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Sample records for beans plants phaseolus

  1. Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 infecting common bean Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes show differential infection patterns between gene pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 (PvEV-2), in breeding-lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as well as other Phaseolus species collected from two...

  2. Nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) seeds from plants chronically exposed to ozone pollution.

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    Iriti, Marcello; Di Maro, Antimo; Bernasconi, Silvana; Burlini, Nedda; Simonetti, Paolo; Picchi, Valentina; Panigada, Cinzia; Gerosa, Giacomo; Parente, Augusto; Faoro, Franco

    2009-01-14

    The effect of chronic exposure to ozone pollution on nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) seeds from plants grown in filtered and nonfiltered open-top chambers (OTCs) has been investigated. Results showed that, among seed macronutrients, ozone significantly raised total lipids, crude proteins, and dietary fiber and slightly decreased total free amino acid content, although with a significant reduction of asparagine, lysine, valine, methionine, and glycine, compensated by a conspicuous augmentation of ornithine and tryptophan. Phytosterol analysis showed a marked increase of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol in seeds collected from nonfiltered OTCs. With regard to secondary metabolites, ozone exposure induced a slight increase of total polyphenol content, although causing a significant reduction of some flavonols (aglycone kaempferol and its 3-glucoside derivative) and hydroxycinnamates (caffeic, p-coumaric, and sinapic acids). Total anthocyanins decreased significantly, too. Nevertheless, ozone-exposed seeds showed higher antioxidant activity, with higher Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values than those measured in seeds collected from filtered air.

  3. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  4. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

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    Cortés, Andrés J; Monserrate, Fredy A; Ramírez-Villegas, Julián; Madriñán, Santiago; Blair, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  5. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Andrés J Cortés

    Full Text Available Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  6. The effect of plant defense elicitors on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. growth and yield in absence or presence of spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch infestation

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    Farouk S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe common bean plants "Phaseolus vulgaris L." is frequently attacked by the two spotted spider mite (TSSM Tetranychus urticae, causing a substantial decrease in bean plant growth and yield as well as leaflet structure. Therefore, for commercial bean cultivation in the field controlling TSSM infection is necessary. ResultsFoliar application of salicylic acid (SA or methyl jasmonate (MeJA on common bean plants before or after two spotted spider mite infestation proved to be effective in reducing infestations. In most concentrations these elicitors significantly improved common bean plant growth i.e. had a positive effect on plant height, number of branches, shoot dry weight and leaf area per plant and bean yield. SA at 100 mg/l had the strongest positive effect. Moreover, application of elicitors significantly altered leaflet anatomical characters i.e. increased thickness of leaflet blade, thickness of palisade and spongy parenchyma as well as thickness of midrib region of the leaflet and changed the dimension of vascular bundles. Alternatively, TSSM infestation had the opposite effect on these leaflet anatomical characters.ConclusionWe conclude that SA or MeJA could be used for controlling TSSM infestation, to improve plant growth and to improve bean yield in the field.

  7. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  8. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

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    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  9. Insecticidal effect of essential oils from mediterranean plants uponAcanthoscelides Obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

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    Regnault-Roger, C; Hamraoui, A; Holeman, M; Theron, E; Pinel, R

    1993-06-01

    The bioactivity of 22 essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants was tested uponAcanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The insecticidal effect was evaluated by determination of 24- and 48-hr LC50 and LC50 (from 1.50 mg/ dm(3) to more than 1000 mg/dm(3)). Isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were identified by gas chromatography. The most efficient essential oils were extracted from plants belonging to Labiatae.Origanum marjorana andThymus serpyllum essential oils were the most toxic.

  10. Absorção de metais pesados do lodo de esgoto pelo feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Heavy Metal Uptake Of The Sewage Sludge By Bean Plants(Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Mário Miyazawa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and uptake of heavy metals of sewage sludge by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. were evaluated in green house experiments. Treatments consisted of 1,0 ; 2,0 and 5,0% (m/m of dry sewage sludge, collected from Londrina (Bom Retiro and ETE-Sul and Curitiba (ETE-Belém and RALF. Bean ( variety IAPAR 57 was sown three times at 0, 120 and 240 days after the treatments have been applied. Contents of Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb in bean tissues cultivated with 5,0% (m/m of all sewage sludge were similar to the control and Ba contents were reduced by increasing the quantity of sewage sludge in the soil. The Zn content in tissue bean incresed from 86 mg kg-1 of control to 462 mg kg-1 by applying 5% (m/m of sewage sludge in soil, but plant beans did not show toxicity symptons. The addition of 5% (m/m of sewage sludge increased Mn content in plants, from 193 mg kg-1 of control to 1.960 mg kg-1, showing toxity in bean leaves when the contents were more than 500 mg kg-1. The addition of sewage sludges in soils increased only available Zn carbonate and Cu organic species.

  11. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

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    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  12. Transcriptome Sequencing of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus to Identify Putative Positive Selection in Phaseolus and Legumes

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    Fengqi Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of genes under positive selection is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Many legume species, including Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean and Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean, have important ecological and economic value. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of one Phaseolus species, lima bean. A comparison with the genomes of six other legume species, including the common bean, Medicago, lotus, soybean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, revealed 15 and 4 orthologous groups with signatures of positive selection among the two Phaseolus species and among the seven legume species, respectively. Characterization of these positively selected genes using Non redundant (nr annotation, gene ontology (GO classification, GO term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analyses revealed that these genes are mostly involved in thylakoids, photosynthesis and metabolism. This study identified genes that may be related to the divergence of the Phaseolus and legume species. These detected genes are particularly good candidates for subsequent functional studies.

  13. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  14. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein quality.

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    Poel, van der, A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy yielding and other nutrients. The common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is such an ingredient.In common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) the supply of nutrients is often lower than is expected from its chemical an...

  15. Evolutionary dynamics of satellite DNA repeats from Phaseolus beans.

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    Ribeiro, Tiago; Dos Santos, Karla G B; Richard, Manon M S; Sévignac, Mireille; Thareau, Vincent; Geffroy, Valérie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) subtelomeres are highly enriched for khipu, the main satellite DNA identified so far in this genome. Here, we comparatively investigate khipu genomic organization in Phaseolus species from different clades. Additionally, we identified and characterized another satellite repeat, named jumper, associated to khipu. A mixture of P. vulgaris khipu clones hybridized in situ confirmed the presence of khipu-like sequences on subterminal chromosome regions in all Phaseolus species, with differences in the number and intensity of signals between species and when species-specific clones were used. Khipu is present as multimers of ∼500 bp and sequence analyses of cloned fragments revealed close relationship among khipu repeats. The new repeat, named jumper, is a 170-bp satellite sequence present in all Phaseolus species and inserted into the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rDNA in the P. vulgaris genome. Nevertheless, jumper was found as a high-copy repeat at subtelomeres and/or pericentromeres in the Phaseolus microcarpus lineage only. Our data argue for khipu as an important subtelomeric satellite DNA in the genus and for a complex satellite repeat composition of P. microcarpus subtelomeres, which also contain jumper. Furthermore, the differential amplification of these repeats in subtelomeres or pericentromeres reinforces the presence of a dynamic satellite DNA library in Phaseolus.

  16. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

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    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  17. Blanching of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

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    Kaack, K

    1994-12-01

    Experiments with one and two steps blanching of green beans have been carried out. Inactivation of the peroxydase requires more heating than inactivation of the enzymes which gives rise to off flavour from aldehydes. When blanching for about one minute to inactivate lipoxygenase, aldehyde formation of flavour ceases. The content of vitamin C decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction. Since considerable loss of vitamin C occurs during blanching, the treatment time should be reduced to a minimum. During preblanching at 65-75 degrees C and final blanching, chlorophyll is degraded to pheophytin and the surface colour expressed by the Hunter-values (-a/b) increases with time which means that the colour of the beans changes from green to yellow. The firmness of beans, which was measured by use of a tenderometer, decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction with 40 kcal/mole activation energy. Preblanching at 65-75 degrees C increases the firmness of the beans linearly with treatment time. This increase in firmness is stable after final blanching at 95 degrees C and even after thawing of frozen beans.

  18. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

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    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile.

  19. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

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    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  20. Influence of compost on the mobility of arsenic in soil and its uptake by bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) irrigated with arsenite-contaminated water.

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    Caporale, Antonio G; Pigna, Massimo; Sommella, Alessia; Dynes, James J; Cozzolino, Vincenza; Violante, Antonio

    2013-10-15

    The influence of compost on the growth of bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and its influence on the mobility of As in the soils and the uptake of As (as NaAs(III)O2) by plant components was studied at various compost application rates (3·10(4) and 6·10(4) kg ha(-1)) and at three As concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mg kg(-1)). The biomass and As and P concentrations of the roots, shoots and beans were determined at harvest time, as well as the chlorophyll content of the leaves and nonspecific and specifically bound As in the soil. The bean plants exposed to As showed typical phytotoxicity symptoms; no plants however died over the study. The biomass of the bean plants increased with the increasing amounts of compost added to the soil, attributed to the phytonutritive capacity of compost. Biomass decreased with increasing As concentrations, however, the reduction in the biomass was significantly lower with the addition of compost, indicating that the As phytotoxicity was alleviated by the compost. For the same As concentration, the As content of the roots, shoots and beans decreased with increasing compost added compared to the Control. This is due to partial immobilization of the As by the organic functional groups on the compost, either directly or through cation bridging. Most of the As adsorbed by the bean plants accumulated in the roots, while a scant allocation of As occurred in the beans. Hence, the addition of compost to soils could be used as an effective means to limit As accumulation in crops from As-contaminated waters.

  1. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  2. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

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    Gao, Dongying; Zhao, Dongyan; Abernathy, Brian; Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Jiang, Ning; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-07-07

    Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T). Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome.

  3. The induction of microsomal NADPH:cytochrome P450 and NADH:cytochrome b(5) reductases by long-term salt treatment of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants.

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    Brankova, Liliana; Ivanov, Sergei; Alexieva, Vera

    2007-09-01

    We studied the effect of salinity on the activity of microsomal NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR, EC 1.6.2.4) and NADH:ferricytochrome b(5) oxidoreductase (B5R, EC 1.6.2.2) in two dicotyledonous plant species differing in their sensitivity to salt, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Ogosta) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Dobrujanski 7). A significant inhibition of fresh weight of salt-treated bean plants was observed, while cotton was affected to a much lesser degree. NaCl application resulted in a significant increase in the activity of both reductases, but was more pronounced in salt-tolerant cotton. We suppose that alterations in B5R and CPR activities may be targeted to the maintenance of membrane lipids. Most probably, plants use both enzymes (B5R and CPR) and their respective electron donors (NADH and NADPH) to reduce cytochrome b(5), which can donate reducing equivalents to a series of lipid-modification reactions such as desaturation and hydroxylation.

  4. Green manure and its influence on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in agroecological system

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    Marisol Rivero Herrada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green manures have been used as biomass producers and suppliers of nutrients and keep the soil productive potential in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of dry biomass and nutrient concentration and accumulation in plants of green manure in two cropping systems, without associating and associated with millet and its influence on the nutritional status of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in succession in agroecological production. Four legumes (Canavalia ensiformis Adans; Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.; Crotalaria juncea L.; Mucuna pruriens (L. DC and one grass (Pennisetum glaucum L. as association plant, were evaluated. A randomized block design was used, with eight treatments and four repetitions. The green manure plants were cut and left on the ground at 60 days after planting and bean was planted 20 days after cutting the manure plants. The evaluated variables were dried biomass production, nutrient content of green manure and nutrient content in leaves of beans in succession. The production of dry biomass of green manure was higher than 9.00 t ha-1. Mucuna stood out with the greatest tenors of N, Ca, Mg, pork beans with the highest tenors of K, Cu, Mn. The greatest accumulation of P, K and Ca nutrients was in pigeon pea. The highest values of N and Mg were obtained in mucuna. Higher C / N relation was obtained in rotalaria.

  5. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

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    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  6. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: IV. A Structural Comparison of the Wall Hemicellulose of Cell Suspension Cultures of Sycamore (Acer PseudoPlatAnus) and of Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris).

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    Wilder, B M; Albersheim, P

    1973-05-01

    The molecular structure and chemical properties of the hemicellulose present in the isolated cell walls of suspension cultures of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells has recently been described by Bauer et al. (Plant Physiol. 51: 174-187). The hemicellulose of the sycamore primary cell wall is a xyloglucan. This polymer functions as an important cross-link in the structure of the cell wall; the xyloglucan is hydrogen-bonded to cellulose and covalently attached to the pectic polymers.The present paper describes the structure of a xyloglucan present in the walls and in the extracellular medium of suspension-cultured Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cells and compares the structure of the bean xyloglucan with the structure of the sycamore xyloglucan. Although some minor differences were found, the basic structure of the xyloglucans in the cell walls of these distantly related species is the same. The structure is based on a repeating heptasaccharide unit which consists of four residues of beta-1, 4-linked glucose and three residues of terminal xylose linked to the 6 position of three of the glucosyl residues.

  7. Effective microorganisms enhance the scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown in salty soils.

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    Talaat, Neveen B

    2014-07-01

    No information is available regarding effective microorganisms (EM) influence on the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defence system involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle under saline conditions. Therefore, as a first approach, this article focuses on the contribution of EM to the scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in salt-stressed plants. It investigates some mechanisms underlying alleviation of salt toxicity by EM application. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Nebraska plants were grown under non-saline or saline conditions (2.5 and 5.0 dSm(-1)) with and without EM application. Lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content were significantly increased in response to salinity, while they decreased with EM application in both stressed and non-stressed plants. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) increased under saline conditions; these increases were more significant in salt-stressed plants treated by EM. Activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC 1.8.5.1) decreased in response to salinity; however, they were significantly increased in stressed plants treated with EM. Ascorbate and glutathione contents were increased with the increasing salt concentration; moreover they further increased in stressed plants treated with EM. Ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG decreased under saline conditions, whereas they were significantly increased with EM treatment in the presence or in the absence of soil salinization. The EM treatment detoxified the stress generated by salinity and significantly improved plant growth and productivity. Enhancing the H2O2-scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in EM-treated plants may be an efficient mechanism to attenuate the activation of plant defences.

  8. A novel Moringa oleifera leaf extract can mitigate the stress effects of salinity and cadmium in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howladar, Saad M

    2014-02-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris plants were grown in the presence of NaCl and/or CdCl2 beginning from the second week, sprayed twice with moringa leaf extract (MLE) at 21 and 28 days after sowing (DAS), and were sampled at 35 DAS for growth and chemical analyses and yielded at the end of experiment. Growth traits, level of photosynthetic pigments, green pod yield and pod protein were significantly reduced with exposing the plants to NaCl and/or CdCl2. However, the follow up foliar application with MLE detoxified the stress generated by NaCl and/or CdCl2 and significantly enhanced the aforementioned parameters. Either individual or combined used stresses increased the electrolyte leakage (EL), lipid peroxidation and plant Cd(2+) content, and decreased the membrane stability index (MSI) and relative water content (RWC). However, the foliar application of MLE in the absence of the stress improved the MSI and RWC and minimized plant Cd(2+) content but could not affect EL and lipid peroxidation. Proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant increase in response to MLE as well as to NaCl and/or CdCl2 stress.

  9. Cadmium, manganese, iron, zinc and magnesium content of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) in relation to the duration and the amount of cadmium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelo, J.; Poschenrieder, C.; Cabot, C.

    1985-01-01

    In a long term experiment on bean plants, the effect of different cadmium concentrations on the growth and the content of Cd, Fe, Mn, Zn and Mg was studied during the total growth period. Cd treated and non-treated plants clearly exhibit differences in their growth and their nutrient content. There are clear differences between early and late Cd effects. In spite of a decrease of the magnesium content in most of the Cd treated plants, the values almost always stay above 1% and do not seem to be deficient. The results are discussed with the final conclusion, that the negative effect of Cd on the chlorophyll content observed in former studies, seems due to Mn deficiency rather than to the decrease of the Mg content.

  10. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau Sang Chan; Jack Ho Wong; Evandro Fei Fang; Wen Liang Pan; Tzi Bun Ng

    2012-01-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide,with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC5o=3 μM),Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis,was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv.brown kidney bean.The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75.The antifungal activity of the peptide against M.arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0℃ to 80℃.There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13,and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0,1,and 14.The activity at 90℃ and 100℃ was slightly diminished.Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M.arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth.The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells,in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides,indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  11. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wen Liang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-04-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide, with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC(50)= 3 μM), Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis, was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean. The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75. The antifungal activity of the peptide against M. arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0°C to 80°C. There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13, and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0, 1, and 14. The activity at 90°C and 100°C was slightly diminished. Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M. arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth. The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells, in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides, indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  12. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV...

  13. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris); Coeficientes de translocacao folha-fruto de {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr e {sup 137}Cs em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-15

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of {sup 90}Y was used for {sup 90}Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. For the {sup 90

  14. Response- Surface Analysis for Evaluation of Competition in Different Densities of Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface models predict crop yield based on crop density and this is an important tool for evaluation competition at different density and hence selection of optimum density based on yield. In order to study intra and inter specific competition in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and sesame (Sesamum indicum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2010. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with 3 replications and 16 treatments based on different densities of sesame and bean intercropping was used. The model predicted the maximum yield of an isolated plant of bean and sesame approximately 33 and 17g per plant respectively. The area associated with the maximum yield per plant in bean and sesame were 0.6 and 0.1 m2, respectively. Bean was the dominant competitor with respect to both grain and biomass, and competition coefficient was 0.35 and 0.3 for bean grain yield and bean biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was more important than inter-specific competition for bean. Competition coefficient was 2.6 and 2.9 for sesame grain yield and biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was much less important than Interspecific competition in sesame. The highest grain yield in bean (300 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 20 plants, and the highest sesame grain yield (195 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 40 plants, the highest land equivalent ratio (1.14 was obtained in intercropping of 20 plants of bean and 10 plants of sesame.

  15. Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshekari, B; Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A; Biroonara, A

    2006-01-01

    Several species of Amaranthus are known to reduce crop yields and interference with harvest throughout the Iran. In the past few years, the occurrence of some Amaranthus species including of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) increased throughout the East Azerbaijan province in Iran, supplanting all the other Amaranthus species in large areas of the region and causing concern among farmers and researchers. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the tropical pulse crops, that C4 weeds such as redroot pigweed can cause yield loss in this crop production. In order to determine the critical period of redroot pigweed control in green bean, two experiments were conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran, at 2004 and 2005. The experimental designs in both year was a randomized complete blocks with three replications. The treatments were weed-infested and weed-free in the same periods. Both year, in weed-infested experiment, redroot pigweed was seeded immediately after green bean planting and removed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 weeks after green bean emergence (WAE). In weed-free experiment, redroot pigweed seeds were transplanted to green bean plots at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 WAE. Data were analyzed using the MSTATC software and means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Ranges Test. Regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between green bean yield and duration of redroot pigweed interference using the REG PROCEDURE of SAS. Results indicated that the difference between years with a view to influence on all traits except stem height at the harvesting stage and pod yield at the first and second harvesting time were significant. Also, differences between treatments with a view to influence on all traits were significant. Contemporary growing of pigweed and green bean for early first month and weed interference 10 WAE had not significant effect on green bean above ground biomass. In both years, the highest green bean yield

  16. Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Viviane Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni was studied using segregating populations from the bean variety crosses Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686. F2 plants, together with the parents, were inoculated and evaluated using a scale of values from one (plant without symptoms to nine (completely infected plant. F2 plants were harvested individually, and F2:3 families were obtained. These families were evaluated in an 11 x 11 and 12 x 12 simple lattice statistical design for the Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 crosses, respectively, using the same value scale as the F2 generation. The segregation observed in F2 plants and F2:3 families indicated that two genes are involved in genetic control, due to a double recessive epistasis. The high linear regression coefficient (b between F2 plants and their F2:3 family, 0.66 for ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 cross, and 0.71 for Jalo x ESAL 686 cross, showed that the trait is highly heritable.

  17. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  18. An antifungal defensin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'Cloud Bean'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangli; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-01-15

    An antifungal peptide with a defensin-like sequence and exhibiting a molecular mass of 7.3kDa was purified from dried seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris 'Cloud Bean'. The isolation procedure entailed anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography an Affi-gel blue gel, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. Although the antifungal peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, it was adsorbed on both Affi-gel blue gel and SP-Sepharose. The antifungal peptide exerted antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola with an IC(50) value of 1.8 μM. It was also active against Fusarium oxysporum with an IC(50) value of 2.2 μM. It had no inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase when tested up to 100 μM. Proliferation of L1210 mouse leukemia cells and MBL2 lymphoma cells was inhibited by the antifungal peptide with an IC(50) of 10 μM and 40 μM, respectively.

  19. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  20. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility.

  1. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  2. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  3. Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Bo-han; Liu, Hong-yu; Zeng, Qing-ru; Yu, Ping-zhong; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2005-08-01

    Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) were studied in a pot experiment by measurement of fresh weights of the plants, determination of surperoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the plant organs, and observation of injury symptoms. The experimental results demonstrated that all treatments of Cd2+, Zn2+, and/or acid rain significantly decreased fresh weights of kidney bean and caused toxic effects on growth of the plants, especially higher amounts of Cd2+ and Zn2+ and higher acidity of acid rain. Combination of these three pollutant factors resulted in more serious toxic effects than any single pollutant and than combinations of any two pollutants. SOD, POD, and MDA in the plant organs changed with different pollution levels, but MDA content in the leaves showed the best relationship between the pollution levels and toxic effects.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jibao Chen; Jing Wu; Yunfeng Lu; Yuannan Cao; Hui Zeng; Zhaoyuan Zhang; Lanfen Wang; Shumin Wang

    2016-01-01

    As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT) plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w) PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L. VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  6. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world, but its production is severely limited by several biotic and abiotic stressors. In search of a sustainable solution to this problem, we conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11...

  7. Seed germination and seedling growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as influenced by magnetized saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Aghamir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetized water is considered eco-friendly physical presowing seed germination.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of magnetized watertreatments on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris germination under saline conditions (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 120 mM NaCl. This experiment was performed as factorial in a complete randomized design (CRD with three replications. The results revealed that the roots and shoots length, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and roots to shoots ratio, chlorophyll content index, water uptake, tissue water contentwere significantly affected by magnetized water.Irrigation with magnetized water significantly increased the physiologic factors such as germination percentage and index, vigor index and salt tolerance index, compared to untreated control seeds.Mean germination time and parameters T1, T10, T25, T50and T90 (required time for germination of one to 90 percent of seeds were reduced significantly in all magnetized water treated plants in comparison to control.The results also demonstrated that magnetized water was conducive to promote the growth of bean seedlings under saline conditions.

  8. Study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Dinh; Pham Le Ha; Nguyen Van Toan; Le Xuan Tham [Nuclear Research Institute, Radiobiology Department, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean Phaseolus vulgaris was carried out at Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Institute of Dalat. Dry seeds of variety No.1847 - Bonita - Cuba in set of 13 black bean varieties were irradiated with gamma ray from {sup 60}Co source at dose range from 150 Gy to 350 Gy and treated with DES at concentration from 0.1% to 0.3% in 2 hours for experiments in laboratory. The doses of 200, 250, 300 Gy and concentration of 0.2% DES in 2 hours were selected to treat dry seeds for experiments on the field. In populations of M{sub 1} generation, the height, number of branches and fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit were decreased with increasing of irradiation doses. In populations of M{sub 2} generation, individual variants in leaf shape, chlorophyll, short stem, dwarf, early maturity, flowering in very short time were obtained and selected in all treatment cases. Mutation frequency at dose of 300 Gy was higher than that in other treatment cases, but ratio of sterility is also largest. The mutant lines of early maturity and short stem with flowering in very short time are promised materials for further studies. (author)

  9. Resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility of cooked “ayocote” bean (phaseolus coccineous)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    “Ayocote” beans (Phaseolus coccineous) were cooked and studied regarding their chemical composition and in vitro starch digestibility. Protein and ash contents were 20.46 and 1.39%, respectively, which are among the lowest levels for seeds of the Phaseolus genus. On the contrary, lipid content was relatively high (3.31%). Available starch (AS) values decreased with storage at 4ºC, changing from 37.93 (freshly cooked “control” seeds) to 32.18% (seeds stored for 96h). An inverse pattern was fou...

  10. Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthika Viswanathan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Protein quantity in diet including the digestibility and bioavailability of protein is of importance to eradicate undernutrition in developing countries. Bread protein is an incomplete source as it lacks an essential amino acid lysine. When they are combined with other plant foods like pulses and legumes, they become a complete source of protein. Since bread is most common staple food the objective of this study is to fortify bread with legumes in order to increase the total protein content of bread to 13-15% which is required to meet at least 1/3rd of protein requirement of an adult recommended daily allowance. Material and methods. Fortifi cation of fl at bread was done by adding sprouted red kidney bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris at 5, 15 and 25% to white fl our. The composite bread was analysed for crude protein and in vitro protein digestibility using the Kjeldahl and pepsin-pancreatin method. Results. The protein content of raw beans showed trivial increase on soaking for 17h and sprouting for 3 days. On the other hand, a remarkable increase was observed in protein digestibility i.e., 8% and 11% respectively. The protein content of control and composite breads increased gradually at 1% and protein digestibility decreased by 12% from control. This is due to the presence of dietary fi bers which bind with protein and inhibit its digestibility. Conclusion. The study infers that sprouting the beans for 72 h did not show any remarkable increase in protein content but a signifi cant increase in invitro protein digestibility was observed. Overall, breads made using 15% legume fl our was comparatively equal in protein content, with overall acceptable quality.

  11. Effect of Salt Stress on Three Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ASSIMAKOPOULOU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is increasingly forced to utilize marginal waters to meet its increasing demands, which in turn increases the risks of soil salinization and yield reduction in the arid and semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean basin. Given that the bean is an extremely salt sensitive species, the purpose of the present work was to study the effect of 0 and 75 mM sodium chloride (NaCl on leaf characteristics, growth, pod yield and ion accumulation of three green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars (‘Corallo Nano’, ‘Romano Bush Plaja’ and ‘Starazagorski’, widely used in Greece. Plants were grown in a greenhouse of Technological Educational Institute of Peloponnese in Messinia, Southern Greece, from April to June 2014, in hydroponics. The experimental design was the factorial completely randomized one with five replications; each replication consisted of the three plants grown on the same rockwool slab. The results of the majority of growth and yield parameters determined showed the superiority of ‘Corallo’ over ‘Romano’ whereas ‘Starazagorski’ tolerance was found to be intermediate. ‘Corallo’ tolerated NaCl salinity better due to its capacity for Na retention in the roots and maintaining appropriate K/Na and Ca/Na ratios, limiting the accumulation of toxic ions into actively growing shoots. The salt sensitivity of ‘Romano’ was related to its higher concentration of Na in the leaves and lower in the roots, to the greater decrease of the leaf number and leaf water content, as well as to the specific leaf area increase compared to the other two cultivars under saline conditions.

  12. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  13. Friend or Foe-Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L..

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    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants. Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions.

  14. Friend or Foe-Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Schädler, Martin; Elias, Jacob D; Millar, Jess A; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants). Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions.

  15. Galactooligosaccharides of seeds during growth of Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. beans

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    Ryszard Kosson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative changes of raffinose and stachyose in seeds of Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. during their growth and maturation in a two year experiment were investigated. Trace amounts of raffinose were found in Ph. vulgaris seeds during their vegeta tive growth in 1990. Time of raffinose accumulation in seeds in 1991 began not earlier than on 33rd day since inflorescence. Stachyose started to accumulate in seeds between 33rd and 47th day after inflorescence of all tested cultivars. It was noticed that stachyose and raffinose contents in seeds of most tested cultivars after ten years of storage did not differ significantly when compared to not stored ones.

  16. [Formation of the vascular system of developing bean (Phaseolus limensis L.) seeds according to nuclear magnetic resonance microtomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, I S; Falaleev, O V

    2012-01-01

    1H magnetic resonance microtomography imaging was applied to study vascular systems in developing bean (Phaseolus limensis L.) seeds. Using the gradient echo method, we recorded 2D tomographic sections in the sagittal and axial planes of the fruits sampled from a vegetating plant on days 10, 17, 24, and 31 after fertilization. Any vascular connection between the tissues of maternal plant (bean pod and seed coat) and the embryo were undetectable. The embryo has an autonomous branched network of procambial strands in the cotyledons, converging to the embryonic axis. The bean pods are covered with a network of vascular bundles; large vascular strands run along the dorsal and ventral sutures. The seed coat vascular bundles are formed in the process of seed ripening and are represented by a developed vascular system multiply branching in the middle part of the ground parenchyma at the stage of physiological maturity. They are connected with the source of assimilates via the lateral pod veins and a large vascular bundle, entering the seed below the hilum via the placenta. Assimilates enter the external part of the seed coat, which contains no vascular bundles, via the funiculus vascular bundles and hilum tissue.

  17. Salinity-Induced Variation in Biochemical Markers Provides Insight into the Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Common (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Runner (P. coccineus) Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Morosan, Mihaela; López-Gresa, María del Pilar; Prohens, Jaime; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of biochemical markers is important for the understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to salinity of Phaseolus beans. We have evaluated several growth parameters in young plants of three Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars subjected to four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl); one cultivar of P. coccineus, a closely related species reported as more salt tolerant than common bean, was included as external reference. Biochemical parameters evaluated in leaves of young plants included the concentrations of ions (Na+, K+, and Cl−), osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugars), and individual soluble carbohydrates. Considerable differences were found among cultivars, salinity levels, and in their interaction for most traits. In general, the linear component of the salinity factor for the growth parameters and biochemical markers was the most important. Large differences in the salinity response were found, with P. vulgaris cultivars “The Prince” and “Maxidor” being, respectively, the most susceptible and tolerant ones. Our results support that salt stress tolerance in beans is mostly based on restriction of Na+ (and, to a lesser extent, also of Cl−) transport to shoots, and on the accumulation of myo-inositol for osmotic adjustment. These responses to stress during vegetative growth appear to be more efficient in the tolerant P. vulgaris cultivar “Maxidor”. Proline accumulation is a reliable marker of the level of salt stress affecting Phaseolus plants, but does not seem to be directly related to stress tolerance mechanisms. These results provide useful information on the responses to salinity of Phaseolus. PMID:27657045

  18. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  19. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 microg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  20. Use of BABA and INA as activators of a primed state in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Keren eMartínez-Aguilar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that prime their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus. In addition, the priming status of a plant for induced resistance can be inherited to its offspring. However, analyses on the molecular mechanisms of generational and transgenerational priming in the common bean (Phaseolus vulagris L., an economically important crop, are absent.Here, we provide evidence that resistance to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola infection was induced in the common bean with the synthetic priming activators BABA and INA. Resistance was assessed by evaluating symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, changes in gene expression of defense genes, as well as changes in the H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter-exon regions of defense-associated genes. We conclude that defense priming in the common bean occurred in response to BABA and INA and that these synthetic activators primed distinct genes for enhanced disease resistance.We hope that an understanding of the molecular changes leading to defense priming and pathogen resistance will provide valuable knowledge for producing disease-resistant crop varieties by exposing parental plants to priming activators, as well as to the development of novel plant protection chemicals that stimulate the plant's inherent disease resistance mechanisms.

  1. Effect of sulphite ions on the proline and polyamine content in the bean Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Piotr Karolewski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sulphite (0.0125-0.2% on changes in the levels of free proline, protein bound proline and hydroxyproline and of free polyamines in the roots and leaves of two cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris differing in sensitivity to these ions was investigated. It was found that both cultivars reacted similarily, the response of the seedlings of the more sensitive cultivar occuring at lower concentrations of sulphite.The observed changes in the content of imino acids and polyamines are discussed.

  2. Morpho-chemical characterization of dry and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. landraces collected on Fruška Gora Mt.

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    Savić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disappearance of old cultivars, including dry and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has been accelerated in last five to six decades, which mainly led to great genetic impoverishment. For all the humanity and its future, particularly is important the maintenance and evaluation of old cultivar’s seeds. The research presented in this paper has been conducted on the territory of southwestern Fruška gora Mt. Of the collected samples of field and vegetables crops, as well as wild plants on the mountain, 13 accessions of snap bean and 21 accessions of dry bean have been analyzed in this paper. Seed color, seed shape, 1000-seed mass and phaseolin type was determined for all the accessions. Seeds of collected bean and snap bean accessions were predominantly white and cylindrical in shape. Mass of 1000 seeds ranged between 104,90 g and 634,96 g. T phaseolin type dominated, while S type of phaseolin was present in six bean and in two snap bean accessions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31030: Development of vegetable varieties and hybrids for field and indoor production and Project Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development, Autonomous Province Vojvodina, Republic Serbia, number 114-451-3139/2011-01

  3. Genetic Transformation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with the Gus Color Marker, the Bar Herbicide Resistance, and the Barley (Hordeum vulgare HVA1 Drought Tolerance Genes

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    Kingdom Kwapata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties including “Condor,” “Matterhorn,” “Sedona,” “Olathe,” and “Montcalm” were genetically transformed via the Biolistic bombardment of the apical shoot meristem primordium. Transgenes included gus color marker which visually confirmed transgenic events, the bar herbicide resistance selectable marker used for in vitro selection of transgenic cultures and which confirmed Liberty herbicide resistant plants, and the barley (Hordeum vulgare late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 which conferred drought tolerance with a corresponding increase in root length of transgenic plants. Research presented here might assist in production of better P. vulgaris germplasm.

  4. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  5. Genetic control of orange hilum corona of carioca beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Juarez Pires Tomaz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to elucidate the genetic control of orange corona color in carioca common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. We made four crosses between carioca group cultivars that differed in respect to the presence or absence of an orange hilum corona color. The F2, F3, F1BC11, F1BC21, F2BC11 and F2BC21 phenotypic segregations were evaluated with a chi-square test which fitted with the hypothesis that one gene with a dominant allele is responsible for the orange corona color. All generations resulting from the four different crosses showed segregation patterns which agreed with the expected proportions. Our results show that the dominant G allele controls orange corona color in the carioca bean group.

  6. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-05-09

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed.

  7. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance.

  8. How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop's maximum attainable seed quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Muui, C.W.; Struik, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    NJAS wageningen journal of life sciences, Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) Home About Log In Register Search Current Archives KLV Home > Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) > Muasya Font Size: How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop¿s maximum attainable seed quality R.M.

  9. Variability of nutritional and cooking quality in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) as a function of genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Supradip; Singh, Gyanendra; Mahajan, V; Gupta, H S

    2009-06-01

    Screening of natural biodiversity for the better quality traits are of prime importance for quality breeding programs. The objective of this investigation was to select candidate accession of bean having high concentrations of protein as well as macro and micro minerals with good cooking quality for use as parents in breeding programme for these compounds. Thirty-five accessions of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) were field grown and their seeds were analyzed for their cooking quality and nutritional composition. Wide variations were observed in most of the measurements e.g. protein (18.7-26.2%), iron (79.4-137.6 ppm) and hardness after cooking (4.65-9.88 Kg) suggesting that there are considerable levels of genetic diversity. Across all accessions the concentration of potassium was negatively correlated with protein (r = -0.43, P XXX and XXXI. Bean line XIX contains high protein (24.9%) with high zinc (33.3 ppm) and highest iron (137.6 ppm), but it has high hardness after cooking (7.32 kg). Four clusters were computed by cluster analysis that explained quite a good variation in the traits. The great variability for these attributes suggests that these selected accessions may be useful as parents in hybridization programs to produce bean with value-added traits. This information was also potentially useful for pulse breeders working on the development of new varieties.

  10. Chemical composition and in vitro polysaccharide fermentation of different beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Vega, R; Reynoso-Camacho, R; Pedraza-Aboytes, G; Acosta-Gallegos, J A; Guzman-Maldonado, S H; Paredes-Lopez, O; Oomah, B D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2009-09-01

    The composition of bioactives including polysaccharide yield and resistant starch (RS) content of 4 raw and cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars was evaluated. Polysaccharide was fermented in vitro by incubation with human gut flora under anaerobic conditions and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production was compared at 6, 12, and 24 h by gas chromatography. Polysaccharide and soluble fiber contents increased upon cooking with stachyose as the major oligosaccharide. Cooked bean of cultivar Bayo Madero had the highest yield of polysaccharides (55%) and resistant starch (37%), followed by those of Negro 8025 (48% and 32%, respectively). Acetate was the most abundant SCFAs formed in all bean varieties. The concentration of SCFAs was cultivar-dependent; Bayo Madero and Negro 8025 displayed the highest concentration of butyrate (15 mmol/L), while Azufrado Higuera had the lowest and highest concentrations of acetate (39 mmol/L) and propionate (14 mmol/L), respectively. The results suggest that the common bean is an excellent source of polysaccharides that can be fermented in the colon and produce SCFAs, compounds previously reported to exert health benefits.

  11. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collection for agromorphological and seed mineral concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of common bean comprising totally 223 genotypes of which 176 genotypes from the USDA, 37 common bean landraces and 10 commercial cultivars from Turkey, evaluated for several agromorphological plant characters and mineral concentrations in seeds. There were wide range of variations for t...

  12. Ação do enxofre em chuva ácida simulada sobre parâmetros morfofisiológicos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae = Sulfur effect by simulated acid rain on morphophysiological parameters of the bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Borba Dias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do enxofre e da chuva ácida simulada sobre a estrutura foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L, nos aspectos morfoanatômicos, teores de clorofila a, b, total e feofitina. As plantas-controle sofreram simulações de chuva com pH 6,0 e as plantas-teste sofreram simulação de chuva ácida com pH 3,0. As concentrações de clorofila a, b e total diminuíram no estádio de floração (R6. Já, no estádio R7, onde surgem as primeiras vagens, os teores aumentaram, indicando possível resistência e/ou adaptação dos espécimes às simulações ácidas. O tratamento ácido afetou a concentração de clorofila que foi degradada por processos oxidativos sem a sua conversão em feofitina. Também se observou diminuição na frequência de tricomas tectores e glandulares, assim como de estômatos. As injúrias visualizadas foram classificadas como de caráter leve, provavelmente pela existência de anexos epidérmicos para proteção foliar e peciolar.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of sulfur and simulated acid rain on the leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain (pH 3.0 and an aqueous solution (Ph 6.0 were performed on test and control plants, respectively. A decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations was observed in theflowering stage (R6. However, increased rates were determined in the maturation stage (R7, which can suggest a resistance and/or adjustment of the plants to the acid simulation conditions. The acid treatment achieved chlorophyll degradation by oxidative processes without conversion to pheophytin. A reduction was also seen in the number of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and stomata on the test plants. Moreover, only small injuries were verified on the blade and peciolar areas of the tested individuals of P. vulgaris, probablydue to the presence of the reported epidermal structures.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter the response of growth and nutrient uptake of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuguang Wang; Zhaozhong Feng; Xiaoke Wang; Wenliang Gong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae on the responses to elevated O3 in growth and nutrition of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Guangzhouyuan) were investigated. Exposure was conducted in growth chambers by using three O3 concentrations (20 (CF), 80 (CFO1) and 120 nL/L (CFO2); 8 hr/day for 75 days). Results showed that elevated O3 slightly impacted overall mycorrhizal colonization, but significantly decreased the proportional frequency of hypha and increased the proportional frequency of spores and vesicles, suggesting that O3 had significant effects on mycorrhizal structure. Elevated O3 significantly decreased yield, dry mass and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in both non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants. However, significant interactive effects were found in most variables due to that the reduction by O3 in the mycorrhizal plants was less than that in the non-mycorrhizal plants. Additionally, AMF increased the concentrations of N, P, Ca, and Mg in shoot and root. It can be concluded that AMF alleviated detrimental effects of increasing O3 on host plant through improving plant nutrition and growth.

  14. Growth under UV-B radiation increases tolerance to high-light stress in pea and bean plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolink, EM; van Schalkwijk, [No Value; Posthumus, F; van Hasselt, PR

    2001-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were exposed to enhanced levels of UV-B radiation in a growth chamber. Leaf discs of UV-B treated and control plants were exposed to high-light (HL) stress (PAR: 1200 mu mol m(-2) s(-1)) to study whether pre-treatment with UV-B affected

  15. Diversity in the rhizobia associated with Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Ecuador, and comparisons with Mexican bean rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, G; Graham, P H

    2001-06-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have centers of origin in both Mesoamerica and Andean South America, and have been domesticated in each region for perhaps 5000 years. A third major gene pool may exist in Ecuador and Northern Peru. The diversity of the rhizobia associated with beans has also been studied, but to date with an emphasis on the Mesoamerican center of origin. In this study we compared bean rhizobia from Mexico and Andean South America using both phenotypic and phylogenetic approaches. When differences between the rhizobia of these two regions were shown, we then examined the influence of bean cultivar on the most probable number (MPN) count and biodiversity of rhizobia recovered from different soils. Three clusters of bean rhizobia were distinguished using phenotypic analysis and principal-component analysis of Box AIR-PCR banding patterns. They corresponded principally to isolates from Mexico, and the northern and southern Andean regions, with isolates from southern Ecuador exhibiting significant genetic diversity. Rhizobia from Dalea spp., which are infective and effective on beans, may have contributed to the apparent diversity of rhizobia recovered from the Mesoamerican region, while the rhizobia of wild Phaseolus aborigineus from Argentina showed only limited similarity to the other bean rhizobia tested. Use of P. vulgaris cultivars from the Mesoamerican and Andean Phaseolus gene pools as trap hosts did not significantly affect MPN counts of bean rhizobia from the soils of each region, but did influence the diversity of the rhizobia recovered. Such differences in compatibility of host and Rhizobium could be a factor in the poor reputation for nodulation and N2 fixation in this crop.

  16. Endomycorrhizal Inoculation Effect On Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., OAT (Avena sativa L., And Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Growth Cultivated In Two Soil Types Under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with Glomus intraradices on oat, beans, and wheat. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soil types from San Luis Potosí State were used, one was red (Xerosol, and the other one was grey (Litosol. With and without Glomus intraradices inoculation. Three bean cultivars: Pinto Saltillo, Bayo comercial and Flor de Mayo; Chihuahua (oat variety; and Tlaxcala wheat genotype were planted. The experimental design was factorial complete randomized block and three replications. The result showed that bean yield (average 3.7 g plant-1, pod number and dry weight, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, and aerial part dry weight were positively affected by the inoculation with Glomus intraradices, but not by soil type. A similar trend was observed in root length, volume and dry weight, and in the nodule number. In relation with the species studied, Phaseolus vulgaris varieties had higher values than wheat and oats in growth and yield variables evaluated. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The soil types studied did not affect significantly plant responses in this study.

  17. Study Interactions of Competition between Climbing Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Corn (Zea mays L. Plants Sowed Associate Relaciones de Competencia entre el Fríjol Trepador (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y el Maíz (Zea mays L. Sembrados en Asocio

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    León Darío Vélez Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Associated corn and bean is one of several systems to produce climbing bean. The main characteristic of the associated is the greater yield by area than monoculture of two species, although the competence between them reduces the yield bean in 40% and 20% in corn. Research about physiological processes affected by competence between these species is still scarce. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of competence on the physiological behavior of bean. In a randomized block design with 4 replications were established the following treatments: bean without competition, competition between bean and maíze by light, competition between bean and maíze by soil resources and simultaneous competition between bean and maíze by both resources light and soil. The variables measured were accumulated dry matter and its accumulation rate, leaf area, stem longitude, and the yield components of bean. The variance analysis, comparison of means and simple correlations were used. The types of competition significantly reduced the accumulated dry matter, the rates of accumulation, the yield and the yield components. The types of competence did not show significant differences on seed weigh and accumulated total dry matter of plants. Although during the plants ontogeny there were significant differences between them, feedback processes were established within each type of competition. Therefore, the effects of competence in the final stage were not distinguished. It suggests that bean plant is an integrated unit through the physiological processes.Una forma de cultivar fríjol trepador es en asocio con maíz. Su principal característica es el mayor rendimiento por unidad de área con respecto a los unicultivos de cada especie, aunque la competencia que se presenta entre ellas reduce los rendimientos del fríjol en más del 40% y los de maíz en 20%. La investigación sobre los procesos fisiológicos afectados por la competencia y su din

  18. Yield and drougth tolerance of six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under field condition

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    Yanitza Meriño Hernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In two moisture conditions (drought and irrigation were evaluated six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., with a factorial randomized complete blocks. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect caused by drought conditions crop varieties, identify high performance and features that enable them to adapt to varying conditions of soil moisture. With the data in yields between the two humidity conditions intensity indices of drought (IIS, susceptibility to drought (ISS, relative efficiency (IER, geometric mean (GM and percent yield losses were calculated . The results were statistically processed using the Statistica software version 8.0 for Windows, if significant differences Tukey test was applied to p<0.05. The selection based on levels ISS, MG, IER and PPR identified high yielding varieties adapted to drought and favorable moisture conditions.

  19. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on water stress in bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, T.E.; Davis, D.D.; Pell, E.J.; Merrill, W.

    1981-08-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cvs. Provider and Stringless Black Valentine) were exposed to 395 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant potential of PAN-sensitive Provider resulting in visible wilting and reduced soil moisture content. There was no effect of PAN on the water relations of the PAN-tolerant Stringless Black Valentine.

  20. Damaged-self recognition in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris shows taxonomic specificity and triggers signalling via reactive oxygen species (ROS

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    Dalia eDuran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants require reliable mechanisms to detect injury. Danger signals or 'damage-associated molecular patterns' (DAMPs are released from stressed host cells and allow injury detection independently of enemy-derived molecules. We studied the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris to the application of leaf homogenate as a source of DAMPs and measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS as an early response and the secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN as a jasmonic acid (JA–dependent late response. We observed a strong taxonomic signal in the response to different leaf homogenates. ROS formation and EFN secretion were highly correlated and responded most strongly to leaf homogenates produced using the same cultivar or closely related accessions, less to a distantly related cultivar of common bean or each of the two congeneric species, P. lunatus and P. coccineus, and not at all to homogenates prepared from species in different genera, not even when using other Fabaceae. Interestingly, leaf homogenates also reduced the infection by the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, when they were applied directly before challenging, although the same homogenates exhibited no direct in vitro inhibitory effect in the bacterium. We conclude that ROS signaling is associated to the induction of EFN secretion and that the specific blend of DAMPs that are released from damaged cells allows the plant to distinguish the 'damaged self' from the damaged 'non-self'. The very early responses of plants to DAMPs can trigger resistance to both, herbivores and pathogens, which should be adaptive because injury facilitates infection, independently of its causal reason.

  1. Adaptation to High Temperature and Water Deficit in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. during the Reproductive Period

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    Hide Omae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the adaption to heat and drought stresses in Phaseolus vulgaris, a grain and vegetable crop widely grown in both the Old and New World. Substantial genotypic differences are found in morphophysiological characteristics such as phenology, partitioning, plant-water relations, photosynthetic parameters, and shoot growth, which are related to reproductive responses. The associations between (a days to podding and leaf water content and (b the number of pods per plant and seed yield are consistent across different environments and experiments. Leaf water content is maintained by reductions in leaf water potential and shoot extension in response to heat and drought stress. Heat-tolerant cultivars have higher biomass allocation to pods and higher pod set in branches. These traits can be used as a marker to screen germplasm for heat and drought tolerance. In this paper, we briefly review the results of our studies carried out on heat and drought tolerance in the common bean at the Tropical Agriculture Research Front, Ishigaki, Japan.

