al, and bicarbonate concentrations typically present in field systems of the western U.S. regions and identify solid uranium-bearing phases that result from ammonia gas treatment. In previous studies (Szecsody et al. 2012; Zhong et al. 2015), although uranium mobility was greatly decreased, solid phases could not be identified at the low uranium concentrations in field-contaminated sediments. The chemical composition of the synthetic pore water used in the experiments varied for silica (5–250 mM), Al3+ (2.8 or 5 mM), HCO3- (0–100 mM) and U(VI) (0.0021–0.0084 mM) in the solution mixture. Experiment results suggested that solutions with Si concentrations higher than 50 mM exhibited greater removal efficiencies of U(VI). Solutions with higher concentrations of bicarbonate also exhibited greater removal efficiencies for Si, Al, and U(VI). Overall, the silica polymerization reaction leading to the formation of Si gel correlated with the removal of U(VI), Si, and Al from the solution. If no Si polymerization was observed, there was no U removal from the supernatant solution. Speciation modeling indicated that the dominant uranium species in the

  1. Layered Ni(OH)2-Co(OH)2 films prepared by electrodeposition as charge storage electrodes for hybrid supercapacitors (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Boudard, Michel; Carmezim, M. João; Montemor, M. Fátima


    Consecutive layers of Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 were electrodeposited on stainless steel current collectors for preparing charge storage electrodes of high specific capacity with potential application in hybrid supercapacitors. Different electrodes were prepared consisting on films of Ni(OH)2, Co(OH)2, Ni1/2Co1/2(OH)2 and layered films of Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 on Ni(OH)2 to highlight the advantages of the new architecture. The microscopy studies revealed the formation of nanosheets in the Co(OH)2 films and of particles agglomerates in the Ni(OH)2 films. Important morphological changes were observed in the double hydroxides films and layered films. Film growth by electrodeposition was governed by instantaneous nucleation mechanism. The new architecture composed of Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 displayed a redox response characterized by the presence of two peaks in the cyclic voltammograms, arising from redox reactions of the metallic species present in the layered film. These electrodes revealed a specific capacity of 762 C g−1 at the specific current of 1 A g−1. The hybrid cell using Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 as positive electrode and carbon nanofoam paper as negative electrode display specific energies of 101.3 W h g−1 and 37.8 W h g−1 at specific powers of 0.2 W g−1 and 2.45 W g−1, respectively. PMID:28051143

  2. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.


    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS-FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN2. More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  3. Improved VLBI astrometry of OH maser stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W H T


    Aims: Accurate distances to evolved stars with high mass loss rates are needed for studies of many of their fundamental properties. However, as these stars are heavily obscured and variable, optical and infrared astrometry is unable to provide enough accuracy. Methods: Astrometry using masers in the circumstellar envelopes can be used to overcome this problem. We have observed the OH masers of a number of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars for approximately 1 year with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). We have used the technique of phase referencing with in-beam calibrators to test the improvements this technique can provide to Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) OH maser astrometric observations. Results: We have significantly improved the parallax and proper motion measurements of the Mira variable stars U Her, S CrB and RR Aql. Conclusions: It is shown that both in-beam phase-referencing and a decrease in solar activity during the observations significantly improves the accuracy of the astrometric...

  4. Synthesis and properties of ternary (K, NH{sub 4}, H{sub 3}O)-jarosites precipitated from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans cultures in simulated bioleaching solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandy Jones, F.; Bigham, Jerry M. [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Ohio State University, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Gramp, Jonathan P. [Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, 484 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Tuovinen, Olli H., E-mail: [Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, 484 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)


    The purpose of this study was to synthesize a series of solid solution jarosites by biological oxidation of ferrous iron at pH 2.2–4.4 and ambient temperature in media containing mixtures of K{sup +} (0, 1, 4, 6, 12, 31 mM) and NH{sub 4}{sup +} (6.1, 80, 160, 320 mM). The starting material was a liquid medium for Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans comprised of 120 mM FeSO{sub 4} solution and mineral salts at pH 2.2. Following inoculation with A. ferrooxidans, the cultures were incubated in shake flasks at 22 °C. As bacteria oxidized ferrous iron, ferric iron hydrolyzed and precipitated as jarosite-group minerals (AFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) and/or schwertmannite (idealized formula Fe{sub 8}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 6}(SO{sub 4})·nH{sub 2}O). The precipitates were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, and Munsell color. Schwertmannite was the dominant mineral product at low combinations of K{sup +} (≤ 4 mM) and NH{sub 4}{sup +} (≤ 80 mM) in the media. At higher single or combined concentrations, yellowish jarosite phases were produced, and Munsell hue provided a sensitive means of detecting minor schwertmannite in the oxidation products. Although the hydrated ionic radii of K{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} are similar, K{sup +} greatly facilitated the formation of a jarosite phase compared to NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Unit cell and cell volume calculations from refinements of the powder XRD patterns indicated that the jarosite phases produced were mostly ternary (K, NH{sub 4}, H{sub 3}O)-solid solutions that were also deficient in structural Fe, especially at low NH{sub 4} contents. Thus, ferric iron precipitation from the simulated bioleaching systems yielded solid solutions of jarosite with chemical compositions that were dependent on the relative concentrations of K{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the synthesis media. No phase separations involving discrete, end-member K-jarosite or NH{sub 4}-jarosite were detected in the un-aged precipitates

  5. 77 FR 74725 - New Hampshire Disaster #NH-00024 (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION New Hampshire Disaster NH-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  6. 78 FR 48764 - New Hampshire Disaster # NH-00026 (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION New Hampshire Disaster NH-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice.../02/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  7. 76 FR 77578 - New Hampshire Disaster #NH-00022 (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION New Hampshire Disaster NH-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  8. α-NH4Fe(HAsO42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najoua Ouerfelli


    Full Text Available The title compound α-ammonium iron(III bis[hydrogen arsenate(V], α-NH4Fe(HAsO42 (or poly[ammonium bis(μ-hydrogen arsenatoferrate(III], {NH4[Fe(HAsO42]}n, synthesized hydrothermally, is isostructural with NH4Fe(HPO42. Condensation of the hydrogen arsenate groups with FeO6 coordination octahedra via common corners results in an overall three-dimensional framework containing interconnected channels parallel to the a-, b- and c-axis directions. The NH4+ cations are located in three intersecting tunnels, which is promising as an ion exchange. Hydrogen bonding of the types O—H...O and N—H...O consolidates the packing of the structure. The distortion of the coordination polyhedra is analyzed by means of the effective coordination number and distortion indices. Structural relationships with other compounds of general formula MIMIII[HXO4]2 (X = P, As are discussed.

  9. The interplay of hydrogen bonds in the solid state structure of NH-pyrazoles bearing cyano and amino substituents (United States)

    Emelina, Elena E.; Petrov, Alexander A.; Borissova, Alexandra O.; Filyukov, Dmitriy V.; Antipin, Mikhail Yu.


    The annular tautomeric equilibrium of two 4-cyano-3(5)-aminopyrazoles having hydrogen atom or methyl group in position 5(3) was studied by X-ray crystallography for the solid compounds and by DFT B3LYP/6-31G** and CBS-QB3 calculations for the free molecules. The 3-amino tautomer was found to be the more favorable form for the free molecules and the sole form in the solid state.

  10. Magnetic bearings with zero bias (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.


    A magnetic bearing operating without a bias field has supported a shaft rotating at speeds up to 12,000 rpm with the usual four power supplies and with only two. A magnetic bearing is commonly operated with a bias current equal to half of the maximum current allowable in its coils. This linearizes the relation between net force and control current and improves the force slewing rate and hence the band width. The steady bias current dissipates power, even when no force is required from the bearing. The power wasted is equal to two-thirds of the power at maximum force output. Examined here is the zero bias idea. The advantages and disadvantages are noted.

  11. Photochemical formation of halogenated dioxins from hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and chlorinated derivatives (OH-PBCDEs). (United States)

    Steen, Peter O; Grandbois, Matthew; McNeill, Kristopher; Arnold, William A


    The potential photochemical formation of polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and PXDDs) from hydroxylated polybrominated and polybrominated/ chlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs and OH-PBCDEs) in aqueous solution was studied. The ortho-hydroxylated BDE47 derivative 6-OH-BDE47, and chlorinated derivatives 3-Cl-6-OH-BDE47, 5-Cl-6-OH-BDE47, and 3,5-Cl-6-OH-BDE47 were photolyzed under sunlight at 45 degrees N latitude in buffered waters, Mississippi River water, Lake Josephine water, and ultrapure water adjusted to the pH of the natural waters. Chemical actinometry was used to determine reactant quantum yields which were calculated to be between 0.03 and 0.21, with lower yields for the chlorinated derivatives under all conditions. Quantum yields under natural water conditions were not significantly enhanced indicating that direct photolysis is the primary process of photochemical degradation. The formation of halogenated dioxins from the outdoor photolysis of the four OH-PBDEs/OH-PBCDEs under all conditions was confirmed. Dioxin yields of 0.7-3.6% were found, with higher yields for 6-OH-BDE47 under all conditions. This study suggests that photolysis of OH-PBDEs and OH-PBCDEs is a potential formation pathway of PBDDs and PXDDs in the environment.

  12. Intrinsic Proton NMR Studies of Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 (United States)

    Itoh, Yutaka; Isobe, Masahiko


    We studied the short proton free induction decay signals and the broad 1H NMR spectra of Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 powders at 77-355 K and 42 MHz using pulsed NMR techniques. Using a Gaussian-type back extrapolation procedure for the obscured data of the proton free induction decay signals, we obtained more precise values of the second moments of the Fourier-transformed broad NMR spectra than those in a previous report [Y. Itoh and M. Isobe,, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 84, 113601 (2015)] and compared with the theoretical second moments. The decrease in the second moment could not account for the large decrease in the magnitude of the intrinsic proton spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 from Mg(OH)2 to Ca(OH)2. The analysis of 1/T1 ∝ exp(-Eg/kBT) with Eg ˜ 0.01 eV points to a local hopping mechanism, and that of 1/T1 ∝ Tn with n ˜ 0.5 points to an anharmonic rattling mechanism.

  13. The Formation of N- and O-Heterocycles from the Irradiation of Benzene and Naphthalene in H2O/NH3- Containing Ices (United States)

    Sandford, S. A.; Materese, C. K.; Nuevo, M.


    Aromatic hydrocarbons are an important class of molecules for both astrochemistry and astrobiology (Fig. 1). Within this class of molecules, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be ubiquitous in many astrophysical environments, and are likely present in interstellar clouds and protostellar disks. In dense clouds, PAHs are expected to condense onto grains as part of mixed molecular ice mantles dominated by small molecules like H2O,CH3OH, NH3, CO, and CO2. These ices are exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of cosmic rays and ambient high-energy X-ray and UV photons.

  14. Anharmonic OH vibrations in Mg(OH)2 (brucite): two-dimensional calculations and crystal-induced blueshift. (United States)

    Hermansson, Kersti; Probst, Michael M; Gajewski, Grzegorz; Mitev, Pavlin D


    A two-dimensional quantum-mechanical vibrational model has been used to calculate the anharmonic OH vibrational frequencies in the layered Mg(OH)(2) (brucite) crystal. The underlying potential energy surface was generated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The resulting OH frequencies are upshifted (blueshifted) by about +75 cm(-1) with respect to the gas-phase OH frequency (+120 cm(-1) in experiments; the discrepancy is mainly due to inadequacies in the DFT and pseudopotential models). The Raman-IR split is about 50 cm(-1), both in the calculations and in experiments. We find that the blueshift phenomenon in brucite can qualitatively be explained by a parabolalike "OH frequency versus electric field" correlation curve pertaining to an OH(-) ion exposed to an electric field. We also find that it is primarily the neighbors within the Mg(OH)(2) layer that induce the blueshift while the interlayer interaction gives a smaller (and redshifting) contribution.

  15. Discovery of CH and OH in the -513 km s-1 Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Verner, E; Nielsen, K E; Gull, T R; Kober, G V; Corcoran, M


    The very massive star, Eta Carinae, is enshrouded in an unusual complex of stellar ejecta, which is highly depleted in C and O, and enriched in He and N. This circumstellar gas gives rise to distinct absorption components corresponding to at least 20 different velocities along the line-of-sight. The velocity component at -513 kms-1 exhibits very low ionization with predominantly neutral species of iron-peak elements. Our statistical equilibrium/photoionization modeling indicates that the low temperature (T = 760 K) and high density (n_H=10^7 cm^-3) of the -513 kms-1 component is conducive to molecule formation including those with the elements C and O. Examination of echelle spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard the confirms the model's predictions. The molecules, H_2, CH, and most likely OH, have been identified in the -513 kms-1 absorption spectrum. This paper presents the analysis of the HST/STIS spectra with the deduced column densities for CH, OH and C I, and upper ...

  16. A Simple Synthetic Methodology for NH4PF6%制备 NH4PF6简易方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪亮; 郭国霖


      In this paper, a new simple methodology for preparing NH4PF6 was studied. It has been found that a trace of water can catalyze the reaction between NH4F and PCl5, and the reaction can react without extra heater. The products were separated applying the different solubility of NH4Cl and NH4PF6 in acetone and water. The X-ray diffraction spectra and the FT-IR spectra demonstrated that the NH4PF6 was prepared in this condition, and the separation method is effective. Two mechanism of the water-catalyzed reaction were proposed and explained in detail.

  17. Fabrications of High-Capacity Alpha-Ni(OH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young


    Full Text Available Three different methods were used to produce α-Ni(OH2 with higher discharge capacities than the conventional β-Ni(OH2, specifically a batch process of co-precipitation, a continuous process of co-precipitation with a phase transformation step (initial cycling, and an overcharge at low temperature. All three methods can produce α-Ni(OH2 or α/β mixed-Ni(OH2 with capacities higher than that of conventional β-Ni(OH2 and a stable cycle performance. The second method produces a special core–shell β-Ni(OH2/α-Ni(OH2 structure with an excellent cycle stability in the flooded half-cell configuration, is innovative and also already mass-production ready. The core–shell structure has been investigated by both scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The shell portion of the particle is composed of α-Ni(OH2 nano-crystals embedded in a β-Ni(OH2 matrix, which helps to reduce the stress originating from the lattice expansion in the β-α transformation. A review on the research regarding α-Ni(OH2 is also included in the paper.

  18. PP/Al(OH)_3/Mg(OH)_2复合材料的导热性能%Thermal conductivity of PP/Al(OH)_3/Mg(OH)_2 composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱玉琳; 梁基照


    Polypropylene (PP) thermal composites filled with Al(OH)_3 and Mg(OH)_2 were prepared. The thermal conductivity coefficient of the composites was measured by stable flat measuring instrument for thermal conductivity in different testing temperature. The addition of Al(OH)_3 and Mg(OH)_2 resulted in the thermal conductivity increase of PP. The thermal conductivity coefficient of PP/Al(OH)_3/Mg(OH)_2 composites presents a nonlinear increase with the increase in filler content, with the increase in testing temperature, as well as with the increase in filler diameter.%制备了PP(聚丙烯)/Al(OH)_3/Mg(OH)_2导热复合材料,并用稳态平板导热系数测试仪在不同测试温度下测定该复合材料的导热系数.结果表明,加入AI(OH)3和Mg(OH)2使PP导热系数提高.复合材料的导热系数随着填料含量的增加而非线性提高,随着测试温度的升高而非线性提高,随着填料粒径的增大而非线性增大.

  19. Towards a quantitative understanding of total OH reactivity: A review (United States)

    Yang, Yudong; Shao, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Nölscher, Anke C.; Kessel, Stephan; Guenther, Alex; Williams, Jonathan


    Over the past fifty years, considerable efforts have been devoted to measuring the concentration and chemical speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air and emissions. Recently, it has become possible to directly determine the overall effect of atmospheric trace gases on the oxidant hydroxyl radicals (OH), by measuring OH reactivity (OH loss frequency). Quantifying total OH reactivity is one way to characterize the roles of VOCs in formation of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Approaches for measuring total OH reactivity in both emissions and ambient air have been progressing and have been applied in a wide range of studies. Here we evaluate the main techniques used to measure OH reactivity, including two methods directly measuring OH decay and one comparative reactivity method (CRM), and summarize the existing experimental and modeling studies. Total OH reactivity varies significantly on spatial, diurnal, seasonal and vertical bases. Comparison with individually detected OH sinks often reveals a significant missing reactivity, ranging from 20% to over 80% in some environments. Missing reactivity has also been determined in most source emission studies. These source measurements, as well as numerical models, have indicated that both undetected primary emissions and unmeasured secondary products could contribute to missing reactivity. A quantitative understanding of total OH reactivity of various sources and ambient environments will enhance our understanding of the suite of compounds found in emissions as well as chemical processes, and will also provide an opportunity for the improvement of atmospheric chemical mechanisms.

  20. High dose 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits osteoblast mineralization in vitro. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Weitzmann, M Neale


    Vitamin D is essential for optimal calcium absorption needed for maintaining normal bone mineral density (BMD). Consequently, vitamin D-deficiency leads to poorly mineralized bone with diminished strength and load bearing capacity. Surprisingly, several animal and clinical studies have identified suppressive effects of high dose vitamin D supplementation on bone formation. These data suggest that while vitamin D is necessary for basal bone homeostasis, excessive concentrations may be detrimental to the skeleton. To further examine the direct effects of high dose vitamin D on the function of osteoblasts we differentiated primary osteoblast precursors and MC3T3 preosteoblastic cells, in the presence of supraphysiological doses of the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. In vitro osteoblast mineralization was potently suppressed by high dose 1,25(OH)2D3. To investigate the mechanism we used a bioassay to examine nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in MC3T3 cells. Although NF-κB agonists are generally potent inhibitors of osteoblast differentiation, surprisingly, 1,25(OH)2D3 dose-dependently suppressed, rather than stimulated, NF-κB activation. Interestingly, 1,25(OH)2D3 also suppressed Smad activation induced by the osteoblast commitment and differentiation factors transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), which may account for the inhibitory activities of 1,25(OH)2D3 on mineralization. Our data suggest that vitamin D has complex pleiotropic effects on osteoblast signal transduction. As the net balance of high dose 1,25(OH)2D3 appears to be an inhibitory action on osteoblasts, our data suggest that the therapeutic value of vitamin D to maximize bone mass through indirect actions on calcium absorption may need to be carefully balanced with potential inhibitory direct effects on mineralizing cells. Our data suggest that indiscriminate over-dosing may be detrimental to bone formation and optimal

  1. Transition metal complexes with thiosemicarbazide-based ligands. Part 51. Square-planar nickel(II complex with acetylacetone bis(S-n-propylisothiosemicarbazone (L. Crystal and molecular structure of [Ni(L-H]NCS and two isomorphic complexes [Ni(L-H]I·EtOH and [Ni(L-H]I·iPrOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The template reaction of a warm methanolic solution of Ni(OAc2·4H2O, S-n-propylisothiosemicarbazide hydroiodide and acetylacetone yielded the needle- like, brown, diamagnetic complex [Ni(L–H]I·MeOH, and in the presence of an excess of NH 4NCS, brown, prismatic crystals of the complex [Ni(L–H]NCS (1, both compounds involving the monoanionic form of the ligand, acetylacetone bis(S-n-propylisothiosemicarbazone, L. Slow recrystallization fromMeOH, EtOH, iPrOH and Me2CO gave the corresponding monosolvent complexes [Ni(L–H]I·solvent, of which only those involving EtOH and iPrOH were suitable for structural analysis. The crystallographic parameters of [Ni(L–H]I·EtOH (2 and [Ni(L–H]I·iPrOH (3 are very similar to each other, showing their structures are isomorphic. The crystal structures of the title compounds consist of the independent ions: NCS-, or I-, and the chemically identical cation [Ni(L–H]+, where L–H is the monoanion resulting from deprotonation of the acetylacetone moiety, a tetradentate N4 ligand forming a square-planar coordination around a Ni(II ion. It was found that the isothiosemicarbazide fragment of the ligand has an imido form. The complex cations of the compounds [Ni(L–H]NCS and [Ni(L–H]I·EtOH exhibit significant difference only in the conformation of their propyl groups.

  2. Leaching kinetics of low grade zinc oxide ore in NH3-NH4Cl-H2O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui-xiang; TANG Mo-tang; YANG Sheng-hai; ZHAGN Wen-hai; TANG Chao-bo; HE Jing; YANG Jian-guang


    The leaching kinetics of low grade zinc oxide ore in NH3-NH4Cl-H2O system was studied. The effects of ore particle size,reaction temperature and the sum concentration of ammonium ion and ammonia on the leaching efficiency of zinc were examined.The leaching kinetics of low-grade zinc oxide ore in NH3-NH4Cl-H2O system follows the kinetic law of shrinking-core model. The results show that diffusion through the inert particle pores is the leaching kinetics rate controlling step. The calculated apparent activation energy of the process is about 7.057kJ/mol. The leaching efficiency of zinc is 92.1% under the conditions of ore particle size of 69μm, holding at 80℃ for 60min, sum ammonia concentration of 7.5mol/L, the molar ratio of ammonium to ammonia being 2:1, and the ratio (g/mL) of solid to liquid being 1:10.

  3. Formation of negative hydrogen ions in 7-keV OH+ + Ar and OH+ + acetone collisions: a general process for H-bearing molecular species

    CERN Document Server

    Juhász, Zoltán; Rangama, Jimmy; Bene, Erika; Sorgunlu-Frankland, Burcu; Frémont, François; Chesnel, Jean-Yves


    We demonstrate that the formation of negative hydrogen ions (H-) occurs in a wide class of atomic and molecular collisions. In our experiments, H- emission from hydroxyl cations and acetone molecules was observed in keV-energy collisions. We show that hydride (H-) anions are formed via direct collisional fragmentation of molecules, followed by electron grabbing by fast hydrogen fragments. Such general mechanism in hydrogen-containing molecules may significantly influence reaction networks in planetary atmospheres and astrophysical media and new reaction pathways may have to be added in radiolysis studies.

  4. (NH4)2SO4 heterogeneous nucleation and glycerol evaporation of (NH4)2SO4-glycerol system in its dynamic efflorescence process (United States)

    Cai, Chen; Luan, Ye-mei; Shi, Xiao-min; Zhang, Yun-hong


    Using the FTIR-ATR technique, we investigated the heterogeneous nucleation process of aqueous (NH4)2SO4 binary droplets and (NH4)2SO4/glycerol ternary droplets. From the red shift of δ-NH4+ with a linearly declining relative humidity (RH), the ERHs of pure (NH4)2SO4 droplets and mixed (NH4)2SO4/glycerol droplets with different organic-inorganic ratio (OIR) of 1:4, 1:2 and 1:1 ranges from ∼51.9 to ∼34.9%, ∼49.8 to ∼33.0%, ∼48.0 to ∼30.6% and ∼43.7 to ∼25.2%, respectively. From the changing absorbance of δ-NH4+ band, we determined the heterogeneous nucleation rates of crystalline (NH4)2SO4 in the pure and mixed droplets. The interfacial tension between an (NH4)2SO4 critical nucleus and surrounding (NH4)2SO4 solution was determined using classical nucleation theory and experimental data to be 0.031 ± 0.002 J m-2. Evaporation of glycerol in (NH4)2SO4/glycerol ternary droplets are also studied to be restrained by participation of (NH4)2SO4. Determined vapour pressure of glycerol is on the same magnitude with results from previous studies.

  5. Swift observations of ASSASN-16oh (United States)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.; Brown, Peter; Mukai, Koji


    We report on Swift observations of ASSASN-16oh. This is a transient near the Small Magellanic Cloud that was first reported in ATel #9859. Observations began 2016-12-15 10:25:45 UT. The following UVOT magnitudes were measured: v = 16.8 +/- 0.1 (79 s exposure time), b = 16.9 +/- 0.1 (78 s), u = 15.5 +/- 0.1 (79 s), uvw1 = 15.0 +/- 0.1 (157 s), uvm2 = 14.9 +/- 0.1 (247 s), and uvw2 = 14.9 +/- 0.1 (315 s). These magnitudes are reduced using the method outlined for the Swift Optical Ultraviolet Supernova Archive (SOUSA; Brown et al 2014, Ap & SS, 354, 89) on the Swift/UVOT Vega-based photometric system (Poole et al. 2008, Breeveld et al. 2011).

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis and Comparison on Low Temperature CO2-NH3 Cascade Refrigeration Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查世彤; 马一太; 申江; 李敏霞


    This paper is focused on the cascade refrigeration cycle using natural refrigerant CO2-NH3. The properties of refrigerants CO2 and NH3 are introduced and analyzed.CO2 has the advantage in low stage of cascade refrigeration cycle due to its good characteristics and properties. The thermodynamic analysis results of the CO2-NH3 cascade refrigeration cycle demonstrates that the cycle has an optimum condensation temperature of low stage and also has an optimum flow rate ratio.By comparing with the R13-R22 and NH3-NH3 cascade refrigeration cycles, the mass flow rate ratio of CO2-NH3 is larger than those of R13-R22 and NH3-NH3, the theoretical COP of CO2-NH3 cascade refrigeration cycle is larger than that of the R13-R22 cascade cycle and smaller than that of the NH3-NH3 cascade cycle. But the real COP of CO2-NH3 cascade cycle will be higher than those of R13-R22 and NH3-NH3 because the specific volume of CO2 at low temperature does not change much and its dynamic viscosity is also small.

  7. Exploring the crystallization landscape of cadmium bis(N-hydroxyethyl, N-isopropyldithiocarbamate), Cd[S{sub 2}CN(iPr)CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH]{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yee Seng; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemistry; Tiekink, Edward R.T. [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemistry; Sunway Univ., Bandar Sunway (Malaysia). Centre for Chemical Crystallography


    Crystallization of Cd[S{sub 2}CN(iPr)CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH]{sub 2} from ethanol yields the coordination polymer [{Cd[S_2CN(iPr)CH_2CH_2OH]_2}.EtOH]{sub ∞} (1) within 3 h. When the solution is allowed to stand for another hour, the needles begin to dissolve and prisms emerge of the supramolecular isomer (SI), binuclear {Cd[S_2CN(iPr)CH_2CH_2OH]_2}{sub 2}.2EtOH (2). These have been fully characterized spectroscopically and by X-ray crystallography. Polymeric 1 has 2-fold symmetry and features dithiocarbamate ligands coordinating two octahedral Cd atoms in a μ{sub 2}κ{sup 2}-tridentate mode. Binuclear 2 is centrosymmetric with two ligands being μ{sub 2}κ{sup 2}-tridentate as for 1 but the other two being κ{sup 2}-chelating leading to square pyramidal geometries. The conversion of the kinetic crystallization product, 1, to thermodynamic 2 is irreversible but transformations mediated by recrystallization (ethanol and acetonitrile) to related literature SI species, namely coordination polymer [{Cd[S_2CN(iPr)CH_2CH_2OH]_2}{sub 3}.MeCN]{sub ∞} and binuclear {Cd[S_2CN(iPr)CH_2CH_2OH]_2}{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O.2MeCN, are demonstrated, some of which are reversible. Three other crystallization outcomes are described whereby crystal structures were obtained for the 1:2 co-crystal {Cd[S_2CN(iPr)CH_2CH_2OH]_2}{sub 2}:2[3-(propan-2-yl)-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione] (3), the salt co-crystal [iPrNH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH)]{sub 4}[SO{sub 4}]{sub 2}{Cd[S_2CN(iPr)CH_2CH_2OH]_2}{sub 2} (4) and the salt [iPrNH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH)]{Cd[S_2CN(iPr)CH_2CH_2OH]_3} (5). These arise as a result of decomposition/oxidation of the dithiocarbamate ligands. In each of 3 and 4 the binuclear {Cd[S_2CN(iPr)CH_2CH_2OH]_2}{sub 2} SI, as in 2, is observed strongly suggesting a thermodynamic preference for this form.

  8. The correct "ball bearings" data. (United States)

    Caroni, C


    The famous data on fatigue failure times of ball bearings have been quoted incorrectly from Lieblein and Zelen's original paper. The correct data include censored values, as well as non-fatigue failures that must be handled appropriately. They could be described by a mixture of Weibull distributions, corresponding to different modes of failure.

  9. Losses of Superconductor Journal Bearing (United States)

    Han, Y. H.; Hull, J. R.; Han, S. C.; Jeong, N. H.; Oh, J. M.; Sung, T. H.


    A high-temperature superconductor (HTS) journal bearing was studied for rotational loss. Two HTS bearings support the rotor at top and bottom. The rotor weight is 4 kg and the length is about 300 mm. Both the top and bottom bearings have two permanent magnet (PM) rings with an iron pole piece separating them. Each HTS journal bearing is composed of six pieces of superconductor blocks of size 35×25×10 mm. The HTS blocks are encased in a cryochamber through which liquid nitrogen flows. The inner spool of the cryochamber is made from G-10 to reduce eddy current loss, and the rest of the cryochamber is stainless steel. The magnetic field from the PM rings is < 10 mT on the stainless part. The rotational drag was measured over the same speed range at several chamber pressures. Results indicate that a chamber pressure of 0.4 mtorr is sufficiently low to minimize windage loss, and the 10 mT design criterion for the magnetic field on the stainless part of the cryochamber is too high.

