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Sample records for beans plants phaseolus

  1. Low Temperature Enhances Photosynthetic Down‐regulation in French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tsonev, Tsonko; VELIKOVA Violeta; Georgieva, Katya; HYDE, PAUL F.; Jones, Hamlyn G.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms of photosynthetic adaptation to different combinations of temperature and irradiance during growth, and especially the consequences of exposure to high light (2000 µmol m–2 s–1 PPFD) for 5 min, simulating natural sunflecks, was studied in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A protocol using only short (3 min) dark pre‐treatment was introduced to maximize the amount of replication possible in studies of chlorophyll fluorescence. High light at low temperature (10 °C) significant...

  2. Effect of Some Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria on Yield, Yield Components of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Aras 98)

    OpenAIRE

    Tozlu, Elif; Karagöz, Kenan; Babagil, G. Emel; Dizikısa, Tülay; Kotan, Recep

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT : The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) belongs to the family Leguminosae, and is a diverse food resource of high nutritional value. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are a group of bacteria that actively colonize plants, increase plant growth and yield, and suppres plant disease. In this study, the effectiveness of ten PGPBs (Alcaligenes piechaudii strain RK-136, Bacillus megaterium strain M-3, Bacillus pumilus  strain M-13, Bacillus subtilis  strain BA-142, Erwinia rhapontic...

  3. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  4. Simulation of fallout for translocation studies of 137Cs and 90Sr in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of an accident at a nuclear power plant with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge on the behaviour of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable for safety reasons. The radioactive contamination of crops, due to fallout, should be carefully assessed since the consumption of contaminated food is the main route of population exposure. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. In order to quantify the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for Cs and Sr in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomised block design. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. Cs activity was determined by gamma ray spectrometry, while chemical separation followed by beta counting of Y was used for Sr determination. The model used for translocation indicated functional dependence between the moment of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. (author)

  5. EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON THE GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS RATE OF BEAN PLANTS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nevena STOEVA; Miroslava Kaymakanova

    2009-01-01

    The effect of salt stress оn some physiological parameters in young bean plants (cv. Lody) was studied under controlled conditions in a climatic room. The plants were grown in pots as hydroponic cultures in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution. The plants were treated for 7 days with 50 and 100 mM NaCl and Na2SO4 , starting at the appearance of the fi rst trifoliate leaf unfolded. The salts were added to the nutrient solution. It was established that the applied doses of both salt types c...

  6. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for 60Co, 90Sr and 137Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for 60Co, 90Sr and 137Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for 60Co and 137Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of 90Y was used for 90Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for 60Co and 137Cs. For the 90Sr, the translocation was below 2,5 mBq kg-1/Bq kg-1, 0

  7. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants. PMID:15658802

  8. Effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth of beans plants (phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth and photosynthesis of three moisture levels (20,30 and 40 %) was studied.The first moisture level was near field capacity while the others exceeded. Weekly dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll content, net CO2 exchange rate in light and darkness, 14CO2 assimilated rate and stomatal aperture were determined. Results show a positive effect of soil moisture over field capacity on growth, photosynthate and transpiration of beans during the first growing month. (Author) 76 refs

  9. Effect of silicon on manganese tolerance of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of silicon on manganese tolerance of beam plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. 'Red Kidney') grown in water culture was studied at different levels of magnenese supply. Without silicon, growth depression and toxicity symptoms occurred already at 5 X 10-4 mM Mn in the nutrient solution. After addition of Aerosil (0.75 ppm Si), the plants tolerated 5 X 10-3 mM Mn and, at a higher silicon supply of 40 ppm, as much as 10-2 mM Mn in the nutrient solution without any growth depression. This increase in manganese tolerance was not caused by a depressing effect of silicon on uptake or translocation of manganese but rather by an increase in the manganese tolerance of the leaf tissue. In absence of silicon, 100 ppm Mn was already toxic for the leaf tissue, whereas with a supply of 40 ppm Si, this 'critical level' in the leaves was increased to more than 1000 ppm Mn. At lower manganese levels in the leaf tissue, a molar ratio Si/Mn of 6 within the tissue was sufficient to prevent manganese toxicity. Above 1000 ppm Mn, however, even a much wider Si/Mn ratio (> 20) could not prevent growth depression by manganese toxicity. (Auth.)

  10. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  11. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

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    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  12. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  13. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

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    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  14. Effects of sorghum (sorghum bicolor L. root exudates on the cell cycle of the bean plant (phaseolus vulgaris L. root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallak Angela Maria Gattás

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to test the allelopathic effect of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. root exudates on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cell division. Research was conducted in the greenhouse of the Wistock Agricultural Research Institute of Minas Gerais State (EPAMIG and in a laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. Sorghum variety BR-601 and bean variety Carioca MG were used. The exudate, called sorgoleone (SGL, was obtained by methylene chloride and acetic acid extraction from sorghum roots seven days after sowing on Petri dishes, and refrigerated until use. Solutions of 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mM were prepared using Johanson solution as the SGL solvent. Seven-day-old bean seedlings grown in vermiculite in a greenhouse were transplanted to the solution. Seven days after transplantation, the beans did not show any sign of phytotoxicity; however, cytogenetic observations showed that SGL reduced the number of cells in prophase, metaphase, and anaphase stages. Colchicine effects were observed among cells in metaphase on the third and fifth days after treatments and varied with SGL concentrations. By the seventh day, the colchicine effects were inversely proportional to concentration, which varied from 34.3% for 0.01 mM to 6.6% for 0.15 mM. SGL acts as a mitotic inhibitor. It probably depolymerizes the microtubular proteins and induces the formation of colchicine metaphases causing polyploid nuclei. A largest period of SGL treatment also induced chromosome breaks and bridge formation in anaphase and telophase. Although SGL cannot be used as a herbicide for bean cultures, its allelochemical effects on other cultures are the factors that will define the use of sorghum as a natural herbicide.

  15. Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasina, M.; Nderitu, J.; Nyamasyo, G.; Waturu, C.; Olubayo, F.; Obudho, E.; Yobera, D.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management. (Author) 36 refs.

  16. Transcriptome Sequencing of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus to Identify Putative Positive Selection in Phaseolus and Legumes

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    Fengqi Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of genes under positive selection is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Many legume species, including Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean and Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean, have important ecological and economic value. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of one Phaseolus species, lima bean. A comparison with the genomes of six other legume species, including the common bean, Medicago, lotus, soybean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, revealed 15 and 4 orthologous groups with signatures of positive selection among the two Phaseolus species and among the seven legume species, respectively. Characterization of these positively selected genes using Non redundant (nr annotation, gene ontology (GO classification, GO term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analyses revealed that these genes are mostly involved in thylakoids, photosynthesis and metabolism. This study identified genes that may be related to the divergence of the Phaseolus and legume species. These detected genes are particularly good candidates for subsequent functional studies.

  17. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  18. Effect of Plant Density on Flowering Date, Yield and Quality Attribute of Bush Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. under Center Pivot Irrigation System

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    Samih Abubaker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates six different planting densities (10*30, 20*30, 30*30, 40*30, 50*30, 60*30 of bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., Bronco variety and their impacts on yield, earliness and quality attributes using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD under central pivot irrigation system in the southern part of Jordan during 2007 growing season. Although, the highest planting density (10*30 cm gave the highest percent of early yield (93% in comparison to the total yield it was among the lowest yielding ability and tended to give pods with lower N,P,K and protein contents. The highest yields were obtained by 20*30 and 30*30 cm planting densities with 73 and 71% respectively of early yield related to the total yield. Stem diameter, pod dry weight as well as protein and mineral contents tended to be higher under the lower planting densities. The issue of this research seems to give clear perspectives to obtain high early yield with good enough quality under 20*30 cm bush bean under central pivot irrigation system in the desert of southern part of Jordan.

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF BUSH BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) TO OZONE AND DROUGHT STRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were exposed to ozone (O3) episodes in open-top chambers in early and late season studies at Corvallis, Oregon. lants were grown in cultural systems that controlled plant water status. he 7-h seasonal mean O3 concentrations were 0.067 and ...

  20. Water deficit imposed by partial irrigation at different plant growth stages of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific growth stages of common bean crop, at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress so that irrigation can be omitted without significant decrease in biological nitrogen fixation and final yield. The field experiment was conducted at ''La Tola'' University Experiment Station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, on a sandy loam soil (Typic durustoll). The climate was warm and dry (mean air temperature 16 deg. C and mean relative humidity 74%) during the cropping season and rainfall of 123 mm was recorded during the cropping period (July to October, 1992 and 1994). 12 refs, 7 tabs

  1. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses (60Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment. e) The

  2. Tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectin cytotoxicity in tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Del Carmen Valadez-Vega, Maria; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Loarca-Pina, Guadalupe

    2005-09-01

    This study compared the levels of antinutritional components and cytotoxic effect of extracts, from tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans. Antinutritional factors were evaluated by determining their effect on the viability of epithelial cells isolated from rat small intestine. The protein and carbohydrates content were similar in all the genotypes studied (20 and 60%, respectively). Common beans presented higher content of trypsin inhibitors, tannins and lectins than tepary beans. There was not a significant correlation between tannins and cooking time. However, water absorption and cooking time correlated significantly (p lectin activity (1302-18161 Ul/mg) of extracts from different beans. Tannins, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and fat content differed between bean varieties whereas protein content was similar. The percent cellularity on rat epithelial cells was significantly different among protein extracts from different bean cultivars and ranged between 53.5% and 87.4% (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the incorporation of tepary beans in the diet would not alter the current nutritional contribution of common beans or introduce adverse toxic effects. The agronomic characteristics of tepary beans make them attractive for cultivation. However, the harder to cook phenomenon may be a limiting factor that needs further consideration. PMID:16187017

  3. INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR SEED GERMINATION AND OTHER YIELD PARAMETERS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Asad Ali; Bhanita Talukdar; Bhojaraja Naik

    2014-01-01

    Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most ancient cultivated crops among the legumes. It is commonly used for human nutrition, animal feed and soil fertility. Seeds of two local dwarf varieties of kidney bean, B1-Local and B2-Local were subjected to different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3 %, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) of sodium azide (SA). Effects of chemical mutagen were evaluated for seed germination, plant survival, plant height, number of branch per plant; number of leaves...

  4. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O3-sensitive)/'R123' (O3-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O3-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O3-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O3 on stomatal conductance (g s), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O3 and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O3. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O3 sensitivity and g s: while 'S156' had higher g s rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G s rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O3-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O3 in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O3-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O3 concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O3 concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O3 eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O3 and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O3 has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This appeared to be more evident in O3-sensitive cultivars. - O3 has the potential to affect stomatal development and the presence of different control mechanisms on each leaf surface is confirmed

  5. Geometry applied to breeding common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J G; Ramalho, M A P

    2016-01-01

    The primary components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grain yield (W) are the number of pods (X), the number of grains per pod (Y), and the weight of the grains (Z). In 1964, Grafius suggested using geometry in plant breeding; W corresponds to the volume of a parallelepiped with three axes, X, Y, and Z. Because the cube is the largest parallelepiped by volume, maximum yield is obtained when the relative contributions of X, Y, and Z are the same. We evaluated individual plants of a 'Talismã' x 'L.59583' cross in two sowing periods. The sum of squares of deviations from the ideal plant (GI), i.e., the plant in which the X, Y, and Z contributions were the same, was estimated. Mean and variance genetic components, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between the characteristics were also estimated. Good concordance was observed in the magnitude and direction of the genetic and phenotypic correlation estimates of the paired characteristics. However, a low GI heritability (h(2)r = 6.7%) indicated that success due to selection should be small. Ninety-four progenies of 'Pérola' x 'ESAL 686' crosses were also evaluated, where X, Y, Z, and W were obtained and GI was estimated. The h(2) estimate was higher, but still low (h(2) = 39.0%). Therefore, the selection of individuals to obtain plants in which the X, Y, and Z products tend to the cube is unfeasible, because the sums of X, Y, and Z vary between individuals. In addition, the GI h2 value was low. PMID:27173247

  6. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  7. Determination of some micro and macro elements of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants after addition of olive oil solid waste to soil

    OpenAIRE

    İlay, Remzi; SÜMER, Ali

    2008-01-01

    In this study, effects of olive oil solid waste (OSW) applications on bean and sunflower macro and micro element contents were investigated. Olive oil solid waste mixed with soil at the rates of 0, 3, 5 and 7 % by weight. Plants were grown in the pots under controlled conditions throughout 45 days for sunflower and 30 days for bean. Plant carbon/nitrogen (C/N), some macro elements; nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and micro elements; boron...

  8. Genetic Diversity of North American Wild kidney bean (Phaseolus polystachios) in the Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American wild kidney bean or thicket bean (Phaseolus polystachios (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb) is a perennial vine found in the eastern United States from Texas to Connecticut. It is the only Phaseolus species native to temperate North America. Its closest cultivated relative is P. lunatus...

  9. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality, with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.H.M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins respectively whic

  10. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  11. MicroRNAs Expression Profile in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under Nutrient Deficiency Stresses and Manganese Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in plants. The information on miRNAs in legumes is scarce. This work analyzes miRNAs in the agronomically important legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. A hybridization approach of miRNAs-macroarrays prin...

  12. RESEARCH ON PROTEINASE INHIBITORS OF BEANS PHASEOLUS VULGARIS TO MAKE PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS FROM PESTS AND DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovskaya, N.; Gagarina, I.; Dzumabaeva, B.; Dzangalina, E.

    2014-01-01

    An animal body and seed plants have a complex of proteolytic ferments which react in reserve protein breakdown to amino acids in food digestion and seed sprouting. At present a few hundreds of peptidohydrolases of different origin have been described. In regulation of proteolysis inhibitors of proteolytic ferments react. In a living organism they are presented by means of specific protein. Inhibitors have an ability to slow down or stop fermentation. They react in immunity apoptosis, protect ...

  13. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dongying; Zhao, Dongyan; Abernathy, Brian; Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Jiang, Ning; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T). Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome. PMID:27185400

  14. Antinutritional factors in anasazi and other pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, J K; Telek, L; Vozári-Hampe, M; Saini, H S

    1997-01-01

    Antinutritional factors of anasazi bean were compared to traditional pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Anasazi beans contained less (p0.05) in stachyose and raffinose content were found between the two bean types; verbascose was not detected at all. Significant (plectin content were observed between anasazi and pinto bean. The lectins of anasazi beans were classified as non toxic and those of the pinto beans as toxic types. No differences (p>0.05) in inhibitor activity against human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin were found between the two bean types. PMID:9527344

  15. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. and in the induction of plant defence-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eMayo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defence. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defence-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defence-related genes was analysed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86% and 58%. In In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defence-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defence-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defence in the presence of the pathogen.

  16. Snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quality profile by sensory descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vilanova de la Torre, María del Mar; Rodiño Míguez, Ana Paula; González Fernández, Ana María; Canosa Rodríguez, Pilar; Rodríguez Vega, Iria; Riveiro, Manuel; Santalla Ferradás, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Sensory quality of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) influence consumer preferences. The application of sensory descriptive analysis (SDA) for snap bean quality is shown in this work. SDA has allowed generatin gdescriptors for appearance, aroma, flavor and texture, which could be used to characterize snap bean varieties.

  17. The effects of olive oil solid waste applications on the some physiological and morphological parameters of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sümer, Ali; İlay, Remzi; Kavdır, Yasemin

    2008-01-01

    By considering the storage problems and the environmental harms caused by agricultural by-products and industrial wastes, researches on reusing these wastes are gaining great importance. In this study we investigated the olive oil solid waste applications on beans and sunflower growth. Olive oil solid waste (OSW) mixed with soil at the rates of 0, 3, 5 and 7 % by weight. Some physiological and morphological parameters such as chlorophyll contents, plant height, plant thickness etc...

  18. Crop physiological analysis of seed quality variation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Physiological maturity, harvest maturity, earliness, common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., morphological markers, variation, moisture content, dry weight, viability, vigour, electrical conductivity, tetrazolium, seed lot, seed filling, maturation drying, temperature, rainfa

  19. Nutritional analyses for proteins and amino acids in beans (Phaseolus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathelet B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical index is a good estimator of seed protein quality of Phaseolus beans. In order to estimate this value, a protein hydrolysis and amino acid quantification are realised. The problems inherent to these techniques are presented.

  20. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-01-01

    Highlight The impact of cold plasma on the wetting, water absorption, and germination of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) is reported. Plasma treatment accelerated the water absorption and germination of seeds.

  1. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  2. Sensory changes related to breeding for plant architecture and resistance to viruses and anthracnose in bean market class Fabada (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    J.J. Ferreira; Castillo, R.R. (Romero); Pérez-Vega, E.; Plans, M.; Simó, J.; Casañas, F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumers hold landraces in high esteem and often consider that breeding programs lead to a loss of sensory quality, although consumers’ opinions have not been scientifically confirmed. As a model case of study we recorded seed sensory traits in six inbred common bean lines classified in the market class Fabada obtained by backcrossing and/or pedigree selection (to change the plant architecture and increase resistances) and then cultivated in two environments in two consecutive years. A senso...

  3. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality, with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Savelkoul, F.H.M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins respectively which negatively effect the protein digestibility by nonruminants e.g. pigs. Also the storage protein is not easily digested by nonruminants. The main aim of the present study was to find a reasonable ...