  2. Evidence for the endophytic colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris(common bean roots by the diazotroph Herbaspirillum seropedicae

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    M.A. Schmidt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium, which associates with important agricultural plants. In the present study, we have investigated the attachment to and internal colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris roots by the H. seropedicae wild-type strain SMR1 and by a strain of H. seropedicae expressing a red fluorescent protein (DsRed to track the bacterium in the plant tissues. Two-day-old P. vulgaris roots were incubated at 30°C for 15 min with 6 x 10(8 CFU/mL H. seropedicae SMR1 or RAM4. Three days after inoculation, 4 x 10(4 cells of endophytic H. seropedicae SMR1 were recovered per gram of fresh root, and 9 days after inoculation the number of endophytes increased to 4 x 10(6 CFU/g. The identity of the recovered bacteria was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Furthermore, confocal microscopy of P. vulgaris roots inoculated with H. seropedicae RAM4 showed that the bacterial cells were attached to the root surface 15 min after inoculation; fluorescent bacteria were visible in the internal tissues after 24 h and were found in the central cylinder after 72 h, showing that H. seropedicae RAM4 is capable of colonizing the roots of the dicotyledon P. vulgaris. Determination of dry weight of common bean inoculated with H. seropedicae SMR1 suggested that this bacterium has a negative effect on the growth of P. vulgaris.

  3. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  4. Functional properties of proteins from Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chel-Guerrero, L; Gallegos-Tintoré, S; Martínez-Ayala, A; Castellanos-Ruelas, A; Betancur-Ancona, D

    2011-04-01

    Functional properties were identified for the total globulin (TG), 7S and 11S fractions of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds. The 11S component accounted for 58.3% of TGs and the 7S for 41.7%. Solubility was higher in the 7S fraction, especially at alkaline pHs. Water-holding capacity was similar (3 g water/g sample) in both globulin fractions. Oil-holding capacity was higher in the 11S fraction, which also exhibited better foaming capacity and foam stability than the 7S and TG fractions at alkaline pHs. The TG and 7S fractions exhibited low emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability at different pHs (5, 7 and 9), but the 11S fraction had relatively higher values. In suspension at low concentrations, all fractions exhibited shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. The studied Lima bean globulin fractions exhibit functional properties which make them potentially apt for use in some industrial food systems.

  5. Comparisons of phaseolin type andα-amylase inhibitor in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying; Zhu Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type andα-amylase (αAI) level in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank. The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia, North America, South America, Europe, and Africa. No Inca (I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions. Only four accessions contained Tendergreen (T-) phaseolin and the remaining 36 contained Sanilac (S-) phaseolin. αAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than the control (Phase 2, IC50=0.65μg). These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  6. Response- Surface Analysis for Evaluation of Competition in Different Densities of Sesame (Sesamum indicum) and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    Koocheki, A.; M. Nassiri Mahalati; Y Alizadeh; R. Moradi

    2014-01-01

    Response surface models predict crop yield based on crop density and this is an important tool for evaluation competition at different density and hence selection of optimum density based on yield. In order to study intra and inter specific competition in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and sesame (Sesamum indicum), an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2010. For this purpose a complete randomized ...

  7. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Madhusudana Rao, Idupulapati; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al-drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviatio...

  8. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

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    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  10. Effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth of beans plants (phaseolus vulgaris L.); Efecto de la humedad del suelo, por encima de la capacidad de campo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de judia (phaseolus vulgaris L.) Durante un mes de desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, M.; Mazon, M. P.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth and photosynthesis of three moisture levels (20,30 and 40 %) was studied.The first moisture level was near field capacity while the others exceeded. Weekly dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll content, net CO{sub 2} exchange rate in light and darkness, 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilated rate and stomatal aperture were determined. Results show a positive effect of soil moisture over field capacity on growth, photosynthate and transpiration of beans during the first growing month. (Author) 76 refs.

  11. Genetic dissection of ICP-detected nutrient accumulation in the whole seed of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Matthew W. Blair

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K and magnesium (Mg are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu, iron (Fe, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for 9 additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B and calcium (Ca had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed.

  12. Isolation and characterization of an antifungal peptide with antiproliferative activity from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'Spotted Bean'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2007-02-01

    A 7.3-kDa antifungal peptide with an N-terminal sequence exhibiting remarkable homology to defensins from other leguminous plants was isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'Spotted Bean'. The isolation procedure involved ion exchange chromatography on O-diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and SP-Sepharose. It exerted an antifungal action on Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. It inhibited mycelial growth in F. oxysporum with an IC(50) value of 1.8 microM. It suppressed [methyl-(3)H]-thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells and MBL2 cells with an IC(50) value of 4.0 and 9.0 microM, respectively. There was no effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity when the peptide was tested up to 0.1 mM.

  13. Contenido de aflatoxinas y proteína en 13 variedades de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Aflatoxin and protein content in 13 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties

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    Silvia Denise Peña-Betancourt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En México el frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. es una semilla leguminosa de elevado consumo (11 kg per cápita anualmente, por lo que su cultivo es amplio en diferentes regiones. En este estudió se determinó la presencia de aflatoxinas en ocho variedades de frijol común y cinco variedades de frijol mejorado; además del contenido de proteína y humedad. En todas las variedades evaluadas el contenido de humedad mostró grandes variaciones (6 a 16%, encontrándose 16% de las variedades estudiadas fuera de la normatividad (In Mexico, the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a highly consumed legume seed (11 kg per capita annually, so that its cultivation it' s quite extensive in different regions. In this study we investigated the presence of aflatoxins in eight common bean varieties and five improved bean varieties, in addition to protein and moisture. In all the varieties tested, the moisture content showed large variations (from 6 to 16%, being 16%of the varieties studied outside the normal (< 12%. The highest content of protein was detected in the improved bean varieties (26.1% and, the lowest in commercial (19.8% ± 3.09 and wild varieties (20.78% ± 1.93. All of them showed aflatoxins on average of 7.46 ng g-¹ and a range from 5 to 13 ng g-¹. The highest level of contamination was observed in the improved bean varieties (9.2 ±2.9 ngg-¹, followed by the commercial ones ±0.95 7.25 ngg-¹ and wild varieties 6 ± 1 ng g-¹. Tannins were detected in wild bean varieties at a level of 0.44%± 0.13. The results obtained confirm the presence of toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in the different varieties of common and wild beans at levels permitted by national law, but may pose a risk to the consumer's health due to its high consumption.

  14. Breeding for culinary and nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in intercropping systems with maize (Zea mays L.

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    Rodino A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is widely intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in the North of Spain. Breeding beans for multiple cropping systems is important for the development of a productive and sustainable agriculture, and is mainly oriented to minimize intercrop competition and to stabilize complementarity with maize. Most agricultural research on intercropping to date has focused on the agronomic and overall yield effects of the different species, but characters related with socio-economic and food quality aspects are also important. The effect of intercropping beans with maize on food seed quality traits was studied for thirty-five bush bean varieties under different environments in Galicia (Northwestern Spain. Parameters determining Asturian (Northern Spain white bean commercial and culinary quality have also been evaluated in fifteen accessions. There are significant differences between varieties in the selected cropping systems (sole crop, intercrop with field maize and intercrop with sweet maize for dry and soaked seed weight, coat proportion, crude protein, crude fat and moisture. Different white bean accessions have been chosen according to their culinary quality. Under these environmental conditions it appears that intercropping systems with sweet maize give higher returns than sole cropping system. It is also suggested that the culinary and nutritional quality potential of some white bean accessions could be the base material in a breeding programme the objectives of which are to develop varieties giving seeds with high food quality.

  15. Mapping of angular leaf spot resistance QTL in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different environments

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    Oblessuc Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important grain legume for human diet worldwide and the angular leaf spot (ALS is one of the most devastating diseases of this crop, leading to yield losses as high as 80%. In an attempt to breed resistant cultivars, it is important to first understand the inheritance mode of resistance and to develop tools that could be used in assisted breeding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling resistance to ALS under natural infection conditions in the field and under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. Results QTL analyses were made using phenotypic data from 346 recombinant inbreed lines from the IAC-UNA x CAL 143 cross, gathered in three experiments, two of which were conducted in the field in different seasons and one in the greenhouse. Joint composite interval mapping analysis of QTL x environment interaction was performed. In all, seven QTLs were mapped on five linkage groups. Most of them, with the exception of two, were significant in all experiments. Among these, ALS10.1DG,UC presented major effects (R2 between 16% - 22%. This QTL was found linked to the GATS11b marker of linkage group B10, which was consistently amplified across a set of common bean lines and was associated with the resistance. Four new QTLs were identified. Between them the ALS5.2 showed an important effect (9.4% under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. ALS4.2 was another major QTL, under natural infection in the field, explaining 10.8% of the variability for resistance reaction. The other QTLs showed minor effects on resistance. Conclusions The results indicated a quantitative inheritance pattern of ALS resistance in the common bean line CAL 143. QTL x environment interactions were observed. Moreover, the major QTL identified on linkage group B10 could be important for bean breeding, as it was stable in all the environments. Thereby, the GATS11b

  16. Implications of mitotic and meiotic irregularities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, D C; Braz, G T; Dos Reis, G B; Techio, V H; Davide, L C; de F B Abreu, A

    2016-05-23

    The common bean has great social and economic importance in Brazil and is the subject of a high number of publications, especially in the fields of genetics and breeding. Breeding programs aim to increase grain yield; however, mitosis and meiosis represent under explored research areas that have a direct impact on grain yield. Therefore, the study of cell division could be another tool available to bean geneticists and breeders. The aim of this study was to investigate irregularities occurring during the cell cycle and meiosis in common bean. The common bean cultivar used was BRSMG Talismã, which owing to its high yield and grain quality is recommended for cultivation in Brazil. We classified the interphase nuclei, estimated the mitotic and meiotic index, grain pollen viability, and percentage of abnormalities in both processes. The mitotic index was 4.1%, the interphase nucleus was non-reticulated, and 19% of dividing somatic cells showed abnormal behavior. Meiosis also presented irregularities resulting in a meiotic index of 44.6%. Viability of pollen grains was 94.3%. These results indicate that the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã possesses repair mechanisms that compensate for changes by producing a large number of pollen grains. Another important strategy adopted by bean plants to ensure stability is the elimination of abnormal cells by apoptosis. As the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã is recommended for cultivation because of its good agronomic performance, it can be concluded that mitotic and meiotic irregularities have no negative influence on its grain quality and yield.

  17. Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using a genotype plus genotype x environment interaction biplot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-08-05

    Recently, the genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot methodology has been used to investigate genotype x environment interactions in several crop species, but has not been applied to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify common bean genotypes that exhibit high grain yield and stability in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted 12 trials from 2000 to 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados, and evaluated 13 genotypes in a randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data were subjected to individual and joint analyses of variance. After analyzing the GE interaction, the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the common bean genotypes were analyzed using GGE biplot methodology. The genotypes EMGOPA-201, Xamego, and Aporé are recommended for growing in Mato Grosso do Sul, because they exhibited high grain yield and phenotypic stability.

  18. Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov., an effective N2-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with broad geographical distribution in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N), the nutrient most required for plant growth, is key for good yield of agriculturally important crops. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can benefit from bacteria collectively called rhizobia, which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in root nodules and supplying it to the plant. Common bean is amongst the most promiscuous legume hosts; several described species, in addition to putative novel ones have been reported as able to nodulate this legume, although not always effectively in terms of fixing N2. In this study, we present data indicating that Brazilian strains PRF 35(T), PRF 54, CPAO 1135 and H 52, currently classified as Rhizobium tropici, represent a novel species symbiont of common bean. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties differentiate these strains from other species of the genus Rhizobium, as do BOX-PCR profiles (less than 60 % similarity), multilocus sequence analysis with recA, gyrB and rpoA (less than 96.4 % sequence similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (less than 50 % DNA-DNA relatedness), and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes (less than 92.8.%). The novel species is effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with P. vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena esculenta. We propose the name Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov. for this novel taxon, with strain PRF 35(T) ( = CNPSo 120(T) = LMG 27577(T) = IPR-Pv 1249(T)) as the type strain.

  19. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  20. Nitrate regulates rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalpana Nanjareddy; Lourdes Blanco; Manoj-Kumar Arthikala; Xochitl Alvarado Affantrange; Federico Snchez; Miguel Lara

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-limited conditions are considered to be a prerequisite for legume-rhizobial symbiosis, but the effects of nitrate-rich conditions on symbiotic status remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by examining rhizobial (Rhizobim tropici) and arbusclar mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) symbiosis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Negro Jamapa under nitrate pre-incubation and continuous nitrate conditions. Our results indicate that nitrate pre-incubation, independent of the concentration, did not affect nodule development. However, the continuous supply of nitrate at high concentrations impaired nodule maturation and nodule numbers. Low nitrate conditions, in addition to positively regulating nodule number, biomass, and nitrogenase activity, also extended the span of nitrogen-fixing activity. By contrast, for arbuscular mycorrhizae, continuous 10 and 50 mmol/L nitrate increased the percent root length colonization, concomitantly reduced arbuscule size, and en-hanced ammonia transport without affecting phosphate transport. Therefore, in this manuscript, we have proposed the importance of nitrate as a positive regulator in promoting both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in the common bean.

  1. Effect of Dehydration Conditions on the Chemical, Physical, and Rehydration Properties of Instant Whole Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado

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    Juan Alberto Resendiz Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration conditions on the chemical, physical, and rehydration properties of instant whole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado using a 22 factorial design (air temperature: 25°C and 30°C, air velocity: 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s. To determine the kinetic parameters, the rehydration data were fitted to three models: Peleg’s, First Order, and Sigmoid. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the beans were not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the dehydration conditions. Of the 11 physical properties of the instant whole beans, only water activity and splitting were significantly affected by dehydration conditions (P0.05 between the observed and predicted equilibrium moisture contents of the instant whole beans. Regarding the rehydration kinetics for the instant whole beans, the activation energy values ranged from 23.56 kJ/mol to 30.48 kJ/mol, depending on the dehydration conditions. The dehydration conditions had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the rehydration properties of instant whole beans.

  2. Effect of cooking and germination on phenolic composition and biological properties of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ana; El-Naggar, Tarek; Dueñas, Montserrat; Ortega, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar; Palomino, Olga M; Carretero, M Emilia

    2013-05-01

    Legumes are the basés diet in several countries. They hold a high nutritional value, but other properties related to human health are nowadays being studied. The aim of this work was to study the influence of processes (boiling or germination) on the phenolic composition of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. c.v. Tolosana) and their effect on their antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer ability. Phenolic composition of raw and processed dark beans was analysed by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC. Astrocytes cultures (U-373) have been used to test their neuroprotective effect. Anticancer activities were evaluated on three different cell lines (renal adenocarcinoma (TK-10), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and melanoma (UACC-62)) by sulphorhodamine B method. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition have been observed between raw and processed dark beans that influence the antioxidant activity, mainly for germinated samples which show a decrease of antioxidant capacity. Although every assayed extracts decreased reactive oxygen species release and exhibited cytotoxicity activities on cancer cell lines, raw beans proved to be the most active in neuroprotective and antitumoral effects; this sample is especially rich in phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins. This study further demonstrated that phenolic composition of dark beans is related with cooking process and so with their neuroprotective and anticancer activity; cooking of dark beans improves their digestion and absorption at intestinal level, while maintaining its protective ability on oxidative process at cellular level.

  3. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elagöz, Vahram; Manning, William J

    2005-08-01

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O(3)-sensitive) and 'R123' (O(3)-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O(3)-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O(3)-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O(3) concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O(3)-sensitive and O(3)-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O(3).

  4. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  5. ISOENZYMATIC POLYMORPHISM AND ACTIVITY OF PEROXIDASES OF COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. UNDER SALINE STRESS

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    F. BROETTO

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the uses of the technique of tissue culture for plant breeding is the identification of cell lines tolerant to salt stress.In order to study the biochemical mechanisms involved in the genetic expression to salt tolerance, callus from embryo axis of four bean cultivars (cv. IAC-carioca; cv. IAPAR-14; cv. JALO-EEP558; CV. BAT-93 were grown in Murashige & Skoog (1962 medium, supplemented with NaCl in the concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM. After 14 days callus were harvested and analyzed according to their isoenzymatic patterns and peroxidase activities. BAT and IAPAR cultivars showed two common activity zones in the anodic region, with only one specific enzymatic band to each one (the two fastest migration band; it is possible that the two middle anodic zones detected are products of the same enzymatic locus but from different alleles with different eletrophoretic mobilities. Cv. JALO showed two anodic activities in common with cvs IAC and IAPAR with an exclusive anodic zone of slower migration which showed the most intense activity of all cultivars analyzed. This cv. still showed a dimeric heterozygotic catodic zone in all treated samples. Probably this is the same zone which occurs in homozygosis with fixation of the slower allele for all cvs BAT and IAPAR submitted to all treatments. Cv. IAC showed two anodic bands in common with Cv. IAPAR and cv. JALO. It still showed a faster anodic band in common with cv. IAPAR and an exclusive anodic band of slower migration. It is interesting to say that for this cv. IAC resulting from cultivation in NaCl 20 mM did not show activity in the three slower anodic zones. Cv. IAC showed only one dimeric heterozygotic catodic zone in all treatments. This zone is probably composed by two different alleles from the same locus detected in cv. JALO. Samples from cv. IAC treated with 40 and 60 mM showed a more intense enzymatic activity in the catodic zone. Analyses of the peroxidase activity in the

  6. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

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    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  7. Effects of hydrogen fluoride on plant-pathogen interactions. [Lycopersicon esculentum; Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, D.C.; Weinstein, L.H.; Mancini, J.F.; van Lueken, P.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments in fumigation chambers with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants were performed to assess the effects of hydrogen fluoride on plant-pathogen (fungal and bacterial) interactions. Hydrogen fluoride was found to alter the plant-pathogen interaction, although the kind and consistency of effect caused by HF depended upon the host, pathogen, and several other factors. A reduction in powdery mildew probably indicates that HF was affecting the infectivity of the pathogen itself because reduction in disease was proportional to the length of the exposure period, infection was continuous during the exposure period, and the pathogen itself was epiphytic. The effect of fluoride on bean rust may have been due to accumulated fluoride in the leaf having a direct or indirect effect on the pathogen because both pre- and post-inoculation exposures to HF were effective and additive. Other evidence for an indirect effect of fluoride was found in halo-blight where stem collapse was affected but foliar symptoms were not, and the site affected was spatially removed from the site of fluoride accumulation. Effects on early blight of tomato also indicated an effect of fluoride in the leaf.

  8. Yield response of red kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris to incremental ozone concentrations in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohut, R.; Laurence, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Field-grown red kidney beans were exposed to incremental levels of ozone in open-top chambers for 21 days during pod filling. Treatments consisted of ambient plots without chambers, chambers receiving charcoal-filtered air and chambers receiving non-filtered air to which either 0.00, 0.03, 0.06 or 0.09 ppm O/sub 3/ was added for 7 h each day. The addition of 0.06 or 0.09 ppm O/sub 3/ produced foliar injury, extensive defoliation and reductions in per plant bean yield of 24 and 27%, respectively. Regression analysis indicated a significant linear relationship between the 7-h mean O/sub 3/ concentration and yield per plant. This relationship was expressed as: Yield = 17.44 - 35.51 (CONC).

  9. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus.

  10. Genetic Improvement of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Common Bean Genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Ahmad Reza Golparvar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty common bean genotypes were cultivated in two separately field trials at the research station of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch during 2008-2009. The experimental design was randomized complete block. Bean seeds were inoculated by Rhizobium legominosarum biovar Phaseoli isolate L-109 in one of the experiments before sowing. The dose of Rhizobium for seed inoculation was 7 miligrams of bacteria for 1 kilogram of seed. The second experiment was control. The second experiment was analyzed in the same way as the first except for biological nitrogen fixation. The results showed definite positive and significant correlation in percentage of nitrogen fixation with some other been characters. Step-wise regression designated that total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield accounted for 93.8% of variation expect for nitrogen fixation percent. Path analysis indicated that total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield have direct and positive effect on nitrogen fixation index. Hence, total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield are promising indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation capability in common bean genotypes.

  11. Determination of 67Zn distribution in navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after foliar application of 67Zn-lignosulfonates using isotope pattern deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedicto, Ana; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Rivas, Inmaculada; Lucena, Juan J

    2011-08-24

    The improvement of Zn fertilizers requires new techniques to evaluate their efficacy. In this paper, the (67)Zn stable isotope was used as tracer of several Zn-lignosulfonate complexes to study the foliar-applied Zn uptake and distribution behavior in the plant, compared with ZnEDTA. Navy bean plants ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown hydroponically in a Zn-free nutrient solution, and six modified lignosulfonates and EDTA complexed with (67)Zn were used in foliar application in the young leaves as Zn sources. Zinc isotopes in roots, stems, and sprayed and unsprayed leaves were determined by ICP-MS, and signal interferences caused by the compounds of the digested vegetal samples were corrected. The mathematical procedure of isotope pattern deconvolution allowed the minimization of the uncertainty in the measured molar fractions of Zn from fertilizer or from natural sources. Significant differences in Zn use and distribution were observed among the fertilizers when the calculated concentrations of Zn from the fertilizer were compared, whereas they were unnoticeable attending to the total Zn in plant tissues, usually determined at the conventional studies. By foliar spray, higher Zn uptake and mobilization to leaves and stems were achieved with (67)ZnEDTA than with (67)Zn-LS complexes. The ultrafiltered LS and phenolated LS showed slightly better ability to provide Zn to the bean plants than the other LS. The foliar-applied Zn use and distribution in the plant were related with the stability of the Zn-lignosulfonates complexes. Those presenting the lower stability versus pH, but the highest complexing capacity, were slightly more suitable to supply foliar-applied Zn to navy beans.

  12. Utilisation des mutations induites pour l'étude de l'embryogenèse chez le haricot Phaseolus vulgaris L. et deux plantes modèles Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. et Zea mays L.

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    Silué, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of induced mutations in embryogenesis study in bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. and Zea mays L.. Breeding of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., through interspecific hybridizations with the species Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm. as female parents leads to the abortion of immature embryos. Identification of genes required for embryo development could partly explain the abortion of hybrid embryos; induced mutations could thus be an alternative to identify key genes involved in Phaseolus embryogenesis. This paper is a review which shows a few examples of the use of induced mutations in the identification of essential genes for embryogenesis in two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heyhn. for dicots and Zea mays L. for monocots. In these two species, embryo development mutants have been isolated using insertional mutagenesis and chemical mutagenesis with Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS. Arabidopsis embryo mutants are affected in apical-basal axis polarity, radial pattern and in post-embryonic stages. Some Arabidopsis embryo mutants are defected in auxin signalisation. In maize, defective kernel (dek mutants are affected in the embryo and the endosperm, while in embryo specific (emb mutants, only the embryo is affected. In common bean, plants deficient in seed development were isolated using EMS mutagenesis. Embryos inside the seeds fail to growth at different stages of development and show abnormalities mainly in the suspensor and the cotyledons.

  13. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

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    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  14. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwabena Darkwa; Daniel Ambachewa; Hussein Mohammed; Asrat Asfaw; Matthew W. Blairc

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress linked with climate change is one of the major constraints faced by common bean farmers in Africa and elsewhere. Mitigating this constraint requires the selection of resilient varieties that withstand drought threats to common bean production. This study assessed the drought response of 64 small red-seeded genotypes of common bean grown in a lattice design replicated twice under contrasting moisture regimes, terminal drought stress and non-stress, in Ethiopia during the dry season from November 2014 to March 2015. Multiple plant traits associated with drought were assessed for their contribution to drought adaptation of the genotypes. Drought stress determined by a drought intensity index was moderate (0.3). All the assessed traits showed significantly different genotypic responses under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Eleven genotypes significantly (P ≤0.05) outperformed the drought check cultivar under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in seed yielding potential. Seed yield showed positive and significant correlations with chlorophyll meter reading, vertical root pulling resistance force, number of pods per plant, and seeds per pod under both soil moisture regimes, indicating their potential use in selection of genotypes yielding well under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Clustering analysis using Mahalanobis distance grouped the genotypes into four groups showing high and significant inter-cluster distance, suggesting that hybridization between drought-adapted parents from the groups will provide the maximum genetic recombination for drought tolerance in subsequent generations.

  15. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia

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    Kwabena Darkwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress linked with climate change is one of the major constraints faced by common bean farmers in Africa and elsewhere. Mitigating this constraint requires the selection of resilient varieties that withstand drought threats to common bean production. This study assessed the drought response of 64 small red-seeded genotypes of common bean grown in a lattice design replicated twice under contrasting moisture regimes, terminal drought stress and non-stress, in Ethiopia during the dry season from November 2014 to March 2015. Multiple plant traits associated with drought were assessed for their contribution to drought adaptation of the genotypes. Drought stress determined by a drought intensity index was moderate (0.3. All the assessed traits showed significantly different genotypic responses under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Eleven genotypes significantly (P ≤ 0.05 outperformed the drought check cultivar under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in seed yielding potential. Seed yield showed positive and significant correlations with chlorophyll meter reading, vertical root pulling resistance force, number of pods per plant, and seeds per pod under both soil moisture regimes, indicating their potential use in selection of genotypes yielding well under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Clustering analysis using Mahalanobis distance grouped the genotypes into four groups showing high and significant inter-cluster distance, suggesting that hybridization between drought-adapted parents from the groups will provide the maximum genetic recombination for drought tolerance in subsequent generations.

  16. Genomic analysis of storage protein deficiency in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Sudhakar ePandurangan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome

  17. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E.; Chapman, B. Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L.; Pauls, Karl P.; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  18. Effect of vermicompost on soil fertility and crop productivity--beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, S; Balamurugan, M; Parthasarathi, K; Gunasekaran, G; Ranganathan, L S

    2009-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers-NPK, on the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils--clay loam soil (CLS) and sandy loam soil (SLS) and on the growth, yield and nutrient content of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris. Results showed that the application of vermicompost @ 5 tonnes ha(-1) had enhanced significantly the pore space (1.09 and 1.02 times), water holding capacity (1.1 and 1.3 times), cation exchange capacity (1.2 and 1.2 times). It reduced particles (1.2 and 1.2 times), and bulk density (1.2 and 1.2 times), pH (1 and 1.02 times) and electrical conductivity (1.4 and 1.2 times) and increased organic carbon (37 and 47 times), micro (Ca 3.07 and 1.9 times, Mg 1.6 and 1.6 times, Na 2.4 and 3.8 times, Fe 7 and 7.6 times, Mn 8.2 and 10.6 times, Zn 50 and 52 times and Cu 14 and 22 times) and macro (N 1.6 and 1.7 times, P 1.5 and 1.7 times, K 1.5 and 1.4 times) nutrients and microbial activity (1.4 and 1.5 times) in both soil types, particularly more in CLS. The growth, yield (1.6 times) and quality (protein (1.05 times) and sugar (1.01 times) content in seed) of bean were enhanced in CLS than SLS. On the other hand, the application of inorganic fertilizers @ 20:80:40 kg ha(-1) has resulted in reduced porosity (1.03 and 1.01 times), organic carbon (1.04 and 9.5 times) and microbial activity (1.02 and 1.03 times) in both soil types.

  19. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH (APPLE AND PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. (GREEN BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Doss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity as well as total phenol (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC in two fruits, apple (Malus domestica and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. The antioxidant activities were examined by two different methods namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power scavenging activity. The results showed that considerable amount of TPC and TFC was present in these fruit extracts as well as these vegetables contain a vast array of different phytochemicals in their dry form. Apple showed higher antioxidant activity than green beans. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and carbohydrates & glycosides in all the extracts. Overall, the present results provided basic data for choosing these fruits with high antioxidant capacity for consumption or for the development of antioxidant based medicines as value-added products.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN TEPUNG KAYA PROTEIN (TKP dari KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet DAN KORO KRATOK (Phaseolus lunatus [Development of Protein Rich Flour (PRF from Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With respect to high content of carbohydrate and protein, Protein Rich Flour (PRF were developed from non-oilseed legumes i.e. hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus PRF. PRFs were prepared using water and NaOH solution (0.01N as extraction solvent. After precipitation in isoelectric point (pHs the PRFs produced were characterized to determine the potential applications. The results showed that PRF from hyacinth bean which extracted by water was the best product with yield of 31.19%, protein content 58.41±4.45%, solubility 82-100% and oil holding capacity 93.92±9.19. Moreover pepsin-digestibility of the hyacinth bean PRF was higher (8.29±0.34% than soybean protein isolate (7.10±0.37% or casein (7.04±0.14%. Based on their characteristics, PRFs regarded as potential to be developed as novel food ingredient.

  1. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

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    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  2. The Effects of Foliar Application of Methanol on Morphological Characteristics of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under Drought Stress Condition

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    N. Armand

    2016-02-01

    , each experimental unit was a pot of 1 kg and 5 seeds were planted in each pot and after emergence decreased to 3 seedlings per pot. They were placed in a growth chamber with day and night temperatures as 25 °C and 15°C, respectively. Drought stress treatment based on soil moisture percentage was adjusted by measuring the weight percent of soil moisture and adding water consumed daily by each pot. Foliar application was done 3 times during the growing season and at intervals of 10 days. The first foliar application was performed during the seedling stage within 4 weeks after planting and other foliar application, respectively in early flowering and early podding. The foliar application was performed in such a way that solution droplets were present at all parts of the bean. Trait measurement was carried out 35 days after planting. Results and Discussion Results showed that there was significant difference (P 0.01 between methanol and drought stress regarding the plant height, number of branches, leaf number per pod, root and shoot dry weight, tap root length, root area, root diameter, root volume, and number of pod (P 0.05. All of the morphological traits were mainly affected by severe drought stress. The results of the comparing mean data in the interactions of methanol and drought stress showed that 20% methanol level in non-drought stress significantly increased in plant height, number of branches, root dry weight, root diameter and number of pod compared with control. 20% methanol level in temperate drought stress condition significantly increased the number of pod compared with non-applied methanol foliar application. Severe drought conditions in other traits except plant height difference between the levels of methanol and the methanol was observed. Conclusions Present study showed that the use of methanol at 20% by volume of methanol without the stress could be effective but failed to reduce the negative effects of drought stress on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L

  3. Induction of ferritin synthesis by water deficit and iron excess in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, Daiane Mariele; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sergio Augusto Morais

    2014-03-01

    Ferritins are molecules for iron storage present in most living beings. In plants, ferritin is an essential iron homeostasis regulator and therefore plays a fundamental role in control of iron induced by oxidative stress or by excess of iron ions. Ferritin gene expression is modulated by various environmental factors, including the intensity of drought, cold, light and pathogenic attack. Common bean, one of the most important species in the Brazilian diet, is also affected by insufficiency or lack of water. Thus, the present study was conducted for the purpose of determining the levels of expression of ferritins transcripts in leaf tissues of three common bean cultivars (BAT 477, Carioca Comum and IAC-Diplomata) under osmotic shock caused by polyethylene glycol 6000 and by iron excess. The expression of three ferritins genes (PvFer1, PvFer2 and PvFer3), determined by quantitative PCR, indicated a difference in the expression kinetics among the cultivars. All the ferritin genes were actively transcribed under iron excess and water deficit conditions. The cultivars most responsive to treatments were BAT 477 and IAC-Diplomata. All the cultivars responded to treatments. Nevertheless, the ferritin genes were differentially regulated according to the cultivars. Analysis of variance indicated differences among cultivars in expression of the genes PvFer1 and PvFer3. Both genes were most responsive to treatments. This result suggests that ferritin genes may be functionally important in acclimatization of common bean under iron excess or water deficit conditions.

  4. Characterization of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ecotype "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" using agronomic, biochemical and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pentangelo, Alfonso; Tripodi, Pasquale

    2013-09-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important grain legume and plays a significant role in human nutrition being a major source of dietary protein and representing a rich source of minerals and certain vitamins. Several large germplasm collections have been established, which contain large amounts of genetic diversity, including wild and domesticated species. In this study agronomic, biochemical and molecular characterization of landrace bean named "Fagiolo occhio nero di Oliveto Citra" (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), is described. Seeds were obtained by local farmers and field trials were carried out during years 2009-2010, in the typical cultivation site (Oliveto Citra, Salerno Province), using two different densities of investment. During 2011, in order to evaluate the performance in different environments, field trials were conducted in three localities (Battipaglia, Oliveto Citra and Controne). Data analysis shows good adaptability across locations and similar grain yield using two spacing's of seeds. Morphological characterization and molecular analysis, using AFLP and Minisatellite molecular markers, were performed on ten "biotypes" collected from local farmers. Seeds characterization showed variability on the violet area surrounding the hilum (named as eye) while markers have provided useful information on relationships between biotypes. Biochemical analysis, which includes the contents of protein, minerals and antioxidants, shows how the composition is consistent with respect to other landraces and commercial cultivars. The landrace under study revealed genetic stability and good adaptation to cultivated environment with best performance in the native area. In addition, the bio-agronomic characteristics are in accord with studies reported in literature.

  5. Review: The Potential of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as a Vehicle for Iron Biofortification

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    Nicolai Petry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA and polyphenol(s (PP. We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g. PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%–7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%–50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID.

  6. Genetic diversity of rhizobia associated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under no-tillage and conventional systems in Southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Hungria, M.; Andrade, D.S.; Campo, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and consumer of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), but yields are often low and may be improved by a higher N supply through symbiosis with rhizobia. One main limitation to the N2-fixation process is the susceptibility of the symbiosis to environmental stresses f

  7. Thermal Inactivation of Lectins and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity during Steam Processing of Dry Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Efkts on Protein Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der A.F.B.; Blonk, J.; Zuilichem, van D.J.; Oort, van M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of steam treatment on the protein quality and antinutritional factors in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) have been evaluated. The thermal inactivation of total and jhnctional lectins and trypsin inhibitor activity as well as total and available lysine during steam treatment at 102, 119 and 1

  8. Sampling techniques and detection methods for developing risk assessments for root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus, is a cornerstone crop in the Mid-Atlantic region and Meloidogyne incognita, the southern root knot nematode (RKN), causes significant yield loss. The RKN has become more pervasive as toxic nematicides have been removed from the market, and risk evaluation research is ne...

  9. Identification and Characterization of Phytohemagglutinins from White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Beldia) in the Rat Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Haj Sassi, Fayçal; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Although kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lectin toxicity is widely known, its effects in the gastrointestinal tract require further study. This investigation aimed to identify and characterize phytohemagglutinins (PHAs) in the small intestine and sera of rats following oral challenge with ground white beans. Twenty young, adult male rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The control group underwent gavage with a suspension of 300 mg of rodent pellet flour. The experimental group was administered a 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). After 10 days of daily treatment, jejunal rinse liquid (JRL) and ileum rinse liquid and secretions, as well as sera, were collected. All biological fluids were screened for lectin reactivity using competitive inhibition ELISA, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis techniques. The results revealed the presence of immunogenic intraluminal PHAs 3-4 h after the oral intake of the BBFS in the JRLs as well as in the jejunal and ileal secretions; however, no PHA was detectable in the rat sera. Ingestion of raw Beldia beans may lead to interaction between PHAs and the mucosa of the small intestine, potentially resulting in an inflammatory response.

  10. Geographical Distribution of Wild Relatives of Mesoamerican Gene Pool of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L. in Mexico

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    Rubén H. Andueza-Noh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican gene pool of wild Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L., Fabaceae is an important source of genes for genetic improvement of the species. Is widely distributed from northern Mexico to northern Argentina. Reports in Mexico indicate that this gene pool is distributed from Sinaloa to Chiapas on the Pacific Coast and southern Tamaulipas to the Yucatan Peninsula on the Coast of Gulf of Mexico, as well as, in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. However, despite the knowledge we have about the distribution of this gene pool, in Mexico there are still collecting gaps and unexplored regions. The objective of this study was to collect wild populations of Lima bean in Mexico to know its current distribution and establish management and conservation strategies. To do this, we collected within the natural distribution range of the Mesoamerican gene pool of Lima bean in Mexico, with the passport data was designed a geographical distribution map and assessed the conservation status of populations. Results indicated that wild populations of Lima bean have a wide geographical distribution localized mainly in tropical deciduous forest and semideciduous and elevations from zero to 2, 292 meters. In most wild population collected a low conservation status was observed, in consequence was proposed the development of strategies for in situ and ex situ conservation for wild populations with higher degree of erosion.

  11. Novel Rhizobium lineages isolated from root nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Andean and Mesoamerican areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Graham, Peter H; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-09-01

    The taxonomic affiliations of nineteen root-nodule bacteria isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil were investigated by analyses of 16S rRNA and of four protein-coding housekeeping genes. One strain from Mexico could be assigned to Rhizobium etli and two from Brazil to Rhizobium leucaenae, whereas another from Mexico corresponded to a recently described bean-nodulating species-level lineage related to R. etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. Ten strains isolated in Ecuador and Mexico corresponded to three novel Rhizobium lineages that fall into the R. phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade. One of those lineages, with representatives isolated mostly from Ecuador, seems to be dominant in beans from that Andean region. Only one of the Mexican strains clustered within the Rhizobium tropici clade, but as an independent lineage. Interestingly, four strains were affiliated with species within the Rhizobium radiobacter clade. The existence of yet non-described native Rhizobium lineages in both the Andean and Mesoamerican areas is discussed in relation to common-bean diversity and environmental conditions.

  12. Lima bean lady beetle interactions: spider mite mediates sublethal effects of its host plant on growth and development of its predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated plants can have negative effects on natural enemies that attack spider mites. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that spider mites mediate effects of a lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., cultivar on the life history of a lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise. We provisioned laborato...

  13. Assessing effects of ambient ozone on injury and yield of bean with ethylenediurea (EDU): Three years of plant monitoring at four sites in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Dijk, van C.J.

    2002-01-01

    EDU (ethylenediurea) and non-EDU-treated bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) L. cv. Lit) were exposed to ambient air at four rural sites in the Netherlands during the growing seasonsof 1994 through 1996 to investigate the responses to ambient ozone. Ozone-induced foliar injury was observed each year an

  14. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M., E-mail: adriana.souza@pesquisador.cnpq.br [Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  15. Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits

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    Yuste-Lisbona Fernando J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn, little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits. Results A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI, expansion coefficient (EC, and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS, in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs, covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of

  16. Light piping driven photosynthesis in the soil: Low-light adapted active photosynthetic apparatus in the under-soil hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Sárvári, Éva; Solti, Ádám; Czégény, Gyula; Hideg, Éva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic activity was identified in the under-soil hypocotyl part of 14-day-old soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Magnum) cultivated in pots under natural light-dark cycles. Electron microscopic, proteomic and fluorescence kinetic and imaging methods were used to study the photosynthetic apparatus and its activity. Under-soil shoots at 0-2cm soil depth featured chloroplasts with low grana and starch grains and with pigment-protein compositions similar to those of the above-soil green shoot parts. However, the relative amounts of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes were higher; in addition a PIP-type aquaporin protein was identified in the under-soil thylakoids. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction measurements showed that the above- and under-soil hypocotyl segments had similar photochemical yields at low (10-55μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) light intensities. However, at higher photon flux densities the electron transport rate decreased in the under-soil shoot parts due to inactivation of the PSII reaction centers. These properties show the development of a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus driven by light piping of the above-soil shoot. The results of this paper demonstrate that the classic model assigning source and sink functions to above- and under-soil tissues is to be refined, and a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus in under-soil bean hypocotyls is capable of contributing to its own carbon supply.

  17. Uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for uranium rhizofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minjune; Jawitz, James W; Lee, Minhee

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory scale rhizofiltration experiments were performed to investigate uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater. During 72 h of rhizofiltration, the roots of the bean accumulated uranium and cesium to concentrations 317-1019 times above the initial concentrations, which ranged from 100 to 700 μg l(-1) in artificially contaminated solutions. When the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3, the ability to accumulate uranium was 1.6 times higher than it was for solutions of pH 7 and pH 9. With an initial uranium concentration of 240 μg l(-1) in genuine groundwater at pH 5, the bean reduced the uranium concentration by 90.2% (to 23.6 μg l(-1)) within 12 h and by 98.9% (to 2.8 μg l(-1)) within 72 h. A laboratory scale continuous clean-up system reduced uranium concentrations from 240 μg l(-1) to below 10 μg l(-1) in 56 h; the whole uranium concentration in the bean roots during system operation was more than 2600 μg g(-1) on a dry weight basis. Using SEM and EDS analyses, the uranium removal in solution at pH 7 was determined based on adsorption and precipitation on the root surface in the form of insoluble uranium compounds. The present results demonstrate that the rhizofiltration technique using beans efficiently removes uranium and cesium from groundwater as an eco-friendly and cost-effective method.

  18. Tissue hypertrophy and epithelial proliferation rate in the gut of rats fed on bread and haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, F B; McClean, D; Mathers, J C

    1996-08-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that increasing short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the large bowel increases gut epithelial proliferation rate (EPR). Two experiments were carried out in which rats were fed on bread (wholemeal or white)-based diets containing graded amounts of cooked haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans; the latter are a rich source of fermentable carbohydrates. Consumption of beans was associated with several-fold increases in SCFA production with the greatest relative increase being for butyrate. Despite the very large increase in SCFA production, there was no evidence that this had any effect on EPR in the duodenum. Where the basal diet contained wholemeal bread (Expt 1) there was no effect of enhanced SCFA supply on EPR in either the caecum or colon, but with the white bread-based diet (Expt 2) adding beans produced increments in both SCFA supply and EPR in the caecum. Evidence that SCFA are responsible for enhanced EPR above normal levels is not convincing. In those instances where enhanced SCFA supply is associated with increased EPR, the increase may be (1) from a hypoproliferative state towards normal, (2) a transient phenomenon accompanying tissue hypertrophy or (3) a homeostatic response to increased cell loss by cell sloughing or apoptosis. It is not likely that there is any direct link with risk of colon cancer.

  19. Culinary and sensory traits diversity in the Spanish Core Collection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, A.; Casquero, P.A.; Mayo, S.; Almirall, A.; Plans, M.; Simó, J.; Romero-del-Castillo, R.; Casañas, F.

    2016-11-01

    The Spanish National Plant Genetic Resource Center’s core collection of bean germplasm includes 202 accessions selected from more than 3000 accessions in function of passport data, seed phenotype, genetic background, and agronomic traits. To acquire more useful information about these accessions, we cultivated and characterized them for sensory and culinary traits. We found considerable variation for culinary and sensory traits of the cooked beans (mean coefficients of variation: 41% for the sensory traits and 40% for the culinary traits). The large dataset enabled us to study correlations between sensory and culinary traits and among these traits and geographic origin, seed color, and growth habit. Greater proportion of white in the seed coat correlated positively with brightness and negatively with mealiness (r=0.60, r=-0.60, p<0.001, respectively). Mealiness correlated negatively with seed-coat roughness and rate of water absorption (r=-0.60, r=-0.53, p<0.001, respectively). Materials of Andean origin had lower seed-coat brightness (p<0.01) and seed-coat roughness, and greater seed-coat perceptibility, mealiness, flavor, and aroma (p<0.001) than materials of Mesoamerican origin. Growth habit failed to correlate with culinary or sensory traits. Breeders can benefit from the information about this core collection available at www.crf.inia.es/crfesp/paginaprincipaljudia.asp. (Author)

  20. Culinary and sensory traits diversity in the Spanish Core Collection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Casquero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish National Plant Genetic Resource Center’s core collection of bean germplasm includes 202 accessions selected from more than 3000 accessions in function of passport data, seed phenotype, genetic background, and agronomic traits. To acquire more useful information about these accessions, we cultivated and characterized them for sensory and culinary traits. We found considerable variation for culinary and sensory traits of the cooked beans (mean coefficients of variation: 41% for the sensory traits and 40% for the culinary traits. The large dataset enabled us to study correlations between sensory and culinary traits and among these traits and geographic origin, seed color, and growth habit. Greater proportion of white in the seed coat correlated positively with brightness and negatively with mealiness (r=0.60, r=-0.60, p<0.001, respectively. Mealiness correlated negatively with seed-coat roughness and rate of water absorption (r=-0.60, r=-0.53, p<0.001, respectively. Materials of Andean origin had lower seed-coat brightness (p<0.01 and seed-coat roughness, and greater seed-coat perceptibility, mealiness, flavor, and aroma (p<0.001 than materials of Mesoamerican origin. Growth habit failed to correlate with culinary or sensory traits. Breeders can benefit from the information about this core collection available at www.crf.inia.es/crfesp/paginaprincipaljudia.asp.

  1. Effect of Aging and Priming on Physiological and Biochemical Traits of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman AMANPOUR-BALANEJI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging and deterioration (artificial aging are the most effective factors on the seed vigour. In order to study the changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics of common bean under aging and priming treatments a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design conducted with three replications. Seed aging (control, 90 and 80% of control germination and seed invigoration with priming including control, hydro (distilled water, osmo (PEG 6000, hormone (gibberellic acid and halo (NaCl priming were considered as experimental factors. Results showed that osmo-priming had the ability to relatively ameliorate the aging effect and recover some of the seed aspects like germination rate, protein and phytin content for invigorate germination and seedling establishment. Priming indirectly increased seed vigour via germination rate and it can provide homogeny of emergence in the field and obtaining appropriate plant population.

  2. Comparisons of phaseolin type and α-amylase inhibitor in common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying Zhu; Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type and a-amylase(αAI) level in common bean(Phaseolus vidgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank.The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia,North America,South America,Europe,and Africa.No Inca(I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions.Only four accessions contained Tendergreen(T-) phaseolin and the remaining36 contained Sanilac(S-) phaseolin.aAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher a-amylase inhibitory activity than the control(Phase 2,IC50 = 0.65 μg).These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  3. Proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed as a natural coagulant for potential application in water turbidity removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antov, Mirjana G; Sćiban, Marina B; Petrović, Nada J

    2010-04-01

    The ability of coagulation active proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed for the removal of water turbidity was studied. Partial purification of protein coagulant was performed by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, dialysis and anion exchange chromatography. Adsorption parameters for ion-exchange process were established using dialysate extract. Results revealed that the highest values of the adsorbed protein were achieved in 50 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 and the maximum adsorption capacity was calculated to be 0.51 mg protein/mL matrix. Partially purified coagulant at initial turbidity 35 NTU expressed the highest value of coagulation activity, 72.3%, which was almost 22 times higher than those obtained by crude extract considering applied dosages. At the same time, the increase in organic matter that remained in water after coagulation with purified protein coagulant was more than 16 times lower than those with crude extract, relatively to its content in blank.

  4. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  5. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations.

  6. Effect of White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on Small Intestine Morphology and Function in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; Bergaoui, Nacef; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Trabelsi, Najoua; Zekri, Sami; Guémira, Fathi; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of raw or undercooked kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) causes functional and morphological derangement in various tissues. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety that is widely consumed in Tunisia, on the small intestine morphology and jejunal absorption of water, electrolytes, and glucose in Wistar rats. Twenty young male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rats. The first group served as the control and was gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS), whereas the second experimental group was challenged with 300 mg of a Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS) for 10 days. Histological studies were performed using light and electron microcopy. The intestinal transport of water, sodium, potassium, and glucose was studied by perfusing the jejunal loops of the small bowels in vivo. The feeding experiments indicated that BBFS did not affect weight gain. Histomorphometric analyses showed that the villus heights, crypt depths, and crypt/villus ratios in the jejunum and ileum were greater in the BBFS-fed rats than controls. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the rats exposed to RPFS exhibited intact intestinal tracts; however, the BBFS-treated rats demonstrated intestinal alterations characterized by abnormal microvillus architectures, with short and dense or long and slender features, in addition to the sparse presence of vesicles near the brush border membrane. BBFS administration did not significantly affect glucose absorption. However, significant decreases were observed in water and electrolyte absorption compared with the uptake of the controls. In conclusion, raw Beldia beans distorted jejunum morphology and disturbed hydroelectrolytic flux.