  10. Functionalization of zeolitic cavities: grafting NH2 groups in framework T sites of B-SSZ-13--a way to obtain basic solids catalysts? (United States)

    Regli, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Busco, Claudia; Prestipino, Carmelo; Ugliengo, Piero; Zecchina, Adriano; Lamberti, Carlo


    Insertion of B atoms into an Al-free zeolitic framework with CHA topology results in the formation of B-SSZ-13 zeotype with Si/B = 11. B K-edge NEXAFS testifies that B forms [B(OSi)4] units in a Td-like geometry (sp3-hybridized B atoms). According to B K-edge NEXAFS and IR, template burning results in the formation of [B(OSi)3] units in a D3h-like geometry (sp2-hybridized B atoms) with a break of a B-O-Si bond and the formation of a Si-OH group. The activated material contains B(III) Lewis acid centers able to specifically coordinate bases like NH3. Such [B(OSi)3] units are reactive toward ammonia, resulting in the formation of B-NH2 surface functionality inside the pores of B-SSZ-13 already under mild conditions, i.e., 35 mbar of NH3 at 373 K for 30 min and without crystallinity degradation. A minor fraction of Si-NH2 cannot be excluded owing to the presence of two IR doublets at 3500 and 3430 cm-1 and at 1600 and 1550 cm-1. Ab initio B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations on a cluster model, supported by a single-point MP2 on B3LYP/6-31+G(D,P) optimized structures, found the break by NH3 of a B-O-Si bond of the [B(OSi)3] unit with formation of [SiOH] and [H2N-B(OSi)2] species to be energetically favored. Comparison between experimental and computed frequency shifts shows them to be in semiquantitative agreement. The high stability of the B-NH2 surface functionality is probed by N K-edge NEXAFS spectra collected under UHV conditions. These findings can open a new route in the preparation of shape selective solid basic catalysts.

  11. Characterization of Fault Size in Bearings (United States)


    0.3 and 1.2 mm into the outer-race of the bearing, which simulates realistic faults that often can be found in damaged bearings. A 3D dynamic model ...3 4. MODEL DESCRIPTION A 3D dynamic ball bearing model was developed to study the effect of faults on the bearing dynamic behavior. The aim of the...understanding of the effects of fault size on the bearing dynamics. The research methodology combines dynamic modeling of the faulty bearing with

  12. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey;


    We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...... as well as the vertical OH-reactivity profile. We have used SOSA; a one dimensional vertical chemistry-transport model (Boy et al., 2011a) together with measurements from Hyytiala, SMEAR II station, Southern Finland, conducted in August 2008. Model simulations only account for similar to 30......-50% of the total measured OH sink, and in our opinion, the reason for missing OH-reactivity is due to unmeasured unknown BVOCs, and limitations in our knowledge of atmospheric chemistry including uncertainties in rate constants. Furthermore, we found that the OH-reactivity correlates with both organic...

  13. Synthesis of zeolites from paper sludge ash and their ability to simultaneously remove NH4+ and PO43-. (United States)

    Wajima, Takaaki; Shimizu, Tomoe; Ikegami, Yasuyuki


    The objective of this study was to investigate the synthesis of zeolites from paper sludge ash, and to evaluate their applications for water purification to simultaneously remove NH4+ and PO43- in aqueous solution. Paper sludge ash had a low abundance of Si and a significant Ca content, due to the presence of calcite that was used as paper filler. Na2SiO3 was added to the NaOH solution to increase Si content in order to synthesize zeolites with high cation exchange capacity. The original ash without addition of Si yielded hydroxysodalite with a cation exchange capacity of ca. 50 cmol/kg. Addition of Si to the solution yielded Na-P1 (zeolite-P) with a higher cation exchange capacity (ca. 120 cmol/kg). The observed concentrations of Si and Al in the solution during the reaction explain crystallizations of these two phases. The product with Na-P1 could simultaneously remove NH4+ and PO43- from the solution between pH 4 and 9.

  14. Journal and Wave Bearing Impedance Calculation Software (United States)

    Hanford, Amanda; Campbell, Robert


    The wave bearing software suite is a MALTA application that computes bearing properties for user-specified wave bearing conditions, as well as plain journal bearings. Wave bearings are fluid film journal bearings with multi-lobed wave patterns around the circumference of the bearing surface. In this software suite, the dynamic coefficients are outputted in a way for easy implementation in a finite element model used in rotor dynamics analysis. The software has a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting bearing geometry parameters, and uses MATLAB s structure interface for ease of interpreting data. This innovation was developed to provide the stiffness and damping components of wave bearing impedances. The computational method for computing bearing coefficients was originally designed for plain journal bearings and tilting pad bearings. Modifications to include a wave bearing profile consisted of changing the film thickness profile given by an equation, and writing an algorithm to locate the integration limits for each fluid region. Careful consideration was needed to implement the correct integration limits while computing the dynamic coefficients, depending on the form of the input/output variables specified in the algorithm.

  15. A Ruthenium(III)-Oxyl Complex Bearing Strong Radical Character. (United States)

    Shimoyama, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Tomoya; Kotani, Hiroaki; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Mieda, Kaoru; Ogura, Takashi; Okajima, Toshihiro; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Kojima, Takahiko


    Proton-coupled electron-transfer oxidation of a Ru(II) -OH2 complex, having an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, gives a Ru(III) -O(.) species, which has an electronically equivalent structure of the Ru(IV) =O species, in an acidic aqueous solution. The Ru(III) -O(.) complex was characterized by spectroscopic methods and DFT calculations. The oxidation state of the Ru center was shown to be close to +3; the Ru-O bond showed a lower-energy Raman scattering at 732 cm(-1) and the Ru-O bond length was estimated to be 1.77(1) Å. The Ru(III) -O(.) complex exhibits high reactivity in substrate oxidation under catalytic conditions; particularly, benzaldehyde and the derivatives are oxidized to the corresponding benzoic acid through C-H abstraction from the formyl group by the Ru(III) -O(.) complex bearing a strong radical character as the active species.

  16. Crystal structure and magnetism of Fe2(OH)[B2O4(OH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurayoshi, Yotaro; Hara, Shigeo; Sato, Hirohiko


    The structure and magnetism of Fe2(OH)[B2O4(OH)] are reported. Powder x-ray diffraction reveals a characteristic structure containing two crystallographically independent zigzag-ladder chains of magnetic Fe2+ ions. Magnetization measurements reveal a phase transition at 85 K, below which a weak...... spontaneous magnetization (approximate to 0.15 μB/Fe) appears. Below 85 K, magnetization increases with decreasing temperature down to 70 K, below which it decreases and approaches a constant value at low temperature. The Mossbauer spectrum at room temperature is composed of two paramagnetic doublets...... corresponding to the two crystallographic Fe2+ sites. Below 85 K, each doublet undergoes further splitting because of the magnetic hyperfine fields. The temperature dependence of the hyperfine field is qualitatively different for the two distinguishable Fe2+ sites. This is responsible for the anomalous...

  17. The C(3P) + NH3 reaction in interstellar chemistry: II. Low temperature rate constants and modeling of NH, NH2 and NH3 abundances in dense interstellar clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Hickson, Kevin M; Bourgalais, Jérémy; Capron, Michael; Picard, Sebastien D Le; Goulay, Fabien; Wakelam, Valentine


    A continuous supersonic flow reactor has been used to measure rate constants for the C + NH3 reaction over the temperature range 50 to 296 K. C atoms were created by the pulsed laser photolysis of CBr4. The kinetics of the title reaction were followed directly by vacuum ultra-violet laser induced fluorescence (VUV LIF) of C loss and through H formation. The experiments show unambiguously that the reaction is rapid at 296 K, becoming faster at lower temperatures, reaching a value of 1.8 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 50 K. As this reaction is not currently included in astrochemical networks, its influence on interstellar nitrogen hydride abundances is tested through a dense cloud model including gas-grain interactions. In particular, the effect of the ortho-to-para ratio of H2 which plays a crucial role in interstellar NH3 synthesis is examined.

  18. Acceleration of the reaction OH + CO → H + CO2 by vibrational excitation of OH. (United States)

    Kohno, Nanase; Izumi, Mari; Kohguchi, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Katsuyoshi


    The collision complex formed from a vibrationally excited reactant undergoes redissociation to the reactant, intramolecular vibrational relaxation (randomization of vibrational energy), or chemical reaction to the products. If attractive interaction between the reactants is large, efficient vibrational relaxation in the complex prevents redissociation to the reactants with the initial vibrational energy, and the complex decomposes to the reactants with low vibrational energy or converts to the products. In this paper, we have studied the branching ratios between the intramolecular vibrational relaxation and chemical reaction of an adduct HO(v)-CO formed from OH(X(2)Π(i)) in different vibrational levels v = 0-4 and CO. OH(v = 0-4) generated in a gaseous mixture of O(3)/H(2)/CO/He irradiated at 266 nm was detected with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) via the A(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Π(i) transition, and H atoms were probed by the two-photon excited LIF technique. From the kinetic analysis of the time-resolved LIF intensities of OH(v) and H, we have found that the intramolecular vibrational relaxation is mainly governed by a single quantum change, HO(v)-CO → HO(v-1)-CO, followed by redissociation to OH(v-1) and CO. With the vibrational quantum number v, chemical process from the adduct to H + CO(2) is accelerated, and vibrational relaxation is decelerated. The countertrend is elucidated by the competition between chemical reaction and vibrational relaxation in the adduct HOCO.

  19. NH4+ rather than NO3- production and retention processes are susceptible to enhanced NH4+ deposition in a subtropical plantation (United States)

    Gao, Wenlong; Kou, Liang; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Jinbo; Muller, Christoph; Li, Shenggong


    It remains largely unknown how increasing N depositions may alter soil N cycling and N retention capacity of subtropical/tropical forest ecosystem functions. Here we report results from a 15N tracing study on soil from a subtropical forest plantation in China. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied monthly for more than 2.5 years at a rate of 40 (low) and 120 (high) kg NH4Cl-N hm-2 yr-1, respectively. High NH4+ input significantly retarded gross N mineralization, with a greater inhibition on mineralization of recalcitrant organic N than labile organic N which can possibly be related to a decreased fungal biomass. With increasing NH4+ inputs, rates of NH4+ immobilization into recalcitrant organic-N showed a trend of rise first and then fall. Interestingly, microbial NH4+ cycling moved toward to be a more open N cycling under low NH4+ input conditions, but was driven to be a tightly coupled N cycling under high NH4+ input conditions. On the contrary, microbial NO3- production (heterotrophic nitrification and autotrophic nitrification) and retention (NO3- immobilization and DNRA) processes showed insensitivity to elevated NH4+ input. Our results highlight that in acid subtropical/tropical forest soil, NH4+ rather than NO3- production and retention processes are susceptible to enhanced NH4+ deposition.

  20. A multi writable thiophene-based selective and reversible chromogenic fluoride probe with dual -NH functionality (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Siddharth; Kumar, Ajit; Pandey, Abha; Upadhyay, K. K.


    A chromogenic fluoride probe bearing bis imine groups having dual -NH functionality (BSB) has been designed, synthesised and structurally characterized by its single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The BSB could visually and spectroscopically recognise F- with high selectivity over other anions by exhibiting intense chromogenic response (from colourless to red) for F- in acetonitrile solution. The UV-visible titration and 1H NMR titration experiments indicated that the observed changes occur via a combined process including hydrogen bonding and deprotonation between the BSB and F-. Moreover theoretical calculations at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level shed further light upon probe design strategy and the nature of interactions between BSB and F-. The limit of detection and binding constant of BSB towards F- were found to be 6.9 × 10- 7 M and 1.42 ± 0.069 × 108 M- 2 respectively. Finally, by using F- and H+ as chemical inputs and the absorbance as output, a INHIBIT logic gate was constructed, which exhibits "Multi-write" ability without obvious degradation in its optical output.

  1. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  2. Live-trapping and handling brown bear (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  3. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.


    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

  4. Goose Eggs Could Save Polar Bears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Polar bears could avoid extinction despitemany starving to death in coming years, ac-cording to scientists and other observers whohave discovered that some of the bears havefound a new food source--goose and duckeggs.

  5. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.


    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  6. Grease lubrication mechanisms in bearing seals



    Rolling bearings contain seals to keep lubricant inside and contaminants outside the bearing system. These systems are often lubricated with grease; the grease acts as a lubricant for the bearing and seal and improves the sealing efficiency. In this thesis, the influence of lubricating grease on bearing seal performance is studied. Rheological properties of the grease, i.e. shear stress and normal stress difference, are evaluated and related to the lubricating and sealing performance of the s...

  7. Lamellar-crossing-structured Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposite for electrochemical supercapacitor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qingnan [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wen, Ming, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen, Shipei [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Qingsheng [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructure with a single lamellar spacing of ∼5 nm was effectively constructed through two-phase-interface reaction process followed by the CNTs crossed among the lamellar-nanostructured Ni(OH){sub 2}. The resultant nanocomposite can offer large active surface areas and short diffusion paths for electrons and ions, and is investigated as a potential pseudocapacitor electrode material for electrochemical energy storage applications. Electrochemical data demonstrate that the as-prepared nanocomposite exhibits a high specific capacitance of ∼1600 F g{sup −1} at the scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1} in 6 M KOH solution at normal pressure and temperature, which is great higher than Ni(OH){sub 2} (∼1200 F g{sup −1}). Furthermore, Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposite shows a higher energy density (∼125 Wh kg{sup −1}, 2 A g{sup −1}) and has a slightly decrease of 5% in specific capacitance after 1000 continuous charge/discharge cycles. - Graphical abstract: As-constructed Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructure exhibits remarkable enhancement in electrochemical stability and high specific capacity of ∼1600 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1}, suggesting promising potential for supercapacitor applications. - Highlights: • New designed lamellar-crossing-structured Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites have been firstly reported in this work. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructures show firm nanostructure and excellent electrochemical stability. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites exhibit excellent specific capacitance. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites have the potential application in electrochemical energy storage applications.

  8. Study of vibrational spectra of NH sub 4 Cl and NH sub 4 Br at high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Glazkov, V P; Syrykh, G F; Kozlenko, D P; Savenko, B N; Telepnev, A S


    The NH sub 4 Cl vibrational spectra at the pressures up to 2.6 GPa and the NH sub 4 Br spectra at the pressures up to 7 GPa are studied through the method of the neutrons inelastic incoherent scattering. It is established that the linear baric dependence of the libration mode changes its inclination in the area above the pressure of transition from the disordered cubic phase to the ordered cubic phase with the CsCl-type structure. The baric dependence inclination of the cross-sectional optical translation mode remains unchanged. The evaluations of the Grueneisen parameters are presented in the one-dimensional approximation and the form of the potential function for the libration oscillations in the disordered and ordered cubic phases with the CsCl-type structure is calculated. It is shown that the observed effects are related to the high anharmonism of the potential in the disordered phase

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of a phosphorated cardanol compound on mineral oils (NH10 and NH20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Alexsandra Rios Facanha; Selma Elaine Mazzetto; Jose Osvaldo Beserra Carioca; Glaucione Gomes de Barros [Universidade Federal do Ceara (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica


    Studies on thermal-oxidative stability of a phosphorated antioxidant, synthesized from a natural and renewable resource cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was investigated, using a classical thermoanalytical method-thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) in air atmosphere. Its use as an antioxidant agent on the mineral oils NH10 and NH{sub 2}0 was evaluated in comparative studied with a commercial product (diphenyl phosphate - Aldrich). The addition of 1.2-2.0 wt% of phosphorated cardanol compound to the mineral oils has improved their thermal-oxidative stability on 14-18{sup o}C, respectively. The occurrence of major thermal degradation events at higher temperatures (T{sub max}) on additivated oils is an excellent indication of the phosphorated cardanol compound antioxidant properties. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.


    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  11. Cryptosporidiosis in a black bear in Virginia. (United States)

    Duncan, R B; Caudell, D; Lindsay, D S; Moll, H D


    Cryptosporidiosis has not been previously reported in black bears in North America, either free-roaming or captive. However, oocysts have been documented in two captive Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) located in zoological parks in Taiwan. Developmental stages of Cryptosporidium parvum were observed in tissue sections from the small intestine of a black bear cub found dead in Virginia (USA).

  12. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.


    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  13. DFT study on the attacking mechanisms of H and OH radicals to G-C and A-T base pairs in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okutsu, N.; Shimamura, K.; Shimizu, E.; Kurita, N., E-mail: [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan); Shulga, S. [Institute for Food Biotechnology and Genomics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Danilov, V. I. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)


    To elucidate the effect of radicals on DNA base pairs, we investigated the attacking mechanism of OH and H radicals to the G-C and A-T base pairs, using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations in water approximated by the continuum solvation model. The DFT calculations revealed that the OH radical abstracts the hydrogen atom of a NH{sub 2} group of G or A base and induces a tautomeric reaction for an A-T base pair more significantly than for a G-C base pair. On the other hand, the H radical prefers to bind to the Cytosine NH{sub 2} group of G-C base pair and induce a tautomeric reaction from G-C to G*-C*, whose activation free energy is considerably small (−0.1 kcal/mol) in comparison with that (42.9 kcal/mol) for the reaction of an A-T base pair. Accordingly, our DFT calculations elucidated that OH and H radicals have a significant effect on A-T and G-C base pairs, respectively. This finding will be useful for predicting the effect of radiation on the genetic information recorded in the base sequences of DNA duplexes.

  14. Complete Series of Alkali-Metal M(BH3NH2BH2NH2BH3) Hydrogen-Storage Salts Accessed via Metathesis in Organic Solvents. (United States)

    Owarzany, Rafał; Fijalkowski, Karol J; Jaroń, Tomasz; Leszczyński, Piotr J; Dobrzycki, Łukasz; Cyrański, Michał K; Grochala, Wojciech


    We report a new efficient way of synthesizing high-purity hydrogen-rich M(BH3NH2BH2NH2BH3) salts (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs). The solvent-mediated metathetic synthesis applied here uses precursors containing bulky organic cations and weakly coordinating anions. The applicability of this method permits the entire series of alkali-metal M(BH3NH2BH2NH2BH3) salts (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) to be obtained, thus enabling their comparative analysis in terms of crystal structures and hydrogen-storage properties. A novel polymorphic form of Verkade's base (C18H39N4PH)(BH3NH2BH2NH2BH3) precursor was also characterized structurally. For all compounds, we present a comprehensive structural, spectroscopic, and thermogravimetric characterization (PXRD, NMR, FTIR, Raman, and TGA/DSC/MS).

  15. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey;


    We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...

  16. 76 FR 22016 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kenton, OH (United States)


    ... Hardin County Airport, Kenton, OH. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of... Hardin County Airport (75 FR 78645) Docket No. FAA-2010-1054. Interested parties were invited to... accommodate new standard instrument approach procedures at Hardin County Airport, Kenton, OH. This action...

  17. Spatially extended OH+ emission from the Orion Bar and Ridge

    CERN Document Server

    van der Tak, Floris; Ossenkopf, Volker; Makai, Zoltan; Black, John; Faure, Alex; Gerin, Maryvonne; Bergin, Ted


    We report the first detection of a Galactic source of OH+ line emission: the Orion Bar, a bright nearby photon-dominated region. Line emission is detected over ~1' (0.12 pc), tracing the Bar itself as well as the Southern tip of the Orion Ridge. The line width of ~4 km/s suggests an origin of the OH+ emission close to the PDR surface, at a depth of A_V ~0.3-0.5 into the cloud where most hydrogen is in atomic form. Steady-state collisional and radiative excitation models require unrealistically high OH+ column densities to match the observed line intensity, indicating that the formation of OH+ in the Bar is rapid enough to influence its excitation. Our best-fit OH+ column density of ~1x10^14 cm^-2 is similar to that in previous absorption line studies, while our limits on the ratios of OH+/H2O+ (>~40) and OH+/H3O+ (>~15) are higher than seen before. The column density of OH+ is consistent with estimates from a thermo-chemical model for parameters applicable to the Orion Bar, given the current uncertainties in ...

  18. Nonadiabatic Renner-Teller quantum dynamics of OH(X(2)Π) + H(+) reactive collisions. (United States)

    Gamallo, Pablo; Akpinar, Sinan; Defazio, Paolo; Petrongolo, Carlo


    the (q) channel. After a sharp increase at the threshold, σq and σeq decrease at larger collision energies while σe and the rate constants depend slightly on the collision energy and temperature, respectively. These findings are consistent with the barrierless nature of both PESs and the exoergicity of the quenching products, with the small role played by the centrifugal and RT barriers in the reactant channel, and with the large RT couplings in the OH2(+) intermediates. Finally, we contrast the present results with those for the opposite reactions O + H2(+) and for the nonadiabatic-induced quenchings NH + H' and OH + H'.

  19. Cannibalism and predation on black bears by grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem, 1975-1990 (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Knight, R.R.; Blanchard, B.M.


    We documented one instance of an adult male grizzly bear preying upon a black bear and four instances where circumstantial evidence suggested that grizzly bears (two cubs-of-the-year, one yearling female that was injured, and one adult male) had been preyed upon by conspecifics. We also examined feces of grizzly bears for bear remains. Remains of bears tended to be more common in spring feces and did not differ in frequency between early and late years of the study. Our observations generally support existing hypotheses concerning cannibalism among bears.

  20. Improvement of journal bearing operation at heavy misalignment using bearing flexibility and compliant liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder


    A flexure journal bearing design is proposed that will improve operational behaviour of a journal bearing at pronounced misalignment. Using a thermoelastohydrodynamic model, it is shown that the proposed flexure journal bearing has vastly increased the hydrodynamic performance compared to the stiff...... bearing when misaligned. The hydrodynamic performance is evaluated on lubricant film thickness, pressure and temperature. Furthermore, the influence of a compliant bearing liner is investigated and it is found that it increases the hydrodynamic performance when applied to a stiff bearing, whereas...... the liner has practically no influence on the flexure journal bearing's performance....

  1. The Reactive-Diffusive Length of OH Radical in Squalane (United States)

    Lee, L.; Wilson, K. R.


    With the technique of core-shell particle configuration, we have measured the radical penetration length in a reactive matrix by observing the transmission efficiency of OH radical through squalane shell of various thickness ranging from 0 nm (without coating) to 16 nm. The result indicates a penetration depth of 2.2 nm. Our data suggest that the OH concentration profile in squalane as a function of the distance from the squalane/air interface can be satisfactorily described by the analytical solution to diffusion equation with an added chemical loss term experienced by the OH radical. This allowed an almost unambiguous determination of either OH diffusivity or OH reactivity given that one of the value is known in systems where radical chain propagation is not a significant factor and can shed new lights on the lifetime alteration of particulate matters in the atmosphere where possible coating processes are abundant.

  2. Ball Bearing Stacking Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafeequerrahman S . Ahmed


    Full Text Available This document is an effort to introduce the concept of automation in small scale industries and or small workshops that are involved in the manufacturing of small objects such as nuts, bolts and ball bearing in this case. This an electromechanical system which includes certain mechanical parts that involves one base stand on which one vertical metallic frame is mounted and hinged to this vertical stand is an in humanized effort seems inadequate in this era making necessary the use of Electronics, Computer in the manufacturing processes leading to the concept of Automated Manufacturing System (AMS.The ball bearing stack automation is an effort in this regard. In our project we go for stack automation for any object for example a ball bearing, be that is still a manual system there. It will be microcontroller based project control system equipped with microcontroller 89C51 from any manufacturer like Atmel or Philips. This could have been easily implemented if a PLC could be used for manufacturing the staking unit but I adopted the microcontroller based system so that some more modification in the system can be effected at will as to use the same hardware .Although a very small object i.e. ball bearig or small nut and fixture will be tried to be stacked, the system with more precision and more power handling capacity could be built for various requirements of the industry. For increasing more control capacity, we can use another module of this series. When the bearing is ready, it will be sent for packing. This is sensed by an inductive sensor. The output will be proceeds by PLC and microcontroller card which will be driving the assembly in order to put it into pads or flaps. This project will also count the total number of bearings to be packed and will display it on a LCD for real time reference and a provision is made using a higher level language using hyper terminal of the computer

  3. Parallel Changes in Intracellular Water Volume and pH Induced by NH3/NH4+ Exposure in Single Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Blanco


    Full Text Available Background: Increased blood levels of ammonia (NH3 and ammonium (NH4+, i.e. hyperammonemia, leads to cellular brain edema in humans with acute liver failure. The pathophysiology of this edema is poorly understood. This is partly due to incomplete understanding of the osmotic effects of the pair NH3/NH4+ at the cellular and molecular levels. Cell exposure to solutions containing NH3/NH4+ elicits changes in intracellular pH (pHi, which can in turn affect cell water volume (CWV by activating transport mechanisms that produce net gain or loss of solutes and water. The occurrence of CWV changes caused by NH3/NH4+ has long been suspected, but the mechanisms, magnitude and kinetics of these changes remain unknown. Methods: Using fluorescence imaging microscopy we measured, in real time, parallel changes in pHi and CWV caused by brief exposure to NH3/NH4+ of single cells (N1E-115 neuroblastoma or NG-108 neuroblastoma X glioma loaded with the fluorescent indicator BCECF. Changes in CWV were measured by exciting BCECF at its intracellular isosbestic wavelength (∼438 nm, and pHi was measured ratiometrically. Results: Brief exposure to isosmotic solutions (i.e. having the same osmolality as that of control solutions containing NH4Cl (0.5- 30 mM resulted in a rapid, dose-dependent swelling, followed by isosmotic regulatory volume decrease (iRVD. NH4Cl solutions in which either extracellular [NH3] or [NH4+] was kept constant while the other was changed by varying the pH of the solution, demonstrated that [NH3]o rather than [NH4+]o is the main determinant of the NH4Cl-induced swelling. The iRVD response was sensitive to the anion channel blocker NPPB, and partly dependent on external Ca2+. Upon removal of NH4Cl, cells shrank and displayed isosmotic regulatory volume increase (iRVI. Regulatory volume responses could not be activated by comparable CWV changes produced by anisosmotic solutions, suggesting that membrane stretch or contraction by themselves are

  4. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coefficients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 and described further in 1972. Several authors have refined this method over...... Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for finding the damping coefficients in this work...

  5. Chromatographic (TLC) differentiation of grizzly bear and black bear scats (United States)

    Picton, Harold D.; Kendall, Katherine C.


    While past work concluded that thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was inadequate for the separation of grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (U. americanus) scats, our study found differences adequate for species separation. A key was constructed using 19 of 40 data points recorded on each(N)=356 profiles of 178) know-species scat. Accuracy was best for late summer scats (94%). Methods for specimen preparation, analysis, and reading the TLC profiles are discussed. Factors involved in scat variation were tested.

  6. Pratt and Whitney cryogenic turbopump bearing experience (United States)

    Poole, W. E.; Bursey, R. W., Jr.


    Successful, reusable bearings require lubrication, traditionally, a transfer film from sacrificial cage wear. Early testing included materials screening programs to identify suitable cryogenic cage materials. A specially developed element tester that simulated the function of a ball bearing cage was used. Suitable materials must provide lubrication with an acceptably low wear rate, without abrading contacting surfaces. The most promising materials were tested in full scale bearings at speeds up to 4 MDN. Teflon, filled with 40 percent bronze powder, was the best performing material. A variety of bearings were designed and successfully tested in LH2 and LOX. Bearings with bronze filled Teflon cages were successfully tested for 150 hrs. In overload tests, the same design was tested for 5 hrs at maximum Hertz stresses above 450 ksi and an additional 5 hrs with a maximum Hertz stress exceeding 500 ksi. Four bearings were tested in LOX for 25 hrs, with a maximum time per bearing of 10 hrs.

  7. Theoretical study on rate constants for the reactions of CF3CH 2NH 2 (TFEA) with the hydroxyl radical at 298 K and atmospheric pressure. (United States)

    Mishra, Bhupesh Kumar; Chakrabartty, Arup Kumar; Deka, Ramesh Chandra


    Theoretical investigations are carried out on reaction mechanism of the reactions of CF3CH2NH2 (TFEA) with the OH radical by means of ab initio and DFT methods. The electronic structure information on the potential energy surface for each reaction is obtained at MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level and energetic information is further refined by calculating the energy of the species with a Gaussian-2 method, G2(MP2). The existence of transition states on the corresponding potential energy surface is ascertained by performing intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculation. Our calculation indicates that the H abstraction from -NH2 group is the dominant reaction channel because of lower energy barrier. The rate constants of the reaction calculated using canonical transition state theory (CTST) utilizing the ab initio data. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental rate constants is good at the measured temperature. From the comparison with CH3CH2NH2, it is shown that the fluorine substution decreases the reactivity of the C-H bond.

  8. Simultaneous determination of NH4+, NO2(-) and NO3(-) by ion-exclusion/anion-exchange chromatography on a strongly basic anion-exchange resin with basic eluent. (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Hironaga, Takahiro; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Tanaka, Kazuhiko


    Ion-exclusion/anion-exchange chromatography (IEC/AEC) on a combination of a strongly basic anion-exchange resin in the OH(-)-form with basic eluent has been developed. The separation mechanism is based on the ion-exclusion/penetration effect for cations and the anion-exchange effect for anions to anion-exchange resin phase. This system is useful for simultaneous separation and determination of ammonium ion (NH4+), nitrite ion (NO2(-)), and nitrate ion (NO3(-)) in water samples. The resolution of analyte ions can be manipulated by changing the concentration of base in eluent on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene based strongly basic anion-exchange resin column. In this study, several separation columns, which consisted of different particle sizes, different functional groups and different anion-exchange capacities, were compared. As the results, the separation column with the smaller anion-exchange capacity (TSKgel Super IC-Anion) showed well-resolved separation of cations and anions. In the optimization of the basic eluent, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) was used as the eluent and the optimal concentration was concluded to be 2 mmol/L, considering the resolution of analyte ions and the whole retention times. In the optimal conditions, the relative standard deviations of the peak areas and the retention times of NH4+, NO2(-), and NO3(-) ranged 1.28% - 3.57% and 0.54% - 1.55%, respectively. The limits of detection at signal-to-noise of 3 were 4.10 micromol/L for NH4+, 1.87 micromol/L for NO2(-) and 2.83 micromol/L for NO3(-).