  4. Attempts to induce mutants resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic virus in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The golden mosaic of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that is present in the tropical parts of the American continent has become a major hindrance for the cultivation of this food legume of great importance to many Latin America countries. Good control measures are not known and bean germ plasm resistant or tolerant to this virus disease is not yet available. Attempts to induce bean mutants with this desirable characteristic were made using gamma radiation and chemical mutagen. Some M2 plants from one progeny of the cultivar Carioca treated with 0.48% ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), 6 hours of treatment at 200C, showed milder symptoms than the control progenies, and at the same time they showed a tendency to recover. This mutant is being tested under field conditions and used in crosses with other bean types that show a certain degree of tolerance, aiming at adding the favourable characters of both parents. Seeds of the hybrids, as well as those of the parent types, are also being further submitted to mutagenic treatments in order to obtain still better mutants that will be satisfactory for direct or indirect control of bean golden mosaic. (author)

  5. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau Sang Chan; Jack Ho Wong; Evandro Fei Fang; Wen Liang Pan; Tzi Bun Ng

    2012-01-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide,with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC5o=3 μM),Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis,was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv.brown kidney bean.The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75.The antifungal activity of the peptide against M.arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0℃ to 80℃.There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13,and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0,1,and 14.The activity at 90℃ and 100℃ was slightly diminished.Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M.arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth.The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells,in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides,indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  6. The influence of fast neutrons on the size and variation of morphological characters in N2 plants of two varieties of dwarf bean -Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of studies of N2 generation obtained after seed irradiation of 2 dwarf bean varieties grown for dry seeds (a small-seeded Biala Wyborowa and a coarse-seeded Bomba) with four doses of fast neutrons (6, 8.5, 12, 15 J/Kg) it has been found that the variation range of some characters increased. That concerned such characters as the seed weight per plant and per pod, the 1000-seed weight and the pod number per plant, the plant shape coefficient and plant height. The optimal mutagen dose for the small-seeded variety was 6 J/Kg and that for the coarse-seeded variety - 15 J/Kg. (author)

  7. Retention and translocation of foliar applied {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, as compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr, into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: pascale.henner@irsn.fr; Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morello, M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Foliar transfer of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr was evaluated after contamination of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) at the flowering development stage, by soaking their first two trifoliate leaves into contaminated solutions. Initial retentions of {sup 241}Am (27%) and {sup 239,240}Pu (37%) were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr (10-15%). Mean fraction of retained activity redistributed among bean organs was higher for {sup 137}Cs (20.3%) than for {sup 239,240}Pu (2.2%), {sup 241}Am (1%) or {sup 85}Sr (0.1%). Mean leaf-to-pod translocation factors (Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight pod/Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight contaminated leaves) were 5.0 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 241}Am, 2.7 x 10{sup -6} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 5.4 x 10{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 85}Sr. Caesium was mainly recovered in pods (12.8%). Americium and strontium were uniformly redistributed among leaves, stems and pods. Plutonium showed preferential redistribution in oldest bean organs, leaves and stems, and very little redistribution in forming pods. Results for americium and plutonium were compared to those of strontium and caesium to evaluate the consistency of the attribution of behaviour of strontium to transuranium elements towards foliar transfer, based on translocation factors, as stated in two radioecological models, ECOSYS-87 and ASTRAL.

  8. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV and...

  9. Yields and quality of Phaseolus bean cultivars under farmers’ conditions in eastern and southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Høgh; Kamalongo, Donwell; Ngwira, Amos;

    2014-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a dominant grain legume in eastern and southern Africa, where it constitutes a major source of protein and microminerals in peoples’ diet. The current studies aimed at determining how initially promising genotypes of bean responded in terms of yield and grai...

  10. Cadmium, manganese, iron, zinc and magnesium content of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) in relation to the duration and the amount of cadmium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelo, J.; Poschenrieder, C.; Cabot, C.

    1985-01-01

    In a long term experiment on bean plants, the effect of different cadmium concentrations on the growth and the content of Cd, Fe, Mn, Zn and Mg was studied during the total growth period. Cd treated and non-treated plants clearly exhibit differences in their growth and their nutrient content. There are clear differences between early and late Cd effects. In spite of a decrease of the magnesium content in most of the Cd treated plants, the values almost always stay above 1% and do not seem to be deficient. The results are discussed with the final conclusion, that the negative effect of Cd on the chlorophyll content observed in former studies, seems due to Mn deficiency rather than to the decrease of the Mg content.

  11. Comparative study of the chemical composition of wild and cultivated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, A; Sousa, H; Sánchez, M

    1995-02-01

    Five wild Phaseolus vulgaris beans were compared with five cultivated Phaseolus vulgaris beans in proximate composition, total (true) protein, amino acid composition, and toxic and antinutritional factors. The wild beans contained more protein (25.5% vs. 21.7%), ash (5.15 vs. 4.15%), crude fiber (7.08% vs. 5.04%) compared to cultivated beans while the former contained less fat (0.56 vs. 0.89%) and carbohydrates (61.64 vs. 68.05%). Sulfur amino acids were found to be limiting in both groups of bean as expected; however, the cultivated beans had a higher content of the limiting amino acids. Therefore, the cultivated beans showed a better amino acid profile than the wild beans. Toxic factors were not found in either type of bean; the determinations included saponins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic glycosides. The antinutritional factors investigated were hemagglutinins (lectins) and trypsin inhibitors. The wild beans presented a higher content of trypsin inhibitors (28 TUI per mg) and lectins (9.6) than the cultivated beans did (21 TUI per mg and 7 respectively). From the chemical point of view, domestication seems to be positive; however, the better protein nutritive quality of the cultivated beans should be further confirmed by biological assays. PMID:7792267

  12. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris); Coeficientes de translocacao folha-fruto de {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr e {sup 137}Cs em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-15

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of {sup 90}Y was used for {sup 90}Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. For the {sup 90

  13. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  14. Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Viviane Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni was studied using segregating populations from the bean variety crosses Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686. F2 plants, together with the parents, were inoculated and evaluated using a scale of values from one (plant without symptoms to nine (completely infected plant. F2 plants were harvested individually, and F2:3 families were obtained. These families were evaluated in an 11 x 11 and 12 x 12 simple lattice statistical design for the Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 crosses, respectively, using the same value scale as the F2 generation. The segregation observed in F2 plants and F2:3 families indicated that two genes are involved in genetic control, due to a double recessive epistasis. The high linear regression coefficient (b between F2 plants and their F2:3 family, 0.66 for ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 cross, and 0.71 for Jalo x ESAL 686 cross, showed that the trait is highly heritable.

  15. EFFECT ASSESSMENT OF KELPAK SL ON THE BEAN YIELD (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna KOCIRA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulators applied in the cultivation of plants stimulate the processes of life and increase their hardiness to stress conditions, contributing to greater and better quality of yield. One of them is Kelpak SL obtained from brown seaweed species Ecklonia maxima. The aim of experiment carried out was to assess a potential effect of Kelpak SL on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Aura yield. The trial was carried out during 2010-2011 years on the experimental field of Institute of Agricultural Sciences The State School of Higher Education in Chem. Treatments with Kelpak were carried out in 2 different concentrations 0.2 percent and 0.4 percent and in two application frequencies (one application in the 2 3 leaves stage or two applications first in the 2 3 leaves stage and second at the beginning of the beans blooming. Received results were compared with the control where Kelpak was not applied. The number and the weight of seeds, the number of pods and the weight of thousand seeds per 1 m2 were recorded. The beneficial effect of seaweed extract of Ecklonia maxima on the yield of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. was demonstrated. The highest number and weight of seeds and number of pods were obtainment in the combination of once application with 0.2 % solution of Kelpak SL in 2010 and once application with 0.4 % solution of Kelpak SL in 2011. Application of Kelpak SL significantly increased number and weight of seeds and number of pods compared with the control where Kelpak SL was not applied.

  16. Response of two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans) plants exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation under mountain ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Rashmi; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiance resulting from depletion in the ozone layer has the potential to cause detrimental effects on plants. Higher altitudes tend to receive higher doses of ambient UV-B radiation. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of enhanced UV-B (ambient + 10.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) radiation on two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Pusa Himlata and Pusa Parvati) at growth, physiological, and biochemical levels grown under mountain ecosystem. The magnitudes of negative effects of enhanced UV-B radiation were found more in Pusa Parvati as compared to Pusa Himlata. Non-enzymatic (total phenolics and flavonoids content) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were increased in both cultivars at both the ages of growth but increase was found more in Pusa Himlata as compared to Pusa Parvati. The study further showed that the economic yield of Pusa Himlata and Pusa Parvati was decreased by 14 and 44%, respectively, due to enhanced UV-B radiation. The higher decrease in the economic yield of Pusa Parvati depicted that increased amounts of total flavonoids content and stimulation of their antioxidant defense mechanism via increasing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants were not able to completely detoxify the produced reactive oxygen species under enhanced UV-B radiation and made it more sensitive to applied stress. From the present study, it can be concluded that enhanced UV-B radiation in the mountain areas of the Indian Himalayan Regions could be one of the environmental causes for lower yields of agricultural crops. Cultivation of P. vulgaris L. cv. Pusa Himlata should be promoted at higher altitudes of the Indian Himalayan Regions. PMID:26342300

  17. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  18. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  19. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources. PMID:8577647

  20. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  1. Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fiber in Cooked Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Joe S.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1989-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) requires cooking for extended periods of time prior to consumption. In this investigation both quantitative and microstructural changes in common bean dietary fiber as a result of cooking were examined. Cooking resulted in a slight decrease in soluble dietary fiber and a marked increase in insoluble dietary fiber. The increase in insoluble dietary fiber was responsible for a 15 -30 percent increase in total dietary fiber. Scanning electron microscopy wa...

  2. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after home cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho; Corrêa, Mariana M.; Elenilda J. Pereira; Nutti, Marília R.; Carvalho, José L. V.; Ribeiro, Ediane M. G.; Freitas, Sidinéa C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives: This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris...

  3. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with fructose, glucose and sucrose concentration in snap bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugars, including fructose, glucose, and sucrose contribute significantly to the flavor and consumer acceptance of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Differences between dry and snap bean cultivars and among snap bean cultivars in the patterns of accumulation of sugars have been observed. In ‘Eagle...

  4. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world, but its production is severely limited by several biotic and abiotic stressors. In search of a sustainable solution to this problem, we conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11...

  5. Virulence of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, is an important disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the dry and warmer areas of Puerto Rico and in much of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. The virulence of three isolates from Isabela (Mph-ISA-TARS), Juana Diaz (Mph-JD) a...

  6. Genome-wide association studies of morphological and agronomical traits in cultivated tepary beans (Phaseolus acutifolius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) is adapted to high temperature arid agroecological zones. In light of the ongoing and rapid changes in the world climate, the evaluation and development of alternate grain legume species that have similar nutritional and culinary characteristics as common ...

  7. Interferência das plantas daninhas no feijoeiro carioca Weed interference in carioca beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Salgado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris plantado em janeiro. A semeadura do cv. Carioca foi feita no sistema convencional e os tratamentos constaram de dois grupos: no primeiro, a cultura do feijão permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas desde a emergência até 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 dias (todo o ciclo da cultura; no segundo, a cultura permaneceu sob interferência desde a semeadura até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente, totalizando assim 14 tratamentos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. A comunidade infestante foi composta por 13 espécies, com Alternanthera tenella, Blaenvillea rhomboidea e Cenchrus echinatus se destacandodas demais, representando 63,4% do total de indivíduos. O período anterior à interferência (PAI ocorreu até os 17 dias após emergência da cultura, e o período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI ocorreu até 25 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo de vida do feijoeiro reduziu-lhe a produtividade em 67%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in 'Carioca' bean (Phaseolus vulgaris during the dry season. The assay was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Universidade do Estado de Sao Paulo-UNESP - Jaboticabal. The bean plants were sown under the conventional system. The experimental treatments consisted of two groups: in the first, the bean crop remained free of weed interference from emergence up to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 days (the entire crop cycle. In the second, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of sowing up to the same periods previously described, totalizing fourteen experimental treatments. The experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The weed community

  8. Evaluation of diversity among common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from two centers of domestication using 'omics' technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Henry J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic diversity among wild accessions and cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has been characterized using plant morphology, seed protein allozymes, random amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, DNA sequence analysis, chloroplast DNA, and microsatellite markers. Yet, little is known about whether these traits, which distinguish among genetically distinct types of common bean, can be evaluated using omics technologies. Results Three 'omics' approaches: transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics were used to qualitatively evaluate the diversity of common bean from two Centers of Domestication (COD. All three approaches were able to classify common bean according to their COD using unsupervised analyses; these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that differences exist in gene transcription, protein expression, and synthesis and metabolism of small molecules among common bean cultivars representative of different COD. Metabolomic analyses of multiple cultivars within two common bean gene pools revealed cultivar differences in small molecules that were of sufficient magnitude to allow identification of unique cultivar fingerprints. Conclusions Given the high-throughput and low cost of each of these 'omics' platforms, significant opportunities exist for their use in the rapid identification of traits of agronomic and nutritional importance as well as to characterize genetic diversity.

  9. UV-B increases the harvest index of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of small changes in natural UV-B on the photosynthesis, pigmentation, flowering and yield of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Label) were studied. To obtain a relatively natural growth environment, the plants were grown in small, half-open greenhouses of UV-transmitting Plexiglas of different thickness (3 and 5 mm), resulting in an 8% difference in the weighted UV-B reaching the plants. Although the UV-B doses used did not significantly influence photosynthesis on a leaf area basis during vegetative growth, important changes in biomass allocation were noted. A UV-B-O induced reduction in leaf area during the period of vegetative growth resulted in decreased dry weight after 57 d. During the flowering and pod-filling stages (57–79.d after planting), however, plants grown at high UV-B retained their photosynthetic capacity longer: maximal photosynthesis, chlorophyll and N content of the leaves were higher under the higher UV-B dose at a plant age of 79 d. Combined with an increased allocation under the higher UV-B dose of both N and biomass to the pods, this resulted in a small increase in yield and an important increase in harvest index with increased UV-B

  10. Study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean Phaseolus vulgaris was carried out at Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Institute of Dalat. Dry seeds of variety No.1847 - Bonita - Cuba in set of 13 black bean varieties were irradiated with gamma ray from 60Co source at dose range from 150 Gy to 350 Gy and treated with DES at concentration from 0.1% to 0.3% in 2 hours for experiments in laboratory. The doses of 200, 250, 300 Gy and concentration of 0.2% DES in 2 hours were selected to treat dry seeds for experiments on the field. In populations of M1 generation, the height, number of branches and fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit were decreased with increasing of irradiation doses. In populations of M2 generation, individual variants in leaf shape, chlorophyll, short stem, dwarf, early maturity, flowering in very short time were obtained and selected in all treatment cases. Mutation frequency at dose of 300 Gy was higher than that in other treatment cases, but ratio of sterility is also largest. The mutant lines of early maturity and short stem with flowering in very short time are promised materials for further studies. (author)

  11. Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthika Viswanathan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Protein quantity in diet including the digestibility and bioavailability of protein is of importance to eradicate undernutrition in developing countries. Bread protein is an incomplete source as it lacks an essential amino acid lysine. When they are combined with other plant foods like pulses and legumes, they become a complete source of protein. Since bread is most common staple food the objective of this study is to fortify bread with legumes in order to increase the total protein content of bread to 13-15% which is required to meet at least 1/3rd of protein requirement of an adult recommended daily allowance. Material and methods. Fortifi cation of fl at bread was done by adding sprouted red kidney bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris at 5, 15 and 25% to white fl our. The composite bread was analysed for crude protein and in vitro protein digestibility using the Kjeldahl and pepsin-pancreatin method. Results. The protein content of raw beans showed trivial increase on soaking for 17h and sprouting for 3 days. On the other hand, a remarkable increase was observed in protein digestibility i.e., 8% and 11% respectively. The protein content of control and composite breads increased gradually at 1% and protein digestibility decreased by 12% from control. This is due to the presence of dietary fi bers which bind with protein and inhibit its digestibility. Conclusion. The study infers that sprouting the beans for 72 h did not show any remarkable increase in protein content but a signifi cant increase in invitro protein digestibility was observed. Overall, breads made using 15% legume fl our was comparatively equal in protein content, with overall acceptable quality.

  12. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. protein hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared, when the beans protein was subjected to hydrolysis with pepsin. The bean protein hydrolysate obtained by hydrolysis with alcalase enzyme, showed higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical ABTS●+. However, the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with pepsin had higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical DPPH. The use of pepsin and alcalase enzymes, under the same reaction time, produced black bean protein hydrolysates with different molecular weight profiles and superior antioxidant activity than the native bean protein.

  13. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini R.; Carnovale E.; Campion B.

    1999-01-01

    Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show t...

  14. Effect of bacterial distribution and activity on conjugal transfer on the phylloplane of the bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Molin, Søren; Kroer, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Conjugal plasmid transfer was examined on the phylloplane of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and related to the spatial distribution pattern and metabolic activity of the bacteria. The donor (Pseudomonas putida KT2442) harbored a derivative of the TOL plasmid, which conferred kanamycin resistance and had...... inocula increased by up to eight times (100% RH), followed by a decrease to the initial level after 96 h. The metabolic activity of the bacteria was not rate limiting for conjugation, and no correlation between the two parameters was observed. Apparently, leaf exudates insured that the activity of the...... fluorescent cells. Sterile bean seedlings were inoculated with donors and recipients at densities of approximately 10(5) cells per cm(2). To manipulate the density and metabolic activity (measured by incorporation of [H-3]leucine) of the inoculated bacteria, plants were grown at various relative humidities...

  15. Activation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) [alpha]-amylase inhibitor requires proteolytic processing of the proprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueyo, J.J.; Hunt, D.C.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain a plant defense protein that inhibits the [alpha]-amylases of mammals and insects. This [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]Al) is synthesized as a proprotein on the endoplasmic reticulum and is proteolytically processed after arrival in the protein storage vacuoles to polypeptides of relative molecular weight (M[sub r]) 15,000 to 18,000. The authors report two types of evidence that proteolytic processing is linked to activation of the inhibitory activity. First, by surveying seed extracts of wild accessions of P. vulgaris and other species in the genus Phaseolus, they found that antibodies to [alpha]Al recognize large (M[sub r] 30,000-35,000) polypeptides as well as typical [alpha]Al processing products (M[sub r] 15,000-18,000). [alpha]Al activity was found in all extracts that had the typical [alpha]Al processed polypeptides, but was absent from seed extracts that lacked such polypeptides. Second, they made a mutant [alpha]Al in which asparagine-77 is changed to aspartic acid-77. This mutation slows down the proteolytic processing of pro-[alpha]Al when the gene is expressed in tobacco. When pro-[alpha]Al was separated from mature [alpha]Al by gel filtration, pro-[alpha]Al was found not to have [alpha]-amylase inhibitory activity. The authors interpret these results to mean that formation of the active inhibitor is causally related to proteolytic processing of the proprotein. They suggest that the polypeptide cleavage removes a conformation constraint on the precursor to produce the biochemically active molecule. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Project Phaseolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research carried out through the Phaseolus Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA) Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. It comprises the following subject s: plant breeding; nitrogen fixation; tissue cultures; proteins; photosynthetic efficiency; soil-plant interactions; electron microscopy of the golden mosaic virus; pest control; production of 15N-enriched ammonium sulfate, and determination of elements in the beans plant. (M.A.)

  17. Effect of Salt Stress on Three Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ASSIMAKOPOULOU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is increasingly forced to utilize marginal waters to meet its increasing demands, which in turn increases the risks of soil salinization and yield reduction in the arid and semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean basin. Given that the bean is an extremely salt sensitive species, the purpose of the present work was to study the effect of 0 and 75 mM sodium chloride (NaCl on leaf characteristics, growth, pod yield and ion accumulation of three green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars (‘Corallo Nano’, ‘Romano Bush Plaja’ and ‘Starazagorski’, widely used in Greece. Plants were grown in a greenhouse of Technological Educational Institute of Peloponnese in Messinia, Southern Greece, from April to June 2014, in hydroponics. The experimental design was the factorial completely randomized one with five replications; each replication consisted of the three plants grown on the same rockwool slab. The results of the majority of growth and yield parameters determined showed the superiority of ‘Corallo’ over ‘Romano’ whereas ‘Starazagorski’ tolerance was found to be intermediate. ‘Corallo’ tolerated NaCl salinity better due to its capacity for Na retention in the roots and maintaining appropriate K/Na and Ca/Na ratios, limiting the accumulation of toxic ions into actively growing shoots. The salt sensitivity of ‘Romano’ was related to its higher concentration of Na in the leaves and lower in the roots, to the greater decrease of the leaf number and leaf water content, as well as to the specific leaf area increase compared to the other two cultivars under saline conditions.