  7. A high-throughput SNP marker system for parental polymorphism screening, and diversity analysis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Cortés, Andrés J; Penmetsa, R Varma; Farmer, Andrew; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Cook, Doug R

    2013-02-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection has become a marker system of choice, because of the high abundance of source polymorphisms and the ease with which allele calls are automated. Various technologies exist for the evaluation of SNP loci and previously we validated two medium throughput technologies. In this study, our goal was to utilize a 768 feature, Illumina GoldenGate assay for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed from conserved legume gene sequences and to use the new technology for (1) the evaluation of parental polymorphisms in a mini-core set of common bean accessions and (2) the analysis of genetic diversity in the crop. A total of 736 SNPs were scored on 236 diverse common bean genotypes with the GoldenGate array. Missing data and heterozygosity levels were low and 94 % of the SNPs were scorable. With the evaluation of the parental polymorphism genotypes, we estimated the utility of the SNP markers in mapping for inter-genepool and intra-genepool populations, the latter being of lower polymorphism than the former. When we performed the diversity analysis with the diverse genotypes, we found Illumina GoldenGate SNPs to provide equivalent evaluations as previous gene-based SNP markers, but less fine-distinctions than with previous microsatellite marker analysis. We did find, however, that the gene-based SNPs in the GoldenGate array had some utility in race structure analysis despite the low polymorphism. Furthermore the SNPs detected high heterozygosity in wild accessions which was probably a reflection of ascertainment bias. The Illumina SNPs were shown to be effective in distinguishing between the genepools, and therefore were most useful in saturation of inter-genepool genetic maps. The implications of these results for breeding in common bean are discussed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the GoldenGate system for SNP detection.

  8. A gap analysis methodology for collecting crop genepools: a case study with phaseolus beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Ramírez-Villegas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The wild relatives of crops represent a major source of valuable traits for crop improvement. These resources are threatened by habitat destruction, land use changes, and other factors, requiring their urgent collection and long-term availability for research and breeding from ex situ collections. We propose a method to identify gaps in ex situ collections (i.e. gap analysis of crop wild relatives as a means to guide efficient and effective collecting activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The methodology prioritizes among taxa based on a combination of sampling, geographic, and environmental gaps. We apply the gap analysis methodology to wild taxa of the Phaseolus genepool. Of 85 taxa, 48 (56.5% are assigned high priority for collecting due to lack of, or under-representation, in genebanks, 17 taxa are given medium priority for collecting, 15 low priority, and 5 species are assessed as adequately represented in ex situ collections. Gap "hotspots", representing priority target areas for collecting, are concentrated in central Mexico, although the narrow endemic nature of a suite of priority species adds a number of specific additional regions to spatial collecting priorities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results of the gap analysis method mostly align very well with expert opinion of gaps in ex situ collections, with only a few exceptions. A more detailed prioritization of taxa and geographic areas for collection can be achieved by including in the analysis predictive threat factors, such as climate change or habitat destruction, or by adding additional prioritization filters, such as the degree of relatedness to cultivated species (i.e. ease of use in crop breeding. Furthermore, results for multiple crop genepools may be overlaid, which would allow a global analysis of gaps in ex situ collections of the world's plant genetic resources.

  9. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  10. Evaluation of Maize (Zea mays L. and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Growth Indices in Strip Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nasiri Mahallati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping systems are one of the best approaches in development of sustainable agriculture. Based on this purpose, the present study was conducted to evaluate effect of strip intercropping on maize and bean growth analysis and their yield during 2009. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized block with 3 replications and 6 treatments based on replacement design. The treatments were strip width, which included 2 rows bean plus 2 rows maize, 3 rows bean plus 3 rows maize, 4 rows bean plus 4 rows maize, 5 rows bean plus 5 rows maize, maize monoculture, and bean monoculture. Crop growth ratio, relative growth ratio, biological yield, economic yield, harvest index and land equivalent ratio were measured. Our results indicated that all of the measured traits were increased in the strip intercropping treatments compare to the monoculture treatments. Increasing of strip width in the central row of intercropping treatments in comparison with the two rows bean plus two rows maize treatment led to decrease crop growth rate (15.3% and 28.7%, relative growth rate (17.5% and 19.2%, biological yield (30.9% and 14%, economic yield (52.9% and 20.2%, harvest index (31.9% and 7.3% in maize and bean, respectively. With increasing of strip width, all of the measured traits decreased more in the central rows than the side rows. The highest (1.45 and the lowest (1.22 land equivalent ratio were found in the two rows bean plus two rows maize treatment and five rows bean plus five rows maize treatment, respectively. Partial of maize had more role compare to bean in terms of enhance land equivalent ratio.

  11. Fermented nondigestible fraction from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 modulates HT-29 cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Bravo, R K; Guevara-Gonzalez, R; Ramos-Gomez, M; Garcia-Gasca, T; Campos-Vega, R; Oomah, B D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a fermented nondigestible fraction (FNDF) of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell survival. Negro 8025 was chosen for in vitro fermentation based on comparison of chemical composition with 2 other cultivars: Azufrado Higuera and Pinto Durango. Negro 8025 had 58% total dietary fiber, 27% resistant starch, and 20 mg of (+)-catechin equivalents per gram of sample. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and pH of the medium were measured after fermentation as indicators of colon protection through induced arrest on cell culture and apoptosis. Butyrate and pH of FNDF of Negro 8025 were higher than the control fermented raffinose extract. The FNDF inhibited HT-29 cell survival in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) was 13.63% FNDF (equivalent to 7.36, 0.33, and 3.31 mmol of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, respectively). DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis indicator, was detected by the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method in cells treated with the LC(50)-FNDF and a synthetic mixture of SCFAs mimicking LC(50)-FNDF. Our results suggest that common bean is a reliable source of fermentable substrates in colon, producing compounds with potential chemoprotective effect on HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, so it may present an effective alternative to mitigate colon cancer development.

  12. Rhizobium ecuadorense sp. nov., an indigenous N2-fixing symbiont of the Ecuadorian common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genetic pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Martins, Talita Busulini; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Marçon Delamuta, Jakeline Renata; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2015-09-01

    There are two major centres of genetic diversification of common bean (Phaseolus vilgaris L.), the Mesoamerican and the Andean, and the legume is capable of establishing nitrogen-fixing symbioses with several rhizobia; Rhizobium etli seems to be the dominant species in both centres. Another genetic pool of common bean, in Peru and Ecuador, is receiving increasing attention, and studies of microsymbionts from the region can help to increase our knowledge about coevolution of this symbiosis. We have previously reported several putative new lineages from this region and here present data indicating that strains belonging to one of them, PEL4, represent a novel species. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, PEL4 strains are positioned in the Rhizobium phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade, but show unique properties in several morphological, physiological and biochemical analyses, as well as in BOX-PCR profiles ( Rhizobium fabae. DNA-DNA hybridization ( Rhizobium ecuadorense sp. nov. The type strain is CNPSo 671(T) ( = UMR 1450(T) = PIMAMPIRS I 5(T) = LMG 27578(T)).

  13. Iron and zinc bioavailabilities to pigs from red and white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are similar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common beans contain relatively high concentrations of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) but are also high in polyphenols and phytates, factors that may inhibit Fe and Zn absorption. In vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (pigs) models were used to compare Fe and Zn bioavailabilities between red and white beans,...

  14. Effect of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin on the ultrastructure of Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Hashem, Hanan Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that is the aetiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Currently, the compound of choice for the treatment of T. vaginalis infections is metronidazole, however, it has many side effects and an increase in metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis has been observed. Medicinal plants could be a source of new antiprotozoal drugs with high activity, low toxicity and lower price. The present work was carried out to investigate the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin and their in vitro activity on the ultrastructure of T. vaginalis trophozoites in comparison to metronidazole, as detected by transmission electron microscope. Both N. sativa oil and P. vulgaris lectin showed high toxic effect as evidenced by severe cell damage with cytoplasmic and nuclear destruction, while the effect of N. sativa alcoholic extract was moderate. Therefore, these two extracts could offer an effective, cheaper and more safe alternative for metronidazole in treatment of trichomoniasis.

  15. Effect of a chronic and moderate ozone pollution on the phenolic pattern of bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Nerina): relations with visible injury and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoun, M; Goulas, M J.P.; Biolley, J -P.

    2001-05-01

    From sowing, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Nerina) plants were exposed to three chronic doses of ozone for 7h.day(-1): non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered air supplied with 40nl.l(-1) ozone (NF+40) and non-filtered air supplied with 60nll(-1) ozone (NF+60). Four harvests were carried out 6, 13, 20 and 27 days after emergence. Either primary leaves, or first trifoliate leaves, or both were sampled as far as possible. For each sampled leaf, visible ozone injuries were registered, the free polyphenolic pool was analysed using HPLC and the dry matter was weighed. Visible damage on leaves was related to both exposure time and ozone concentration added. There were no adverse effects of added ozone on the biomass of primary leaves while a significant reduction of first trifoliates dry matter could be observed (NF+60 atmosphere, third and fourth harvest). Among the normally occurring phenolics, we detected a significant decrease in the accumulation of a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative as the ozone concentration increased. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that this ozone-induced modification could be sometimes distinguishable with difficulties from changes expected to be of development relevance. Beside this phenolic disbalance, we detected a de novo biosynthesis of compounds that closely depended on the level of visible ozone injury. Since their accumulation increased with leaf damage, these ozone-induced phenolics could be used to detect phytotoxic ambient levels of tropospheric ozone.

  16. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are an important part of the Costa Rican diet.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Nevertheless, the amount and the frequencyof its consumption has been decreasing over time, especiallyin the urban areas1 This tendency is a concern to thoseinvolved in health and nutrition since beans are a source ofprotein, non-heme iron, fiber, folic acid, thiamin, potassium,magnesium and zinc2. The nutritional contribution of beanslo the Costa Rican diet is important in spite of the reductionin consumption. Beans are important because of their nutrientcontent and the presence of phytochem...

  17. Physicochemical, morphological and rheological properties of canned bean pastes "negro Queretaro" variety (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Preciado, A H; Estrada-Girón, Y; González-Álvarez, A; Fernández, V V A; Macías, E R; Soltero, J F A

    2014-09-01

    Proximate, thermal, morphological and rheological properties of canned "negro Querétaro" bean pastes, as a function of fat content (0, 2 and 3 %) and temperature (60, 70 and 85 °C), were evaluated. Raw and precooked bean pastes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Well-defined starch granules in the raw bean pastes were observed, whereas a gelatinized starch paste was observed for the canned bean pastes. The DSC analysis showed that the raw bean pastes had lower onset peak temperatures (79 °C, 79.1 °C) and gelatinization enthalpy (1.940 J/g), compared to that precooked bean pastes (70.4 °C, 75.7 °C and 1.314 J/g, respectively) thermal characteristics. Moreover, the dynamic rheological results showed a gel-like behavior for the canned bean pastes, where the storage modulus (G') was frequency independent and was higher than the loss modulus (G″). The non-linear rheological results exhibited a shear-thinning flow behavior, where the steady shear-viscosity was temperature and fat content dependent. For canned bean pastes, the shear-viscosity data followed a power law equation, where the power law index (n) decreased when the temperature and the fat content increased. The temperature effect on the shear-viscosity was described by an Arrhenius equation, where the activation energy (Ea) was in the range from 19.04 to 36.81 KJ/mol. This rheological behavior was caused by gelatinization of the starch during the cooking and sterilization processes, where starch-lipids and starch-proteins complex were formed.

  18. The performance of the CROPGRO model for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield simulation=Desempenho do modelo CROPGRO-Dry bean na simulação do rendimento de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Barbosa Justino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the CROPGRO-Dry bean model for simulating dry bean yield. The model’s genetic coefficients were calibrated based on the cultivars ‘Pérola’, ‘Ouro Negro’ and ‘Ouro Vermelho’ in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The coefficients were adjusted based on two experiments that were performed in 2003 with irrigated and nonirrigated water regimes. An additional experiment with irrigation was conducted in 2004. After calibration, the model simulated the bean yield for the period from 1975 through 2006. The simulations were based on daily data on maximum and minimum air temperatures, total precipitation and global solar radiation. The physical and hydric characteristics of the soil and crop management practices were also included. The results show that the crop model can correctly reproduce the observed yield. This finding may indicate that the model is a useful tool to evaluate the crop response to variability and changing climate.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o modelo CROPGRO-Dry bean como ferramenta de previsão de rendimento de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., tendo como base as cultivares ‘Pérola’, ‘Ouro Negro’ e ‘Ouro Vermelho’, cultivados em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais. O ajuste dos coeficientes genéticos do modelo foi obtido a partir de dois experimentos realizados em 2003, um conduzido com irrigação e outro em condições de sequeiro. Além destes, outro experimento foi conduzido em 2004, com irrigação. Após o ajuste dos coeficientes, realizou-se a simulação do rendimento do feijoeiro com base em dados de 31 safras entre o período de 1975 a 2006. As simulações foram baseadas em dados meteorológicos diários de temperaturas máxima e mínima do ar, precipitação pluvial e radiação solar global, características físico-hídricas do solo e dados de manejo da cultura. Por meio das análises realizadas nas simulações, verificou-se que o modelo

  19. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis.

  20. THE ACTION OF UV RADIATION ON MITOTIC INDEX AND MITOTIC DIVISION PHASES AT PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L

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    Csilla Iuliana Bara

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, damaging effects of UV radiations on bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. plantule root tips were investigated. Our study proves that by bean plants, the decrease of cell division frequency appears to be part of protection mechanism against especially the short waved UV radiation, with variations depending on cultivar.

  1. Avaliação da biodiversidade de rizóbios simbiontes do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em Santa Catarina Assessment of biodiversity in rhizobia symbionts of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Stocco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os solos brasileiros, em geral, apresentam uma população abundante de rizóbios capazes de nodular e fixar N2 em simbiose com o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; contudo, a diversidade dessas bactérias ainda é pouco conhecida. Este estudo teve por objetivo conhecer a biodiversidade de microssimbiontes do feijoeiro em Santa Catarina e, para isso, foram obtidos 117 isolados de nódulos de plantas coletadas em campo, em 23 áreas do extremo oeste, do meio oeste e do planalto sul catarinense. Com base nos atributos morfofisiológicos, os isolados foram classificados em nove grupos. Pela análise dos perfis de DNA após a amplificação (PCR com o "primer" BOX, que codifica regiões conservadas e repetidas do genoma, 107 perfis distintos foram agrupados em um nível final de similaridade de apenas 26,9 %. Os perfis obtidos pela amplificação do gene 16S ribossômico - referência na taxonomia atual de procariotos - seguida pela digestão com três enzimas de restrição (técnica de RFLP-PCR, resultaram em seis agrupamentos principais e cinco bactérias isoladas. As populações consistiram de 17,1 % de Rhizobium tropici, 35,9 % de R. etli, 32,5 % de R. leguminosarum, 1,7 % de R. giardinii e 12,8 % com perfis distintos das espécies descritas de rizóbios de feijoeiro. R. tropici predominou em solos ácidos do meio oeste e do planalto sul, R. leguminosarum não foi detectado no extremo oeste e R. etli ocorreu nas três regiões, essas duas últimas espécies em solos menos ácidos. Os resultados enfatizam a diversidade genética elevada de rizóbios, inter e intra-específica, nos solos catarinenses, inclusive com a indicação de novas espécies.Brazilian soils usually present a great number of populations of rhizobial bacteria capable of nodulating and fixing N2 in symbiosis with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., but the diversity of these bacteria is still poorly known. This study aimed to assess the biodiversity of micro-symbionts of

  2. Complex carbohydrate digestion and large bowel fermentation in rats given wholemeal bread and cooked haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) fed in mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, F B; Mathers, J C

    1993-03-01

    The digestion of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and of resistant starch (RS) by rats fed on wholemeal-bread-based diets containing 0-450 g cooked, freeze-dried haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)/kg diet was measured over the final 14 d of a 21 d feeding experiment. The bread and beans provided all the dietary polysaccharide. RS could not be detected consistently in faeces and it was assumed that this fraction was entirely fermented in the large bowel (LB). NSP digestibilities were 0.56 and 0.86 for wholemeal bread and beans respectively with no evidence that the dietary presence of beans affected digestibility of bread NSP. Bean non-cellulosic polysaccharides were highly digestible with values of 0.98, 0.88 and 0.99 for arabinose, xylose and uronic acids components respectively. There were large increases in organic matter flow to the LB when beans were fed which was associated with marked caecal hypertrophy and alterations in caecal volatile fatty acids (VFA) pattern. Calculated VFA absorption from the LB was 5-fold higher with the highest level of beans and this was reflected in higher concentrations of VFA in portal and heart blood.

  3. Symbiotic Efficiency of Native Rhizobia Nodulating Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Soils of Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaka, Fanuel; Dida, Mathews M; Opala, Peter A; Ombori, Omwoyo; Maingi, John; Osoro, Newton; Muthini, Morris; Amoding, Alice; Mukaminega, Dative; Muoma, John

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the abundance and symbiotic efficiency of native rhizobia nodulating common bean in Kisumu and Kakamega, Kenya. Soil sampling was carried out in three farms that had been used for growing common bean for at least two seasons and one fallow land with no known history of growing common bean or inoculation. Abundance of soil rhizobia and symbiotic efficiency (SE) were determined in a greenhouse experiment. Native rhizobia populations ranged from 3.2 × 10(1) to 3.5 × 10(4) cells per gram of soil. Pure bacterial cultures isolated from fresh and healthy root nodules exhibited typical characteristics of Rhizobium sp. on yeast extract mannitol agar media supplemented with Congo red. Bean inoculation with the isolates significantly (p rhizobia were higher when compared to a reference strain, CIAT 899 (67%), and ranged from 74% to 170%. Four isolates had SE above a second reference strain, Strain 446 (110%). Our results demonstrate the presence of native rhizobia that are potentially superior to the commercial inoculants. These can be exploited to enhance bean inoculation programmes in the region.

  4. Biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Cao, Ying; Wang, En Tao; Qiao, Ya Juan; Jiao, Shuo; Liu, Zhen Shan; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Ge Hong

    2016-05-01

    The biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with bean in Shaanxi Province were investigated. A total of 194 bacterial isolates from bean nodules collected from 13 sampling sites were characterized based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD, and the symbiotic genes nodC and nifH. Fifteen genospecies belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ensifer, Bradyrhizobium and Ochrobactrum were defined among the isolates, with Rhizobium sp. II, Agrobacterium sp. II, E. fredii and R. phaseoli being the dominant groups. Four symbiotic gene lineages corresponding to Rhizobium sp. I, Rhizobium sp. II, R. phaseoli and B. liaoningense were detected in the nodC and nifH sequence analyses, indicating different origins for the symbiotic genes and their co-evolution with the chromosome of the bacteria. Moreover, the Ensifer isolates harbored symbiotic genes closely related to bean-nodulating Pararhizobium giardinii, indicating possible lateral gene transfer from Rhizobium to Ensifer. Correlation of rhizobial community composition with moisture, temperature, intercropping, soil features and nutrients were detected. All the results demonstrated a great diversity of bean rhizobia in Shaanxi that might be due to the adaptable evolution of the bean-nodulating rhizobia subjected to the diverse ecological conditions in the area.

  5. Morpho-physiological analysis of adaptive responses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Polania Perdomo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    El frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es la leguminosa alimenticia más importante en los trópicos. Es cultivada por pequeños agricultores y por lo general expuesta a condiciones desfavorables con mínimo uso de insumos. La sequía y la baja fertilidad del suelo, especialmente deficiencias de nitrógeno (N) y fósforo (P), son principales limitaciones para el rendimiento del frijol en los sistemas de pequeños productores. El frijol puede derivar parte de su requerimiento de N de la atmósfera a t...

  6. Morpho-physiological characteristics of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) related to drought adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Polanía, José A; M. Rao, Idupulapati; Mejía, Sara; Beebe, Stephen E.; Cajiao, César

    2013-01-01

    El desarrollo de variedades adaptadas es una de las estrategias que contribuye a garantizar la segu- ridad alimentaria en zonas productoras de frijol con estrés por sequía. En los invernaderos de cristal del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, se evaluaron las caracte- risticas morfológicas y fisiológicas de raices de 21 lineas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en condiciones de estrés por sequía e irrigación, utilizando un sistema de tubos plásticos desarr...

  7. Nutritional quality of extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) and its effects on growth and skeletal muscle nitrogen fractions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, F; Alonso, R; Urdaneta, E; Arricibita, F J; Ibáñez, F

    2002-04-01

    The influence of extrusion cooking on the protein content, amino acid profile, and concentration of antinutritive compounds (phytic acid, condensed tannins, polyphenols, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and hemagglutinating activity) in kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) was investigated. Growing male rats were fed diets based on casein containing raw or extruded kidney beans with or without methionine supplementation for 8 or 15 d. Rates of growth, food intake, and protein efficiency ratio were measured and the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle and the composition of its nitrogenous fraction was determined. Extrusion cooking reduced (P cooking improved food intake and utilization by the rats and they gained BW. Supplementation of extruded kidney bean with methionine further enhanced (P food conversion efficiency and growth. However, BW gains and muscle composition still differed (P < 0.01) from those of rats fed a high-quality protein.

  8. Relationship between in vitro Fe and Zn dialysability and peptide composition of albumin and globulins extracted from cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi-Boccia, G; Carbonaro, M; Cappelloni, M; Carnovale, E

    1996-11-01

    In vitro dialysability of iron, zinc and protein was determined from whole bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), albumin and globulin (G1, G2) after cooking. Albumin showed the highest iron, zinc, protein and phytic acid content. Cooking increased iron and protein dialysability only in whole bean and albumin. Compared to globulins, albumin also presented a higher in vitro protein digestibility and cystine chemical reactivity. HPLC analysis of peptides in dialysates of bean and protein fractions suggested that some aggregation occurred during dialysis. The percentage of amino acids in dialysed peptides was found to be different between albumin and globulins. The difference in iron and zinc dialysability between albumin and globulins seems to depend on the phytic acid content of the albumin fraction and the protein properties of globulins.

  9. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. (Anasazi Beans

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    Arishya Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A lectin has been isolated from seeds of the Phaseolus vulgaris cv. “Anasazi beans” using a procedure that involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC-ion exchange chromatography on Mono S, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 200. The lectin was comprised of two 30-kDa subunits with substantial N-terminal sequence similarity to other Phaseolus lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was stable within the pH range of 1–14 and the temperature range of 0–80∘C. The lectin potently suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 (breast cancer cells with an IC50 of 1.3 μM, and inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 7.6 μM. The lectin evoked a mitogenic response from murine splenocytes as evidenced by an increase in [3H-methyl]-thymidine incorporation. The lectin had no antifungal activity. It did not stimulate nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages. Chemical modification results indicated that tryptophan was crucial for the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin.

  10. Effects of SO/sub 2/ dosage kinetics and exposure frequency on photosynthesis and transpiration of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Shriner, D.S.; McConathy, R.K.; Mann, L.K.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of variations in SO/sub 2/ dosage kinetics on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. red kidney) were studied at SO/sub 2/ levels equal to or below the current secondary ambient air quality standard. Response of photosynthesis, transpiration and growth were measured to evaluate the extent and duration of effects following repeated treatment at weekly (Experiment I) and daily (Experiment II) intervals. Depression of photosynthesis was the most consistent response observed. Transpiration was either stimulated or depressed by SO/sub 2/ concentrations which reduced photosynthesis. This effect indicates a probable biochemical rather than stomatal basis for observed photosynthetic depressions noted in these experiments. Increasing the peak:mean concentration ratio from 1.0 to 1.7 during exposure had no obvious effect on short-term photosynthetic response but caused apparent stimulation of photosynthesis one day later. Increasing the peak:mean ratio from 1.0 to 6.0 caused a threefold average greater depression of short-term photosynthetic response even though the 3 hr av. concentration was reduced by 25% (0.50-0.37). Residual effects from this treatment were generally small on the day after exposure. No strong evidence was obtained to indicate that plants were sensitized to SO/sub 2/-induced suppression of photosynthesis by previous exposure to SO/sub 2/. Predisposition was not apparent when exposures were repeated at weekly or daily intervals. Visible foliar injury did not occur. Analysis of harvest data at the end of these experiments indicated that plants could undergo a repeated short-term (1 day) cycle of photosynthetic inhibition and still retain an essentially unimpaired capacity for growth during a subsequent recovery period. When exposures were spaced a week apart, some indication of a residual effect on growth, particularly with the highest peak:mean ratio (6.0), was apparent. 26 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  11. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

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    Yau Sang Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel, Mono Q (anion exchanger, and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion. The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

  12. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Xia, Lixin; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel), Mono Q (anion exchanger), and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion). The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

  13. Structure and Activity Changes of Phytohemagglutinin from Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Affected by Ultrahigh-Pressure Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunjun; Liu, Cencen; Zhao, Mouming; Cui, Chun; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2015-11-04

    Phytohemagglutin (PHA), purified from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) by Affi-Gel blue affinity chromatography, was subjected to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) treatment (150, 250, 350, and 450 MPa). The purified PHA lost its hemagglutination activity after 450 MPa treatment and showed less pressure tolerance than crude PHA. However, the saccharide specificity and α-glucosidase inhibition activity of the purified PHA did not change much after UHP treatment. Electrophoresis staining by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) manifested that the glycone structure of purified PHA remained stable even after 450 MPa pressure treatment. However, electrophoresis staining by Coomassie Blue as well as circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) assay proved that the protein unit structure of purified PHA unfolded when treated at 0-250 MPa but reaggregates at 250-450 MPa. Therefore, the hemagglutination activity tends to be affected by the protein unit structure, while the stability of the glycone structure contributed to the remaining α-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  14. Variation in cyanogenic glycosides across populations of wild lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) has no apparent effect on bruchid beetle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, J Gwen; Glauser, Gaetan; Benrey, Betty

    2014-05-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides (CNGs) act as feeding or oviposition deterrents and are toxic after enzymatic hydrolysis, thus negatively affecting herbivore performance. While most studies on CNGs focus on leaf herbivores, here we examined seeds from natural populations of Phaseolus lunatus in Mexico. The predominant CNGs, linamarin and lotaustralin, were quantified for each population by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also examined whether there was a correlation between the concentration of CNGs and the performance of the Mexican bean beetle, Zabrotes subfasciatus, on seeds from each population(.) The concentrations of CNGs in the seeds were relatively high compared to the leaves and were significantly variable among populations. Surprisingly, this had little effect on the performance of the bruchid beetles. Zabrotes subfasciatus can tolerate high concentrations of CNGs, most likely because of the limited β-glucosidase activity in the seeds. Seed herbivory does not appear to liberate hydrogen cyanide due to the low water content in the seed. This study illustrates the importance of quantifying the natural variation and activity of toxic compounds in order to make relevant biological inferences about their role in defense against herbivores.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (HE and observed heterozygosity (HO levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

  16. Site-specific risk factors of white mould epidemics in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Tasmania, Australia, if more than 5% of bean pods are found to be affected by white mould (caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) entire crops can be rejected by contracting processors. This strict quality standard is one of the main reasons for prophylactic application of fungicides over flowering...

  17. Determination Of Some Morphological And Phenological Characteristics Of Local Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It is extremely crucial that botanic gene resources are recorded and preserved in developing new species. Even though the materials are collected in a single city, there can emerge numerous variations to be observed among them. Detecting these variations is highly important for breeding studies. In this study, local dry bean genotypes have been collected from the city center of Giresun and other provinces in order to use on breeding studies for various purposes. It has been aimed that some mo...

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of an Italian landrace of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.): inferences for its safeguard and on-farm conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, F; Catarcione, G; Paolacci, A R; Abenavoli, M R; Sunseri, F; Ciaffi, M

    2015-08-01

    The landraces are considered important sources of valuable germplasm for breeding activities to face climatic changes as well as to satisfy the requirement of new varieties for marginal areas. Runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) is one of the most cultivated Phaseolus species worldwide, but few studies have been addressed to assess the genetic diversity and structure within and among landrace populations. In the present study, 20 different populations of a runner bean landrace from Central Italy named "Fagiolone," together with 41 accessions from Italy and Mesoamerica, were evaluated by using 14 nuclear SSRs to establish its genetic structure and distinctiveness. Results indicated that "Fagiolone" landrace can be considered as a dynamic evolving open-pollinated population that shows a significant level of genetic variation, mostly detected within populations, and the presence of two main genetic groups, of which one distinguished from other Italian runner bean landraces. Results highlighted also a relevant importance of farmers' management practices able to influence the genetic structure of this landrace, in particular the seed exchanges and selection, and the past introduction in cultivation of landraces/cultivars similar to seed morphology, but genetically rather far from "Fagiolone." The most suitable on-farm strategies for seed collection, conservation and multiplication will be defined based on our results, as a model for threatened populations of other allogamous crop species. STRUCTURE and phylogenetic analyses indicated that Mesoamerican accessions and Italian landraces belong to two distinct gene pools confirming the hypothesis that Europe could be considered a secondary diversification center for P. coccineus.

  19. Purification, Biochemical Characterization, and Bioactive Properties of a Lectin Purified from the Seeds of White Tepary Bean (Phaseolus Acutifolius Variety Latifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Becerril-Flores

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the characterization of Phaseolus acutifolius variety latifolius, on which little research has been published, and provides detailed information on the corresponding lectin. This protein was purified from a semi-domesticated line of white tepary beans from Sonora, Mexico, by precipitation of the aqueous extract with ammonium sulfate, followed by affinity chromatography on an immobilized fetuin matrix. MALDI TOF analysis of Phaseolus acutifolius agglutinin (PAA showed that this lectin is composed of monomers with molecular weights ranging between 28 and 31 kDa. At high salt concentrations, PAA forms a dimer of 63 kDa, but at low salt concentrations, the subunits form a tetramer. Analysis of PAA on 2D-PAGE showed that there are mainly three types of subunits with isoelectric points of 4.2, 4.4, and 4.5. The partial sequence obtained by LC/MS/MS of tryptic fragments from the PAA subunits showed 90–100% identity with subunits from genus Phaseolus lectins in previous reports. The tepary bean lectin showed lower hemagglutination activity than Phaseolus vulgaris hemagglutinin (PHA-E toward trypsinized human A and O type erythrocytes. The hemagglutination activity was inhibited by N-glycans from glycoproteins. Affinity chromatography with the immobilized PAA showed a high affinity to glycopeptides from thyroglobulin, which also has N-glycans with a high content of N-acetylglucosamine. PAA showed less mitogenic activity toward human lymphocytes than PHA-L and Con A. The cytotoxicity of PAA was determined by employing three clones of the 3T3 cell line, demonstrating variability among the clones as follows: T4 (DI50 51.5 µg/mL; J20 (DI50 275 µg/mL, and N5 (DI50 72.5 µg/mL.

  20. Relationship among antimutagenic, antioxidant and enzymatic activities of methanolic extract from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador-Martínez, Anaberta; Albores, Arnulfo; Bah, Moustapha; Calderón-Salinas, Victor; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Guevara-González, Ramón; Shimada-Miyasaka, Armando; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2006-12-01

    Common beans are rich in phenolic compounds, which can provide health benefits to the consumer. The objective of this work was to study the relationship among antimutagenicity, antioxidant and enzymatic activities of methanolic extract and trolox by principal components multivariate analysis. Antimutagenicity of phenolic compounds present in methanolic extract from the seed coat of common beans (P. vulgaris, Flor de Mayo Bajío cultivar) and trolox against AFB1 mutagenicity were evaluated in the Salmonella typhimurium microsuspension assay. Antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract and trolox were evaluated using beta-carotene and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro model assays. Cythrome P450 activity was measured by fluorometric assay. For phenolic extract, trolox and phenolic extract+trolox, the inhibition on AFB1 mutagenicity in tester strain TA100 was 47, 59 and 69%, respectively. While in TA98 was 39, 48 and 68%. The inhibition of phenolic compounds, trolox and phenolic compounds+trolox on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activity was 48, 59 and 88%, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that phenolic extract and trolox have high antimutagenic and antioxidant activity and also inhibited enzymatic activity. The results suggest that the primary mechanism of action of phenolic compounds in beans against AFB1 mutagenicity may be extra-cellular in the microsuspension assay.

  1. Yield Responses of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. to Intercropping with Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Bean (Phaseoluse vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koocheki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of intercropping on yield of black cumin in intercropping with chickpea and bean, an experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Crops were planted as pure stands and intercrops in three arrangements: A alternating rows of a field crop and a medicinal plant, B two rows of field crops and one row of medicinal plant, C alternating double rows of field crops and medicinal plants. Results showed that land equivalent ratio was more than 1 in all treatment indicating seed yield of the plants were higher in pure stands compared to intercrops but the advantages of the intercropping compared to sole cropping. Black cumin performed best in alternating rows of a field crop and a medicinal plant and alternating double rows of field crops and medicinal plants treatments and the highest partial land equivalent ratio was also related to black seed in these treatments.

  2. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean.

  3. Description of Phaseolus vulgaris L. aborting embryos from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenized plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM and cotyledons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to those observed in wild-type samples. Mutant embryos show also hyperhydricity and contain low amount of chlorophyll. Genetic analyses of F1, F2 and F3 populations from the crosses carried out between the mutagenized plants with aborting embryos and the wild-type plants indicated that the embryo abortion phenotype is maternally inherited and controlled by a single recessive gene. These Phaseolus mutant plants with aborting embryos constitute a valuable material for plant embryogenesis studies.

  4. Chromosome identification in the Andean common bean accession G19833 (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Altrock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of all chromosomes of the Andean G19833 bean genotype was carried out by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Eleven single-copy genomic sequences, one for each chromosome, two BACs containing subtelomeric and pericentromeric repeats and the 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA were used as probes. Comparison to the Mesoamerican accession BAT93 showed little divergence, except for additional 45S rDNA sites in four chromosome pairs. Altogether, the results indicated a relative karyotypic stability during the evolution of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools of P. vulgaris.

  5. Fungicide Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Different Genotypes of Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., OAT (Avena Sativa L., and Wheat (Triticum Aaestivum L. Growth Cultivated in Two Soil Types under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the association with Glomus intraradices and soil contamination on three genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one of oat (Avena sativa L., and another one of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Metacaptan was used as a fungicide applied to half of the seeds. The pH of the soil was alkaline. Electric conductivity, and organic matter, nitric and ammoniac nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and nickel quantities were higher on the soils irrigated with sewage water. The soil contamination did not affect significantly plant responses in this study. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The application of fungicides improved plant growth.

  6. Analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., genotype BAT93 calmodulin cDNA using computational tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim Amelia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day and 20-day old bean-pod-tissues. Altogether, 5972 cDNA clones were isolated to have ESTs. While processing ESTs, we found a transcript for calmodulin (CaM gene. It is an important gene that encodes for a calcium-binding protein and known to express in all eukaryotic cells. Hence, this study was undertaken to analyse and annotate it. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze and annotate P. vulgaris CaM (PvCaM gene cDNA and its deduced protein (amino acids sequence. Materials and Methods: Both strands of PvCaM cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primer to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. The cDNA sequence and deduced protein sequence were analyzed and annotated using bioinformatics tools available online. The secondary structures and three-dimensional (3D structure of PvCaM protein were predicted using the Phyre automatic fold recognition server. Results: Results showed that PvCaM cDNA is 818 bp in length. The cDNA analysis results showed that it contains an open reading frame that encodes for 149 amino acid residues. The deduced protein sequence analysis results showed the presence of conserved domains required for CaM function. The predicted secondary structures and 3D structure are analogous to the Solanum tuberosum CaM. Conclusions: This study analyzed and annotated PvCaM cDNA and protein. However, in order to obtain a complete understanding of PvCaM protein, further study on its expression, structure and regulation is

  7. Variation in phytate accumulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. fruit explants

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    Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro synthesis of phytate was studied in common bean fruit explants. Different concentrations of sucrose; phosphorus (P; myo-inositol; abscisic acid (ABA; glutamine and methionine, were tested. Fixed concentrations of these compounds were tested at different periods (0, 3, 6 and 9 days. Variation in phytate coincided with different concentrations of sucrose, myo-inositol, P and ABA for the duration tested. These compounds caused an accumulation of phytate and were more effective in the presence of myo-inositol and P. The accumulation of P varied less than phytate for the different treatments tested in vitro. In conclusion, P, sucrose, ABA, and myo-inositol caused an increase in the phytate of bean seed, showing that it could be possible to alter its content by culturing bean fruit explants in vitro.O fósforo é armazenado na forma de fitato nas sementes, o qual forma complexos estáveis e insolúveis com minerais e proteínas, conferindo efeito antinutriente. A síntese de fitato foi estudada em cultivo de explantes de fruto de feijão in vitro sob diferentes concentrações de sacarose, fósforo (P, mio-inositol, ácido abscísico (ABA, glutamina e metionina. Fixada a concentração destes compostos, testou-se os diferentes tempos de cultivo (0, 3, 6 e 9 dias. A variação no acúmulo de fitato ocorreu na presença de sacarose, mio-inositol, P e ABA nas diferentes concentrações e tempos testados. O acúmulo mais efetivo de fitato ocorreu na presença de mio-inositol e P. O acúmulo de P variou menos do que fitato em todos os tratamentos. Em conclusão, P, sacarose, ABA e mio-inositol causaram aumento no fitato acumulado nas sementes, mostrando que foi possível alterar a síntese de fitato em cultivo de explantes de fruto de feijão.

  8. Enrichment of ACE inhibitory peptides in navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) using lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xin; Wen, Delan; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Mei; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to explore a novel strategy to enhance angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of navy bean by preparation of navy bean milk (NBM) which was then subjected to fermentation of four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, namely, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6, and Lactobacillus plantarum 70810. With the exception of L. helveticus MB2-1, the other three selected strains had good growth performances in NBM with viable counts increased to log 8.30-8.39 cfu ml(-1) during 6 h of fermentation, and thus were selected for the following investigations. Protein contents of NBM significantly reduced when treated with L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum B1-6, and the electrophoresis patterns showed the preferable proteins for LAB strains to hydrolyze were α- and β-type phaseolins, whereas γ-type phaseolin was resistant to hydrolysis. RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated all fermented NBM had higher intensities of peaks with retention times between 2.5 and 3.5 min indicative of formation of small peptides. All fermented NBM showed higher ACE inhibitory activity compared to the unfermented ones, for which 2 h, 3 h, and 5 h were found to be the optimum fermentation periods for respectively L. plantarum 70810, L. plantarum B1-6 and L. bulgaricus, with IC50 values of 109 ± 5.1, 108 ± 1.1, and 101 ± 2.2 μg protein ml(-1). The subsequent in vitro gastrointestinal simulation afforded all fermented extracts reduced IC50 values and the extracts fermented by L. plantarum B1-6 exerted the lowest IC50 value of 21 ± 2.1 μg protein ml(-1). The research has broadened our knowledge bases on the effect of LAB fermentation on the degradation of navy bean proteins and the capacity to release ACE inhibitory peptides. The approach was promising to obtain probiotic products with potential to serve as functional ingredients targeting hypertension.

  9. Isolation of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Kumar Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro screening of plant growth-promoting (PGP traits was carried out using eight Pseudomonas spp., PPR1 to PPR8, isolated from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris growing on the Uttarakhand Himalayan range in India. All the isolates were fast growers, positive for catalase, oxidase and urease activities, and utilized lactose and some amino acids. All the isolates were indole acetic acid (IAA positive, however PPR8 solubilized potassium and zinc along with various other types of inorganic (tricalcium, dicalcium and zinc phosphate and organic (calcium phytate phosphates, as well as producing siderophore and ACC deaminase. PPR8 also produced cyanogens, extracellular chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase and oxalate oxidase. Based on the PGP traits of all isolates, PPR8 was found to be the most potent plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Further, PPR8 was identified as Pseudomonas sp. PPR8, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Moreover, the PGP activities of PPR8 confirmed it to be a potent biocontrol agent, inhibiting the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi. This study reveals the potential of Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 to be used as a good bioinoculant for growth promotion of common bean and for the protection of important legume crops from various deleterious phytopathogens.

  10. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes.

  11. Phenotypic evaluation and genome wide association studies of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) diversity panels in multiple locations highlight evaluation techniques, traits and lines useful for trait based selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity is constrained by abiotic soil conductions including drought and low fertility as well as by high temperature. High temperature primarily impacts pollen viability and growth. Soil water content and nutrients occur heterogeneously and often in a stratif...

  12. Tolerability assessment of a lectin fraction from Tepary bean seeds (Phaseolus acutifolius orally administered to rats

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    Roberto Ferriz-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that a lectin rich fraction (TBLF extracted from Tepary bean seeds differentially inhibits cancer cells proliferation in vitro. Before testing the in vivo anticancer effect, the acute and subchronic toxicological assays in rats were conducted, where an oral dose of 50 mg/body weight kg was determined as the NOAEL. This study evaluated the resistance to digestion and complete blood count (CBC after 24 h of the orally administered 50 mg/kg TBLF. The digestion resistance test showed lectins activity retention after 72 h and the CBC study showed a high level of eosinophils, suggesting an allergic-like response. Tolerability was assayed after 6 weeks of treatment by dosing with an intragastric cannula every third day per week. It was observed a transient reduction in food intake and body weight in the first weeks, resulting in body weight gain reduction of 10% respect to the control group at the end of the study. Additionally, organs weight, histopathological analysis and blood markers for nutritional status and for liver, pancreas and renal function were not affected. Our results suggest that 50 mg/kg TBLF administered by oral route, exhibit no toxicity in rats and it was well tolerated. Further studies will focus on long-term studies.

  13. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans.

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    Elad Tako

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 μg Fe/g and a biofortified (SMC; 106 μg Fe/g, were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively. In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05. In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05. Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05, indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore

  14. Can the critical temperature for photochemical damage in common bean plants be changed after a drought event?

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    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low water availability and high temperatures occur under field conditions and we hypothesize that the critical temperature for photochemical damage (TC in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants is increased by the occurrence of previous water deficit in a genotype-dependent manner. Five common bean cultivars A320, A222, Carioca, BAT477 and Ouro Negro were evaluated. Thirty days after seedlings emergence, one group of plants was exposed to water deficit for ten days and rehydrated and another one was maintained well hydrated during the experimental period. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (FO was monitored in leaf discs exposed to temperatures ranging from 25 to 45 oC and the TC values estimated. The previous water deficit did not affect TC, which varied between 38.8 and 43.8 oC when considering all cultivars and water regimes. Under well-watered conditions, BAT477 (41.9 oC and Carioca (43.8 oC presented higher TCthan Ouro Negro (38.8 oC. Our findings indicate a significant genotypic variation in thermal tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris, an important crop trait to be considered in breeding programs.

  15. Physical and cooking characteristics of some Indian kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars

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    Idrees Ahmed Wani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulses are an essential component of our diet especially in developing world, information on their physical properties is needed for designing the machines, while cooking quality is important for consumer acceptance. Four kidney bean cultivars were evaluated for their composition, physical, cooking and textural properties. Protein, ash and carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 in the range of 22.3–26.7%, 3.5–3.8% and 62.1–65.9%, respectively. Physical properties determined at 10.0% moisture revealed that the length, breadth, thickness and equivalent diameter of seeds varied significantly in the range of 11.45–16.45 mm, 6.65–7.00 mm, 4.70–6.13 mm and 7.31–9.24 mm, respectively. Bulk density varied from 0.78 to 0.81 g/mL and angle of repose from 15.20° to 18.67°. Hydration capacity and swelling capacity of the seeds varied significantly in the range of 0.12–0.42 g/seed and 0.09–0.28 mL/seed, respectively. Cooking time of unsoaked seeds differed significantly from 68.67 to 86.67 min. Soaking of seeds reduced cooking time by 15.33–30.67 min.

  16. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  17. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

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    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  18. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF ACTIVITY OF SERINE PROTEASES ACCOMPANY THE EXPOSURE OF COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. TO WATER DEFICIT

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    M. Budič

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of proteolytic enzymes exist in plants. On their levels depends protein turnover, a fundamental component in plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Cysteine proteases have frequently been reported to be influenced by drought, but only a few serine proteases (SP, among them the trypsin-like enzyme and two aminopeptidases from bean leaves (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Hieng et al., 2004. Our starting point was to identify proteolytic activities assigned to SPs that change with drought and then to characterize the corresponding proteases. A quantitative, analytical one-step method was used to separate endopeptidases and aminopeptidases active against a range of substrates in leaf extracts of plants grown in the field (FC. The influence of drought was determined for those of these activities which were confirmed as SPs, based on their inhibition by specific inhibitors. Under water deficit in plants grown under controlled conditions (CC their levels changed in different ways. The levels of SP activities in FC plants, observed during a period of relative drought, were similar to those measured in mildly stressed CC plants. The partial characterisations of some of these SPs will be presented. Our results point to a number of roles for different SPs in the plant response to water stress, which could range from enhanced protein turnover to limited proteolysis at specific sites.

  19. Efeito da densidade e da distância de caruru-de-mancha e amendoim-bravo na cultura do feijoeiro Effect of the density and distance of slender amaranth and milkweed on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgari

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    A.A.M. Barroso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência causada pelo caruru-demancha (Amaranthus viridis e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, em função das densidades e distâncias, no feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar Pérola. Como recipientes, foram utilizadas caixas de cimento-amianto, com capacidade para 50 litros, preenchidas com LatossoloVermelho-Escuro. As mudas foram formadas em bandejas de 128 células preenchidas com substrato hortícola; quando as plântulas atingiram o estádio V2, foram transplantadas para as caixas, sendo as de feijoeiro numa linha central, reproduzindo a semeadura em campo, e as das plantas daninhas nas densidades de 8, 16 e 32 plantas m-2, distanciadas de 0, 12 e 24 cm das plantas de feijão e igualmente entre si. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x3+2T, com quatro repetições, constituindo as parcelas experimentais. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento e de produtividade da cultura e das plantas daninhas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Observou-se que as plantas daninhas obtiveram maior desenvolvimento quando em maior distância da cultura. O caruru-de-mancha causou reduções no número de vagens e na produtividade estimada do feijoeiro. Para o caruru-de-mancha, o aumento da densidade só causou redução na produtividade da cultura quando as plantas estavam distanciadas em pelo menos 12 cm. A 0 cm, o feijoeiro tornou-se mais competitivo e não sofreu interferência das plantas daninhas, independentemente da densidade destas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference caused by Slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis and Milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla at different densities and distances in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pérola. The experiment was carried out using asbestos cement boxes

  20. The introduction of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) into Western Europe and the phenotypic variation of dry beans collected in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The first introduction of common bean from Central/South America into Western Europe most likely took place around 1500. The attractive bean seeds and their easy transportation warranted numerous additional introductions, not only from the Americas, but also from other areas where the common bean ha

  1. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

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    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  2. The effect of genetic parameters on inheritance of the first pod hight in snap bean - Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Zdravković Milan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the inheritance, gene effect, combination abilities and genetic variance components, we investigated six divergent snap bean genotypes (Supernor, Darija, Grinkrop, Palanačka rana, Šumadinka and Zora and their F1 progeny created by diallel crossing without reciprocals. For the trait of height of forming the first pod, variance of average value of parents and hybrids was highly significant. The value of dominant components (H1 and H2 was higher than additive component (D, meaning that dominant genes control the inheritance of number of pods per plant. The average level of domination √Hl/D is higher than 1, pointing to superdomination. Heritability in broader sence amounts 90% pointing to high contribution in inheriting the number of pods per plant.

  3. Response of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean genotypes to inoculation with rhizobium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production regions of Latin America, inoculants are rarely used by farmers in spite of several studies that demonstrate the importance of Rhizobium inoculation on commercial production of legume crops. This study investigated specific bean host plant-Rhizo...