  9. Cs5Sn9(OH·4NH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Friedrich


    Full Text Available The title compound, pentacaesium nonastannide hydroxide tetraammonia, crystallized from a solution of CsSnBi in liquid ammonia. The Sn94− unit forms a monocapped quadratic antiprism. The hydroxide ion is surrounded by five caesium cations, which form a distorted quadratic pyramidal polyhedron. A three-dimensional network is formed by Cs—Sn [3.8881 (7 Å to 4.5284 (7 Å] and Cs—NH3 [3.276 (7–3.636 (7 Å] contacts.

  10. A liquid-based eutectic system: LiBH4·NH 3-nNH3BH3 with high dehydrogenation capacity at moderate temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Yingbin


    A novel eutectic hydrogen storage system, LiBH4·NH 3-nNH3BH3, which exists in a liquid state at room temperature, was synthesized through a simple mixing of LiBH 4·NH3 and NH3BH3 (AB). In the temperature range of 90-110 °C, the eutectic system showed significantly improved dehydrogenation properties compared to the neat AB and LiBH 4·NH3 alone. For example, in the case of the LiBH4·NH3/AB with a mole ratio of 1:3, over 8 wt.% hydrogen could be released at 90 °C within 4 h, while only 5 wt.% hydrogen released from the neat AB at the same conditions. Through a series of experiments it has been demonstrated that the hydrogen release of the new system is resulted from an interaction of AB and the NH3 group in the LiBH4·NH3, in which LiBH4 works as a carrier of ammonia and plays a crucial role in promoting the interaction between the NH3 group and AB. The enhanced dehydrogenation of LiBH 4·NH3/AB may result from the polar liquid state reaction environments and the initially promoted formation of the diammoniate of diborane, which will facilitate the B-H⋯H-N interaction between LiBH4·NH3 and AB. Kinetics analysis revealed that the rate-controlling steps of the dehydrogenation process are three-dimensional diffusion of hydrogen at temperatures ranging from 90 to 110 °C. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Effect of deposition variables on properties of CBD ZnS thin films prepared in chemical bath of ZnSO4/SC(NH2)2/Na3C3H5O7/NH4OH (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Long; Yang, Chang-Siao; Hsieh, Shu-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jauh; Fern, Chi-Lon


    The CBD ZnS thin films were prepared on substrates of soda lime glass in chemical bath. The effect of deposition variables including zinc sulfate, thiourea, tri-sodium citrate, ammoina water, bath temperature, and deposition time on the properties of CBD ZnS thin films were comprehensively studied. The CBD ZnS thin films were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) for the surface and cross section morphologies and thicknesses, an energy dispersive spectrometer equipped in FESEM for the atomic% of Zn and S, an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (300-800 nm) for the transmittance and energy gap, and an atomic force microscope for the surface roughness. The results showed that the CBD ZnS thin films have a transmittance for ultraviolet-visible rays (300-800 nm) from 70.8 to 87.8%. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 5 have an energy gap from 3.881 to 3.980 eV. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 6 have a growth rate from 1.8 to 3.2 nm/min and activation energy of 59.8 kJ/mol for their growth.

  12. Descriptor-Based Analysis Applied to HCN Synthesis from NH3 and CH4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabow, L


    The design of solid metal catalysts using theoretical methods has been a long-standing goal in heterogeneous catalysis. Recent developments in methodology and computer technology as well as the establishment of a descriptor-based approach for the analysis of reaction mechanisms and trends across the periodic table allow for the fast screening for new catalytic materials and have lead to first examples of computational discoveries of new materials. The underlying principles of the descriptor-based approach are the existence of relations between the surface electronic structure, adsorption energies and activation barriers that result in volcano-shaped activity plots as function of simple descriptors, such as atomic binding energies or the d-band center. Linear scaling relations have been established between the adsorption energies of hydrogen-containing molecules such as CH{sub x}, NH{sub x}, OH{sub x} and SH{sub x} and the C, N O and S adsorption energies on transition-metal surfaces. Transition-state energies have also been shown to scale linearly with adsorption energies in a similar fashion. Recently, a single transition state scaling relation has been identified for a large number of C-C, C-O, C-N, N-O, N-N, and O-O coupling reactions. The scaling relations provide a powerful tool for the investigation of reaction mechanisms and the prediction of potential energy surfaces. They limit the number of independent variables to a few, typically adsorption energies of key atoms. Using this information as input to a microkinetic model provides an understanding of trends in catalytic activity across the transition metals. In most cases a volcano-shaped relation between activity and the key variables, the descriptors, is observed. In the present paper we will provide an example of the approach outlined above and show how one can obtain an understanding of activity/selectivity trends of a reaction with just a few new calculations.

  13. Laboratory Studies of Vibrational Relaxation: Important Insights for Mesospheric OH (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Matsiev, Daniel


    The hydroxyl radical has a key role in the chemistry and energetics of the Earth's middle atmosphere. A detailed knowledge of the rate constants and relevant pathways for OH(high v) vibrational relaxation by atomic and molecular oxygen and their temperature dependence is absolutely critical for understanding mesospheric OH and extracting reliable chemical heating rates from atmospheric observations. We have developed laser-based experimental approaches to study the complex collisional energy transfer processes involving the OH radical and other relevant atmospheric species. Previous work in our laboratory indicated that the total removal rate constant for OH(v = 9) + O at room temperature is more than one order of magnitude larger than that for removal by O2. Thus, O atoms are expected to significantly influence the intensity and vibrational distribution extracted from the Meinel OH(v) emissions. We will report our most recent laboratory experiments that corroborate the aforementioned result for OH(v = 9) + O and provide important new insights on the mechanistic pathways involved. We will also highlight relevant atmospheric implications, including warranted revisions of current mesospheric OH models. Research supported by SRI International Internal R&D and NSF Aeronomy grant AGS-1441896. Previously supported by NASA Geospace Science grant NNX12AD09G.

  14. Crystal structure of hexagonal RE(CO{sub 3})OH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michiba, Kiyonori; Tahara, Takeshi; Nakai, Izumi [Tokyo Univ. of Science, Shinjuku (Japan). Faculty of Science; Miyawaki, Ritsuro; Matsubara, Satoshi [National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Geology and Paleontology


    Hexagonal rare earth carbonate hydroxides, RE(CO{sub 3})OH, where RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, were hydrothermally synthesized from formic acid and hydroxide gels of rare earth elements. The crystals exhibited bicephalous hexagonal prisms with lengths of several tens of micrometers. The crystal structures of a series of hexagonal RE(CO{sub 3})OH were solved using the single crystal CCD-XRD intensity data sets. The space groups of the synthetic hexagonal RE(CO{sub 3})OH crystals are all P- anti 6. The present study has cast doubt upon the space group P- anti 62c previously reported for the natural Ce(CO{sub 3})OH, hydroxylbastnaesite-(Ce). The cell parameters decreased linearly with decreases in the ionic radii of the rare earth elements. La(CO{sub 3})OH showed the largest unit cell (a = 12.6752(6), c = 10.0806(10) A), while Er(CO{sub 3})OH showed the smallest (a = 11.8977(4), c = 9.6978(8) A). The rare earth atoms are in ninefold coordination with oxygen atoms to form a tricapped trigonal prism. The structure consists of layers of {sup 2}{infinity}[(OH)RE{sub 3/3}]{sup 2+} ions linked by carbonate ions. Raman spectra indicate the presence of carbonate and hydroxide groups. An evolutionary shift was observed from La to Er towards higher frequency, which was associated with a decreasing RE-O bond length. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of NSTX Upgrade OH Magnet and Center Stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Zolfaghari, P. Titus, J. Chrzanowski, A. Salehzadeh, F. Dahlgren


    The new ohmic heating (OH) coil and center stack for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) upgrade are required to meet cooling and structural requirements for operation at the enhanced 1 Tesla toroidal field and 2 MA plasma current. The OH coil is designed to be cooled in the time between discharges by water flowing in the center of the coil conductor. We performed resistive heating and thermal hydraulic analyses to optimize coolant channel size to keep the coil temperature below 100 C and meet the required 20 minute cooling time. Coupled electromagnetic, thermal and structural FEA analyses were performed to determine if the OH coil meets the requirements of the structural design criteria. Structural response of the OH coil to its self-field and the field from other coils was analyzed. A model was developed to analyze the thermal and electromagnetic interaction of centerstack components such as the OH coil, TF inner legs and the Bellville washer preload mechanism. Torsional loads from the TF interaction with the OH and poloidal fields are transferred through the TF flag extensions via a torque transfer coupling to the rest of the tokamak structure. A 3D FEA analysis was performed to qualify this design. The results of these analyses, which will be presented in this paper, have led to the design of OH coil and centerstack components that meet the requirements of the NSTX-upgrade structural design criteria.

  16. Current leads and magnetic bearings (United States)

    Hull, J. R.


    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS's), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been active in a broad spectrum of activities in developing these materials for applications. Work at every stage of development has involved industrial collaboration in order to accelerate commercialization. While most of the development work has been devoted to improving the properties of current-carrying wires, some effort has been devoted to applications that can utilize HTS's with properties available now or in the near future. In this paper, advances made in the area of current leads and magnetic bearings are discussed.

  17. Predominance Diagrams for NH4+-Mg2+-PO3-4H+-H2O System%NH4+-Mg2+-pO3-4-H+-H2O体系的优势区相图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜科; 周康根; 彭佳乐


    The thermodynamics of NH4+-Mg2+-PO43-H+-H2O system was investigated based on the construction of predominance diagrams.The lgCT,Mg-lgCT,p and lgCTP-pH diagrams were constructed at an arbitrary Mg/P molar ratio with consideration of the ion strength influence(CT.Mg: total concentration of magnesium; CT,P: total concentration of phosphorus; CT,N: total concentration of nitrogen).The thermodynamic stable zones of struvite (MgNH4PO4· 6H2O),bobierrite (Mg3(PO4)2·8H2O),newberyite (MgHPO4·3H2O),and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) were determined.The results show that struvite and bobierrite are the dominating phases in a wide range of pH value.Struvite and newberyite coexist with solute phase at low pH value and high total concentration of phosphorus while struvite and magnesium hydroxide are more stable at the alkaline condition.The minimum total concentration of nitrogen appears at pH value of 9.08~9.52 while struvite and bobierrite coexist with the solute phase.The predominance diagrams could be used to predict the precipitation-dissolution equilibrium of struvite for ammonia nitrogen removal and recovery from wastewater.%通过优势区相图的构建对NH4+-Mg2+-PO43-H+-H2O体系的热力学平衡关系进行了研究.在不同镁、磷物质的量比和离子强度的条件下绘制了lgCT,Mg-lgC,T,P和lgCT,p-pH相图,确定了MgNH4PO4·6H2O、Mg3(PO4)2· 8H2O、MgHPO4· 3H2O和Mg(OH)2的热力学稳定区.结果表明,在相当广的pH范围内,MgNH4PO4·6H2O和Mg3(PO4)2·8H2O都是主要存在的固相;在较低pH和较高磷浓度的条件下,MgNH4PO4·6H2O和MgHPO4· 3H2O可以共存;而MgNH4PO4·6H2O和Mg(OH)2在碱性条件下更为稳定.当MgNH4PO4·6H2O、Mg3(PO4)2· 8H2O与液相共存、pH=9.08~9.52时,溶液总氮浓度达到最低值.lgCT,Mg-lgCT,P和lgCT,P-pH相图可以用于指导磷酸铵镁的沉淀-溶解平衡过程,有利于废水中氨氮的脱除和回收.

  18. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3CH2CH2OH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, Michael D.; Misner, Jessica A.; Ball, James C.


    Relative rate techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with CF3CH2C(O)H and CF3CH2CH2OH in 700 Torr of N-2 or air diluent at 296 2 K. The rate constants determined were k(Cl+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (1.81 +/- 0.27) x 10(-11), k(OH+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (2.57 +/- 0.44...

  19. Harvard ER-2 OH laser-induced fluorescence instrument (United States)

    Wennberg, Paul O.; Anderson, James G.


    The Harvard ER-2 OH instrument is scheduled to be integrated into the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft ozone payload in August 1992. Design and fabrication is presently underway. This experiment is a descendant of a balloon borne instrument designed and built in the mid-1980s. The ER-2 instrument is being designed to measure OH and HO2 as part of the NASA ozone payload for the investigation of processes controlling the concentration of stratospheric ozone. Although not specifically designed to do so, it is hoped that valid measurements of OH and HO2 can be made in the remote free troposphere with this instrument.

  20. The dipole moment function and vibrational transition intensities of OH (United States)

    Nelson, David D., Jr.; Schiffman, Aram; Nesbitt, David J.


    Flash-kinetic IR absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the relative intensities of nine pairs of rovibrational transitions of OH in the v=1-0 fundamental. These intensities are found to be strongly J-dependent in a way that furnishes detailed data on the shape of the OH dipole moment function, and therefore of the absolute IR transition strengths. The rotationless Einstein A coefficient for the OH fundamental is determined on the basis of the dipole moment function to be 16.7(19) Hz; this is noted to be in substantial disagreement with most other experimental and theoretical results.

  1. Interstellar deuterated ammonia: From NH3 to ND3

    CERN Document Server

    Roueff, E; Van der Tak, F F S; Gerin, M; Goldsmith, P F


    We use spectra and maps of NH2D, ND2H, and ND3, obtained with the CSO, IRAM 30m and Arecibo telescopes, to study deuteration processes in dense cores. The data include the first detection of the hyperfine structure of ND2H. The emission of ND2H and ND3 does not seem to peak at the positions of the embedded protostars, but instead at offset positions, where outflow interactions may occur. A constant ammonia fractionation ratio in star-forming regions is generally assumed to be consistent with an origin on dust grains. However, in the pre-stellar cores studied here, the fractionation varies significantly when going from NH3 to ND3. We present a steady state model of the gas-phase chemistry for these sources, which includes passive depletion onto dust grains and multiply saturated deuterated species up to five deuterium atoms (e.g. CD5+). The observed column density ratios of all four ammonia isotopologues are reproduced within a factor of 3 for a gas temperature of 10 K. We also predict that deuterium fractiona...

  2. Is CH3NH3PbI3 Polar? (United States)

    G, Sharada; Mahale, Pratibha; Kore, Bhushan P; Mukherjee, Somdutta; Pavan, Mysore S; De, Chandan; Ghara, Somnath; Sundaresan, A; Pandey, Anshu; Guru Row, Tayur N; Sarma, D D


    In view of the continued controversy concerning the polar/nonpolar nature of the hybrid perovskite system, CH3NH3PbI3, we report the first investigation of a time-resolved pump-probe measurement of the second harmonic generation efficiency as well as using its more traditional form as a sensitive probe of the absence/presence of the center of inversion in the system both in its excited and ground states, respectively. Our results clearly show that SHG efficiency, if nonzero, is below the limit of detection, strongly indicative of a nonpolar or centrosymmetric structure. Our results on the same samples, based on temperature dependent single crystal X-ray diffraction and P-E loop measurements, are entirely consistent with the above conclusion of a centrosymmetric structure for this compound in all three phases, namely the high temperature cubic phase, the intermediate temperature tetragonal phase and the low temperature orthorhombic phase. It is important to note that all our experimental probes are volume averaging and performed on bulk materials, suggesting that basic material properties of CH3NH3PbI3 are consistent with a centrosymmetric, nonpolar structure.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickson, Kevin M.; Loison, Jean-Christophe [Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, UMR 5255, F-33400 Talence (France); Bourgalais, Jérémy; Capron, Michael; Picard, Sébastien D. Le [Institut de Physique de Rennes, Astrophysique de Laboratoire, UMR CNRS 6251, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Goulay, Fabien [Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Wakelam, Valentine, E-mail: [Université de Bordeaux, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France)


    A continuous supersonic flow reactor has been used to measure rate constants for the C({sup 3}P) + NH{sub 3} reaction over the temperature range 50–296 K. C({sup 3}P) atoms were created by the pulsed laser photolysis of CBr{sub 4}. The kinetics of the title reaction were followed directly by vacuum ultra-violet laser induced fluorescence of C({sup 3}P) loss and through H({sup 2}S) formation. The experiments show unambiguously that the reaction is rapid at 296 K, becoming faster at lower temperatures, reaching a value of (1.8 ± 0.2) × 10{sup −10} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup −1} s{sup −1} at 50 K. As this reaction is not currently included in astrochemical networks, its influence on interstellar nitrogen hydride abundances is tested through a dense cloud model including gas–grain interactions. In particular, the effect of the ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2}, which plays a crucial role in interstellar NH{sub 3} synthesis, is examined.

  4. A highly efficient route to enantiomerically pure l-N-Bz-Pmp(t-Bu)2-OH and incorporation into a peptide-based protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. (United States)

    Hubbard, Caitlin E; Barrios, Amy M


    Phosphonomethyl phenylalanine (Pmp), a nonhydrolyzable mimic of phosphotyrosine, is an important building block in the development of peptide-based PTP inhibitors. We have designed a novel, efficient synthesis of N-Bz-Pmp(t-Bu)2-OH. A Pmp-containing peptide based on a known biological substrate of the tyrosine phosphatase CD45 (Ac-TEGQ-Pmp-QPQP-NH2) inhibits CD45 with an IC50 value of approximately 100 microM with virtually no inhibition of TCPTP up to concentrations of 120 microM.

  5. Increasing Hydrogen Density with the Cation-Anion Pair BH4−-NH4+ in Perovskite-Type NH4Ca(BH43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Schouwink


    Full Text Available A novel metal borohydride ammonia-borane complex Ca(BH42·NH3BH3 is characterized as the decomposition product of the recently reported perovskite-type metal borohydride NH4Ca(BH43, suggesting that ammonium-based metal borohydrides release hydrogen gas via ammonia-borane-complexes. For the first time the concept of proton-hydride interactions to promote hydrogen release is applied to a cation-anion pair in a complex metal hydride. NH4Ca(BH43 is prepared mechanochemically from Ca(BH42 and NH4Cl as well as NH4BH4 following two different protocols, where the synthesis procedures are modified in the latter to solvent-based ball-milling using diethyl ether to maximize the phase yield in chlorine-free samples. During decomposition of NH4Ca(BH43 pure H2 is released, prior to the decomposition of the complex to its constituents. As opposed to a previously reported adduct between Ca(BH42 and NH3BH3, the present complex is described as NH3BH3-stuffed α-Ca(BH42.

  6. Influences of the (NH2)2CO concentration on magnetic photocatalytic composites (United States)

    Liŭ, Dan; Li, Ziheng; Wang, Wenquan; Liú, Dan; Wang, Guoqiang; Lin, Junhong; He, Yingqiao; Li, Xiangru


    Magnetic photocatalytic Fe3O4@TiO2 composites have been fabricated by changing the concentration of (NH2)2CO. Samples were named as low (NH2)2CO concentration group which the (NH2)2CO concentration in the synthesis process was below 2.25 mol/L and high (NH2)2CO concentration group which the (NH2)2CO concentration was above 2.5 mol/L. Photocatalytic degradation experiments of methyl orange showed that the final degradation rates of low (NH2)2CO concentration group samples were higher than that of high (NH2)2CO concentration group, even better than P25 at the same test conditions. And it was interesting that samples of low (NH2)2CO concentration group had smaller values of BET surface areas than that of high (NH2)2CO concentration group. It indicated that the improvement of photocatalytic activity which was effected by BET surface areas was not obvious. There were two main factors enhancing the photocatalytic property of low (NH2)2CO concentration group: First, diffusing reflection spectra showed that the low (NH2)2CO concentration group samples had lower reflectivity, this suggested that the structure improved the efficiency of light absorption; Second, NH4+ would take up the active sites on the surface of the TiO2 particles, the FT-IR test results showed that the samples of the low (NH2)2CO concentration group samples bonded less NH4+, thus leading to the higher photocatalytic activity. It had enlightenment role for optimizing the performance of photocatalytic materials.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primata Mardina


    Full Text Available Rice husk is a major by-product of the rice milling industries. Rice husk  is one of the most common  lignocellulosic materials those can be converted to oxalic acid by alkaline hydrolysis. This research investigated the effect of  the alkaline catalysts at specified temperature and reaction time on the efficiency of  process and  yield of oxalic acid. Oxalic acid was produced by four processes; alkaline hydrolysis, precipitation, acidification, and crystalization. Washed and dryed rice husk was crushed  to obtain 0.25 mm diameterl particles. The main process was performed by dissolving and hydrolyzing 125 grams of rice husk in 500 mL of 3.5 N NaOH and Ca(OH2. Rice husk, which hydrolyzed by NaOH, was  precipated with CaCl2 before acidification, whereas rice husk, which hydrolyzed by Ca(OH2 directly acidified by sulphuric acid without precipitation process. Furthermore, water in acidified solution was evaporated to obtain crystal of oxalic acid. The result showed the alkaline catalyst Ca(OH2 was more eficient than NaOH for hydrolysis. It omitted precipitation process. The highest yield of oxalic acid which produced by Ca(OH2 catalyzed hydrolysis was 2.232%  at 60oC for 60 minutes.

  8. Challenging shock models with SOFIA OH observations in the high-mass star-forming region Cepheus A (United States)

    Gusdorf, A.; Güsten, R.; Menten, K. M.; Flower, D. R.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Codella, C.; Csengeri, T.; Gómez-Ruiz, A. I.; Heyminck, S.; Jacobs, K.; Kristensen, L. E.; Leurini, S.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Wampfler, S. F.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Wyrowski, F.


    Context. OH is a key molecule in H2O chemistry, a valuable tool for probing physical conditions, and an important contributor to the cooling of shock regions around high-mass protostars. OH participates in the re-distribution of energy from the protostar towards the surrounding Interstellar Medium. Aims: Our aim is to assess the origin of the OH emission from the Cepheus A massive star-forming region and to constrain the physical conditions prevailing in the emitting gas. We thus want to probe the processes at work during the formation of massive stars. Methods: We present spectrally resolved observations of OH towards the protostellar outflows region of Cepheus A with the GREAT spectrometer onboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) telescope. Three triplets were observed at 1834.7 GHz, 1837.8 GHz, and 2514.3 GHz (163.4 μm, 163.1 μm between the 2Π1/2 J = 1/2 states, and 119.2 μm, a ground transition between the 2Π3/2 J = 3/2 states), at angular resolutions of 16.̋3, 16.̋3, and 11.̋9, respectively. We also present the CO (16-15) spectrum at the same position. We compared the integrated intensities in the redshifted wings to the results of shock models. Results: The two OH triplets near 163 μm are detected in emission, but with blending hyperfine structure unresolved. Their profiles and that of CO (16-15) can be fitted by a combination of two or three Gaussians. The observed 119.2 μm triplet is seen in absorption, since its blending hyperfine structure is unresolved, but with three line-of-sight components and a blueshifted emission wing consistent with that of the other lines. The OH line wings are similar to those of CO, suggesting that they emanate from the same shocked structure. Conclusions: Under this common origin assumption, the observations fall within the model predictions and within the range of use of our model only if we consider that four shock structures are caught in our beam. Overall, our comparisons suggest that

  9. Differences on the conversion of celestite in solutions bearing monovalent ions under hydrothermal conditions (United States)

    Rendón-Angeles, J. C.; Pech-Canul, M. I.; López-Cuevas, J.; Matamoros-Veloza, Z.; Yanagisawa, K.


    The replacement of SO 42- ions by monovalent ions in mineral SrSO 4 crystals was investigated under hydrothermal conditions by using aqueous solutions bearing F - and OH - ions. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures (150-250 °C) for different reaction intervals (1-96 h), with M-/SO 42- molar ratios of 1, 5 and 10, where M-=F - or OH -. The celestite crystals were completely converted into SrF 2 crystals, at 200 °C using a F -/SO 42- molar ratio=5 for 24 h. The morphology of the converted SrF 2 crystals indicated that the heteroionic conversion proceeded by a pseudomorphic replacement process, because the transformed crystals maintained their original shape and dimensions. In contrast, the SrSO 4 crystals were instantaneously converted into the Sr(OH) 2 phase by a bulk dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, resulting in the formation of large transparent acicular Sr(OH) 2 crystals. The differences on the conversion process are mainly associated with the chemical interaction between the mineral crystal and the hydrothermal fluid. In addition, the chemical stability of the converted phase with low solubility is also essential for the heteroionic conversion to proceed by the pseudomorphic replacement process.

  10. Effective participation of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in the dehydrogenation pathway of the Mg(NH2)2-2LiH composite. (United States)

    Amica, G; Cova, F; Arneodo Larochette, P; Gennari, F C


    Lithium fast-ion conductors have shown positive effects on the hydrogen storage properties of the Li-Mg-N-H system. In the present work, Li4(NH2)3BH4 doped Mg(NH2)2-2LiH was formed by milling the 2LiNH2-MgH2-0.2LiBH4 composite and posterior annealing under hydrogen pressure to reduce the kinetic barrier of the Li-Mg-N-H system. The effect of repetitive dehydrogenation/rehydrogenation cycles on the kinetic and thermodynamic performance was evaluated. The dehydrogenation rate in the doped composite was twice that in the un-doped sample at 200 °C, while hydrogenation was 20 times faster. The activation energy decreases by 9% due to the presence of Li4(NH2)3BH4 compared to the un-doped composite, evidencing its catalytic role. The presence of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in the composite stabilized the hydrogen storage capacity after successive sorption cycles. Thermodynamic studies revealed a variation in the pressure composition isotherm curves between the first dehydrogenation cycle and the subsequent. The Li4(NH2)3BH4 doped composite showed a sloped plateau region at higher equilibrium pressure in regard to the flat plateau of the un-doped composite. Detailed structural investigations revealed the effective influence of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in different reactions: the irreversible dehydrogenation in the presence of MgH2 and the reversible hydrogen release when it reacts with Li2Mg2(NH)3. The role of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in improving the dehydrogenation kinetics is associated with the weakening of the N-H bond and the mobile small ion mass transfer enhancement.

  11. Processing of TiO2 from titanium-bearing blast furnace slag as titanium source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li


    Full Text Available The titanium dioxide(TiO2 was prepared by efficient decomposition of titanium- bearing blast furnace slag (TBBFS in molten salt system. The as-prepared TiO2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Almost complete leaching of Ti was achieved when TBBFS was carried out at 500 °C for about 3 h with NaOH/TBBFS mass ratio of 3:1 and NaOH to NaF molar ratio of 3:1. The XRD pattern showed that the containing titanium product obtained under optimal conditions was Na2TiO3. The average size of the rutile TiO2 obtained was about 1.0μm and the content was up to 99,23 %.

  12. Bearing Health Assessment Based on Chaotic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu


    Full Text Available Vibration signals extracted from rotating parts of machinery carry a lot of useful information about the condition of operating machine. Due to the strong non-linear, complex and non-stationary characteristics of vibration signals from working bearings, an accurate and reliable health assessment method for bearing is necessary. This paper proposes to utilize the selected chaotic characteristics of vibration signal for health assessment of a bearing by using self-organizing map (SOM. Both Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm and Takens' theory are employed to calculate the characteristic vector which includes three chaotic characteristics, such as correlation dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent and Kolmogorov entropy. After that, SOM is used to map the three corresponding characteristics into a confidence value (CV which represents the health state of the bearing. Finally, a case study based on vibration datasets of a group of testing bearings was conducted to demonstrate that the proposed method can reliably assess the health state of bearing.

  13. Office of Head Start (OHS) Program Fact Sheet (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Head Start (OHS) Program Fact Sheet provides information on demographics, state allocations, program statistics, and program enrollment history.

  14. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Atlas Area Boundary (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Cleveland, OH EnviroAtlas Community. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the...

  15. Infrared spectroscopy of radio-luminous OH/IR stars (United States)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Hyland, A. R.; Fix, John D.; Cobb, Michael L.


    Low-resolution 1.5-2.5-micron spectra for 21 radio-luminous OH/IR stars are presented. These spectra divide into two broad classes. Those with very strong water-vapor absorption closely resemble the spectra of classical Mira variables and are classified Type VM. Those with weaker water-vapor absorption, but still showing strong CO absorption, resemble the spectra of true core-burning supergiants and are classified Type SG. Comparison of the classification of 30 radio-luminous OH/IR stars with their Delta(V)s and luminosities suggests this classification is a good indicator of the intrinsic nature of the underlying star. There is some evidence, however, that some true supergiants (massive main-sequence progenitors) develop the pulsation properties and photospheric characteristics of the Mira-like OH/IR stars when they become optically obscured OH/IR stars.

  16. Oh What a Tangled Biofilm Web Bacteria Weave (United States)

    ... Home Page Oh What a Tangled Biofilm Web Bacteria Weave By Elia Ben-Ari Posted May 1, ... a suitable surface, some water and nutrients, and bacteria will likely put down stakes and form biofilms. ...

  17. Electromechanical properties of radial active magnetic bearings


    Antila, Matti


    Nonideal properties of the electromagnetic actuators in radial active magnetic bearings are studied. The two dimensional nonlinear stationary finite element method is used to determine the linearised parameters of a radial active magnetic bearing. The method is verified on two test machines. The accuracy is 10-15 % in the magnetic saturation region. The effect of magnetic saturation on the bearing dynamics is studied based on the root locus diagrams of the closed loop system. These diagrams s...

  18. Powder-Metallurgical Bearings For Turbopumps (United States)

    Bhat, B. N.; Humphries, T. S.; Thom, R. L.; Moxson, V.; Friedman, G. I.; Dolan, F. J.; Shipley, R. J.


    Bearings fabricated by powder metallurgy developed for use in machines subjected to extremes of temperature, rolling-contact cyclic stresses, and oxidizing or otherwise corrosive fluids. Bearings also extend operating lives of other machines in which bearings required to resist extreme thermal, mechanical, and chemical stresses. One alloy exhibiting outstanding properties was MRC-2001. Resistance to fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear found superior to that of 440C stainless steel.