  18. Phytohemagglutinin derived from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a cause for intestinal malabsorption associated with bacterial overgrowth in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, J G; Boldt, D H; Meyers, J; Weber, F L

    1983-03-01

    Plant lectins or carbohydrate binding proteins interact with membrane receptors on cellular surfaces but their antinutritional effects are poorly defined. Studies were conducted to determine the effects of phytohemagglutinin, a lectin derived from raw red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), on small intestinal absorptive function and morphology, and on the intestinal microflora. Phytohemagglutinin was isolated in purified form by thyroglobulin-sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. Red kidney bean and phytohemagglutinin (6% and 0.5%, respectively, of dietary protein) were fed in a purified casein diet to weanling rats for up to 21 days. Weight loss, associated with malabsorption of lipid, nitrogen, and vitamin B12, developed in comparison with animals pair-fed isonitrogenous casein diets. Antinutritional effects of red kidney bean were reversible on reinstitution of a purified casein diet. An increase in bacterial colonization of the jejunum and ileum occurred in red kidney bean- and phytohemagglutin-fed animals. When antibiotics were included in the diet, malabsorption of [3H]triolein and 57Co-vitamin B12 in red kidney bean-fed animals was partially reversed and, in germ-free animals, purified phytohemagglutinin had no demonstrable antinutritional effect. Mucosal disaccharidase activity was reduced in red kidney bean- and phytohemagglutinin-fed animals, but intestinal mucosal morphology was unchanged. Dietary administration of phytohemagglutinin, alone or as a component of red kidney bean, caused intestinal dysfunction, which was associated with, and dependent upon, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Adherence of enteric bacteria to the mucosal surface was enhanced by phytohemagglutinin which may have facilitated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. PMID:6822324

  19. Toxicity of Some Cinnamic Acid Derivatives to Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra JITĂREANU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid derivatives are an important class of biologically active compounds, playing an important role in the plants’ development, but may also present a wide range of actions: antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflamatory, antitumoral. The present study investigated the toxicity of ten cinnamic acid derivatives on Phaseolus vulgaris, this being the first step in evaluating their pharmacotoxicological potential (usually, plant toxicity tests are used for ecotoxicity assessment, but they can also provide some useful general information about the toxic potential of a pharmaceutical substance to living organisms. The bean seeds were exposed to three different concentrations of each substance (28.6 μg/cm2, 57.3 μg/cm2, 114.6 μg/cm2. All the tests were conducted in Petri dishes, using an artificial substrate (Whatman filter paper impregnated with the investigated compounds. The analyzed elements were seedling length, root length, percentage of seeds that developed into seedlings, fresh seedling weight and the total polyphenols content. The tested compounds showed phytotoxic effects, inhibiting the growth of the plants and the biosynthesis of polyphenols as compared to the control. The substances with high logP values showed greater phytotoxic potential, but to establish an exact correlation between hydrophobicity and toxicity of the molecules a QSAR analysis must be further done.

  20. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollini R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show that removal of phytohemagglutinin results in a higher true protein digestibility. Further modification in the composition of the lectin-related protein family is now under way.

  1. Friend or Foe—Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Schädler, Martin; Elias, Jacob D.; Millar, Jess A.; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants). Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions. PMID:27136455

  2. Friend or Foe-Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Schädler, Martin; Elias, Jacob D; Millar, Jess A; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants). Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions. PMID:27136455

  3. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO; Jose de J. BERRIOS; Vânia Zanella PINTO; Mariana Dias ANTUNES; Nathan Levien VANIER; Elessandra da Rosa ZAVAREZE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared,...

  4. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; HARNLY, JAMES M.; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial S.; Luthria, Devanand L.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples, representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items, belonging to ten US commercial market classes can be organized into six different groups. All of them contained the same hydroxycinnaminic acids, but the flavonoid components showed distinct differences. Black beans contained primarily the 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin...

  5. The importance of the ratio UV-B/photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) during leaf development as determining factor of plant sensitivity to increased UV-B irradiance: effects on growth, gas exchange and pigmentation of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Label)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of different naturally occurring irradiation conditions on the sensitivity of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Label) to increased UV-B levels, plants were grown under six different light treatments. In the control series (at ambient levels of UV-B), UV-B and visible light were decreased in parallel, resulting in three different total irradiation treatments with the same UV-B/PAR ratio. A second series with a 15% increase in UV-B irradiation at each PAR level was used to investigate the effect of UV-B under the varying total irradiance levels. The different total irradiance levels resulted in large differences in total dry weight, specific leaf weight, photosynthesis-light response and pigment concentrations. Nevertheless, the 15% increase in UV-B resulted in equal reductions in total dry weight (from 24.5 to 34.3%) and effective photosynthesis for all light levels. The accumulation of protective pigments in the primary bean leaves was strongly correlated to the total irradiance level (200% increase from the lowest to the highest light level), but was not influenced by increasing UV-B levels. As the UV-B/PAR ratio outside increases with decreasing total irradiance (when induced by cloud cover) this implies that low radiation levels are potentially dangerous to some plants, even though the UV-B levels may seem negligible. (author)

  6. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world’s most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  7. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmapuram Jyothi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt. These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724 including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and

  8. Agro-morphological evaluation of some exotic common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) genotypes under rainfed conditions of islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen exotic and local genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were evaluated for various agronomic and morphological characters under rainfed conditions of Islamabad, Pakistan during February-May, 2010. Significant differences were found among genotypes for grain yield plant-1, 100-seeds weight, seeds pod-1 and pods plant-1. Local Kashmir excelled all genotypes in grain yield (24.5 g plant-1) while minimum yield (1 g plant-1) was also produced by indigenous cultivar Local Balakot. Exotic cultivars differ significantly for grain yield with maximum 11.4 g plant-1 for Ducato and minimum 1.2 g plant-1 in case of Varigated and 2a-(GB 44004.1-1999). Non significant differences among genotypes were observed for days to maturity. The correlation coefficients illustrate the positive and significant association of grain yield with flowering duration, number of pods-1, and number of seeds plant-1, therefore, these traits should be considered for genetic improvement through selection. Cluster analysis based on different agromorphic parameters revealed important classification regarding genetic diversity for studied traits among genotype. Local Kashmir and Ducato were proved best among indigenous and exotic genotypes, respectively. The genotypes with high grain yield, biological yield and 100-seed weight were grouped into same clusters and these genotypes could prove useful resources for common bean genetic improvement program through hybridization and as direct introduction after further evaluation in different agro-ecological zones of the country especially in the mountainous areas. (author)

  9. INFLUENCE OF PEROXYACETYL NITRATE (PAN) ON WATER STRESS IN BEAN PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to 395 micrograms/cu m (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant water potential of PAN-sensitive 'Provider' resulting in visible wilting and reduced ...

  10. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant. PMID:26202846

  11. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  12. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  13. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 μg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  14. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, J; van der Poel, A F; van Leeuwen, P; Verstegen, M W

    1990-11-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets containing 200 g Phaseolus vulgaris beans (raw or toasted)/kg in rats and piglets. Live-weight gain, nitrogen digestibility and N balance were much lower in piglets than in rats fed on diets containing raw beans. Live-weight gain and N balance were slightly negative in the piglets. When toasted beans were given, live-weight gain and N balance values were reduced in piglets but hardly at all in rats. Giving raw beans caused hypertrophy of the pancreas in the rats but in piglets the weight of the pancreas was reduced. Spleen weight was depressed in the piglets but not in the rats. Weight of liver was not affected in either animal species. When toasted beans were given no effects on the weights of pancreas, spleen or liver were found in piglets or rats. It was concluded that the piglet is much more sensitive to antinutritional factors in the Phaseolus vulgaris bean than the rat. PMID:2265182

  15. Use of BABA and INA As Activators of a Primed State in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Keren; Ramírez-Carrasco, Gabriela; Hernández-Chávez, José Luis; Barraza, Aarón; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that “prime” their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus. In addition, the priming status of a plant for induced resistance can be inherited to its offspring. However, analyses on the molecular mechanisms of generational and transgenerational priming in the common bean (Phaseolus vulagris L.), an economically important crop, are absent. Here, we provide evidence that resistance to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola infection was induced in the common bean with the synthetic priming activators BABA and INA. Resistance was assessed by evaluating symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, changes in gene expression of defense genes, as well as changes in the H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter-exon regions of defense-associated genes. We conclude that defense priming in the common bean occurred in response to BABA and INA and that these synthetic activators primed distinct genes for enhanced disease resistance. We hope that an understanding of the molecular changes leading to defense priming and pathogen resistance will provide valuable knowledge for producing disease-resistant crop varieties by exposing parental plants to priming activators, as well as to the development of novel plant protection chemicals that stimulate the plant's inherent disease resistance mechanisms. PMID:27242854

  16. Use of BABA and INA As Activators of a Primed State in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Keren; Ramírez-Carrasco, Gabriela; Hernández-Chávez, José Luis; Barraza, Aarón; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that "prime" their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus. In addition, the priming status of a plant for induced resistance can be inherited to its offspring. However, analyses on the molecular mechanisms of generational and transgenerational priming in the common bean (Phaseolus vulagris L.), an economically important crop, are absent. Here, we provide evidence that resistance to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola infection was induced in the common bean with the synthetic priming activators BABA and INA. Resistance was assessed by evaluating symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, changes in gene expression of defense genes, as well as changes in the H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter-exon regions of defense-associated genes. We conclude that defense priming in the common bean occurred in response to BABA and INA and that these synthetic activators primed distinct genes for enhanced disease resistance. We hope that an understanding of the molecular changes leading to defense priming and pathogen resistance will provide valuable knowledge for producing disease-resistant crop varieties by exposing parental plants to priming activators, as well as to the development of novel plant protection chemicals that stimulate the plant's inherent disease resistance mechanisms. PMID:27242854

  17. Analyses of Methylomes Derived from Meso-American Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using MeDIP-Seq and Whole Genome Sodium Bisulfite-Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Mollee; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Hossain, Khwaja; Kalavacharla, Venu

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is economically important for its high protein, fiber, and micronutrient contents, with a relatively small genome size of ∼587 Mb. Common bean is genetically diverse with two major gene pools, Meso-American and Andean. The phenotypic variability within common bean is partly attributed to the genetic diversity and epigenetic changes that are largely influenced by environmental factors. It is well established that an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression is DNA methylation. Here, we present results generated from two high-throughput sequencing technologies, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and whole genome bisulfite-sequencing (BS-Seq). Our analyses revealed that this Meso-American common bean displays similar methylation patterns as other previously published plant methylomes, with CG ∼50%, CHG ∼30%, and CHH ∼2.7% methylation, however, these differ from the common bean reference methylome of Andean origin. We identified higher CG methylation levels in both promoter and genic regions than CHG and CHH contexts. Moreover, we found relatively higher CG methylation levels in genes than in promoters. Conversely, the CHG and CHH methylation levels were highest in promoters than in genes. This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling study in a Meso-American common bean cultivar ("Sierra") using NGS approaches. Our long-term goal is to generate genome-wide epigenomic maps in common bean focusing on chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and DNA methylation. PMID:27199997

  18. Gene-based SNP discovery in tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common bean (P. vulgaris) for diversity analysis and comparative mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Gujaria-Verma, Neha; Ramsay, Larissa; Sharpe, Andrew G; Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Daniel G. Debouck; Tar’an, Bunyamin; Bett, Kirstin E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important grain legume and there has been a recent resurgence in interest in its relative, tepary bean (P. acutifolius), owing to this species’ ability to better withstand abiotic stresses. Genomic resources are scarce for this minor crop species and a better knowledge of the genome-level relationship between these two species would facilitate improvement in both. High-throughput genotyping has facilitated large-scale single nucleotide polymor...

  19. Microsatellite characterization of Andean races of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, M W; Díaz, J M; Hidalgo, R; Díaz, L M; Duque, M C

    2007-12-01

    The Andean gene pool of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has high levels of morphological diversity in terms of seed color and size, growth habit and agro-ecological adaptation, but previously was characterized by low levels of molecular marker diversity. Three races have been described within the Andean gene pool: Chile, Nueva Granada and Peru. The objective of this study was to characterize a collection of 123 genotypes representing Andean bean diversity with 33 microsatellite markers that have been useful for characterizing race structure in common beans. The genotypes were from both the primary center of origin as well as secondary centers of diversity to which Andean beans spread and represented all three races of the gene pool. In addition we evaluated a collection of landraces from Colombia to determine if the Nueva Granada and Peru races could be distinguished in genotypes from the northern range of the primary center. Multiple correspondence analyses of the Andean race representatives identified two predominant groups corresponding to the Nueva Granada and Peru races. Some of the Chile race representatives formed a separate group but several that had been defined previously as from this race grouped with the other races. Gene flow was more notable between Nueva Granada and Peru races than between these races and the Chile race. Among the Colombian genotypes, the Nueva Granada and Peru races were identified and introgression between these two races was especially notable. The genetic diversity within the Colombian genotypes was high, reaffirming the importance of this region as an important source of germplasm. Results of this study suggest that the morphological classification of all climbing beans as Peru race genotypes and all bush beans as Nueva Granada race genotypes is erroneous and that growth habit traits have been mixed in both races, requiring a re-adjustment in the concept of morphological races in Andean beans. PMID:17924092

  20. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. PMID:27109374

  1. Water dynamics in a bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of water was studied at 'La Tola', Experimental Teaching Center of the Central University of Ecuador, in a Sandy-Ioan, typic Haplustoll soil, in wich beans were growing. All the components of the crop water balance were determined. Real evapotranspiration was in direct relation to the growth of the crop, reaching its maximum value of 4.9 mm day-1, at pod setting, then decreasing slowly until maturation of the kernels. Up to 1 meter depth, water loss by drainage depended on rainfall, reaching up to 24% of the total water loss: the soil layer supplying most of the water for the use of the crop was between 0-40 cm, where the root activity was greatest

  2. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-01-01

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed. PMID:27173357

  3. Understanding and improving flavor in beans: Screening the USDA Phaseolus core collection for pod sugar and flavor compounds in snap and dry bean accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our research is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. Knowledge of the variation will allow better utilization of germplasm resources ...

  4. Growth of Trichoderma viride on bean (Phaseolus pod solid basal medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Okungbowa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma viride Pers. isolated from soil was grown on two different solid media (Potato Dex trose Agar, PDA, and Bean ( Phaseolus Phaseolus Pod Agar, BPA impregnated sep a rate ly with three nitrogen sources at room temperature (29±2 C. Growth rate was determined from the radial growth of the fungus on Petri dishes. There was no sig nifi cant difference between radial growth of T. viride on PDA and BPA sup ple ment ed with magnesium sulphate and so di um nitrate (p<0.05%. The fun gus did not grow on BPA supplemented with sodium nitrite, where as growth of the organism was observed on PDA treated likewise. Growth of the fungus on ammoniumtreated BPA was com pa ra ble to the control, while no growth was noticed on PDA. On the whole, the growth of T. viride on BPA compared well with that on PDA (p< 0.05%. This is an indication of the possible use of bean pod as a carrier medium for T. viride in biocontrol programmes.

  5. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-07-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified. PMID:25948708

  6. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance. PMID:25049456

  7. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collection for agromorphological and seed mineral concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of common bean comprising totally 223 genotypes of which 176 genotypes from the USDA, 37 common bean landraces and 10 commercial cultivars from Turkey, evaluated for several agromorphological plant characters and mineral concentrations in seeds. There were wide range of variations for t...

  8. Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani can produce both web blight and root rot symptoms in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Rs) is an important pathogen in the tropics, causing web blight (WB), and a widespread soil-borne root rot (RR) pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. This pathogen is a species complex classified into 14 anastomosis groups (AG). Some AGs have been report...

  9. PENGEMBANGAN TEPUNG KAYA PROTEIN (TKP) dari KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L) Sweet) DAN KORO KRATOK (Phaseolus lunatus) [Development of Protein Rich Flour (PRF) from Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L) Sweet) and Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Nafi'; Tri Susanto2); Achmad Subagio

    2006-01-01

    With respect to high content of carbohydrate and protein, Protein Rich Flour (PRF) were developed from non-oilseed legumes i.e. hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L) Sweet) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) PRF. PRFs were prepared using water and NaOH solution (0.01N) as extraction solvent. After precipitation in isoelectric point (pHs) the PRFs produced were characterized to determine the potential applications. The results showed that PRF from hyacinth bean which extracted by water was the be...

  10. Microsatellite diversity and genetic structure among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces in Brazil, a secondary center of diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Burle, Marília Lobo; Fonseca, Jaime Roberto; Kami, James A.; Gepts, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and consumer of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which is the most important source of human dietary protein in that country. This study assessed the genetic diversity and the structure of a sample of 279 geo-referenced common bean landraces from Brazil, using molecular markers. Sixty-seven microsatellite markers spread over the 11 linkage groups of the common bean genome, as well as Phaseolin, PvTFL1y, APA and four SCAR markers were used. As expected, the s...

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter the response of growth and nutrient uptake of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuguang Wang; Zhaozhong Feng; Xiaoke Wang; Wenliang Gong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae on the responses to elevated O3 in growth and nutrition of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Guangzhouyuan) were investigated. Exposure was conducted in growth chambers by using three O3 concentrations (20 (CF), 80 (CFO1) and 120 nL/L (CFO2); 8 hr/day for 75 days). Results showed that elevated O3 slightly impacted overall mycorrhizal colonization, but significantly decreased the proportional frequency of hypha and increased the proportional frequency of spores and vesicles, suggesting that O3 had significant effects on mycorrhizal structure. Elevated O3 significantly decreased yield, dry mass and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in both non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants. However, significant interactive effects were found in most variables due to that the reduction by O3 in the mycorrhizal plants was less than that in the non-mycorrhizal plants. Additionally, AMF increased the concentrations of N, P, Ca, and Mg in shoot and root. It can be concluded that AMF alleviated detrimental effects of increasing O3 on host plant through improving plant nutrition and growth.