  4. POLIAMINAS E ATIVIDADE DA PEROXIDASE EM FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CULTIVADO SOB ESTRESSE SALINO POLYAMINES AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. GROWN UNDER SALINE STRESS

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    Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O teor de poliaminas (putrescina, espermidina e espermina e a atividade enzimática da peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7 foram determinados em plantas de Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Carioquinha, após terem sido submetidas a estresse salino (50 e 100 mM de NaCl. Foram observadas alterações nos teores das poliaminas, principalmente putrescina, que aumentou com o tempo e a concentração de NaCl. Também ocorreu aumento na atividade da peroxidase em ambas concentrações de NaCl utilizadas. Os resultados mostraram alterações no metabolismo de poliaminas e peroxidases nas plantas de feijão cultivadas em meio salino.Putrescine, spermidine and spermine contents and peroxidase activity (EC 1.11.1.7 were determined in plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Carioquinha submitted to saline stress (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Changes were observed in polyamine contents, mainly in putrescine. Increase in peroxidase activity also occurred with NaCl concentration, for both concentrations used. The results showed alterations in the polyamines contents and peroxidase activity in plants of Phaseolus vulgaris grown under salinity.

  5. The formation of microorganism communities in the soil under the effect of chitosan and runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L. cultivation

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    Danuta Pięta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the studies was the soil with introduced solutions containing 0,1% chitosan. These materials were obtained from the Institute of Chemical Fibres in L6d2 (in the form of a microcrystalline gel and also from the Department of Food Biochemistry and Chemistry of the University of Agriculture in Lublin (in a liquid form,i.e.dissolved in acetic acid. In order to set an experiment in a growth chamber, grey brown podzolic soil formed from loesses and taken from a mechanically treated belt of black fallow was used. The soil (1000 g was watered every 8 days with 100 ml of examined chitosan solutions per pot. Control soil was watered with sterile distilled water. Seven days after each watering, soil samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Then 25 runner bean seeds were sown into each pot. After six weeks of plants' growth the experiment was finished and the number of plants was counted, their healthiness determined and soil microbiological analysis was performed. Regardless of chitosan form introduced to the soil it stimulated the growth of bacteria and fungi, since in these experimental combinations was found a significantly higher number of microorganisms as compared with the control. A particular high increase in the number of microorganism colonies was observed with simultaneous growth of plants and the application of chitosan. A considerable increase of fungi colonies from the Trichoderma genus was found in the soil treated with chitosan in the form ofboth a microcrystalline gel and a liquid. The species of this genus are considered to be antagonists; it affects pathogenic fungi through competition, antibiosis and over-parasitism. An increase in colonies of saprophytic microorganisms, including antagonistic ones of Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. was observed in the soil treated with chitosan . On the other hand, in the soil after the growth of bean and treated watered with chitosan only few colonies of Fusarium oxysporum f

  6. Genetic diversity, inter-gene pool introgression and nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; González, Laura F; Kimani, Paul M; Butare, Louis

    2010-07-01

    The Great Lakes region of Central Africa is a major producer of common beans in Africa. The region is known for high population density and small average farm size. The common bean represents the most important legume crop of the region, grown on over a third of the cultivated land area, and the per capita consumption is among the highest in the world for the food crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a collection of 365 genotypes from the Great Lakes region of Central Africa, including a large group of landraces from Rwanda as well as varieties from primary centers of diversity and from neighboring countries of Central Africa, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, using 30 fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers and automated allele detection. In addition, the landraces were evaluated for their seed iron and zinc concentration to determine if genetic diversity influenced nutritional quality. Principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses allowed the separation of the landraces into 132 Andean and 195 Mesoamerican (or Middle American) genotypes with 32 landraces and 6 varieties intermediate between the gene pools and representing inter-gene pool introgression in terms of seed characteristics and alleles. Genetic diversity and the number of alleles were high for the collection, reflecting the preference for a wide range of seed types in the region and no strong commercial class preference, although red, red mottled and brown seeded beans were common. Observed heterozygosity was also high and may be explained by the common practice of maintaining seed and plant mixtures, a coping strategy practiced by Central African farmers to reduce the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses. Finally, nutritional quality differed between the gene pools with respect to seed iron and zinc concentration, while genotypes from the intermediate group were notably high in both minerals. In conclusion, this study has shown that

  7. Biologia e tabela de vida de Tetranychus desertorum (Acari: Tetranychidae sobre folhas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris Biology and life table of Tetranychus desertorum (Acari: Tetranychidae on leaves of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Edgar Rivero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects and life table of the red spider mite, Tetranychus desertorum Banks, 1900, were studied on leaf discs of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus cultivar "Tacarigua" under laboratory conditions (28 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12:12h. Our results showed that total developmental time was 6.8 days for females, with partial duration of immature stages corresponding to 3.8, 1.4, 1.0 and 0.7 for egg, larva, protonymph and deutonymph, respectively. Preoviposition, oviposition and postoviposition periods were 1.1, 8.4 and 1.3 days, respectively; and the higher mean fecundity (6.93 eggs/female/day was observed on day 4. Female mean longevity was 10 days. The life table parameters recorded were: net reproduction rate (Ro = 41.10 individuals; generation time (T = 11.15 days; intrinsic natural growth (r m = 0.144 individuals/female/day, and finite natural increase rate (λ = 1.155 individuals/female. Our findings could be a basis for further studies devoted to determine damage and control strategies for T. desertorum on kidney bean crops.

  8. The "one-step" Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)derived vector is a functional genomics tool for efficient overexpression of heterologous protein, virus-induced gene silencing and genetic mapping of BPMV R-gene in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pflieger, Stéphanie; Blanchet, Sophie; Meziadi, Chouaïb; Richard, Manon; Thareau, Vincent; Mary, Fanny; Mazoyer, Céline; Geffroy, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the last two years, considerable advances have been made in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genomics, especially with the completion of the genome sequence and the availability of RNAseq data. However, as common bean is recalcitrant to stable genetic transformation, much work remains to be done for the development of functional genomics tools adapted to large-scale studies. Results Here we report the successful implementation of an efficient viral vector system for foreign...

  9. Physiological and sanity seed quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Goias state / Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. provenientes do estado de Goiás

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    Myrna Hilal Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a fabacea sufficiently spread out in all domestic territory. However, the quality of its seeds represents one of the main causes of low productivity in the beans farmings in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and sanitary seed qualities of eleven bean cultivars. The physiological seed quality was evaluated trough standard germination and vigor tests. The sanitary seed quality was evaluated through two tests: blotter test was employed to evaluate fungi incidence and “Koch & Menten” method was employed to observe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary occurrence. Xamego, BRS Valente, Bambu and Pérola had the best results of physiological tests. Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente and Aporé had no good results of vigor and germination, besides presenting the lowest indices of died seeds. Fusarium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp. and Botrytis sp. were the fungi detected in the sanity tests.O feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma fabacea bastante difundida em todo território nacional. A baixa qualidade de suas sementes representa uma das principais causas de baixa produtividade nas lavouras de feijão no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de nove cultivares de feijão provenientes do Estado de Goiás. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada através dos testes de germinação e vigor, e a análise sanitária, através dos métodos de papel de filtro, para verificar a ocorrência de fungos em geral, e do método de Koch e Menten, para a avaliação de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary. As cultivares que tiveram os melhores desempenhos nos testes fisiológicos foram Xamego, BRS Radiante, Bambu e Pérola. As cultivares Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente e Aporé apresentaram baixos índices de vigor e germinação de plântulas normais, além de apresentarem os maiores

  10. EFFECT OF THE TREATMENT OF SEEDS WITH FUNGICIDES IN CONTROLLING DAMPING OFF OF THE BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES COM FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DO TOMBAMENTO EM FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CAUSADO POR Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn

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    Rosângela Vera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Some fungicides were tested in control of Rhizoctonia solani in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris planted in soil inoculated with this fungus. The evaluations were made at 10, 20 and 30 days after sowing, observing germination and damping-off. The results showed that the fungicides thiram (280g. a.i./ 100kg seeds have no increased plant stand in Phaseolus vulgaris, in relation to the non treated control. Seed treatments with PCNB (450g a.i./ 100kg seeds, iprodione + thiram (200g a.i/l00kg seeds and iprodione + thirarn (240g a.i./100kg seeds, increased plant stand in percentages varying from 65 to 73%, respectively in relation to non treated control, but the best treatment was with iprodione + thiram (320g a.i./l00kg seeds, presenting an increase around 83%.

    Foram testados alguns fungicidas no controle de Rhizoctonia solani em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., semeado em vasos com solo previamente inoculado por este fungo. As avaliações foram feitas aos 10, 20 e 30 dias após o plantio, levando-se em consideração ausência de germinação e plântulas tombadas. Os resultados mostraram que o fungicida thiram (280g i.a./100kg de sementes, não aumentou o stand de plantas em relação à testemunha. Sementes tratadas com PCNB (450g i.a./l00kg de sementes, com iprodione + thiram (200g i.a./l00kg de sementes e com iprodione + thiram (240g i.a./l00kg de sementes aumentaram o stand em percentagens que variaram de 65 a 73%, em relação à testemunha, mas o melhor resultado foi obtido com iprodione + thiram na concentração de 320g i.a./ 100kg de sementes, que promoveu aumento do stand em cerca de 83%.

  11. Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean

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    Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VC (20%, TC (20% and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata. Plants grown with VC (20% produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2, winged bean (1168.61 g m-2 and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2. In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20% treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1 grown with VC (20%. The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1, winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1 and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1 were also found in VC (20% treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g, followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g and winged bean (22.04 g/100g, under VC (20% treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20% produced the highest yield and yield attributes.

  12. Diversidade genética em acessos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genetic diversity in common bean accessions

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    Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Os recursos genéticos devem ser devidamente caracterizados para permitir ganhos genéticos mais promissores no melhoramento e para o uso destes recursos pelo próprio agricultor. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética de acessos de feijão comum do germoplasma existente na Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, através de inter-relações entre os descritores agronômicos. O experimento foi conduzido a partir de outubro de 2005, constituído por 20 acessos de feijão comum, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com 3 repetições. Foi utilizada a técnica de análise multivariada para medir a divergência genética representada pela distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Com base na matriz de dissimilaridade genética gerada, foi construído o dendrograma pelo método de agrupamento da distância média. Das 12 variáveis envolvidas no estudo, o peso de 100 sementes teve a maior contribuição na separação dos genótipos, seguido pela espessura do legume, pelo comprimento do legume e pelo rendimento de grãos. Os acessos BAF 42, BAF 46, BAF 47 e BAF 57 se destacaram quanto ao nível de produtividade (3.500 a 5.000kg ha-1 e devem ser mais bem caracterizados para serem incorporados nos programas de melhoramento da cultura e/ou indicado para os agricultores.The correct characterization of genetic resources allows to identify sources of variability, a genetic profit during the plant breeding and use of these resources in the crop science. This research was aimed at evaluating genetic divergence in bean accessions of a germplasm of Santa Catarina, through interrelation among the agronomic character descriptor. Twenty bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. accessions were evaluated carried out in October 2005, using the randomized block design with three replications. The genotypes were studied using multivariable techniques to measure genetic divergence represented by the generalized distance of

  13. Uromyces appendiculatus infection in BTH-treated bean plants: ultrastructural details of a lost fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffi, Dario; Iriti, Marcello; Pigni, Massimo; Vannini, Candida; Faoro, Franco

    2011-03-01

    The mechanisms of BTH [benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester]-induced resistance against bean rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus have been explored in Phaseolus vulgaris by light and transmission electron microscopy, following the infection progression in plants challenged 7 days after treatment. While BTH did not affect uredospore germination and fungal penetration in the substomatal cavity, a first impairment to the colonization appeared evident about 48-96 h after inoculation, with alterations of infection hypha structure and reduction in mycelium expansion. No differences were found in this phase regarding the formation and ultrastructure of haustoria in untreated and BTH-treated plants, except for the deposition of electron-opaque material in the extrahaustorial matrix of the latter. A second and decisive impairment in fungal progression was observed at 7-10 days after inoculation when host cell penetrated, or in close contact with the fungal hyphae, were impregnated by phenolic compounds. The same was observed in fungal walls, particularly around haustoria, thus hampering the biotrophic habitus of the fungus and further mycelium spreading. This, in turn, prevented the evasion of fungal reproductive structures, the uredinia, and the appearance of visible symptoms. No particular ultrastructural alterations were observed in most of the penetrated cells, even at late stages of infection, indicating that BTH treatment does not induce host cells to respond with a hypersensitive reaction (HR). A parallel time course of the expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene, the key enzyme for the synthesis of phenylpropanoidic phytoalexins and many other phenolics, has shown that PAL mRNA is strongly and persistently transcripted in BTH-treated plants since the 6th h after treatment, though no apparent ultrastructural alterations were detectable up to some days after pathogen challenging. This indicates that BTH, at the employed

  14. Cost benefit analysis of the introduction of heat tolerant bean varieties in Atlántida, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising ambient air temperatures, migration, and deforestation threaten the sustainability of hillside common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) farming in Atlántida, Honduras. Farmers avoid climatic constraints to common bean production by planting at different altitudes during different seasons. In this ...

  15. Microbiological and toxicological effects of Perla black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) extracts: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Díaz, Víctor Javier; Gaytán-Ramos, Angel A; Dávalos-Balderas, Alfredo José; Santos-Guzmán, Jesús; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Barbosa-Quintana, Alvaro; Sanson, Misu; López-Reyes, Alberto Gabriel; Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the microbiological and toxicological effects of three Perla black bean extracts on the growth and culture of selected pathogenic microorganisms, the toxicity over Vero cell lines and an in vivo rat model. Three different solvents were used to obtain Perla black bean extracts. All three Perla black bean extracts were tested for antibacterial and antiparasitic activity and further analysed for intrinsic cytotoxicity (IC(50)). Methanol Perla black bean extract was used for acute toxicity test in rats, with the up-and-down doping method. All Perla black bean extracts inhibited bacterial growth. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes showed inhibition, while Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes did not. Acidified water and acetic acid Perla black bean extract were tested in parasites. The best IC(50) was observed for Giardia lamblia, while higher concentrations were active against Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The Vero cells toxicity levels (IC(50)) for methanol, acidified water and acetic acid Perla black bean extract were [mean +/- S.D. (95% CI)]: 275 +/- 6.2 (267.9-282.0), 390 +/- 4.6 (384.8-395.2) and 209 +/- 3.39 (205.6-212.4) microg/ml, respectively. In vivo acute toxicity assays did not show changes in absolute organ weights, gross and histological examinations of selected tissues or functional tests. The acetic acid and methanol Perla black bean extract proved to exhibit strong antibacterial activity and the acidified water Perla black bean extract exerted parasiticidal effects against Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba hystolitica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The three Perla black bean extracts assayed over Vero cells showed very low toxicity and the methanol Perla black bean extract in vivo did not cause toxicity.

  16. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerosa, Giacomo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Marzuoli, Riccardo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Fondazione Lombardia per l' Ambiente, piazza Diaz 9, 20123 Milano (Italy); Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto [Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Lab., DISAT, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Faoro, Franco [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Iriti, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.iriti@unimi.i [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O{sub 3} exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O{sub 3} m{sup -2}. Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, DELTAF/F{sub m}{sup '}). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  17. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking

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    Maria Neve Ombra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical by 50% (EC50. The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking.

  18. Genetic diversity of indigenous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) rhizobia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Adalgisa Ribeiro; Cursino, Luciana; Muro-Abad, Júpiter Israel; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; Hungria, Mariangela; Cassini, Sérvio Túlio Alves

    2009-01-01

    We characterized indigenous common bean rhizobia from five districts of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isolates were trapped by two common bean varieties, the Mineiro Precoce (Andean origin) and Ouro Negro (Mesoamerican origin). Analysis by BOX-PCR of selected isolates detected a high level of genetic diversity. PMID:24031433

  19. Root environment is a key determinant of fungal entomopathogen endophytism following seed treatment in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean is the most important food legume in the world. We examined the potential of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae applied as seed treatments for their endophytic establishment in the common bean. Endophytic colonization in sterile sand:peat average...

  20. Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants

  1. The presence of a below-ground neighbour alters within-plant seed size distribution in Phaseolus vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.; During, H.J.; Vermeulen, P.J.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2014-01-01

    * Background and Aims Considerable variation in seed size commonly exists within plants, and is believed to be favoured under natural selection. This study aims to examine the extent to which seed size distribution depends on the presence of competing neighbour plants. * Methods Phaseolus vulgaris p

  2. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijoeiro-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Periods of weeds interference in culture common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Lucas Borchartt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se nesta pesquisa determinar os períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas no feijoeiro-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivado em plantio direto, em Rolim de Moura-RO. Dois ensaios foram conduzidos simultaneamente; no primeiro a cultura permaneceu livre da competição com plantas daninhas desde a emergência até os 7; 14; 21; 28; 35; 42; 49 e 64 dias; no segundo a cultura permaneceu em competição com a comunidade infestante pelos períodos citados no primeiro ensaio. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A Digitaria horizontalis e Zea mays foram as espécies que apresentaram maior importância. A D. horizontalis atingiu altas frequências relativas, dominância relativa e densidade de até 95,3%. A Z. mays apesar dos baixos índices de densidade e freqüência relativa, apresentou alta dominância relativa pelo grande acúmulo de massa seca. O rendimento de grãos do feijoeiro foi afetado pela convivência com as plantas daninhas. Assumindo perdas de 5% no rendimento de grãos do feijoeiro pela interferência da comunidade infestante o período anterior à interferência foi de quatro dias, onde não foi necessária a realização do controle. O período total de prevenção da interferência foi de dezoito dias após a emergência (DAE e o período crítico de prevenção da interferência situou-se entre os quatro e os dezoito DAE. Neste período até 18 DAE a convivência do feijoeiro com plantas daninhas ocasionou diminuição no rendimento da cultura por competirem pelos recursos do meio, onde houve necessidade de serem controladas.The research was carried out with the objective of determining the critical periods of weed interference in the culture of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivated in no tillage system in Rolim de Moura-RO. Two trials were conducted simultaneously where in the first the culture remained free of the competition with weeds since the emergency until the

  3. Perfil sensorial e aceitabilidade de cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Sensory profile and acceptability of cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Camilo Souza Carneiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil a recomendação de novos cultivares de feijão tem sido feita em função de suas características agronômicas. Porém, nos últimos anos os pesquisadores do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Feijoeiro têm reconhecido a importância das características tecnológicas, principalmente o perfil sensorial, dos grãos de cultivares de feijão na sua aceitação pelos consumidores. Assim, fica evidente a necessidade da caracterização sensorial dos grãos de cultivares de feijão que já são recomendados para o cultivo e daqueles que estão para serem recomendados. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação sensorial dos grãos de sete variedades de feijão recomendadas para o Estado de Minas Gerais (Ouro Negro, Meia Noite, Carioca, Aporé, Rudá, Pérola e Vermelhinho e de três linhagens promissoras para lançamento (MA733327, Vermelho2157 e CB733812. Estas variedades e linhagens foram produzidas pela UFV. Todas as amostras foram cozidas em panela de pressão por 23 minutos e servidas aos provadores. Análise descritiva quantitativa foi aplicada para verificar similaridades e diferenças na aparência, aroma, sabor e textura dos grãos de feijão. As amostras de feijão foram avaliadas por uma equipe composta por oito provadores previamente selecionados e treinados. Foi avaliada também a aceitabilidade das dez amostras, onde cada uma foi degustada por 30 consumidores de feijão, em condições laboratoriais, tomados ao acaso nas proximidades do laboratório de análise sensorial (DTA/UFV. Para o teste afetivo, as amostras foram temperadas. Os dez cultivares de feijão diferiram significativamente (p0,05 na aceitação dos cultivares. Todos tiveram boa aceitação e situaram-se entre os termos hedônicos "gostei moderadamente e gostei muito".In Brazil the recommendation of new cultivars of beans has been done according to the grains agronomic characteristics. However, in the last years researchers of the Genetic

  4. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.

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    Renfeng Xue

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop, is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9% displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22, signal transduction (21, protein synthesis and processing (20, development and cytoskeletal organization (12, transport of proteins (7, gene expression and RNA metabolism (4, redox reactions (4, defense and stress responses (3, energy metabolism (3, and hormone responses (2. Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as

  5. Symbiont shift towards Rhizobium nodulation in a group of phylogenetically related Phaseolus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Zayas-Del Moral, Alejandra; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco A; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Sánchez, Federico; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    Bean plants from the Phaseolus genus are widely consumed and represent a nitrogen source for human nutrition. They provide biological fertilization by establishing root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. To establish a successful interaction, bean plants and their symbiotic bacteria need to synchronize a proper molecular crosstalk. Within the Phaseolus genus, P. vulgaris has been the prominent species to study nodulation with Rhizobium symbionts. However the Phaseolus genus comprises diverse species whose symbionts have not been analyzed. Here we identified and studied nodule bacteria from representative Phaseolus species not previously analyzed and from all the described wild species related to P. vulgaris. We found Bradyrhizobium in nodules from most species representing all Phaseolus clades except in five phylogenetically related species from the P. vulgaris clade. Therefore we propose that Bradyrhizobium nodulation is common in Phaseolus and that there was a symbiont preference shift to Rhizobium nodulation in few related species. This work sets the basis to further study the genetic basis of this symbiont substitution.

  6. Effects of Local Nitrogen Supply on Water Uptake of Bean Plants in a Split Root System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwei Guo; Qirong Shen; Holger Brueck

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of local nitrogen supply on water and nutrient absorption, French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)plants were grown in a split root system. Five treatments supplied with different nitrogen forms were compared:homogeneous nitrate (NN) and homogenous ammonium (AA) supply, spatially separated supply of nitrate and ammonium (NA), half of the root system supplied with N-free nutrient solution, the other half with either nitrate (NO) or ammonium (AO). The results showed that 10 d after onset of treatments, root dry matter (DM) in the nitratesupplied vessels treated with NA was more than two times higher than that in the ammonium-supplied vessels.Water uptake from the nitrate-supplied vessels treated with NA was 281% higher than under ammonium supply. In treatments NO and AO, the local supply of N resulted in clearly higher root DM, and water uptake from the nitratesupplied vessels was 82% higher than in the -N vessels. However, in AO plants, water uptake from the -N nutrient solution was 129% higher than from the ammonium-supplied vessels. This indicates a compensatory effect, which resulted in almost identical rates of total water uptake of treatments AA and AO, which had comparable shoot DM and leaf area. Ammonium supply reduced potassium and magnesium absorption. Water uptake was positively correlated with N, Mg and K uptake.

  7. Bean yellow disorder virus: Parameters of transmission by Bemisia tabaci and host plant range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    German Martín; Isabel Maria Cuadrado; Dirk Janssen

    2011-01-01

    Bean yellow disorder virus(BnYDV)was recently identified as the first crinivirus(family Closteroviridae)that infects members of the family Leguminosae.It was first observed during the autumn of 2003,causing heavy losses in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)grown commercially in Spain.The virus is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci(Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)Q-biotype,and disease symptoms resemble nutritional disorders consisting of interveinal mottling and yellowing in leaves,combined with stiffness or brittleness,and are typically produced on the middle to lower parts of the plant.Transmission experiments showed that 50% and 100% of B.tabaci adults acquired the virus after a feeding period of 3 and 7 h,respectively.Viruliferous whiteflies infected 66% and 100% of P.vulgaris plants after a feeding period of 12 and 24 h,respectively.The transmission efficiency of single whiteflies was 37% and persistence of BnYDV in the vector lasted up to 2 weeks with a half-life of 9 days.BnYDV was transmitted to P.vulgaris,Pisum sativum L.,Lens culinaris Medik.,and Vicia faba L.,but not to Vigna unguiculata L.,Glycine max(L.) Merr.,Cicer arietum L.,and to crop species belonging to families of the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae.No virus was detected in field samples collected from 30 different species from Boraginaceae,Asteraceae,Geraniaceae,Lamiaceae,Leguminosae,Malvaceae,Scrophulariaceae,Thymelaeaceae and Verbenaceae.The restricted host range and efficient management of crops regarding whitefly infestation may be key elements in the control of BnYDV.

  8. Cinética de congelamento do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. a baixas temperaturas Freezing kinetics of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. R. M. Cavalcanti-Mata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi obter as curvas de congelamento do feijão, cultivar 'gordo', nas temperaturas de -25, -50, -170 e -196 ºC e determinar sua difusividade térmica efetiva. Com vista à obtenção das curvas de congelamento das sementes nas temperaturas de -25 e -50 ºC utilizou-se um freezer criogênico horizontal; para a temperatura de -170 ºC, o vapor de nitrogênio e, para a temperatura de -196 ºC, as sementes foram submersas no nitrogênio líquido. Afim de expressar o comportamento cinético do congelamento das sementes de feijão, foi usado o modelo de Fourier levando-se em consideração o primeiro termo da série, além dos Modelos I e II de Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os três modelos representam satisfatoriamente os dados experimentais da cinética de congelamento; apesar disto, com o Modelo II de Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte se obtém o maior coeficiente de determinação. Constata-se também que, para congelar as sementes de feijão até atingir o equilíbrio térmico na temperatura de -25 ºC, o tempo necessário foi de 1200 min; em temperatura de -50 ºC o equilíbrio foi atingido com 480 min; a -170 ºC o equilíbrio se deu em 180 min e, a -196 ºC, em 30 min.The objective of this study was to obtain the freezing curves of beans, variety 'gordo' at temperatures of -25, -50, -170 and -196 ºC, and determine their effective thermal diffusivity. For the curves of freezing beans seeds at temperatures of -25 and -50 ºC a cryogenic horizontal freezer was used, for temperature of -170 ºC, nitrogen vapor was used and at temperature of -196 ºC seeds were submerged in liquid nitrogen. To express the kinetic behavior of the freezing of bean seeds, the Fourier model was used taking into account the first term of the series and; Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte model I and II. The results indicate that the three models satisfactorily represent the experimental data of the kinetics of freezing, though with

  9. Availability of iron in grains common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris l.) irradiated;Disponibilidade de ferro em graos de feijao comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigide, Priscila

    2002-07-01

    Common bean is the legume more consuming in Brazil, however, the average income of the farming in Brazil is low must the infestation of the grains, to fight these losses the irradiation process is an alternative healthful if compared the chemical handling. The objective of this research was evaluate the iron availability in irradiated raw and cooked beans (doses of 0, 2, 6 and 10 kGy). It was carried through the centesimal composition, anti nutritional factors (tannins and phytate) and iron dialyses for the method 'in vitro'. Cooking diminished the mainly components of the composition with exception of available carbohydrates, the protein content of 27.4 and 23.9; fat 1.2 and 1.1; fibre 23.7 and 18.6, carbohydrates 43.3 and 52.5; respectively for raw grains and cooked. It also had reduction in the amount of tannin which if correlated reversely with the applied doses, with exception of the dose of 2 kGy, varying of 1.56 (10 kGy) to 2.49 (2 kGy) to the for raw grains and traces (10 kGy) to 0.103 (2 kGy ) for grains cooked. The phytate varied of 4.63 (2 kGy) to 8.28 (0 kGy) and 5.29 (6 kGy) to the 9.55 (0 kGy), respectively for raw grains and cooked. In relation to the dialysed iron, the content varied of 1.16 (0 kGy) to 2.39 (6 kGy) and 5.33 (0 kGy) to the 8.02 (6 kGy), respectively for raw grains and cooked The dose of 6 kGy showed positive effect availability such as raw as cooked grain, it being recommended for the utilization. (author)

  10. [Evaluation of the nixtamal-tortilla-making quality of mixtures of corn (Zea mays) and hard beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Osorio, C; Vázquez Carrillo, M G

    1997-12-01

    In Mexico, some varieties of beans become hard during storage, and required a longer time for cooking. Beans which need more than four hours to cook are deemed unsuitable for human consumption by the government agency CONASUPO even though their nutritional value is unaltered. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nixtamal-tortilla-making quality of mixtures of maize and hard beans, protein, sensory evaluation, and shelf life of the tortillas. The tortillas were made from mixtures of maize with 5% and 10% hard beans without the seed coat and compared with tortillas made with 100% maize. The mixtures and the control were nixtamalized for 20, 30 and 40 minutes with 1% lime (CaO). The maximum viscosity of the mass were statistically equal to that of the control. The mixture with 10% beans, 90% maize, and 30 min of nixtamalization produced tortillas with 26.3% more protein than the control. The texture evaluated in the Instron showed that the tortillas with 10% beans were harder than the control; however, in the sensory evaluation, the recently-made tortillas with 30 min nixtamalization were judged the best, with no significant differences between the control and the mixtures of maize with hard beans. The analysis of fungi, yeasts, and bacteria at room temperature and with refrigeration (4 degrees C), showed that the growth of microorganisms was directly proportional to the percentage of beans added and the duration of storage. The largest number of microorganisms was found at room temperature after 48 h of storage.

  11. Short-Term Local Adaptation of Historical Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Varieties and Implications for In Situ Management of Bean Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Klaedtke

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers’ and gardeners’ networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local adaptation plays for the management of common bean diversity in situ. To the purpose, four historical bean varieties and one modern control were multiplied on two organic farms for three growing seasons. The fifteen resulting populations, the initial ones and two populations of each variety obtained after the three years of multiplication, were then grown in a common garden. Twenty-two Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers and 13 phenotypic traits were assessed. In total, 68.2% of tested markers were polymorphic and a total of 66 different alleles were identified. FST analysis showed that the genetic composition of two varieties multiplied in different environments changed. At the phenotypic level, differences were observed in flowering date and leaf length. Results indicate that three years of multiplication suffice for local adaptation to occur. The spatial dynamics of genetic and phenotypic bean diversity imply that the maintenance of diversity should be considered at the scale of the network, rather than individual farms and gardens. The microevolution of bean populations within networks of gardens and farms emerges as a research perspective.

  12. Genetic Relationships of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Race Chile with Wild Andean and Mesoamerican Germplasm Relaciones Genéticas entre el Germoplasma de Poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Raza Chile y Silvestres Andinos y Mesoamericanos

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    Viviana Becerra V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. belongs to the cultivated race Chile and its origin is presumably Andean. The objective of this study was to identify the origin of a group of Chilean accessions based on their genetic relationship with wild material from the Mesoamerican and Andean common bean gene pool. To achieve this objective, universal primers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA were used to detect polymorphism using Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Thirty-two genotypes were analyzed, including wild material from Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina, as well as Chilean cultivated genotypes belonging to endemic Chilean accession types (Tórtola, Coscorrón, and Cuyano and naturalized commercial lines (Frutilla, Bayo, Manteca, and Blanco grande. Results showed a low level of polymorphism for cpDNA (23% and mtDNA (24% in wild and cultivated Chilean common bean accessions. Some universal primers and restriction enzyme combinations were more efficient than others in detecting polymorphism. The Chilean materials were closely related to wild accessions collected in Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru indicating their Andean origin. The wild accessions from Ecuador were located in a intermediate position between the Mesoamerican and Andean accessions.El poroto chileno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pertenece a la raza Chile, cuyo origen es desconocido y presumiblemente andino. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar el origen de un grupo de genotipos chilenos basado en sus relaciones genéticas con material silvestre perteneciente a los acervos genéticos mesoamericano y andino. Para lograr este objetivo se usaron partidores universales de ADNcp y ADNmt con la metodología de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa-Fragmentos de Restricción Polimórficos. (PCR-RFLP. Se analizó un total de 32 genotipos de P. vulgaris, los cuales incluyeron materiales silvestres de M

  13. Evaluation of chitooligosaccharide application on mineral accumulation and plant growth in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Philippe G; Pintado, Manuela E; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2014-02-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COS) - water soluble derivatives from chitin, are an interesting group of molecules for several biological applications, for they can enter plant cells and bind negatively charged molecules. Several studies reported an enhanced plant growth and higher crop yield due to chitosan application in soil grown plants, but no studies have looked on the effect of COS application on plant mineral nutrient dynamics in hydroponically grown plants. In this study, Phaseolus vulgaris was grown in hydroponic culture and the effect of three different concentrations of COS on plant growth and mineral accumulation was assessed. There were significant changes in mineral allocations for Mo, B, Zn, P, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Na, Al and K among treatments. Plant morphology was severely affected in high doses of COS, as well as lignin concentration in the stem and the leaves, but not in the roots. Chlorophyll A, B and carotenoid concentrations did not change significantly among treatments, suggesting that even at higher concentrations, COS application did not affect photosynthetic pigment accumulation. Plants grown at high COS levels had shorter shoots and roots, suggesting that COS can be phytotoxic to the plant. The present study is the first detailed report on the effect of COS application on mineral nutrition in plants, and opens the door for future studies that aim at utilizing COS in biofortification or phytoremediation programs.

  14. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans.

  15. Genetic diversity, inter-gene pool introgression and nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Great Lakes region of Central Africa is a major producer of common beans in Africa. The region is known for high population density and small average farm size. The common bean represents the most important legume crop of the region, grown on over a third of the cultivated land area, and the per capita consumption is among the highest in the world for the food crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a collection of 365 genotypes from the Great Lakes regi...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from InQpharm Europe Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight individuals. The applicant identified a total of four human intervention studies which investigated the effects of the aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight as being pertinent to the claim. No conclusions could be drawn from two of these four studies. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one human intervention study showed an effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean in reducing body weight when consumed for 12 weeks, that the reduction in body weight was mostly through a reduction in body fat and that the effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight was supported by a second study of shorter duration. However, the Panel also took into account that the first study was at risk of bias, that the supportive study suffered from methodological limitations and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight.

  17. Superoxide-dismutase deficient mutants in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): genetic control, differential expressions of isozymes, and sensitivity to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2013-01-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC) cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h) M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly among the parents. SOD deficiency is inherited as recessive mutations, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. Gene expressions using qRT PCR confirmed higher expressions of Cu/Zn SOD transcripts in both mutants and the absence of Fe SOD in sodPv 1 and Mn SOD in sodPv 2. In 50 μM arsenic, Cu/Zn SODs genes were further upregulated but other isoforms downregulated in the two mutants, maintaining SOD activity in its control level. In an F2 double mutants of sodPv 1 × sodPv 2, no Fe SOD, and Mn SOD expressions were detectable, while both Cu/Zn SODs are down-regulated and arsenic-induced leaf necrosis appeared. In contrast to both mutants, ROS-imaging study revealed overaccumulation of both superoxides and H2O2 in leaves of double mutant.

  18. Superoxide-Dismutase Deficient Mutants in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.: Genetic Control, Differential Expressions of Isozymes, and Sensitivity to Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly among the parents. SOD deficiency is inherited as recessive mutations, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. Gene expressions using qRT PCR confirmed higher expressions of Cu/Zn SOD transcripts in both mutants and the absence of Fe SOD in sodPv 1 and Mn SOD in sodPv 2. In 50 M arsenic, Cu/Zn SODs genes were further upregulated but other isoforms downregulated in the two mutants, maintaining SOD activity in its control level. In an F2 double mutants of sodPv 1 × sodPv 2, no Fe SOD, and Mn SOD expressions were detectable, while both Cu/Zn SODs are down-regulated and arsenic-induced leaf necrosis appeared. In contrast to both mutants, ROS-imaging study revealed overaccumulation of both superoxides and H2O2 in leaves of double mutant.

  19. Relationship between variation in quality of individual seeds and bulk seed quality in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed lots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Auma, E.O.; Struik, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The variation in individual seed electrical conductivity (EC) (µS cm¿¹ g¿¹) of 24 seed lots of two common bean cultivars produced at two locations was quantified using the parameters mean ¿ median, standard deviation (SD), and the range 0¿75%. Also coefficient of variation (CV) was tested, which was

  20. Domestication of small-seeded lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) landraces in Mesoamerica: evidence from microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andueza-Noh, Rubén H; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Chacón-Sánchez, María I

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the Mesoamerican small-seeded landraces of Lima bean may have been domesticated more than once in Mesoamerica, once in central-western Mexico and another one in an area between Guatemala and Costa Rica. However, these findings were based on sequencing of only one locus from nuclear DNA, and additional confirmation was needed. Here we contribute with additional data on the origin of the Mesoamerican landraces and document the founder effect due to domestication. We characterized 62 domesticated, 87 wild and six weedy Lima bean accessions with ten microsatellite loci. Genetic relationships were analyzed using genetic distances and Bayesian clustering approaches. Domestication bottlenecks were documented using inter-population comparisons and M ratios. The results support at least one domestication event in the area of distribution of gene pool MI in central-western Mexico and also show that some landraces are genetically related to wild accessions of gene pool MII. Also, our data support founder effects due to domestication in Mesoamerican Lima bean landraces. Although we could not establish more specifically the place of origin of the Mesoamerican Lima bean landraces, our results show that these are not a genetically homogeneous group, a finding that may be compatible with a scenario of more than one domestication event accompanied by gene flow. The complex genetic makeup of landraces that we found indicates that a more comprehensive geographic and genomic sampling is needed in order to establish how domestication processes and gene flow have shaped the current genetic structure of landraces.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of pretreatment and preservation on macro- and microelements retention in flageolet (Phaseolus vulgaris L. bean seeds

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    Jacek Słupski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Legume seeds, including beans, are a good source of mineral constituents. The level of these compounds depends among other factors, on the species, cultivar and the methods of processing applied. However, there are no studies in the literature which deal with the content of mineral constituents in physiologically immature bean seeds. Material and methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of ash and 13 mineral constituents in immature seeds of three bean cultivars. The investigation included raw, blanched and cooked seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: a frozen product obtained using the traditional method (blanching-freezing-frozen storage-cooking; a frozen product obtained using the modified method (cooking-freezing-frozen storage-defrosting and heating in a microwave oven; and a sterilized canned product. Results. The application of technological processes; the storage of frozen and sterilized products; and the preparation of frozen products for consumption had an effect on minerals content in finished products. The frozen product obtained using the modified method retained greater amounts of the investigated elements (apart from calcium, lead and cadmium than the traditional frozen product. Canned bean seeds retained less ash, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and iron than the products of the two ways of freezing, while the retention of the remaining constituents depended on the cultivar. Conclusions. Modified method of freezing of immature bean seeds resulted in greater retention of the investigated components in products prepared for consumption than the traditional method of freezing or canning.  

  2. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

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    Władysław Błaszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing primary leaves and the age-dependent resistance to infection increased faster in plants of the cv. 'Złota Saxa'. Both cultivars of bean showed also age-dependent resistance to infection by BYMV. All these viruses restricted growth and yield of plants. The decreases were greater when younger plants were inoculated. These dependences appeared most distinctly in pea cv. 'Sześciotygodniowy' infected with CMV and in two cultivars of bean infected with BYMV.

  3. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results i

  4. Co-inoculation Effect of Rhizobia and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Common Bean Growth in a Low Phosphorus Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Hezekiah; Mungai, Nancy W; Thuita, Moses; Hamba, Yosef; Masso, Cargele

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation through legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is important for enhancing agricultural productivity and is therefore of great economic interest. Growing evidence indicates that other soil beneficial bacteria can positively affect symbiotic performance of rhizobia. Nodule endophytic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were isolated from common bean nodules from Nakuru County in Kenya and characterized 16S rDNA partial gene sequencing. The effect of co-inoculation of rhizobium and PGPR, on nodulation and growth of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was also investigated using a low phosphorous soil under greenhouse conditions. Gram-positive nodule endophytic PGPR belonging to the genus Bacillus were successfully isolated and characterized. Two PGPR strains (Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus megaterium), two rhizobia strains (IITA-PAU 987 and IITA-PAU 983) and one reference rhizobia strain (CIAT 899) were used in the co-inoculation study. Two common bean varieties were inoculated with Rhizobium strains singly or in a combination with PGPR to evaluate the effect on nodulation and growth parameters. Co-inoculation of IITA-PAU 987 + B. megaterium recorded the highest nodule weight (405.2 mg) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (324.8 mg), while CIAT 899 + B. megaterium (401.2 mg) compared to CIAT 899 alone (337.2 mg). CIAT 899 + B. megaterium recorded a significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.23 g) compared to CIAT 899 alone (5.80 g). However, there was no significant difference between CIAT 899 + P. polymyxa and CIAT 899 alone. Combination of IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (6.84 g) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (5.32 g) but no significant difference was observed when co-inoculated with P. polymyxa. IITA-PAU 983 in combination with P. polymyxa led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.15 g) compared to IITA-PAU 983 alone (5.14 g). Plants inoculated with IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium received 24.0 % of

  5. Co-inoculation Effect of Rhizobia and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Common Bean Growth in a Low Phosphorus Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Hezekiah; Mungai, Nancy W.; Thuita, Moses; Hamba, Yosef; Masso, Cargele

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation through legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is important for enhancing agricultural productivity and is therefore of great economic interest. Growing evidence indicates that other soil beneficial bacteria can positively affect symbiotic performance of rhizobia. Nodule endophytic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were isolated from common bean nodules from Nakuru County in Kenya and characterized 16S rDNA partial gene sequencing. The effect of co-inoculation of rhizobium and PGPR, on nodulation and growth of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was also investigated using a low phosphorous soil under greenhouse conditions. Gram-positive nodule endophytic PGPR belonging to the genus Bacillus were successfully isolated and characterized. Two PGPR strains (Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus megaterium), two rhizobia strains (IITA-PAU 987 and IITA-PAU 983) and one reference rhizobia strain (CIAT 899) were used in the co-inoculation study. Two common bean varieties were inoculated with Rhizobium strains singly or in a combination with PGPR to evaluate the effect on nodulation and growth parameters. Co-inoculation of IITA-PAU 987 + B. megaterium recorded the highest nodule weight (405.2 mg) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (324.8 mg), while CIAT 899 + B. megaterium (401.2 mg) compared to CIAT 899 alone (337.2 mg). CIAT 899 + B. megaterium recorded a significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.23 g) compared to CIAT 899 alone (5.80 g). However, there was no significant difference between CIAT 899 + P. polymyxa and CIAT 899 alone. Combination of IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (6.84 g) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (5.32 g) but no significant difference was observed when co-inoculated with P. polymyxa. IITA-PAU 983 in combination with P. polymyxa led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.15 g) compared to IITA-PAU 983 alone (5.14 g). Plants inoculated with IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium received 24.0 % of

  6. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l. ) walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.C.P.; Fernandes, M.S.; Sa, M.F.M. (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Solos)

    1982-05-01

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation.

  7. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-02-17

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05).

  8. The Qualitative Differences for Photosynthetic Content of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Populations  in Kosovo

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    Sali Ali ALIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity analysis of common bean populations is useful for breeding programs, as it helps to select genetic material to be used for further crossings. Twenty (20 common bean populations were analyzed using qualitative traits, chlorophyll “a” (Chl ‘a’, chlorophyll “b” (Chl ‘b’, total chlorophyll “a+b” (Total Chl and carotenoides. The design of the experiment was conducted with leaves of common bean collected from different regions of Kosovo. The experiment was completely randomly with four repetitions. Pigments were extracted by grinding 80-100 mg freshly sampled leaves in 80% (v/v acetone/water containing MgCO3, at room temperature, preserved in the dark for 24 hours. Concentration of chlorophyll and carotenoid content was measured by spectrophotometer using absorbance recorded at 663 nm, 644 nm and 452.3 nm for maximum absorption of Chl ‘a’, Chl ‘b’, and carotenoids respectively. According to our data the differences between populations for Chl ‘a’, and Chl ‘b’ was significantly higher at level of probability LSDp=0.01. The average values for Chl ‘a’, was 1.67 mg.g-1, while for Chl‘b’was 0.74 mg.g-1. In addition, the results for carotenoids content between populations were with high differences.

  9. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  10. Influence of added bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on some physical and nutritional properties of wheat flour tortillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Alex A; Ross, Kelly A; Lukow, Odean M; Fulcher, R Gary; Arntfield, Susan D

    2008-07-01

    Composite flours containing 15%, 25%, or 35% of small red, black, pinto, or navy bean flours (BF) and wheat were made into tortillas. Dough rheology, firmness, cohesiveness, rollability, and some physical properties of tortillas were negatively affected as BF concentration increased regardless of bean cultivar. Nutritionally, all bean tortillas had significantly higher levels of crude protein, total phenols, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(+)) in vitro antioxidant activity (AA) and antinutritional compounds such as phytic acid (PA) and trypsin inhibitors (TI) than the wheat control. Tortillas to which 35% of small red, pinto and black BF was added had the highest levels of phenols, which were significantly correlated with both DPPH (r=0.99) and ABTS(+) (r=0.99) AA. Compared to raw flours, PA and TI were reduced from 37.37% to 43.78% and from 50% to 66%, respectively, in the tortillas. Overall analysis indicated that tortillas with acceptable texture and improved nutritional profile were produced at 25% substitution.

  11. Occurrence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, the causal agent of common bacterial blight disease, on seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, M H; Bashandy, S R; Schnell, S

    2010-01-01

    Common bean seed lots collected from different seed dealers and Malawii agriculture station were screened for the presence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. In the laboratory the pathogen was isolated following the routine laboratory assay method, i.e. direct plating method using yeast extract-dextrose-calcium carbonate agar medium (YDC). Yellow, convex, mucoid colonies of Xanthomonas were consistently isolated on YDC from seed samples. The presumptive pathogen was confirmed by isolation on semiselective medium, such as mTBM and MD5A. Further, the pathogen was confirmed by biochemical, physiological and, finally, the pathogenicity tests. Five samples out of seven were positive for Xanthomonas. The isolates were found to cause common blight of 3-week-old common bean plants by 7 d after inoculation. Bacteria with the same characteristics as those inoculated were re-isolated from the infected plants.

  12. Seeds with high molybdenum concentration improved growth and nitrogen acquisition of rhizobium-inoculated and nitrogen-fertilized common bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fátima Delgado Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris with high molybdenum (Mo concentration can supply Mo plant demands, but to date no studies have concomitantly evaluated the effects of Mo-enriched seeds on plants inoculated with rhizobia or treated with N fertilizer. This work evaluated the effects of seed Mo on growth and N acquisition of bean plants fertilized either by symbiotic N or mineral N, by measuring the activities of nitrogenase and nitrate reductase and the contribution of biological N2 fixation at different growth stages. Seeds enriched or not with Mo were sown with two N sources (inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with N, in pots with 10 kg of soil. In experiment 1, an additional treatment consisted of Mo-enriched seeds with Mo applied to the soil. In experiment 2, the contribution of N2 fixation was estimated by 15N isotope dilution. Common bean plants grown from seeds with high Mo concentration flowered one day earlier. Seeds with high Mo concentration increased the leaf area, shoot mass and N accumulation, with both N sources. The absence of effects of Mo application to the soil indicated that Mo contents of Mo-enriched seeds were sufficient for plant growth. Seeds enriched with Mo increased nitrogenase activity at the vegetative stage of inoculated plants, and nitrate reductase activity at late growth stages with both N sources. The contribution of N2 fixation was 17 and 61 % in plants originating from low- or high-Mo seeds, respectively. The results demonstrate the benefits of sowing Mo-enriched seeds on growth and N nutrition of bean plants inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with mineral N fertilizer.

  13. Estimation of phenotypic variability in symbiotic nitrogen fixation ability of common bean under drought stress using 15N natural abundance in grain

    OpenAIRE

    Polania, Jose; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rao, Idupulapati; Beebe, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume, cultivated by small farmers and is usually exposed to unfavorable conditions with minimum use of inputs. Drought and low soil fertility, especially phosphorus and nitrogen (N) deficiencies, are major limitations to bean yield in smallholder systems. Beans can derive part of their required N from the atmosphere through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). Drought stress severely limits SNF ability of plants. The main objectiv...