  19. Are organohalogen contaminants a bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Leifsson, PS


    Tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland contain the highest concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) among subpopulations of any mammalian species in the Arctic. Negative associations also have been found between OHC concentrations and bone mineral density and liver...... histology parameters for this subpopulation of polar bears. The present study examined the OHC concentrations and adverse effects on renal tissue for 75 polar bears collected during 1999 to 2002. Specific lesions were diffuse glomerular capillary wall thickening, mesangial glomerular deposits, tubular...

  20. Moving to Sustainable Metals. Multifunctional Ligands in Catalytic, Outer Sphere C-H, N-H and O-H Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, Robert [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)


    Much of our work during this grant period has emphasized green chemistry and sustainability. For example, we were able to convert glycerine, a waste byproduct of biodiesel production, into lactic acid, a compound with numerous applications, notably in the food and cosmetics industry, as well as being a source material for a biodegradable plastic. This work required a catalyst, that ceases to work after a certain lapse of time. We were able to identify the way in which this deactivation occurs by identifying some of the metal catalyst deactivation products. These proved to be multimetallic clusters containing up to six metals and up to 14 hydrogen atoms. Both the catalytic reaction itself and the deactivation structures are novel and unexpected. We have previously proposed that nitrogen heterocycles could be good energy carriers in a low CO2 future world. In another part of our study, we found catalysts for introduction of hydrogen, an energy carrier that is hard to store, into nitrogen heterocycles. The mechanism of this process proved to be unusual in that the catalyst transfers the H2 to the heterocycle in the form of H+ and H-, first transferring the H+ and only then the H-. In a third area of study, some of our compounds, originally prepared for DOE catalysis purposes, also proved useful in hydrocarbon oxidation and in water oxidation. The latter is important in solar-to-fuel work, because, by analogy with natural photosynthesis, the goal of the Yale Solar Group of four PIs is to convert sunlight to hydrogen and oxygen, which requires water splitting catalysts. The catalysts that proved useful mediate the latter reaction: water oxidation to oxygen. In a more technical study, we developed methods for distinguishing the case where catalysis is mediated by a soluble catalyst from cases where catalysis arises from a deposit of finely divided solid. One particular application involved electrocatalysis, where catalysis is driven by application of a voltage to electrodes dipped in the reactant mixture. We measured the mass increase of an electrode as material is deposited, and were able to see how this process is affected by the voltage supplied to the electrode. Our work continues to be well cited and we often receive requests for information or samples from fellow researchers.

  1. SEBS/PS Filled With Mg(OH)2/Al(OH)3/Clad Red Phosphorus%Mg(OH)2/Al(OH)3/包覆红磷阻燃SEBS/PS共混物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方立翠; 赵均乐; 张雅丽; 黄兆阁


    研究了Al(OH)3,Mg(OH)2包覆红磷(10份)对苯乙烯-乙烯-丁烯-苯乙烯嵌段共聚物(SEBS)/聚苯乙烯(PS)阻燃性能的影响.结果表明,Mg(OH)2用量为80份时阻燃级别达V-2,氧指数达到29%,但力学性能较差;AI(OH)3用量为80份时阻燃效果不很理想,但对力学性能影响较小;Mg(OH)2/Al(OH)3/包覆红磷体系中Mg(OH)2用量大于Al(OH)3时综合阻燃效果最好.阻燃体系的热释放速率降低,有效燃烧热出现峰值延后.%The influence of magnesium hydroxide,aluminium hydroxide,clad red phosphorus(10 phr) on the flame retardancy of SEBS/PS was studied.The results show that the magnesium hydroxide is 80 phr, the flame retardant level of the composites can reach V-2 and the limited oxygen index is 29%,but the mechanical properties is bad.The aluminium hydroxide is 80 phr, the flame retardant level of the composites is not very good ,but it has no significant influence on the mechanical properties.When the content of magnesium hydroxide is more than that of alminium hydroxide in magnesium hydroxide/aluminium hydroxide/clad red phosphorus system, the flame retardancy is the highest.The ignition time is delayed, heat release rate is reduced, the peak of effective heat combustion is delayed.

  2. Thermal and nuclear hyperfine properties of Ho(OH)3 (United States)

    Karmakar, S.


    A reasonable explanation for the findings of Catanese and Meissner [Phys. Rev. B 8, 2071 (1973)] regarding the (hyperfine) heat capacity in the low-temperature region of Ho(OH)3 is given. The Schottky specific heat in the high-temperature region observed calorimetrically by Chirico et al. [J. Chem. Thermodyn. 13, 1092 (1981)] explained satisfactorily. Nuclear hyperfine constants for Ho3+ ions in Ho(OH)3 are determined.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CH3OH & OH line emission from Galactic center (Cotton+, (United States)

    Cotton, W. D.; Yusef-Zadeh, F.


    The maser observations were centered on the rest frequency of the collisionally excited class I methanol J=4-1->30E masers (adopted rest frequency 36.169265GHz). The observations also contained eleven 128MHz sub-bands with 2MHz resolution between 35.3 and 36.5GHz for continuum calibration. These observations were made in five sessions between 2014 May 2 and 22. Hydroxyl observations using L band were made with spectral windows centered on the rest frequency of the OH lines at 1612, 1665, 1667, and 1720MHz and were made on 2014 May 31 using the Very Large Array (VLA) in "A" configuration. (5 data files).

  4. OH formation by HONO photolysis during the BERLIOZ experiment (United States)

    Alicke, B.; Geyer, A.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Konrad, S.; PäTz, H. W.; SchäFer, J.; Stutz, J.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Platt, U.


    The photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) in the early morning hours is an important source of OH radicals, the most important daytime oxidizing species. Although the importance of this mechanism has been recognized for many years, no accurate quantification of this OH source is available, and the role of HONO photolysis is often underestimated. We present measurements of HONO and its precursor NO2 by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) during the Berliner Ozonexperiment (BERLIOZ) field campaign in July/August 1998 at Pabstthum near Berlin, Germany. HONO concentrations, formation rates, and simultaneously measured HONO photolysis frequencies are used to calculate the total amount of OH formed by HONO photolysis during a full diurnal cycle. A comparison with the OH formation by photolysis of O3 and HCHO and by the reaction of alkenes with ozone shows that HONO photolysis contributed up to 20% of the total OH formed in a 24 hour period during this campaign. In the morning hours, HONO photolysis was by far the most important OH source during BERLIOZ.

  5. Environmental Implications of Hydroxyl Radicals ((•)OH). (United States)

    Gligorovski, Sasho; Strekowski, Rafal; Barbati, Stephane; Vione, Davide


    The hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) is one of the most powerful oxidizing agents, able to react unselectively and instantaneously with the surrounding chemicals, including organic pollutants and inhibitors. The (•)OH radicals are omnipresent in the environment (natural waters, atmosphere, interstellar space, etc.), including biological systems where (•)OH has an important role in immunity metabolism. We provide an extensive view on the role of hydroxyl radical in different environmental compartments and in laboratory systems, with the aim of drawing more attention to this emerging issue. Further research on processes related to the hydroxyl radical chemistry in the environmental compartments is highly demanded. A comprehensive understanding of the sources and sinks of (•)OH radicals including their implications in the natural waters and in the atmosphere is of crucial importance, including the way irradiated chromophoric dissolved organic matter in surface waters yields (•)OH through the H2O2-independent pathway, and the assessment of the relative importance of gas-phase vs aqueous-phase reactions of (•)OH with many atmospheric components. Moreover, considering the fact that people spend so much more time in dwellings than outside, the impact of the reactivity of indoor hydroxyl radicals on health and well-being is another emerging research topic of great concern.

  6. Effect NaOH Concentration on Bagasse Ash Based Geopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Geopolymer is a natural adhesive material which can be developed as a substitute for cement. The natural ingredients which want to use should contain silica and alumina. This paper uses bagasse ash as a basic material of mortar geopolymer. As an adhesive, the bagasse ash should be mixed with water and another activator alkali such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. The NaOHs molarity variation are 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 M with Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1,0 sand/bagasse ash = 2,75 and activator/bagasse ash = 0,42. This research use 50 × 50 × 50 mm cube sized specimen and conduct a compressive strength test with 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The fresh mortar test result showed that the use of NaOHs molarity variation influences the slump value and time setting. The bigger NaOH molarity variation that been used, the smaller slump value. But, the time setting is increased. While the result for density and compressive strength shown that the bigger NaOH molarity variation, the bigger density and the compressive strength. Maximum compressive strength resulted from the mixture of mortar geopolymer with 16 M concentration.

  7. Kaolin-based geopolymers with various NaOH concentrations (United States)

    Heah, C. Y.; Kamarudin, H.; Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M.; Bnhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Khairul Nizar, I.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Liew, Y. M.


    Kaolin geopolymers were produced by the alkali-activation of kaolin with an activator solution (a mixture of NaOH and sodium silicate solutions). The NaOH solution was prepared at a concentration of 6-14 mol/L and was mixed with the sodium silicate solution at a Na2SiO3/NaOH mass ratio of 0.24 to prepare an activator solution. The kaolin-to-activator solution mass ratio used was 0.80. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of NaOH concentration on the compressive strength of kaolin geopolymers at 80°C for 1, 2, and 3 d. Kaolin geopolymers were stable in water, and strength results showed that the kaolin binder had adequate compressive strength with 12 mol/L of NaOH concentration. When the NaOH concentration increased, the SiO2/Na2O decreased. The increased Na2O content enhanced the dissolution of kaolin as shown in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. However, excess in this content was not beneficial for the strength development of kaolin geopolymers. In addition, there was the formation of more geopolymeric gel in 12 mol/L samples. The XRD pattern of the samples showed a higher amorphous content and a more geopolymer bonding existed as proved by FTIR analysis.

  8. OH* imager response to turbulence-induced temperature fluctuations (United States)

    Gardner, Chester S.; Vargas, Fabio A.


    The layer of the excited state hydroxyl radical (OH*) is formed in the mesopause region by the reaction of ozone (O3) and atomic hydrogen (H). We derive the theoretical expressions for the OH* brightness and rotational temperature (T*) responses to high-frequency atmospheric temperature perturbations. The theory is used to calculate the 1-D and 2-D horizontal wave number spectra of the OH* and T* image fluctuations induced by atmospheric turbulence. By applying the theory to images of a breaking gravity wave packet, acquired by the Utah State University Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper, we show that existing infrared OH* imager technology can observe the evolution of gravity wave breakdown and characterize the resulting turbulent eddies in the source region and in the inertial subrange of the turbulence spectrum. For the example presented here, the RMS OH* brightness fluctuations induced by the gravity wave packet was 2.90% and by the associated turbulence was 1.07%. Unfortunately, the T* fluctuations induced by turbulence are usually too small to be observed in the OH* rotational temperature maps.

  9. Quantitative analysis of 3-OH oxylipins in fermentation yeast. (United States)

    Potter, Greg; Xia, Wei; Budge, Suzanne M; Speers, R Alex


    Despite the ubiquitous distribution of oxylipins in plants, animals, and microbes, and the application of numerous analytical techniques to study these molecules, 3-OH oxylipins have never been quantitatively assayed in yeasts. The formation of heptafluorobutyrate methyl ester derivatives and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization - mass spectrometry allowed for the first determination of yeast 3-OH oxylipins. The concentration of 3-OH 10:0 (0.68-4.82 ng/mg dry cell mass) in the SMA strain of Saccharomyces pastorianus grown in laboratory-scale beverage fermentations was elevated relative to oxylipin concentrations in plant tissues and macroalgae. In fermenting yeasts, the onset of 3-OH oxylipin formation has been related to fermentation progression and flocculation initiation. When the SMA strain was grown in laboratory-scale fermentations, the maximal sugar consumption rate preceded the lowest concentration of 3-OH 10:0 by ∼4.5 h and a distinct increase in 3-OH 10:0 concentration by ∼16.5 h.

  10. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.


    NREL has initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) to investigate the root cause of the low wind turbine gearbox reliability. The GRC follows a multi-pronged approach based on a collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers and consultants. The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database. At the core of the project are two 750kW gearboxes that have been redesigned and rebuilt so that they are representative of the multi-megawatt gearbox topology currently used in the industry. These gearboxes are heavily instrumented and are tested in the field and on the dynamometer. This report discusses the bearing calibrations of the gearboxes.

  11. Quantitation of 25-OH-Vitamin-D₂ and 25-OH-Vitamin-D₃ in Urine Using LC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Carlow, Dean C; Schofield, Ryan C; Denburg, Michelle


    Patients with significant proteinuria represent a unique population with respect to vitamin D status due to the urinary losses of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) to which >99 % of circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) is bound. Low serum concentrations of 25(OH)D have been found in children and adults with nephrotic syndrome (NS). However, previously described assays developed to quantify the magnitude of urinary loss are technically challenging. This chapter describes a simple and sensitive method to quantify 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 in urine specimens in a single analytical LC-MS/MS analysis. This assay is more sensitive than previously described radioimmunoassays and offers the ability to quantitate both forms of 25-hydroxy vitamin D. The assay involves no chemical derivitization, has a linear measurement range of 20-1500 pg/mL and displays imprecision (CVs) below 7 % at various concentrations across the analytical measurement range.

  12. An ambient experimental study of phase equilibrium in the atmospheric system: Aerosol H +, NH 4+, SO 2-4, NO 3--NH 3(g), HNO 3(g) (United States)

    Tanner, Roger L.

    A major simplification in the quantitative modeling of the atmospheric impact of the major aerosol and gaseous sulfur and nitrogen compounds would result from demonstration of phase equilibrium between the gases NH 3, HNO 3 and the appropriate aerosol-phase ionic or molecular species in the ambient atmosphere. The phase diagram of the (NH 4) 2SO 4-H 2SO 4-H 2O and NH 4NO 3-H 2O systems have been recently refined by experimental measurements and preliminary calculations of the mixed nitrate-sulfate system have also been made. Experiments to test the applicability of existing phase equilibria considerations to the ambient atmosphere have been designed and conducted based on newly devised techniques for continuous determination of gaseous NH 3 with time resolution acid and aerosol nitrate with time resolution of ~ 15 min. Preliminary results suggest that during a daytime period with aerosol composition approximating a letovicite-NH 4NO 3 mixture, observed products of NH 3 (g) and HNO 3(g) concentrations agreed very well with the equilibrium constant calculated for the ammonium nitrate-NH 3(g), HNO 3(g) equilibrium. During a night-time period, the predicted ammonia concentrations, based on bulk aerosol composition data, were much lower and nitric acid concentrations much higher, respectively, than the observed values. The error sources in the measured and calculated values do not appear to account for the apparent deviations from gas-phase concentrations based on the droplet-pH controlling bisulfate-sulfate equilibrium.

  13. Evaluation of bearing configurations using the single bearing tester in liquid nitrogen (United States)

    Jett, T.; Hall, P.; Thom, R.


    Various bearing configurations were tested using the Marshall Space Flight Center single bearing tester with LN2 as the cryogenic coolant. The baseline was one Rocketdyne phase one high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) pump end 45-mm bore bearing. The bearing configurations that were tested included a Salox/M cage configuration, a silicon nitride ball configuration, an elongated cage configuration, and a Bray 601 grease configuration.

  14. Rotor-Bearing Dynamics Technology Design Guide. Part 4. Cylindrical Roller Bearings (United States)


    ýbluck ,,lb.,mb i Tapered Roller Bearings Roller Beating Stiffness Tapered Roller Bearing Stiffness Turbine Bearings VRoller Bearings Rotordynamics ...input for rotordynamic response programs. The complete stiffness matrix is calculated including centrifugal effects. Considerations such as elastohydro...those parts directly connected with preparation of input for the rotordynamic response programs (Part 1(5) of the revised series) were retained. The

  15. Observations of OH and HO2 radicals over West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Heard


    Full Text Available The hydroxyl radical (OH plays a key role in the oxidation of trace gases in the troposphere. However, observations of OH and the closely related hydroperoxy radical (HO2 have been sparse, especially in the tropics. Based on a low-pressure laser-induced fluorescence technique (FAGE – Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion, an instrument has been developed to measure OH and HO2 aboard the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. The instrument is described and the calibration method is discussed. During the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA campaign, observations of OH and HO2 (HOx were made in the boundary layer and free troposphere over West Africa on 13 flights during July and August 2006. Mixing ratios of both OH and HO2 were found to be highly variable but followed a diurnal cycle, with a median HO2/OH ratio of 95. Daytime OH observations were compared with the primary production rate of OH from ozone photolysis in the presence of water vapour. Daytime HO2 observations were generally reproduced by a simple steady-state HOx calculation, where HOx was assumed to be formed from the primary production of OH and lost through HO2 self-reaction. Deviations between the observations and this simple model were found to be grouped into a number of specific cases: (a in the presence of high levels of isoprene in the boundary layer, (b within a biomass burning plume and (c within cloud. In the forested boundary layer, HO2 was underestimated at altitudes below 500 m but overestimated between 500 m and 2 km. In the biomass burning plume, OH and HO2 were both significantly reduced compared to calculations. HO2 was sampled in and around cloud, with significant short-lived reductions of HO2 observed. HO2 observations were better reproduced by a steady state calculation with heterogeneous loss of HO2 onto cloud droplets included. Up to 9 pptv of HO2 was observed at night, increasing early in the morning

  16. Simultaneous determination of NH4+, NO2- and NO3- by ion-exclusion/anion-exchange chromatography on a strongly basic anion-exchange resin with basic eluent%Simultaneous determination of NH4+,NO2- and NO3- by ion-exclusion/anion-exchange chromatography on a strongly basic anion-exchange resin with basic eluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masanobu MORI; Takahiro HIRONAGA; Hideyuki ITABASHI; Nobutake NAKATANI; Daisuke KOZAKI; Kazuhiko TANAKA


    Ion-exclusion/anion-exchange chromatography (IEC/AEC) on a combination of a strongly basic anion-exchange resin in the OH--form with basic eluent has been developed.The separation mechanism is based on the ion-exclusion/penetration effect for cations and the anion-exchange effect for anions to anion-exchange resin phase.This system is useful for simultaneous separation and determination of ammonium ion ( NH4+ ),nitrite ion (NO2-),and nitrate ion (NO3-) in water samples.The resolution of analyte ions can be manipulated by changing the concentration of base in eluent on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene based strongly basic anion-exchange resin column.In this study,several separation columns,which consisted of different particle sizes,different functional groups and different anion-exchange capacities,were compared.As the results,the separation column with the smaller anion-exchange capacity (TSKgel Super IC-Anion) showed well-resolved separation of cations and anions,In the optimization of the basic eluent,lithium hydroxide (LiOH) was used as the eluent and the optimal concentration was concluded to be 2 mmol/L,considering the resolution of analyte ions and the whole retention times.In the optimal conditions,the relative standard deviations of the peak areas and the retention times of NH4+,NO2-,and NO3- ranged 1.28% - 3.57% and 0.54% - 1.55%,respectively.The limits of detection at signal-to-noise of 3 were 4.10 μmol/L for NH4+,1.87 μmol/L for NO2- and 2.83 μmol/L for NO3-.

  17. Relativistic GW calculations on CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3SnI3 Perovskites for Solar Cell Applications (United States)

    Umari, Paolo; Mosconi, Edoardo; de Angelis, Filippo


    Hybrid AMX3 perovskites (A = Cs, CH3NH3; M = Sn, Pb; X = halide) have revolutionized the scenario of emerging photovoltaic technologies, with very recent results demonstrating 15% efficient solar cells. The CH3NH3PbI3/MAPb(I1-xClx)3 perovskites have dominated the field, while the similar CH3NH3SnI3 has not been exploited for photovoltaic applications. Replacement of Pb by Sn would facilitate the large uptake of perovskite-based photovoltaics. Despite the extremely fast progress, the materials electronic properties which are key to the photovoltaic performance are relatively little understood. Density Functional Theory electronic structure methods have so far delivered an unbalanced description of Pb- and Sn-based perovskites. Here we develop an effective GW method incorporating spin-orbit coupling which allows us to accurately model the electronic, optical and transport properties of CH3NH3SnI3 and CH3NH3PbI3, opening the way to new materials design. The different CH3NH3SnI3 and CH3NH3PbI3 electronic properties are discussed in light of their exploitation for solar cells, and found to be dominantly due to relativistic effects. These effects stabilize the CH3NH3PbI3 material towards oxidation, by inducing a deeper valence band edge. Relativistic effects, however, also increase the material band-gap compared to CH3NH3SnI3, due to the valence band energy downshift (~0.7 eV) being only partly compensated by the conduction band downshift (~0.2 eV).

  18. State Space Formulation of Nonlinear Vibration Responses Collected from a Dynamic Rotor-Bearing System: An Extension of Bearing Diagnostics to Bearing Prognostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Tse


    Full Text Available Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To extend bearing diagnostics to bearing prognostics, this paper reports the design of a state space formulation of nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system in order to intelligently predict bearing remaining useful life (RUL. Firstly, analyses of nonlinear vibration responses were conducted to construct a bearing health indicator (BHI so as to assess the current bearing health condition. Secondly, a state space model of the BHI was developed to mathematically track the health evolution of the BHI. Thirdly, unscented particle filtering was used to predict bearing RUL. Lastly, a new bearing acceleration life testing setup was designed to collect natural bearing degradation data, which were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed bearing prognostic method. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed bearing prognostic method is promising and the proposed bearing prognostic method is able to reflect future bearing health conditions.

  19. The MAGIC simulation of surface water acidification at, and first year results from, the Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation, Maine, USA. (United States)

    Norton, S A; Wright, R F; Kahl, J S; Scofield, J P


    The catchments of East and West Bear Brooks, Maine, USA, have been hydrologically and chemically monitored for 3.5 years. Stream chemistries and hydrographs are similar. These clear water streams are low in ANC (0-70 microeq litre(-1)), with variations caused by changing concentrations of base cations, SO4, NO3 and Cl. The latter range between 90-120, 0-40 and 65-75 microeq litre(-1), respectively. The West Bear catchment is being treated with six applications per year of dry (NH4)2SO4 at 1800 eq ha(-1) year(-1). After one year of treatment, the response of the stream chemistry and the response modelled by MAGIC are similar. Retentions of NH4 and SO4 are nearly 100% and greater than 80%, respectively. The additional flux of SO4 is compensated principally by an increased Ca concentration. Episodes of high discharge in the treated catchment are now characterized by lower ANC and pH, and higher Al than prior to the manipulation. Concentrations of NO3 have increased about 10 microeq litre(-1) during the dormant season, presumably due to additional nitrification of N from NH4. Discharge-chemistry relationships indicate that changes in stream chemistry, except for NO3, are dominated by ion exchange reactions in the upper part of the soil profile.

  20. Variations in H2O+/H2O ratios toward massive star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Wyrowski, F; Herpin, F; Baudry, A; Bontemps, S; Chavarria, L; Frieswijk, W; Jacq, T; Marseille, M; Shipman, R; van Dishoeck, E F; Benz, A O; Caselli, P; Hogerheijde, M R; Johnstone, D; Liseau, R; Bachiller, R; Benedettini, M; Bergin, E; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G; Braine, J; Bruderer, S; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Daniel, F; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Doty, S D; Encrenaz, P; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Giannini, T; Goicoechea, J R; de Graauw, Th; Helmich, F; Herczeg, G J; Jørgensen, J K; Kristensen, L E; Larsson, B; Lis, D; McCoey, C; Melnick, G; Nisini, B; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J C; Plume, R; Risacher, C; Santiago, J; Saraceno, P; Tafalla, M; van Kempen, T A; Visser, R; Wampfler, S; Yıldız, U A; Black, J H; Falgarone, E; Gerin, M; Roelfsema, P; Dieleman, P; Beintema, D; De Jonge, A; Whyborn, N; Stutzki, J; Ossenkopf, V


    Early results from the Herschel Space Observatory revealed the water cation H2O+ to be an abundant ingredient of the interstellar medium. Here we present new observations of the H2O and H2O+ lines at 1113.3 and 1115.2 GHz using the Herschel Space Observatory toward a sample of high-mass star-forming regions to observationally study the relation between H2O and H2O+ . Nine out of ten sources show absorption from H2O+ in a range of environments: the molecular clumps surrounding the forming and newly formed massive stars, bright high-velocity outflows associated with the massive protostars, and unrelated low-density clouds along the line of sight. Column densities per velocity component of H2 O+ are found in the range of 10^12 to a few 10^13 cm-2 . The highest N(H2O+) column densities are found in the outflows of the sources. The ratios of H2O+/H2O are determined in a range from 0.01 to a few and are found to differ strongly between the observed environments with much lower ratios in the massive (proto)cluster e...

  1. Product energy distributions from the 193 nm photodissociation of NH 3 (United States)

    Koplitz, B.; Xu, Z.; Wittig, C.


    Product energy distributions are reported for 193 nm NH 3 photodissociation. Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy on the H-atom fragment reveals a "cold" kinetic energy distribution, indicating a high degree of NH 2 internal excitation. Data are compared with the trajectory calculations of Rice, Raff and Thompson for NH 3(X˜ 1A 1) dissociation, and the reaction mechanism of Ashfold, Bennett and Dixon is discussed.

  2. Thermal Transformation of NH4-Clinoptilolite to Mullite and Silica Polymorphs


    Antonio Brundu; Guido Cerri; Eleonora Sale


    Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite used for the abatement of ammonium in the treatment of urban wastewater. By considering that mullite was obtained through thermal treatment of NH4-exchanged synthetic zeolites, this work aimed to evaluate if this phase can be obtained from NH4-clinoptilolite. A material containing about 90 wt % of clinoptilolite, prepared using a Sardinian zeolite-rich rock, was NH4-exchanged and subjected to treatments up to 1200 °C. After dehydration, de-ammoniation, and ...

  3. Precision instrumentation for rolling element bearing characterization (United States)

    Marsh, Eric R.; Vigliano, Vincent C.; Weiss, Jeffrey R.; Moerlein, Alex W.; Vallance, R. Ryan


    This article describes an instrument to measure the error motion of rolling element bearings. This challenge is met by simultaneously satisfying four requirements. First, an axial preload must be applied to seat the rolling elements in the bearing races. Second, one of the races must spin under the influence of an applied torque. Third, rotation of the remaining race must be prevented in a way that leaves the radial, axial/face, and tilt displacements free to move. Finally, the bearing must be fixtured and measured without introducing off-axis loading or other distorting influences. In the design presented here, an air bearing reference spindle with error motion of less than 10 nm rotates the inner race of the bearing under test. Noninfluencing couplings are used to prevent rotation of the bearing outer race and apply an axial preload without distorting the bearing or influencing the measurement. Capacitive displacement sensors with 2 nm resolution target the nonrotating outer race. The error motion measurement repeatability is shown to be less than 25 nm. The article closes with a discussion of how the instrument may be used to gather data with sufficient resolution to accurately estimate the contact angle of deep groove ball bearings.

  4. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?


    He Ji-Huan; Wang Qing-Li; Sun Jie


    A polar bear (Ursus maritimus) has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  5. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan


    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  6. Movie Director Bags a Silver Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese director and film writer Wang Xiaoshuai has walked away with the Silver Bear award at the 58th Berlin International Film Festival for best script of Zuo You, or In Love We Trust. Back in 2001, Wang won his first Silver Bear award for directing Beijing

  7. Theoretical study on the Co2+OH2/Co3+OH2 electron transfer reactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents a contact distance dependence analysis scheme and an ab initio calculation application for the electron transfer (ET) reactivity of Co2+OH2/Co3+OH2 reacting pair. The applicability of these schemes and the corresponding models has been discussed. The contact distance (RCoCo) dependence of the relevant quantities has been analyzed. The results indicate that the activation energy from the accurate PES method agrees well with that from the anharmonic potential method, and they are obviously better than that from the harmonic potential method. The pair distribution function varies from 10-2 to 10-5 along with RCoCo changing from 1.20 to 0.35 nm. The coupling matrix element exponentially decays along with the increase of RCoCo, and the effec-tive electronic coupling requires RCoCo smaller than 0.75 nm. In the range from 0.50 to 0.75 nm for RCoCo, the corresponding electronic transmission coefficient falls within 1.0-10-6. The local ET rate also exponentially decays along with the increase of RCoCo due to the electronic factor. Since the contribution from the pair distribution function to the total ET rate is an inverse measure of that from the electronic factor, the variation of the spherically averaged local ET rate along with RCoCo exhibits a parabola with a maximum at 0.50 nm of RCoCo. This maximum is close to the overall ob-served ET rate value. For this mono-hydrated transition metal ionic system, the ET rate generally is about 106 L·mol-1·s-1 in gaseous process. Further, since it is impossible to experimentally deter-mine the structures and their PESs of these hydrated systems, especially for the unstable interme-diate species, ab initio calculations can play an effective auxiliary role in discussing the ET reactivi-ties of these kinds of reacting systems.

  8. Absolute intensities of NH-stretching transitions in dimethylamine and pyrrole. (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin J; Du, Lin; Steel, Thomas J; Paul, Allanah J; Södergren, A Helena; Lane, Joseph R; Henry, Bryan R; Kjaergaard, Henrik G


    Vibrational spectra of vapor-phase dimethylamine (DMA) and pyrrole have been recorded in the 1000 to 13000 cm(-1) region using long path conventional spectroscopy techniques. We have focused on the absolute intensities of the NH-stretching fundamental and overtone transitions; Δν(NH) = 1-4 regions for DMA and the Δν(NH) = 1-3 regions for pyrrole. In the Δν(NH) = 1-3 regions for DMA, evidence of tunneling splitting associated with the NH-wagging mode is observed. For DMA, the fundamental NH-stretching transition intensity is weaker than the first NH-stretching overtone. Also, the fundamental NH-stretching transition in DMA is much weaker than the fundamental transition in pyrrole. We have used an anharmonic oscillator local mode model with ab initio calculated local mode parameters and dipole moment functions at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level to calculate the NH-stretching intensities and explain this intensity anomaly in DMA.