  12. Ação do enxofre em chuva ácida simulada sobre parâmetros morfofisiológicos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae = Sulfur effect by simulated acid rain on morphophysiological parameters of the bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Borba Dias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do enxofre e da chuva ácida simulada sobre a estrutura foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L, nos aspectos morfoanatômicos, teores de clorofila a, b, total e feofitina. As plantas-controle sofreram simulações de chuva com pH 6,0 e as plantas-teste sofreram simulação de chuva ácida com pH 3,0. As concentrações de clorofila a, b e total diminuíram no estádio de floração (R6. Já, no estádio R7, onde surgem as primeiras vagens, os teores aumentaram, indicando possível resistência e/ou adaptação dos espécimes às simulações ácidas. O tratamento ácido afetou a concentração de clorofila que foi degradada por processos oxidativos sem a sua conversão em feofitina. Também se observou diminuição na frequência de tricomas tectores e glandulares, assim como de estômatos. As injúrias visualizadas foram classificadas como de caráter leve, provavelmente pela existência de anexos epidérmicos para proteção foliar e peciolar.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of sulfur and simulated acid rain on the leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain (pH 3.0 and an aqueous solution (Ph 6.0 were performed on test and control plants, respectively. A decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations was observed in theflowering stage (R6. However, increased rates were determined in the maturation stage (R7, which can suggest a resistance and/or adjustment of the plants to the acid simulation conditions. The acid treatment achieved chlorophyll degradation by oxidative processes without conversion to pheophytin. A reduction was also seen in the number of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and stomata on the test plants. Moreover, only small injuries were verified on the blade and peciolar areas of the tested individuals of P. vulgaris, probablydue to the presence of the reported epidermal structures.

  13. Physical, chemical and biological aspects of Phaseolus vulgaris beans irradiated with high doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaseolus vulgaris c.v. black diamond bean, infested with immatures stages of Zabrotes subfusciatus were irradiated with doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy of gamma irradiation and stored for seven months at controlled temperature and relative humidity. Results showed that all doses applied were efficient to control the insect pest, as loss of weight of grains ranged from 1-1.3 per cent as compared to 14.4 per cent in control. The per cent humidity did not show any difference in the irradiated (10.90 to 11.60) as compared to the unirradiated control (13.09). Absorption of water at 6 h of stabilization, also did not show any difference in the quantity (10 to 13 ml). The quantity of tannins was however, reduced with the time of storage as well as with the increase of irradiation dosages. (author)

  14. Study Interactions of Competition between Climbing Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Corn (Zea mays L. Plants Sowed Associate Relaciones de Competencia entre el Fríjol Trepador (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y el Maíz (Zea mays L. Sembrados en Asocio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Darío Vélez Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Associated corn and bean is one of several systems to produce climbing bean. The main characteristic of the associated is the greater yield by area than monoculture of two species, although the competence between them reduces the yield bean in 40% and 20% in corn. Research about physiological processes affected by competence between these species is still scarce. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of competence on the physiological behavior of bean. In a randomized block design with 4 replications were established the following treatments: bean without competition, competition between bean and maíze by light, competition between bean and maíze by soil resources and simultaneous competition between bean and maíze by both resources light and soil. The variables measured were accumulated dry matter and its accumulation rate, leaf area, stem longitude, and the yield components of bean. The variance analysis, comparison of means and simple correlations were used. The types of competition significantly reduced the accumulated dry matter, the rates of accumulation, the yield and the yield components. The types of competence did not show significant differences on seed weigh and accumulated total dry matter of plants. Although during the plants ontogeny there were significant differences between them, feedback processes were established within each type of competition. Therefore, the effects of competence in the final stage were not distinguished. It suggests that bean plant is an integrated unit through the physiological processes.Una forma de cultivar fríjol trepador es en asocio con maíz. Su principal característica es el mayor rendimiento por unidad de área con respecto a los unicultivos de cada especie, aunque la competencia que se presenta entre ellas reduce los rendimientos del fríjol en más del 40% y los de maíz en 20%. La investigación sobre los procesos fisiológicos afectados por la competencia y su din

  15. Inducing of multiple shoots from cotyledonary node of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiment were carried out in order to compare three methods of multiple shoot formation and plantlet production in red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) All experiments utilized excised cotyledonary nodes from two week old seedling which were germinated on the medium containing BA. The highest number of shoots were produced on excised cotyledonary nodes which were cultured on the medium containing 5 mg/1 BA and 0.005 mg/l NNA. Elongated shoots from each treatments were rooted on the rooting medium to produce the complete plantlets. The highest number of complete plantlets were obtained from cotyledonary nodes which were cultured on the medium containing 0.05 mg/l BA and 0.005 mg/l NAA and 15 % coconut milk. In treating bean seeds with the gamma-rays at 50 Gy before germinating them on the medium containing BA, the number of shoots on the excised cotyledonary nodes was slightly decreased while the number of complete plantlet was slightly increased as compared with the controls

  16. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  17. Analysis of trypsin inhibitors and lectins in white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Processor) in a combined method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, J P; de Groot, J

    1991-01-01

    Buffered saline extraction, affinity chromatography, and Folin-BSA protein assay were used consecutively to provide a combined method for analysis of trypsin inhibitors and lectins in white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Processor). The method was tested by following the decrease of both antinutritional factors by germination of the beans for 7 days at 20 degrees C. Repeatability coefficients of variation were 2-7.4% for the trypsin inhibitors and 2.2-10% for the lectins. After 7 days of germination, trypsin inhibitors and lectins were reduced by 72 and 92%, respectively. PMID:1757418

  18. Gamma radiation effects on some nutritional and physico-chemical characteristics of stored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation effects on physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of three Brazilian varieties of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) - Catu, Rajado and Carioca -were studied. The analytical parameters were obtained by the determination of soaking and cooking times, biological value in rats, protein electrophoretic profile, reductors sugars, oligosaccharides, fiber and fatty acids content. Also, amyloglucosidase, phytohemagglutinins, α-amylase and tryptic inhibitors activities were analysed. It was observed the gamma radiation until determined doses promotes changes on those parameters subsequently reducing substantially the cooking time without modification of the biological value of the proteins. This alteration was particularly noticed in the hard-to-cook beans. (author)

  19. Comparisons of phaseolin type andα-amylase inhibitor in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying; Zhu Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type andα-amylase (αAI) level in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank. The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia, North America, South America, Europe, and Africa. No Inca (I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions. Only four accessions contained Tendergreen (T-) phaseolin and the remaining 36 contained Sanilac (S-) phaseolin. αAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than the control (Phase 2, IC50=0.65μg). These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  20. Oviposition, Development and Survivorship of the sweetpotato Whitefly Bemisia tabaci on Soybean, Glycine max, and the Garden Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Mansaray, Augustine; Sundufu, Abu James

    2009-01-01

    Oviposition, development and survivorship of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were evaluated on soybean and garden bean under laboratory conditions of 26.0 ± 0.5 °C, 70 – 80% RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D). B. tabaci deposited more eggs and survivorship of nymphs was significantly greater in a choice-test on soybean, Glycine max L. (Merr.) (Fabeles: Fabaceae), compared to the garden bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Overall developmental time from egg to adult eclosion was l...

  1. Evidence for the endophytic colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris(common bean roots by the diazotroph Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Schmidt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium, which associates with important agricultural plants. In the present study, we have investigated the attachment to and internal colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris roots by the H. seropedicae wild-type strain SMR1 and by a strain of H. seropedicae expressing a red fluorescent protein (DsRed to track the bacterium in the plant tissues. Two-day-old P. vulgaris roots were incubated at 30°C for 15 min with 6 x 10(8 CFU/mL H. seropedicae SMR1 or RAM4. Three days after inoculation, 4 x 10(4 cells of endophytic H. seropedicae SMR1 were recovered per gram of fresh root, and 9 days after inoculation the number of endophytes increased to 4 x 10(6 CFU/g. The identity of the recovered bacteria was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Furthermore, confocal microscopy of P. vulgaris roots inoculated with H. seropedicae RAM4 showed that the bacterial cells were attached to the root surface 15 min after inoculation; fluorescent bacteria were visible in the internal tissues after 24 h and were found in the central cylinder after 72 h, showing that H. seropedicae RAM4 is capable of colonizing the roots of the dicotyledon P. vulgaris. Determination of dry weight of common bean inoculated with H. seropedicae SMR1 suggested that this bacterium has a negative effect on the growth of P. vulgaris.

  2. Effect of Bacterial Distribution and Activity on Conjugal Gene Transfer on the Phylloplane of the Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Normander, Bo; Christensen, Bjarke B.; Molin, Søren; Kroer, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Conjugal plasmid transfer was examined on the phylloplane of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and related to the spatial distribution pattern and metabolic activity of the bacteria. The donor (Pseudomonas putida KT2442) harbored a derivative of the TOL plasmid, which conferred kanamycin resistance and had the gfp gene inserted downstream of a lac promoter. A chromosomal insertion of lacIq prevented expression of the gfp gene. The recipient (P. putida KT2440) had a chromosomal tetracycline resistance...

  3. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al–drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviatio...

  4. Co-ordinated synthesis of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes in biologically-stressed cells of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Carole L; Bell, John N.; Ryder, Thomas B.; Bailey, John A.; Schuch, Wolfgang; Bolwell, G. Paul; Robbins, Mark P.; Dixon, Richard A.; Lamb, Chris J.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the rates of synthesis of three enzymes of phenyl-propanoid biosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (dwarf French bean) have been investigated by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled enzyme subunits with mono-specific antisera. Elicitor causes marked, rapid but transient co-ordinated increases in the rate of synthesis of phenyl-alanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity at the onset of accu...

  5. Analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., genotype BAT93) calmodulin cDNA using computational tools

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim Amelia; Jasvin Singh; Farida Habib Shah; Subhash J Bhore

    2015-01-01

    Background: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day an...

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H.; Padder, Bilal A.; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  9. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under saline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Can Hiz

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  10. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  11. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buendía Héctor F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the α-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Results Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. Conclusions We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated

  12. EFFECT OF THE TREATMENT OF SEEDS WITH FUNGICIDES IN CONTROLLING DAMPING OFF OF THE BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L) CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES COM FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DO TOMBAMENTO EM FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) CAUSADO POR Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn

    OpenAIRE

    Rosângela Vera; Marcus Fidélis S. de Castro; Luiz Sérgio Rodrigues Vale; Francisco Pereira Moura Neto; Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira; Valmir Eduardo D. Alcântara

    2007-01-01

    Some fungicides were tested in control of Rhizoctonia solani in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) planted in soil inoculated with this fungus. The evaluations were made at 10, 20 and 30 days after sowing, observing germination and damping-off. The results showed that the fungicides thiram (280g. a.i./ 100kg se...

  13. Spatial aluminium sensitivity of root apices of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes with contrasting aluminium resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Andrés F; Rao, Idupulapati M; Horst, Walter J

    2007-01-01

    The initial response of plants to aluminium (Al) is an inhibition of root elongation. In the present study, short and medium-term effects of Al treatment (20 muM) on root growth and Al accumulation of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes, VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) and Quimbaya (Al-resistant), were studied. Root elongation of both genotypes was severely inhibited during the first 3-4 h of Al treatment. Thereafter, both genotypes showed gradual recovery. However, this recovery continued in genotype Quimbaya until the root elongation rate reached the level of the control (without Al) while the genotype VAX-1 was increasingly damaged by Al after 12 h of Al treatment. Short-term Al treatment (90 microM Al) to different zones of the root apex using agarose blocks corroborated the importance of the transition zone (TZ, 1-2 mm) as a main target of Al. However, Al applied to the elongation zone (EZ) also contributed to the overall inhibition of root elongation. Enhanced inhibition of root elongation during the initial 4 h of Al treatment was related to high Al accumulation in root apices in both genotypes (Quimbaya>VAX-1). Recovery from Al stress was reflected by decreasing Al contents especially in the TZ, but also in the EZ. After 24 h of Al treatment the high Al resistance of Quimbaya was reflected by much lower Al contents in the entire root apex. The results confirmed that genotypic differences in Al resistance in common bean are built up during medium-term exposure of the roots to Al. For this acquisition of Al resistance, the activation and maintenance of an Al exclusion mechanism, especially in the TZ but also in the EZ, appears to be decisive. PMID:17975208

  14. Contenido de aflatoxinas y proteína en 13 variedades de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Aflatoxin and protein content in 13 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Denise Peña-Betancourt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En México el frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. es una semilla leguminosa de elevado consumo (11 kg per cápita anualmente, por lo que su cultivo es amplio en diferentes regiones. En este estudió se determinó la presencia de aflatoxinas en ocho variedades de frijol común y cinco variedades de frijol mejorado; además del contenido de proteína y humedad. En todas las variedades evaluadas el contenido de humedad mostró grandes variaciones (6 a 16%, encontrándose 16% de las variedades estudiadas fuera de la normatividad (In Mexico, the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a highly consumed legume seed (11 kg per capita annually, so that its cultivation it' s quite extensive in different regions. In this study we investigated the presence of aflatoxins in eight common bean varieties and five improved bean varieties, in addition to protein and moisture. In all the varieties tested, the moisture content showed large variations (from 6 to 16%, being 16%of the varieties studied outside the normal (< 12%. The highest content of protein was detected in the improved bean varieties (26.1% and, the lowest in commercial (19.8% ± 3.09 and wild varieties (20.78% ± 1.93. All of them showed aflatoxins on average of 7.46 ng g-¹ and a range from 5 to 13 ng g-¹. The highest level of contamination was observed in the improved bean varieties (9.2 ±2.9 ngg-¹, followed by the commercial ones ±0.95 7.25 ngg-¹ and wild varieties 6 ± 1 ng g-¹. Tannins were detected in wild bean varieties at a level of 0.44%± 0.13. The results obtained confirm the presence of toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in the different varieties of common and wild beans at levels permitted by national law, but may pose a risk to the consumer's health due to its high consumption.

  15. Effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth of beans plants (phaseolus vulgaris L.); Efecto de la humedad del suelo, por encima de la capacidad de campo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de judia (phaseolus vulgaris L.) Durante un mes de desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, M.; Mazon, M. P.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth and photosynthesis of three moisture levels (20,30 and 40 %) was studied.The first moisture level was near field capacity while the others exceeded. Weekly dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll content, net CO{sub 2} exchange rate in light and darkness, 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilated rate and stomatal aperture were determined. Results show a positive effect of soil moisture over field capacity on growth, photosynthate and transpiration of beans during the first growing month. (Author) 76 refs.

  16. Genetic Dissection of ICP-Detected Nutrient Accumulation in the Whole Seed of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Wu, Xingbo; Bhandari, Devendra; Astudillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P) is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S) concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for nine additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn, and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B) and calcium (Ca) had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed. PMID:27014282

  17. Genetic dissection of ICP-detected nutrient accumulation in the whole seed of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Blair

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K and magnesium (Mg are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu, iron (Fe, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for 9 additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B and calcium (Ca had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed.

  18. Genetic Dissection of ICP-Detected Nutrient Accumulation in the Whole Seed of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Wu, Xingbo; Bhandari, Devendra; Astudillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P) is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S) concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for nine additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn, and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B) and calcium (Ca) had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed. PMID:27014282

  19. Breeding for culinary and nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in intercropping systems with maize (Zea mays L.

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    Rodino A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is widely intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in the North of Spain. Breeding beans for multiple cropping systems is important for the development of a productive and sustainable agriculture, and is mainly oriented to minimize intercrop competition and to stabilize complementarity with maize. Most agricultural research on intercropping to date has focused on the agronomic and overall yield effects of the different species, but characters related with socio-economic and food quality aspects are also important. The effect of intercropping beans with maize on food seed quality traits was studied for thirty-five bush bean varieties under different environments in Galicia (Northwestern Spain. Parameters determining Asturian (Northern Spain white bean commercial and culinary quality have also been evaluated in fifteen accessions. There are significant differences between varieties in the selected cropping systems (sole crop, intercrop with field maize and intercrop with sweet maize for dry and soaked seed weight, coat proportion, crude protein, crude fat and moisture. Different white bean accessions have been chosen according to their culinary quality. Under these environmental conditions it appears that intercropping systems with sweet maize give higher returns than sole cropping system. It is also suggested that the culinary and nutritional quality potential of some white bean accessions could be the base material in a breeding programme the objectives of which are to develop varieties giving seeds with high food quality.

  20. SALINITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

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    Miroslava Kaymakanova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salt stress оn the physiological reaction in young bean plants was studied. The plants were grown in pots as hydroponic cultures in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution under controlled conditions in a climatic room. The plants were treated for 7 days with NaCl and Na2SO4 (concentration 100 mM, starting at the appearance of the fi rst trifoliate leaf unfolded. The salts were added to the nutrient solution. It was established that the equimolar concentrations of both salt types caused stress in the young bean plants, which found expression in the suppression of growth, photosynthesis activity and caused changes in stomata status (conductivity, number and size. The transpiration and the cell water potential in salt-treated plants were reduced. The MDA level in root and shoot, and the proline content was increased.