  14. In vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically pre-treated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. flour using commercial protease and Bacillus sp. protease Digestibilidade protéica in vitro de farinhas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pré-tratadas com protease comercial e protease de Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disney Ribeiro Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a staple food in the Brazilian diet and represents the major source of dietary protein and other micronutrients and minerals. Despite the considerable protein concentration in beans, the food is considered of low biological value when compared to animal proteins and other plant protein sources. To improve the availability of protein in beans, enzymatic treatments were performed in four cultivars (ON, OPNS, TAL and VC3. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. We used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments: treatment 1-addition of commercial protease (Trypsin 250, Difco, treatment 2-addition of protease from Bacillus sp., and treatment 3:-control without enzyme addition. The enzyme: substrate ratio was 5% w/w (amount of enzyme per total protein in bean flour. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. A 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments, the same as those mentioned above was used. The concentration of total protein (g.100 g-1 of dry matter in the samples ranged from 16.94 to 18.06%, while the concentration of total phenolics was between 0.78 and 1.12% (g Eq. tannic acid.100 g-1 dry matter. The in vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically untreated bean flour (control ranged from 47.30 to 56.17% based on the digestibility of casein. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Zn observed in the four cultivars tested were within the average values available in the literature. Treatment 2 with protease from Bacillus sp. induced decreases in the levels of Cu and Mn. The average Fe content increased in all bean flour samples when treated with proteases, reaching a maximum increase of 102% in the TAL flour treated with protease from Bacillus sp. The digestibility of all beans tested was significantly increased (p O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é um alimento básico na refeição do brasileiro

  15. INFLUÊNCIA DE SISTEMAS AGRÍCOLAS NA RESPOSTA DO FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. IRRIGADO À ADUBAÇÃO NITROGENADA EM COBERTURA DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON IRRIGATED COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. RESPONSE TO NITROGEN TOPDRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corival Cândido da Silva

    2007-09-01

    dose estimada pela equação de regressão para obtenção dos maiores rendimentos. No sistema D, o efeito foi linear, mostrando que o feijoeiro demandou mais nitrogênio no plantio direto. Nos sistemas A e B, o efeito das doses variou com o ano de cultivo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Rotação de cultura; preparo do solo; componentes da produção; produtividade; feijão.

    In recent years emphasis has been placed upon the systemic approach of agricultural practices to increase food production. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has demonstrated to be a suitable crop species as a component of several production systems as it has been shown on the irrigated areas of the Brazilian Central Region. However, general crop management techniques have to be adjusted as a function of the different crop systems available and nitrogen fertilization is one of those. To confirm this hypothesis, common bean response to nitrogen application was evaluated using cultivar Aporé under four different irrigated production systems using different crop rotations and soil management practices: A - bean-corn crop rotation, using moldboard plowing in the spring-summer (November/December and harrowing in the autumn-winter (May-June season; B – ricebean crop rotation and moldboard plowing only; C - rice/calopogonium-bean crop rotation and harrowing only; D – cornbean crop rotation using continuous no-tillage. Urea, used as the nitrogen source, was applied in topdressing using 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg.ha-1 of N. Field trials were conducted during the fallwinter season, in 1996 and 1997, in a distrofic Dark Red Latosol, at the experimental farm of Embrapa Rice & Beans. Treatment effects were detected on the number

  16. Maternal Effects on Seed and Seedling Phenotypes in Reciprocal F1 Hybrids of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jugpreet; Clavijo Michelangeli, Jose A.; Gezan, Salvador A.; Lee, Hyungwon; Vallejos, C. Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Maternal control of seed size in the common bean provides an opportunity to study genotype-independent seed weight effects on early seedling growth and development. We set out to test the hypothesis that the early heterotrophic growth of bean seedlings is determined by both the relative amount of cotyledon storage reserves and the genotype of the seedling, provided the hybrid genotype could be fully expressed in the seedlings. The hypothesis was tested via comparison of seed weight and seedling growth phenotypes of small-seeded (wild, ~0.10 g) and large-seeded (landrace, ~0.55 g) parents and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. Akaike's Information Criteria were used to estimate growth parameters and identify the phenotypic model that best represented the data. The analysis presented here indicates that the hybrid embryo genotype is not fully expressed during both seed and seedling growth and development. The analysis presented here shows that seed growth and development are controlled by the sporophyte. The strong similarity in seed size and shape of the reciprocal hybrid seed with seeds of the maternal parents is evidence of this control. The analysis also indicates that since the maternal sporophyte controls seed size and therefore the amount of cotyledon reserves, the maternal sporophyte indirectly controls early seedling growth because the cotyledons are the primary nutrient source during heterotrophic growth. The most interesting and surprising results indicated that the maternal effects extended to the root architecture of the reciprocal hybrid seedlings. This phenomenon could not be explained by seed size, but by alterations in the control of the pattern of gene expression of the seedling, which apparently was set by a maternally controlled mechanism. Although seed weight increase was the main target of bean domestication, it also had positive repercussions on early-growth traits and stand establishment. PMID:28174586

  17. TUC 510: nueva variedad de poroto negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. con alta tolerancia a las virosis presentes en el noroeste argentino TUC 510: New variety of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with high tolerance to viruses in Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N. Vizgarra

    2006-12-01

    to production. The objective of this work is to present a new cultivar of black dry edible bean that has high levels of tolerance to these viruses and that could replace commercial varieties already grown in Northwestern Argentina. In 1995, eight advanced lines of black dry edible bean from the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT were introduced. These were tested in comparison with commercial controls NAG 12, Camilo, TUC 390 and TUC 500. From 1997 to 2000, the lines were evaluated in yield comparative trials in Monte Redondo and La Cocha (Tucuman and Campichuelo (Salta. In every trial, a randomized complete block design was applied, and tests of individual variance and homogeneity of variance (Levenne's test were conducted. Each plot consisted of four six-meter-long lines, set at 0,70 m away from each other, with a plant density of 16 plants per meter. Assessment parameters were: a during the whole cycle: virus complex tolerance and vegetative and reproductive adaptation, and b during harvest: yield (kg/ ha and commercial quality. Genotype TUC 510 was found to exhibit the highest yield levels, both general and particular in each location, with an average rate of 1470 kg/ha. Moreover, this cultivar was outstanding for its tolerance to BGMV and BDMV (3.0 and its capacity of adaptation (3.0 to the evaluated environmental conditions. These features justify the official registration of TUC 500 as a new variety of black dry edible bean.

  18. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF MAIZE IN MIXTURE WITH CLIMBING BEAN IN ORGANIC FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Bavec, Franc; Živec, Urška; Grobelnik Mlakar, Silva; Bavec , Martina; Radics , Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    Intercropped crops represent an important production system in organic farming, especially maize/climbing bean mixture due to its high content of protein in bean seeds for human diet, and producing silage for ruminants. To test this hypothesis, the effects of maize (Zea mays L.) sown as a sole crop and maize/climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Cipro) mixtures on maize plant height, maize leaf area index, bean leaf area index and grain yield were investigated in field experiments on an o...

  19. 微波光波组合辐射辅助提取赤小豆黄酮的机制分析%Study on extraction mechanism of total flavone from red phaseolus bean by microwave and light wave radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭游; 李同建

    2011-01-01

    考察赤小豆总黄酮的微波光波组合辐射提取法,并对提取机理进行分析。发现微波光波提取法以功率800W(微波55%与光波45%)加热6min后,70%乙醇萃取得总黄酮,总黄酮的提取率为1.24%,与相应的常规加热回流提取法接近,该法有操作简单快速、成本低等优点。利用荧光显微镜FM、IR对微波提取机理进行初步研究表明.微波光波可能是从对植物组织细胞结构的影响上来改善次生代谢产物的提取效率。%The extraction method and mechanism of total flavonoids from red phaseolus bean had been studied using microwave and light wave radiation. The total flavonoids were extracted with ethyl alcohol after heating the sample for 6min with power 800W (microwave 55% and light wave 45%). The extraction rate of total flavonoids was 1.24%,which closes with the conventional extraction process. This method has many merits,such as simple, rapid,low cost,and so on. Extraction mechanism was investigated preliminarily with high magnification fluorescence microscope FM,IR. It indicated that the improvement of extraction efficiency of secondary metabolite maybe due to the plant tissue cell structure that were broken by microwave and light wave.

  20. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris lectin stimulation increases the number of enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine of suckling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharko-Siembida Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantities and distribution patterns of serotonin-immunoreactive (serotonin-IR enterochromaffin cells (EC were studied immunohistochemically in the small intestine of suckling piglets stimulated with red kidney bean lectin, and in nonstimulated, control animals. The co-expression patterns of serotonin with somatostatin (SOM or corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF were also studied. After the lectin treatment, the increased numbers of EC were noted in the duodenum of experimental animals. Lectin stimulation did not change the proportions of EC in the jejunum and ileum. In the duodenal epithelium of the lectin-stimulated piglets, the vast majority of serotonin-IR EC were distributed at the basis of crypts. After the lectin administration, the proportions of serotonin-IR/SOM-IR EC were statistically similar in all sections of the small intestine. No upregulation of CRF was found in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal EC of lectin-treated animals. The findings demonstrated that red kidney bean lectin increased the serotonin reservoir in the duodenum, and thus may be an effective stimulant of the gut maturation in suckling mammals.

  1. Changes in weed infestation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under conditions of strip intercropping and different weed control methods

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    Aleksandra Głowacka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in the years 2004-2006 in a private farm in the village of Frankamionka in Zamość district. There were two experimental factors: I. Cultivation methods - sole cropping and strip intercropping; and II. Tending methods - mechanical, mechanical-chemical, and chemical weed control. The subject of the study was weed infestation of the Mela variety of common bean. Beans were sown between 30 April and 5 May. Weed infestation was assessed in the last week before harvesting by determining its floristic composition and the frequency of occurrence of particular weed species, as well as the air-dry weight of weeds. The dominant weed species were Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album, and Amaranthus retroflexus, which comprised 84.7% of the total number of weeds. Strip intercropping markedly reduced the number of weeds per unit area (by 50%, as well as the dry weight of their aerial parts. The most effective method of weed control was the mechanical-chemical method, which resulted in the lowest occurrence of weeds. It also significantly reduced the weight of weeds.

  2. Perfil químico de cultivares de feijão (phaseolus vulgaris pela técnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS Chemical profile of beans cultivars (phaseolus vulgaris by ¹h nmr - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Morais Lião

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning (¹H HR-MAS NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris developed and in development by Embrapa - Arroz e Feijão were analyzed by ¹H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques.

  3. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2011-03-17

    Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  4. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  5. Multivariate analysis and determination of the best indirect selection criteria to genetic improvement the biological nitrogen fixation ability in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golparvar Reza Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the best indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of biological nitrogen fixation, sixty four common bean genotypes were cultivated in two randomized complete block design. Genotypes were inoculated with bacteria Rhizobium legominosarum biovar Phaseoli isolate L-109 only in one of the experiments. The second experiment was considered as check for the first. Correlation analysis showed positive and highly significant correlation of majority of the traits with percent of nitrogen fixation. Step-wise regression designated that traits percent of total nitrogen of shoot, number of nodule per plant and biological yield accounted for 92.3 percent of variation exist in percent of nitrogen fixation. Path analysis indicated that these traits have direct and positive effect on percent of nitrogen fixation. Hence, these traits are promising indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation capability in common bean genotypes especially in early generations.

  6. Purification, characterization and partial cDNA cloning of high-temperature stress-induced protein from French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Nagesh Babu, R.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the components of high temperature response in French bean, three heat shock proteins induced under high temperature were purified to homogeneity by Carboxy methyl cellulose and sephadex G-100 chromatography followed by preparative SDS-PAGE. Two of these, Hsp1 and Hsp3 were further characterized by immuno-detection with polyclonal antibodies. Hsp3 exhibited ATPase and chaperone activity with malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. Partial cDNA for Hsp3 synthesized using the primer derived from amino-terminal sequence was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein possesses ATPase activity, and showed thermal protection at 50°C in Escherichia coli. The translated partial cDNA showed homology with stress induced proteins including ATPases from higher plants. These results supported the fact that French bean response to high temperature stress involves Hsps as one of the principal components.

  7. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Ormeño-Orrillo Ernesto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical

  8. A study on starch profile of rajma bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) incorporated noodle dough and its functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Bharath; Prabhasankar, P

    2015-08-01

    Starch profile reflects functional characteristics like digestibility and product quality. A study was aimed to incorporate rajma in noodle processing to improve product and nutritional quality and also to reduce starch digestibility. It is known that some of the pulses like Kidney beans have an isoforms of Starch-Branching-Enzyme (SBE) helps in converting amylose to amylopectin. Rajma flour was incorporated at 10%, 20% and 30% with Triticumdurum and subjected to rheological, physico-chemical and amylose/amylopectin determination using High-Performance-Size-Exclusion-Chromatography (HPSEC). Results revealed that rajma flour decreased peak-viscosity from 954 to 683 BU and increased water absorption. Protein and dietary fiber content increased significantly. Sensory profile showed higher overall quality (>8.5). In vitro starch digestibility reduced from 65% to 49%. Starch profile from HPSEC showed changes in amylose:amylopectin peak, this may be because of the presence of SBE, further studies may be required to support the hypothesis.

  9. Minerals and chosen heavy metals retention in immature common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds depending on the method of preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Słupski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Legumes are a good source of protein, and are also abundant in carbohydrates, B-group vita­mins, dietary fibre and mineral compounds. Material and methods. This work evaluates the retention of ash, eleven minerals and two heavy metals in products obtained from two common bean cultivars harvested before reaching full maturity, with a diy mat­ter content of about 40%. Analyses were conducted on raw, blanched and cooked seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: two frozen and one canned (sterilized. The former com­prised two types of frozen product: one traditionally produced (blanching-freezing-frozen storage-cooking, the other a convenience, "ready-to-eat" product obtained using a modified method (cooking-freezing-frozen storage-defrosting-heating to consumption temperature in a microwave oven. Results. In cooked bean seeds of both cultivars, levels of potassium, calcium, magnesium and copper were significantly lower, the only exception being the content of ash and sodium (due to added salt, than in blanched seeds; the changes in the remaining components were not so clear-cut and depended on the cultivar. Seeds frozen using the modified technology generally showed higher levels of the elements investigated than frozen products produced traditionally, with the exception of chromium, nickel and lead. Sterilized seeds had lower levels of ash, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper and chromium com­pared with both types of frozen product; retention levels of individual components depended on the cultivar examined. Conclusions. Compared with the traditionally produced frozen product, prepared for consumption, seeds after modified method of freezing (convenience food contained significantly higher levels of ash and all macroelements, regardless of the cultivar. Seeds preserved by sterilization, compared with frozen seeds (ei­ther method of production prepared for consumption

  10. Molecular characterization of the U.S. Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray collection using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and Targeted Region Amplification Polymorphism (TRAP) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray), a truly Native American crop, is a short life-cycle annual desert legume indigenous to northwestern Mexico and the southwestern USA and is considered drought and heat tolerant. The Western Regional Plant Introduction Station currently maintains 211 acce...

  11. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 is associated with homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Lund, Ole Søgaard; Larsen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) play a central role in potyviral infection. Accordingly, mutations in the gene encoding eIF4E have been identified as a source of recessive resistance in several plant species. In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, bc...

  12. Reflexos da interação genótipo X ambiente e suas implicações nos ganhos de seleção em genótipos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Reflexes of the interaction genotype X environment and their implications in the gains of selection in genotypes of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luís Meirelles Coimbra

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A importância das leguminosas de grãos na alimentação humana, principalmente do feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris, tem estimulado os melhoristas a selecionar genótipos com alto potencial de rendimento de grãos e com adaptabilidade às diferentes condições de cultivo do sul do Brasil. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os reflexos da interação genótipo x ambiente e suas implicações nos ganhos genéticos com diferentes critérios de seleção. Os resultados revelaram que o componente da interação genótipo x ambiente superestima a predição dos parâmetros genéticos, como por exemplo a variância genética e a herdabilidade. As diferenças observadas entre estas estimativas parecem ocorrer devido à alta percentagem da parte complexa da interação. Além disto, os ganhos genéticos obtidos com a seleção direta foram sempre superiores à resposta indireta. Comparativamente, o par de ambientes 1x3 revelou uma resposta correlacionada inferior e de sinal contrário às demais estimativas para os outros pares de ambientes estudados neste trabalho. O primeiro ambiente foi o que mais acumulou a interação genótipo x ambiente. Portanto, pode ser concluído que o componente da interação tem grande relevância nas estimativas dos ganhos genéticos, evidenciando que essa influência deva ser considerada na seleção e na recomendação de genótipos específicos nos programas de melhoramento genético da cultura do feijoeiro.The importance of grains of legume plants for human feeding, specially black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., has stimulated the breeders to select genotypes with high grains yield potential and wide adaptability to different conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil. The present work aimed at evaluating the reflexes of the genotype x environment interaction and its implications in the genetic gains of different selection approaches. The results revealed that the component of the

  13. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

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    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  14. Comportamento de linhagens e cultivares de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. no Vale do Paraíba, SP Behavior of dry bean lines and cultivars in the Paraíba Valley, S. Paulo

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    A. S. Pompeu

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de determinar cultivares mais adequados para plantio nas condições do Vale do Paraíba, no Estado de São Paulo, foram instalados experimentos de competição de linhagens e cultivares em três locais no município de Pindamonhangaba. Durante o período de 1973 a 1976, notou-se a ocorrência de granizo em 1974, prejudicando um dos ensaios, e de geada em 1975, a qual destruiu dois dos três ensaios plantados. Entre as moléstias que ocorrem no feijoeiro, observaram-se a antracnose e a ferrugem. As melhores produções médias foram obtidas pelas linhagens H38C1727 (Mulatinho, H38C1723 (Bico-de-ouro, H40C1722 (Chumbinho e H40C1725 (Preto, e pelos cultivares piratã-2 e piratã-1, com 2.475, 2.308, 2.218, 2.195, 2.177 e 2.164 kg/ha respectivamente. Os cultivares carioca (Diversos e rosinha G-2 (Rosinha tiveram produções de 2.094 e 1.677 kg/ha. Levando-se em consideração a alta capacidade produtiva demonstrada nesses experimentos e em outras regiões do Estado, bem como a disponibilidade de sementes, os cultivares aroana (H40C1722, moruna (H40C1725, piratã-1 e carioca podem ser indicados para plantio em larga escala na região do Vale do Paraíba.With the objective of indicating the best dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars for the Paraíba Valley, S. Paulo State, trials were planted in three localities in the country of Pindamonhangaba, from 1973 to 1976. From 1973 to 1976 were observed the occurrence of hail in 1974 causing damage in one of the trials, and frost in 1975 that destroyed two of the three experiments planted. Among the pathogens of dry beans, it was noticed the presence of those causing the anthracnose and rust diseases. The best mean yields were observed for H38C1727, H38C1723, H40C1722, H40C1725, 'Piratã-2', and 'Piratã-1' with 2,475, 2,308, 2,218, 2,195, 2,178 and 2,164 kg/ha, respectively. The cultivars Moruna (H4001725, Aroana (H40C1722, Piratã-1 and Carioca can be pointed out for cultivation in

  15. Low gamma radiation dose effect on germination and initial growing of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds; Efeito de baixas doses de radiacao gama na germinacao de sementes de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Silva, Anderson de O. Melo [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.br; Marsico, Eliane T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos]. E-mail: elianee@vm.uff.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work we analyze the effect of low gamma irradiation doses and low concentrations of sodium alginate on the germination and growing of black beans seeds. The seeds were obtained from an organic farmer at Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State. The seeds were submitted to radiation doses between 0 and 150 Gy with a Cobalt 60 source in a Gammacell Excel 220 Nordion Irradiator with a dose rate of 70 Gy/min. After germination the seeds were left to grow three weeks on a hydroponics system. The system used was the water culture with nutritive solution that was supplemented with the nutritional needs for plant grows. We also tested the influence of the sodium alginate on the plant grows. A 4% solution of sodium alginate in distilled water was irradiated with 120 kGy gamma ray dose. Concentrations of sodium alginate irradiated and non-irradiated varying from 50 to 500 {mu}g/g were used in the hydroponics' solution. After three weeks the mass and the height of the plant were measured. Statistic analyses of he result with the SAS program show that there was no significant difference between the height and mass of seeds submitted different doses, but irradiated solution of sodium alginate with concentration of 400 and 500 {mu}g/g present a significant difference on plant grow. (author)

  16. Tolerância à salinidade em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L Salt tolerance in bean (Paseolus vulgaris cell culture

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    F. Broetto

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das aplicações das técnicas da cultura de tecidos no melhoramento é a identificação de linhas de células que apresentam tolerância à salinidade. Vários autores obtiveram linhas de células tolerantes ao estresse salino; e estudo de mecanismos bioquímicos da tolerância a sais em plantas tem demonstrado altas correlações entre estes e o acúmulo de macromoléculas em tecido de plantas superiores. Para verificar essas correlações em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris cv IAC carioca, calos oriundos de eixos embrionários foram cultivados em meio sólido, suplementado com NaCl nas concentrações de 0 a 60 mM. Após 13 dias de incubação, os calos foram coletados e analisados quanto ao crescimento relativo, teor de proteínas, teor de prolina e atividade da peroxidase. Os parâmetros analisados mostraram decréscimo no crescimento relativo e no de proteínas em resposta ao NaCl. Paralelamente, observou-se aumento significativo no conteúdo de prolina e atividade da enzima peroxidase.One of the applications of the tissue culture technique in plant improvement is the identification of cell lines which show salinity tolerance. Several authors were able to obtain saline stress-tolerant cell lines and show that mechanisms of tolerance to salts have a strong correlation between this phenomenon and a high macromolecule concentration in plant tissues. Callus obtained from embrionic axis of Phaseolus vulgarís cv. IAC carioca in solid medium, supplemented with 0 to 60 mM NaCl, as the salt treatment, were used. Callus harvesting was done on the 13th day, when they were processed for relative growth, protein, proline content and peroxidase acivity. The results show both, a decrease of the relative growth and of protein content in response to the NaCl treatment, as compared to controls. However, there was a significant increase on the proline content and on the peroxidase activity.

  17. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  18. Evaluation of alkaline phosphatase activity and availability of various P fractions for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in some calcareous soils amended with municipal sewage sludge

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    T. Raeisi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relationship of various P fractions and alkaline phosphatase activity with bean indices growing in 10 calcareous soils, amended with municipal sewage sludge from Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province, a greenhouse research was carried out. Soil samples were incubated for one month with sludge at a rate equivalent to 1% (w/w. Then, the P fractions, including P adsorbed by Fe and Al oxides (]NaOH+CB]-P, occluded P (CBD-P and P absorbed by Ca (HCl-P, were determined by Olsen and Summers' sequential fractionation procedure. Furthermore, total P, organic P and residual P were determined. Also, alkaline phosphatase activity was measured. A pot experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications in the ten soils was done to evaluate the bean plant indices. The results showed that the amount of P fractions decreased in the following order: HCl-P>residual-P>]NaOH+CB]-P > OP>CBD-P. The results also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly correlated with CBD-P fraction, organic P and total P. In addition, significant correlations were found between ([NaOH+CB]-P and HCl-P and plant shoots. In general, the results of this research showed that P fractionation method appears to be a powerful tool to identify the P status and availability in the soils amended with sewage sludge.

  19. Cadmium resistance in transgenic tobacco plants enhanced by expressing bean heavy metal-responsive gene PvSR2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI; Tuanyao; (柴团耀); CHEN; Qiong; (陈琼); ZHANG; Yuxiu; (张玉秀); DONG; Juan; (董娟); AN; Chengcai; (安成才)

    2003-01-01

    PvSR2 (Phaseolus vulgaris stress-related gene) has been cloned from French bean and shown to be expressed specifically upon heavy metal treatment. In order to investigate the role of PvSR2 in plant, PvSR2 gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into tobacco mediated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. The regenerated plantlets were selected on medium with 100 mg/L kanamycin. PCR and Southern blot analysis showed PvSR2 gene was integrated in tobacco genome. Gus and Northern blot analysis indicated PvSR2 gene was expressed in transgenic seedling. The heavy metal resistance assay showed that the transgenic tobacco seedlings with the PvSR2 coding sequence exhibited higher tolerance to Cd compared with wild-type (WT) under Cd exposure. The Cd content accumulated in root between transgenic and WT seedlings had no obvious difference at lower Cd external concentration (0.05-0.075 mmol/L CdCl2), whereas transgenic plant showed a lower root Cd content than the control at higher external Cd concentration (0.1 mmol/L CdCl2). These results suggested that the expression of PvSR2 can enhance the Cd tolerance, and PvSR2 may be involved in Cd transportation and accumulation at the test concentration of 0.1 mmol/L Cd.

  20. Evaluation of hydric deficit -tolerant promising bean (Phaseolus vulgaris l. linesEvaluation of hydric deficit -tolerant promising bean (Phaseolus vulgaris l. lines/ Avaliação de linhagens promissoras de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. tolerantes ao déficit hídrico

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    Luiz Henrique Ilkiu Vidal

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction to hydric deficit of five bean genotypes of the black commercial group and five bean genotypes of the Carioca commercial group. Two experiments had been carried out in Londrina (PR in 2002/2003 wet season. The hydric deficit was obtained during twenty days in the beginning of blooming phase. Mobile shelters constructed in iron had been used and covered with transparent roofing tiles to prevent the rain. During the period of hydric deficit, the soil humidity was determined in both treatments. In the phase of physiological maturation 10 plants of each subparcel were evaluated for number of knot, plant height, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, plant yield and total yield. The estimates of the coefficients of genetic variation, coefficient of genotypic determination and B index indicated high genetic variability between the genotypes. The estimates of the coefficients of phenotypic correlation showed the presence of correlated characters indicating the possibility of doing simultaneous election between them. Based on the index of yield reduction and on the total yield of grains without hydric stress (kg /ha genotype LP 99-85 of the black group and genotype LP 99-79 of the Carioca group were identified as tolerant to hydric deficit. The line LP99-79 has been registered for cultivation in the SNRC / MAP with the designation of IPR Siriri.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a reação ao déficit hídrico de cinco genótipos de feijoeiro do grupo comercial preto e cinco do grupo comercial carioca. Foram estabelecidos em Londrina (PR, na safra das águas 2002/2003, dois experimentos independentes, um para cada grupo. O déficit hídrico foi imposto durante vinte dias na fase de início de florescimento, por meio de abrigos móveis de ferro, cobertos com telhas transparentes, para proteger da chuva. Durante o período de déficit hídrico, foi determinada a umidade do

  1. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  2. Genetic control of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn. Scrib. reaction and corona color in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    H.A. de Mendonça

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available An important trait for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars with Carioca type grain is resistance to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose and a pale corona. The present study was conducted to understand the genetic control of common bean reaction to the fungus and of the corona color, to provide guides to future breeding studies. Genotypes P-45, with brown corona, and EMGOPA 201-Ouro, with yellow corona, are resistant to C. lindemuthianum. Cultivar Carioca is susceptible to anthracnose, but it has desirable grain and corona color. Anthracnose resistance and corona color were studied in the F1 and F2 generations of three populations resulting from crosses of P-45, EMGOPA 201-Ouro, and Carioca. The Carioca x P-45 cross indicated that the Mex.2 allele, which conditions resistance to the pathogen, is linked with a recombination frequency of 0.0604 ± 0.0232 to one of the alleles which determines the dark brown corona color. The EMGOPA 201-Ouro x Carioca cross revealed that the resistance allele of EMGOPA 201-Ouro was independent from the alleles which determine the yellow corona. These resistance alleles were also determined to be independent according to EMGOPA 201-Ouro x P-45 cross results.As cultivares de feijão com grão tipo Carioca devem possuir, entre outros caracteres, resistência ao Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, agente causal da antracnose, e possuir halo de cor clara. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer o controle genético desses dois caracteres, visando orientar os futuros trabalhos de melhoramento. Os genitores utilizados foram P-45, EMGOPA 201-Ouro e Carioca-300V, sendo que o P-45 possui halo marrom escuro e o EMGOPA 201-Ouro, halo amarelo, ambos resistentes ao Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. O genitor Carioca-300V é suscetível, porém possui cor de grão e de halo desejáveis. Do intercruzamento desses genitores obtiveram-se três populações que foram avaliadas nas gerações F1 e F2 para

  3. Influence of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and salinity on leaf injury, stomatal resistance, growth, and chemical composition of bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Taylor, O.C.

    1983-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) growing in half-strength Hoagland solutions modified to provide three salinity levels of -40, -240, and -440 kPa, were exposed four times to 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/, 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/, and 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/ + 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ alone showed no injury. Primary leaves of O/sub 3/-treated plants were injured more than those of plants fumigated with the combination of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/. Pollutant injury to leaves decreased as salinity increased. Stomatal resistance on the abaxial surface of primary leaves of SO/sub 2/, and especially of (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants, increased sharply during fumigations, and returned to prefumigation levels the next day. Stomatal resistances of O/sub 3/-treated plants were similar to nonfumigated plants during the first phase of the experiment, but after the last fumigation, this resistance returned to essentially normal only in plants growing at the highest salinity level. Plant growth was suppressed by increased salinity. Root growth on O/sub 3/- and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants was reduced at all salinity levels. As salinity increased, plants accumulated Cl and Ca. Sodium increased in stems and roots, and decreased in leaves of plants grown in high Na-nutrient solutions. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) had higher S content in roots than nonfumigated and O/sub 3/-treated plants. The highest S content in leaves was found in SO/sub 2/-treated plants at the -40 kPa salinity level. Accumulation of Ca in leaves and of Mg in roots was lowest in plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/). Plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) accumulated more K in stems and leaves, and more Fe in roots and leaves, compared with nonfumigated and SO/sub 2/-treated plants. The O/sub 3/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) effects on mineral content of the plants

  4. Relative planting times on the production components in sesame/cowpea bean intercropping in organic system

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    Afrânio César de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at better land use, small farmers usually plant sesame and cowpea bean intercropped with other crops. The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the influence of four relative planting times of the cowpea bean in intercropping with sesame from the standpoint of their production components, plant productivity and the index of land equivalent ratio (LER. The field experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the sesame and the cowpea bean in intercropping with the cowpea bean planted at the same time, 7, 14 and 21days after than the sesame. A greater part of the production components of both the sesame as well the cowpea bean was affected by the intercropping and significant differences were noted among the treatments in a larger part of the parameters. As the planting of the cowpea bean became more distant from that of the sesame, the yield of the Pedaliaceae increased and the yield of the Fabaceae decreased. The results for LER findings on the other hand suggest that in the sesame/cowpea bean intercropping, when the Fabaceae is planted seven days after the sesame, there is better use of the land and a largest possibility to the producer earning a profit.

  5. Root uptake of uranium by a higher plant model (Phaseolus vulgaris) bioavailability from soil solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, L.; Henner, P.; Camilleri, V.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    Uranium behaviour in soils is controlled by actions and interactions between physicochemical and biological processes that also determine its bioavailability. In soil solution, uranium(+VI) aqueous speciation undergoes tremendous changes mainly depending on pH, carbonates, phosphates and organic matter. In a first approach to identify bioavailable species of U to plants, cultures were performed using hydroponics, to allow an easy control of the composition of the exposure media. The latter, here an artificial soil solution, was designed to control the uranium species in solution. The geochemical speciation code JCHESS using a database compiled from the OECD/NEA thermochemical database project and verified was used to perform the solution speciation calculations. On this theoretical basis, three domains were defined for short-duration well-defined laboratory experiments in simplified conditions: pH 4.9, 5.8 and 7 where predicted dominant species are uranyl ions, hydroxyl complexes and carbonates respectively. For these domains, biokinetics and characterization of transmembrane transport according to a classical Michaelis Menten approach were investigated. The Free Ion Model (or its derived Biotic Ligand Model) was tested to determine if U uptake is governed by the free uranyl species or if other metal complexes can be assimilated. The effect of different variables on root assimilation efficiency and phyto-toxicity was explored: presence of ligands such as phosphates or carbonates and competitive ions such as Ca{sup 2+} at the 3 pH. According to previous experiments, uranium was principally located in roots whatever the pH and no difference in uranium uptake was evidenced between the main growth stages of the plant. Within the 3 studied chemical domains, results from short-term kinetics evidenced a linear correlation between total uranium concentration in bean roots and that in exposure media, suggesting that total uranium in soil solution could be a good predictor

  6. Bacterial capacities to mineralize phytate increase in the rhizosphere of nodulated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under P deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Maougal, R. T.; Brauman, Alain; Plassard, C.; Abadie, J.; Djekoun, A.; Drevon, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Phytate (a form of Inositol phosphate), which is one of the most abundant sources of organic phosphorus (Po) in soils, needs to be mineralized by microbial phosphatases to become available for plants. Phytases are the most active phosphatases for the dephosphorylation of phytate but the ecology of the phytate mineralising bacteria (PMB) remains poorly understood. The aim of this work was to determine if PMB represent an important component of the rhizosphere of legumes and if their density an...

  7. The cotyledon cell wall of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) resists digestion in the upper intestine and thus may limit iron bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability from the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledon contains 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cell. The cotyledon cell wall is known to be resistan...

  8. NON PREFERENCE FOR OVIPOSITION AND FEEDING OF Weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA-BRUCHIDAE IN BEAN LINES (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BEARERS OF ARCELIN NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA OVIPOSIÇÃO E ALIMENTAÇÃO DE Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PORTADORES DE ARCELINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Divina de Tolêdo Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Arcelin is a seed protein only found in wild beans which gives resistance to bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemann, 1833. In this study the non preference for oviposition and feeding of the bean weevil was evaluated on a series of near isogenic bean lines: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 and Arc 4. The bean cultivars Porrillo 70 and Goiano Precoce were utilized as susceptible checks. There wasn’t oviposition preference among the six genotypes studied. The near isogenic lines that contain Arcelin 1 and Arcelin 2 were the last in preference for feeding.

    KEY-WORDS: Resistance; non preference.

    A arcelina é uma proteína encontrada somente em feijões silvestres e é o fator que confere resistência ao caruncho Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833. Procurou-se verificar a não-preferência para oviposição e alimentação de Z. subfasciatus em uma série de linhagens de feijão quase isogênicas contendo diferentes alelos de arcelina: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 e Arc 4. Os controles suscetíveis utilizados foram Porrillo 70 e Goiano Precoce. Não houve preferência para oviposição entre os seis genótipos estudados. As linhagens quase isogênicas contendo Arcelina 1 e Arcelina 2 foram as menos preferidas para alimentação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; Phaseolus; Zabrotes; não-preferência.

  9. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the {sup 60}Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais dos feijoes Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    1998-07-01

    The effects of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 6} protein content, biological evaluation in rats (Food intake and Weight gain (in grams)), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  10. Evolutionary analysis of the APA genes in the Phaseolus genus: wild and cultivated bean species as sources of lectin-related resistance factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioi, L; Galasso, I; Lanave, C; Daminati, M G; Bollini, R; Sparvoli, F

    2007-11-01

    The APA (Arcelin/Phytohemagglutinin/alpha-Amylase inhibitor) gene family is composed of various members, present in Phaseolus species and coding for lectin and lectin-related seed proteins having the double role of storage and defense proteins. Here members of the APA family have been identified by immunological, functional, and molecular analyses and representative genes were sequenced in nine wild species of Phaseolus. All taxa possessed at least one member of the true lectin gene. No arcelin type sequences have been isolated from the species examined. Among the wild species studied, only P. costaricensis contained an alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI). In addition P. augusti, P. maculatus, P. microcarpus, and P. oligospermus showed the presence of the lectin-related alpha-amylase inhibitor-like (AIL) genes and alpha-AI activity. Data from Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of only one lectin gene in P. parvulus and P. filiformis, while an extensive gene duplication of the APA locus was found in the other Phaseolus species. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on the nucleotide sequences showed the existence of two main clusters and clearly indicated that lectin-related genes originated from a paralogous duplication event preceding the development of the ancestor to the Phaseolus genus. The finding of detectable alpha-AI activity in species containing AIL genes suggests that exploiting APA genes variability in the Phaseolus genus may represent a valuable tool to find new members that may have acquired insecticidal activities.

  11. Reduction of viral load in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gen.) feeding on RNAi-mediated bean golden mosaic virus resistant transgenic bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Nayhanne T; de Faria, Josias C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-12-02

    The RNAi concept was explored to silence the rep gene from the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) and a genetically modified (GM) bean immune to the virus was previously generated. We investigated if BGMV-viruliferous whiteflies would reduce viral amount after feeding on GM plants. BGMV DNA amount was significantly reduced in whiteflies feeding in GM-plants (compared with insects feeding on non-GM plants) for a period of 4 and 8 days in 52% and 84% respectively.

  12. Cell wall polysaccharides of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Polissacarídeos de parede celular de feijões (Phasealus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M. Shiga

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The soluble and insoluble cotyledon (SPF-Co and IPF-Co and tegument (SPF-Te and IPF-Te cell wall polymer fractions of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris were isolated using a chemical-enzymatic method. The sugar composition showed that SPF-Co was constituted of 38.6% arabinose, 23.4% uronic acids, 12.7% galactose, 11.2% xylose, 6.4% mannose and 6.1% glucose, probably derived from slightly branched and weakly bound polymers. The IPF-Co was fractionated with chelating agent (CDTA and with increasing concentrations of NaOH. The bulk of the cell wall polymers (29.4% were extracted with 4.0M NaOH and this fraction contained mainly arabinose (55.0%, uronic acid (18.9%, glucose (10.7%, xylose (10.3% and galactose (3.4%. About 8.7% and 10.6% of the polymers were solubilised with CDTA and 0.01M NaOH respectively and were constituted of arabinose (52.0 and 45.9%, uronic acids (25.8 and 29.8%, xylose (9.6 and 10.2%, galactose (6.1 and 3.9% and glucose (6.5 and 3.8%. The cell wall polymers were also constituted of small amounts (5.6 and 7.2% of cellulose (CEL and of non-extractable cell wall polymers (NECW. About 16.8% and 17.2% of the polymers were solubilised with 0.5 and 1.0M NaOH and contained, respectively, 92.1 and 90.7% of glucose derived from starch (IST. The neutral sugar and polymers solubilization profiles showed that weakly bound pectins are present mainly in SPF-Co (water-soluble, CDTA and 0.01-0.1M NaOH soluble fractions. Less soluble, highly cross-linked pectins were solubilised with 4.0M NaOH. This pectin is arabinose-rich, probably highly branched and has a higher molecular weight than the pectin present in SPF-Co, CDTA and 0.01-0.1M NaOH fractions.Foram isoladas por método enzimático-químico as frações da parede celular de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contendo polímeros solúveis e insolúveis obtidos do cotilédone (SPF-Co e IPF-Co e tegumento (SPF-Te e IPF-Te. A análise da composição de açúcares mostrou que a SPF-Co era

  13. Effects of industrial canning on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds contents and nutritional profile of two Spanish common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabellos, Blanca; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the changes produced by canning in the proximate composition and in the bioactive constituents of two "ready to eat" Spanish beans. The foremost difference in the raw beans corresponded to the lectin: a higher content was found in raw Curruquilla beans (16.50 mg 100 mg(-1)) compared with raw Almonga beans (0.6 mg 100 mg(-1)). In general, industrial canning significantly increased the protein (>7%) and dietary fibre (>5%) contents of both beans varieties. However, the minerals, total α-galactosides and inositol phosphates contents were reduced (>25%) in both canned seeds. The trypsin inhibitors content was almost abolished by canning, and no lectins were found in either of the canned samples. Canned Curruquilla showed a decrease (38%) of their antioxidant activity. These "ready to eat" beans exhibited adequate nutritive profiles according to the USDA dietary recommendations. Furthermore, they had bioactive components content that are suitable for establishing a healthy lifestyle.

  14. Effects of different nitrogen level on carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance in kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgari L .)%不同供氮水平对芸豆碳氮代谢平衡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海燕; 郭伟

    2013-01-01

    采用盆栽土壤基施0、15、30 kg·hm-2三个氮素水平试验,研究了芸豆荚果形成后不同氮素水平下叶片和荚果的碳、氮代谢主要酶活性以及抗氧化酶系活性的变化。结果表明,芸豆荚果形成后,随着土壤供氮水平的增加,荚果的磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶活性、多酚氧化酶活性、超氧化物歧化酶和过氧化氢酶活性逐渐增强;叶片的蔗糖合成酶活性、蔗糖磷酸合成酶活性、硝酸还原酶和磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶活性大于同一供氮水平荚果的活性;且荚果的总可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白含量高于叶片;叶片的磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶的活性与荚果的蔗糖磷酸合成酶和硝酸还原酶活性呈显著相关性。由此可以得出,源器官是芸豆植株的代谢活跃中心,而库器官成为植株的生长中心,且后者的碳、氮代谢过程主要受前者的调控。%Three base nitrogen fertilizer levels ,including 0 ,1 .5 kg·hm-2 and 3 .0 kg·hm-2 ,were adopted in a pot experiment to study the changes of enzyme system of carbon-nitrogen metabolism in leaves and pods of kidney bean ( Phaseolus vulgari L .) .The results showed that ,after the formation of pods ,the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate car-boxylase (PEP ) ,polyphenol oxidase (PPO ) , superoxide dismutase (SOD ) and catalase (CAT ) in pods gradually in-creased with the increase of nitrogen .Under the same nitrogen level ,the activity of sucrose synthase (SS ) ,sucrose phos-phate synthase (SPS ) ,nitrate reductase (NR) and PEP in leaves was greater than that in pods ,while the content of total soluble sugar and protein in pods was higher than that in leaves .The activity of PEP in leaves was correlated significantly with the activity of SPS and NR in pods .It could be concluded that ,in the plants of kidney bean ,the source organ was the active center of metabolism ,while the sink organ was the growth center ,and the carbon

  15. Toxigenic fungi in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes black and color cultivated in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil Fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes preto e cores cultivado no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Luzia Freitas Costa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxigenic fungi were studied in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of Classes black and color, cultivated in different regions of the State of Santa Catarina, south region of Brazil. The mean counts of filamentous fungi were 2.8 x 103 and 6.7 x 103 CFU/g for beans Classes black and color, respectively. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Phoma spp. were the most frequent genera isolated, followed by Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. and Dreschelera spp. Among beans Class black, 24.6% of the Aspergillus strains produced mycotoxins: 13.1% produced aflatoxins (AFs; 11.5% produced ochratoxin A (OTA and 28.9% of Penicillium produced citrinin (CTR. On the other hand, 22.1% of Aspergillus strains isolated from beans Class color produced mycotoxins (16.7% produced AFs and 5.4% produced OTA, while Penicillium genera had 35.4% of CTR producing strains. The toxigenic species were A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and P. citrinum Thom.Foram estudados fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., classes preto e cores, cultivados em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, região Sul do Brasil. A média total de fungos filamentosos foi de 2,8x10³ e 6,7x10³ UFC/g para feijão classe preto e cores, respectivamente. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Phoma spp. foram os gêneros mais frequentes isolados, seguidos por Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. e Dreschelera spp. No feijão classe preto, 24,6% das cepas de Aspergillus isolados eram toxigenicas: 13.1% eram produtoras de aflatoxinas (AFs e 11,5% de ocratoxina A (OTA; e 28,9% de Penicillium produziram citrinina (CTR. Por outro lado, 22,1% de cepas de Aspergillus isolados do feijão classe cores, produziram micotoxinas (16,7% produziram AF e 5,4% produziram OTA, já do g

  16. Comportamento da cv. Pérola(Phaseolus vulgaris L. Submetida a diferentes níveis de desfolha artificial Effect of Different levels of defoliation on productivity of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Perola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre desfolha artificial são muito úteis, principalmente para simular danos às plantas, como os causados por insetos ou granizo, por exemplo. Em trabalhos com o feijoeiro, ficou evidente que os resultados são altamente dependentes da cultivar utilizada e das condições climáticas prevalecentes. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a redução na produtividadedevida à redução artificial da área foliar da cv. Pérola nas condições de Rio Branco, AC. O experimento foi conduzido no campo experimental da Embrapa Acre, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e esquema experimental de parcelas subdivididas, estudando-se nas parcelas cinco das etapas de desenvolvimento da planta (V3= primeira folha trifoliolada, V4= terceira folha trifoliolada, R6= floração, R7= formação de vagens e R8= enchimento de vagens e nas subparcelas, quatro níveis de desfolhamento (0%, 33%, 66% e 100%. Foram avaliadas, em média, 480 plantas nas 4 linhas centrais de cada subparcela, determinando-se o número de vagens por planta, o número de grãos por vagem e a produtividade de grãos. Paralelamente, em uma área adjacente, foram colhidas, ao acaso, 50 plantas de cada etapa de desenvolvimento para a obtenção da área foliar média. Nas etapas de desenvolvimento V3, V4 e R7, níveis de desfolhamento a partir de 33% causaram decréscimo no número de vagens por planta. O número de sementes por vagem não sofreu influência dos níveis de desfolhamento das plantas. O rendimento dos grãos foi significativamente reduzido à medida que as plantas foram submetidas a níveis crescentes de desfolha. A etapa de florescimento (R6 foi a que apresentou maior redução na produtividade como resposta à desfolha.Studies to evaluate artificial defoliation are very useful, mainly to simulate damages to plants, such, as the ones caused by insects or hail. Experiments with bean plant, indicated that the results are higly dependent on the

  17. Emission of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O from soil cultivated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fertilized with different N sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Luqueno, F.; Reyes-Varela, V.; Martinez-Suarez, C.; Reynoso-Keller, R.E.; Mendez-Bautista, J.; Ruiz-Romero, E. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, F. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Luna-Guido, M.L. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Addition of different forms of nitrogen fertilizer to cultivated soil is known to affect carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions. In this study, the effect of urea, wastewater sludge and vermicompost on emissions of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O in soil cultivated with bean was investigated. Beans were cultivated in the greenhouse in three consecutive experiments, fertilized with or without wastewater sludge at two application rates (33 and 55 Mg fresh wastewater sludge ha{sup -1}, i.e. 48 and 80 kg N ha{sup -1} considering a N mineralization rate of 40%), vermicompost derived from the wastewater sludge (212 Mg ha{sup -1}, i.e. 80 kg N ha{sup -1}) or urea (170 kg ha{sup -1}, i.e. 80 kg N ha{sup -1}), while pH, electrolytic conductivity (EC), inorganic nitrogen and CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions were monitored. Vermicompost added to soil increased EC at onset of the experiment, but thereafter values were similar to the other treatments. Most of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} was taken up by the plants, although some was leached from the upper to the lower soil layer. CO{sub 2} emission was 375 C kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the unamended soil, 340 kg C ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the urea-amended soil and 839 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the vermicompost-amended soil. N{sub 2}O emission was 2.92 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in soil amended with 55 Mg wastewater sludge ha{sup -1}, but only 0.03 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the unamended soil. The emission of CO{sub 2} was affected by the phenological stage of the plant while organic fertilizer increased the CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emission, and the yield per plant. Environmental and economic implications must to be considered to decide how many, how often and what kind of organic fertilizer could be used to increase yields, while limiting soil deterioration and greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Effect of the addition of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flour on the in vitro digestibility of starch and undigestible carbohydrates in spaghetti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Infante, Jose-Alberto; Bello-Perez, Luis Arturo; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria Elizabeth; Gonzalez-Laredo, Ruben Francisco; Avila-Ontiveros, Martha

    2010-06-01

    Spaghetti is considered to be a slowly digestible starch food, a feature ruled by the particular physical properties of the product. Several studies have been reported to increase nutritional value of spaghetti, using legumes. We have studied the addition of common bean flour on the starch in vitro digestibility. Spaghetti was prepared with semolina and different concentrations of common bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45%, w/w). Proximate analysis, optimal cooking time, and cooking loss were estimated in crude spaghetti. Total, available, and resistant starches, indigestible fractions, and in vitro starch hydrolysis kinetics were accomplished in cooked spaghetti. Pasta with 30% and 45% of common bean flour showed higher values of protein. Particularly, the lowest cooking time was observed for composite spaghetti with 45% of common bean flour. There was a significant increase in cooking loss when common bean flour in the composite was added. Composite spaghetti samples with increasing common bean flour showed decreasing values of total starch but an important increase in the resistant starch (RS) level and indigestible insoluble fraction values. Plain pasta made with semolina showed the highest enzymatic hydrolysis rate, which decreased when common bean flour was added to the spaghetti. Spaghetti with a higher level of common bean flour was more slowly available, which may have positive implications for human health.