  9. Formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} during Datong coal pyrolysis in arc plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Wei-ren; Zhang Jin-cao; Shen Shu-guang; Cao Qing; Lu Yong-kang [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology


    The formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} from coal-N was investigated in a plasma coal pyrolysis reactor. Based on Gibbs free energy minimization principle, Thermodynamic equilibrium fraction of C-H-O-N was calculated. The results from experiments and calculation suggest that HCN is the main product of coal-N at high temperature. Only a little coal-N convertedto NH{sub 3}. As the temperature increases, the yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} increases from the experimental results, but the theoretic calculated results show that HCN gradually increases and NH{sub 3} decreases. The possible reason is the influence of practical operating condition. The yield of HCN increases firstly and then decreases with increasing coal feeding rate, but NH{sub 3} is reverse. Enhancement of input power lease to the increase of HCN and NH{sub 3} yields. H{sub 2} acting as the reactive atmosphere benefits to the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3}, and CO{sub 2} may reduce the yields of HCN and NH{sub 3}, O{sub 2} enhance the formation of NH{sub 3}, but promotes the furthermore conversion of HCN. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. NH4SH and cloud cover in the atmospheres of the giant planets (United States)

    Ibragimov, K. Iu.; Solodovnik, A. A.


    The probability of the formation of NH4SH and (NH4)2S is examined on the basis of the Le Chatelier principle. It is shown that it is very doubtful if NH4SH can be created in the atmospheres of the giant planets in quantities sufficient for cloud formation. Thus (NH4)2S is considered as a more likely candidate for cloud formation in the atmospheres of these planets, inasmuch as the conditions for its production there are more favorable.

  11. CN and NH2 atmospheres of Comet C/1999 J3 (Linear) (United States)

    Korsun, P. P.; Jockers, K.


    Observations of Comet C/1999 J3 were made at the 2-m telescope of the Pik Terskol Observatory on September 19, 1999. Narrow-band CCD images of the CN, NH2, and dust atmospheres have been recorded using the two-channel focal reducer of the Max-Plank-Institute for Aeronomy. To fit distributions of the CN and NH2 molecules in the comet atmosphere Monte Carlo model was adopted. Model calculations were successful with photodissociation lifetimes equal to τCN=1.5×105s and τ{CNparent}=3.2×104s for CN and its parent, τ{NH2}=1.0×105s and τ{NH2parent}=5.0×103s for NH2 and its parent, respectively. These results are in agreement with HCN as the main source of the CN radicals and NH3 as the main source of the NH2 radicals in the atmosphere of Comet C/1999 J3 (Linear). The gas-production rates of CN, Q(CN)=3.8×1025 mol-1, and NH2, Q(NH2)=2.6×1025 mol-1, have been determined as well. These values are about 0.24% and 0.16%, respectively, of the water production rate.

  12. Investigation on thermal evaporated CH3NH3PbI3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhen Li


    Full Text Available CH3NH3I, PbI2 and CH3NH3PbI3 films were fabricated by evaporation and characterized with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The XPS results indicate that the PbI2 and CH3NH3PbI3 films are more uniform and stable than the CH3NH3I film. The atomic ratio of the CH3NH3I, PbI2 and CH3NH3PbI3 films are C:N:I=1.00:1.01:0.70, Pb:I= 1.00:1.91 and C: N: Pb: I = 1.29:1.07:1.00:2.94, respectively. The atomic ratio of CH3NH3PbI3 is very close to that of the ideal perovskite. Small angle x-ray diffraction results demonstrate that the as evaporated CH3NH3PbI3 film is crystalline. The valence band maximum (VBM and work function (WF of the CH3NH3PbI3 film are about 0.85eV and 4.86eV, respectively.

  13. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder


    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coe±cients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 [1]and described further in 1972 [2]. Several authors have re¯ned this method...... seventies Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coe±cients of the bearing could be used to ¯nd the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for ¯nding the damping coe±cients in this work...

  14. Trends in Controllable Oil Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar


    This work gives an overview about the theoretical and experimental achievements of mechatronics applied to oil film bearings, with the aim of: controlling the lateral vibration of flexible rotating shafts; modifying bearing dynamic characteristics, as stiffness and damping properties; increasing...... the rotational speed ranges by improving damping and eliminating instability problems, for example, by compensating cross-coupling destabilizing effects; reducing startup torque and energy dissipation in bearings; compensating thermal effects. It is shown that such controllable bearings can act as "smart......" components and be applied to rotating machines with the goal of avoiding unexpected stops of plants, performing rotordynamic tests and identifying model parameters "on site". Emphasis is given to the controllable lubrication (active lubrication) applied to different types of oil film bearings, i...

  15. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.


    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  16. Optimization, biological evaluation and microPET imaging of copper-64-labeled bombesin agonists, [{sup 64}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}], in a prostate tumor xenografted mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Stephanie R., E-mail: srlf36@mail.missouri.ed [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nanda, Prasanta [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Rold, Tammy L. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Sieckman, Gary L. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Figueroa, Said D. [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Hoffman, Timothy J. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); The Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Jurisson, Silvia S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Smith, Charles J., E-mail: smithcj@health.missouri.ed [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); University of Missouri Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); The Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)


    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr) are a member of the bombesin (BBN) receptor family. GRPr are expressed in high numbers on specific human cancers, including human prostate cancer. Therefore, copper-64 ({sup 64}Cu) radiolabeled BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2} conjugates could have potential for diagnosis of human prostate cancer via positron-emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to produce [{sup 64}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] conjugates for prostate cancer imaging, where X=pharmacokinetic modifier (beta-alanine, 5-aminovaleric acid, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 8-aminooctanoic acid, 9-aminonanoic acid or para-aminobenzoic acid) and NO2A=1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetic acid [a derivative of NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid)]. Methods: [(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] Conjugates were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), after which NOTA was added via manual conjugation. The new peptide conjugates were radiolabeled with {sup 64}Cu radionuclide. The receptor-binding affinity was determined in human prostate PC-3 cells, and tumor-targeting efficacy was determined in PC-3 tumor-bearing severely combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Whole-body maximum intensity microPET/CT images of PC-3 tumor-bearing SCID mice were obtained 18 h postinjection (pi). Results: Competitive binding assays in PC-3 cells indicated high receptor-binding affinity for the [NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] and [{sup nat}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] conjugates. In vivo biodistribution studies of the [{sup 64}Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] conjugates at 1, 4 and 24 h pi showed very high uptake of the tracer in GRPr-positive tissue with little accumulation and retention in nontarget tissues. High-quality, high-contrast microPET images were obtained, with xenografted tumors being clearly visible at 18 h pi. Conclusions: NO2A chelator sufficiently stabilizes copper(II) radiometal under in vivo conditions, producing conjugates with very high uptake and retention in

  17. Observation of water dangling OH bonds around dissolved nonpolar groups. (United States)

    Perera, P N; Fega, K R; Lawrence, C; Sundstrom, E J; Tomlinson-Phillips, J; Ben-Amotz, Dor


    We report the experimental observation of water dangling OH bonds in the hydration shells around dissolved nonpolar (hydrocarbon) groups. The results are obtained by combining vibrational (Raman) spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR), to reveal a high-frequency OH stretch peak arising from the hydration shell around nonpolar (hydrocarbon) solute groups. The frequency and width of the observed peak is similar to that of dangling OH bonds previously detected at macroscopic air-water and oil-water interfaces. The area of the observed peak is used to quantify the number of water dangling bonds around hydrocarbon chains of different length. Molecular dynamics simulation of the vibrational spectra of water molecules in the hydration shell around neopentane and benzene reveals high-frequency OH features that closely resemble the experimentally observed dangling OH vibrational bands around neopentyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol. The red-shift of approximately 50 cm(-1) induced by aromatic solutes is similar to that previously observed upon formation of a pi-H bond (in low-temperature benzene-water clusters).

  18. Far-IR Excited OH Lines from Orion KL Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Goicoechea, J R; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Lerate, M R; Lim, T L; Swinyard, B M; Viti, S; Yates, J; Barlow, Michael J.; Cernicharo, Jose; Daniel, Fabien; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Lerate, Mercedes R.; Lim, Tanya L.; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Viti, Serena; Yates, Jeremy


    As part of the first far-IR line survey towards Orion KL, we present the detection of seven new rotationally excited OH Lambda-doublets (at 48, 65, 71, 79, 98 and 115 um). Observations were performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) Fabry-Perots on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In total, more than 20 resolved OH rotational lines, with upper energy levels up to 620 K, have been detected at an angular and velocity resolutions of 80$'' and 33 km s^-1 respectively. OH line profiles show a complex behavior evolving from pure absorption, P-Cygni type to pure emission. We also present a large scale 6' declination raster in the OH ^2\\Pi_3/2 J=5/2^+-3/2^- and ^2\\Pi_3/2 J=7/2^-5/2^+ lines (at 119.441 and 84.597 um) revealing the decrease of excitation outside the core of the cloud. From the observed profiles, mean intrinsic line widths and velocity offsets between emission and absorption line peaks we conclude that most of the excited OH arises from Orion outflow(s), i.e. the ``plateau'' compon...

  19. Radio Continuum and Methanol Observations of DR21(OH)

    CERN Document Server

    Araya, Esteban D; Hofner, Peter; Linz, Hendrik


    We report high sensitivity sub-arcsecond angular resolution observations of the massive star forming region DR21(OH) at 3.6, 1.3, and 0.7 cm obtained with the Very Large Array. In addition, we conducted observations of CH3OH 44 GHz masers. We detected more than 30 new maser components in the DR21(OH) region. Most of the masers appear to trace a sequence of bow-shocks in a bipolar outflow. The cm continuum observations reveal a cluster of radio sources; the strongest emission is found toward the molecular core MM1. The radio sources in MM1 are located about 5" north of the symmetry center of the CH3OH outflow, and therefore, they are unlikely to be associated with the outflow. Instead, the driving source of the outflow is likely located in the MM2 core. Although based on circumstantial evidence, the radio continuum from MM1 appears to trace free-free emission from shock-ionized gas in a jet. The orientation of the putative jet in MM1 is approximately parallel to the CH3OH outflow and almost perpendicular to th...

  20. Alcohol dimers--how much diagonal OH anharmonicity? (United States)

    Kollipost, Franz; Papendorf, Kim; Lee, Yu-Fang; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Suhm, Martin A


    The OH bond of methanol, ethanol and t-butyl alcohol becomes more anharmonic upon hydrogen bonding and the infrared intensity ratio between the overtone and the fundamental transition of the bridging OH stretching mode decreases drastically. FTIR spectroscopy of supersonic slit jet expansions allows to quantify these effects for isolated alcohol dimers, enabling a direct comparison to anharmonic vibrational predictions. The diagonal anharmonicity increase amounts to 15-18%, growing with increasing alkyl substitution. The overtone/fundamental IR intensity ratio, which is on the order of 0.1 or more for isolated alcohols, drops to 0.004-0.001 in the hydrogen-bonded OH group, making overtone detection very challenging. Again, alkyl substitution enhances the intensity suppression. Vibrational second order perturbation theory appears to capture these effects in a semiquantitative way. Harmonic quantum chemistry predictions for the hydrogen bond-induced OH stretching frequency shift (the widely used infrared signature of hydrogen bonding) are insufficient, and diagonal anharmonicity corrections from experiment make the agreement between theory and experiment worse. Inclusion of anharmonic cross terms between hydrogen bond modes and the OH stretching mode is thus essential, as is a high level electronic structure theory. The isolated molecule results are compared to matrix isolation data, complementing earlier studies in N2 and Ar by the more weakly interacting Ne and p-H2 matrices. Matrix effects on the hydrogen bond donor vibration are quantified.

  1. Photofragment imaging study of the CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate of the OH +allene reaction (United States)

    Raman, Arjun S.; Justine Bell, M.; Lau, Kai-Chung; Butler, Laurie J.


    These velocity map imaging experiments characterize the photolytic generation of one of the two radical intermediates formed when OH reacts via an addition mechanism with allene. The CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate is generated photolytically from the photodissociation of 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol at 193nm. Detecting the Cl atoms using [2+1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization evidences an isotropic angular distribution for the Cl +CH2CCH2OH photofragments, a spin-orbit branching ratio for Cl(P1/22):Cl(P3/22) of 0.28, and a bimodal recoil kinetic energy distribution. Conservation of momentum and energy allows us to determine from this data the internal energy distribution of the nascent CH2CCH2OH radical cofragment. To assess the possible subsequent decomposition pathways of this highly vibrationally excited radical intermediate, we include electronic structure calculations at the G3//B3LYP level of theory. They predict the isomerization and dissociation transition states en route from the initial CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate to the three most important product channels for the OH +allene reaction expected from this radical intermediate: formaldehyde+C2H3, H +acrolein, and ethene+CHO. We also calculate the intermediates and transition states en route from the other radical adduct, formed by addition of the OH to the center carbon of allene, to the ketene+CH3 product channel. We compare our results to a previous theoretical study of the O +allyl reaction conducted at the CBS-QB3 level of theory, as the two reactions include several common intermediates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Tang


    Full Text Available The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with profile-steel bearing and cylindrical-Wall bearing have similar values in Mises stress, but the steel silo with profile-steel bearing has a smaller radial displacement and a better capability of buckling resistance. Meanwhile, the total steel volumes reduced 8.0% comparing to the steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing. Therefore, steel soil with profile-steel bearing not only has a less steel volumes but also a good stability.

  3. Determining the storage, availability and reactivity of NH3 within Cu-Chabazite-based Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction systems. (United States)

    Lezcano-Gonzalez, I; Deka, U; Arstad, B; Van Yperen-De Deyne, A; Hemelsoet, K; Waroquier, M; Van Speybroeck, V; Weckhuysen, B M; Beale, A M


    Three different types of NH3 species can be simultaneously present on Cu(2+)-exchanged CHA-type zeolites, commonly used in Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (NH3-SCR) systems. These include ammonium ions (NH4(+)), formed on the Brønsted acid sites, [Cu(NH3)4](2+) complexes, resulting from NH3 coordination with the Cu(2+) Lewis sites, and NH3 adsorbed on extra-framework Al (EFAl) species, in contrast to the only two reacting NH3 species recently reported on Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite. The NH4(+) ions react very slowly in comparison to NH3 coordinated to Cu(2+) ions and are likely to contribute little to the standard NH3-SCR process, with the Brønsted groups acting primarily as NH3 storage sites. The availability/reactivity of NH4(+) ions can be however, notably improved by submitting the zeolite to repeated exchanges with Cu(2+), accompanied by a remarkable enhancement in the low temperature activity. Moreover, the presence of EFAl species could also have a positive influence on the reaction rate of the available NH4(+) ions. These results have important implications for NH3 storage and availability in Cu-Chabazite-based NH3-SCR systems.

  4. Limited overshooting of NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions in ammonium perchlorate; Ograniczene przeskoki jonow NH{sub 4}{sup +} w nadchloranie amonowym

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birczynski, A.; Lalowicz, Z.T. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Ingman, L.P.; Punkkinen, M.; Ylinen, E.E. [Wihuri Physical Lab., Turku Univ., Turku (Finland)


    The interpretation of NMR spectra for polycrystalline sample of ammonium perchlorate in helium temperature assumes the tunneling of NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Such interpretation does not agree with experimental data. The hypothesis of additional motion (fast rotation around one of C3 axis) has been checked and discussed on the base of NMR spectra of NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} monocrystal for the temperature range 2.1-25 K. 9 refs, 1 fig.

  5. Radiation tolerance in water bears. (United States)

    Horikawa, D. D.; Sakashita, T.; Katagiri, C.; Watanabe, M.; Nakahara, Y.; Okuda, T.; Hamada, N.; Wada, S.; Funayama, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    Tardigrades water bears are tiny invertebrates forming a phylum and inhabit various environments on the earth Terrestrial tardigrades enter a form called as anhydrobiosis when the surrounding water disappears Anhyydrobiosis is defined as an ametabolic dry state and followed by recovering their activity when rehydrated Anhydrobiotic tardigrades show incredible tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions such as temperatures -273 r C to 151 r C vacuum high pressure 600 MPa and chemicals that include alcohols and methyl bromide In these views there have been some discussions about their potential for surviving outer space In the present study we demonstrated the survival limit not merely against gamma-rays but against heavy ions in the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum in order to evaluate the effects of radiations on them The animals were exposure to 500 to 7000 Gy of gamma-rays or 500 to 8000 Gy of heavy ions 4 He in their hydrated or anhydrobiotic state The results showed that both of hydrated and anhydrobiotic animals have high radio-tolerance median lethal dose LD50 48 h of gamma-rays or heavy ions in M tardigradum was more than 4000 Gy indicating that this species is categorized into the most radio-tolerant animals We suggest that tardigrades will be suitable model animals for extremophilic multicellular organisms and may provide a survival strategy in extraterrestrial environments

  6. CH3NH3I在制备CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Clx钙钛矿太阳能电池中的作用∗%Effects of CH3NH3I on fabricating CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Clx p erovskite solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏祥; 刘喜哲


    Perovskite solar cell, which is prepared by using the organic-inorganic hybrid halide CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Cl and Br), receives widespread attention because of its solution processability and high photon-to-electron conversion effi-ciency. The highest reported photon-to-electron conversion efficiency is that using CH3NH3PbI(3−x)Clx as an absorber. It is reported that the diffusion length is greater than 1 micrometer in this mixed halide perovskite. The method most commonly used in preparing CH3NH3PbI(3−x)Clx film is the one-step pyrolysis method, which has a complex reaction mechanism. In this paper, we review the work about CH3NH3PbI(3−x)Clx perovskite, in which emphasis is put on the importance of the preparation process, and analyze the role of CH3NH3I in the one-step pyrolysis method for fabricating the CH3NH3PbI(3−x)Clxperovskite layer. Scanning electron microscope images show that CH3NH3I can improve the cov-erage and crystallinity of the perovskite layer for precursors in low CH3NH3I concentrations (CH3NH3I/PbCl2=2.0 and 2.5). For precursors in high CH3NH3I concentrations (CH3NH3I/PbCl2=2.75 and 3), this change is not obvious. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the change of coverage, and indicates that the content of Cl in CH3NH3PbI(3−x)Clx will be less than 5% for precursors with high CH3NH3I concentrations (CH3NH3I/PbCl2 >2.5). Perovskite solar cells based on CH3NH3PbI(3−x)Clx with different Cl dopant concentrations are studied by photoelectric measurements. Pho-tocurrent density-photovoltage curves show that the performance of the devices increases with the increase of CH3NH3I concentration in precursors. And the incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements indicate that the devices fabricated by using precursors with high CH3NH3I concentration have a relatively high external quan-tum efficiency. These results imply that only CH3NH3PbI(3−x)Clx with very low Cl dopant concentration will be effective material for

  7. Infrared spectrum of the cold ortho-fluorinated protonated neurotransmitter 2-phenylethylamine: competition between NH(+)π and NH(+)F interactions. (United States)

    Schütz, Markus; Bouchet, Aude; Dopfer, Otto


    Halogenation of pharmaceutical molecules is a common tool to modify their physiological properties. The geometric, vibrational, and electronic properties of the ortho-fluorinated protonated neurotransmitter 2-phenylethylamine (oF-H(+)PEA) are characterized by infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy in the NH stretch range using the messenger technique and dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ level to elucidate the drastic effect of site-specific ortho-fluorination. The IRPD spectra of cold oF-H(+)PEA-Rg dimers (Rg = Ne, Ar) are assigned to the most stable gauche conformer (Gf1) of oF-H(+)PEA, which benefits from both NH(+)π and NH(+)F interactions. A minor contribution (∼5%) of the slightly less stable Gf2 gauche conformer (E0 = +1.1 kJ mol(-1)) is also identified. Comparison of oF-H(+)PEA with unsubstituted H(+)PEA reveals a much stronger NH(+)π interaction in H(+)PEA resulting in a large red shift of the bonded NH stretch frequency. This behavior is confirmed by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and noncovalent interaction (NCI) calculations. The Rg ligand prefers a binding site at which it can maximize the interaction with the aromatic π electron system and the ammonium group. Although the intermolecular interactions with the Rg atoms can compete with the noncovalent intramolecular bonds, they induce only minor spectral shifts in the NH stretch range.

  8. Properties of oxidized linen fiber grafted with HBP-NH2%HBP-NH2接枝氧化亚麻纤维性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兵; 张峰; 林红; 陈宇岳



  9. Carbon dioxide sequestration using NaHSO4 and NaOH: A dissolution and carbonation optimisation study. (United States)

    Sanna, Aimaro; Steel, Luc; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes


    The use of NaHSO4 to leach out Mg fromlizardite-rich serpentinite (in form of MgSO4) and the carbonation of CO2 (captured in form of Na2CO3 using NaOH) to form MgCO3 and Na2SO4 was investigated. Unlike ammonium sulphate, sodium sulphate can be separated via precipitation during the recycling step avoiding energy intensive evaporation process required in NH4-based processes. To determine the effectiveness of the NaHSO4/NaOH process when applied to lizardite, the optimisation of the dissolution and carbonation steps were performed using a UK lizardite-rich serpentine. Temperature, solid/liquid ratio, particle size, concentration and molar ratio were evaluated. An optimal dissolution efficiency of 69.6% was achieved over 3 h at 100 °C using 1.4 M sodium bisulphate and 50 g/l serpentine with particle size 75-150 μm. An optimal carbonation efficiency of 95.4% was achieved over 30 min at 90 °C and 1:1 magnesium:sodium carbonate molar ratio using non-synthesised solution. The CO2 sequestration capacity was 223.6 g carbon dioxide/kg serpentine (66.4% in terms of Mg bonded to hydromagnesite), which is comparable with those obtained using ammonium based processes. Therefore, lizardite-rich serpentinites represent a valuable resource for the NaHSO4/NaOH based pH swing mineralisation process.

  10. The permanent electric dipole moment of CaOH (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Steimle, Timothy; Shirley, Jeffrey E.


    The X 2 Sigma(+), A 2Pi, and B 2Sigma(+) states of CaOH are characterized theoretically and experimentally, with a focus on the value of the permanent electric dipole moment (mu). Calculations based on SCF and SDCI studies of CaOH (Bauschlicher et al., 1984 and 1986) give mu values of 0.98, 0.49, and 0.11 D for the X, A, and B states, respectively, in good agreement with experiments in which the pure rotational spectra of these states were not detected. Modified Rittner (1951) and ligand-field models of these states are explored in detail, and the applicability of these results to observational searches for CaOH in circumstellar envelopes is indicated.

  11. Crystal structure of Pb3(IO4(OH22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weil


    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, trilead(II bis[dihydroxidotetraoxidoiodate(VII], was determined from a crystal twinned by non-merohedry with two twin domains present [twin fraction 0.73 (1:0.27 (1]. It contains three Pb2+ cations and two IO4(OH23− anions in the asymmetric unit. Each of the Pb2+ cations is surrounded by eight O atoms (cut-off value = 3.1 Å in the form of a distorted polyhedron. The octahedral IO4(OH23− anions are arranged in rows extending parallel to [021], forming a distorted hexagonal rod packing. The cations and anions are linked into a framework structure. Although H-atom positions could not be located, O...O distances suggest medium-strength hydrogen-bonding interactions between the IO4(OH2 octahedra, further consolidating the crystal packing.

  12. The distribution of maser emission in OH/IR stars (United States)

    Welty, Alan D.; Fix, John D.; Mutel, Robert L.


    The 1612 MHz OH emission from five OH/IR stars has been mapped at three epochs over a 2.5 yr period of time. Although the stars were observed at very different phases in the radio light curve of each, there were no remarkable changes in the appearance of the maps. This probably implies that the properties of the masers do not range widely throughout a maser shell. The maps have been used to produce star-centered surface maps of the distribution of maser emission from each star. The surface maps generally are sparsely filled with OH emission and are dominated by relatively few (about 10) major clumps of emission. The presence of large regions of low intensity in the surface maps suggests that the number of individual emitting elements is relatively small or that there are a larger number of elements which are distributed in the shell in a distinctly nonrandom manner.

  13. Synthesis of Tin Oxide Through Thermal Decomposition of Sn2 (NH4)2 (C2 O4)3 and Its Gas Sensing Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan; WU Shi-hua; WANG Shu-rong


    Nanocrystalline tin oxide samples were prepared by using Sn2 (NH4)2 (C2O4)3 as the precursor. The thermal decompositions were respectively conducted at 250,450 and 650 ℃. TG-DTA, XRD, TEM, FTIR were used to characterize the samples. The indirect heating sensors by using these materials as sensitive bodies were fabricated on an alumina tube with Au electrodes and platinum wires. Sensing properties of these sensors were investigated. It was found that the tin oxide sample obtained by thermal decomposition at 450 ℃ has a higher sensitivity to C2 H5 OH and a higher selectivity to hexane and ammonia than those obtained via the conventional precipitate method and the working temperatures needed were greatly decreased.

  14. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu


    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  15. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.


    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  16. Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Bearing Anomaly (United States)

    Loewenthal, S.; Esper, J.; Pan, J.; Decker, J.


    Early in 1993, a servo motor within one of three Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) reached stall torque levels on several occasions. Little time was left to plan replacement during the first servicing mission, scheduled at the end of '93. Accelerated bearing life tests confirmed that a small angle rocking motion, known as Coarse Track (CT), accelerated bearing degradation. Saturation torque levels were reached after approximately 20 million test cycles, similar to the flight bearings. Reduction in CT operation, implemented in flight software, extended FGS life well beyond the first servicing mission. However in recent years, bearing torques have resumed upward trends and together with a second, recent bearing torque anomaly has necessitated a scheduled FGS replacement during the upcoming second servicing mission in '97. The results from two series of life tests to quantify FGS bearing remaining life, discussion of bearing on-orbit performance, and future plans to service the FGS servos are presented in this paper.

  17. 采用Mg(OH)2调节pH值对富磷剩余污泥厌氧消化过程氮磷释放的影响%On the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus release on the anaerobic digestion of PRWAS with pH-adjusted by Mg(OH)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕东苏; 郭小品


    以A/O工艺排出的富磷剩余污泥为对象,通过两组厌氧消化反应器(1组目标,1组对照),对比研究了 Mg(OH)2作为pH值调节剂对污泥厌氧消化过程氮磷释放的影响.结果表明,Mg(OH)2在促进污泥水解的同时,可以有效降低消化液中NHf-N、PO43--P质量浓度.经过21 d消化,目标反应器中VSS比对照试验多削减10%,但上清液中NH4+ -N、PO4- -P质量浓度仅为对照的25%、10%.消化后污泥中灰分增加,导致污泥浓缩与脱水性能显著提高.%This paper is engaged in the study of the effects of Mg(OH)2 on the anaerobic digestion of phosphorus-rich waste acti-vated sludge (PRWAS) based on the two parallel anaerobic digestion reactors (Rl and R2). The sludge sample used in this paper was taken from an aeration tank in a sewage treating plant in Shanghai, in which almost a hundred-percent water to be treated were originated from the domestic sewage and then to be enhanced by Bio-Phosphorus Removal. The results of our study indicate that the pH of the digestive juice in R2 can be steadily kept within the range of 8.5 to 9.0 throughout the experiment process when the added concentration of Mg(OH)2 is to be kept within 400 mg/L. And, in tum, it is made to fit the use of Mg(OH)2 as pH controlled medium for anaerobic digestion of such sludge. Further investigations prove that the hydrolysis of the activated sludge got improved by adding Mg(0H)2 because it was possible to accelerate the hydrolysis under the alkaline condition. Nevertheless, the concentration of NH/ - N and PO4- - P remains to get lowered obviously due to the most part of NH/ - N and Poj - P can be removed by crystallizing MAP ( MgNH,PO4·6H2O) efficiently, in which Mg2+ comes from the dissolution of Mg(0H)2. Although the VSS tends to drop in R2 more remarkably than that in Rl, the concentrations of NH4+ - N ,PO4- - P in R2 are likely only to drop to 25% and 10% of their original in Rl by the end of the experiments. Therefore

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome Enable Javascript to view the ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized ...

  19. Inflowing gas onto a compact obscured nucleus in Arp 299A. Herschel spectroscopic studies of H2O and OH (United States)

    Falstad, N.; González-Alfonso, E.; Aalto, S.; Fischer, J.


    Aims: We probe the physical conditions in the core of Arp 299A and try to put constraints on the nature of its nuclear power source. Methods: We used Herschel Space Observatory far-infrared and submillimeter observations of H2O and OH rotational lines in Arp 299A to create a multi-component model of the galaxy. In doing this, we employed a spherically symmetric radiative transfer code. Results: Nine H2O lines in absorption and eight in emission, as well as four OH doublets in absorption and one in emission, are detected in Arp 299A. No lines of the 18O isotopologues, which have been seen in compact obscured nuclei of other galaxies, are detected. The absorption in the ground state OH 2Π3/2-2Π3/2(5/2)+-(3/2)- doublet at 119 μm is found redshifted by 175 km s-1 compared with other OH and H2O lines, suggesting a low excitation inflow. We find that at least two components are required in order to account for the excited molecular line spectrum. The inner component has a radius of 20-25 pc, a very high infrared surface brightness (≳3 × 1013L⊙kpc-2), warm dust (Td > 90 K), and a large H2 column density (NH2 > 1024 cm-2). The modeling also indicates high nuclear H2O (1-5 × 10-6) and OH (0.5-5 × 10-5) abundances relative to H nuclei. The outer component is larger (50-100 pc) with slightly cooler dust (70-90 K) and molecular abundances that are approximately one order of magnitude lower. In addition to the two components that account for the excited OH and H2O lines, we require a much more extended inflowing component to account for the OH 2Π3/2-2Π3/2(5/2)+-(3/2)- doublet at 119 μm. Conclusions: The Compton-thick nature of the core makes it difficult to determine the nature of the buried power source, but the high surface brightness indicates that it is an active galactic nucleus and/or a dense nuclear starburst. Our results are consistent with a composite source. The high OH/H2O ratio in the nucleus indicates that ion-neutral chemistry induced by X-rays or

  20. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report updates a study to examine the cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies. The project was initiated in 1994 to acquire accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of the study is used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers monitored 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers worked with representatives from Husky Oil and Rigel Energy on the development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over eight years indicates that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered thus far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears suffer from high mortality, and the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The research concluded in November 2001 provides sufficient information to accurately asses the status of the grizzly bear population and habitat. The data will be analyzed and integrated in 2002 into models that reflect the variables affecting grizzly bears and a final report will be published.