  1. Genetic mapping of two genes conferring resistance to powdery mildew in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vega, Elena; Trabanco, Noemí; Campa, Ana; Ferreira, Juan José

    2013-06-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease in many legume species, including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study investigated the genetic control behind resistance reaction to PM in the bean genotype, Cornell 49242. The results revealed evidence supporting a qualitative mode of inheritance for resistance and the involvement of two independent genes in the resistance reaction. The location of these resistance genes was investigated in a linkage genetic map developed for the XC RIL population. Contingency tests revealed significant associations for 28 loci out of a total of 329 mapped loci. Fifteen were isolated or formed groups with less than two loci. The thirteen remaining loci were located at three regions in linkage groups Pv04, Pv09, and Pv11. The involvement of Pv09 was discarded due to the observed segregation in the subpopulation obtained from the Xana genotype for the loci located in this region. In contrast, the two subpopulations obtained from the Xana genotype for the BM161 locus, linked to the Co-3/9 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv04), and from the Xana genotype for the SCAReoli locus, linked to the Co-2 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv11), exhibited monogenic segregations, suggesting that both regions were involved in the genetic control of resistance. A genetic dissection was carried out to verify the involvement of both regions in the reaction to PM. Two resistant recombinant lines were selected, according to their genotypes, for the block of loci included in the Co-2 and Co-3/9 regions, and they were crossed with the susceptible parent, Xana. Linkage analysis in the respective F2 populations supported the hypothesis that a dominant gene (Pm1) was located in the linkage group Pv11 and another gene (Pm2) was located in the linkage group Pv04. This is the first report showing the localization of resistance genes against powdery mildew in Phaseolus vulgaris and the results offer the opportunity to increase the efficiency of breeding

  2. Implications of mitotic and meiotic irregularities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, D C; Braz, G T; Dos Reis, G B; Techio, V H; Davide, L C; de F B Abreu, A

    2016-01-01

    The common bean has great social and economic importance in Brazil and is the subject of a high number of publications, especially in the fields of genetics and breeding. Breeding programs aim to increase grain yield; however, mitosis and meiosis represent under explored research areas that have a direct impact on grain yield. Therefore, the study of cell division could be another tool available to bean geneticists and breeders. The aim of this study was to investigate irregularities occurring during the cell cycle and meiosis in common bean. The common bean cultivar used was BRSMG Talismã, which owing to its high yield and grain quality is recommended for cultivation in Brazil. We classified the interphase nuclei, estimated the mitotic and meiotic index, grain pollen viability, and percentage of abnormalities in both processes. The mitotic index was 4.1%, the interphase nucleus was non-reticulated, and 19% of dividing somatic cells showed abnormal behavior. Meiosis also presented irregularities resulting in a meiotic index of 44.6%. Viability of pollen grains was 94.3%. These results indicate that the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã possesses repair mechanisms that compensate for changes by producing a large number of pollen grains. Another important strategy adopted by bean plants to ensure stability is the elimination of abnormal cells by apoptosis. As the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã is recommended for cultivation because of its good agronomic performance, it can be concluded that mitotic and meiotic irregularities have no negative influence on its grain quality and yield. PMID:27323072

  3. Genetic Characterization of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accessions from Turkey with SCAR and SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madakbaş, Seher Yıldız; Sarıkamış, Gölge; Başak, Hakan; Karadavut, Ufuk; Özmen, Canan Yüksel; Daşçı, Mete Gürhan; Çayan, Selin

    2016-08-01

    Characterization, conservation, and utilization of genetic resources is essential for the sustainability in agriculture. Plant genetic resources are important for breeding efforts designed for the generation of new cultivars or for the improvement of existing ones. Green bean has been cultivated extensively in Turkey giving rise to local accessions through selection over time and adaptation to various environmental conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of green bean accessions collected from Kırşehir Province of Turkey, located at the central Anatolia. Within a population of 275 green bean accessions, 50 accessions were selected on the basis of morphological observations for further evaluation with SSR and STS/SCAR markers together with 4 reference cultivars of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. SSR markers selected on the basis of high polymorphism information content revealed the genetic relatedness of selected green bean accessions. STS/SCAR markers associated with bean anthracnose, common bacterial blight, white mold, halo blight, and phaseolin protein demonstrated the inheritance of resistance traits of local accessions at the selected loci. These findings may help better utilize genetic resources and furthermore are expected to facilitate forthcoming breeding studies for the generation of novel cultivars well adapted to the region. PMID:27156082

  4. Concentração de macronutrientes na parte aérea do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em função da compactação e classes de solos Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. plant macronutrients concentration affected by compaction and soil classes

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    Vandeir Gregório Alves

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Impedimentos físicos e/ou químicos ao sistema radicular podem restringir a absorção de nutrientes, levando a menores produtividades. Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes graus de compactação em três classes de solos, na concentração de macronutrientes na parte aérea do feijoeiro, conduziu-se um experimento em casa-de-vegetação no Departamento de Agricultura da UFLA, no período de setembro a dezembro de 1997. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3x5x2, envolvendo três classes de solos (LATOSSOLO VERMELHO-AMARELO Distrófico - LVAd1 textura média, LATOSSOLO VERMELHO-AMARELO Distrófico - LVAd2 argiloso e LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Distroférrico típico - LVdf , cinco graus de compactação (50%, 62,5%, 75%, 87,5% e 100% da densidade máxima e duas cultivares de feijoeiro (Pérola e Aporé. Foram cultivadas duas plantas por vaso, colhidas no fim da maturação fisiológica, determinando-se a concentração de macronutrientes na parte aérea. Nutrientes mais móveis no solo como N, K e S, sujeitos à lixiviação, em geral, tiveram suas concentrações aumentadas na massa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro com o aumento do grau de compactação do solo. A concentração de P, nutriente sujeito à fixação no solo, sofreu redução na massa seca da parte aérea do feijoeiro com o incremento do grau de compactação do solo. O incremento do grau de compactação reduziu o crescimento do feijoeiro. Os efeitos do grau de compactação foram diferenciados nas três classes de solo estudadas. No caso das concentrações de P e Mg, os efeitos também variaram conforme a cultivar.Root system physical and chemical impediments can restrict the nutrients absorption, resulting in low grain yield. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of the different compaction degrees in the bean plant aerial part macronutrient concentration. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse at Depto

  5. EFFECTIVENESS INACTIVATION OF TRYPSIN INHIBITOR FROM BRAZILIAN CULTIVARS OF BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

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    Kelli Cristina PAIVA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The trypsin inhibitor, an antinutritional factor, which is abundant in dycotiledoneous and monocotyledoneous, is usually inactivated by heating treatment. The infl uence of pressure-cooking (121°C and 141kPa for 30 min on, trypsin inhibitors concentration and inhibitors reactivation from ten Brazilian beans varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. namely: IAPAR-14, IAC-Carioca, Rudá, Corrente, IAC-Aruã, IAPAR-16, IAPAR-57, IACCarioca Pyatã, Carioca, Aporé, were investigated. The inhibitors reactivation was evaluated in comparison with the activity of raw and pressure-cooking. For raw the in vitro protein digestibility mean values ranged from 40% (in Carioca cultivar to 60% (in IAC-Aruã cultivar, showing an increase from 11% to 37% using the autoclaving at 121°C and 141kPa. Among ten cultivars studied the trypsin inhibitor activity varied from 36.18UTI.mg-1 for IAC-Aruã to 63.33UTI.mg-1 for IAPAR-16. Trypsin inhibitor activity was totally inactivated by pressure-cooking. The study of the trypsin inhibitors reactivation using double-digestive pepsin-pancreatin enzymes in vitro showed a recovering activity from 34% up to 100%. Native inhibitor is resistant to double- digestive pepsin-pancreatin proteolysis, whereas autoclaving to 121o C.30 min-1 results in a non-native conformation that is susceptible to proteolysis, improving the digestibility and inactivate differentially the activity of trypsin inhibitors. The results of the thermal treatment of the beans show inactivation of the inhibitors, which may be due to formation of high molecular weight aggregates with other substances of the grain. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion of the inactivated inhibitor restores the activity, probably due to its retention by the digested fragments.

  6. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. PMID:27542492

  7. Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using a genotype plus genotype x environment interaction biplot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot methodology has been used to investigate genotype x environment interactions in several crop species, but has not been applied to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify common bean genotypes that exhibit high grain yield and stability in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted 12 trials from 2000 to 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados, and evaluated 13 genotypes in a randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data were subjected to individual and joint analyses of variance. After analyzing the GE interaction, the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the common bean genotypes were analyzed using GGE biplot methodology. The genotypes EMGOPA-201, Xamego, and Aporé are recommended for growing in Mato Grosso do Sul, because they exhibited high grain yield and phenotypic stability. PMID:27525915

  8. Nitrate regulates rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalpana Nanjareddy; Lourdes Blanco; Manoj-Kumar Arthikala; Xochitl Alvarado Affantrange; Federico Snchez; Miguel Lara

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-limited conditions are considered to be a prerequisite for legume-rhizobial symbiosis, but the effects of nitrate-rich conditions on symbiotic status remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by examining rhizobial (Rhizobim tropici) and arbusclar mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) symbiosis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Negro Jamapa under nitrate pre-incubation and continuous nitrate conditions. Our results indicate that nitrate pre-incubation, independent of the concentration, did not affect nodule development. However, the continuous supply of nitrate at high concentrations impaired nodule maturation and nodule numbers. Low nitrate conditions, in addition to positively regulating nodule number, biomass, and nitrogenase activity, also extended the span of nitrogen-fixing activity. By contrast, for arbuscular mycorrhizae, continuous 10 and 50 mmol/L nitrate increased the percent root length colonization, concomitantly reduced arbuscule size, and en-hanced ammonia transport without affecting phosphate transport. Therefore, in this manuscript, we have proposed the importance of nitrate as a positive regulator in promoting both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in the common bean.

  9. Effect of Dehydration Conditions on the Chemical, Physical, and Rehydration Properties of Instant Whole Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado

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    Juan Alberto Resendiz Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration conditions on the chemical, physical, and rehydration properties of instant whole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado using a 22 factorial design (air temperature: 25°C and 30°C, air velocity: 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s. To determine the kinetic parameters, the rehydration data were fitted to three models: Peleg’s, First Order, and Sigmoid. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the beans were not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the dehydration conditions. Of the 11 physical properties of the instant whole beans, only water activity and splitting were significantly affected by dehydration conditions (P0.05 between the observed and predicted equilibrium moisture contents of the instant whole beans. Regarding the rehydration kinetics for the instant whole beans, the activation energy values ranged from 23.56 kJ/mol to 30.48 kJ/mol, depending on the dehydration conditions. The dehydration conditions had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the rehydration properties of instant whole beans.

  10. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

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    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  11. ISOENZYMATIC POLYMORPHISM AND ACTIVITY OF PEROXIDASES OF COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. UNDER SALINE STRESS

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    F. BROETTO

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the uses of the technique of tissue culture for plant breeding is the identification of cell lines tolerant to salt stress.In order to study the biochemical mechanisms involved in the genetic expression to salt tolerance, callus from embryo axis of four bean cultivars (cv. IAC-carioca; cv. IAPAR-14; cv. JALO-EEP558; CV. BAT-93 were grown in Murashige & Skoog (1962 medium, supplemented with NaCl in the concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM. After 14 days callus were harvested and analyzed according to their isoenzymatic patterns and peroxidase activities. BAT and IAPAR cultivars showed two common activity zones in the anodic region, with only one specific enzymatic band to each one (the two fastest migration band; it is possible that the two middle anodic zones detected are products of the same enzymatic locus but from different alleles with different eletrophoretic mobilities. Cv. JALO showed two anodic activities in common with cvs IAC and IAPAR with an exclusive anodic zone of slower migration which showed the most intense activity of all cultivars analyzed. This cv. still showed a dimeric heterozygotic catodic zone in all treated samples. Probably this is the same zone which occurs in homozygosis with fixation of the slower allele for all cvs BAT and IAPAR submitted to all treatments. Cv. IAC showed two anodic bands in common with Cv. IAPAR and cv. JALO. It still showed a faster anodic band in common with cv. IAPAR and an exclusive anodic band of slower migration. It is interesting to say that for this cv. IAC resulting from cultivation in NaCl 20 mM did not show activity in the three slower anodic zones. Cv. IAC showed only one dimeric heterozygotic catodic zone in all treatments. This zone is probably composed by two different alleles from the same locus detected in cv. JALO. Samples from cv. IAC treated with 40 and 60 mM showed a more intense enzymatic activity in the catodic zone. Analyses of the peroxidase activity in the

  12. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  13. Selection in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. mutant populations for adaptative characters

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    Juliano Garcia Bertoldo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of variability is primary to success in plant breeding. The commercial bean cultivars have a narrow variability for adaptive traits. However, the use of mutagenic agents can increase the mutation frequency, allowing the development of genetic variability in useful traits. Thus, four bean genotypes were submitted to gamma rays from 60Co, at doses of 0, 100, 200 and 400 Gy in the 2006/07 crop season. In the following crop season (2007/08 the mutant populations, submitted to doses of 0, 100 and 200 Gy, were cultivated in a design of augmented blocks. The assessment of mutant and nonmutant families evidenced phenotypic divergence between families. From the Mahalanobis distance it was possible to distinguish four groups, indicating the possibility of selecting promising segregant families for stem diameter, plant height and height insertion of the first legume, without significantly changing grain-yield-related traits.

  14. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Radke, Brittany; Findley, Seth; Abernathy, Brian; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2-4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species. PMID:26865698

  15. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

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    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  16. Genetic Improvement of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Common Bean Genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Ahmad Reza Golparvar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty common bean genotypes were cultivated in two separately field trials at the research station of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch during 2008-2009. The experimental design was randomized complete block. Bean seeds were inoculated by Rhizobium legominosarum biovar Phaseoli isolate L-109 in one of the experiments before sowing. The dose of Rhizobium for seed inoculation was 7 miligrams of bacteria for 1 kilogram of seed. The second experiment was control. The second experiment was analyzed in the same way as the first except for biological nitrogen fixation. The results showed definite positive and significant correlation in percentage of nitrogen fixation with some other been characters. Step-wise regression designated that total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield accounted for 93.8% of variation expect for nitrogen fixation percent. Path analysis indicated that total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield have direct and positive effect on nitrogen fixation index. Hence, total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield are promising indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation capability in common bean genotypes.

  17. Seed-borne fungi and ochratoxin A contamination of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Republic of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, A-M; Peraica, M; Zlender, V; Cvjetković, B; Jurjević, Z; Topolovec-Pintarić, S; Ivić, D

    2005-03-01

    The study was designed to identify seed-borne fungi on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops grown in 13 counties of the Republic of Croatia and their association with ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Bean samples (N=45) were collected in Croatia in 2001 shortly after the harvest and were stored at -20 degrees C for mycological and mycotoxin analyses. The most common fungi isolated were Cladosporium spp. (98%) Alternaria spp. (75%), Aspergillus spp. (73%), Rhizopus spp. (73%), Penicillium spp. (69%), Fusarium spp. (38%), Botrytis spp. (27%), Trichothecium spp. (24%), and Chaetomium spp. (18%). OTA was found only in samples contaminated with Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. Using HPLC (detection limit 0.25 microg/kg), OTA was found in 17 out of 45 samples (38%), and the mean concentration in positive samples was 0.41+/-0.21 microg OTA/kg. Beans from south Croatia (Adriatic coast) were OTA-free and the least mould-infected, while the mean OTA concentration and mould infection of samples from other regions were similar. The OTA contamination of beans in our country is low. Although beans are not severely contaminated with OTA, their consumption may contribute to the exposure to OTA from other commodities. PMID:15680678

  18. Utilization of fertilizer phosphorus by French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), as influenced by depth of placement and time of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of fertilizer phosphorus by French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as influenced by depth of placement and time of application was studied in a field experiment using 32P labelled single superphosphate. Band placement of fertilizer phosphorus at 5 cm depth below the seed resulted in maximum utilization, which was significantly higher than band placement on the surface. Application in two splits resulted in much lower uptake and utilization of applied phosphorus. Top dressing 20 days after sowing resulted in lower uptake and utilization than basal application. (author). 2 tabs., 3 refs

  19. Effect of bacterial distribution and activity on conjugal transfer on the phylloplane of the bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Molin, Søren;

    1998-01-01

    Conjugal plasmid transfer was examined on the phylloplane of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and related to the spatial distribution pattern and metabolic activity of the bacteria. The donor (Pseudomonas putida KT2442) harbored a derivative of the TOL plasmid, which conferred kanamycin resistance and had...... the gfp gene inserted downstream of a lac promoter. A chromosomal insertion of lacI(q) prevented expression of the gfp gene. The recipient (P. putida KT2440) had a chromosomal tetracycline resistance marker. Thus, transconjugants could be enumerated by plating and visualized in situ as green fluorescent...

  20. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E; Chapman, B Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L; Pauls, Karl P; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  1. Phenotypic evaluation of some turkish green bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to reveal the morphological characterization of 36 green bean genotypes collected in Turkey to find out the suitable genotypes which can be used in breeding programs. Collected plant materials were grown under Antalya ecological conditions and morphological characteristics of genotypes were evaluated in accordance with UPOV criteria. Principles Component Analysis of the data obtained from morphological characterization were conducted. The results indicated that genetic variation among some bean genotypes was not high and results revealed that first three Eigen values could be used to explain the 50% of the variation among genotypes. The genotypes far from each other with respect to dendrogram can be an important source of variance and can be used in prospective breeding programs. (author)

  2. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH (APPLE AND PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. (GREEN BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Doss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity as well as total phenol (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC in two fruits, apple (Malus domestica and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. The antioxidant activities were examined by two different methods namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power scavenging activity. The results showed that considerable amount of TPC and TFC was present in these fruit extracts as well as these vegetables contain a vast array of different phytochemicals in their dry form. Apple showed higher antioxidant activity than green beans. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and carbohydrates & glycosides in all the extracts. Overall, the present results provided basic data for choosing these fruits with high antioxidant capacity for consumption or for the development of antioxidant based medicines as value-added products.

  4. PENGEMBANGAN TEPUNG KAYA PROTEIN (TKP dari KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet DAN KORO KRATOK (Phaseolus lunatus [Development of Protein Rich Flour (PRF from Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With respect to high content of carbohydrate and protein, Protein Rich Flour (PRF were developed from non-oilseed legumes i.e. hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus PRF. PRFs were prepared using water and NaOH solution (0.01N as extraction solvent. After precipitation in isoelectric point (pHs the PRFs produced were characterized to determine the potential applications. The results showed that PRF from hyacinth bean which extracted by water was the best product with yield of 31.19%, protein content 58.41±4.45%, solubility 82-100% and oil holding capacity 93.92±9.19. Moreover pepsin-digestibility of the hyacinth bean PRF was higher (8.29±0.34% than soybean protein isolate (7.10±0.37% or casein (7.04±0.14%. Based on their characteristics, PRFs regarded as potential to be developed as novel food ingredient.

  5. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  6. Genetic control of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.) Scrib. reaction and corona color in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça H.A. de; Santos J.B. dos; Ramalho M.A.P.; Ferreira D.F.

    1998-01-01

    An important trait for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars with Carioca type grain is resistance to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose and a pale corona. The present study was conducted to understand the genetic control of common bean reaction to the fungus and of the corona color, to provide guides to future breeding studies. Genotypes P-45, with brown corona, and EMGOPA 201-Ouro, with yellow corona, are resistant to C. lindemuthianum. Cultivar Carioca is susce...

  7. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... ). The PRA, titled ``Importation of French Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Runner Bean, Phaseolus... as follows: Sec. 319.56-51 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya...

  8. Induction of ferritin synthesis by water deficit and iron excess in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, Daiane Mariele; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sergio Augusto Morais

    2014-03-01

    Ferritins are molecules for iron storage present in most living beings. In plants, ferritin is an essential iron homeostasis regulator and therefore plays a fundamental role in control of iron induced by oxidative stress or by excess of iron ions. Ferritin gene expression is modulated by various environmental factors, including the intensity of drought, cold, light and pathogenic attack. Common bean, one of the most important species in the Brazilian diet, is also affected by insufficiency or lack of water. Thus, the present study was conducted for the purpose of determining the levels of expression of ferritins transcripts in leaf tissues of three common bean cultivars (BAT 477, Carioca Comum and IAC-Diplomata) under osmotic shock caused by polyethylene glycol 6000 and by iron excess. The expression of three ferritins genes (PvFer1, PvFer2 and PvFer3), determined by quantitative PCR, indicated a difference in the expression kinetics among the cultivars. All the ferritin genes were actively transcribed under iron excess and water deficit conditions. The cultivars most responsive to treatments were BAT 477 and IAC-Diplomata. All the cultivars responded to treatments. Nevertheless, the ferritin genes were differentially regulated according to the cultivars. Analysis of variance indicated differences among cultivars in expression of the genes PvFer1 and PvFer3. Both genes were most responsive to treatments. This result suggests that ferritin genes may be functionally important in acclimatization of common bean under iron excess or water deficit conditions. PMID:24390245

  9. Review: The Potential of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as a Vehicle for Iron Biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Petry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA and polyphenol(s (PP. We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g. PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%–7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%–50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID.