  19. Light-dependent reversal of dark-chilling induced changes in chloroplast structure and arrangement of chlorophyll-protein complexes in bean thylakoid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garstka, M; Drozak, A; Rosiak, M; Venema, JH; Kierdaszuk, B; Simeonova, E; van Hasselt, PR; Dobrucki, J; Mostowska, A

    2005-01-01

    Changes in chloroplast structure and rearrangement of chlorophyll-protein (CP) complexes were investigated in detached leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Eureka), a chilling-sensitive plant, during 5-day dark-chilling at 1 degrees C and subsequent 3-h photoactivation under white light (200 mu

  20. Changes in differently processed soya bean (Glycine max.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) with particular reference to their chemical composition and their mineral and some inherent anti-nutritional constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletor, V A; Ojo, O I

    1989-01-01

    The effects of 3 processing techniques: cooking, roasting and autoclaving on the proximate chemical composition, the mineral content and some inherent toxic factors of soya and lima beans were investigated. The processing techniques generally reduced the crude fibre levels and enhanced the extractable fat in the soya and lima beans. The coefficients of variability for crude fibre and ether extract due to the processing techniques of soya and lima beans were 20.9%, 16.0% and 22.3%, 38.1%, respectively. In parallel with decreased ash content in the cooked bean samples, there was a decrease in the K, Mg, Na and P levels relative to the raw bean and also relative to the other processing techniques. Mineral contents of the autoclaved bean samples were generally similar to those of the raw (unprocessed) samples. Under the processing conditions, roasting caused the highest reduction in thioglucoside content (59%) in soya bean while cooking caused the highest reduction in lima bean (78%). Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged between 0.59 mg/g sample in the cooked soya bean and 11.6 mg/g sample in the raw bean while the corresponding values for lima bean ranged between 0.59 and 6.3 mg/g sample. Cooking and roasting caused over 90% reduction of TIA, while autoclaving caused 64-69% reduction in both bean samples. Under the assay conditions, haemagglutinating activity was not detected in the cooked and autoclaved soya and lima beans. The need to prevent both functional and nutritional damage to food proteins and other nutrients, resulting from excessive heating, was discussed.

  1. Control of angular leaf spot on dry beans with fungicides and its effect on plant production

    OpenAIRE

    Deman, Luis Alfredo Raue; Maringoni, Antonio Carlos [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    The angular leaf spot of dry bean caused by the fungus Phaeoisairopsis griseola is a very important disease on dry bean crops in Brazil. In propitious weather conditions, susceptible cultivars have significant losses due to this disease. In these conditions, fungicide usage is an important step for angular leaf spot management. Since the effects of this method of control on plant physiology are not known, this study had the following objectives: a) Verify the action of fungicide in physiologi...

  2. In vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flour: effect of processing and incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njintang, N Y; Mbofung, C M; Waldron, K W

    2001-05-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of germination and drying temperature on the in vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean flours. A 2 x 3 factorial experiment with two treatments (germination and nongermination) and three drying temperatures was used for this purpose. The effect of particle size on water absorption capacity of bean flour was investigated. In addition, the effect of incorporating soybean and cowpea into the red bean flour on functional properties was equally investigated. Results reveal that protein digestibility increased with germination and also with drying temperature. Drying at 60 degrees C produced flours of optimum functional characteristics, although the hydrophilic/lipophilic index was high and the solubility index reduced. Germination and particle size as well as drying temperature all affected the water uptake properties of bean flours. Incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour into germinated bean flour at levels of 10 and 30%, respectively, produced a composite with higher functional properties.

  3. Phaseolus immature embryo rescue technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Pascal; Toussaint, André; Mergeai, Guy; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Predominant among the production constraints of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris are infestation of Ascochyta blight, Bean Golden Mosaic virus (BGMV), and Bean Fly. Interbreeding with Phaseolus -coccineus L. and/or Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm has been shown to provide P. vulgaris with greater resistance to these diseases. For interspecific crosses to be successful, it is important to use P. coccineus and P. polyanthus as female parents; this prevents rapid reversal to the recurrent parent P. vulgaris. Although incompatibility barriers are post-zygotic, early hybrid embryo abortion limits the success of F1 crosses. While rescue techniques for globular and early heart-shaped embryos have improved in recent years, -success in hybridization remains very low. In this study, we describe six steps that allowed us to rescue 2-day-old P. vulgaris embryos using a pod culture technique. Our methods consisted of (i) pod culture, (ii) extraction and culture of immature embryos, (iii) dehydration of embryos, (iv) germination of embryos, (v) rooting of developed shoots, and (vi) hardening of plantlets.

  4. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  5. Oviposition choice of Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis) depends on host plants cyanogenic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Lieberei, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    The choice of insect females as to where to lay their eggs strongly affects progeny survival and, thus, fitness. We conducted choice experiments with female Mexican bean beetles, which were offered lima bean plants differing in their cyanogenic capacity (HCNc), i.e., in the intensity of hydrogen cyanide release per time unit from damaged plant tissue. Females preferred to lay their eggs on plants with low HCNc. In contrast, the mere concentration of cyanide-containing precursors (the cyanogenic potential, HCNp) did not affect oviposition choices. Plant cyanogenesis occurs after tissue damage, which brings specific beta-glucosidases in contact with their substrates, cyanogenic glycosides, from which they are separated by compartmentation in the intact plant tissue. Plants commonly store toxic compounds in an inactive form. Our results demonstrate that for cyanogenesis, which is widespread in plants, it is the toxic product itself rather than the precursor that affects oviposition choices of a specialized herbivore.

  6. Buried Alive! An Investigation of Plant Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ashley J.; Balschweid, Mark; Hammond, Paul; Henderson, Brian; Johnson, Peggy A.; Kite, Abigayle; Martin, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, pairs of upper elementary students test germination percentage using seeds of Indian corn ("Zea mays"), scarlet runner beans ("Phaseolus coccineus"), and the prairie cup-plant ("Silphium perfoliatum") grown on rolled, damp paper towels. The pairs compare seeds that have been stratified, a simulation of overwintering and…

  7. Avaliação química, nutricional e fatores antinutricionais do feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. irradiado Chemical and nutritional evaluation and antinutritional factors of irradiated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mechi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesmo o Brasil sendo o maior produtor de feijão, é necessário importar para suprir a grande demanda interna, que é agravada pelas grandes perdas por infestações durante o armazenamento. Para combater estas perdas o processo de irradiação dos feijões é uma alternativa. Foram avaliadas as alterações que ocorreram em grãos de feijão preto crus e cozidos irradiados nas doses de 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10kGy e avaliadas a quantidade de ferro, taninos e ácido fítico, a digestibilidade da proteína e a disponibilidade de ferro. Para o teor de ferro em grãos cozidos não houve variação (média de 118,17mg/Kg. Os teores encontrados de taninos para o cru não variaram com a intensidade radioativa, não sendo possível detecção nos cozidos. Quanto ao teor de ácido fítico, ocorreu diminuição da quantidade com aumento da irradiação nos grãos crus até dose 8kGy. A digestibilidade da proteína diminuiu nos feijões crus com o aumento da irradiação. Ocorreu crescente aumento na disponibilidade de ferro nos feijões crus irradiados (exceto na dose 8kGy, que não varia das doses 4 e 6kGy. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho mostram que o processo de irradiação não compromete o valor nutricional do feijão preto.Even so Brazil be producer of bean, it is necessay import to supply the itern demand which is very big. The damage to swarm over during the storage occur with frequency. To battle this damages the process of irradiation of beans is an option. The modifications was evaluated in black beans crude and cooked irradiated with dosis of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10kGy and evaluated the iron quantity, tannin and phitic acid, protein digestibity and iron availability. The iron content of cooked beans was not variation (mean 118.17mg/kg. The content of tannin for crude bean was not variation with the intensity of radiation. The phitic acid content decreased its quantity with irradiation dosis increase at crude beans until dosis 8kGy. The

  8. AKTIVITAS ENZIM FITASE PADA PERKEMBANGAN KACANG HIJAU (Phaseolus radiatus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a study on the phytase enzyme activities on germination of Mung Beans (Phaseolus radiatus L. The activities and stability of phytase enzyme were observed under influence of various incubation temperature (27°C, 37°C and 55"C, and incubation time (1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours of the Mung Beans (Phaseolus radiatus L in germinating for 1 to 5 days. The results showed that activities of phytase enzyme at the same temperature and incubation time are the same in Mung Beans seed germinating for 1 to 5 days. Phytase enzyme is one of the termostabile enzymes with optimal activities at high temperature.

  9. Uniformity of liquid distribution in the canopy of the bean plant, using the spectrophotometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Mesquita Baesso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diseases are important factors limiting common bean yield. White mold is one of the main diseases caused by soil pathogens. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of a fungicide solution sprayed into the canopy of bean plants by spectrophotometry, using a boom sprayer with and without air assistance. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial (two types of nozzles, two application rates, and air assistance on and off randomized block design with four replications. Air assistance influenced the deposition of solution on the bean plant and yield increased significantly with the increased rate of application and air assistance in the boom sprayer.

  10. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  11. Landscape genetics, adaptive diversity and population structure in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Biagetti, Eleonora; Carboni, Andrea; Gepts, Paul; Nanni, Laura; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

    2016-03-01

    Here we studied the organization of genetic variation of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in its centres of domestication. We used 131 single nucleotide polymorphisms to investigate 417 wild common bean accessions and a representative sample of 160 domesticated genotypes, including Mesoamerican and Andean genotypes, for a total of 577 accessions. By analysing the genetic spatial patterns of the wild common bean, we documented the existence of several genetic groups and the occurrence of variable degrees of diversity in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Moreover, using a landscape genetics approach, we demonstrated that both demographic processes and selection for adaptation were responsible for the observed genetic structure. We showed that the study of correlations between markers and ecological variables at a continental scale can help in identifying local adaptation genes. We also located putative areas of common bean domestication in Mesoamerica, in the Oaxaca Valley, and the Andes, in southern Bolivia-northern Argentina. These observations are of paramount importance for the conservation and exploitation of the genetic diversity preserved within this species and other plant genetic resources.

  12. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon). The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass prov...

  13. Plant growth with new fluorescent lamps : II. Growth and reproduction of mature bean plants and dwarf marigold plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A S; Dunn, S

    1966-06-01

    Bean and marigold plants were grown to maturity under several kinds of fluorescent lamps to evaluate the effects of spectral differences on development and reproduction. Six kinds of lamps were tested including five lamps that were used in closely related experiments on tomato seedling growth (THOMAS and DUNN, 1967). Evaluation was by fresh- and dry-weight yields of immature and mature pods, and of vegetative tops of plants for bean; and by flowering and fresh-and dry-weight yields for marigold.Bean plants grown under two experimental lamps, Com I and IR III produced significantly higher fresh- and dry-weight yields of both mature and total pods than under Warm-white lamps. This effect could be attributed largely to the considerable energy emitted by the experimental lamps in the red and far-red, as compared to a larger emission in the green and blue for the Warm-white lamps. The differences in the yields for immature pods and vegetative portions of the mature tops were not significant.In a comparison of the effects of three experimental lamps with those of three commercial lamps on growth response of bean plants, the yields were in general higher for the experimental lamps, except for immature pods. The yields of vegetative tops were significantly greater for the 78/22 lamp over the yields for all other lamps. The larger proportion of red and far-red light emitted by the experimental lamps is again the probable cause of the higher yields with these lamps.Two sets of experiments on growth and flowering of marigold under various experimental and commercial lamps were largely inconclusive although there was some indication of beneficial effects by the experimental lamps.In general, the results with bean agree with those for tomato (THOMAS and DUNN, 1967), in that best growth was obtained with a lamp high in red light emission, a moderate amount in the far-red, and very little in the blue part of the spectrum.

  14. BRSMG Uai: common bean cultivar with carioca grain type and upright plant architecture

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    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bean cultivar with carioca grain type, BRSMG Uai, is recommended for cultivation in Minas Gerais and stands out for its upright plant architecture, which facilitates cultivation and mechanical harvesting. This cultivar has high yield potential and is resistant to the major races of anthracnose that occur in region.

  15. Development of an event-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treml, Diana; Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-12-10

    A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, resistant to the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Brazilian regulation for genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling requires that any food containing more than 1% GMO be labeled. The event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been the primary trend for GMO identification and quantitation because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence. This work reports the development of an event-specific assay, named FGM, for Embrapa 5.1 detection and quantitation by use of SYBR Green or hydrolysis probe. The FGM assay specificity was tested for Embrapa 2.3 event (a noncommercial GM common bean also resistant to BGMV), 46 non-GM common bean varieties, and other crop species including maize, GM maize, soybean, and GM soybean. The FGM assay showed high specificity to detect the Embrapa 5.1 event. Standard curves for the FGM assay presented a mean efficiency of 95% and a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 genome copies in the presence of background DNA. The primers and probe developed are suitable for the detection and quantitation of Embrapa 5.1.

  16. Genetic reduction of antinutrients in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed, increases nutrients and in vitro iron bioavailability without depressing main agronomical traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    In common bean, lectins, phytic acid, polyphenols and tannins exert major antinutritional effects when grains are consumed as a staple food. Reduced iron and zinc absorption, low protein digestibility and high toxicity at the intestinal level are the causes of their antinutritional effect. To improv...

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: Monique_Lacroix@iaf.uquebec.ca

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P{<=}0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  18. Population Dynamics of Bean Leaf Beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on Edamame Soybean Plants In Nebraska

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    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Edamame soybeans are a speciality food item for fresh and processed markets and they are harvested at a physiologically immature (R6 stage. Bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, is a sporadic pest of soybean in Nebraska, however, its pest status and abundance has increased in the recent years due to an increase in soybean acreage. This was a field experiment aimed at determining the population growth rate of bean leaf beetle on two edamame soybean cultivars, ‘Butterbeans’ and ‘Envy,’ at two planting dates during 2004 and 2005 in Nebraska. The population growth of beetles was significantly higher on 'Butterbeans' than on 'Envy' for both the first and second planting periods in both 2004 and 2005 seasons. The beetle infestation differences were noticed on plants at the late reproductive growth stages, R5 and R6. Additionally, the beetle infestation on 'Butterbeans' growth stages in 2004 and 2005 was significantly different for the first and second planting dates. On average, the beetles were higher on plants at the late reproductive stages than the other stages for first and second planting periods. Similarly, ‘Envy’ growth stages showed significant difference in beetle infestation during the first and second planting dates. Significantly high beetle infestations were observed at the vegetative growth stages. The study revealed that population growth of bean leaf beetles on edamame soybeans is affected by the planting date, season and cultivar choice.

  19. Single strand conformation polymorphism based SNP and Indel markers for genetic mapping and synteny analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Gómez Marcela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tags (ESTs are an important source of gene-based markers such as those based on insertion-deletions (Indels or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Several gel based methods have been reported for the detection of sequence variants, however they have not been widely exploited in common bean, an important legume crop of the developing world. The objectives of this project were to develop and map EST based markers using analysis of single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs, to create a transcript map for common bean and to compare synteny of the common bean map with sequenced chromosomes of other legumes. Results A set of 418 EST based amplicons were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the SSCP technique and 26% of these presented a clear conformational or size polymorphism between Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes. The amplicon based markers were then used for genetic mapping with segregation analysis performed in the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. A total of 118 new marker loci were placed into an integrated molecular map for common bean consisting of 288 markers. Of these, 218 were used for synteny analysis and 186 presented homology with segments of the soybean genome with an e-value lower than 7 × 10-12. The synteny analysis with soybean showed a mosaic pattern of syntenic blocks with most segments of any one common bean linkage group associated with two soybean chromosomes. The analysis with Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus presented fewer syntenic regions consistent with the more distant phylogenetic relationship between the galegoid and phaseoloid legumes. Conclusion The SSCP technique is a useful and inexpensive alternative to other SNP or Indel detection techniques for saturating the common bean genetic map with functional markers that may be useful in marker assisted selection. In addition, the genetic markers based on ESTs allowed the construction

  20. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

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    Nozomi Satoh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  1. Apple latent spherical virus vector as vaccine for the prevention and treatment of mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants by bean yellow mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-07

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  2. Consideraciones e importancia social en torno al cultivo del frijol en el centro de México Considerations and social importance of the bean crop in central Mexico

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    Dora Ma. Sangerman-Jarquín

    in national importance after maize. The production of pulses, mainly of dry beans, has dropped to a 3.2% rate, whereas population growth is higher than dry bean production. The dry bean seed is a natural source of protein and carbohydrates, is also rich in vitamin B such as niacin, folic acid and thiamine, provides iron, copper, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium, and contains high fiber content. There exist many classes of beans that are characterized by their seed size, color, shape and the type of plant growth. It is considered that in total there are 70 species in the genus, and at least 50 in Mexico; five species have been domesticated Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean, Phaseolus coccineus L. (runner bean, Phaseolus lunatus L. (lima bean, Phaseolus dumosus L. (fat kidney bean and Phaseolus acutifolius Gray (tepari bean. In Mexico, around 70 cultivars are grown, according to the standard seed classification they are: black, pinto, brown, yellow and pink. The bean crop possesses particular characteristics that are important in the context of food sovereignty, considering it as a staple food for rural and urban poor. The bean breeding program of the National Research Institute, Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock (INIFAP, at the Campo Experimental Valle de Mexico (CEVAMEX, has contributed in the development of the technology required for the country to achieve self-sufficiency in this crop. This technology includes improved varieties with higher yielding ability and better seed nutritive and cooking quality.

  3. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  4. Common bean: a legume model on the rise for unraveling responses and adaptations to iron, zinc and phosphate deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma A Castro Guerrero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris was domesticated ~8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals.

  5. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Varieties of Genetically Modified (GM) Embrapa 5.1 Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Non-GM Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Geisi M; Valentim-Neto, Pedro A; Mello, Carla S; Arisi, Ana C M

    2015-12-01

    The genetically modified (GM) common bean event Embrapa 5.1 was commercially approved in Brazil in 2011; it is resistant to golden mosaic virus infection. In the present work grain proteome profiles of two Embrapa 5.1 common bean varieties, Pérola and Pontal, and their non-GM counterparts were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry (MS). Analyses detected 23 spots differentially accumulated between GM Pérola and non-GM Pérola and 21 spots between GM Pontal and non-GM Pontal, although they were not the same proteins in Pérola and Pontal varieties, indicating that the variability observed may not be due to the genetic transformation. Among them, eight proteins were identified in Pérola varieties, and four proteins were identified in Pontal. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 2-DE data, and variation between varieties was explained in the first two principal components. This work provides a first 2-DE-MS/MS-based analysis of Embrapa 5.1 common bean grains.

  6. The Qualitative Differences for Photosynthetic Content of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Populations  in Kosovo

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    Sali Ali ALIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity analysis of common bean populations is useful for breeding programs, as it helps to select genetic material to be used for further crossings. Twenty (20 common bean populations were analyzed using qualitative traits, chlorophyll “a” (Chl ‘a’, chlorophyll “b” (Chl ‘b’, total chlorophyll “a+b” (Total Chl and carotenoides. The design of the experiment was conducted with leaves of common bean collected from different regions of Kosovo. The experiment was completely randomly with four repetitions. Pigments were extracted by grinding 80-100 mg freshly sampled leaves in 80% (v/v acetone/water containing MgCO3, at room temperature, preserved in the dark for 24 hours. Concentration of chlorophyll and carotenoid content was measured by spectrophotometer using absorbance recorded at 663 nm, 644 nm and 452.3 nm for maximum absorption of Chl ‘a’, Chl ‘b’, and carotenoids respectively. According to our data the differences between populations for Chl ‘a’, and Chl ‘b’ was significantly higher at level of probability LSDp=0.01. The average values for Chl ‘a’, was 1.67 mg.g-1, while for Chl‘b’was 0.74 mg.g-1. In addition, the results for carotenoids content between populations were with high differences.

  7. Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determinada com uso de 15N Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determined using the 15N isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI com o método da diferença (MD para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2 compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS, o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate

  8. EFFECT OF ORGASOL ON SNAP BEAN CROP (Phaseolus vulgaris L. WITH AND WITHOUT CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS EFEITO DO ORGASOL NA CULTURA DE FEIJÃO-DE-VAGEM (Phaseolus vulgaris L. NA PRESENÇA E NA AUSÊNCIA DE ADUBAÇÃO QUÍMICA

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    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Orgasol, an organic compound of animal origin, was tested on seeds and on snap crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, with and without chemical fertilizer (NPK in two planting dates. The orgasol-s with three applied doses (0, 1 and 2 ml/l of water on a first date and 0, 3 and 6 ml/l, on a second date had no influence on seed germination and pods production on this crop.

    O Orgasol, um composto orgânico de origem animal, foi testado em sementes e na cultura do feijão-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, em duas épocas de plantio, na presença e na ausência de adubação química. O Orgasol-S foi empregado nas doses de 0, 1 e 2 ml/litro de água na primeira época de plantio e 0, 3 e 6 ml/litro de água na segunda época. Este composto não influenciou a germinação nem a produção de vagens na cultura estudada.

  9. The influence of strip cropping on the state and degree of weed infestation in dent maize (Zea mays L., common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

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    Aleksandra Głowacka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in the years 2008–2010 at the Experimental Station of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in Zamość, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The following factors were analysed in the experiment: I. Cultivation method – sole cropping and strip cropping, which consisted in the cultivation of three plants: dent maize, common bean, and spring barley, in adjacent strips with a width of 3.3 m; II. Weed control methods – mechanical and chemical. The subject of the research was weed infestation of the 'Celio' variety of dent maize, the 'Aura' variety of common bean, and the 'Start' variety of spring barley. Weed infestation of the crops was assessed two weeks before harvesting by determining the species composi- tion as well as the number and dry weight of weeds. The dominant weed species in maize, common bean and spring barley were Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album and Galinsoga parviflora, constituting from 58% to 70% of the total number of weeds. Strip cropping clearly reduced the number of weeds per unit area in all the cultivated species and dry weight of aboveground parts produced by them in common bean and maize crops. The limiting effect of strip cropping on the weed infestation parameters was particularly clear in combination with the mechanical weed control method.

  10. Studies of cream seeded carioca beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan efficacy trial: in vitro and in vivo screening tools reflect human studies and predict beneficial results from iron biofortified beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether...

  11. Fate of allelopathic substances in space--allelopathy of velvet bean plant and gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Teruko; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    Interactions between organisms and species have been long known. It has not been known that the interactive phenomena (allelopathy) may (or may not) differ in space from those on earth. We have studied the gravitational effects on allelopathy by exposing a plant-plant system to pseudo-microgravity, which was generated by a 3D-clinostat. We hypothesized that allelopathy would be modified under altered gravity. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is known to be the major substance in the allelopathy of velvet bean, released from its root. It has been found that there have been some differences of the allelopathic action of velvet bean plant under pseudo-microgravity. Biosynthesis, release, transport and sensing mechanism associated with allelopathy might be affected by gravity.

  12. Sistemas de produção de feijão intercalado com cafeeiro adensado recém-plantado Production systems for bean associated with recently planted dense coffee shrub cropping

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    Abner José de Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    cafeeiro recém-plantado quando se utiliza seis linhas intercalares de feijoeiro.A field experiment was carried out in a typical dystrophic Red Latosol at the campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, in order to study the effects of the row numbers and fertilization level of the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. upon the agronomic performance of the coffee shrub (Coffea arabica L. associated with bean plant. The experimental randomized block design was used with three replicates and factorial scheme 4 x 4 + 1, as involving four intercalary row numbers of the bean plant (one, three, four, and six lines by each inter row of coffee shrub and four fertilization doses (0, 50, 100, and 150% from the fertilization recommended for monocropping, consisting of 20 kg ha-1 N, 40 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 20 kg ha-1 K2O at planting timeplus 30 kg ha-1 N side-dressing, as well as one more additional treatment (monocropping of either coffee shrub or bean plant. The assay was conducted in a recently planted commercial Catucaí farming, whereas the cultivar of the bean plant was BRS-MG-Talismã. The following variables were evaluated for the bean plant: the initial and final stands; the plant heights; and the productivity of the beans with its primary components (pod number per plant, graim number per pod, and average100 graim weight. In coffee shrub, the characteristics under evaluation were the emission of leaf pairs and the increment in either plant height and stem diameter observed between sowing and harvesting the bean plant, as well as the mortality of the coffee shrubs. According to the results the increased number of the bean-plant intercalary rows rather rises the productivity of this leguminous, but reduces the increment of the stem diameter in the recently-planted coffee shrub. From four bean plant rows there is tendency to increased mortality of coffee shrubs, mainly in the absence of the leguminous fertilization. The fertilization up to 150% of the dose recommended to monocropping

  13. ATIVIDADE DA FOSFATASE ÁCIDA NO FEIJOEIRO E SUA CORRELAÇÃO COM PARÂMETROS DE CRESCIMENTO ACTIVITY OF ACID PHOSPHATASE IN COMMON BEAN AND ITS CORRELATION WITH SOME PARAMETERS OF PLANT GROWTH

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    Renato S. Mota dos Santos

    2007-09-01

    L. plant growth to be correlated with acid phosphatase activity. The importance of this phosphatase is related with its ability to improve phosphorus up fall under low concentration in acid soil. Five common bean cultivars were tested harvesting plants at weekly interval starting from 7 till 56 days after germination. The enzyme activity in decreasing order was observed in the LM 300030, Carioca, A-176, CNF-10 and Jalo cultivars at l4 day old plants. All the plant parameters analyzed correlated negatively with enzyme activity. Then, the phosphatase activity was considered as a complementary mechanism to the plant to supply its phosphorus needs. The curves of acid phosphatase activity, inorganic and total phosphorus were similar and expressed by second grade equations while both, inorganic and total phosphorus, decreased according to negatively exponential equation modelings.

    KEY-WORDS: Phosphatase; acid soil; common bean; Phaseolus vulgaris; genotypes.

  14. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of vitamin C in immature seeds of five cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Jacek Słupski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Legumes are usually consumed when physiologically mature, as dry seeds, however, flageolet beans seeds are also consumed immature. They are harvested when dry matter content is about 40%, pods are filled, grown, seeds succulent, showing green or light green colour and do not require lengthy thermal processing when prepared for consumption. Material and methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin C content in immature seeds of five bean cultivars harvested when dry matter content was 40%. The analysis included raw, blanched and cooked fresh seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 0, 4, 8 and 12 months of storage: frozen products obtained using the traditional method (blanching–freezing–frozen storage–cooking, frozen products obtained using a modified method (cooking–freezing–frozen storage–thawing and heating in a microwave oven, a ready-to-eat product to consumption at ambient temperature, and canned products obtained by sterilization. Results. The application of technological processes, frozen and sterilized products storage, and the preparation for consumption had a cumulative effect in retention vitamin C content on final products. Conclusion. Comparing frozen seeds obtained by modified method with seeds treated by traditional method, generally, this one could retain more vitamin C. Canned seeds retained significantly less vitamin C than other frozen products.  

  15. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  16. Home About Us » Editorial Board Indexed in Current Issue Coming Issue Archives Submission » Contact Us Effects of Processing on Physicochemical and Antinutritional Properties of Black Turtle Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Seeds Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Audu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The black turtle bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is popular among the people of Bokkos in Plateau State, Nigeria where it is cultivated and locally known as “Kwakil”. The effects of different processing methods (boiling, cooking, roasting, sprouting and fermenting were investigated on fatty acid composition, physicochemical parameters and antinutritional factors of black turtle bean seeds. All the analyses were carried out using standard analytical techniques. The results showed that oleic acid and linoleic acid were the most concentrated fatty acids in the raw and processed samples with values ranging from 27.7 to 30.8% and 54.7 to 64.0%, respectively. Capric, lauric and myristic acids were present in small quantities with maximum value of 1.6% in roasted sample. Unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all the samples with an adequate amount of essential fatty acids. Significant differences were observed (p<0.05 in the fatty acid compositions between the raw and processed seed samples. The results of physicochemical properties of the seed oils for all the samples showed mean range values of the following parameters: Saponification value (190.5 – 198.05 mg KOH/g, peroxide value (3.20 – 3.42 meq O2/kg, iodine value (136.4 – 146.4 mg of I/100g, acid value (10.40 – 10.78 mg KOH/g, kinematic viscosity at 100oC (8.12 – 8.44 mm2/s, specific gravity at 25oC (0.96 – 0.97, unsaponifiable matter (3.37 – 3.62% and flash point (302 – 315oC. Generally, the values of the physicochemical parameters showed that the oils may be useful as edible oils due to their stability as frying oils. The results of antinutrients revealed that reductions were almost recorded in all the processed seed samples compared with the raw sample.

  17. Studies on the interaction of growth regulators with potassium ions in some physiological processes in the bean (Phaseolus vulguris L.. II. The effect of potassium on growth of bean leaves and on their potassium and hormone levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Stopińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study was the effect of K on the growth of primary and trifoliate leaves of the bean and on their potassium and hormone levels. Bean seedlings were grown in Hoagland's water solution in which the potassium concentrations (K –NO3, were 1 and 3 mM. The increase in the amount of potassium in bean leaves. elicited by increased K concentration in the medium or by partial defoliation. was correlated with a stimulation of growth of these organs and an increase in their H2O content. These effects were connected with an increase in the amount of ABA and bound GA and decrease in the amount of auxins. The effect of potassium on the level of free gibberellins and cytokinins depended on the kind of leaves. In young, i.e. trifoliate leaves_ K was found to have a positive effect on the level of free GA, whereas in older. i.e. primary leaves, this effect concerned the level of cytokinins.

  18. Leaf senescence of common bean plants as affected by soil phosphorus supply Senescência foliar do feijoeiro afetada pelo suprimento de fósforo no solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelson Paulo Araújo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Responses of leaf senescence to P supply could constitute adaptive mechanisms for plant growth under P-limiting conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil P supply on leaf senescence of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Eight P levels, ranging from 5 to 640 mg kg-1 P, were applied to pots containing four bean plants of cultivar Carioca in 10 kg of an Oxic Haplustult soil. Attached leaves were counted weekly, abscised leaves were collected every other day, and seeds were harvested at maturity. The number of live leaves increased until 48 days after emergence (DAE and decreased afterwards, irrespective of applied P levels. At lower applied P levels, the initial increase and the final decrease of leaf number was weak, whereas at higher applied P levels the leaf number increased intensively at the beginning of the growth cycle and decreased strongly after 48 DAE. Dry matter and P accumulated in senesced leaves increased as soil P levels increased until 61 DAE, but differences between P treatments narrowed thereafter. The greatest amounts of dry mass and P deposited by senesced leaves were observed at 48-54 DAE for high P levels, at 62-68 DAE for intermediate P levels and at 69-76 DAE for low P levels. These results indicate that soil P supply did not affect the stage of maximal leaf number and the beginning of leaf senescence of common bean plants, but the stage of greatest deposition of senesced leaves occurred earlier in the growth cycle as the soil P supply was raised.As respostas da senescência foliar ao suprimento de P podem constituir estratégias adaptativas para o crescimento vegetal sob condições limitantes do nutriente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do suprimento de P no solo na senescência foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Oito doses de P, variando entre 5 e 640 mg kg-1 de P, foram aplicadas em vasos com 10 kg de Argissolo óxico, onde foram crescidas quatro plantas da cultivar

  19. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid

    2016-06-17

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  20. Green bean biofortification for Si through soilless cultivation: plant response and Si bioaccessibility in pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Francesco Fabiano; D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Parente, Angelo; Cardinali, Angela; Renna, Massimiliano; Serio, Francesco

    2016-08-17

    Food plants biofortification for micronutrients is a tool for the nutritional value improvement of food. Soilless cultivation systems, with the optimal control of plant nutrition, represent a potential effective technique to increase the beneficial element content in plant tissues. Silicon (Si), which proper intake is recently recommended for its beneficial effects on bone health, presents good absorption in intestinal tract from green bean, a high-value vegetable crop. In this study we aimed to obtain Si biofortified green bean pods by using a Si-enriched nutrient solution in soilless system conditions, and to assess the influence of boiling and steaming cooking methods on Si content, color parameters and Si bioaccessibility (by using an in vitro digestion process) of pods. The Si concentration of pods was almost tripled as a result of the biofortification process, while the overall crop performance was not negatively influenced. The Si content of biofortified pods was higher than unbiofortified also after cooking, despite the cooking method used. Silicon bioaccessibility in cooked pods was more than tripled as a result of biofortification, while the process did not affect the visual quality of the product. Our results demonstrated that soilless cultivation can be successfully used for green bean Si biofortification.

  1. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha(-1)), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m(-1)). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha(-1) resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  2. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  3. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  4. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eBeebe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  5. NOTE - Minimum number of common bean plants per plot to assess field resistance to white mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    uliana Andrade Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the minimum number of plants per plot to assess the field resistance in common beanto white mold. Thirteen cultivars were inoculated with six isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and evaluated in a randomized blockdesign with three replications and plots consisting of 1-m rows with 15 plants. Plants were inoculated by the straw test as proposedby Petzoldt and Dickson (1996, to evaluate partial resistance in a greenhouse. Eight days after inoculation the disease severity wasevaluated on a 1-9 diagrammatic scale, where 1 = asymptomatic plants to 9 = plant death. To determine the minimum number ofplants per plot, the following methods were used: maximum curvature, segmented linear model, quadratic segmented model and therelative CV model. There were significant differences among cultivars and isolates and no significant cultivar - isolate interaction.It was observed that eight plants per plot is an adequate number to assess the reaction of common bean to white mold.

  6. Enhancement of CO/sub 2/ and ethylene production and cellulase activity by glyphosate in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Irmaileh, B.E.; Jordan, L.S.; Kumamoto, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) on carbon dioxide. (CO/sub 2/) levels, ethylene production, and cellulase activity was investigated. Production of ethylene increased within 12 h and CO/sub 2/ increased within 24 h when 12-day-old bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Red Kidney) were treated with 20 mM isopropylamine salt of glyphosate. The CO/sub 2/ cycled for 3 days and then increased around treated plants. Specific activity of cellulase was increased in debladed bean seedlings that had been retreated with 20 mM isopropylamine salt of glyphosate. Cellulase enhancement was detected 2 days after the pretreated plants were debladed. Glyphosate-enhanced ethylene production may have increased the cellulase activity. 24 references, 3 figures.

  7. Planting geometry to optimize growth and productivity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Bhatt, B P; Sundaram, P K; Gupta, A K; Singh, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) responses to alteration of its ambient environment leads to certain modification in the crop phenology, yield attributes and economic yield. To know the extent and pattern of response by faba bean to alterations, a two year field experimentation was carried out with two crop establishment methods (i) flatbed planting (ii) raised bed planting, four planting geometry (i) 30 x 20 cm(ii) 30 x 30 cm (iii) 30 x 45 cm and (iv) 45X45cm and three seeding depth. All the treatment (two crop establishment methods, four planting geometry and three seeding depth) were combined together consisting twenty four treatments, were organized in factorial experiment in complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Data were recorded on growth and development; yield attributes and yield. Soil analysis was done and finally statistical tool were applied to come in to valid conclusion. Raised bed planting proves superior over flatbed in case of seed yield. Square planting architect with 30 cm apart prove better (3690.9 kg ha(-1)) than other tested planting geometry. Seeding at 10 cm depth showed, significant improvement in seed yield per plant and per ha over other two tested seeding depth. Phosphorus availability was significantly higher in raised bed planting (36.9 kg ha(-1)). However, available K (kg ha(-1)) was significantly influenced by planting geometry and seeding depth. It was maximum (155.2 kg ha(-1)) with 30 x 45 cm plant geometry, proved significantly higher than 30 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm and at par with 45 x 45 cm planting.

  8. An effective virus-based gene silencing method for functional genomics studies in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachroo Aardra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a crop of economic and nutritious importance in many parts of the world. The lack of genomic resources have impeded the advancement of common bean genomics and thereby crop improvement. Although concerted efforts from the "Phaseomics" consortium have resulted in the development of several genomic resources, functional studies have continued to lag due to the recalcitrance of this crop for genetic transformation. Results Here we describe the use of a bean pod mottle virus (BPMV-based vector for silencing of endogenous genes in common bean as well as for protein expression. This BPMV-based vector was originally developed for use in soybean. It has been successfully employed for both protein expression and gene silencing in this species. We tested this vector for applications in common bean by targeting common bean genes encoding nodulin 22 and stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase for silencing. Our results indicate that the BPMV vector can indeed be employed for reverse genetics studies of diverse biological processes in common bean. We also used the BPMV-based vector for expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP in common bean and demonstrate stable GFP expression in all common bean tissues where BPMV was detected. Conclusions The availability of this vector is an important advance for the common bean research community not only because it provides a rapid means for functional studies in common bean, but also because it does so without generating genetically modified plants. Here we describe the detailed methodology and provide essential guidelines for the use of this vector for both gene silencing and protein expression in common bean. The entire VIGS procedure can be completed in 4-5 weeks.

  9. Growth of castor bean plant under different types of wastewaters and soil water levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of different levels of water into the soil and types of treated wastewaters from industries of Campina Grande city, Paraíba state, on the growth of castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the National Center of Research of Cotton. The experimental design was in entirely randomized blocks with 15 treatments in scheme of additional factorial analysis [(4 x 3 + 3] with three replications, having the following factors: three types of treated wastewaters and water of provisioning (A1 = IPELSA - Industry of Cellulose and Paper of Paraíba S/A; A2 = COTEMINAS - Industry of improvement of cotton fiber S/A; A3 = ILCASA - Industry of dairy products of Grande S/A (LEBOM; A4 = Water of the network of public provisioning of Campina Grande city, three levels of available soil water (AW (N1 = 100%, N2 = 80% and N3 = 70% and three controls, one for each AW with water of provisioning and with inorganic fertilizer in the foundation (A4C. In order to evaluate the growth of the castor bean plant during a period of 135 days, biweekly measures of the plant height, diameter of the stem and total foliar area variables were accomplished. For all growth variables there were significant interactions among the studied factors, denoting the interdependence among them, what was reflected on the growth of the plants. The castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina, responded well to irrigation with treated wastewater, especially from COTEMINAS industry mainly when associated to the level of 100% of the available soil water.

  10. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  11. Physico-chemical and functional properties of Resistant starch prepared from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.L) starch by enzymatic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Suriya, M; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2013-06-05

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production, physico-chemical and functional properties of Resistant starch (RS) from red kidney bean starch by enzymatic method. Native and gelatinized starch were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g/10 h), autoclaved (121 °C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4 °C/24 h), and lyophilized. The enzymatic hydrolysis and thermal treatment of starch increased the formation of RS which showed an increase in water absorption and water solubility indexes and a decrease in swelling power due to hydrolytic and thermal process. The process for obtaining RS changed the crystallinity pattern from C to B and increased the crystallinity due to the retrogradation process. RS obtained from hydrolysis showed a reduction in viscosity, indicating the rupture of starch molecules. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to the retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05).

  12. Development of microsatellite markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) based on screening of non-enriched, small-insert genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Torres, Monica Muñoz; Pedraza, Fabio; Giraldo, Martha C; Buendía, Hector F; Hurtado, Natalia

    2009-09-01

    Microsatellite markers are useful genetic tools for a wide array of genomic analyses although their development is time-consuming and requires the identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from genomic sequences. Screening of non-enriched, small-insert libraries is an effective method of SSR isolation that can give an unbiased picture of motif frequency. Here we adapt high-throughput protocols for the screening of plasmid-based libraries using robotic colony picking and filter preparation. Seven non-enriched genomic libraries from common bean genomic DNA were made by digestion with four frequently cutting restriction enzymes, double digestion with a frequently cutting restriction enzyme and a less frequently cutting restriction enzyme, or sonication. Library quality was compared and three of the small-insert libraries were selected for further analysis. Each library was plated and picked into 384-well plates that were used to create high-density filter arrays of over 18 000 clones each, which were screened with oligonucleotide probes for various SSR motifs. Positive clones were found to have low redundancy. One hundred SSR markers were developed and 80 were tested for polymorphism in a standard parental survey. These microsatellite markers derived from non-SSR-enriched libraries should be useful additions to previous markers developed from enriched libraries.

  13. Enzyme-assisted extraction and identification of antioxidative and α-amylase inhibitory peptides from Pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoh, Ying-Yuan; Gan, Chee-Yuen

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitor peptides were successfully extracted from Pinto bean protein isolate (PBPI) using Protamex. A factorial design experiment was conducted and the effects of extraction time, pH and temperature were studied. pH 7.5, extraction time of 1h, S/E ratio of 10 (w/w) and temperature of 50 °C gave the highest antioxidant activities (i.e., ABTS scavenging activity (53.3%) and FRAP value (3.71 mM)), whereas pH 6.5 with the same extraction time, S/E ratio and temperature, gave the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity (57.5%). It was then fractioned using membrane ultrafiltration with molecular weight cutoffs of 100, 50, 30, 10 and 3 kDa. Peptide fraction <3 kDa, which exhibited the highest antioxidant activities (i.e., ABTS (42.2%) and FRAP (0.81 mM)) and α-amylase inhibitory activity (62.1%), was then subjected to LCMS and MS/MS analyses. Six sequences were identified for antioxidant peptides, whereas seven peptides for α-amylase inhibitor.

  14. Isolation and identification of volatile kairomone that affects acarine predator-prey interactions: involvement of host plant in its production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Beek, van T.A.; Posthumus, M.A.; Ben Dom, N.; Bokhoven, van H.; Groot, de Ae.

    1990-01-01

    A volatile kairomone emitted from lima bean plants (Phaseolus lunatus) infested with the spider miteTetranychus urticae, was collected on Tenax-TA and analyzed with GC-MS. Two components were identified as the methylene monoterpene (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and the methylene sesquiterpene (

  15. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawadee Chamnan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon. The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass provided the highest effectiveness tocontrol aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch. Control of A. craccivora was not significantly different between the synthetic insecticide and plant crude extracts, except methamidophos. Pod damage caused by pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer and yields were also not significantly different among treatments. However, the highest yield of 1,224.7 kg/rai was recorded in plots treated with neem seed extracts and the synthetic insecticide, carbosulfan. In untreated plots, the lowest yield of 587.3 kg/rai was collected.

  16. Acumulación y Distribución de Fitomasa en el Asocio de Maíz (Zea mays L. y Fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. / Biomass Accumulation and Distribution in Associated Crop of Maize (Zea mays L. and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez López Astrid Elena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La asociación de cultivos se define como el crecimientoy desarrollo de dos o más especies en el mismo terreno, durante parte o todo el ciclo vegetativo. El asocio de maíz con fríjol afecta los atributos morfológicos y fisiológicos de ambas especies, lo que se manifiesta en la fitomasa acumulada en los distintos compartimentos y, finalmente, en los rendimientos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la acumulación y distribución de fitomasa de maíz y fríjol en asocio, respecto a sus unicultivos. Se sembraron las variedades: Fríjol Bola roja comercial (FBR, Cargamanto rojo (FC, una Línea Élite de Bola roja (FBE y la variedad de maíz regional Montaña de grano blanco (M. Se evaluaron siete tratamientos: cuatro unicultivos de maíz y fríjol (Mo, FBRo, FCo, FBEo y tres asociaciones (MxFBR, MxFC, MxFBE. El diseño estadístico fue de bloques completos al azar. Las variables peso seco de: tallos, hojas, mazorcas y panículas, en el maíz asociado con fríjol, disminuyeron respecto al unicultivo. La variedad de fríjol más afectada, negativamente, por el asocio fue FBE; en la cual, las variables peso seco de: tallos, hojas y vainas, se redujeron, en comparación con el unicultivo. La contribución de biomasa a la planta de fríjol, por parte de las vainas, es mayor en el asocio que en el unicultivo, excepto en la variedad FBE / Crop association is defined as the growth and development of two or more species in the same place during a part or all of the vegetative cycle. Maize and bean associationaffect morphological and physiological attributes of bothspecies, which is manifested in the biomass accumulated in the different compartments and, finally, in the yields. The aim of this research was to determine the accumulation and distribution of both maize and bean biomass in association with regard to their unicultivos. Varieties planted were: “Bola roja commercial” (FBR, “Cargamanto rojo” (FC, an elite line “Bola roja

  17. Rendimento de grãos, componentes do rendimento e índice SPAD do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em função de época de aplicação e do parcelamento da aplicação foliar de molibdênio Grain yield, yield components and bean SPAD index of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in relation to time and partitioning of molybdenum foliar spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Assis Pires

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a influência da época de aplicação e do parcelamento da dose de molibdênio, aplicado via foliar sobre os componentes da produção e índice SPAD do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., variedade Meia Noite, conduziram-se dois experimentos em área da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, no município de Coimbra, MG, semeados em março e julho de 2002. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com dez tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: 1- testemunha, sem Mo; 2- 80 g ha-1 de Mo aplicados 15 dias após a emergência (DAE; 3- 40 g ha-1 de Mo aplicados 15 DAE e 40 g ha-1 20 DAE; 4- 40 g ha-1 de Mo 15 DAE e 40 g ha-1 25 DAE; 5- 40 gha-1 de Mo 15 DAE e 40 g ha-1 30 DAE; 6- 80 gha-1 de Mo 20 DAE; 7- 40 g ha-1 de Mo 20 DAE e 40 g ha-1 25 DAE; 8- 40 g ha-1 de Mo 20 DAE e 40 gha-1 30 DAE; 9- 80 g ha-1 de Mo 25 DAE; 10- 40 g ha-1 de Mo 25 DAE e 40 g ha-1 30 DAE. Os dados dos dois experimentos foram submetidos a uma análise conjunta. A adubação foliar molíbdica aumenta a produtividade e o índice SPAD no cultivo de verão-outono com início aos 15 e 20 DAE, mas não aos 25 DAE. O parcelamento da dose não aumenta a produtividade. No cultivo de inverno-primavera, os tratamentos com molibdênio aumentam a produtividade.A field trial was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the foliar application and dose partitioning of molybdenum on yield components and SPAD index of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Meia Noite, sowed in March and in July of 2002, in an area of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Coimbra, MG. The randomized block experimental design was used with ten treatments and four replicates: The appraised treatments were: 1 control, without Mo; 2 - 80 g ha-1 Mo applied at 15 days after emergency (DAE; 3 - 40 g ha-1 Mo applied at 15 DAE, and 40g at 20 DAE; 4 - 40 g ha-1 Mo applied at 15 DAE, and 40 g ha-1 Mo at 25 DAE; 5 - 40 g ha-1 Mo applied at 15 DAE, and 40 g ha-1 Mo at

  18. Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Frasconi, C.; Fontanelli, M.; Raffaelli, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control. (Author)

  19. Measurement of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate in plant leaves by isotope dilution. [Spinacea oleracea; Triticum aestivum; Arabidopsis thaliana; Maize; Phaseolus vulgaris; Petunia hybrida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, B.D.; Kobza, J.; Seemann, J.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The level of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) in leaves of 12 species was determined by an isotope dilution assay. {sup 14}C-labeled standard was synthesized from (2-{sup 14}C)carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate using acid phosphatase, and was added at the initial point of leaf extraction. Leaf CA1P was purified and its specific activity determined. CA1P was found in dark-treated leaves of all species examined, including spinach (Spinacea oleracea), wheat (Triticum aestivum), Arabidopsis thaliana, and maize (Zea mays). The highest amounts were found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and petunia (Petunia hybrida), which had 1.5 to 1.8 moles CA1P per mole ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase catalytic sites. Most species had intermediate amounts of CA1P (0.2 to 0.8 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). Such intermediate to high levels of CA1P support the hypothesis that CA1P functions in many species as a light-dependent regulator of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and whole leaf photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation. However, CA1P levels in spinach, wheat, and A. thaliana were particularly low (less than 0.09 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). In such species, CA1P does not likely have a significant role in regulating ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, but could have a different physiological role.