  1. Serum 25(OH)D and incident type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L. L. N.; Skaaby, T.; Thuesen, B. H.


    Mild to moderate vitamin D insufficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for several common chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and incident diabetes.......Mild to moderate vitamin D insufficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for several common chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and incident diabetes....

  2. From employee representation to problem-solving: Mainstreaming OHS management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Seim, Rikke; Refslund, Bjarke


    The role of occupational health and safety representatives is changing. A study in 60 Danish enterprises indicates that representation, and especially negotiation on behalf of colleagues, has diminished. The work environment is mainstreamed in many enterprises and is rarely an area of conflict....... The role of OHS representatives has accordingly changed to focus on solving specific problems in the workplace as an integrated part of daily operations. Both management and colleagues consider the OHS representatives as a resource that can be utilized to manage the work environment. The consequences...

  3. From employee representation to problem-solving - Mainstreaming OHS management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Seim, Rikke; Refslund, Bjarke


    The role of occupational health and safety representatives is changing. A study in 60 Danish enterprises indicates that representation, and especially negotiation on behalf of colleagues, has diminished. The work environment is mainstreamed in many enterprises and is rarely an area of conflict....... The role of OHS representatives has accordingly changed to focus on solving specific problems in the workplace as an integrated part of daily operations. Both management and colleagues consider the OHS representatives as a resource that can be utilized to manage the work environment. The consequences...

  4. New OH Observations toward Northern Class I Methanol Masers (United States)

    Val'tts, I. E.; Litovchenko, I. D.; Bayandina, O. S.; Alakoz, A. V.; Larionov, G. M.; Mukha, D. V.; Nabatov, A. S.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Alekseev, E. V.; Nikolaenko, V. S.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Odincov, S. A.


    Maser emission of OH(1720) is formed, according to modern concepts, under the influence of collisional pumping. Class I methanol masers (MMI) are also formed by a collisional mechanism of the inversion of the molecular levels. It is not excluded in this case that physical conditions in the condensations of the interstellar medium where masers are formed may be similar for MMI and OH(1720) masers, and they can associate with each other. To establish a possible association between these two kinds of masers, and obtain reliable statistical estimates, a survey of class I methanol masers at a frequency of 1720 MHz has been carried out.

  5. Ground-state OH maser distributions in the Galactic Centre region

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Hai-Hua; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Dawson, Joanne R


    Ground-state OH masers identified in the Southern Parkes Large-Area Survey in Hydroxyl were observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to obtain positions with high accuracy ($\\sim$1\\,arcsec). We classified these OH masers into evolved star OH maser sites, star formation OH maser sites, supernova remnant OH maser sites, planetary nebula OH maser sites and unknown maser sites using their accurate positions. Evolved star and star formation OH maser sites in the Galactic Centre region (between Galactic longitudes of $-5^{\\circ}$ to $+5^{\\circ}$ and Galactic latitudes of $-2^{\\circ}$ and $+2^{\\circ}$) were studied in detail to understand their distributions.

  6. 氢氧化镁和乌洛托品合成工艺研究%Technology Research on Synthesis of Mg(OH) 2 and Urotropine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生廷; 胡晓英


    青海察尔汗盐湖拥有极为丰富的MgCl2资源,其和液氨反应生成氢氧化镁沉淀,回收NH4Cl滤液和廉价的CaO反应,经精馏、除水、氨气再和甲醛反应生成乌洛托品.在深入贯彻落实科学发展观的今天,走盐湖资源综合利用和可持续发展之路,研究此工艺,对青海盐湖海虹化工股份有限公司有着巨大的现实和经济意义.%There are plenty of magnesium chloride resources in Chaerhan Saline Lake in Qinghai. Mg(OH)2 deposit and NH4C1 solution will be obtained if MgCl2 reacts with liquid ammonia. When NH4CI solution is recycled and reacts with cheap CaO, ammonia gas will be obtained after distillation and water removal. Urotropine will be synthesized when ammonia gas reacts with formaldehyde. That apply the scientific outlook on development thoroughly is being carried nowadays. To multipurpose utilize saline lake resources and maintain sustainable development, the technology should be researched. And that has great realistic and economic meaning.

  7. Titanium carbide coatings for aerospace ball bearings (United States)

    Boving, Hans J.; Haenni, Werner; Hintermann, HANS-E.


    In conventional ball bearings, steel to steel contacts between the balls and the raceways are at the origin of microwelds which lead to material transfer, surface roughening, lubricant breakdown, and finally to a loss in the bearing performances. To minimize the microwelding tendencies of the contacting partners it is necessary to modify their surface materials; the solid to solid collisions themselves are difficult to avoid. The use of titanium carbide coated steel balls can bring spectacular improvements in the performances and lifetimes of both oil-grease lubricated and oil-grease free bearings in a series of severe applications.

  8. Hydrostatic, aerostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W Brian


    Solve your bearing design problems with step-by-step procedures and hard-won performance data from a leading expert and consultant Compiled for ease of use in practical design scenarios, Hydrostatic, Aerostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design provides the basic principles, design procedures and data you need to create the right bearing solution for your requirements. In this valuable reference and design companion, author and expert W. Brian Rowe shares the hard-won lessons and figures from a lifetime's research and consultancy experience. Coverage includes: Clear e

  9. Microeconomic analysis of military aircraft bearing restoration (United States)

    Hein, G. F.


    The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding program was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed. The annual cost savings to U.S. Army aviation is approximately $950,000.00 for three engines and three transmissions. The capital value over an indefinite life is approximately ten million dollars. The annual cost savings for U.S. Air Force engines is approximately $313,000.00 with a capital value of approximately 3.1 million dollars. The program will result in the government obtaining bearings at lower costs at equivalent reliability. The bearing industry can recover lost profits during a period of reduced demand and higher costs.

  10. Active magnetic bearings applied to industrial compressors (United States)

    Kirk, R. G.; Hustak, J. F.; Schoeneck, K. A.


    The design and shop test results are given for a high-speed eight-stage centrifugal compressor supported by active magnetic bearings. A brief summary of the basic operation of active magnetic bearings and the required rotor dynamics analysis are presented with specific attention given to design considerations for optimum rotor stability. The concerns for retrofits of magnetic bearings in existing machinery are discussed with supporting analysis of a four-stage centrifugal compressor. The current status of industrial machinery in North America using this new support system is presented and recommendations are given on design and analysis requirements for successful machinery operation of either retrofit or new design turbomachinery.

  11. Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar


    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... orifices machined in the bearing pads, one can alter the machine dynamic characteristics, thus enhancing its operational range. A mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system, as well as of the hydraulic system, is presented. Numerical results of the system frequency response show good agreement...

  12. On Controllable Elastohydrodynamic Fluid Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Martin Asger

    This thesis gives a theoretical description of the active tilting-pad journal bearing (ATPJB). It provides the qualified reader with the tools to model an ATPJB, while staying clear of pitfalls. The model is based on well known techniques and allows for local stability analyses, harmonic stationary...... are performed for a tilting-pad journal bearing (TPJB) and an ATPJB under static conditions, followed by a generalisation to dynamic conditions (transient as well as stationary harmonic). These analyses will be of interest to experimentalists, since they permit experiments performed on scaled down test rigs...... the addition of a control system may just as well harm rotor-bearing performance as improve it....

  13. Role of NH3 in the Electron-Induced Reactions of Adsorbed and Solid Cisplatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warneke, Jonas; Rohdenburg, Markus; Zhang, Yucheng; Orzagh, Juraj; Vaz, Alfredo; Utke, Ivo; De Hosson, Jeff Th M.; van Dorp, Willem F.; Swiderek, Petra


    The electron-induced decomposition of cisplatin (cis-Pt(NH3)(2)Cl-2) was investigated to reveal if ammine (NH3) ligands have a favorable effect on the purity of deposits produced from metal-containing precursor molecules by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). Scanning electron microsco

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhiza maintains nodule function during external NH4+ supply in Phaseolus vulgaris (L.). (United States)

    Mortimer, Peter E; Pérez-Fernández, Maria A; Valentine, Alex J


    The synergistic benefits of the dual inoculation of legumes with nodule bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are well established, but the effect of an external NH(4)(+) supply on this tripartite relationship is less clear. This effect of NH(4)(+) supply was investigated with regards to the growth and function of the legume host and both symbionts. Nodulated Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings with and without AM, were grown in a sand medium with either 0 N, 1 mM or 3 mM NH(4)(+). Plants were harvested at 30 days after emergence and measurements were taken for biomass, N(2) fixation, photosynthesis, asparagine concentration, construction costs and N nutrition. The addition of NH(4)(+) led to a decline in the percentage AM colonization and nodule dry weights, although AM colonization was affected to a lesser extent. NH(4)(+) supply also resulted in a decrease in the reliance on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF); however, the AM roots maintained higher levels of NH(4)(+) uptake than their non-AM counterparts. Furthermore, the non-AM plants had a higher production of asparagine than the AM plants. The inhibitory effects of NH(4)(+) on nodule function can be reduced by the presence of AM at moderate levels of NH(4)(+) (1 mM), via improving nodule growth or relieving the asparagine-induced inhibition of BNF.

  15. Survey Observations of a Possible Glycine Precursor, Methanimine (CH$_2$NH)

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Taiki; Hirota, Tomoya; Saito, Masao; Majumdar, Liton; Wakelam, Valentine


    We conducted survey observations of a glycine precursor, methanimine or methylenimine (CH$_2$NH), with the NRO 45 m telescope and the SMT telescope towards 12 high-mass and two low-mass star-forming regions in order to increase number of CH$_2$NH sources and to better understand the characteristics of CH2NH sources. As a result of our survey, CH$_2$NH was detected in eight sources, including four new sources. The estimated fractional abundances were ~10$^8$ in Orion KL and G10.47+0.03, while they were ~10$^9$ towards the other sources. Our hydrogen recombination line and past studies suggest that CH$_2$NH-rich sources have less evolved HII regions. The less destruction rates by UV flux from the central star would be contributed to the high CH$_2$NH abundances towards CH$_2$NH-rich sources. Our gas-grain chemical simulations suggest that CH$_2$NH is mostly formed in the gas-phase by neutral-neutral reactions rather than the product of thermal evaporation from the dust surfaces.

  16. NH4+ triggers the release of astrocytic lactate via mitochondrial pyruvate shunting (United States)

    Lerchundi, Rodrigo; Fernández-Moncada, Ignacio; Contreras-Baeza, Yasna; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Mächler, Philipp; Wyss, Matthias T.; Stobart, Jillian; Baeza-Lehnert, Felipe; Alegría, Karin; Weber, Bruno; Barros, L. Felipe


    Neural activity is accompanied by a transient mismatch between local glucose and oxygen metabolism, a phenomenon of physiological and pathophysiological importance termed aerobic glycolysis. Previous studies have proposed glutamate and K+ as the neuronal signals that trigger aerobic glycolysis in astrocytes. Here we used a panel of genetically encoded FRET sensors in vitro and in vivo to investigate the participation of NH4+, a by-product of catabolism that is also released by active neurons. Astrocytes in mixed cortical cultures responded to physiological levels of NH4+ with an acute rise in cytosolic lactate followed by lactate release into the extracellular space, as detected by a lactate-sniffer. An acute increase in astrocytic lactate was also observed in acute hippocampal slices exposed to NH4+ and in the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized mice in response to i.v. NH4+. Unexpectedly, NH4+ had no effect on astrocytic glucose consumption. Parallel measurements showed simultaneous cytosolic pyruvate accumulation and NADH depletion, suggesting the involvement of mitochondria. An inhibitor-stop technique confirmed a strong inhibition of mitochondrial pyruvate uptake that can be explained by mitochondrial matrix acidification. These results show that physiological NH4+ diverts the flux of pyruvate from mitochondria to lactate production and release. Considering that NH4+ is produced stoichiometrically with glutamate during excitatory neurotransmission, we propose that NH4+ behaves as an intercellular signal and that pyruvate shunting contributes to aerobic lactate production by astrocytes. PMID:26286989

  17. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of the polyoxovanadate cluster [Zn2(NH2(CH2)2NH2)5][{Zn(NH2(CH2)2NH2)2}2{V18O42(H2O)}]$\\cdot x$H2O ( ∼ 12), possessing a layered structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srinivasan Natarajan; K S Narayan; Swapan K Pati


    A hydrothermal reaction of a mixture of ZnCl2, V2O5, ethylenediamine and water gave rise to a layered poly oxovanadate material [Zn2(NH2(CH2)2NH2)5][{Zn(NH2(CH2)2NH2)2}2{V18O42(H2O)}]$\\cdot x$H2O ( = 12) (I) consisting of [V18O42]12- clusters. These clusters, with all the vanadium ions in the +4 state, are connected together through Zn(NH2(CH2)2NH2)2 linkers forming a two-dimensional structure. The layers are also separated by distorted trigonal bipyramidal [Zn2(NH2(CH2)2NH2)5] complexes. The structure, thus, presents a dual role for the Zn-ethylenediamine complex. The magnetic susceptibility studies indicate that the interactions between the V centres in I are predominantly antiferromagnetic in nature and the compound shows highly frustrated behaviour. The magnetic properties are compared to the theoretical calculations based on the Heisenberg model, in addition to correlating to the structure. Crystal data for the complexes are presented.

  18. Effect of activated NH3 on SO2 removal by pulse coronadischarge plasma in flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    NH3-activated electrode is placed in front of the electrode system of pulse corona discharge plasma. There are nozzles on the electrode. Positive DC high-voltage is applied on the nozzle-plate gap. NH3 is injected into the reactor through nozzles, at the same time, activated and treated. Tbese nozzles were proposed in order to make the additional gas pass through corona discharge regions near the tip of nozzles and increase the mount of radicals. The aim is to improve the De-SO2 efficiency by pulse discharge plasma in flue gas. The following topics are investigated and discussed in the paper: De-SO2 effect of single NH3-activated electrode, De-SO2 effect of activated NH3, the relationship between stoichiometric ratio of NH3 to SO2 and De-SO2 effect of activated NH3, mechanism of activated NH3 De-SO2 effect. The experimental result indicates that the De-SO2 efficiency can be increased 5 %-10 96 by activated NH3 on the original base of De-SO2 efficiency.

  19. Alloyed Ni-Fe nanoparticles as catalysts for NH3 decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chakraborty, Debasish; Chorkendorff, Ib


    temperatures and a low NH3-to-H2 ratio, the catalytic activity of the best Ni-Fe/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be comparable or even better to that of a more expensive Ru-based catalyst. Small Ni-Fe nanoparticle sizes are crucial for an optimal overall NH3 conversion because of a structural effect favoring...

  20. Gas phase detection of the NH-P hydrogen bond and importance of secondary interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian Holten; Hansen, Anne Schou; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum


    We have observed the NH···P hydrogen bond in a gas phase complex. The bond is identified in the dimethylamine-trimethylphosphine complex by a red shift of the fundamental NH-stretching frequency observed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). On the basis of the measured NH...

  1. Adsorption of NH2 on Graphene in the Presence of Defects and Adsorbates (United States)


    only NH2 adsorbates are present. To understand the variation of adsorption energy of secondary NH2 with distance, we recall that the primitive cell of...graphene contains two carbon atoms and forms a bipartite lattice.29,30 Lattice sites related to these two different atoms of the primitive cell by


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, R. [Programa de Modelagem Computacional-SENAI-Cimatec, 41650-010 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P. [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis Blvd. Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Ledoux, C. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile); Srianand, R.; Rahmani, H. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Lopez, S., E-mail: [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)


    We present the elemental abundance and H{sub 2} content measurements of a damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) system with an extremely large H I column density, log N(H I) (cm{sup -2}) = 22.0 {+-} 0.10, at z{sub abs} = 3.287 toward the QSO SDSS J081634+144612. We measure column densities of H{sub 2}, C I, C I*, Zn II, Fe II, Cr II, Ni II, and Si II from a high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution VLT-UVES spectrum. The overall metallicity of the system is [Zn/H] = -1.10 {+-} 0.10 relative to solar. Two molecular hydrogen absorption components are seen at z = 3.28667 and 3.28742 (a velocity separation of Almost-Equal-To 52 km s{sup -1}) in rotational levels up to J = 3. We derive a total H{sub 2} column density of log N(H{sub 2}) (cm{sup -2}) = 18.66 and a mean molecular fraction of f = 2N(H{sub 2})/[2N(H{sub 2}) + N(H I)] = 10{sup -3.04{+-}0.37}, typical of known H{sub 2}-bearing DLA systems. From the observed abundance ratios we conclude that dust is present in the interstellar medium of this galaxy, with an enhanced abundance in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds. However, the total amount of dust along the line of sight is not large and does not produce any significant reddening of the background QSO. The physical conditions in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds are constrained directly from the column densities of H{sub 2} in different rotational levels, C I and C I*. The kinetic temperature is found to be T Almost-Equal-To 75 K and the particle density lies in the range n{sub H} = 50-80 cm{sup -3}. The neutral hydrogen column density of this DLA is similar to the mean H I column density of DLAs observed at the redshift of {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs). We explore the relationship between GRB-DLAs and the high column density end of QSO-DLAs finding that the properties (metallicity and depletion) of DLAs with log N(H I) > 21.5 in the two populations do not appear to be significantly different.

  3. Crystal Structure Studies on p-Substitutedbenzenesulphonamides 4-X-C6H4SO2NH2 (X = CH3, NH2 F, Cl or Br) (United States)

    Thimme Gowda, B.; Jyothi, K.; Kožíšek, Jozef; Fuess, Hartmut


    Effect of ring substitution on the crystal structures of p-substitutedbenzenesulphonamides, p-XC6H4SO2NH2 (X = F, Cl, Br, CH3 or NH2) has been studied by determining the crystal structures of 4-chlorobenzenesulphonamide (4-ClC6H4SO2NH2) and 4-bromobenzenesulphonamide (4-BrC6H4SO2NH2) and analyzing the results along with the structures of 4-methylbenzenesulphonamide (4-CH3C6H4SO2NH2), 4-fluorobenzene-sulphonamide (4-FC6H4SO2NH2) and 4-aminobenzenesulphonamide (4-NH2C6H4SO2NH2). The crystal type, space group, formula units and lattice constants in Å of new structures are: (4-ClC6H4SO2NH2); monoclinic, P21/n, Z = 4, a = 6.6276(10), b = 16.219(3), c = 7.5716(10), β = 93.387(14)°; (4-BrC6H4SO2NH2): monoclinic, P 21/n, Z = 4, a = 6.5660(10), b = 16.4630(10), c = 7.6900(10), β = 92.760(10)°. Orientation of the amine group with respect to the phenyl ring is given by the torsion angles C(2)-C(1)-S-N: 70.9° and C(6)-C(1)-S-N: -108.5°. Similarly, the orientation of S, O(1) and O(2) with respect to the ring are given by torsion angles. The comparison of bond lengths and bond angles of 4-fluoro-, 4-chloro-, 4-bromo-, 4-methyl- and 4-amino-benzenesulphonamides reveal that the S-N and C-S bond lengths decrease with the introduction of electron-withdrawing substituents such as F, Cl or Br, while these groups do not have significant effects on the S-O distances. The effect on ring C-C distances was not uniform. Substitution of F, Cl or Br decreases the O-S-N bond angle, but increases the O-S-N, N-S-C(1) and C(3)-C(4)-C(5) bond angles.

  4. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaN(0001) utilizing NH{sub 3} and/or NH{sup +}{sub {ital x}} ions: Growth kinetics and defect structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N.; Powell, R.C.; Kim, Y.; Greene, J.E. [Materials Science Department, the Coordinated Science Laboratory, and the Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)


    Gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (GS-MBE), utilizing Ga and NH{sub 3}, and reactive-ion MBE (RIMBE), incorporating both thermal NH{sub 3} and low-energy NH{sup +}{sub {ital x}} ions, were used to grow single crystal GaN(0001) layers on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) at temperatures {ital T}{sub {ital s}} between 700 and 850 {degree}C with deposition rates of 0.2--0.5 {mu}m h{sup {minus}1}. The RIMBE experiments were carried out with incident NH{sup +}{sub {ital x}}/Ga flux ratios {ital J}{sub NH{sup +}{sub {ital x}}}/{ital J}{sub Ga}=1.9--3.2 and NH{sup +}{sub {ital x}} acceleration energies {ital E}{sub NH{sup +}{sub {ital x}}}=45--90 eV. Plan-view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that the primary defects in the GS-MBE films were threading dislocations having either pure edge or mixed edge/screw characteristics with Burgers vectors {bar b}=1/3{l_angle}2{bar 1}{bar 1}0{r_angle}, basal-plane stacking faults with displacement vectors {bar R}=1/6{l_angle}02{bar 2}3{r_angle}, and prismatic stacking faults with {bar R}=1/2{l_angle}{bar 1}101{r_angle}. In the case of RIMBE films, no stacking faults or residual ion-induced defects were observed with {ital E}{sub NH{sup +}{sub {ital x}}}=45 eV and {ital T}{sub {ital s}}{ge}800 {degree}C. However, increasing {ital E}{sub NH{sup +}{sub {ital x}}} to {ge}60 eV at {ital T}{sub {ital s}}=800 {degree}C gave rise to the formation of residual ion-induced point-defect clusters observable by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Increasing {ital T}{sub {ital s}} to 850 {degree}C with {ital E}{sub NH{sup +}{sub {ital x}}}{ge}60 eV resulted in the ion-induced defects aggregating to form interstitial basal and prismatic dislocation loops, whose number densities depended upon the ion flux, with Burgers vectors 1/2{l_angle}0001{r_angle} and 1/3{l_angle}2{bar 1}{bar 1}0{r_angle}, respectively. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Conical Magnetic Bearing Development and Magnetic Bearing Testing for Extreme Temperature Environments (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Jansen, Mark


    The main proposed research of this grant were: to design a high-temperature, conical magnetic bearing facility, to test the high-temperature, radial magnetic bearing facility to higher speeds, to investigate different backup bearing designs and materials, to retrofit the high-temperature test facility with a magnetic thrust bearing, to evaluate test bearings at various conditions, and test several lubricants using a spiral orbit tribometer. A high-temperature, conical magnetic bearing facility has been fully developed using Solidworks. The facility can reuse many of the parts of the current high-temperature, radial magnetic bearing, helping to reduce overall build costs. The facility has the ability to measure bearing force capacity in the X, Y, and Z directions through a novel bearing mounting design. The high temperature coils and laminations, a main component of the facility, are based upon the current radial design and can be fabricated at Texas A&M University. The coil design was highly successful in the radial magnetic bearing. Vendors were contacted about fabrication of the high temperature lamination stack. Stress analysis was done on the laminations. Some of the components were procured, but due to budget cuts, the facility build up was stopped.

  6. NMR Spectroscopic Characterization of Methylcobalt(III) Compounds with Classical Ligands. Crystal Structures of [Co(NH(3))(5)(CH(3))]S(2)O(6), trans-[Co(en)(2)(NH(3))(CH(3))]S(2)O(6) (en = 1,2-Ethanediamine), and [Co(NH(3))(6)]-mer,trans-[Co(NO(2))(3)(NH(

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Pauli; Harris, Pernille; Larsen, Sine


    magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by absorption spectroscopy. Single-crystal X-ray structure determinations at 122.0(5) K were performed on [Co(NH(3))(5)(CH(3))]S(2)O(6) (1), trans-[Co(en)(2)(NH(3))(CH(3))]S(2)O(6) (2), and [Co(NH(3))(6)]-mer,trans-[Co(NO(2))(3)(NH(3))(2)(CH(3))](2)-trans-[Co(NO(2...... to the trans ligand is 0.170 Å in the trans-[Co(en)(2)(NH(3))(CH(3))](2+) cation. The structural trans influence appears to decrease with the overall charge of the coordination compound. Estimates of the scalar one-bond cobalt-carbon coupling constants, (1)J(Co)(-)(C), in the pentacyanomethylcobalt(III) anion...

  7. Rotational spectrum of the NH3–He van der Waals complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surin L.


    Full Text Available The interaction between ammonia and helium has attracted considerable interest over many years, partly because of the observation of interstellar ammonia. The rate coefficients of NH3–He scattering are an important ingredient for numerical modeling of astrochemical environments. Another, though quite different application in which the NH3–He interaction can play an important role is the doping of helium clusters with NH3 molecules to perform high-resolution spectroscopy. Such experiments are directed on the detection of non-classical response of molecular rotation in helium clusters addressing fundamental questions related to the microscopic nature of superfluidity. High-resolution spectroscopy on the NH3–He complex is an important tool for increasing our understanding of intermolecular forces between NH3 and He.

  8. Rotational spectrum of the NH3-He van der Waals complex (United States)

    Surin, L.; Schnell, M.


    The interaction between ammonia and helium has attracted considerable interest over many years, partly because of the observation of interstellar ammonia. The rate coefficients of NH3-He scattering are an important ingredient for numerical modeling of astrochemical environments. Another, though quite different application in which the NH3-He interaction can play an important role is the doping of helium clusters with NH3 molecules to perform high-resolution spectroscopy. Such experiments are directed on the detection of non-classical response of molecular rotation in helium clusters addressing fundamental questions related to the microscopic nature of superfluidity. High-resolution spectroscopy on the NH3-He complex is an important tool for increasing our understanding of intermolecular forces between NH3 and He.

  9. Vibration Characteristics of Hydrodynamic Fluid Film Pocket Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Feng


    Full Text Available Theoretical analyses of hydrodynamic fluid film bearings with different bearing profiles rely on solutions of the Reynolds equation. This paper presents an approach used for analysing the so-called pocket bearings formed from a combination of offset circular bearing profiles. The results show that the variation of the dynamic bearing characteristics with different load inclinations for the pocket bearings is less than that for the elliptic bearing counterpart. It is shown that the natural frequencies as well as the critical speeds, and hence the vibrational behaviour, can also be significantly different for an industrial rotor supported by the different bearings.

  10. Structural information from OH-stretching vibrations—XIV. The influence of local interactions on the OH-stretching frequency in alcohols with an α-triple bond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.; Maas, J.H. van der


    The effect on the OH-stretching vibration of changes in the π-character of alcohols with an α-triple bond has been studied by means of the i.r. absorption band. It is demonstrated that in the investigated alcohols the OH … π interaction causes an increase of the OH-frequency as a result of the posit

  11. Measurement of volatile organic compounds and total OH reactivity in the atmosphere


    Sinha, Vinayak


    Volatile organic compounds play a critical role in ozone formation and drive the chemistry of the atmosphere, together with OH radicals. The simplest volatile organic compound methane is a climatologically important greenhouse gas, and plays a key role in regulating water vapour in the stratosphere and hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere. The OH radical is the most important atmospheric oxidant and knowledge of the atmospheric OH sink, together with the OH source and ambient OH concentration...

  12. Measurement of OH reactivity by laser flash photolysis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (United States)

    Stone, Daniel; Whalley, Lisa K.; Ingham, Trevor; Edwards, Peter M.; Cryer, Danny R.; Brumby, Charlotte A.; Seakins, Paul W.; Heard, Dwayne E.


    OH reactivity (k'OH) is the total pseudo-first-order loss rate coefficient describing the removal of OH radicals to all sinks in the atmosphere, and is the inverse of the chemical lifetime of OH. Measurements of ambient OH reactivity can be used to discover the extent to which measured OH sinks contribute to the total OH loss rate. Thus, OH reactivity measurements enable determination of the comprehensiveness of measurements used in models to predict air quality and ozone production, and, in conjunction with measurements of OH radical concentrations, to assess our understanding of OH production rates. In this work, we describe the design and characterisation of an instrument to measure OH reactivity using laser flash photolysis coupled to laser-induced fluorescence (LFP-LIF) spectroscopy. The LFP-LIF technique produces OH radicals in isolation, and thus minimises potential interferences in OH reactivity measurements owing to the reaction of HO2 with NO which can occur if HO2 is co-produced with OH in the instrument. Capabilities of the instrument for ambient OH reactivity measurements are illustrated by data collected during field campaigns in London, UK, and York, UK. The instrumental limit of detection for k'OH was determined to be 1.0 s-1 for the campaign in London and 0.4 s-1 for the campaign in York. The precision, determined by laboratory experiment, is typically < 1 s-1 for most ambient measurements of OH reactivity. Total uncertainty in ambient measurements of OH reactivity is ˜ 6 %. We also present the coupling and characterisation of the LFP-LIF instrument to an atmospheric chamber for measurements of OH reactivity during simulated experiments, and provide suggestions for future improvements to OH reactivity LFP-LIF instruments.

  13. Missing OH source in a suburban environment near Beijing: observed and modelled OH and HO2 concentrations in summer 2006 (United States)

    Lu, K. D.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Fuchs, H.; Hu, M.; Häseler, R.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Li, X.; Lou, S. R.; Oebel, A.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Wahner, A.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, Y. H.; Rohrer, F.