  10. Bacterial indole-3-acetic acid production: a key mediator of plant-microbe interactions between Phaseolus vulgaris and the foliar epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 299R

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Tracy Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    The phyllosphere epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 299R synthesizes indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an important plant hormone. IAA production was previously shown to confer a small but significant fitness advantage to Pa299R cells inoculated onto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves, but the mechanism by which bacterial IAA exerts this effect is unknown. In this work, we investigated several hypotheses regarding how bacterial IAA enhances the growth and survival of leaf epiphytic microbes such as Pa299R....

  11. The Response of Some Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Varieties for Salt Stress during Germination and Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinfemichael Geressu Asfaw

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris varieties were tested during germination and seedling growth at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 dS/m salinity levels. Data analysis was carried out using jmp5 statistical software (version 5.0. Final Germination Percentage (FGP, Seedling Shoot Length (SSL, Seedling Root Length (SRL and seedling shoot-to-root ratio (SRR were measured. The data analysis showed insignificant variation among most parameters recorded for varieties (p>0.05. The ANOVA displayed statistical significance for treatments for all parameters at p0.05. Seedling root length was more salt affected than seedling shoot length. Variety Awash Melka was found salt tolerant during germination and seedling growth. Variety Mexican 142 was salt sensitive during germination but later became salt tolerant during seedling growth. On the other hand, variety Dimtu was salt sensitive during germination and seedling growth. The rest haricot bean varieties were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of broad intraspecific genetic variation in haricot bean varieties for salt tolerance. Irrespective of salinity being a growing problem in Ethiopia in general and the Awash Valley in particular, only little has been done on crops salt tolerance. Therefore, to alleviate the salinity problem, there should be similar and profound studies on haricot beans and other crops.

  12. Paraburkholderia nodosa is the main N2-fixing species trapped by promiscuous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Brazilian 'Cerradão'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca F; Plotegher, Fábio; Souza, Renata C; Mendes, Iêda C; Dos Reis Junior, Fábio B; Béna, Gilles; Moulin, Lionel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial genus Burkholderia comprises species occupying several habitats, including a group of symbionts of leguminous plants-also called beta-rhizobia-that has been recently ascribed to the new genus Paraburkholderia We used common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to trap rhizobia from an undisturbed soil of the Brazilian Cerrado under the vegetation type 'Cerradão'. Genetic characterization started with the analyses of 181 isolates by BOX-PCR, where the majority revealed unique profiles, indicating high inter- and intra-species diversity. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the 16S rRNA of representative strains of the BOX-PCR groups indicated two main clusters, and gene-sequencing analysis identified the minority (27%) as Rhizobium and the majority (73%) as Paraburkholderia Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and housekeeping (recA and gyrB) genes positioned all strains of the second cluster in the species P. nodosa, and the phylogeny of a symbiotic gene-nodC-was in agreement with the conserved genes. All isolates were stable vis-à-vis nodulating common bean, but, in general, with a low capacity for fixing N2, although some effective strains were identified. The predominance of P. nodosa might be associated with the edaphic properties of the Cerrado biome, and might represent an important role in terms of maintenance of the ecosystem, which is characterized by acid soils with high saturation of aluminum and low N2 content. PMID:27199345

  13. Irradiation Effect on the symbiotic fixation of nitrogen in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of legume - Rhizobium association is determined by biological (plant and bacteria) and environmental factors (soil and climate); for that reason, the best cultivars -Rhizobium strains combinations for each specie of legume must be selected according to the specifics environmental conditions. One of the most important sun light qualities are the irradiance levels to which the plants are exposed, because these levels have a close relation with the photosynthetic process, and also affect the biological nitrogen fixation, which has a high energetic requirements for symbiosis. The propose of this work was to determine the effect of irradiance on the Biological Nitrogen Fixation in common bean seedlings, under two environments conditions 100 and 500 moles m-2 seg-1 (IA and IB respectively), an nutrition control. The experimental results suggest that in the case of common bean, the irradiance requirements change depending on the Rhizobium strain that has be used in the symbiotic association. Both inoculated and non-inoculated plants with Rhizobium showed different behavior according to the levels of irradiance under which the plants were exposed. Under the irradiance of 500 moles m2 seg-1 (IA) the highest values of weight, area of plants, number and weight of nodules, nitrogen and phosphors content in leaves were founded, however under the lowest irradiance 100 μ moles m2 seg-1 (IB), the plants showed the largest root and steam, as a result of increase of bud distance, this behavior is known etiolation. The irradiance levels under which the plants are exposed determine the efficiency of symbiosis. The experimental results showed that the irradiance levels, no only affect the plant growth, but also the strains behavior. These results were easily observed in the treatments where ICA P-12 and ICA P-19 strains were used, for the dry weight of leaves, root and leaves area, number and weight of nodules, and nitrogen content of leaves in the plant. The ICA P-12

  14. Sampling techniques and detection methods for developing risk assessments for root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus, is a cornerstone crop in the Mid-Atlantic region and Meloidogyne incognita, the southern root knot nematode (RKN), causes significant yield loss. The RKN has become more pervasive as toxic nematicides have been removed from the market, and risk evaluation research is ne...

  15. Effects of water stress on the photosynthetic assimilation and distribution of 14C-photosynthate in maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between photosynthesis and distribution of 14C-photosinthate as affected by water stress was evaluated. Corn (Zea mays L.) during the grain filling period and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during flowering, representing a C-4 and a C-3 photosynthetic type, respectively, were studied. (M.A.C.)

  16. Isotopic discrimination of nitrogen associated with biological nitrogen fixation on the system Rhizobium versus beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were carried out in the greenhouse using a complete randomized experimental design. The first experiments was designed to assess the effect of three bean cultivars, inoculated with a mixture of efficient Rhizobium strains on the isotopic N discrimination at four development stages of beans plants. The second experiment was carried out to verify if there is any discrimination caused by the Rhizobium strains used. The plants of both experiments were grown in a N free medium, with 5 replicates. At the harvesting, δN-15% was determined in the following parts of the bean plants: nodules, roots, shoots, cotyledons and pods. (author)

  17. Utilisation des mutations induites pour l'étude de l'embryogenèse chez le haricot Phaseolus vulgaris L. et deux plantes modèles Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. et Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of induced mutations in embryogenesis study in bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. and Zea mays L.. Breeding of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., through interspecific hybridizations with the species Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm. as female parents leads to the abortion of immature embryos. Identification of genes required for embryo development could partly explain the abortion of hybrid embryos; induced mutations could thus be an alternative to identify key genes involved in Phaseolus embryogenesis. This paper is a review which shows a few examples of the use of induced mutations in the identification of essential genes for embryogenesis in two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heyhn. for dicots and Zea mays L. for monocots. In these two species, embryo development mutants have been isolated using insertional mutagenesis and chemical mutagenesis with Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS. Arabidopsis embryo mutants are affected in apical-basal axis polarity, radial pattern and in post-embryonic stages. Some Arabidopsis embryo mutants are defected in auxin signalisation. In maize, defective kernel (dek mutants are affected in the embryo and the endosperm, while in embryo specific (emb mutants, only the embryo is affected. In common bean, plants deficient in seed development were isolated using EMS mutagenesis. Embryos inside the seeds fail to growth at different stages of development and show abnormalities mainly in the suspensor and the cotyledons.

  18. Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste-Lisbona Fernando J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn, little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits. Results A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI, expansion coefficient (EC, and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS, in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs, covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of

  19. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M., E-mail: adriana.souza@pesquisador.cnpq.br [Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  20. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  1. Mutation induction in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for improvement of protein content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two Phaseolus vulgaris varieties, Cuarenteno and Suchitan, were treated with different gamma ray doses. The mutagenic effects on M1 are briefly reported. Seeds of each selected M1 plant were grown individually as a single M2 family. Seed protein content for the M2 families was estimated using the micro-Kjeldahl method. Twenty-one families descending from Cuarenteno and 36 families descending from Suchitan with more than 25% protein content were grown and selection was carried out between and within them. The selected plants were grown as M4 families and again selection was carried out between them. During the M5 generation, 77 mutants, along with 3 Suchitan and 20 Cuarenteno selected lines, were evaluated for yield and protein content. The results from the investigation showed that in the M2 generation, radiation treatments increased the variability of the seed protein content. In the M5 generation, no significant progress, as compared with the control, was achieved in seed protein content for mutants descended from Cuarenteno. On the other hand, increases in protein content and yield were achieved for the mutants descended from Suchitan. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  2. Purification of a novel α-amylase inhibitor from local Himalayan bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds with activity towards bruchid pests and human salivary amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mridu; Sharma, Pratima; Nath, Amarjit K

    2014-07-01

    Six bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of Himalayan region were analysed for α- amylase inhibitor activity. The α-amylase inhibitor from seeds of screened bean cultivar KR-9, showing maximum inhibitory activity was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-100) and ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex). The inhibitor was purified to homogeneity as judged by native-PAGE with 14.22 fold purification and 71.66% recovery. Purified inhibitor consisted of three subunits of molecular weight 15,488, 18,620 and 26,302 daltons, respectively as determined by SDS-PAGE. It was found to be heat stable up to 30 °C-40 °C and had two pH optima of 5.0 and 6.9. Nature of inhibition was found to be of non-competitive type. The purified inhibitor was found to be effective against α-amylases extracted from larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis, Tribolium castaneum and gut enzyme of Spodoptera littoralis. Larvae of Tribolium castaneum fed on flour mixed with purified inhibitor for 5 days showed 100% larval mortality. Purified α-amylase inhibitor was also found to inhibit human salivary α-amylase, suggesting its potential in prevention and therapy of obesity and use as drug design targets for treatment of diabetes. The gene encoding the inhibitor may be used to develop transgenic plants resistant against insect pests. PMID:24966421

  3. Light piping driven photosynthesis in the soil: Low-light adapted active photosynthetic apparatus in the under-soil hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Sárvári, Éva; Solti, Ádám; Czégény, Gyula; Hideg, Éva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic activity was identified in the under-soil hypocotyl part of 14-day-old soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Magnum) cultivated in pots under natural light-dark cycles. Electron microscopic, proteomic and fluorescence kinetic and imaging methods were used to study the photosynthetic apparatus and its activity. Under-soil shoots at 0-2cm soil depth featured chloroplasts with low grana and starch grains and with pigment-protein compositions similar to those of the above-soil green shoot parts. However, the relative amounts of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes were higher; in addition a PIP-type aquaporin protein was identified in the under-soil thylakoids. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction measurements showed that the above- and under-soil hypocotyl segments had similar photochemical yields at low (10-55μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) light intensities. However, at higher photon flux densities the electron transport rate decreased in the under-soil shoot parts due to inactivation of the PSII reaction centers. These properties show the development of a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus driven by light piping of the above-soil shoot. The results of this paper demonstrate that the classic model assigning source and sink functions to above- and under-soil tissues is to be refined, and a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus in under-soil bean hypocotyls is capable of contributing to its own carbon supply. PMID:27318297

  4. Changes in the functional properties and antinutritional factors of extruded hard-to-cook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Karla A; Prudêncio, Sandra H; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2010-04-01

    The biochemical and functional properties of 2 hard-to-cook common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were investigated after the extrusion process. Beans of BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars were milled and extruded at 150 degrees C, with a compression ratio screw of 3 : 1, 5-mm die, and screw speed of 150 rpm. Extrudate flours were evaluated for water solubility (WS), water absorption index (WAI), oil absorption capacity (OAC), foaming capacity (FC), emulsifying activity (EA), antinutritional factors, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. Results indicated that the extrusion significantly decreased antinutrients such as phytic acid, lectin, alpha-amylase, and trypsin inhibitors, reduced the emulsifying capacity and eliminated the FC in both BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars. In addition, the WS, WAI, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility were improved by the extrusion process. These results indicate that it is possible to produce new extruded products with good functional and biochemical properties from these common bean cultivars. PMID:20492281

  5. Genetic diversity, variability and character association in local common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm of Kashmir

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    Syed Mudasir , P A Sofi1 ,M N Khan , , N R Sofi and Z A Dar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rajmash or common bean is regarded as “Grain of hope” as it is an important component of subsistence agriculture and feeds about 300 million people in tropics and 100 million people in Africa alone. The present investigation was conducted during kharif 2008. The experimental material comprised 75 diverse germplasm accessions collected from diverse ecological regions of Kashmir and temperate areas of Jammu division. The material was evaluated at three diverse locations representing three diverse agro-ecological regimes in a randomized complete block design with three replications at each location. Classification of genotypes led to formation of 3 clusters in the pooled data of 75 common bean genotypes. The clustering pattern gave a different picture with cluster II containing 51 genotypes while cluster I had 23 genotypes the remaining one cluster had only one genotype. Analysis of the traits contributing maximum to the divergence in the pooled analysis revealed the traits viz., days to maturity (22.52%, 100-seed weight (14.63%, protein content (12.605, seed yield plant-1(11.215 and days to 50 per cent flowering (10.46% to contribute maximum to the divergence in the present experimental material. Estimates of heritability (bs were high (>60% for all the traits except number of branches plant-1and number of seeds pod-1. The expected genetic gain (per cent of mean was high (>30% for days to maturity, number of pods plant-1, 100-seed weight and seed yield plant-1 while it was moderate (10.0-30.0% for days to 50 per cent flowering, number of branches plant-1, pod length, number of seeds pod-1and protein content. The genotypic correlation coefficients were, in general higher in magnitude though similar in direction, as compared to corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients. Seed yield plant-1 was observed to have a highly positive and significant correlations, both at phenotypic and genotypic levels with number of branches plant-1, number of

  6. Isolation and purification of fungal pathogen (Macrophomina phaseolina induced chitinase from moth beans (Phaseolus aconitifolius

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    Neelima Garg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 is one of the major pathogenesis-related proteins, which is a polypeptide that accumulates extracellularly in infected plant tissue. An attempt was made to isolate and purify the chitanase enzyme using moth beans as an enzyme source. Materials and Method : The enzyme was isolated and purified from moth beans against the fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina strain 2165. The isolation and purification was done in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Purification of chitinase was carried out to obtain three fractions, viz. 50°C heated, ammonium sulfate precipitated and sephadex G-25 column-eluted fractions. The molecular mass of Chitinase was directly estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryamide gel electroresis (SDS-PAGE. Result : The yield is sufficient for initial characterization studies of the enzyme. The molecular study of the enzyme shows the possibility of generating the defense mechanism in plants in which it cannot occur. Chitinase was purified by gel filtration chromatography with 20.75-fold and 32.78-fold purification in the in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. The enzyme shows a maximum activity after 90 min with 0.1 ml of colloidal chitin as a substrate and 0.4 ml of crude chitinase extract. The optimum pH of 5.0 and an optimum temperature of 40°C was found for maximal activity. The molecular weight of purified chitinase was estimated to be 30 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Conclusion : The chitinase isolated in both in vitro and in vivo conditions is stable andactive.

  7. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations. PMID:14711042

  8. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  9. A gap analysis methodology for collecting crop genepools: a case study with phaseolus beans.

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    Julián Ramírez-Villegas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The wild relatives of crops represent a major source of valuable traits for crop improvement. These resources are threatened by habitat destruction, land use changes, and other factors, requiring their urgent collection and long-term availability for research and breeding from ex situ collections. We propose a method to identify gaps in ex situ collections (i.e. gap analysis of crop wild relatives as a means to guide efficient and effective collecting activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The methodology prioritizes among taxa based on a combination of sampling, geographic, and environmental gaps. We apply the gap analysis methodology to wild taxa of the Phaseolus genepool. Of 85 taxa, 48 (56.5% are assigned high priority for collecting due to lack of, or under-representation, in genebanks, 17 taxa are given medium priority for collecting, 15 low priority, and 5 species are assessed as adequately represented in ex situ collections. Gap "hotspots", representing priority target areas for collecting, are concentrated in central Mexico, although the narrow endemic nature of a suite of priority species adds a number of specific additional regions to spatial collecting priorities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results of the gap analysis method mostly align very well with expert opinion of gaps in ex situ collections, with only a few exceptions. A more detailed prioritization of taxa and geographic areas for collection can be achieved by including in the analysis predictive threat factors, such as climate change or habitat destruction, or by adding additional prioritization filters, such as the degree of relatedness to cultivated species (i.e. ease of use in crop breeding. Furthermore, results for multiple crop genepools may be overlaid, which would allow a global analysis of gaps in ex situ collections of the world's plant genetic resources.

  10. INFLUENCE OF ROOT COLONIZING BACTERIA ON THE DEFENSE RESPONSES OF BEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonization of plant roots by fluorescent pseudomonads has been correlated with disease suppression. ne mechanism may involve altered defense responses in the plant upon colonization. ltered defense responses were observed in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with fluorescent...

  11. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  12. Iron and zinc bioavailabilities to pigs from red and white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are similar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common beans contain relatively high concentrations of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) but are also high in polyphenols and phytates, factors that may inhibit Fe and Zn absorption. In vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (pigs) models were used to compare Fe and Zn bioavailabilities between red and white beans,...

  13. Histological anomalies in stems of common and runner beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Ph. coccineus L. treated with pendimenthalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. 'Augustynka' and 'Złota Saxa' and runner beans (Ph. coccineus L. 'Blanka' and 'Eureka' were seeded on loess-like soil containing 1.6% of organic matter, and sprayed with pendimethalin at the dose of 1650 g•ha-1 ' immediately after seeding in the middle of May. The herbicide inhibited shoot growth and caused enlargement of the stem at the soil level. Observations made in light and scanning electron microscope showed that in the swollen parts of the stem, the diameter of cortical parenchyma cells was bigger, the thickness of phloem layer was irregular, phloem fibers were less lignified, and the xylem cylinder was asymmetrical. In stems of 'Augustynka', 'Złota Saxa' and 'Eureka' cultivars, the thickness of secondary xylem and the diameter of vessels were reduced. Some vessels and tracheids were positioned transversely and obliquely to the stem axis and had an arched shape. Cell walls were less lignified and had a smaller number of pits. The largest number of histological anomalies was found in stems of the 'Augustynka' and 'Złota Saxa' cultivars.