  20. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension.

  1. Competitivity of the common-bean plant relative to the weed alexandergrass [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.] Competitividade do feijoeiro-comum com o capim-marmelada [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Passini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies of competitive interaction quantification between weeds and crops are not widely elucidated and compared in the literature. The competitive ability of common-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris relative to alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea was assessed and two approaches of replacement series experiment analysis were compared. The response of the species to the presence of each other at different densities and proportion was evaluated. Replacement series at total densities of 625, 816 and 1,111 plants m-2 were performed at the proportions of common-bean:alexandergrass of 100:0 (pure stand of common-bean, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100% (pure stand of alexandergrass, at four replicates in a randomized block design. Data analyses were performed by the qualitative compared to the quantitative approach. The quantitative approach provided larger number of information than did the qualitative approach, and indicated that there was intraspecific competition among common-bean plants, and a minimum of interspecific competition from alexandergrass. There was no intraspecific competition among alexandergrass plants, being the crop effect on the weed larger than the effect among alexandergrass plants. The ecological niche differentiation was partial, since the crop intraspecific competition was larger than the interspecific, and the last one was negligible, at the same time that the weed interspecific competition was larger than the intraspecific. Common-bean, as a competitor species, is superior to alexandergrass.As metodologias de quantificação das interações competitivas entre plantas cultivadas e daninhas não estão amplamente elucidadas e comparadas na literatura. A competitividade da cultura de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris em relação ao capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea foi avaliada pela comparação entre o método qualitativo e um método quantitativo de análise de resultados. A resposta de cada espécie à presença da

  2. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Mantequilla to inoculation of Rhizobium native strains of the Ecuador in greenhouse native races of the Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klever Iván Granda Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of biofertilizers based on Rhizobium strains for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. requires studies about bacterial interaction with target cultivars. For these reason, the aim of this paper was to determine the effect of the inoculation of Rhizobium native strains, isolated from southern Ecuador, on P. vulgaris cultivar Mantequilla. An assay was performed in greenhouse. It were evaluated the parameters of nodulation, biomass, nitrogen fixation and efficiency of the symbiosis. All inoculated strains were able to nodulate bean seedlings. The total number of nodules, nodular biomass and plant biomass, were favourably affected by inoculation of Rhizobium strains. The best results were obtained with R. mesoamericanum NAM1, R. leguminosarum COL 6 and R. etli PIN 1 strains. The experimental evidences shows the potential of native strains of Rhizobium for it use as biofertilizers because they are able to raise the rates of nitrogen fixation in common bean in southern Ecuador.

  3. Infestation of Caliothrips phaseoli (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Bean Cultivars Grown in the Winter, Rainy, and Dry Seasons in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiça Júnior, Arlindo Leal; Costa, Eduardo Neves; De Souza, Bruno Henrique Sardinha; Da Silva, Anderson Gonçalves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars less susceptible to Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood) in different growing seasons, to evaluate whether climatic conditions influence plant resistance to C. phaseoli infestation, and to investigate the preferred plant part for insect feeding. Eighteen common bean cultivars were evaluated in the winter season, and 19 cultivars were assessed in the rainy and dry seasons, under field conditions in the municipality of Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Infestation of C. phaseoli nymphs in the upper and lower parts of the beans plants was recorded at weekly intervals from 25 days after plant emergence (DAE) to 60 DAE. In the winter season, the cultivars 'IAC Galante,' 'IAC Centauro,' 'IAC Carioca Eté,' and 'IAC Formoso' had significantly lower number of thrips than the cultivar 'IAC Diplomata.' In the rainy season, the cultivars 'IAC Harmonia' and 'IPR Siriri' had the lowest thrips infestation, differing from the cultivars 'BRS Pontal' and 'IAC Una.' The bean cultivars were equally susceptible to C. phaseoli in the dry season. The results suggest that C. phaseoli nymphs prefer to infest leaves of the lower part of bean plants, like most generalist herbivorous insects. In the winter and dry seasons, the highest thrips infestation was observed at 60 DAE, while in the rainy season, it was recorded from 32 to 46 DAE. Overall, C. phaseoli infestation on bean cultivars was not influenced by either temperature, relative humidity, or rainfall.

  4. Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansa Jan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis.

  5. The Effect of Weeds Interference Time and Plant Density on Weeds Control and Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dabaghzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Broad bean (Vicia faba L. belongs to the Fabaceae family and is the most important protein plant in the world. Although broad bean used as cover crop is able to deal with weeds, but the evidence show that yield of the plant decreased 32-82% because of competition with weeds. Using crop density is one of the ecological approaches in weed management. Broad bean density can produce biomass, weed competition, seed yield and ultimately influence the economic yield. Many reports show that increasing crop density reduced negative effects of weeds. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of weeds interference and different densities of broad bean on density and biomass of weeds and broad bean seed yield. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out as split plot in randomized complete block, with four replications, during 2009-2010 in a field experiment at Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, Ahwaz. Weeds interference was investigated on 5 levels, including V5, V9, V13 broad-bean phonological stages, full season weeding and full season weeds interference selected as main plots, and broad-bean density on 3 levels: including 8, 11 and 14 plants m-2 as subplots. Density, dry weight and diversity of weeds and seed yield of broad bean were evaluated. Results and Discussion The results showed that the weeds including wild beet, field bindweed and mallow had the highest occurrence (26.35, 21.17 and 18.46 plants m-2 respectively in V9 broad-bean phonological stage, where the peak abundance of weeds was observed. The frequency of mallow, clover and yellow alfalfa were high until V5 broad-bean phonological stage, but in the next stages, they were replaced by other weeds and sorrel. It was also observed that the environmental factors can affect composition of weeds, for example, as the temperature increased in the early spring, an increase in the density of field bindweed was recorded. In the treatment of 8 plants

  6. Climate and host plant availability impact the future distribution of the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzitis, Emily A; Minigan, Jordan N; Hallett, Rebecca H; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-09-01

    The bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, has become a major pest of soybean throughout its North American range. With a changing climate, there is the potential for this pest to further expand its distribution and become an increasingly severe pest in certain regions. To examine this possibility, we developed bioclimatic envelope models for both the bean leaf beetle, and its most important agronomic host plant, soybean (Glycine max). These two models were combined to examine the potential future pest status of the beetle using climate change projections from multiple general circulation models (GCMs) and climate change scenarios. Despite the broad tolerances of soybean, incorporation of host plant availability substantially decreased the suitable and favourable areas for the bean leaf beetle as compared to an evaluation based solely on the climate envelope of the beetle, demonstrating the importance of incorporating biotic interactions in these predictions. The use of multiple GCM-scenario combinations also revealed differences in predictions depending on the choice of GCM, with scenario choice having less of an impact. While the Norwegian model predicted little northward expansion of the beetle from its current northern range limit of southern Ontario and overall decreases in suitable and favourable areas over time, the Canadian and Russian models predict that much of Ontario and Quebec will become suitable for the beetle in the future, as well as Manitoba under the Russian model. The Russian model also predicts expansion of the suitable and favourable areas for the beetle over time. Two predictions that do not depend on our choice of GCM include a decrease in suitability of the Mississippi Delta region and continued favourability of the southeastern United States.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-CHEMICAL METHODS OF PLANT PROTECTION ON THE PRESENCE OF HERBIVOROUS BEETLES IN BROAD BEANS GROWING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of accompanying plants: sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima L.) and white mustard (Synapis alba L.), on the incidence of pests of the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) variety Bartek, in the intercropping system. The observations of the number of the beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp were made. The broad bean was grown along with two other plants in varying spacing (the distances between rows were 50, 65 and 80 cm) and in homogeneous cult...

  8. Accumulation of arsenic and nutrients by castor bean plants grown on an As-enriched nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, E E C; Costa, E T S; Guilherme, L R G; Faquin, V; Nascimento, C W A

    2009-08-30

    Phytoextraction is a remediation technique that consists in using plants to remove contaminants from soils and water. This study evaluated arsenic (As) accumulation in Castor bean (Ricinus communis cv. Guarany) grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its phytoextraction ability. Castor bean plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution amended with increasing doses of As (0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 5000 microg L(-1)) in a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot and roots dry matter production as well as arsenic and nutrient tissue concentrations were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that increasing As concentration in nutrient solution caused a decrease in shoot and root biomass but did not result in severe toxicity symptoms in castor bean growing under a range of As concentration from 0 to 5000 microg L(-1). The As doses tested did not affect the accumulation of nutrients by castor bean. Although castor bean did not pose characteristics of a plant suitable for commercial phytoextraction, it could be useful for revegetation of As-contaminated areas while providing an additional income by oil production.

  9. Cd胁迫下绿豆和箭舌豌豆叶片抗氧化系统的变化%The Change of Antioxidant System in Leaves of Mung Bean (Phaseolus aureus ) and Common Vetch ( Vicia sativa ) Seedlings Under Cd Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芬琴; 沈振国; 徐朗莱

    2012-01-01

    研究了Cd胁迫下绿豆(Phaseolus aureus)和箭舌豌豆(Vicia sativa)幼苗的生长,叶片内过氧化氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)、超氧化岐化酶(SOD)、愈创木酚过氧化物酶(GPOD)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)的同工酶活性,还原性谷胱甘肽(GSH)和抗坏血酸( ASC)以及Cd含量的变化.结果显示,100 μmol·L-l Cd胁迫9d期间,随着Cd胁迫时间的延长,绿豆和箭舌豌豆幼苗主根的伸长量和其根系干重显著降低(P<0.05),根表面出现越来越明显的褐色,绿豆叶表面出现可见的褐色斑点;两种植物叶片的CAT、APX和SOD同工酶活性以及绿豆叶片的GR活性呈先升后降的趋势,而两种植物叶的GPOD活性明显增加;在箭舌豌豆叶片中,GR活性随Cd暴露时间的延长而增加,而GSH先降后升;在绿豆叶片中,GSH和ASC随Cd暴露时间的延长而降低;与此同时,两种植物叶片中Cd的含量也随Cd胁迫时间的延长而增加,和箭舌豌豆相比,绿豆叶片中Cd含量增加更多.结果表明,箭舌豌豆有较强的抗氧化能力.%The effects of cadmium(Cd) on the plant growth, activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants in leaves of mung bean(Phaseolus aureus) and common vetch(Vicia saliva) were investigated using hydriponic experiments. Cadmium at 100 μmol·L-1 significantly decreased the main root elongation and roots dry weight, and increased activities of superoxide, dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), ascorbate peroxidase(APX) and guaiacol peroxidase(GPOD) in the leaves of both species. Activity of glutathione reductase(GR) in V. Sativa leaves increased, and content of ascorbic acid( ASC ) remained unchanged with Cd exposure time, whereas reduced glutathione(GSH) appeared to decrease for initial 6 days and then increased. But in P. Aureus leaves, activity of GR and contents of GSH and ASC decreased with Cd exposure time. Compared to P. Aureus, V. Saliva had higher activities of SOD, CAT, APX and GR, and

  10. COMBINED EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Gaurav Bhushan Jaspal Singh *, Sudhir K. Upadhyay and A.P. Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, screened PGPR and Fungi were influence the growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata plant in the pot. Two rhizobacteria viz. Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas putida and three fungi Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated and purified. The effect of inoculation of different strains of bacteria and fungus on growth responses of Vigna radiata under pot condition was enumerated. The result revealed that the single and dual inoculation of these microbial strains enhances the plant growth in terms of root and shoot length and dry-biomass. The maximum increase in root length (up to 86.57%, shoot length (up to 56.91%, root dry weight (up to 94.42%, and shoot dry weight (up to 56.09% was observed in response to dual inoculation of Pseudomonas putida with Trichoderma viride compared to uninoculated control.

  11. How does Phytoseiulus Persimilis find its prey when foraging within a bean plant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zemek, R.; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Ru°z¿ic¿kova´, S

    of laboratory experiments were carried out. In the first series we studied searching behavior of P. persimilis females on young bean plants in which a single leaf was infested with spider mites. The effect of spider mite colony location on the walking pattern of predatory mites while on a leaf was studied...... was on the leaf surface since it was attracted to the spider mite patch, at least over a distance of 1 cm. These results thus demonstrate that herbivore-induced volatiles can be utilized by P. persimilis during search for prey also under conditions that mimic natural situations better than an olfactometer does.......The role of herbivore-induced volatile substances in prey-finding by phytoseiid mites has been repeatedly documented using an olfactometer. The objective of the present paper is to test the hypothesis that movement by Phytoseiulus persimilis is affected by these volatiles even on plants. Two series...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-CHEMICAL METHODS OF PLANT PROTECTION ON THE PRESENCE OF HERBIVOROUS BEETLES IN BROAD BEANS GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the impact of accompanying plants: sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima L. and white mustard (Synapis alba L., on the incidence of pests of the broad bean (Vicia faba L. variety Bartek, in the intercropping system. The observations of the number of the beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp were made. The broad bean was grown along with two other plants in varying spacing (the distances between rows were 50, 65 and 80 cm and in homogeneous cultivation (the distances between rows were 50 cm. Broad bean in a homogeneous cultivation served as a control. In addition, the broad bean from homogeneous cultivation subjected to a standard protection by chemical insecticides was also analyzed. The measurements were carried out in field conditions, by using an entomological bucket, through the shedding of insects from randomly selected 30 plants per plot. The sweet alyssum as an accompanying plant showed no significant influence on the occurrence of herbivorous beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp., regardless of the spacing between the rows. The white mustard as a companion plant showed a significant impact on increasing the number of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. beetles in the middle row spacing (65 cm. The impact of white mustard on other beetles has not been detected.

  13. Weed Interference Affects Dry Bean Yield and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dry bean is one of the most important pulse crops in Iran. Field study was conducted in 2011 to evaluate effects of weed competition from a natural flora on growth and yield of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The treatments consisted of weed infestation and weed removal periods (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. Control plots kept weed-infested and weed-free throughout growing season. To assess the weed competition effect on crop characteristics, Richards, Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to the data. The most abundant weed species were Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Increase in duration of weed interference decreased the stem height of dry bean. At the end of the growing season, dry bean was 20 cm taller in season-long weed-free treatment compared to the season-long weed-infested treatment. As the number of days of weed interference increased, a declining trend of LAI and number of pods was observed. The minimum number of pods was obtained in season-long weed-infested treatment (5.01 pods/plant. Weed interference during the whole growing season, caused a 60% reduction in yield. Considering 5% and 10% acceptable yield lost, the critical period of weed competition was determined from 20 to 68 and 23 to 55 days after planting (DAE, respectively.

  14. Response of French Bean Cultivars to Plant Spacing Under Agroclimatic Condition of Baffa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed Ahmed; Muhammad Razaq; Hasnain Alam; and Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out at Mansehra during cropping season of 2013. There were three French bean cultivars and four different plant spacings. The experiment was laid out on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different cultivars, plant spacings and their interactions significantly influenced all the parameters studied. Maximum days to flowering (59.33) and seed maturity (97.66) were recorded in cultivar Komal Green grown at 15 cm spacing, while, maximum 100-grain weight (42.20 g) was noted in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 60 cm spacing. However, maximum fresh pod yield• plant-1 (109.67 g), number of seed• pod-1 (7.99) and seed yield• hm-2 (1 437.3 kg) were recorded in cultivar Paulista grown at spacing of 45 cm. Whereas, maximum plant height (40.50 cm) was noticed in cultivar Paulista grown at 15 cm plant spacing. While, the least number of days to flowering (50.33) and to seed maturity (85.66) were taken by cultivar Paulista grown at 60 cm plant spacing. Likewise, minimum seed yield (311.9 kg• hm-2) was recorded in plants of cultivar Komal Green spaced at 60 cm plant spacing. While, minimum fresh pod weight• plant-1 (67.00 g) and number of seed• pod-1 (4.66) were attained in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 15 cm plant spacing. Whereas, minimum plant height (27.59 cm) and 100-grain weight (15.60 g) were recorded for cultivar Komal Green grown at 45 and 15 cm, respectively.

  15. Identification of SSR and RAPD markers linked to a resistance allele for angular leaf spot in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris line ESAL 550

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Ferreira da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify RAPD and SSR markers associated with a resistant allele for angular leaf spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola from the line 'ESAL 550', derived from the Andean 'Jalo EEP 558' cultivar, to assist selection of resistant genotypes. The resistant line 'ESAL 550' and the susceptible cultivar 'Carioca MG' were crossed to generate F1 and F2 populations. One hundred and twenty F2:3 families were evaluated. The DNA of the 12 most resistant families was bulked and the same was done with the DNA of the 10 most susceptible, generating two contrasting bulks. One RAPD and one SSR marker was found to be linked in coupling phase to the resistant allele. The SSR marker was amplified by the primer PV-atct001(282C, and its distance from the resistant allele was 7.6 cM. This is the most useful marker for indirect selection of resistant plants in segregating populations. The RAPD marker was amplified by the primer OPP07(857C linked in coupling phase to the resistant allele, and distant 24.4 cM. Therefore, this RAPD marker is not so useful in assisting selection because it is too far from the resistant allele.

  16. Efeito de substâncias húmicas na cinética de absorção de potássio, crescimento de plantas e concentração de nutrientes em Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effect of humic-like substances on potassium uptake kinetics, plant growth and nutrient concentration in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Machado da Rosa

    2009-08-01

    the effect of humic-like substances (HS on kinetics of K uptake, nutrient concentration and growth of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.. The experiment was performed on a laboratory bench with controlled light conditions. Plants were grown in pots with complete nutrient solution enriched with five levels (0; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20 mg L-1 of C of alkaline soluble humic-like substances (fulvic and humic acids, extracted from mineral charcoal samples from the Candiota mine (Companhia Riograndense de Mineração, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experiment was set up in a randomized design, with three replications. After 28 days of plant growth, kinetics parameters of K uptake, shoot and root dry weight, shoot tissue concentration of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and root morphological parameters (length, area and radius were evaluated. The results showed that the application of charcoal-extracted humic substances stimulated common bean growth and influenced the kinetics parameters of K uptake. A quadratic response to HS was observed in shoot dry weight, which reached the highest values at 11 mg L-1 of C, whereas root dry mass increased linearly up to 41 % along the increasing HS concentration in solution. Root morphological parameters and nutritional conditions of plants were not significantly affected by HS. The kinetic parameters of K uptake, Imax, Cmin and Km, decreased with increasing HS concentration, causing reduction in K influx when the K concentration in solution exceeded 10 μmol L-1.

  17. Effect of phytohormones on absorption and distribution of ions in salt-stressed bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Starck

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bean plant seedlings grown in water culture were treated for 5 days either with NaCl or with 7-times concentrated nutrient solution (diminished water potential by 3-103 hPa in both cases. Control and stressed plants were treated for 24 hrs with zeatin and GA,. NaCl-stress reduced distinctly ion absorption rate (K, Ca and P. Zeatin and GA3 promoted potassium uptake, but only in NaCI-treated plants. These hormones diminished Na accumulation in metabolically active organs but increased P- and Ca-content. In plants grown under both kind of stresses zeatin and GA3 partially reestablished the ratio of the main mono- to divalent cations, which increased in the leaves and apical part of the stressed plants. ABA introduced into the nutrient solution caused inhibition of the ion uptake (K, Ca, Mg and P. similar to that caused by NaCl-stress. The above reported results seem to confirm the supposition, that hormones act as an important factor contributing to regulation of both uptake and distribution of ions. In this way growth substances may also participate in the regulation of transport of various substances (among others - assimilates in the whole plant.

  18. Efeitos alelopáticos de extratos vegetais na germinação, colonização micorrízica e crescimento inicial de milho, soja e feijão Allelopathic effects of plant aqueous extracts on germination, mycorrhization and Initial growth of corn, soybean and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Mendes Faria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Restos vegetais e liteira podem interferir no desenvolvimento de plantas. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de Pinus sp., milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke e mucuna (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy sobre a germinação, colonização micorrízica e crescimento inicial de milho (Zea mays L., soja (Glycine max L. e feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Os extratos foram elaborados utilizando folhas trituradas. O experimento in vitro empregou papel Germitest umedecido com extratos ou água destilada por sete dias. O experimento em casa de vegetação teve esquema fatorial 3 x 3 x 4, com quatro repetições: três espécies vegetais (soja, milho e feijão, três extratos aquosos (Pinus, milheto e mucuna e quatro doses de extrato (0,0; 0,5; 1,0; e 2,0 kg L-1. O substrato foi Latossolo Vermelho coletado no município de Selvíria-MS, no bioma Cerrado. Após a semeadura, os vasos receberam, a cada cinco dias, por 45 dias, 50 mL dos extratos. Para a soja, extratos de mucuna e milheto diminuíram o comprimento do hipocótilo e da radícula e os de Pinus aumentaram esses comprimentos. Em feijão, o extrato de Pinus diminuiu o comprimento do hipocótilo e da radícula, mas os extratos de mucuna e milheto aumentaram-no. O extrato do milheto reduziu a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação em feijão. Todos os extratos reduziram a colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em soja, milho e feijão.Plant residues and litter may affect the plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of pine (Pinus sp., millet [Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke] and velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy on germination, mycorrhizal colonization and initial growth of corn (Zea mays L., soybean (Glycine max L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Extracts of ground leaves were prepared. For the in vitro seven day

  19. Lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles attract herbivores in addition to carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horiuchi, J.I.; Arimura, G.I.; Ozawa, R.; Shimoda, T.; Dicke, M.; Takabayashi, J.; Nishioka, T.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the response of the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae to uninfested lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles by using a Y-tube olfactometer. First, we confirmed that exposed uninfested leaves next to infested leaves were more attractive to carnivorous mi

  20. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability

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    Devaraj Illakkiam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified.

  1. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  2. Exposure of cerium oxide nanoparticles to kidney bean shows disturbance in the plant defense mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Peralta-Videa, Jose R. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Susmita [Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Castillo-Michel, Hiram [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220-38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose-Angel [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Sahi, Shivendra [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Kidney bean roots uptake nCeO{sub 2} primarily without biotransformation. • Cerium reached the root vascular tissues through gaps in the Casparian strip. • On longer exposure to high concentration, roots demonstrate stress response. • In leaves, guaiacol peroxidase plays a major role in ROS scavenging. - Abstract: Overwhelming use of engineered nanoparticles demands rapid assessment of their environmental impacts. The transport of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO{sub 2}) in plants and their impact on cellular homeostasis as a function of exposure duration is not well understood. In this study, kidney bean plants were exposed to suspensions of ∼8 ± 1 nm nCeO{sub 2} (62.5 to 500 mg/L) for 15 days in hydroponic conditions. Plant parts were analyzed for cerium accumulation after one, seven, and 15 days of nCeO{sub 2} exposure. The primary indicators of stress like lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble protein and chlorophyll contents were studied. Cerium in tissues was localized using scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron μ-XRF mapping, and the chemical forms were identified using μ-XANES. In the root epidermis, cerium was primarily shown to exist as nCeO{sub 2}, although a small fraction (12%) was biotransformed to Ce(III) compound. Cerium was found to reach the root vascular tissues and translocate to aerial parts with time. Upon prolonged exposure to 500 mg nCeO{sub 2}/L, the root antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly reduced, simultaneously increasing the root soluble protein by 204%. In addition, leaf's guaiacol peroxidase activity was enhanced with nCeO{sub 2} exposure in order to maintain cellular homeostasis.

  3. Efecto inhibitorio de los taninos del frijol carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina por dos sistemas multienzimáticos Inhibitory effect of carioca bean tannins on phaseolin digestibility assessed by two multi-enzymatic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria H. Del Pino

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Cantidades variables de dos sistemas multienzimáticos de tripsina-quimotripsina-peptidasa y pepsina-pancreatina, fueron utilizados para evaluar el efecto de los taninos provenientes de frijol Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, en las formas nativa y denaturalizada. Esta evaluación hecha por los métodos de caida de pH, de hidrólisis en medio tamponado con posterior medición del grado de hidrólisis con ninhidrina y por la técnica electroforética, demostró el efecto adverso de los taninos condensados sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, después de producirse una significativa inhibición en el grado de hidrólisis de esa proteína por los dos sistemas multienzimáticos. Se comprobó la dificultad de hidrólisis de la faseolina cuando esta unida al tanino en el punto de saturación (proporción 5/20 tanino/proteína p/p y mayores, después de detectarse en los perfiles electroforéticos, péptidos de 45.7 y 24KDa, resistentes a la hidrólisis hasta por prolongados períodos de incubación. Esto se debió a la existencia de un complejo de naturaleza refractária no digeríble, incluso en condiciones excesivas de enzima. Los resultados sugieren la unión simultánea del tanino con mas de un ligante a través de sus múltiples grupos hidróxilos libres, formando un complejo proteína-tanino-enzima (PTE* que correspondería a la fracción no digeríble de la faseolina.Variable amounts of the two multienzymatic systems, trypsin-chymotrypsin-peptidase and pepsin-pancreatin, were utilized for evaluating the effect of Carioca's bean tannins on the digestibility of native and denatured phaseolin. Three methods were used for this evaluations: the pH drop method, measurement of degree of hydrolysis by the ninhidrin reaction, and by electrophoretic techniques. The results showed the adverse effect of condensed tannins on phaseolin digestibility, for the two multienzymatic systems. Ours results strongly indicate

  4. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  5. Response of different genotypes of faba bean plant to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M; Al-Wahibi, Mona S; Bukhari, Najat A

    2015-05-05

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant-1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant-1, area leaf-1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes "C5" and "Zafar 1" were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype "C5" and "Zafar 1" were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes "G853" and "C4" were sensitive to drought stress.

  6. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS ON FABA BEAN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. Abdelhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A possible survival strategy of plants under saline conditions is to use some compounds that could alleviate salt stress effect. One of these compounds is nicotinamide. The effect of exogenously application of nicotinamide with different concentrations (0, 200 and 400 mg/l on Vicia faba L. plant against different NaCl treatments (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl was investigated at the wire house of the National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. Salinity stress reduced significantly plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot, seed yield, total carbohydrates & total crude protein of the yielded seeds compared with those of the control plants. In contrast, salinity induced marked increases in sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, proline, lipid peroxidation product (MDA and some oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Also, salinity stress increased Na+ contents with the decreases of other macro and micro elements contents (P, K+, Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ of shoots and the yielded seeds of faba bean. Foliar spraying of nicotinamide alleviated the adverse effects of salinity stress through increased plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot and seed yield as well as, sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids and proline, compared with those of the corresponding salinity levels, while decreased lipid peroxidation product as MDA and the oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Nicotinamide inhibited the uptake of Na+ and accelerated the accumulation of P, K+ , Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ contents in the shoots of salt stressed plants and enhanced total carbohydrate and total crude protein percentage and solutes concentrations in seeds of salinity treated plants

  7. The influence of the type and concentration of amendments on the growth dynamics of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia NICULA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were performed to test the influence of amendments on the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. The amendments tested were natural bentonite, natural zeolite modified with Ca2+ and natural zeolite modified with NH4+, respectively. The seeds of beans were planted in polluted soil mixed with 5% and respectively 10% content of amendment. Mixes with the two above-mentioned concentrations were prepared with each type of amendment considered. Soil without amendment was used as control-soil. In each of the seven experimental series, 15 seeds were planted. The height of each plant was measured and recorded after a pre-established number of days, up to one calendar month. Data were analyzed using version 16.0 (for Windows ofthe SPSS software package.

  8. Magnesium sulphate and the development of the common bean cultivated in an ultisol of Northeast Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, I. P. de; ASHER, C. J.; Edwards, D.G.; SANTOS, R. S. M. dos

    2000-01-01

    Magnesium applications (MgS0(4).7H(2)0) to achieve 8 and 16 mmol c/cm3 of Mg (324 and 1284 kg of MgS0(4) ha-1) were made on one Ultisol from Australia Northeast to correct Mg deficiency in plants and to verify the optimum level of Mg to grow common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). Magnesium was applied together with lime, N, K, Cu, Zn, B, and Mo as calcium carbonate, ammonium nitrate, potassium phosphate, cupric and zinc sulphate, boric acid and sodium molybdate respectively a month before planti...

  9. EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF AMINOACIDS ON PLANT YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FABA BEAN PLANTS IRRIGATED WITH SEAWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. ABDELHAMID

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity decreases yield in arid and semi-arid areas. With increasing demand for irrigation water, alternative sources are being sought. Seawater salinity was previously considered unusable for irrigation. However, this water can be used successfully to grow crops under certain conditions. Amino acids is well known biostimulant which has positive effects on plant growth and yield, and significantly mitigates the injuries caused by abiotic stresses Therefore, in the present study, the effect of exogenously treatment amino acid on faba bean plant growing under sea water salt stress was investigated. Reduction of salinity damage in faba bean by using a mixture of amino acids to improve morphological and biochemical parameters, and thus raising the level of plant yield was tested. A pot experiment was conducted to alleviate the harmful effects of seawater salinity on faba bean cv. Giza 843 by foliar spraying of an amino acid mixture with different concentrations (0.0, 500, 1000 or 1500 mg L-1. Irrigation of faba bean plants with seawater levels of 3.13 and 6.25 dS m-1 led to significant reductions in plant height, number of leaves plant, fresh and dry weight of shoots, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates, polysaccharides, nucleic acid DNA and RNA contents of faba bean leaves. Seawater salinity induced higher contents of Na+ and Cl- and decreased contents of K+, K+:Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and P3+. Irrigation of faba bean plant with different levels of seawater decreased seed yield and total dry weight per plant compared with those irrigated with tap water. Also, total carbohydrates and total protein contents in seeds were reduced by increased seawater salinity levels. Amino acid application as foliar spray significantly improved all the reduced parameters due to seawater stress. However, the highest level of amino acid of 1500 mg L-1 exerted the strongest effect in alleviating the harmful effect of seawater salinity stress. Efecto de la aplicaci

  10. Two glutamine synthetase genes from Phaseolus vulgaris L. display contrasting developmental and spatial patterns of expression in transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, B G; Day, H M; Turton, J F; Shen, W J; Cullimore, J V; Oliver, J E

    1989-04-01

    The gln-gamma gene, which specifies the gamma subunit of glutamine synthetase in Phaseolus vulgaris L., has been isolated and the regulatory properties of its promoter region analyzed in transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants. A 2-kilobase fragment from the 5'-flanking region of gln-gamma conferred a strongly nodule-enhanced pattern of expression on the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Parallel studies on the promoter of another glutamine synthetase gene (gln-beta) showed that a 1.7-kilobase fragment directed 20-fold to 140-fold higher levels of beta-glucuronidase expression in roots than in shoots. Histochemical localization of beta-glucuronidase activity in nodules of the transgenic plants indicated that the chimeric gln-gamma gene was expressed specifically in the rhizobially infected cells; expression of the gln-beta construct was detected in both cortical and infected regions of young nodules, and became restricted to the vascular tissue as the nodule matured. We conclude that gln-beta and gln-gamma genes are differentially expressed both temporally and spatially in plant development and that the cis-acting regulatory elements responsible for conferring these contrasting expression patterns are located within a 2-kilobase region upstream of their coding sequences.

  11. 蔓生型菜豆品种比较试验%Comparison of Climbing Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰梅; 张丽琴; 钟利

    2014-01-01

    对10个露地栽培的蔓生菜豆品种的抗性、产量及商品特性等进行考察比较,旨在筛选出适于昆明地区栽培的菜豆品种,为该地区菜豆的种植和推广提供依据。试验结果表明,泰国架豆王(黑皮、桂林天宇)、特级泰国架豆王和泰国架豆王(重庆华渝)3个品种的综合性状表现较好,产量较高,每667 m2分别达到了4148.7,3957.9,3891.3 kg,比较适宜昆明地区种植推广。%In this paper, we investigated and compared the resistance, yield and commercial characteristics of ten climbing kidney bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) planted in open field in Kunming, in order to screen out suitable kidney bean cultivars for Kunming and provide basis for kidney bean cultivation and extension in Kunming. The results showed that, the three cultivars, Thailand King Pole Bean (with black seed coat, from Guilin Tianyu Seed Co., Ltd.), Super Thailand King Pole Bean and Thailand King Pole Bean (from Chongqing Huayu Seed Co., Ltd.), had better comprehensive characters, and their yields were 4 148.7, 3 957.9 and 3 891.3 kg/667 m2 respectively, thus they were suitable to be planted in Kunming area.

  12. Interaction of ozone and greenhouse whitefly in plant injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, P.M.; Runeckles, V.C.

    1976-04-01

    Experiments on the effects of sub-acute ozone concentrations and Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeuroides vaporariorum, on Bush Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivar Pure Gold Wax, were performed. Ozone fumigations (0.02 ppM for 6 hours per day) in the presence of Whitefly produced severe chlorotic symptoms, whereas plants similarly infested but maintained in charcoal-filtered air showed no symptoms of injury. (ND)

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum-located PDAT1-2 from castor bean enhances hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Go, Young Sam; Jung, Jin Hee; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-06-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoic acid) is a major unusual fatty acid in castor oil. This hydroxy fatty acid is useful in industrial materials. This unusual fatty acid accumulates in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), even though it is synthesized in phospholipids, which indicates that the castor plant has an editing enzyme, which functions as a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that is specific to ricinoleic acid. Transgenic plants containing fatty acid Δ12-hydroxylase encoded by the castor bean FAH12 gene produce a limited amount of hydroxy fatty acid, a maximum of around 17% of TAGs present in Arabidopsis seeds, and this unusual fatty acid remains in phospholipids of cell membranes in seeds. Identification of ricinoleate-specific PDAT from castor bean and manipulation of the phospholipid editing system in transgenic plants will enhance accumulation of the hydroxy fatty acid in transgenic seeds. The castor plant has three PDAT genes; PDAT1-1 and PDAT2 are homologs of PDAT, which are commonly found in plants; however, PDAT1-2 is newly grouped as a castor bean-specific gene. PDAT1-2 is expressed in developing seeds and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to FAH12, indicating its involvement in conversion of ricinoleic acid into TAG. PDAT1-2 significantly enhances accumulation of total hydroxy fatty acid up to 25%, with a significant increase in castor-like oil, 2-OH TAG, in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which is an identification of the key gene for oilseed engineering in production of unusual fatty acids.

  14. USO DE REGULADOR DE CRESCIMENTO EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO DE INVERNO PLANT GROWTH STIMULANT APPLICATION ON WINTER COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatiér Buzetti

    2011-04-01

    contradictory. For that reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant growth stimulant application on components and grains yield of two winter common bean cultivars under Brazilian savannah conditions. The experiment was conducted during the 2007 fall-winter season, at the Unesp experimental farm, Ilha Solteira campus, in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a strips scheme, with four replications. The treatments consisted of a combination of five plant growth stimulant doses (0 L ha-1; 0.5 L ha-1; 1.0 L ha-1; 1.5 L ha-1; and 2.0 L ha-1, composed of three vegetable hormones (kinetin, gibberellic acid, and indolbutyric acid, in two application periods: at the vegetative stage (V4 and at the reproductive stage (R5. Vegetative characteristics such as plant height, first pod insertion height, number of grains per pod, and weight of 100 grains were not affected by the product application. However, its application at the reproductive stage (R5 increased the number of grains per plant and grain yield of the Carioca Precoce and IAC Apuã bean cultivars. For that increase, 2 L ha-1 was the best plant growth stimulant dose.

    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; yield components; application period.

  15. Variabilidad espacial de los atributos físico-hídricos del suelo y de la productividad del cultivo de fréjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L irrigado bajo un sistema de siembra directa Spatial variability of soil physical and hydrological characteristics in re­lation to the productivity of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L irrigated under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Mestas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variabilidad espacial del sue-lo con una producción de fréjol irrigado ba­jo un sistema de siembra directa, el objetivo fue evaluar la dependencia espacial de los atributos físico-hídricos del suelo relacio­nándolos con la variabilidad espacial de la producción del fréjol. Fue sembrada una parcela y demarcados 60 puntos muéstrales en una malla de 3 x 3 m. Fueron colectadas muestras sin disturbar para determinación de la densidad del suelo, en el campo se de­terminaron la resistencia del suelo a la pe­netración y la conductividad hidráulica satu­rada. La dependencia espacial fue evaluada por el método geoestatístico del krigeado puntual. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que las regresiones obtenidas entre mapas fueron significativas, siendo que la densidad del suelo y la resistencia del suelo a la pene­tración se correlacionaron negativamente con la producción y la conductividad hidráulica saturada se correlacionó positi­vamente.The spatial variability of a soil used for bean production under an irrigated no-tillage system was studied. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial dependence of soil physical and hydrological characteristics in relation to the spatial variability of the irri­gated bean yield. For that reason, 60 sam­pling points were planted and demarcated in a 3 x 3 m grid. Disturbed samples were col­lected for determining soil density. In the field, soil resistance to penetration and satu­rated hydraulic conductivity were deter­mined. The spatial dependence was ana­lyzed by geostatistics using punctual kriging. According to the results, it is possi­ble to observe that the obtained regressions among maps were significant; soil density and resistance to penetration were nega­tively related to the yield, while the saturated hydraulic conductivity was related positively.

  16. DESEMPENHO OPERACIONAL DE UMA SEMEADORA ADUBADORA À TRAÇÃO ANIMAL, COM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE SULCADORES, REGULAGENS DE DISCO DE CORTE E COBERTURAS MORTAS, NO PLANTIO DIRETO DO FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PERFOMANCE EVALUATION OF AN ANIMAL TRACTION PLANTER WITH DIFFERENT SOIL OPENER SYSTEMS, COULTER SETTINGS AND MULCHINGS FOR BLACK BEANS DIRECT DRILLING (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Araújo Almeida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Em um experimento realizado na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia (GO, no ano de 1998, fez-se a avaliação do desempenho operacional de uma semeadora-adubadora a tração animal, no plantio direto do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. O experimento foi conduzido em um latossolo vermelho-escuro distrófico, textura média. Utilizaram-se dois tipos de cobertura morta, três sistemas de sulcador e duas regulagens para o disco de corte. O sistema de sulcador do tipo disco duplo defasado mobilizou menor volume de solo, exigiu menos potência no tracionamento e menor consumo de energia que os sistemas providos de sulcador do tipo facão.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Plantio direto; tração animal; semeadora.

    In an essay, carried out in 1998, the performance of an animal traction planter for direct drilling of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. was evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a distrofic dark red oxisol in the experimental fields of the Agronomy School of the Federal University of the State of Goiás, Brazil. Two levels of mulching, three soil opener systems, and two coulter settings were compared. Double disc opener reduced soil disturbance, required less power traction and energy.

    KEY-WORDS: Zero tillage; animal traction; planter machine.

  17. Effects of different plastic-film mulching on soil water and water use efficiency of dryland bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)%不同覆膜方式对山旱地菜豆土壤水分及利用效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠平; 梁更生; 王福全; 杨永岗; 尹艳兰; 逯建平

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of different plastic-film mulching on soil water content and water use efficiency of dryland bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by using six mulching modes which were whole mulching on double ridges in autumn, whole flat mulching in autumn, half flat mulching in autumn, whole mulching on double ridges in spring, whole flat mulching in spring and half flat mulching in spring. The results showed that compared with spring's double ridges full mulching, autumn's half flat film mulching and spring's full flat mulching as well as spring's half flat mulching (CK), autumn's double ridges whole mulching and autumn's whole flat mulching increased water content of 0 ~ 100 cm soil layer by 7.62 % ~ 14.20 and 7.44 % ~ 14.02 % respectively at sowing time, and before mid July water content of 0 - 80 cm soil layer increased by 7.39 % ~ 16.16% and 5.45% ~ 14.06% respectively, significant differences between each other got significant (or very significant) level. The bean's yield and water use efficiency of autumn's double ridges whole mulching and autumn's full flat mulching were 19 311.11 kg/hm2 and 17 938.89 kg/hm2, 65.45 kg/(mm·hm2) and 58.71 kg/(mm ? Hm2), increased by 91.82% and 78.20%, 81.20% and 62.54% ( P <0.01 or P <0.05) respectively compared with spring's half flat mulching. Furthermore, the growth po tential and yield and water use efficiency of dryland bean were significantly improved by planting in catchment furrow of autumn- s double ridges whole film mulching or in catchment hole of autumn' s flat whole film mulching.%以秋季和春季半膜平覆、全膜平覆、全膜双垄沟6种覆膜方式为处理,研究了不同覆膜方式对山旱地菜豆土壤水分及其利用率等的影响.结果表明,秋季全膜双垄沟和秋季全膜平覆较春季全膜双垄沟、秋季半膜平覆、春季全膜平覆和对照春季半膜平覆在播种时0~ 100 cm土层中土壤贮水量分别提高7.62%~14.20%、7.44

  18. Phaseolus vulgaris L. Seedlings Exposed to Prometryn Herbicide Contaminated Soil Trigger an Oxidative Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulahia, Kerima; Carol, Pierre; Planchais, Séverine; Abrous-Belbachir, Ouzna

    2016-04-27

    Herbicides from the family of S-triazines, such as prometryn, have been widely used in crop production and can constitute an environmental pollution in both water and soil. As a valuable crop, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is grown all over the world and could be exposed to such herbicides. We wanted to investigate the possible stress sustained by the common bean growing in prometryn-polluted soil. Two situations were observed: when soil was treated with ≥100 μM prometryn, some, but not all, measured growth parameters were affected in a dose-dependent manner. Growth was reduced, and photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic products were less accumulated when soil was treated with ≥100 μM prometryn. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced had a deleterious effect, as seen by the accumulation of oxidized lipid in the form of malondialdehyde (MDA). Higher prometryn (500 μM) concentrations had a disastrous effect, reducing antioxidant activities. At a low (10 μM) concentration, prometryn increased antioxidant enzymatic activities without affecting plant growth or MDA production. Gene expression of proline metabolism genes and proline accumulation confirm that bean plants respond to a stress according to the prometryn concentration. Physiological responses such as antioxidative enzymes APX, CAT, and the enzyme implicated in the metabolization of xenobiotics, GST, were increased at 10 and 100 μM, which indicated a prevention of deleterious effects of prometryn, suggesting that bean is a suitable material both for herbicide pollution sensing and as a crop on a low level of herbicide pollution.

  19. Natural selection and family X location interaction in the common (dry bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Pirola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection takes place while advancing generations of segregant populations of self pollinating species by the population (bulk method. There is evidence that it maintains the individuals with greater grain yield. The question arises whether natural selection preserves the individuals which are more adapted only to the environment where the generation advance occurred, that is, if it contributes to increasing the genotype x environment interaction in the family assessment. This study was carried out to check this hypothesis in the common bean plant using families derived from a segregating population from a cross between the Carioca MG x ESAL 686 cultivars. The segregating populations increase in homozygosity was obtained by the population (bulk method until the F14 generation, in three distinct locations in Minas Gerais state: Lavras, Lambari and Patos de Minas. Forty-seven F14:15 families were randomly taken from the population in each location and later multiplied to obtain F14:16 families. These families were jointly assessed with three controls using a triple 12 x 12 lattice design in the three locations of generation advance in the wet season of 1998/1999. All the estimated parameters showed that while advancing segregant populations by the population (bulk method, natural selection acted to preserve the individuals which are more adapted to the environment in which they were advanced.

  20. Regulation of copper homeostasis and biotic interactions by microRNA 398b in common bean.

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    Loreto Naya

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are recognized as important post-transcriptional regulators in plants. Information about the roles of miRNAs in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., an agronomically important legume, is yet scant. The objective of this work was to functionally characterize the conserved miRNA: miR398b and its target Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase 1 (CSD1 in common bean. We experimentally validated a novel miR398 target: the stress up-regulated Nodulin 19 (Nod19. Expression analysis of miR398b and target genes -CSD1 and Nod19- in bean roots, nodules and leaves, indicated their role in copper (Cu homeostasis. In bean plants under Cu toxicity miR398b was decreased and Nod19 and CSD1, that participates in reactive oxygen species (ROS detoxification, were up-regulated. The opposite regulation was observed in Cu deficient bean plants; lower levels of CSD1 would allow Cu delivery to essential Cu-containing proteins. Composite common bean plants with transgenic roots over-expressing miR398 showed ca. 20-fold higher mature miR398b and almost negligible target transcript levels as well as increased anthocyanin content and expression of Cu-stress responsive genes, when subjected to Cu deficiency. The down-regulation of miR398b with the consequent up-regulation of its targets was observed in common bean roots during the oxidative burst resulting from short-time exposure to high Cu. A similar response occurred at early stage of bean roots inoculated with Rhizobium tropici, where an increase in ROS was observed. In addition, the miR398b down-regulation and an increase in CSD1 and Nod19 were observed in bean leaves challenged with Sclerotinia scleortiorum fungal pathogen. Transient over-expression of miR398b in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infected with S. sclerotiorum resulted in enhanced fungal lesions. We conclude that the miR398b-mediated up-regulation of CSD and Nod19 is relevant for common bean plants to cope with oxidative stress generated in abiotic and biotic

  1. Alleviation Effect of Lanthanum on Cadmium Stress in Seedling Hydroponic Culture of Kidney Bean and Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaohua; Zhou Qing

    2006-01-01

    The seedling hydroponic culture experiment of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and corn (Zea mays) was conducted to investigate the alleviation effect of lanthanum on Cd stress.It is found that growth is seriously inhibited and metabolism is maladjusted in the two crops under 30 and 300 μmol·L-1 Cd2+ stress.Plant height, taproot length, leaf area, and fresh or dry weight of root, stem, and leaf are all obviously decreased.Further, chlorophyll content decreases, membrane permeability, malonydialdehyde (MDA) content, activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) increases under Cd stress, as compared with the control.The damage to these two crops becomes more conspicuous with the prolongation of Cd stress.It is suggested that lanthanum might help kidney bean and corn seedlings alleviate Cd stress by improving the photosynthetic capacity, reducing membrane permeability and MDA content, and maintaining the activities of CAT and POD of these two crops.

  2. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  3. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y.; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A.; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M.; Al-Wahibi, Mona S.; Bukhari, Najat A.

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant−1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress. PMID:25950766

  4. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzer H. Siddiqui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853 under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i normal irrigation (ii mild stress (iii moderate stress, and (iv severe stress on plant height (PH plant−1, fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC, proline (Pro content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl content, electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, and activities of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD, and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress.

  5. Evaluation of snap bean cultivars for resistance to ambient oxidants in field plots and to ozone in chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiners, J.P.; Heggestad, H.E.

    1979-04-01

    Most cultivars of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) currently available in the US were evaluated for resistance to oxidant (ozone) air pollution in field plots at Beltsville and Salisbury, Maryland, in one or more of the past 8 years. Of 387 cultivars and breeding lines tested, 270 were classified resistant, 86 intermediate, and 31 susceptible. Responses of seedlings with one expanded trifoliate leaf to high concentrations of ozone revealed statistically significant differences among cultivars. The correlation between leaf injury induced by ozone on seedlings and ozone injury on the same cultivars as adult field-grown plants was low (r = .20) but significant. 13 references, 3 tables.