    Measurements of ambient OH and HO2 radicals were performed by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) during CAREBeijing2006 (Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006) at the suburban site Yufa in the south of Beijing in summer 2006. On most days, local air chemistry was influenced by aged air pollution that was advected by a slow, almost stagnant wind from southern regions. Observed daily concentration maxima were in the range of (4-17) × 106 cm-3 for OH and (2-24) × 108 cm-3 for HO2 (including an estimated interference of 25% from RO2). During daytime, OH reactivities were generally high (10-30 s-1) and mainly contributed by observed VOCs and their calculated oxidation products. The comparison of modelled and measured HOx concentrations reveals a systematic underprediction of OH as a function of NO. A large discrepancy of a factor 2.6 is found at the lowest NO concentration encountered (0.1 ppb), whereas the discrepancy becomes insignificant above 1 ppb NO. This study extends similar observations from the Pearl-River Delta (PRD) in South China to a more urban environment. The OH discrepancy at Yufa can be resolved, if NO-independent additional OH recycling is assumed in the model. The postulated Leuven Isoprene Mechanism (LIM) has the potential to explain the gap between modelled and measured OH at Beijing taking into account conservative error estimates, but lacks experimental confirmation. This and the hereby unresolved discrepancy at PRD suggest that other VOCs besides isoprene might be involved in the required, additional OH recycling. Fast primary production of ROx radicals up to 7 ppb h-1 was determined at Beijing which was dominated by the photolysis of O3, HONO, HCHO, and dicarbonyls. For a special case, 20 August, when the plume of Beijing city was encountered, a missing primary HOx source (about 3 ppb h-1) was determined under high NOx conditions similar to other urban areas like Mexico City. CAREBeijing2006 emphasizes the

  14. Experimental studies of the formation of cluster ions formed by corona discharge in an atmosphere containing SO2, NH3, and H2O (United States)

    Pedersen, J. O.; Hvelplund, P.; Støchkel, K.; Enghoff, M. B.; Kurten, T.


    We report on studies of ion induced nucleation in a corona discharge taking place in an atmosphere containing SO2, NH3, and H2O at standard temperature and pressure. Positive ions such as H3O+(H2O)n, NH4+(H2O)n, and H+(H2SO4)(H2O)n and negative ions such as HSO5-(H2O)n, SO4-(H2O)n, HSO4-(H2O)n and NO3-(H2O)n have been recorded. Large values of n (> 100) were observed and the experiment indicates the existence of even larger water clusters. In contrast, only clusters with a maximum of 2 sulfuric acid molecules were observed. Fragmentation studies also revealed that the negative ion HSO5-, which has been observed in many studies, in our experiments is contaminated by O2-(HNO3)(H2O) ions, and this may also have been the case in other experiments. Finally an ion with m/z = 232 (where m is the cluster mass in amu and z the charge state), capable of attaching H2O-molecules was observed and studied by fragmentation. Positive ion m/z (mass/charge) spectrum

  15. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Pd[CH3O(O)C6H3CHNNC(S)NH2](C5H5N)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    訾凤兰; 周荫庄; 鲁晓明; 刘顺成; 金祥林


    The reaction of palladium chloride with isovanillin semithiocarbazone (VSTC),CH3O(OH)C6H3CH=NNC(S)NH2, in a mixed solvent of ethanol, pyridine and water yielded the mononuclear palladium(Ⅱ) complex Pd[CH3O(O)C6H3CHNNC(S)NH2](C5H5N), and its singlecrystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to triclinic, space group P1-with a = 7.715(4), b = 9.809(6), c = 10.612(4) , α = 93.54(4), β = 111.00(3), γ= 95.92(5)°, V =745.0(7) A3, Mr= 408.75, Z = 2, Dc= 1.822 g/em3, t= 1.397 mm-1, and F(000) = 408. The final R =0.0568 and wR = 0.1439 for 2616 observed independent reflections with Ⅰ> 2.0σ(Ⅰ). It was revealed that the palladium atom is bound to a tridentate donor ligand and a pyfidine in a planar square arrangement. The sulphur-nitrogen-oxygen donor of the Schiff-base ligand in the thiol form rather than the thione one is coordinated to the palladium atom via the mercapto sulphur, the β-nitrogen and the hydroxylate oxygen atoms.

  16. Effect of Potassium and C/N Ratios on Conversion of NH+4 in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yan; WANG Xiao-Zhi; ZHAO Hai-Tao; FENG Ke


    Two soils, one consisting of 1:1 clay minerals at pH 4.5 and the other containing 2:1 clay minerals at pH 7.0, were used to estimate the conversion of added NH+4 under different C/N ratios (glucose as the C source) and the addition of potassium. Under lower C/N ratios (0:1 and 5:1), a large part of the added NH+4 in the acid soil was held in the forms of either exchangeable or water soluble NH+4 for a relatively long time and under higher C/N ratio (50:1), a large amount of the added NH+4 was directly immobilized by microorganisms. In the second soil containing appreciable 2:1 type clay minerals a large part of the added NH+4 at first quickly entered the interlayer of the minerals under both lower and higher C/N ratios. In second condition, however, owing to microbial assimilation stimulated by glucose the newly fixed NH+4 could be completely released in further incubation because of a large concentration gradicnt between external NH+4 and fixed NH+4 in the mineral interlayer caused by heterotrophic microorganisms, which imply the fixed NH+4 to be available to plants. The results also showed that if a large amount of K+ with carbon source together was added to soil, the higher K+ concentration of soil solution could impede the release of fixed NH+4, even if there was a lot of carbon source.

  17. North Cascades Grizzly Bear Ecosystem Evaluation (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — We conducted a 6-year evaluation of the North Cascades Grizzly Bear Ecosystem (NCGBE) in north-central Washington to determine the suitability of the area to support...

  18. Polar bear research in Alaska, spring 1982 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An investigation of the ecology and population dynamics of Alaskan polar bears has continued since 1967. As part of that program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  19. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  20. Mercury biomagnification in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Blum, J. D.; Xie, Z.; Hren, M.; Chamberlain, C. P.


    Mercury biomagnification occurs in a variety of ecosystems resulting in greater potential for toxicological effects in higher-level trophic feeders. However, Hg transport pathways through different foodweb channels are not well known, particularly in high-latitude systems affected by atmospheric Hg deposition associated with snow and ice. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios and Hg concentrations determined for 26 late 19th and early 20th century polar bear hair specimens collected from cataloged museum collections elucidate relationships between high latitude marine foodweb structure and Hg transport pathways. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions suggest that polar bears derive nutrition from both open water (pelagic) and ice associated (sympagic) foodweb channels. Correlation between Hg concentrations and nitrogen isotope compositions indicate mercury biomagnification occurred in most of the polar bears investigated. Interpretation of stable isotope based foodweb structure in concert with Hg concentrations further suggests that Hg biomagnification occurred to a greater degree in polar bears participating in pelagic foodweb channels.

  1. Bear Lake-Minidoka - Phragmites Control (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake: Phragmites patches were sprayed on the refuge & north of the lake proper. Minidoka: patches along the Snake River & Lake Walcott were treated with...

  2. Polar bear research in Alaska, spring 1981 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An investigation of the ecology and population dynamics of Alaskan polar bears has continued since 1967. As part of that program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  3. AX-5 space suit bearing torque investigation (United States)

    Loewenthal, Stuart; Vykukal, Vic; Mackendrick, Robert; Culbertson, Philip, Jr.


    The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit in a zero-g water tank. This bearing problem was identified as a blocking torque anomaly, observed previously in oscillatory gimbal bearings. A large matrix of lubricants, ball separator designs and materials were evaluated. None of these combinations showed sufficient tolerance to lubricant washout when repeatedly cycled in water. The problem was resolved by retrofitting a pressure compensated, water exclusion seal to the outboard side of the bearing cavity. The symptoms and possible remedies to blocking are discussed.

  4. Cavitation Peening of Aerospace Bearings Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-value bearings are a critical part of the safety, reliability, cost and performance of modern aircraft. A typical passenger jet will have 100 to 175 high-valve...

  5. The polar bear and its protection (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — No census has been made of the polar bear population and indeed the general movements of the animals within their range are poorly known. At present it is not...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure (1) with optimized compression zone (2), where along one or more compression zones (2) in the structure (1) to be cast a core (3) of strong concrete is provided, which core (3) is surrounded by concrete of less strength (4) compared...... to the core (3) of strong concrete. The invention also relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures (1) with optimized compression zone (2) where one or more channels, grooves, ducts, pipes and/or hoses (5) formed in the load-bearing structure (1) serves as moulds for moulding one...... or more cores (3) of strong concrete in the light-weight load-bearing structure (1)....

  7. Active Magnetic Bearings – Magnetic Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Klaus


    Parameter identification procedures and model validation are major steps towards intelligent machines supported by active magnetic bearings (AMB). The ability of measuring the electromagnetic bearing forces, or deriving them from measuring the magnetic flux, strongly contributes to the model...... validation and leads to novel approaches in identifying crucial rotor parameters. This is the main focus of this paper, where an intelligent AMB is being developed with the aim of aiding the accurate identification of damping and stiffness coefficients of journal bearings and seals. The main contribution...... of the magnetic forces are led by using different experimental tests: (I) by using hall sensors mounted directly on the poles (precise measurements of the magnetic flux) and by an auxiliary system, composed of strain gages and flexible beams attached to the rotor; (II) by measuring the input current and bearing...

  8. Novel nano bearings constructed by physical adsorption (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbin


    The paper proposes a novel nano bearing formed by the physical adsorption of the confined fluid to the solid wall. The bearing is formed between two parallel smooth solid plane walls sliding against one another, where conventional hydrodynamic lubrication theory predicted no lubricating effect. In this bearing, the stationary solid wall is divided into two subzones which respectively have different interaction strengths with the lubricating fluid. It leads to different physical adsorption and slip properties of the lubricating fluid at the stationary solid wall respectively in these two subzones. It was found that a significant load-carrying capacity of the bearing can be generated for low lubricating film thicknesses, because of the strong physical adsorption and non-continuum effects of the lubricating film.

  9. Subpicosecond OH production from photoexcited CO2-HI complexes (United States)

    Ionov, S. I.; Brucker, G. A.; Jaques, C.; Valachovic, L.; Wittig, C.


    The subpicosecond resolution pump-probe method is used to obtain rates for OH production from CO2-HI complexes photoexcited in the HI ultraviolet continuum. Production lifetimes between 300 and 600 fs are reported for wavelengths between 255 and 235 nm, respectively. These lifetimes are close to the RRKM predictions of HOCO° unimolecular decomposition under single collision conditions.

  10. Study of OH-initiated degradation of 2-aminoethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karl


    Full Text Available The degradation of 2-aminoethanol (MEA by the hydroxyl radical (OH was studied in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE, a large outdoor environmental chamber. High-Temperature Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (HT-PTR-MS and Fast Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR were used to follow concentrations of reactants in the gas phase. Aerosol mass concentrations were tracked with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS. The chamber aerosol model MAFOR was applied to quantify losses of MEA to the particle phase. The rate constant k(OH+MEA was determined relative to the rate constant of the 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene reaction with OH and was found to be (9.2 ± 1.1×10−11 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, and thus the reaction between OH radicals and MEA proceeds a factor of 2–3 faster than estimated by structure-activity relationship (SAR methods. Main uncertainty of the relative rate determination is the unknown temporal behaviour of the loss rate of MEA to chamber wall surfaces during the sunlit experiments. Nucleation and growth of particles observed in the experiments could be reproduced by the chamber model that accounted for condensation of gaseous oxidation products, condensation of ethanolaminium nitrate and nucleation involving MEA and nitric acid.

  11. OH stretching frequencies in systems with intramolecular hydrogen bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens; Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Hansen, Poul Erik


    OH stretching wavenumbers were investigated for 30 species with intramolecularly hydrogen bonded hydroxyl groups, covering the range from 3600 to ca. 1900 cm-1. Theoretical wavenumbers were predicted with B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional theory using the standard harmonic approximation, as well...

  12. PRAXIS: low thermal emission high efficiency OH suppressed fibre spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Content, Robert; Ellis, Simon; Gers, Luke; Haynes, Roger; Horton, Anthony; Lawrence, Jon; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Lindley, Emma; Min, Seong-Sik; Shortridge, Keith; Staszac, Nick; Xavier, Pascal; Zhelen, Ross


    PRAXIS is a second generation instrument that follows on from GNOSIS, which was the first instrument using fibre Bragg gratings for OH background suppression. The Bragg gratings reflect the NIR OH lines while being transparent to light between the lines. This gives a much higher signal-noise ratio at low resolution but also at higher resolutions by removing the scattered wings of the OH lines. The specifications call for high throughput and very low thermal and detector noise so that PRAXIS will remain sky noise limited. The optical train is made of fore-optics, an IFU, a fibre bundle, the Bragg grating unit, a second fibre bundle and a spectrograph. GNOSIS used the pre-existing IRIS2 spectrograph while PRAXIS will use a new spectrograph specifically designed for the fibre Bragg grating OH suppression and optimised for 1470 nm to 1700 nm (it can also be used in the 1090 nm to 1260 nm band by changing the grating and refocussing). This results in a significantly higher transmission due to high efficiency coati...

  13. Chemical telemetry of OH observed to measure interstellar magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Viti, S; Myers, P C


    We present models for the chemistry in gas moving towards the ionization front of an HII region. When it is far from the ionization front, the gas is highly depleted of elements more massive than helium. However, as it approaches the ionization front, ices are destroyed and species formed on the grain surfaces are injected into the gas phase. Photodissociation removes gas phase molecular species as the gas flows towards the ionization front. We identify models for which the OH column densities are comparable to those measured in observations undertaken to study the magnetic fields in star forming regions and give results for the column densities of other species that should be abundant if the observed OH arises through a combination of the liberation of H2O from surfaces and photodissociation. They include CH3OH, H2CO, and H2S. Observations of these other species may help establish the nature of the OH spatial distribution in the clouds, which is important for the interpretation of the magnetic field results.

  14. OHS Encourages People to Hike Despite the Heat | Poster (United States)

    Even the blazing heat could not stop people from enjoying the Occupational Health Services’ (OHS) most recent Take a Hike event, which promoted healthy living. The red, white, and blue–themed, 1.3-mile walk was the fifth such event since 2014 for NCI at Frederick. People got out of their offices to exercise, show off their patriotism, and win prizes.

  15. Accurate OH maser positions from the SPLASH pilot region

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Hai-Hua; Green, James A; Breen, Shari L; Dawson, J R; Ellingsen, Simon P; Gómez, José F; Jordan, Christopher H; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Paul A


    We report on high spatial resolution observations, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), of ground-state OH masers. These observations were carried out toward 196 pointing centres previously identified in the Southern Parkes Large-Area Survey in Hydroxyl (SPLASH) pilot region, between Galactic longitudes of $334^{\\circ}$ and $344^{\\circ}$ and Galactic latitudes of $-2^{\\circ}$ and $+2^{\\circ}$. Supplementing our data with data from the MAGMO (Mapping the Galactic Magnetic field through OH masers) survey, we find maser emission towards 175 of the 196 target fields. We conclude that about half of the 21 non-detections were due to intrinsic variability. Due to the superior sensitivity of the follow-up ATCA observations, and the ability to resolve nearby sources into separate sites, we have identified 215 OH maser sites towards the 175 fields with detections. Among these 215 OH maser sites, 111 are new detections. After comparing the positions of these 215 maser sites to the literature, we identify ...

  16. PH-Sensitive Ni(OH)2-Based Microelectrochemical Transistors. (United States)


    including those based on W0 3 , 13 on platinized poly(3- methylthiophene),2 1 on ferrocyanide-loaded, protonated poly(4- ,V. vinylpyridine),2 2 and on...a viologen /quinone-based polymer.2 3 One important difference between Ni(OH)2 and the other active materials in pH-sensitive transistors is that Ni

  17. Study on Properties and Preparation of Al(OH)3 and Sr(OH)2 Composite Powder%Al(OH)3和Sr(OH)2复合粉末的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡劲; 孙家林; 刘建良; 施安; 徐茂; 高勤琴



  18. Aesthetic Relationships and Ethics in "The Oh Fuck Moment" (United States)

    Breel, Astrid


    This article explores the aesthetics and ethics of participatory performance through "The Oh Fuck Moment" by Hannah Jane Walker and Chris Thorpe, a performance that aesthetically explores ethically troubling material and manipulation. Ethical criticism of participatory art in recent years has focused on the way the audience member is…

  19. Importance of OH(-) transport from cathodes in microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Popat, Sudeep C; Ki, Dongwon; Rittmann, Bruce E; Torres, César I


    Cathodic limitation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is considered an important hurdle towards practical application as a bioenergy technology. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) needs to occur in MFCs under significantly different conditions compared to chemical fuel cells, including a neutral pH. The common reason cited for cathodic limitation is the difficulty in providing protons to the catalyst sites. Here, we show that it is not the availability of protons, but the transport of OH(-) from the catalyst layer to the bulk liquid that largely governs cathodic potential losses. OH(-) is a product of an ORR mechanism that has not been considered dominant before. The accumulation of OH(-) at the catalyst sites results in an increase in the local cathode pH, resulting in Nernstian concentration losses. For Pt-based gas-diffusion cathodes, using polarization curves developed in unbuffered and buffered solutions, we quantified this loss to be >0.3 V at a current density of 10 Am(-2) . We show that this loss can be partially overcome by replacing the Nafion binder used in the cathode catalyst layer with an anion-conducting binder and by providing additional buffer to the cathode catalyst directly in the form of CO(2) , which results in enhanced OH(-) transport. Our results provide a comprehensive analysis of cathodic limitations in MFCs and should allow researchers to develop and select materials for the construction of MFC cathodes and identify operational conditions that will help minimize Nernstian concentration losses due to pH gradients.

  20. Photodissociation and photoionization studies of the OH free radical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radenovi´c, Dragana C.


    In this PhD thesis photodissociation, photoionization and fluorescence emission of the hydroxyl (OH) free radical is studied. The hydroxyl radical, as in intermediate species in many chemical reactions, play a key role in astrophysics,atmospheric chemistry, combustion and many other chemical process

  1. 76 FR 66250 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting....

  2. Active magnetic bearings used as exciters for rolling element bearing outer race defect diagnosis. (United States)

    Xu, Yuanping; Di, Long; Zhou, Jin; Jin, Chaowu; Guo, Qintao


    The active health monitoring of rotordynamic systems in the presence of bearing outer race defect is considered in this paper. The shaft is assumed to be supported by conventional mechanical bearings and an active magnetic bearing (AMB) is used in the mid of the shaft location as an exciter to apply electromagnetic force to the system. We investigate a nonlinear bearing-pedestal system model with the outer race defect under the electromagnetic force. The nonlinear differential equations are integrated using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the characteristic signal of outer race incipient defect is significantly amplified under the electromagnetic force through the AMBs, which is helpful to improve the diagnosis accuracy of rolling element bearing׳s incipient outer race defect.

  3. Effects of fluid inertia and bearing flexibility on the performance of finite length journal bearing (United States)

    Javorova, Juliana; Alexandrov, Vassil


    The paper describes the theoretical study concerning the effect of lubricant inertia forces and deformability of the bearing elastic layer on the performance of a plane journal bearing. The problem is investigated for a Newtonian lubricant under isothermal and isoviscous conditions. The analysis considers the generalized Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the clearance space and the linear elasticity equation governing the displacement field in the bearing shell. An iterative numerical procedure with successive over relaxation is used to pressure distribution within the lubricated conjunction. Bearing performance characteristics have been presented for typically selected values of generalized Reynolds number Re* and elasticity parameters of the elastic liner. It has been observed that the combined effect of fluid inertia forces and bearing flexibility affects the performance characteristics of dynamically loaded journal bearing.

  4. Passive magnetic bearings for vehicular electromechanical batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R


    This report describes the design of a passive magnetic bearing system to be used in electromechanical batteries (flywheel energy storage modules) suitable for vehicular use. One or two such EMB modules might, for example, be employed in a hybrid-electric automobile, providing efficient means for power peaking, i.e., for handling acceleration and regenerative braking power demands at high power levels. The bearing design described herein will be based on a ''dual-mode'' operating regime.

  5. Silicon Nitride Balls For Cryogenic Bearings (United States)

    Butner, Myles F.; Ng, Lillian W.


    Resistance to wear greater than that of 440C steel. Experiments show lives of ball bearings immersed in liquid nitrogen or liquid oxygen increased significantly when 440C steel balls (running on 440C steel races) replaced by balls of silicon nitride. Developed for use at high temperatures, where lubrication poor or nonexistent. Best wear life of any bearing tested to date and ball material spalls without fracturing. Plans for future tests call for use of liquid oxygen as working fluid.

  6. Flywheel energy storage with superconductor magnetic bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT); Lynds, Jr., Lahmer (Glastonbury, CT); Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)


    A flywheel having superconductor bearings has a lower drag to lift ratio that translates to an improvement of a factor of ten in the rotational decay rate. The lower drag results from the lower dissipation of melt-processed YBCO, improved uniformity of the permanent magnet portion of the bearings, operation in a different range of vacuum pressure from that taught by the art, and greater separation distance from the rotating members of conductive materials.

  7. Active magnetic bearings for optimum turbomachinery design (United States)

    Hustak, J.; Kirk, R. G.; Schoeneck, K. A.


    The design and shop test results are given for a high speed eight stage centrifugal compressor supported by active magnetic bearings. A brief summary of the rotor dynamics analysis is presented with specific attention given to design considerations for optimum rotor stability. The concerns for retrofit of magnetic bearings in existing machinery are discussed with supporting analysis of a four stage centrifugal compressor. Recommendations are given on design and analysis requirements for successful machinery operation of either retrofit or new design turbomachinery.

  8. Extraction of Mg(OH)2 from Mg silicate minerals with NaOH assisted with H2O: implications for CO2 capture from exhaust flue gas. (United States)

    Madeddu, Silvia; Priestnall, Michael; Godoy, Erik; Kumar, R Vasant; Raymahasay, Sugat; Evans, Michael; Wang, Ruofan; Manenye, Seabelo; Kinoshita, Hajime


    The utilisation of Mg(OH)2 to capture exhaust CO2 has been hindered by the limited availability of brucite, the Mg(OH)2 mineral in natural deposits. Our previous study demonstrated that Mg(OH)2 can be obtained from dunite, an ultramafic rock composed of Mg silicate minerals, in highly concentrated NaOH aqueous systems. However, the large quantity of NaOH consumed was considered an obstacle for the implementation of the technology. In the present study, Mg(OH)2 was extracted from dunite reacted in solid systems with NaOH assisted with H2O. The consumption of NaOH was reduced by 97% with respect to the NaOH aqueous systems, maintaining a comparable yield of Mg(OH)2 extraction, i.e. 64.8-66%. The capture of CO2 from a CO2-N2 gas mixture was tested at ambient conditions using a Mg(OH)2 aqueous slurry. Mg(OH)2 almost fully dissolved and reacted with dissolved CO2 by forming Mg(HCO3)2 which remained in equilibrium storing the CO2 in the aqueous solution. The CO2 balance of the process was assessed from the emissions derived from the power consumption for NaOH production and Mg(OH)2 extraction together with the CO2 captured by Mg(OH)2 derived from dunite. The process resulted as carbon neutral when dunite is reacted at 250 °C for durations of 1 and 3 hours and CO2 is captured as Mg(HCO3)2.

  9. Rotordynamics and bearing design of turbochargers (United States)

    Chen, Wen Jeng


    Turbochargers have gained significant attention in recent years. They are already widely used in automotive, locomotive, and marine applications with diesel engines. They are also applied in the aerospace application to increase the engine performance now. The turbochargers used in automotive and aerospace industry are very light-weight with operating speeds above 100,000 rpm. The turbochargers used in locomotive and marine applications are relatively heavy in size and power compared to the automotive and aerospace applications, and the maximum continuous operating speeds are around 30,000 rpm depending on the diesel engine power rating. Floating ring bushings, semi-floating dampers, ball bearings, and ball bearings with dampers are commonly used in automotive applications for small turbochargers. However, these bearings may not be appropriate for large turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Instead, multi-lobed bearings with and without squeeze film dampers are commonly used in these heavy-duty turbochargers. This paper deals with the rotordynamic characteristics of larger turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Various bearing designs are discussed. Bearing design parameters are studied and optimal values are suggested. Test results are also presented to support the analytical simulation.

  10. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.


    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  11. PRAXIS: a near infrared spectrograph optimised for OH suppression (United States)

    Ellis, S. C.; Bauer, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Case, S.; Content, R.; Fechner, T.; Giannone, D.; Haynes, R.; Hernandez, E.; Horton, A. J.; Klauser, U.; Lawrence, J. S.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Lindley, E.; Löhmannsröben, H.-G.; Min, S.-S.; Pai, N.; Roth, M.; Shortridge, K.; Staszak, Nicholas F.; Tims, Julia; Xavier, Pascal; Zhelem, Ross


    Atmospheric emission from OH molecules is a long standing problem for near-infrared astronomy. PRAXIS is a unique spectrograph, currently in the build-phase, which is fed by a fibre array that removes the OH background. The OH suppression is achieved with fibre Bragg gratings, which were tested successfully on the GNOSIS instrument. PRAXIS will use the same fibre Bragg gratings as GNOSIS in the first implementation, and new, less expensive and more efficient, multicore fibre Bragg gratings in the second implementation. The OH lines are suppressed by a factor of 1000, and the expected increase in the signal-to-noise in the interline regions compared to GNOSIS is a factor of 9 with the GNOSIS gratings and a factor of 17 with the new gratings. PRAXIS will enable the full exploitation of OH suppression for the first time, which was not achieved by GNOSIS due to high thermal emission, low spectrograph transmission, and detector noise. PRAXIS will have extremely low thermal emission, through the cooling of all significantly emitting parts, including the fore-optics, the fibre Bragg gratings, a long length of fibre, and a fibre slit, and an optical design that minimises leaks of thermal emission from outside the spectrograph. PRAXIS will achieve low detector noise through the use of a Hawaii-2RG detector, and a high throughput through an efficient VPH based spectrograph. The scientific aims of the instrument are to determine the absolute level of the interline continuum and to enable observations of individual objects via an IFU. PRAXIS will first be installed on the AAT, then later on an 8m class telescope.

  12. Simultaneous removal of H2S and NH3 in biofilter inoculated with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TAS. (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Ryu, Hee Wook


    H2S and NH3 gases are toxic, corrosive and malodorous air pollutants. Although there are numerous well-established physicochemical techniques presently available for the treatment of these gases, the growing demand for a more economical and improved process has prompted investigations into biological alternatives. In biological treatment methods, H2S is oxidized to SO4(2-) by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, and then NH3 is removed by chemical neutralization with SO4(2-) to (NH4)2SO4. Since the accumulated (NH4)2SO4 can inhibit microbial activity, it is important to utilize an effective sulfur-oxidizing bacterium that has tolerance to high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 for the simultaneous removal of H2S and NH3. In this study, a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium with tolerance to high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 was isolated from activated sludge and identified as Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TAS. A. thiooxidans TAS could display its sulfur-oxidizing activity in a medium supplemented with 60 g.l(-1) (NH4)2SO4, even though its growth and sulfur-oxidizing activity were completely inhibited in 80 g.l(-1) (NH4)2SO4. When H2S alone was supplied to a ceramic biofilter inoculated with A. thiooxidans TAS, an almost 100% H2S removal efficiency was maintained until the inlet H2S concentration was increased up to 900 microl.l(-1) and the space velocity up to 500 h(-1), at which the amount of H2S eliminated was 810 g-S.m(-3).h(-1). However, when NH3 (50-500 microl.l(-1)) was simultaneously supplied to the biofilter with H2S, the maximum amount of H2S eliminated decreased to 650 g-S.m(-3).h(-1). The inhibition of H2S removal by low NH3 concentrations (50-200 microl.l(-1)) was similar to that by high NH3 concentrations (300-500 microl.l(-1)). The critical inlet H2S load that resulted in over 99% removal was determined as 400 g-S.m(-3).h(-1) in the presence of NH3.

  13. Iron loading effects in Fe/SSZ-13 NH3-SCR catalysts: nature of the Fe-ions and structure-function relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng; Zheng, Yang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Wang, Yilin; Walter, Eric D.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF


    Using a traditional aqueous solution ion-exchange method under a protecting atmosphere of N2, a series of Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts with various Fe loadings were synthesized. UV-Vis, EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopies, coupled with temperature programmed reduction and desorption techniques, were used to probe the nature of the Fe sites. The major monomeric and dimeric Fe species are extra-framework [Fe(OH)2]+ and [HO-Fe-O-Fe-OH]2+. Larger oligomers with unknown nuclearity, poorly crystallized Fe2O3 particles, together with isolated Fe2+ ions, are minor Fe-containing moieties. Reaction rate and Fe loading correlations suggest that isolated Fe3+ ions are the active sites for standard SCR while the dimeric sites are the active centers for NO oxidation. NH3 oxidation, on the other hand, is catalyzed by sites with higher nuclearity. A low-temperature standard SCR reaction network is proposed that includes redox cycling of both monomeric and dimeric Fe species, for SCR and NO2 generation, respectively. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.

  14. Detection of N15NH+ in L1544

    CERN Document Server

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Dore, Luca


    Excess levels of 15N isotopes which have been detected in primitive solar system materials are explained as a remnant of interstellar chemistry which took place in regions of the protosolar nebula. Chemical models of nitrogen fractionation in cold clouds predict an enhancement in the gas-phase abundance of 15N-bearing molecules, thus we have searched for 15N variants of the N2H+ ion in L1544, which is one of the best candidate sources for detection owing to its low central core temperature and high CO depletion. With the IRAM 30m telescope we have obtained deep integrations of the N2H+(1-0) line at 91.2 GHz. The N2H+(1-0) line has been detected toward the dust emission peak of L1544. The 14N/15N abundance ratio in N2H+ resulted 446+/-71, very close to the protosolar value of ~450, higher than the terrestrial ratio of ~270, and significantly lower than the lower limit in L1544 found by Gerin et al. (2009, ApJ, 570, L101) in the same object using ammonia isotopologues.