  14. Accumulation of atmospheric deposition of As, Cd and Pb by bush bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was exposed to atmospheric deposition of As, Cd and Pb in a polluted and a reference area. The atmospheric deposition of these elements was significantly related to the concentrations in leaves, stems and pods at green harvest. Surprisingly there was also a clear relation for As and Pb in the seeds at dry harvest, even though these seeds were covered by the husks. Root uptake of accumulated atmospheric deposits was not likely in such a short term experiment, as confirmed by the fact that soil pore water analysis did not reveal significant differences in trace element concentrations in the different exposure areas. For biomonitoring purposes, the leaves of bush bean are the most suitable, but also washed or unwashed pods can be used. This means that the obtained relationships are suitable to estimate the transfer of airborne trace elements in the food chain via bush bean. - Highlights: • Atmospheric deposition of trace elements accumulates in bean leaves, stems and pods. • Also thoroughly washed green pods are suitable for biomonitoring. • Even the non-exposed bean seeds accumulate As and Pb deposits to some extend. • A migration of trace elements from the husks to the seeds is most likely. - In a polluted area, atmospheric deposition of trace elements on the above-ground plant parts is influencing their concentration, even in the seeds

  15. Bioefticacité de la substance des feuilles de deux variétés de haricot Phaseolus vulgaris sur les différents états et stades de développement de la bruche du haricot Acanthoscelides obtectus, (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    BOUCHIKHI, TANI Zoheir

    2014-01-01

    The beetle of the bean Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoiptera: Bruchidae), is the principal problem affecting the bean (phaseolus vulgaris) has the time at the fields and stock. The present study has as an aim the study of the relation insect and its plant host, with an evaluation of the biological activity on the beetle of the bean A.obtecrus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), of the substance of the sheets oftwo varieties of the bean Phaseolus vulgaris (rognon white and black), with two...

  16. Genotypic variability in phosphorus use efficiency for symbiotic N$_2$ fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Vadez, Vincent; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2001-01-01

    Variabilité génotypique de l'efficacité d'utilisation du phosphore pour la fixation symbiotique d'azote chez le haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris). Trois génotypes de haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (APN18, BAT271, G12168) ont été inoculés avec un mélange de 3 rhizobia (R. etli CIAT632 and CIAT7115 and R. tropici CIAT899), et cultivés en hydroaéroponie soit avec 10 mmol NO$_3^-$$\\cdot$semaine$^{-1}$ ou avec la fixation de N$_2$, sous divers apports hebdomadaires de P. La croissance était maximale p...

  17. Native bradyrhizobia from Los Tuxtlas in Mexico are symbionts of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima bean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Aline; Negrete-Yankelevich, Simoneta; Rogel, Marco A; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez, Julio; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2013-02-01

    Los Tuxtlas is the northernmost rain forest in North America and is rich in Bradyrhizobium with an unprecedented number of novel lineages. ITS sequence analysis of legumes in polycultures from Los Tuxtlas led to the identification of Phaseolus lunatus and Vigna unguiculata in addition to Phaseolus vulgaris as legumes associated with maize in crops. Bacterial diversity of isolates from nitrogen-fixing nodules of P. lunatus and V. unguiculata was revealed using ERIC-PCR and PCR-RFLP of rpoB genes, and sequencing of recA, nodZ and nifH genes. P. lunatus and V. unguiculata nodule bacteria corresponded to bradyrhizobia closely related to certain native bradyrhizobia from the Los Tuxtlas forest and novel groups were found. This is the first report of nodule bacteria from P. lunatus in its Mesoamerican site of origin and domestication. PMID:23280323

  18. Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates: Physicochemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Berrios, Jose J De; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Black bean protein hydrolysates obtained from pepsin and alcalase digestions until 120min of hydrolysis were evaluated by gel electrophoresis, relative fluorescence intensity, emulsifying properties, light micrograph of emulsions and in vitro antioxidant activity. The emulsion stability of the bean protein hydrolysates were evaluated during 30days of storage. The pepsin-treated bean protein hydrolysates presented higher degree of hydrolysis than the alcalase-treated protein hydrolysates. The alcalase-treated bean protein hydrolysates showed higher surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, the protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase digestion presented higher emulsion stability during 30-days than those obtained from pepsin digestion. The protein concentrate and especially the hydrolysates obtained from alcalase digestion had good emulsion stability and antioxidant activity. Thus, they could be exploited as protein supplements in the diet as nutritional and bioactive foods. PMID:27507499

  19. Polyphenol Content and Antiradical Activity of “Sarconi” Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Ecotype

    OpenAIRE

    A. Romani; P. VIGNOLINI; M.A. Falvino; D. HEIMLER

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the distribution and content of polyphenols (anthocyans, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids) in hulls and seeds of Sarconi beans having different colours and shapes. Sarconi beans are protected by the indication of geographic provenance (IGP) denomination and include different ecotypes. The seeds sampled in the study area (Basilicata, val d’Agri) exhibited different colours from white (Riso bianco) to dark yellow (Tabacchino), to green (Verdolino) and t...

  20. Antixenosis evaluation in bean germoplasm (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against Bemisia tabaci Gennadius

    OpenAIRE

    Melchiorre, G.; G. Truol; Di Feo, L. del V.

    2008-01-01

    One of the main limitations to bean yields is the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. It is an important worldwide pest that causes direct and indirect damages leading to yield decrease in crops. The objective was to evaluate antixenosis by the analysis of attraction and oviposition preference of Bemisia tabaci, biotype A, in seven bean cultivars, using free choice tests. The following parameters were measured: number of adults on the abaxial leaf surface; number of eggs/ leaf; numb...

  1. Morphological and genetic characterisation of some lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) cultivars and their nodulating rhizobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major investigations were carried out to assess the morphological traits and nodulation potential of thirteen lima bean cultivars as well as the genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating these lima bean cultivars. Thirteen lima bean cultivars obtained from the CSIR-PGGRI and various market centres in Ghana were used. The experiment was conducted in pots filled with natural topsoil and arranged in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates at the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The study aimed at obtaining some relevant information on the morphological traits of the lima bean to be improved upon, to evaluate their nodulation tendencies and determine similarities and differences of their nodulating rhizobia. Significant differences were obtained in quantitative characters (leaflet length, leaflet width, pod length, pod width, seed length, seed width, seed weight per 10 seeds and days to 50% emergence), contributing to divergence among the lima bean cultivars. Qualitative traits, however, were mostly similar, with few exceptions such as the flower wing colour, growth habit, leaf shape, main stem pigmentation, pod beak shape, seed secondary colour and seed pattern colour showing divergence among the lima bean cultivars. Two major clusters were joined at the similarity distance of 0.69. Majority of the lima bean cultivars were identified to be of the same morphotype with exception in cultivars M4 and A2. There were no significant differences in mean nodule number, mean effective and non-effective nodule counts. The lima bean cultivar GH 17I4 showed superior performance with respect to nodule number counts, effective nodules, fresh shoot weight and fresh root weight. Additionally lima bean cultivars, M5 and A2 indicated superior radiation use efficiency with total shoot dry matter of 731kg/ha and 704kg/ha respectively. A positive and high correlation existed between

  2. Effect of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin on the ultrastructure of Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Hashem, Hanan Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that is the aetiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Currently, the compound of choice for the treatment of T. vaginalis infections is metronidazole, however, it has many side effects and an increase in metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis has been observed. Medicinal plants could be a source of new antiprotozoal drugs with high activity, low toxicity and lower price. The present work was carried out to investigate the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin and their in vitro activity on the ultrastructure of T. vaginalis trophozoites in comparison to metronidazole, as detected by transmission electron microscope. Both N. sativa oil and P. vulgaris lectin showed high toxic effect as evidenced by severe cell damage with cytoplasmic and nuclear destruction, while the effect of N. sativa alcoholic extract was moderate. Therefore, these two extracts could offer an effective, cheaper and more safe alternative for metronidazole in treatment of trichomoniasis. PMID:27605771

  3. Biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Cao, Ying; Wang, En Tao; Qiao, Ya Juan; Jiao, Shuo; Liu, Zhen Shan; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Ge Hong

    2016-05-01

    The biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with bean in Shaanxi Province were investigated. A total of 194 bacterial isolates from bean nodules collected from 13 sampling sites were characterized based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD, and the symbiotic genes nodC and nifH. Fifteen genospecies belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ensifer, Bradyrhizobium and Ochrobactrum were defined among the isolates, with Rhizobium sp. II, Agrobacterium sp. II, E. fredii and R. phaseoli being the dominant groups. Four symbiotic gene lineages corresponding to Rhizobium sp. I, Rhizobium sp. II, R. phaseoli and B. liaoningense were detected in the nodC and nifH sequence analyses, indicating different origins for the symbiotic genes and their co-evolution with the chromosome of the bacteria. Moreover, the Ensifer isolates harbored symbiotic genes closely related to bean-nodulating Pararhizobium giardinii, indicating possible lateral gene transfer from Rhizobium to Ensifer. Correlation of rhizobial community composition with moisture, temperature, intercropping, soil features and nutrients were detected. All the results demonstrated a great diversity of bean rhizobia in Shaanxi that might be due to the adaptable evolution of the bean-nodulating rhizobia subjected to the diverse ecological conditions in the area. PMID:26966063

  4. Control de malezas con cobertura vegetal en el cultivo de la Caraota negra (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Weed control with vegetal mulch in black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Najul

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar el nivel de control de malezas con el uso de coberturas vegetales en el cultivo de la caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y determinar el efecto que sobre algunos componentes del rendimiento tienen estos métodos en comparación al control químico y manual, se condujo un ensayo bajo diseño de bloques al azar con ocho tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos de cobertura evaluados fueron: paja de Panicum maximum Jacq picada, entera, repicada y paja compostada, además de control químico (pendimetalin + linurón, dos tipos de control manual (desmalezado todo el ciclo y desmalezado a partir del inicio de la floración y un testigo siempre enmalezado. Se encontró que todos los métodos de cobertura alcanzaron más del 90% en el control de malezas a los 28 días después de la emergencia del cultivo, mientras que a 42 días sólo la paja picada mantuvo el nivel de control por encima del 90%. El mayor rendimiento del cultivo se obtuvo con el uso de la paja compostada con un valor de 2852,53 kg·ha-1, a pesar de que este tratamiento no produjo el mejor nivel de control de malezas, lo cual se atribuyó a los beneficios adicionales que habría producido la incorporación de este material orgánico al suelo. En el resto de los tratamientos de cobertura, así como en el control químico y desmalezado manual, se presentaron rendimientos similares entre sí y superiores al testigo.A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different kinds of weed control on the yield components of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Eight treatments consisting in the use of soil mulches based on straw of Panicum maximum Jacq. besides chemical and manual methods of weed control were used as follows: chopped, whole, very finely chopped, and composted straw; a chemical control (pendimethalin+linuron, two types of manual control (weeding for the whole crop cycle, and weeding starting at flowering, and a control (always with weeds. A

  5. THE ACTION OF UV RADIATION ON MITOTIC INDEX AND MITOTIC DIVISION PHASES AT PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Iuliana Bara

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, damaging effects of UV radiations on bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. plantule root tips were investigated. Our study proves that by bean plants, the decrease of cell division frequency appears to be part of protection mechanism against especially the short waved UV radiation, with variations depending on cultivar.

  6. Syntenic relationships among legumes revealed using a gene-based genetic linkage map of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Melody; Mamidi, Sujan; Lee, Rian; Chikara, Shireen; Rossi, Monica; Papa, Roberto; McClean, Phillip

    2010-10-01

    Molecular linkage maps are an important tool for gene discovery and cloning, crop improvement, further genetic studies, studies on diversity and evolutionary history, and cross-species comparisons. Linkage maps differ in both the type of marker and type of population used. In this study, gene-based markers were used for mapping in a recombinant inbred (RI) population of Phaseolus vulgaris L. P. vulgaris, common dry bean, is an important food source, economic product, and model organism for the legumes. Gene-based markers were developed that corresponded to genes controlling mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana, genes undergoing selection during domestication in maize, and genes that function in a biochemical pathway in A. thaliana. Sequence information, including introns and 3' UTR, was generated for over 550 genes in the two genotypes of P. vulgaris. Over 1,800 single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were found, 300 of which were screened in the RI population. The resulting LOD 2.0 map is 1,545 cM in length and consists of 275 gene-based and previously mapped core markers. An additional 153 markers that mapped at LOD <1.0 were placed in genetic bins. By screening the parents of other mapping populations, it was determined that the markers were useful for other common Mesoamerican × Andean mapping populations. The location of the mapped genes relative to their homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana (At), Medicago truncatula (Mt), and Lotus japonicus (Lj) were determine by using a tblastx analysis with the current psedouchromosome builds for each of the species. While only short blocks of synteny were observed with At, large-scale macrosyntenic blocks were observed with Mt and Lj. By using Mt and Lj as bridging species, the syntenic relationship between the common bean and peanut was inferred. PMID:20607211

  7. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris Innate Immune System against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Borges, Aline; Chowdhury, Bablu; Caldas, Danielle Gregório Gomes; Tsai, Siu Mui; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Melotto, Maeli

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. Methodology and Principal Findings As t...

  8. Damage quantification and reaction of bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nazário Silva dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The damage and the resistance levels of cultivars and accessions of common beans rescued in the South and mountain regions of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica parasitism were evaluated under a greenhouse. Four rescued bean genotypes ("FORT-10", "FORT-13", "FORT-16" and "FORT-19" and 2 commercial cultivars: "Pérola", and "Aporé", were tested. The cultivar "Rico-23" was included as standard of susceptibility to nematodes and non-inoculated plants constituted the control. Thus, the experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in 3 (treatments considering nematodes x 7 (genotypes and bean cultivars factorial arrangement, with 7 replicates. Data were measured at 50 days after plant inoculation. For damage quantification, the following variables were evaluated: plant height (PHE, number of nodes (NNO, number of trifoliate leaves (NRT, fresh matter weight (FWE and dry matter weight (DWE of shoots, root weight (RWE, number of root nodules (NRO and final population (FPO of nematodes per root system. There were no significant differences between the effects caused by M. incognita and M. javanica, but both species showed inferior values of PHE, NNO, NRT, RWE, FWE and DWE compared to controls. Concerning the levels of resistance of bean plants to M. incognita, the genotypes "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" and "FORT-16" behaved as moderately resistant, the cultivars "Rico 23" and "Pérola" low resistant, and the genotype "FORT-19" as highly susceptible. When parasitized by M. javanica, the beans "FORT-19", "Rico-23", "FORT-16" and "FORT-13" were low resistant, "Pérola" and "Aporé" susceptible and "FORT-10" highly susceptible.

  9. Mung bean sprout (Phaseolus aureus) nuclease and its biological and antitumor effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, J.; Škvor, J.; Poučková, P.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Slavík, Tomáš; Matoušek, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, - (2006), s. 402-409. ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/1149; GA ČR GA523/04/0755 Keywords : mung bean * nuclease Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.247, year: 2006

  10. Chemical profile of beans cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris) by 1H NMR - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS);Perfil quimico de cultivares de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris) pela tecnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Luciano Morais; Choze, Rafael; Cavalcante, Pedro Paulo Araujo; Santos, Suzana da Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: luciano@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning ({sup 1}H HR-MAS) NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed and in development by EMBRAPA - Arroz e Feijao were analyzed by {sup 1}H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques. (author)

  11. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-05-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al-drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviation of Al toxicity by osmotic stress (-0.60 MPa polyethylene glycol) in hydroponics. However, drought reduced the impact of Al on the root tip, as indicated by the reduction of Al-induced callose formation and MATE expression. Combined Al and drought stress enhanced up-regulation of ACCO expression and synthesis of zeatin riboside, reduced drought-enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, and expression of NCED involved in ABA biosynthesis and the transcription factors bZIP and MYB, thus affecting the regulation of ABA-dependent genes (SUS, PvLEA18, KS-DHN, and LTP) in root tips. The results provide circumstantial evidence that in soil, drought alleviates Al injury, but Al renders the root apex more drought-sensitive, particularly by impacting the gene regulatory network involved in ABA signal transduction and cross-talk with other phytohormones necessary for maintaining root growth under drought. PMID:22371077

  12. Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (HE and observed heterozygosity (HO levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

  13. Relative importance of phytohemagglutinin (lectin) and trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) protein absorption and utilization by the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M R; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-10-01

    The main objective of this work was to perform a comparative study of the antinutritional and/or toxic properties of phytohemagglutinin and trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor extracted from the seed of a commercial cultivar of edible bean used in Brazil. Bean proteins were extracted in acidic salt solution and fractionated by dialysis and centrifugation, then freeze-dried. The total freeze-dried bean extract and the globulin or albumin protein fraction were resuspended in distilled water and heated (100 degrees C, 30 min) for inactivation of hemagglutinin. Diets were prepared with unheated bean protein fractions and heated ones (100% trypsin inhibitor activity, but 0% phytohemagglutinin activity). As a result, the inhibition of growth and poor dietary protein utilization were observed in rats fed diets containing unheated bean protein fractions, but not in rats fed diets containing heated fractions. It was thus assumed that phytohemagglutinin is the main antinutritional and toxic factor that in dry bean (Phaseolus) protein and that trypsin inhibitor (Bowman-Birk type) did not interfere with rat growth. PMID:9919488

  14. Variation in water use efficiency and leaf carbon isotope ratio in navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One pot culture experiment was carried out to determine if leaf carbon isotope ratio and water use efficiency (WUE) in four genotypes of navy bean (BAT 477, DOR364, BAT881 and G21212) change with growth stages (initial flowering, peak flowering and fruit growth). One set of pots were irrigated regularly to 85% field capacity (well watered) and other set was maintained at 35% field capacity (water stressed). Plants were monitored for water-use and leaf 13C (13C/12C expressed with a differential notation as 13C ). The leaf 13C values decreased from initial flowering to fruit growth stage in both well watered and water stressed treatments. This result suggests that carbon might have been relocated as the plants advanced in growth. The differences between initial flowering and fruit growth stage, and between peak flowering and fruit growth were significant (p13C and WUE, and there were no significant genotype x growth stage interactions. There was a positive correlation between WUE and above ground dry matter (AGDM) across genotypes, and a good relationship (r=0.74*) between WUE and specific leaf area (cm2/g) was found at initial flowering. These results support the hypothesis that a higher WUE for the four genotypes of navy bean was achieved by higher photosynthetic capacity. Significant differences in leaf 13C were also noted between the well watered and water stressed plants. Well watered plants maintained a correlation between leaf 13C and WUE (r=0.92* 0.67* and 0.51* at initial flowering, peak flowering and fruit growth stage, respectively), but no such correlation was found for water stressed plants. Based on these results we conclude that (i) WUE of navy bean genotypes can best be assessed by determining leaf 13C of well watered plants at initial flowering stage and (ii) leaf 13C was not a promising indicator of adaptation to water deficit in navy beans

  15. Effect of a short period of phosphate deprivation on anti-oxidative enzymatic activities in bean plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Marco A; Malusa', Eligio; Verde, Elisabetta; Iacona, Riccardo; Bellomia, Laura; Belligno, Adalgisa

    2009-01-01

    We subjected bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ‘Bianco di Bagnasco’) to phosphate deprivation stress and studied the enzymatic activity of some major anti-oxidative enzymes in both leaves and roots extracts. P deprivation provoked a significant decrease of catalase activity in leaves of 14-day-old plants, but no differences were measured after prolonged P deprivation. The enzyme activity in roots was not affected by the withdrawal of P from the culture medium. The deprivation of P from the g...