  6. Crescimento e acumulação de nitrogênio de plantas de feijoeiro originadas de sementes com alto teor de molibdênio Growth and nitrogen accumulation by common bean plants originating from seeds with high molybdenum concentration

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    Flavio Yuudi Kubota

    2008-08-01

    ção foliar, podem estimular a atividade da nitrogenase e aumentar a acumulação de biomassa e N do feijoeiro.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris seeds with high molybdenum concentration can adequately supply the crop demand of this nutrient. Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effect of Mo-enriched seeds, obtained from plants treated with foliar fertilization, on growth and N accumulation by common bean plants. The soil substrate was the A horizon of a Haplustult (3.5 kg pots, which were limed and fully fertilized with exception of Mo. The first experiment had a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design with five replications: three bean cultivars, two seed Mo concentrations, and two harvest dates. In plants of the three cultivars originating from seeds with high Mo concentration, the shoot biomass and N accumulation were higher at both harvests. Seeds with high Mo concentration increased the nodule mass of cultivars Manteigão and Rio Tibagi 30 days after emergence (DAE but reduced biomass and number of nodules in the cultivars Carioca and Manteigão 45 DAE. High seed Mo concentration increased the nitrogenase activity 30 DAE and the specific nitrogenase activity 45 DAE. The second experiment had a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design with five replications: two bean cultivars, two seed Mo concentrations, and four harvest dates. The shoot mass in plants originating from seeds with high Mo concentration was higher 47 and 59 DAE, and shoot N accumulation was higher 59 DAT. High seed Mo concentration did not affect nodulation until 45 DAE, but reduced nodule number 59 DAE. The reduced nodulation at the pod filling stage observed in both experiments, in plants grown from seeds with high Mo concentration, can be due to the improved growth of these plants, which may have anticipated the translocation of assimilates to pods. It can be concluded that Mo-enriched seeds, harvested from plants treated with foliar fertilizer, can stimulate nitrogenase activity and increase biomass and N

  7. The water budget of rainfed maize and bean intercrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S.; Ogindo, H. O.

    Food production in the South African Development Community (SADC) region is predominantly under rainfed conditions and therefore experiences annual fluctuations due to the rainfall variability. Although the staple food of maize ( Zea mays) is commonly grown in the same field as dry beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris) little work has been done to characterize the soil water budget of this intercropping system. The evapotranspiration can theoretically be divided into transpiration from the leaves and evaporation from the soil surface. However, it is difficult to separate the components in field studies. In this paper the Ritchie model is used to estimate the soil surface evaporation using the fractional radiation interception which depends on the crop leaf area. The intercropping system has higher leaf area than the sole crops of both maize and beans in all seasons. Therefore, the soil surface is shaded and the canopy is more dense resulting in a lower soil surface evaporation. The water budget thus gives a higher value of transpiration for the intercrop during each of the four growing seasons. This appears to be due to the complimentary use of the water resources by the maize and bean plants in the intercropping system. This illustrates the ability of the intercrop to use the available soil water in a semi-arid environment more productively. Thus the experience of the small-holder farmers in the SADC region is based on sound physical principles of water use by the two crops.

  8. Infrared thermometry to schedule irrigation of common bean

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    Lobo Francisco de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the critical irrigation time for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca using infrared thermometry. Five treatments were analyzed. Canopy temperature differences between plants and a well-watered control about 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5±0.5ºC were tested. Physiological variables and plant growth were analyzed to establish the best time to irrigate. There was a significant linear correlation between the index and stomatal resistance, transpiration rate, and leaf water potential. Although significant linear correlation between the index and mean values of total dry matter, absolute growth rate, and leaf area index was found, no correlation was found with other growth index like relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, and leaf area ratio. Plants irrigated when their canopy temperature was 3±0.5ºC above the control had their relative growth rate mean value increased up to 59.7%, yielding 2,260.2 kg ha-1, with a reduction of 38.0% in the amount of water used. Plants irrigated when their canopy temperature was 4±0.5ºC yielded 1,907.6 kg ha-1, although their relative growth rate mean value was 4.0% below the control. These results show that the best moment to irrigate common bean is when their canopy temperature is between 3ºC and 4±0.5ºC above the control.

  9. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  10. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  11. Reaction of common bean lines and aggressiveness of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P H; Santos, J B; Lima, I A; Lara, L A C; Alves, F C

    2014-11-07

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the reaction of common bean lines to white mold, the aggressiveness of different Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from various common bean production areas in Brazil, and comparison of the diallel and GGE (genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction) biplot analysis procedures via study of the line-by-isolate interaction. Eleven common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lines derived from 3 backcross populations were used. Field experiments were performed in the experimental area of the Departamento de Biologia of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2011 and 2012 dry crop season and 2011 winter crop season through a randomized block design with 3 replications. This study was also set up in a greenhouse. Inoculations were performed 28 days after sowing by means of the straw test method. The reaction of the bean lines to white mold was assessed according to a diagrammatic scale from 1 (plant without symptoms) to 9 (dead plant). Estimations of general reaction capacity (lines) and general aggressiveness capacity (isolates) indicated different horizontal levels of resistance in the lines and levels of aggressiveness in the isolates. Therefore, it was possible to select more resistant lines and foresee those crosses that are the most promising for increasing the level of resistance. It was also possible to identify the most aggressive isolates that were more efficient in distinguishing the lines. Both diallel and GGE biplot analyses were useful in identifying the genotypic values of lines and isolates.

  12. Copper excess impairs mobilization of storage proteins in bean cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmous, Inès; El Ferjani, Ezzedine; Chaoui, Abdelilah

    2011-12-01

    Germination represents a limiting stage of plant life cycle. One of the underlying metabolic activities following imbibition of seed is the reserve mobilization. Seeds of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. soisson nain hatif) were germinated by soaking in distilled water or 200 μM CuCl(2). Storage proteins breakdown and amino acids freeing from reserve tissues were investigated. Compared to the control, Cu caused a reduction in germination rate, embryo growth, and in mobilization of cotyledonary biomass. The failure in albumin and globulin hydrolysis after the exposure to the pollutant was argued by (1) higher contents of remaining proteins than control ones, (2) persistence of some polypeptide bands resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of albumin and globulin-rich fractions, and (3) decrease in the availability of amino acids. Nitrogen starvation in embryonic axis should be associated with the Cu-imposed delay in growth.

  13. A dynamic growth model of vegetative soya bean plants: model structure and behaviour under varying root temperature and nitrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. T.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.

  14. Cloning of Promoter of Chinese Bean GRP 1.8 Gene and Characterization of Its Function in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to learn the expression pattern of GRP1.8(glycine-rich-protein) gene promoter in transgenic plants and to explore its potential application in plant genetic engineering for vascular-specific expression of interested genes, GRP 1.8 promoter was amplified by PCR from Chinese bean genomic DNA. The intermediate vector was constructed by inserting vascular-specific expression promoter of GRP 1.8 gene in vector pBI 101. The regenerated tobacco plants obtained were analyzed by PCR to select the putative transgenic plants. The histochemical localization of GUS(β-D-glucosidase) activity indicates that as for that of GRP 1.8 promoter we can confer the vascular-specific expression of GUS gene.

  15. Evaluation of aminoacids in irradiated beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Souza, Luciana B.; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Hernandes, Nilber K. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    Fradinho-bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is originated from Africa and is known in Brazil as 'caupi', 'corda' or 'macassar'. It is grown in the interior of Northeast Brazil (semi-arid region) and can be found in parts of the North, being one of the most important components of people's diet in those regions. The Northeast area produces around 429,375 ton of fradinho-bean per year. Leguminous plants are very important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. This kind of bean is an excellent source of proteins (around 23- 25% of its nutritional content), being superior to regular beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The irradiation process is an alternative to avoid post-harvesting losses, without changing the nutritional value of food. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 kGy) on aminoacid content of fradinho-bean by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the accompanying of the grains during storage time of 6 months. After irradiation, the bean grains went through a milling process in order to make flour for posterior extraction. A liquid chromatographer Waters, model Alliance 2695, with fluorescent detector Waters 2475, having a mobile phase with gradient elution of sodium acetate. acetonitrile and Milli-Q water, was employed. The flux used was 1 mL/min and the injection volume of 10 {mu}L. The column (C 18 150.0 x 3.9 mm) was kept at 36 deg C. The results show that gamma irradiation is a promise process for fradinho bean during conservation storage time of 6 months, until the dose of 10.0 kGy. Even the most radio-sensitive aminoacids like aromatics and basic lateral chains were preserved. (author)

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN BREEDING METHODS TO ENHANCE NITROGEN FIXATION IN THE COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. COMPARAÇÃO DE MÉTODOS DE MELHORAMENTO DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PARA O INCREMENTO DA FIXAÇÃO SIMBIÓTICA DE NITROGÊNIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Arraes Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The common bean productivity can be improved by the increment of its capacity of nitrogen fixation in the symbiosis with bacteria of genus Rhizobium. This study had the objective to compare two breeding methodologies - F2 derived lines (LDF2 and single seed descent (SSD in a cross among the cultivars Negro Argel (good Symbiotic N2 fixer and Rio Tibagi (poor symbiotic N2 fixar conducted with Rhizobium inoculation or mineral nitrogen. Eighteen families were selected on F4 in the LDF2 method based on nitrogen content in the grains and at the SSD method sixty seeds were carried out to F5 without selection. Families selected on F4 generation (LDF2 were superior for N2 fixation potential and grain yield in comparison with families that were conducted without selection (SSD bean families selected in the F4 generation under mineral nitrogen treatment showed a tendency to respond less to inoculation then families selected under Rhizobium treatment. Furthermore, families selected under Rhizobium treatment showed better response when grown under the mineral nitrogen treatment. The same tendency was observed for families which respond to both sources of nitrogen. In this study was observed that selection under Rhizobium pressure provide a opportunity to plant breeders to select bean genotypeswith enhance nitrogen fixation potential and high grain yield.

    KEY-WORDS: Nodulation; total N; grain yield.

    A produtividade do feijão pode ser melhorada pelo incremento da sua capacidade de fixar nitrogênio através de bactérias do gênero Rhizobium. Este estudo comparou duas metodologias de melhoramento – linhas derivadas de F2 (LDF2 e descendência de uma única semente (SSD, – em um cruzamento entre as cultivares Negro Argel (bom

  17. Characterization of Two Putative Protein Phosphatase Genes and Their Involvement in Phosphorus Efficiency in Phaseolus vulgari

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Yue Liang; Zhi-Jian Chen; Zhu-Fang Yao; Jiang Tian; Hong Liao

    2012-01-01

    Protein dephosphorylation mediated by protein phosphatases plays a major role in signal transduction of plant responses to environmental stresses.In this study,two putative protein phosphatases,PvPS2:1 and PvPS2:2 were identified and characterized in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).The two PvPS2 members were found to be localized to the plasma membrane and the nucleus by transient expression of PvPS2:GFP in onion epidermal cells.Transcripts of the two PvPS2 genes were significantly increased by phosphate (Pi) starvation in the two bean genotypes,G19833 (a P-efficient genotype) and DOR364 (a P-inefficient genotype).However,G19833 exhibited higher PvPS2:1 expression levels than DOR364 in both leaves and roots during P1 starvation.Increased transcription of PvPS2:1 in response to Pi starvation was further verified through histochemical analysis of PvPS2:1 promoter fusion β-glucuronidase (GUS) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.Analysis of PvPS2∶1 overexpression lines in bean hairy roots and Arabidopsis showed that PvS2:1 was involved in root growth and P accumulation.Furthermore,expression levels of two P(1) starvation responsive genes were upregulated and the APase activities were enhanced in the overexpressing PvPS2∶1 Arabidopsis lines.Taken together,our results strongly suggested that PvPS2∶1positively regulated plant responses to P1 starvation,and could be further targeted as a candidate gene to improve crop P efficiency.

  18. Common bean-Rhizobium symbiosis: functional genomics of legume response to abiotic stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the world's most important grain legume for direct human consumption and a main source of proteins in Latin America and Africa. Environmental factors such as nutrient deficiency, soil acidity, and metal toxicity are important constraints for bean symbiotic nitroge...

  19. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replicates. Treatments consisted of five N sources (urea, urea + NBPT, urea + polymer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium nitrate and a control (without N being applied 20 kg ha-1 of N at sowing and 80 kg ha-1 onf N in topdressing. We evaluated the chlorophyll content in leaves of common beans, the leaf N content and dry mass weight (MSPA in the flowering of common beans, the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, grain yield and final stand of the common beans. The sources of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence, leaf N content, the mass of MSPA and the relative chlorophyll index of common beans. The use of polymerized urea and urea with urease inhibitor, did not produce increases in the number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, mass of 100 grains and common beans yield compared to traditional sources of N, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

  20. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    Luciana B. Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.Neste trabalho confirmamos a resistência do feijão comum ( Phaseolus vulgaris ao bruquídeo Callosobruchus maculatus (F., inseto que preda sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata (L.. A resistência desta semente não está relacionada com a espessura do tegumento nem com os níveis de diversos compostos como ácido taníco, fenóis e ácido cianídrico conforme demonstram nossos resultados. No entanto, faseolina, detectada no tegumento por ‘‘Western blotting’’ e seqüenciamento N-terminal, é tóxica a C. maculatus. Esses dados estão de acordo com estudos anteriores feitos com duas outras sementes de leguminosas (Canavalia ensiformis e Phaseolus lunatus e nos levam a sugerir que a presença de proteínas do tipo vicilina no tegumento de sementes de leguminosas tiveram papel importante nos mecanismo de adaptação de bruquídeos a sementes de leguminosas.

  1. Indução de resistência em feijoeiro a mancha angular por extratos de micélio de Pycnoporus sanguineus Resistance induction in bean plants against angular leaf spot by extracts from Pycnoporus sanguineus mycelium

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    Clair Aparecida Viecelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. está entre as principais culturas da agricultura nacional e pode ser afetada por várias doenças, como a mancha angular causada por Pseudocercospora griseola. Com o objetivo de desenvolver métodos alternativos ao químico para o controle desta doença, verificou-se o potencial de extratos de micélio de Pycnoporus sanguineus para atividade antimicrobiana in vitro contra P. griseola e para indução de resistência e ativação de enzimas de defesa em feijoeiro, como peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e β-1,3-glucanase, além de sua influência nos teores de proteínas e clorofilas. Os experimentos in vitro e em casa de vegetação foram constituídos pelos extratos de micélio de P. sanguineus e dos controles água, acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM: 75 mg i.a./L e fungicida azoxystrobin (40 mg i.a./L. In vitro o extrato de micélio apresentou efeito sobre o crescimento micelial, a esporulação e a germinação de esporos de P. griseola. In vivo a severidade foi reduzida em 93% e 50% em casa de vegetação e a campo respectivamente, em relação ao controle água. A atividade das enzimas peroxidase e polifenoloxidase e os teores de proteínas e clorofilas foram maiores nas plantas tratadas com o extrato. Estes resultados indicam a eficiência de P. sanguineus para o controle alternativo da mancha angular do feijoeiro.Angular leaf spot, caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola, is a major disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Brazil. The objective of this research was to develop an alternative method for controlling this disease based on an aqueous extract of Pycnoporus sanguineus mycelium. It was evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extract against P. griseola as well as its activity of resistance induction against angular leaf spot. The role of the plant defense enzymes peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and β-1,3-glucanase, and the proteins and chlorophyll content was investigated. The

  2. Principal Component Analysis of Chlorophyll Content in Tobacco, Bean and Petunia Plants Exposed to Different Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations

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    Borowiak Klaudia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Three plant species were assessed in this study - ozone-sensitive and -resistant tobacco, ozone-sensitive petunia and bean. Plants were exposed to ambient air conditions for several weeks in two sites differing in tropospheric ozone concentrations in the growing season of 2009. Every week chlorophyll contents were analysed. Cumulative ozone effects on the chlorophyll content in relation to other meteorological parameters were evaluated using principal component analysis, while the relation between certain days of measurements of the plants were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed variability between plant species response. However, some similarities were noted. Positive relations of all chlorophyll forms to cumulative ozone concentration (AOT 40 were found for all the plant species that were examined. The chlorophyll b/a ratio revealed an opposite position to ozone concentration only in the ozone-resistant tobacco cultivar. In all the plant species the highest average chlorophyll content was noted after the 7th day of the experiment. Afterwards, the plants usually revealed various responses. Ozone-sensitive tobacco revealed decrease of chlorophyll content, and after few weeks of decline again an increase was observed. Probably, due to the accommodation for the stress factor. While during first three weeks relatively high levels of chlorophyll contents were noted in ozone-resistant tobacco. Petunia revealed a slow decrease of chlorophyll content and the lowest values at the end of the experiment. A comparison between the plant species revealed the highest level of chlorophyll contents in ozone-resistant tobacco.

  3. Effect of management practices on mycorrhizal infection, growth and dry matter partitioning in field-grown bean

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    Antonio Alberto Rocha Oliveira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out on unsterilized field soil with low phosphorus availability with the objective of examining the effect of cultural practices on mycorrhizal colonization and growth of common bean. The treatments were: three pre-crops (maize, wheat and fallow followed by three soil management practices ("ploughing", mulching and bare fallow without "ploughing" during the winter months. After the cultural practices, Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Canadian Wonder was grown in this soil. Fallowing and soil disturbance reduced natural soil infectivity. Mycorrhizal infection of the bean roots occurred more rapidly in the recently cropped soil than in the fallow soil. Prior cropping with a strongly mycorrhizal plant (maize increased infectivity even further.

  4. Identifying resistance gene analogs associated with resistances to different pathogens in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Camilo E; Acosta, Iván F; Jara, Carlos; Pedraza, Fabio; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Gallego, Gerardo; Beebe, Steve; Tohme, Joe

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT A polymerase chain reaction approach using degenerate primers that targeted the conserved domains of cloned plant disease resistance genes (R genes) was used to isolate a set of 15 resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Eight different classes of RGAs were obtained from nucleotide binding site (NBS)-based primers and seven from not previously described Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor-like (TIR)-based primers. Putative amino acid sequences of RGAs were significantly similar to R genes and contained additional conserved motifs. The NBS-type RGAs were classified in two subgroups according to the expected final residue in the kinase-2 motif. Eleven RGAs were mapped at 19 loci on eight linkage groups of the common bean genetic map constructed at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical. Genetic linkage was shown for eight RGAs with partial resistance to anthracnose, angular leaf spot (ALS) and Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). RGA1 and RGA2 were associated with resistance loci to anthracnose and BGYMV and were part of two clusters of R genes previously described. A new major cluster was detected by RGA7 and explained up to 63.9% of resistance to ALS and has a putative contribution to anthracnose resistance. These results show the usefulness of RGAs as candidate genes to detect and eventually isolate numerous R genes in common bean.

  5. Transcriptional profile of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 in response to tissue extracts from a susceptible Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar

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    Martínez-Antonio Agustino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is a Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes "halo blight" disease of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. This disease affects both foliage and pods, and is a major problem in temperate areas of the world. Although several bacterial genes have been determined as participants in pathogenesis, the overall process still remains poorly understood, mainly because the identity and function of many of the genes are largely unknown. In this work, a genomic library of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 was constructed and PCR amplification of individual fragments was carried out in order to print a DNA microarray. This microarray was used to identify genes that are differentially expressed when bean leaf extracts, pod extracts or apoplastic fluid were added to the growth medium. Results Transcription profiles show that 224 genes were differentially expressed, the majority under the effect of bean leaf extract and apoplastic fluid. Some of the induced genes were previously known to be involved in the first stages of the bacterial-plant interaction and virulence. These include genes encoding type III secretion system proteins and genes involved in cell-wall degradation, phaseolotoxin synthesis and aerobic metabolism. On the other hand, most repressed genes were found to be involved in the uptake and metabolism of iron. Conclusion This study furthers the understanding of the mechanisms involved, responses and the metabolic adaptation that occurs during the interaction of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola with a susceptible host plant.

  6. A study of arsenic speciation in soil, irrigation water and plant tissue: A case study of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-11-01

    Samples of soil, the broad bean plant, Vicia faba and irrigation water were collected from the same agricultural site in Dokan, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined in all materials by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Available arsenic (11%) was also determined within the soil, together with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of total arsenic were: soil (5.32μgg(-1)), irrigation water (1.06μgL(-1)), roots (2.065μgg(-1)) and bean (0.133μgg(-1)). Stems, leaves and pods were also measured. Inorganic As(V) dominated soil (90%) and root (78%) samples. However, organo-arsenic (MMA, 48% and DMA, 19%) was the more dominant species in the edible bean. The study provides an insight into the uptake, preferred disposal route, speciation changes and loss mechanism involved for arsenic with this food source.

  7. Breeding common bean populations for traits using selection index

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    Dayane Cristina Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A common bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL. cultivar must combine desirable genotypes for several traits in order to be accepted by producers and consumers. This study aimed to evaluate selection efficiency when segregating bean populations for traits, by means of a selection index, in order to obtain superior progenies for traits considered. A total of 16 populations from the F4 and F5generations were evaluated in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, plant disease, grain type and yield. Using standard scores (Z, the sum of the four traits (∑Z was obtained and, based on this information, the best populations were identified. The evaluation of selection effectiveness was performed on 31 progenies from each population. The 496 progenies plus eight controls were evaluated in the F5:6and F5:7 generations for the same traits in July and November 2012, respectively. The selection, using the index based on the sum of standardized variables (∑Z, was efficient for identifying populations with superior progenies for all the traits considered.

  8. Development of a qPCR Strategy to Select Bean Genes Involved in Plant Defense Response and Regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum - Rhizoctonia solani Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sara; Cominelli, Eleonora; Sparvoli, Francesca; González-López, Oscar; Rodríguez-González, Alvaro; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro A

    2016-01-01

    Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defense response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defense-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from the 48 bean genes initially analyzed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34) or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected. As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defense, which respond to the presence of a BCA or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defense genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani.

  9. Development of a qPCR Strategy to Select Bean Genes Involved in Plant Defense Response and Regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum – Rhizoctonia solani Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sara; Cominelli, Eleonora; Sparvoli, Francesca; González-López, Oscar; Rodríguez-González, Alvaro; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defense response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defense-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from the 48 bean genes initially analyzed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34) or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected. As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defense, which respond to the presence of a BCA or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defense genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani. PMID:27540382

  10. Development of a qPCR strategy to select bean genes involved in plant defence response and regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum - Rhizoctonia solani interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defence response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defence-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from From the 48 bean genes initially analysed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34 or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected.As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defence, which respond to the presence of a biocontrol agent or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defence genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani.

  11. A Nomadic Subtelomeric Disease Resistance Gene Cluster in Common Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B4 resistance (R)-gene cluster, located in subtelomeric region of chromosome 4, is one of the largest clusters known in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Pv). We sequenced 650 kb spanning this locus and annotated 97 genes, 26 of which correspond to Coiled-coil-Nucleotide-Binding-Site-Leucine-Rich...

  12. Sources of nitrogenous fertilizers and their effects in the growth of the castor bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Sales dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to verify and quantify the effects of doses (equivalent to nitrogen of fertilizers, manure from corral, residential sewage sludge, castor oil cake and urea, in the early growth of castor beans, BRS Nordestina in a greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in the Embrapa, at county of Campina Grande, state of Paraiba, Brazil, and it was used an experimental design of randomized with three replicates and 13 treatments, with a factorial 4 x 3 + 1, which factors were: types of organic fertilizers (manure from corral and manure, biosolids and castor bean cake and urea at rates of (85,170 and 255 kg N ha-¹, plus an additional treatment, which was the absolute witness without the fertilization. All the treatments witness received a mineral supplement P and K, at doses of 80 kg of P2O2 and K2O, applied in the foundation, with triple superphosphate and potassium chloride. Among the fertilizers, which further promoted the initial growth of castor beans was the pie of Euphorbia that, in addition to nutrients, especially of nitrogen, have much fiber, more than 35%, constituting themselves, thus a factor in improving soil physical environment.

  13. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea; Gama radiossensitividade em feijoeiro comum e caupi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a {sup 60} Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  14. Difference planted season and creeper-pole on both growth and yield of the two cultivars of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRIYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to know the effect of different cultivars, planted seasons and creeper poles at velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. growth, yield and their interactions. This research was conducted on litosol soil in Tancep, Ngawen, Gunungkidul on 170 m up sea level and 9-10° elevation. The depth of soil tillage was 5-17 cm. Design utilization was Randomized Completed Block Design (RCBD with factorial 3 factors. The treatment was (i cultivars: rase and putih Gunungkidul (ii planted seasons: dry and rainy seasons and (iii creeper-poles: control, corn 0 weeks old, corn 2 weeks old, corn 4 weeks old and bambu. There is replicated 3 times. The result of this research was the 1st velvet bean growth on rainy season was rapidly but they have long time planted. The 2nd, by splited rase cultivars, rainy season and creeper-pole utilization was yield increased. The 3rd, on the rainy season, the high yield was come by rase cultivar and creeper-pole utilization. The 4th, with the 2 times velvet bean density and without calculated corn yield, rase cultivar planted on rainy season and bamboo creeper-pole coused the highest velvet bean yield but no significant different with 4 weeks corn creeper-pole.

  15. Effect of temperature on the occurrence of O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitive photosynthesis in field grown plants. [Phaseolus vulgaris; Capsicum annum; Lycopersicon esculentum, Scrophularia desertorum; Cardaria draba, Populus fremontii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.F.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthesis to O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ was measured in leaves from field grown plants of six species (Phaseolus vulgaris, Capsicum annuum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Scrophularia desertorum, Cardaria draba, and Populus fremontii) from 5/sup 0/C to 35/sup 0/C using gas-exchange techniques. In all species but Phaseolus, photosynthesis was insensitive to O/sub 2/ in normal air below a species dependent temperature. CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under the same conditions that resulted in O/sub 2/ insensitivity. A complete loss of O/sub 2/ sensitivity occurred up to 22/sup 0/C in Lycopersicon but only up to 6/sup 0/C in Scrophularia. In Lycopersicon and Populus, O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under conditions regularly encountered during the cooler portions of the day. Because O/sub 2/ insensitivity is an indicator of feedback limited photosynthesis, these results indicate that feedback limitations can play a role in determining the diurnal carbon gain in the field. At higher partial pressures of CO/sub 2/ the temperature at which O/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred was higher, indicating that feedback limitations in the field will become more important as the CO/sub 2/ concentration in the atmosphere increases.

  16. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated cross-reactivity between mesquite pollen proteins and lima bean, an edible legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, A; Arora, N; Jain, V K; Sridhara, S; Singh, B P

    2007-09-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy often develops as a consequence of allergic sensitization to pollen proteins. Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) tree pollen is reported to be cross-reactive with other pollen species, but little has been reported on its cross-reactivity with plant-derived foods belonging to the same/different families. The present study investigates the in vitro cross-reactivity of mesquite pollen and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), an edible seed belonging to the Leguminosae family. Of 110 patients (asthma, rhinitis or both) tested intradermally, 20 showed marked positive reactions with Prosopis pollen extract. Of these, 12 patients showed elevated specific IgE to Prosopis pollen extract alone and four to both Phaseolus and pollen extract. In vitro cross-reactivity was investigated using inhibition assays [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition, immunoblot inhibition], histamine release and lymphoproliferation. P. lunatus extract could inhibit IgE binding to P. juliflora in a dose-dependent manner, requiring 400 ng of protein for 50% inhibition in ELISA assay. Immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition demonstrated the presence of 20, 26, 35, 66 and 72 kDa as shared IgE binding components between the two extracts. Histamine release, peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation and interleukin (IL)-4 levels also suggested allergenic cross-reactivity. In conclusion, there is humoral and cellular cross-reactivity between Prosopis pollen and Phaseolus seed allergens.

  17. Interação de polifenóis e proteínas e o efeito na digestibilidade proteica de feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Pérola Polyphenol and protein interaction and the effect on protein digestibility in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Perola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Araújo Delfino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão é um alimento de importância na dieta dos brasileiros, sendo consumido com frequência. Além de sua importância proteica e de carboidratos contém também compostos bioativos que são essenciais para a manutenção da saúde dos indivíduos. Esses compostos podem se alterar com a estocagem e com a cocção, resultando em modificações de suas propriedades de ligação. A pesquisa teve por objetivos medir a capacidade de hidratação e o tempo de cocção antes e após o armazenamento e avaliar os teores de taninos em feijão comum, cultivar Pérola e a interferência desses compostos na digestibilidade de proteínas, estes parâmetros foram avaliados em feijões recém-colhidos e armazenados durante 3 e 6 meses, antes e após cocção. Para tanto, foram avaliados absorção de água, tempo de cocção em grãos de feijão antes e após armazenamento e composição centesimal dos grãos antes e após cocção. O teor de taninos diminuiu com a cocção e com o tempo de armazenamento; a digestibilidade aumentou com o tempo de armazenamento; a absorção de água diminuiu com o tempo de armazenamento; o tempo de cocção aumentou; e a composição centesimal apresentou diferença em relação à umidade e ao teor de fibra alimentar. Portanto foram obtidas alterações significativas para os parâmetros avaliados tanto para a cocção como para o tempo de armazenamento dos grãos de feijão comum, cultivar Pérola.Bean is one of the most important components of the Brazilian diet, and it is consumed frequently. It has been proven to be source of protein and carbohydrates and contains bioactive compounds that are essential for people´s heath. These compounds can undergo changes as a result of storage and cooking leading to modifications in their bonding properties. The objectives of this research are to determine the common bean cultivar Perola's water absorption capacity and its cooking time before and after storage and to evaluate

  18. Identification of soil-borne pathogens in a common bean root rot nursery in Isabela, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited research has been completed on the root rot complex of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Caribbean, while yield losses of over 50% due to root rot disease have been reported worldwide. In this study, the predominant root rot pathogens in a 40-year old common bean root rot nurser...

  19. Life history parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different environmental conditions on two bean cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzano, M.R.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history parameters of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), an important pest of bean crops in Colombia, were determined in environmental control chambers on two dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars (cv.). Trialeurodes vaporariorum longevity on cv. Chocho decreased as

  20. Small RNAs Derived from the T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in Hairy Roots of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Pablo; Hernández-López, Alejandrina; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Sanchez, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a pathogenic bacteria that causes hairy root disease by transferring bacterial DNA into the plant genome. It is an essential tool for industry and research due to its capacity to produce genetically modified roots and whole organisms. Here, we identified and characterized small RNAs generated from the transfer DNA (T-DNA) of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Distinct abundant A. rhizogenes T-DNA-derived small RNAs (ArT-sRNAs) belonging to several oncogenes were detected in hairy roots using high-throughput sequencing. The most abundant and diverse species of ArT-sRNAs were those of 21- and 22-nucleotides in length. Many T-DNA encoded genes constituted phasiRNA producing loci (PHAS loci). Interestingly, degradome analysis revealed that ArT-sRNAs potentially target genes of P. vulgaris. In addition, we detected low levels of ArT-sRNAs in the A. rhizogenes-induced calli generated at the wound site before hairy root emergence. These results suggest that RNA silencing targets several genes from T-DNA of A. rhizogenes in hairy roots of common bean. Therefore, the role of RNA silencing observed in this study has implications in our understanding and usage of this unique plant-bacteria interaction. PMID:28203245

  1. High quality permanent draft genome sequence of Phaseolibacter flectens ATCC 12775(T), a plant pathogen of French bean pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg-Gershtein, Yana; Izhaki, Ido; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Reddy, Tbk; Huntemann, Marcel; Pillay, Manoj; Markowitz, Victor; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Phaseolibacter flectens strain ATCC 12775(T) (Halpern et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:268-273, 2013) is a Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, aerobic, chemoorganotroph bacterium. Ph. flectens is as a plant-pathogenic bacterium on pods of French bean and was first identified by Johnson (1956) as Pseudomonas flectens. After its phylogenetic position was reexamined, Pseudomonas flectens was transferred to the family Enterobacteriaceae as Phaseolibacter flectens gen. nov., comb. nov. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The DNA GC content is 44.34 mol%. The chromosome length is 2,748,442 bp. It encodes 2,437 proteins and 89 RNA genes. Ph. flectens genome is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes study.

  2. COMPARAÇÃO DE SISTEMAS DE COLHEITA MECANIZADA E SEMIMECANIZADA NA PERDA, DANO MECÂNICO E IMPUREZA DE GRÃOS NA CULTURA DO FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. COMPARISON OF SYSTEMS OF AUTOMATED CROP AND SEMIMECHANIZED IN THE LOSS, MECHANICAL DAMAGE AND IMPURITY OF GRAINS IN THE CULTURE OF THE BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Pasqualetto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As dificuldades constatadas na colheita mecanizada do feijoeiro ainda constitui em um obstáculo para a expansão da cultura. Diante disto, o CNPAF vem se esforçando para o melhoramento da espécie buscando características adequadas à colheita mecanizada. A cultivar Safira atende a este objetivo. Neste sentido foi realizado um experimento na Fazenda Três Irmãos, no município de Santa Helena de Goiás (GO, onde se compararam três sistemas de colheita, objetivando avaliar perdas de grãos, bem como a qualidade do produto colhido, através da análise de grãos quebrados e impurezas, na cultivar Safira. Os resultados demonstraram que a colheita mecanizada do feijoeiro para a cultivar Safira é viável. A automotriz recolhedora causa menor perda de grãos, mas o dano mecânico é elevado; a recolhedora-trilhadora apresentou perda satisfatória, apesar de exigir manuseio adequado.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Feijão; culturas anuais; mecanização agrícola.

    The mechanization of the crop of the bean still constitutes an obstacle for the expansion of the culture. Due to this fact, CNPAF is making an effort to the improvement of the species looking for favorable characteristics to the mechanized crop. The cultivar ‘Safira’ fulfills this aim. In this sense, an experiment was carried out at Fazenda Três Irmãos, in the district of Santa Helena of Goiás (GO. Three crop systems were tested in order to evaluate losses of grains and the quality of the picked product, through analysis of broken grains and sludges. The results demonstrated that the mechanized crop of bean concerning the cultivar ‘Safira’ is viable. The self-driven retirement causes a smaller loss of grains, but the mechanical damage is higher; the retirement-thrashing showed satisfactory loss, despite of requiring

  3. The Class II trehalose 6-phosphate synthase gene PvTPS9 modulates trehalose metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Barraza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1% of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant.

  4. Avaliação química e nutricional do feijão carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cozido por diferentes métodos Chemical and nutritional evaluation of Carioca beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cooked by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Carolina Franqueira de Toledo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar alguns métodos de cocção em grãos de feijão (panela aberta, panela de pressão e microondas, utilizando ou não a maceração prévia dos grãos. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram que a ausência de maceração promoveu aumento no tempo de cocção das amostras, levando maior perda de nutrientes, aumento na digestibilidade in vitro da proteína e também inativação mais efetiva de taninos. A utilização de cocção em microondas preservou a disponibilidade dos aminoácidos lisina e metionina e apresentou valores maiores de fibras insolúveis. Maior teor de fibras solúveis foi obtido nas amostras que foram maceradas e quando a água de maceração foi utilizada.The aim of this study was to evaluate different methods to cook Carioca beans (open pan, domestic pressure cooker and microwave oven, with or without previous soaking of the beans. The results demonstrated that the absence of the soaking step promoted an increase in the cooking time of the samples, with a higher loss of nutrients, an increase of the in vitro protein digestibility and also a more effective inactivation of tannins. The use of the microwave oven preserved the availability of the amino acids lysine and methionine and presented higher values for insoluble fiber. Higher soluble fiber contents were found in the soaked samples when the soaking water was used.

  5. Pengaruh Varietas dan Waktu Penyiangan Gulma Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus Radiatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUSEBIO GOMES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Effects of Variety and Weeding Times on Growth and Yield of Mungbean (PhaseolusRadiatus L.The mungbean have a great potential as a food ingredient mixture of refined productsand has certain competitive advantages over other types of beans. Mungbean production in East Timoris still low and has not been able to meet the needs of the market. Therefore, weed control and selectionof good varieties of mung beans is one of the determining factors in the increased production of mungbean.The objective of the study was to determine the effect of time of weeding on the growth and yield ofseveral varieties of mungbean. The study was conducted at the Pilot Suco Hera Sub-distrito Cristo Rei,Dili-Timor Leste. It used a randomized block design with two factors. The first factor was type ofvarieties of mungbean and the second factor was the weeding time. Factor of types of varieties consistedof three, namely: VL = Local Variety, VM = Merak variety, VG = Gelatik variety, while factor ofweeding times consists of PO = No weeding, P1 = weeding at 2 and 4 weeks after planting, P2 =weeding at 3 and 5 weeks after planting, with three replications. The results showed that weeding timeaffected the outcome of drying seed dry weight per hectare. Weeding time at 2 and 4 weeks afterplanting had a better dry weight of seed i.e 1.09 g, compared to those of weeding at 3 and 5 weeksafter planting. The use of different varieties showed that Merak variety had drying seed dry weight of1.16 tons ha-1, Gelatik variety was 1.09 tons ha-1, and the local variety was 0.97 tons ha-1.

  6. Identification of Powdery Mildew Resistant Genes based on SCAR Markers in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)%普通菜豆抗白粉病基因SCAR标记鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴星波; 郝俊杰; 张晓艳; 万述伟; 李红卫; 邵阳; 孙吉禄

    2013-01-01

    Eight SCAR primer combinations( SAU5, SS18, SF6Em3, SF12R9, SF13R10, SF18R7, SF18R15 and SMe1Em5) of common bean powdery mildew resistant genes were used to check the genome DNA of 78 common bean accessions. The SCAR primer pairs of SF12R9, SF13R10, SF18R7, SF18R15 and SMe1Em5 did not amplified target bands at all; SAU5 marker appeared in 52 accessions, SF6Em3 marker in 66 accessions, and SS18 marker in 76 accessions. 2~3 SCAR markers appeared in 76 accessions respectively. The types of powdery mildew resistant genes in each of the 78 accessions have been identified, and the accessions with pyramiding powdery mildew resistance genes were selected.%利用8个来自于普通菜豆抗白粉病基因SCAR 标记( SAU5、SS18、SF6Em3、SF12R9、SF13R10、SF18R7、SF18R15和SMe1Em5)引物组,对78份普通菜豆资源进行抗白粉病分子标记的鉴定。结果表明:在这78份资源中, SF12R9、SF13R10、SF18R7、SF18R15和SMe1Em5均无扩增带。有52份资源含有SAU5标记,66份资源含有SF6Em3标记,76份资源含有SS18标记。76份资源含有2~3个标记。该研究明确了78份参试菜豆资源所含的抗白粉病基因类型,并筛选出抗白粉病基因聚合体的参试菜豆资源。

  7. Foliar injury and leaf diffusive resistance of rice and white bean in response to SO2 and O3, singly and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, B D; Tripathi, A

    1992-01-01

    Plants of rice (Oryza sativa) and white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to 524 microg m(-3) SO2, 392 microg m(-3) O3 and a mixture of both gases, i.e. 524 microg m(-3) SO2 and 392 microg m(-3) O3 to determine the visible foliar injury and leaf diffusive resistance. Response of leaf diffusive resistance was measured on upper and lower surfaces of leaves, i.e. the two unifoliate leaves of bean and the first, second and third primary leaves of rice. The difference in the response may be due to sensitive guard cells causing stomatal closure in the presence of O3, whilst a low concentration of SO2 caused the stomata to open. Thus, SO2 alone is known to decrease, and O3 tends to increase leaf diffusive resistance. However, exposure to both gases increases or decreases the resistance, depending on the species response.

  8. Complete genome sequence of bean leaf crumple virus, a novel begomovirus infecting common bean in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Zambrano, Leidy; Bueno, Juan M; Raatz, Bodo; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2017-02-10

    A copy of the complete genome of a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia was obtained by rolling-circle amplification (RCA), cloned, and sequenced. The virus is associated with leaf crumple symptoms and significant yield losses in Andean and Mesoamerican beans. Such symptoms have been reported increasingly in Colombia since at least 2002, and we detected the virus in leaf material collected since 2008. Sequence analysis showed that the virus is a member of a distinct species, sharing 81% and 76% nucleotide (nt) sequence identity (in DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively) to other begomoviruses infecting common bean in the Americas. The data obtained support the taxonomic status of this virus (putatively named 'bean leaf crumple virus', BLCrV) as a member of a novel species in the genus Begomovirus.

  9. Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on the Activity and Expression of Alternative Oxidase in Red Kidney Bean Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Guang Zhao; Ying-Gao Liu; Li-Xin Zhang; Lin Zheng; Yu-Rong Bi

    2007-01-01

    An increase in ultraviolet (UV) B radiation on the earth's surface is a feature of current global climate changes. It has been reported that alternative oxidase (AOX) may have a protective role against oxidative stress induced by environmental stresses, such as UV-B. To better understand the characteristic tolerance of plants to UV-B radiation, the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the activity and expression of AOX in red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves were investigated in the present study. The results show that the total respiration rate and AOX activity in red kidney bean leaves increased significantly during treatment with enhanced UV-B. However, cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity did not change at 24 h of UV-B treatment, before dropping rapidly. Both alternative pathway content and alternative pathway activity were increased in the presence of exogenous H2O2. Immunoblotting analysis with anti-AOX monoclonal antibody revealed that expression of the AOX protein increased in red kidney bean leaves under enhanced UV-B radiation, reaching a peak at 72increase in AOX activity in red kidney bean leaves under enhanced UV-B radiation was mainly due to H2O2-induced AOX expression.

  10. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    bean may prove to be a key component of future arable cropping systems where declining supplies and high prices of fossil energy are likely to constrain the affordability and use of fertilizers. This will help address the increasing demand by consumers and governments for agriculture to reduce its...... impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean...

  11. Influence of exposure temperature and relative humidity on the response of pinto bean foliage to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rist, D.L.; Davis, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    When 20-day-old pinto bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris Pinto 111) were exposed to 0.9 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sup 2/) the amount of trifoliate leaf injury induced by SO/sub 2/ generally was greater at 32 C than at either 13 or 21 C, and greater at 80% relative humidity (RH) than at 40 and 60% RH. However, injury was less following exposures at 32 C for 1 hr and 21 C for 1 and 2 hr than that caused by equivalent exposures at 13 C. Stomatal conductance increased significantly with increased temperature and RH. Stomatal conductance of trifoliate leaves from plants exposed to SO/sub 2/ was less than that of exposed control plants. The foliar content of SO/sub 2/ evaluated after exposures at 21 and 32C, generally at the higher temperatures. 34 references, 5 figures.

  12. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: a greenhouse experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A; Dendooven, L

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO(2) from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N(2)O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-), but the concentration of NO(3)(-) was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil.

  13. The development of an efficient multipurpose bean pod mottle virus viral vector set for foreign gene expression and RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunquan; Bradshaw, Jeffrey D; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

    2010-05-01

    Plant viral vectors are valuable tools for heterologous gene expression, and because of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), they also have important applications as reverse genetics tools for gene function studies. Viral vectors are especially useful for plants such as soybean (Glycine max) that are recalcitrant to transformation. Previously, two generations of bean pod mottle virus (BPMV; genus Comovirus) vectors have been developed for overexpressing and silencing genes in soybean. However, the design of the previous vectors imposes constraints that limit their utility. For example, VIGS target sequences must be expressed as fusion proteins in the same reading frame as the viral polyprotein. This requirement limits the design of VIGS target sequences to open reading frames. Furthermore, expression of multiple genes or simultaneous silencing of one gene and expression of another was not possible. To overcome these and other issues, a new BPMV-based vector system was developed to facilitate a variety of applications for gene function studies in soybean as well as in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). These vectors are designed for simultaneous expression of multiple foreign genes, insertion of noncoding/antisense sequences, and simultaneous expression and silencing. The simultaneous expression of green fluorescent protein and silencing of phytoene desaturase shows that marker gene-assisted silencing is feasible. These results demonstrate the utility of this BPMV vector set for a wide range of applications in soybean and common bean, and they have implications for improvement of other plant virus-based vector systems.

  14. Deposição e perdas da calda em feijoeiro em aplicação com assistência de ar na barra pulverizadora Spray deposition and spray loss using air-assistance boom on bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Raetano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da assistência de ar na deposição da calda de pulverização, em plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris aos 26 dias após a emergência (DAE, com pontas de pulverização de jato cônico vazio (JA-0,5 e JA-1 e jato plano (AXI-110015, e volumes de calda, foi realizado um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando como traçador o íon cobre. Alvos coletores (papel de filtro com 3 x 3 cm foram afixados nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de folíolos posicionados nas partes superior e inferior das plantas. Para aplicar a solução traçadora, utilizou-se pulverizador com barras de 14 metros, com e sem assistência de ar, volumes de 60 e 100 L.ha-1, e velocidade do ar correspondente a 50% da rotação máxima do ventilador. Após a aplicação, os coletores foram lavados individualmente em solução extratora de ácido nítrico a 1,0 mol.L-1, e a quantificação dos depósitos através de espectrofotometria. A assistência de ar não influenciou na deposição da calda tanto a 60 quanto a 100 L.ha-1. O maior volume proporcionou maiores depósitos, sendo constatadas elevadas perdas para o solo (mais de 60%.Aiming to evaluate the effect of air-assistance in spray deposition on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris with hollow nozzles (JA-0,5 and JA-1 and flat fan nozzle type (AXI-110015, and volume rates by air-assisted and non-assisted sprayers, a completely randomized experiment was carried out using copper ion as a tracer to the evaluation of the deposits. At 26 days after emergence, artificial targets were positioned on the upper and under-side of the leaflets, on the top and bottom parts of the same plants under spray boom. For the application of tracer solution it was used a fourteen meter boom sprayer with and without air-assistance at 60 and 100 L.ha-1 of volume rates. The air flow was 50% of the maximum fan rotation. After application, targets were individually washed with an

  15. CRITICAL PERIOD OF MUNGBEAN (PHASEOLUS RADIATUS L. TO WEED COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.H. UTOMO*

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the critical period of weed control on the crop of mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.. The studies were done in the field of BIOTROP Experimental Station with the natural existing weed population. It was found that the critical period of mungbean to weed competition was from 3-6 weeks after planting.

  16. CRITICAL PERIOD OF MUNGBEAN (PHASEOLUS RADIATUS L.) TO WEED COMPETITION

    OpenAIRE

    I.H. UTOMO*

    1989-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the critical period of weed control on the crop of mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.). The studies were done in the field of BIOTROP Experimental Station with the natural existing weed population. It was found that the critical period of mungbean to weed competition was from 3-6 weeks after planting.

  17. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes; Aspectos biologicos de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em seis genotipos de feijoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriani, Maria A. de G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva; Vendramin, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Brunherotto, Rogerio [Fundacao Municipal de Ensino Superior de Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  18. Soil physical and microbiological attributes cultivated with the common bean under two management systems

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    Lorena Adriana De Gennaro

    Full Text Available Agricultural management systems can alter the physical and biological soil quality, interfering with crop development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and microbiological attributes of a Red Latosol, and its relationship to the biometric parameters of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, irrigated and grown under two management systems (conventional tillage and direct seeding, in Campinas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, with a split-plot arrangement for the management system and soil depth, analysed during the 2006/7 and 2007/8 harvest seasons, with 4 replications. The soil physical and microbiological attributes were evaluated at depths of 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The following were determined for the crop: density, number of pods per plant, number of beans per pod, thousand seed weight, total weight of the shoots and harvest index. Direct seeding resulted in a lower soil physical quality at a depth of 0.00-0.05 m compared to conventional tillage, while the opposite occurred at a depth of 0.05-0.10 m. The direct seeding showed higher soil biological quality, mainly indicated by the microbial biomass nitrogen, basal respiration and metabolic quotient. The biometric parameters in the bean were higher under the direct seeding compared to conventional tillage.

  19. New Native Rhizobia Strains for Inoculation of Common Bean in the Brazilian Savanna

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    Fábio Martins Mercante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Maximization of biological nitrogen fixation in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. crop depends on the genetic characteristics related to the plant, the symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of rhizobia selected beforehand from Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna soils in Mato Grosso do Sul. The experiments were conducted in 2007 in the municipalities of Aquidauana, Anaurilândia, Campo Grande, and Dourados, all located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. All procedures established followed the current recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (Ministério de Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento – MAPA, in accordance with the “official protocol for assessing the feasibility and agronomic efficiency of strains, and inoculant technologies linked to the process of biological nitrogen fixation in legumes”. The program for selection of rhizobia for inoculation in bean plants resulted in identification of diffe