  15. First detection of gas-phase ammonia in a planet-forming disk. NH3, N2H+, and H2O in the disk around TW Hydrae (United States)

    Salinas, Vachail N.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Brinch, Christian; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary J.; Panić, Olja; Pearson, John C.; Kristensen, Lars; Yıldız, Umut A.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.


    Context. Nitrogen chemistry in protoplanetary disks and the freeze-out on dust particles is key for understanding the formation of nitrogen-bearing species in early solar system analogs. In dense cores, 10% to 20% of the nitrogen reservoir is locked up in ices such as NH3, NH4+ and OCN-. So far, ammonia has not been detected beyond the snowline in protoplanetary disks. Aims: We aim to find gas-phase ammonia in a protoplanetary disk and characterize its abundance with respect to water vapor. Methods: Using HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, we detected for the first time the ground-state rotational emission of ortho-NH3 in a protoplanetary disk around TW Hya. We used detailed models of the disk's physical structure and the chemistry of ammonia and water to infer the amounts of gas-phase molecules of these species. We explored two radial distributions (extended across the disk and confined to distributions (near the midplane and at intermediate heights above the midplane, where water is expected to photodesorb off icy grains) to describe the (unknown) location of the molecules. These distributions capture the effects of radial drift and vertical settling of ice-covered grains. Results: The NH310-00 line is detected simultaneously with H2O 110-101 at an antenna temperature of 15.3 mK in the Herschel beam; the same spectrum also contains the N2H+ 6-5 line with a strength of 18.1 mK. We use physical-chemical models to reproduce the fluxes and assume that water and ammonia are cospatial. We infer ammonia gas-phase masses of 0.7-11.0 × 1021 g, depending on the adopted spatial distribution, in line with previous literature estimates. For water, we infer gas-phase masses of 0.2-16.0 × 1022 g, improving upon earlier literature estimates This corresponds to NH3/H2O abundance ratios of 7%-84%, assuming that water and ammonia are co-located. The inferred N2H+ gas mass of 4.9 × 1021 g agrees well with earlier literature estimates that were based on lower excitation

  16. Quinone-modified NH2-MIL-101(Fe) composite as a redox mediator for improved degradation of bisphenol A. (United States)

    Li, Xianghui; Guo, Weilin; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Ruiqin; Liu, Hua


    A novel quinone-modified metal-organic frameworks NH2-MIL-101(Fe) was synthesized using a simple chemical method under mild condition. The introduced 2-anthraquinone sulfonate (AQS) can be covalently modified with NH2-MIL-101(Fe) and acts as a redox mediator to enhance the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) via persulfate activation. The obtained AQS-NH-MIL-101(Fe) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. AQS-NH-MIL-101(Fe) exhibited better catalytic performance compared with NH2-MIL-101(Fe) and NH2-MIL-101(Fe) with free AQS (NH2-MIL-101(Fe)/AQS). That is, AQS-NH-MIL-101(Fe) was proved to be the most effective in that more than 97.7% of BPA was removed. The degradation rate constants (k) of AQS-NH-MIL-101(Fe) was 9-fold higher than that of NH2-MIL-101(Fe) and 7-fold higher than NH2-MIL-101(Fe)/AQS, indicating that AQS is a great electron-transfer mediator when modified with NH2-MIL-101(Fe). Based on the above results, the possible mechanism of catalytic reaction has been investigated in view of the trapping experiments. In addition, the AQS-NH-MIL-101(Fe) catalyst exhibited excellent stability and can be used several times without significant deterioration in performance.

  17. Experimental study of enhanced gas recovery from gas hydrate bearing sediments by inhibitor and steam injection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Ohtake, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Haneda, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan). Methane Hydrate Research Laboratory; Komai, T. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technoloyg, Tsukuba (Japan). Inst. for Geo-Resource and Environment; Higuchi, S. [Nihon Axis Co. Ltd., Mito (Japan)


    Inhibitor and steam injection methods for recovering methane hydrate-bearing sediments were investigated. New apparatus designs were used to inject steam into artificial methane hydrate-bearing sediments. Aqueous methanol was injected into a silica-based hydrate-bearing sediment in order to examine the dissociation behaviour of the methane hydrates. Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of steam injection using pure water; an aqueous methyl alcohol (MeOh) solution at 10 wt per cent; and an aqueous sodium chloride (NaC1) solution at 3 wt per cent. Temperatures for the injected fluids were set at 40 degrees C. Total gas production behaviour was divided into 3 stages: (1) the replacement of the remaining gas with the injected solution in the pore space; (2) gas production by hydrate dissociation; and (3) steady state and gas release. Results showed that cumulative gas production using the inhibitor solutions of MeOH and NaC1 proceeded more rapidly than the pure water samples. Downstream temperatures were not maintained at initial temperatures but decreased following the initiation of hydrate dissociation. Temperature changes were attributed to the coupling effect of the dissociation temperature and changes in inhibitor concentrations at the methane hydrate's surface. The use of inhibitors resulted in higher levels of cumulative gas production and more rapid hydrate dissociation rates. It was concluded that depressurization and steam injection induced hydrate dissociation from both upstream and downstream to the center of the sediment sample. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Dynamics and fragmentation of van der Waals and hydrogen bonded cluster cations: (NH3)n and (NH3BH3)n ionized at 10.51 eV (United States)

    Yuan, Bing; Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.


    A 118 nm laser is employed as a high energy, single photon (10.51 eV/photon) source for study of the dynamics and fragmentation of the ammonia borane (NH3BH3) cation and its cluster ions through time of flight mass spectrometry. The behavior of ammonia ion and its cluster ions is also investigated under identical conditions in order to explicate the ammonia borane results. Charge distributions, molecular orbitals, and spin densities for (NH3BH3)n and its cations are explored at both the second-order perturbation theory (MP2) and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) theory levels. Initial dissociation mechanisms and potential energy surfaces for ionized NH3BH3, NH3, and their clusters are calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. Protonated clusters (NH3)xH+ dominate ammonia cluster mass spectra: our calculations show that formation of (NH3)n-1H+ and NH2 from the nascent (NH3)n+ has the lowest energy barrier for the system. The only common features for the (NH3)n+ and (NH3BH3)n+ mass spectra under these conditions are found to be NHy+ (y = 0,…,4) at m/z = 14-18. Molecular ions with both 11B and 10B isotopes are observed, and therefore, product ions observed for the (NH3BH3)n cluster system derive from (NH3BH3)n clusters themselves, not from the NH3 moiety of NH3BH3 alone. NH3BH2+ is the most abundant ionization product in the (NH3BH3)n+ cluster spectra: calculations support that for NH3BH3+, an H atom is lost from the BH3 moiety with an energy barrier of 0.67 eV. For (NH3BH3)2+ and (NH3BH3)3+ clusters, a Bδ+⋯Hδ-⋯δ-H⋯δ+B bond can form in the respective cluster ions, generating a lower energy, more stable ion structure. The first step in the (NH3BH3)n+ (n = 2, 3) dissociation is the breaking of the Bδ+⋯Hδ-⋯δ-H⋯δ+B moiety, leading to the subsequent release of H2 from the latter cluster ion. The overall reaction mechanisms calculated are best represented and understood employing a CASSCF natural bond orbital

  19. Transient Vibration Prediction for Rotors on Ball Bearings Using Load-dependent Non-linear Bearing Stiffness (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Poplawski, J. V.


    Rolling-element bearing forces vary nonlinearly with bearing deflection. Thus an accurate rotordynamic transient analysis requires bearing forces to be determined at each step of the transient solution. Analyses have been carried out to show the effect of accurate bearing transient forces (accounting for non-linear speed and load dependent bearing stiffness) as compared to conventional use of average rolling-element bearing stiffness. Bearing forces were calculated by COBRA-AHS (Computer Optimized Ball and Roller Bearing Analysis - Advanced High Speed) and supplied to the rotordynamics code ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) for accurate simulation of rotor transient behavior. COBRA-AHS is a fast-running 5 degree-of-freedom computer code able to calculate high speed rolling-element bearing load-displacement data for radial and angular contact ball bearings and also for cylindrical and tapered roller beatings. Results show that use of nonlinear bearing characteristics is essential for accurate prediction of rotordynamic behavior.

  20. Towards validation of ammonia (NH3 measurements from the IASI satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Damme


    Full Text Available Limited availability of ammonia (NH3 observations is currently a barrier for effective monitoring of the nitrogen cycle. It prevents a full understanding of the atmospheric processes in which this trace gas is involved and therefore impedes determining its related budgets. Since the end of 2007, the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI satellite has been observing NH3 from space at a high spatiotemporal resolution. This valuable data set, already used by models, still needs validation. We present here a first attempt to validate IASI-NH3 measurements using existing independent ground-based and airborne data sets. The yearly distributions reveal similar patterns between ground-based and space-borne observations and highlight the scarcity of local NH3 measurements as well as their spatial heterogeneity and lack of representativity. By comparison with monthly resolved data sets in Europe, China and Africa, we show that IASI-NH3 observations are in fair agreement but that they are characterized by a smaller variation in concentrations. The use of hourly and airborne data sets to compare with IASI individual observations allows to investigate the impact of averaging as well as the representativity of independent observations for the satellite footprint. The importance of considering the latter and the added value of densely located airborne measurements at various altitudes to validate IASI-NH3 columns are discussed. Perspectives and guidelines for future validation work on NH3 satellite observations are presented.

  1. Synthesis of tetrapeptide Bz-RGDS-NH2 by a combination of chemical and enzymatic methods. (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Bing; Cai, Yu; Yang, Sen; Wang, Hua; Hou, Rui-Zhen; Xu, Li; Xiao-Xia, Wu; Zhang, Xue-Zhong


    The tetrapeptide Bz-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-NH(2) (Bz-RGDS-NH(2)) was successfully synthesized by a combination of chemical and enzymatic methods in this study. Firstly, the precursor tripeptide Gly-Asp-Ser-NH(2) (GDS-NH(2)) was synthesized by a novel chemical method in four steps including chloroacetylation of l-aspartic acid, synthesis of chloroacetyl l-aspartic acid anhydride, the synthesis of ClCH(2)COAsp-SerOMe and ammonolysis of ClCH(2)COAsp-SerOMe. Secondly, lipase (PPL) was used to catalyze the formation of Bz-RGDS-NH(2) in aqueous water-miscible organic cosolvent systems using Bz-Arg-OEt as the acyl donor and GDS-NH(2) as the nucleophile. The optimum conditions were Bz-Arg-OEt 50 mM; GDS-NH(2) 400 mM; 10 degrees C, 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5; 60% DMF or 58% DMSO, PPL: 10 mg ml(-1) with the maximum yields of the tetrapeptide of 73.6% for DMF and 70.4% for DMSO, respectively. The secondary hydrolysis of the tetrapeptide product did not take place due to the absence of amidase activity of lipase.

  2. Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals and films. Synthesis and characterization (United States)

    Semenova, O. I.; Yudanova, E. S.; Yeryukov, N. A.; Zhivodkov, Y. A.; Shamirzaev, T. S.; Maximovskiy, E. A.; Gromilov, S. A.; Troitskaia, I. B.


    Synthesis of organometal halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 has received much attention recently because of promising photosensitive properties usable for solid state solar cell (SSSC). Here the crystals of tetragonal phase (I4/mcm, a =8.8743 Å, c =12.6708 Å) of CH3NH3PbI3 were prepared. Formation of the CH3NH3PbI3 crystals was controlled by the SEM, EDS, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Optical characteristics of the crystals were obtained using PL spectrometry and spectral ellipsometry methods. PL spectra of orthorhombic phase of CH3NH3PbI3 crystals were recorded the first time. Taking into account the practice use, the CH3NH3PbI3 films are obtained via the sol-gel method with ;spin-on; coating of CH3NH3PbI3 sol. The films are 500 nm in thickness and exhibit an openwork structure. Such a structure is optimal for SSSC construction because it increases the surface contact area between CH3NH3PbI3 and p-conductor.

  3. Photosynthesis of Quercus suber is affected by atmospheric NH3 generated by multifunctional agrosystems. (United States)

    Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Da Silva, Anabela Bernardes; Flexas, Jaume; Dias, Teresa; Zarrouk, Olfa; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Cruz, Cristina


    Montados are evergreen oak woodlands dominated by Quercus species, which are considered to be key to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. This ecosystem is often used for cattle breeding in most regions of the Iberian Peninsula, which causes plants to receive extra nitrogen as ammonia (NH(3)) through the atmosphere. The effect of this atmospheric NH(3) (NH(3atm)) on ecosystems is still under discussion. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an NH(3atm) concentration gradient downwind of a cattle barn in a Montado area. Leaves from the selected Quercus suber L. trees along the gradient showed a clear influence of the NH(3) on δ(13)C, as a consequence of a strong limitation on the photosynthetic machinery by a reduction of both stomatal and mesophyll conductance. A detailed study of the impact of NH(3atm) on the photosynthetic performance of Q. suber trees is presented, and new mechanisms by which NH(3) affects photosynthesis at the leaf level are suggested.

  4. First synthesis and structural determination of a monomeric, unsolvated lithium amide, LiNH(2). (United States)

    Grotjahn, D B; Sheridan, P M; Al Jihad, I; Ziurys, L M


    Alkali metal amides typically aggregate in solution and the solid phase, and even in the gas phase. In addition, even in the few known monomeric structures, the coordination number of the alkali metal is raised by binding of Lewis-basic solvent molecules, with concomitant changes in structure. In contrast, the simplest lithium amide LiNH(2) has never been made in a monomeric form, even though its structure has been theoretically predicted several times. Here, the first experimental structural data for a monomeric, unsolvated lithium amide are determined using a combination of gas-phase synthesis and millimeter/submillimeter-wave spectroscopy. All data point to a planar structure for LiNH(2). The r(o) structure of LiNH(2) has a Li-N distance of 1.736(3) A, an N-H distance of 1.022(3) A, and a H-N-H angle of 106.9(1) degrees. These results are compared with theoretical predictions for LiNH(2), and experimental data for oligomeric, solid-phase samples, which could not resolve the question of whether LiNH(2) is planar or not. In addition, comparisons are made with revised gas-phase and solid-phase data and calculated structures of NaNH(2).

  5. Penggunaan zeolit alam untuk mengurangi kandungan krom dan nh4+ dalam air limbah penyamakan kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraptiningsih Supraptiningsih


    Full Text Available Leather tanning waste water contains chemical compounds, such as chromium and NH4+ in high concentration, so if they are thrown away without treatment they will make some problems. The aims of this research is to adsorb the cations in leather tanning waste water i.e chromium and NH4+ used natural zeolite as an adsorbent. Research was done by comparing amount of chromium and NH4+ in effluent waste water treatment unit with amount of chromium and NH4+ after being adsorbed by zeolite in a batch system. The result of this research showed that efficiency difference between using zeolite and waste water treatment unit was significant. The optimal condition to reduce chromium and NH4+ was by using 300 grams per liter waste, zeolite particle size was 50-60 mesh, contact time was 24 hours and pH 8±0,1. In this condition, zeolites could reduce chromium from 3728,56mg/l to 365,39 mg/l or 90,20%, and NH4+ from 3040,02 mg/l menjadi 209,76 mg/l or 93,10%. Waste water treatment unit could reduce chromium 63,55% and NH4+ 56,75%.

  6. In Situ Spectroscopic Studies of Proton Transport in Zeolite Catalysts for NH3-SCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirong Chen


    Full Text Available Proton transport is an elementary process in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by ammonia (DeNOx by NH3-SCR using metal-exchanged zeolites as catalysts. This review summarizes recent advancements in the study of proton transport in zeolite catalysts using in situ electrical impedance spectroscopy (IS under NH3-SCR reaction conditions. Different factors, such as the metal cation type, metal exchange level, zeolite framework type, or formation of intermediates, were found to influence the proton transport properties of zeolite NH3-SCR catalysts. A combination of IS with diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transformation spectroscopy in situ (in situ IS-DRIFTS allowed to achieve a molecular understanding of the proton transport processes. Several mechanistic aspects, such as the NH3-zeolite interaction, NO-zeolite interaction in the presence of adsorbed NH3, or formation of NH4+ intermediates, have been revealed. These achievements indicate that IS-based in situ methods as complementary tools for conventional techniques (e.g., in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy are able to provide new perspectives for the understanding of NH3-SCR on zeolite catalysts.

  7. Polar bears: the fate of an icon. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T


    Polar bears are one of the most iconic animals on our planet. Worldwide, even people who would never see one are drawn to these charismatic arctic ice hunters. They are the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, and despite being born on land, they spend most of their lives out on the sea ice and are considered a marine mammal. Current global studies estimate there are around 20,000 animals in some 19 discrete circumpolar populations. Aside from pregnant females denning in the winter months to give birth, the white bears do not hibernate. They spend their winters on the sea ice hunting seals, an activity they are spectacularly adapted for. Research on these animals is incredibly difficult because of the inhospitable surroundings they inhabit and how inaccessible they make the bears. For many years, the sum of our understanding of the natural history of polar bears came from tracks, scats, the remains of their kills, abandoned dens, and anecdotal observations of native hunters, explorers, and early biologists. Nonetheless, the last 40 years have seen a much better picture of their biology emerge thanks to, first, dedicated Canadian researchers and, later, truly international efforts of workers from many countries. Veterinarians have contributed to our knowledge of the bears by delivering and monitoring anesthesia, obtaining blood samples, performing necropsies, investigating their reproduction, conducting radiotelemetry studies, and examining their behavior. Recently, new technologies have been developed that revolutionize the study of the lives and natural history of undisturbed polar bears. These advances include better satellite radiotelemetry equipment and the development of remote-controlled miniature devices equipped with high-definition cameras. Such new modalities provide dramatic new insights into the life of polar bears. The remarkable degree of specialized adaptation to life on the sea ice that allowed the bears to be successful is the very reason that

  8. Stratified NH and ND emission in the prestellar core 16293E in L1689N (United States)

    Bacmann, A.; Daniel, F.; Caselli, P.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lis, D.; Vastel, C.; Dumouchel, F.; Lique, F.; Caux, E.


    Context. High degrees of deuterium fractionation are commonly found in cold prestellar cores and in the envelopes around young protostars. As it brings strong constraints to chemical models, deuterium chemistry is often used to infer core history or molecule formation pathways. Whereas a large number of observations are available regarding interstellar deuterated stable molecules, relatively little is known about the deuteration of hydride radicals, as their fundamental rotational transitions are at high frequencies where the atmosphere is mostly opaque. Aims: Nitrogen hydride radicals are important species in nitrogen chemistry, as they are thought to be related to ammonia formation. Observations have shown that ammonia is strongly deuterated, with [NH2D]/[NH3] ~ 10%. Models predict similarly high [ND]/[NH] ratios, but so far only one observational determination of this ratio is available, towards the envelope of the protostar IRAS16293-2422. To test model predictions, we aim here to determine [ND]/[NH] in a dense, starless core. Methods: We observed NH and ND in 16293E with the HIFI spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the CHESS guaranteed time key programme, and derived the abundances of these two species using a non local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer model. Results: Both NH and ND are detected in the source, with ND in emission and NH in absorption against the continuum that arises from the cold dust emission. Our model shows, however, that the ND emission and the NH absorption originate from different layers in the cloud, as further evidenced by their different velocities. In the central region of the core, we can set a lower limit to the [ND]/[NH] ratio of ≳2%. This estimate is consistent with recent pure gas-phase models of nitrogen chemistry. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. An evaluation of IASI-NH3 with ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements (United States)

    Dammers, Enrico; Palm, Mathias; Van Damme, Martin; Vigouroux, Corinne; Smale, Dan; Conway, Stephanie; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Jones, Nicholas; Nussbaumer, Eric; Warneke, Thorsten; Petri, Christof; Clarisse, Lieven; Clerbaux, Cathy; Hermans, Christian; Lutsch, Erik; Strong, Kim; Hannigan, James W.; Nakajima, Hideaki; Morino, Isamu; Herrera, Beatriz; Stremme, Wolfgang; Grutter, Michel; Schaap, Martijn; Wichink Kruit, Roy J.; Notholt, Justus; Coheur, Pierre-F.; Erisman, Jan Willem


    Global distributions of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) measured with satellite instruments such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) contain valuable information on NH3 concentrations and variability in regions not yet covered by ground-based instruments. Due to their large spatial coverage and (bi-)daily overpasses, the satellite observations have the potential to increase our knowledge of the distribution of NH3 emissions and associated seasonal cycles. However the observations remain poorly validated, with only a handful of available studies often using only surface measurements without any vertical information. In this study, we present the first validation of the IASI-NH3 product using ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) observations. Using a recently developed consistent retrieval strategy, NH3 concentration profiles have been retrieved using observations from nine Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) stations around the world between 2008 and 2015. We demonstrate the importance of strict spatio-temporal collocation criteria for the comparison. Large differences in the regression results are observed for changing intervals of spatial criteria, mostly due to terrain characteristics and the short lifetime of NH3 in the atmosphere. The seasonal variations of both datasets are consistent for most sites. Correlations are found to be high at sites in areas with considerable NH3 levels, whereas correlations are lower at sites with low atmospheric NH3 levels close to the detection limit of the IASI instrument. A combination of the observations from all sites (Nobs = 547) give a mean relative difference of -32.4 ± (56.3) %, a correlation r of 0.8 with a slope of 0.73. These results give an improved estimate of the IASI-NH3 product performance compared to the previous upper-bound estimates (-50 to +100 %).

  10. Validation of NH3 satellite observations by ground-based FTIR measurements (United States)

    Dammers, Enrico; Palm, Mathias; Van Damme, Martin; Shephard, Mark; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Capps, Shannon; Clarisse, Lieven; Coheur, Pierre; Erisman, Jan Willem


    Global emissions of reactive nitrogen have been increasing to an unprecedented level due to human activities and are estimated to be a factor four larger than pre-industrial levels. Concentration levels of NOx are declining, but ammonia (NH3) levels are increasing around the globe. While NH3 at its current concentrations poses significant threats to the environment and human health, relatively little is known about the total budget and global distribution. Surface observations are sparse and mainly available for north-western Europe, the United States and China and are limited by the high costs and poor temporal and spatial resolution. Since the lifetime of atmospheric NH3 is short, on the order of hours to a few days, due to efficient deposition and fast conversion to particulate matter, the existing surface measurements are not sufficient to estimate global concentrations. Advanced space-based IR-sounders such as the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) enable global observations of atmospheric NH3 that help overcome some of the limitations of surface observations. However, the satellite NH3 retrievals are complex requiring extensive validation. Presently there have only been a few dedicated satellite NH3 validation campaigns performed with limited spatial, vertical or temporal coverage. Recently a retrieval methodology was developed for ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) instruments to obtain vertical concentration profiles of NH3. Here we show the applicability of retrieved columns from nine globally distributed stations with a range of NH3 pollution levels to validate satellite NH3 products.

  11. Empirical and mechanistic evaluation of NH4(+) release kinetic in calcareous soils. (United States)

    Ranjbar, F; Jalali, M


    Release, fixation, and distribution of ammonium (NH4(+)) as a source of nitrogen can play an important role in soil fertility and plant nutrition. In this study, ten surface soils, after addition of 1,000 mg NH4(+) kg(-1,) were incubated for 1 week at the field capacity moisture and 25 ± 2 °C temperature, and then NH4(+) release kinetic was investigated by sequential extractions with 10 mM CaCl2. Furthermore, NH4(+) distribution among three fractions, including water-soluble, exchangeable, and non-exchangeable, was determined in all soil samples. NH4(+) release was initially rapid followed by a slower reaction, and this was described well with the Elovich equation as an empirical model. The cumulative NH4(+) concentration released in spiked soil samples had a positive significant correlation with sand content and negative ones with pH, exchangeable Ca(2+)m and K(+), cation exchange capacity (CEC), equivalent calcium carbonate (ECC), and clay content. The cation exchange model in the PHREEQC program was successful in mechanistic simulation of the release trend of native and added NH4(+) in all control and spiked soil samples. The results of fractionation experiments showed that the non-exchangeable fraction in control and spiked soil samples was greater than that in water-soluble and exchangeable fractions. Soil properties, such as pH, exchangeable Ca(2+) and K(+), CEC, ECC, and contents of sand and clay, had significant influences on the distribution of NH4(+) among three measured fractions. This study indicated that both native and recently fixed NH4(+), added to soil through the application of fertilizers, were readily available for plant roots during 1 week after exposure.

  12. CN, NH2, and dust in the atmosphere of comet C/1999 J3 (LINEAR) (United States)

    Korsun, P. P.; Jockers, K.


    Comet C/1999 J3 (LINEAR) was observed with 2 m telescope of the Pik Terskol Observatory on September 19, 1999. Narrow-band CCD images of the CN, NH2, and dust atmospheres were recorded with the Two-Channel focal reducer of the Max-Plank-Institute for Aeronomy. The distributions of the CN and NH2 molecules in the comet atmosphere were fitted with a Monte Carlo model. For the CN atmosphere the best agreement between observed and calculated surface profiles was reached with the CN photodissociation lifetime tau (CN)=1.5*E5 s and with the parent photodissociation lifetime tau (CNparent)=3.2*E4 s. This result indicates that HCN is the main source of the CN radicals in the atmosphere of comet C/1999 J3 (LINEAR). Regarding the NH2 radicals, there is no doubt that NH3 is the dominant source of this species in the comet atmosphere. The lifetimes tau (NH2)=1.0*E5 s for NH2 and tau (NH2 parent)=5.0*E3 s for its parent are close to theoretical calculations. The gas-production rates of CN, Q(CN)=3.8 *E25 mol s-1, and NH2, Q(NH2)=6.9*E25 mol s-1 have also been determined. The appearance of the comet and the obtained data show that the comet is a gaseous one. The Afrho values are 21.6 cm for the blue spectral window and 23.4 cm for the red one. The normalized spectral gradient of the cometary dust is low, 4.0% per 1000 Å. The ratio log((Afrho )443/Q(CN)) = -24.25 indicates a very low dust to gas ratio as well.

  13. First in-situ detection of the cometary ammonium ion NH_4+ (protonated ammonia NH3) in the coma of 67P/C-G near perihelion (United States)

    Beth, A.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Calmonte, U.; Combi, M. R.; De Keyser, J.; Dhooghe, F.; Fiethe, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Galand, M.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Hässig, M.; Héritier, K. L.; Kopp, E.; Le Roy, L.; Mandt, K. E.; Peroy, S.; Rubin, M.; Sémon, T.; Tzou, C.-Y.; Vigren, E.


    In this paper, we report the first in-situ detection of the ammonium ion NH_4+ at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) in a cometary coma, using the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) / Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS). Unlike neutral and ion spectrometers onboard previous cometary missions, the ROSINA/DFMS spectrometer, when operated in ion mode, offers the capability to distinguish NH_4+ from H2O+ in a cometary coma. We present here the ion data analysis of mass-to-charge ratios 18 and 19 at high spectral resolution and compare the results with an ionospheric model to put the these results into context. The model confirms that the ammonium ion NH_4+ is one of the most abundant ion species, as predicted, in the coma near perihelion.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Layered Perovskite-type Organic-inorganic Hybrids (R-NH3)2(CH3NH3)Pb2I7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Liling; SUN Zhang; ZHAO Guanghui; LI Xing; LIU Hanxing


    Layered organic-inorgamc hybrids containing bilayer perovsikte (R-NH3)2(CH3NH3)Pb2I7(where R=C12H25,C6H5C2H4) were synthesized by reactions in solution.The influences of the solvents and the reactant ratio on the structures of the products were investigated.The structures and the properties of the hybrids were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet and visible (UV) adsorption spectra.For comparing with the bilayer perovskite hybrids in structure and band gap magnitude,the hybrids containing monolayer perovskite (R-NH3)2PbI4 were also synthesized and characterized.The results demonstrate that the thickness of inorganic layer has obvious effect on the tunneling magnitude of the band gap but the organic part can be micro actuator of band gap.

  15. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds : (NH4)(2)CuCl4, (CH3NH3)(2)CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)(2)CuCl4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zolfaghari, P.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.


    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions (NH4)(2)CuCl4

  16. Evaluation of a regional air-quality model with bidirectional NH3 exchange coupled to an agroecosystem modelecosystem model (United States)

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is the primary atmospheric base and an important precursor for inorganic particulate matter and when deposited NH3 contributes to surface water eutrophication, soil acidification and decline in species biodiversity. Flux measurement...

  17. Wear numbers for ball cup and journal bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.; Moes, H.


    A wear number is defined for ball cup bearings and for journal bearings where the cup and the cylindrical bearing are made of soft material. This dimensionless wear number provides a relation between the following five quantities: the radius of the ball or the length of the journal bearing in millim

  18. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  19. Messung der Geschwindigkeitskonstanten der Reaktion NH2+CH4→NH3+CH3 hinter einfallenden Stoßwellen / Measurements of the Rate Constant of the Reaction NH2+CH4→NH3+CH3 behind Incident Shock Waves (United States)

    Möller, W.; Wagner, H. Gg.


    The rate constant of the reaction NH2+CH4→NH3+CH3 was measured at temperatures of about 1800 K by time-resolved UV-spectroscopy of the products behind incident shock waves. NH2 was produced by the presence and thermal decomposition of hydrazine. The data were evaluated by fitting simulated concentration-time-profiles to the measured ones. A mean rate constant k = (4±2) 1011 cm3 mol-1 s-1 1730

  20. Plasma chemistry in an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH3 dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, A.; Leipold, F.; Kusano, Y.


    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in Ar/NH3 (0.1 - 10%) mixtures with a parallel plate electrode geometry was studied. The plasma was investigated by emission and absorption spectroscopy in the UV spectral range. Discharge current and voltage were measured as well. UV...... of an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH3 DBD are H-2, N-2 and N2H4. The hydrazine (N2H4) concentration in the plasma and in the exhaust gases at various ammonia concentrations and different discharge powers was measured. Thermal N2H4 decomposition into NH2 radicals may be used for NOx reduction processes....