  16. Nitrogen enrichment of soil and plant by Rhizobium phaseoli - Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incubation of 25 and 30 day old nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris for periods of 24h and 72h under 15-dinitrogen atmosphere indicated nitrogen enrichment of soil compared with soil free of plants and with other plants under the same experimental conditions. This indication of realease from the root-nodule system is discussed. (Auth.)

  17. Effect of some treatments on water absorption and protein properties of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidney beans were treated by soaking, cooking under pressure or gamma irradiation prior to estimating their water absorption capacity (WAC), total protein content and separating the fractions of protein electrophoretically, were determined. The results could be summarized as follows: Water absorption capacity of the seeds soaked in water was higher than that of seeds soaked in the saline solution. Also, increasing the soaking time caused an increase in WAC. Gamma irradiation increased WAC parallel with the dose up to 10 KGy. Soaking the seeds in water or in a saline solution reduced the total protein the seeds. The saline solution and 8 hr soaking were more effective. Gamma irradiation, up to 10 KGy, had no effect on the total protein content in kidney bean seeds. Soaking the seeds in water or in the saline solution caused some degradation and disappearance of some polypeptide chains. This was true after 4 or 8 hr of soaking. Cooking kidney beans for 1.5 hr at 121 degree caused some denaturation of proteins and rendered them unable to migrate in an electric field. Therefore, they accumulated in one peak. Some protein bands were degraded and the others were upgraded. some new bands were found after irradiation up to 5 KGy and others completely disappeared at the dosage of KGy

  18. In vitro selection of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) from Costa Rica for resistance to fungal pathogen Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research has been realized in the Laboratory of Plant Pathology and Laboratory of Plant Tissue Cultures of the Department of Botany in the Palacky University, Olomouc during the period 3 September - 21 December 2007. In vitro cultivation of beans seeds.The culture medium AC agar (Sigma) was used for Thanatephorus cucumeris. The next three isolates from Costa Rica were tested: 007-3242, 007-3241, 007-3077. For each pathogen isolate three different doses were evaluated: 1%, 5% and 10%. The medium was added before it was autoclaved. Two bean varieties (Brunca /black color/ and Bribri /red color/) were used during this procedure. In order to cultivate the bean seeds the Murashige/Skoog (MS) (Duchefa) culture medium was used. The bean seeds were sterilized with Chloramine B (2.5%) for 30 min, washing them three times with distilled sterile water and then leaving the seeds into distilled sterile water for 24 hours. The seed coat was eliminated, and then the embryos were extirpated, and placed in Petri dishes for two days, after two days of incubation the roots were cut and transferred to Erlenmeyer flasks. They were cultivated in the growth chamber at a temperature of 24 + 2 deg. C and a photoperiod of 16 hours /8 day/night. The evaluations were made during the 30, 40 and 50 days of incubation. The spray method was used in order to inoculate Thanatephorus cucumeris from the in vitro bean seedlings. After three weeks of incubation the seedlings were inoculated (by using a glass sprayer) with T. cucumeris (treatments of 1%, 5%, 10%, 2 ml per/ Erlenmeyer flask) in aseptic conditions. The evaluation was made 12 days after the inoculation. The results obtained so far are preliminary, the collected data needs to be analyzed statistically, so it can be published this year. (author)

  19. Competition of Amaranthus species with dry bean plants Competição de espécies de Amaranthus com plantas de feijoeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Saul Jorge Pinto de Carvalho; Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2008-01-01

    Weeds compete with field crops mainly for water, light and nutrients, and this competition is among other factors, a function of the occurrence of weed density, and the intrinsic competitive ability of each vegetal species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the competitive ability of five weed species of the Amaranthus L. genus (A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus and A. viridis) with dry bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. - 'Carioca Precoce' cultivar), using th...

  20. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean. PMID:25078400

  1. Differential Response of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Roots and Leaves to Salinity in Soil and Hydroponic Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu BAYRAM; Burcu SECKIN DINLER; Eda TASCI

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Volare) roots and leaves to salinity in different growth mediums (soil and hydroponic culture) through physiologic and biochemical analyses. The relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (CHL) content decreased with 300 mM NaCl treatment in both cultures but did not change with 150 mM treatment in soil culture. Similarly, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content did not change with 150 mM treatment in ...

  2. 菜豆品种真实性及种子纯度鉴定研究进展%Research Progress on Authenticity and Seed Purity Identification of Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 韩玉珠

    2013-01-01

      对鉴定不同菜豆品种真实性和种子纯度的田间小区种植法、种子形态法、电泳谱带法和分子标记等鉴定方法进行了综述,并提出可行性建议,旨在为准确、快速地鉴定菜豆品种真实性及种子纯度提供参考。%In this paper, we summarized methods for identifying the authenticity and seed purity of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars, including plot planting identification, seed morphological identification, electrophoretic band identification and molecular marker identification, and we put forward feasible suggestions to provide reference for accurate and quick identification of authenticity and seed purity of P. vulgaris L..

  3. Green and Blue Water Footprint Accounting for Dry Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris in Primary Region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Irene Flores Lopez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortages are a key obstacle to the sustainable supply of food to the world population, since agriculture has the largest consumptive water use. The Water Footprint (WF has been developed as a useful tool to assess the contribution of goods and activities to water scarcity. This concept is being used around the world to improve agricultural water management. This paper analyzes climate data in order to estimate green and blue WFs for dry beans in the dry beans primary region of Mexico under both irrigation and dryland conditions. The quantification of green WF is very important in this area, since 95% of the crop is obtained in dryland conditions. Standard methodology was used to assess the crop WF. Five different sowing dates were considered: two for irrigation (15 April and 15 May and three for dryland (1 and 15 July and 1 August. It was found that the optimum sowing date for dryland conditions is 1 August, with a WF of 1839 m3·Mg−1 (1 Mg equal to 1000 kg in the sutheastern part of the region; nevertheless, results show that the largest green water availability occurs around the first days of July. Under irrigated conditions the best sowing date is 15 May, with a decrease in crop evapotranspiration of 10.1% in relation to 15 April; which means a reduction of 36.1% of blue water use in the northwestern region mainly.

  4. Moisture dependent physical properties of red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemi Varnamkhasti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical properties of food materials like grains are important in the design or improvement of harvesting and processing machines. This study was aimed at assessment of some physical properties of red bean grains as a function of moisture content. Based on the results obtained, with increasing moisture content, grain dimensions as well as thousand grain mass increased. In the moisture content range of 10 to 20% w.b., the surface area, true density, and porosity values increased by 10.6-19.7, 4.76-6.24, and 17.91-21%, respectively. This increase in moisture content caused a decrease in bulk density values by 8.35 and 9.70% for the varieties of Goli and Akhtar, respectively. Coefficient of static friction (Goli and Akhtar increased against surfaces of rubber (27.3 and 27%, galvanized iron (50 and 28.5%, and plywood (32 and 21.4% as the moisture content increased. Mechanical properties were determined in terms of average rupture force, deformation at rupture point, and rupture energy. Deformation and rupture energy of red bean grains generally increased in magnitude with an increase in moisture content, while rupture force decreased.

  5. Organic and chemical manure of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on bean production ICA CITARA variety, four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, and earthworm manure) in four doses 280,500 y 1.000 kg/ha with the same doses of chemical fertilization, were evaluated the experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia) of medium climate with 1.320 m.s.n.m. This was established using an alluvial soil (Tropofluvent), frenk, with low contents of organic, matter (2,2%), phosphorus (10 ppm), and potassium (0,10 meq/l00 g). the results, after six consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments. The highest yield (1.836 kg/ha) was obtained when to the chemical fertilization (300 kg of 10-30-10) was added with 250 kg/ha of hen manure, followed by the application of 100 kg/ha, of cow manure (1.812 kg/ha). Chemical fertilization without organic matter produced 1.640 kg/ha of bean, which was very similar to the addition of 1.000 kg/ha of cow manure and earthworm manure with yields of 1.688 kg/ha and 1.635 kg/ha respectively

  6. Analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., genotype BAT93 calmodulin cDNA using computational tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim Amelia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day and 20-day old bean-pod-tissues. Altogether, 5972 cDNA clones were isolated to have ESTs. While processing ESTs, we found a transcript for calmodulin (CaM gene. It is an important gene that encodes for a calcium-binding protein and known to express in all eukaryotic cells. Hence, this study was undertaken to analyse and annotate it. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze and annotate P. vulgaris CaM (PvCaM gene cDNA and its deduced protein (amino acids sequence. Materials and Methods: Both strands of PvCaM cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primer to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. The cDNA sequence and deduced protein sequence were analyzed and annotated using bioinformatics tools available online. The secondary structures and three-dimensional (3D structure of PvCaM protein were predicted using the Phyre automatic fold recognition server. Results: Results showed that PvCaM cDNA is 818 bp in length. The cDNA analysis results showed that it contains an open reading frame that encodes for 149 amino acid residues. The deduced protein sequence analysis results showed the presence of conserved domains required for CaM function. The predicted secondary structures and 3D structure are analogous to the Solanum tuberosum CaM. Conclusions: This study analyzed and annotated PvCaM cDNA and protein. However, in order to obtain a complete understanding of PvCaM protein, further study on its expression, structure and regulation is

  7. Analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., genotype BAT93) calmodulin cDNA using computational tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Kassim; Singh, Jasvin; Shah, Farida Habib; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day and 20-day old bean-pod-tissues. Altogether, 5972 cDNA clones were isolated to have ESTs. While processing ESTs, we found a transcript for calmodulin (CaM) gene. It is an important gene that encodes for a calcium-binding protein and known to express in all eukaryotic cells. Hence, this study was undertaken to analyse and annotate it. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze and annotate P. vulgaris CaM (PvCaM) gene cDNA and its deduced protein (amino acids) sequence. Materials and Methods: Both strands of PvCaM cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primer to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. The cDNA sequence and deduced protein sequence were analyzed and annotated using bioinformatics tools available online. The secondary structures and three-dimensional (3D) structure of PvCaM protein were predicted using the Phyre automatic fold recognition server. Results: Results showed that PvCaM cDNA is 818 bp in length. The cDNA analysis results showed that it contains an open reading frame that encodes for 149 amino acid residues. The deduced protein sequence analysis results showed the presence of conserved domains required for CaM function. The predicted secondary structures and 3D structure are analogous to the Solanum tuberosum CaM. Conclusions: This study analyzed and annotated PvCaM cDNA and protein. However, in order to obtain a complete understanding of PvCaM protein, further study on its expression, structure and regulation is essential. PMID

  8. Aluminum resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) involves induction and maintenance of citrate exudation from root apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Andrés Felipe; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-02-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) resistance, Quimbaya (Al-resistant) and VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) were grown in hydroponics for up to 25 h with or without Al, and several parameters related to the exudation of organic acids anions from the root apex were investigated. Al treatment enhanced the exudation of citrate from the root tips of both genotypes. However, its dynamic offers the most consistent relationship between Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and Al accumulation in and exclusion from the root apices. Initially, in both genotypes the short-term (4 h) Al-injury period was characterized by the absence of citrate efflux independent of the citrate content of the root apices, and reduction of cytosolic turnover of citrate conferred by a reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activity. Transient recovery from initial Al stress (4-12 h) was found to be dependent mainly on the capacity to utilize internal citrate pools (Al-resistant genotype Quimbaya) or enhanced citrate synthesis [increased activities of NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and ATP-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in Al-sensitive VAX-1]. Sustained recovery from Al stress through citrate exudation in genotype Quimbaya after 24 h Al treatment relied on restoring the internal citrate pool and the constitutive high activity of citrate synthase (CS) (EC 4.1.3.7) fuelled by high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) activity. In the Al-sensitive genotype VAX-1 the citrate exudation and thus Al exclusion and root elongation could not be maintained coinciding with an exhaustion of the internal citrate pool and decreased CS activity. PMID:20053183

  9. Enrichment of ACE inhibitory peptides in navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) using lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xin; Wen, Delan; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Mei; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to explore a novel strategy to enhance angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of navy bean by preparation of navy bean milk (NBM) which was then subjected to fermentation of four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, namely, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6, and Lactobacillus plantarum 70810. With the exception of L. helveticus MB2-1, the other three selected strains had good growth performances in NBM with viable counts increased to log 8.30-8.39 cfu ml(-1) during 6 h of fermentation, and thus were selected for the following investigations. Protein contents of NBM significantly reduced when treated with L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum B1-6, and the electrophoresis patterns showed the preferable proteins for LAB strains to hydrolyze were α- and β-type phaseolins, whereas γ-type phaseolin was resistant to hydrolysis. RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated all fermented NBM had higher intensities of peaks with retention times between 2.5 and 3.5 min indicative of formation of small peptides. All fermented NBM showed higher ACE inhibitory activity compared to the unfermented ones, for which 2 h, 3 h, and 5 h were found to be the optimum fermentation periods for respectively L. plantarum 70810, L. plantarum B1-6 and L. bulgaricus, with IC50 values of 109 ± 5.1, 108 ± 1.1, and 101 ± 2.2 μg protein ml(-1). The subsequent in vitro gastrointestinal simulation afforded all fermented extracts reduced IC50 values and the extracts fermented by L. plantarum B1-6 exerted the lowest IC50 value of 21 ± 2.1 μg protein ml(-1). The research has broadened our knowledge bases on the effect of LAB fermentation on the degradation of navy bean proteins and the capacity to release ACE inhibitory peptides. The approach was promising to obtain probiotic products with potential to serve as functional ingredients targeting hypertension. PMID:25536445

  10. Variation in phytate accumulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. fruit explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro synthesis of phytate was studied in common bean fruit explants. Different concentrations of sucrose; phosphorus (P; myo-inositol; abscisic acid (ABA; glutamine and methionine, were tested. Fixed concentrations of these compounds were tested at different periods (0, 3, 6 and 9 days. Variation in phytate coincided with different concentrations of sucrose, myo-inositol, P and ABA for the duration tested. These compounds caused an accumulation of phytate and were more effective in the presence of myo-inositol and P. The accumulation of P varied less than phytate for the different treatments tested in vitro. In conclusion, P, sucrose, ABA, and myo-inositol caused an increase in the phytate of bean seed, showing that it could be possible to alter its content by culturing bean fruit explants in vitro.O fósforo é armazenado na forma de fitato nas sementes, o qual forma complexos estáveis e insolúveis com minerais e proteínas, conferindo efeito antinutriente. A síntese de fitato foi estudada em cultivo de explantes de fruto de feijão in vitro sob diferentes concentrações de sacarose, fósforo (P, mio-inositol, ácido abscísico (ABA, glutamina e metionina. Fixada a concentração destes compostos, testou-se os diferentes tempos de cultivo (0, 3, 6 e 9 dias. A variação no acúmulo de fitato ocorreu na presença de sacarose, mio-inositol, P e ABA nas diferentes concentrações e tempos testados. O acúmulo mais efetivo de fitato ocorreu na presença de mio-inositol e P. O acúmulo de P variou menos do que fitato em todos os tratamentos. Em conclusão, P, sacarose, ABA e mio-inositol causaram aumento no fitato acumulado nas sementes, mostrando que foi possível alterar a síntese de fitato em cultivo de explantes de fruto de feijão.

  11. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes. PMID:25634499

  12. Construction of a BAC library and a physical map of a major QTL for CBB resistance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S Y; Yu, K; Huffner, M; Park, S J; Banik, M; Pauls, K P; Crosby, W

    2010-07-01

    A major quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning common bacterial blight (CBB) resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines HR45 and HR67 was derived from XAN159, a resistant line obtained from an interspecific cross between common bean lines and the tepary bean (P. acutifolius L.) line PI319443. This source of CBB resistance is widely used in bean breeding. Several other CBB resistance QTL have been identified but none of them have been physically mapped. Four molecular markers tightly linked to this QTL have been identified suitable for marker assisted selection and physical mapping of the resistance gene. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from high molecular weight DNA of HR45 and is composed of 33,024 clones. The size of individual BAC clone inserts ranges from 30 kb to 280 kb with an average size of 107 kb. The library is estimated to represent approximately sixfold genome coverage. The BAC library was screened as BAC pools using four PCR-based molecular markers. Two to seven BAC clones were identified by each marker. Two clones were found to have both markers PV-tttc001 and STS183. One preliminary contig was assembled based on DNA finger printing of those positive BAC clones. The minimum tiling path of the contig contains 6 BAC clones spanning an estimated size of 750 kb covering the QTL region. PMID:20419470

  13. Functional Characterization of Bean Zaragoza Starch (Phaseolus Lunatus L. and Quantification of the Resistant Starch

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    Piedad M. Montero-Castillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are a potential source of starch, representing between 30 and 50% of its dry weight, this is an essential energy source for humans. Currently its use is widespread in the food industry as an additive or raw material in food compounds, due to its nutritional, functional properties as a thickening agent and stabilizer of suspensions and dispersions. We evaluated several functional properties of starch variety zaragoza red bean, was obtained initial gelatinization temperature and final (71°C (81°C respectively, the solubility was 8.3% at 90°C, swelling power was 6.6% at 80°C, and water retention capacity was 4.4% at 80°C. The apparent viscosity was evaluated between 20 and 75 °C giving as results viscosities between 1.096 and 0.98 Cp respectively. The results showed that the tested temperatures significantly affect the solubility, swelling power, water holding capacity and viscosity of the starch. The amylose and amylopectin content was 21.1% and 78.19%. Finally, was obtained 9,24% resistant starch and compared with other conventional non starchy sources in order to acquire new knowledge about this material native to the Colombian Caribbean coast.

  14. Host genes involved in nodulation preference in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-rhizobium etli symbiosis revealed by suppressive subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschini, Eitel Peltzer; Blanco, Flavio Antonio; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Beker, María Pía; Küster, Helge; Pühler, Alfred; Aguilar, O Mario

    2008-04-01

    Common bean cultivars are nodulated preferentially by Rhizobium etli lineages from the same center of host diversification. Nodulation was found to be earlier and numerous in bean plants inoculated with the cognate strain. We predicted that analysis of transcripts at early stages of the interaction between host and rhizobium would identify plant genes that are most likely to be involved in this preferential nodulation. Therefore, we applied a suppressive subtractive hybridization approach in which cDNA from a Mesoamerican cultivar inoculated with either the more- or less-efficient strain of R. etli was used as the driver and the tester, respectively. Forty-one independent tentative consensus sequences (TCs) were obtained and classified into different functional categories. Of 11 selected TCs, 9 were confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Two genes show high homology to previously characterized plant receptors. Two other upregulated genes encode for Rab11, a member of the small GTP-binding protein family, and HAP5, a subunit of the heterotrimeric CCAAT-transcription factor. Interestingly, one of the TCs encodes for an isoflavone reductase, which may lead to earlier Nod factor production by specific strains of rhizobia. The transcript abundance of selected cDNAs also was found to be higher in mature nodules of the more efficient interaction. Small or no differences were observed when an Andean bean cultivar was inoculated with a cognate strain, suggesting involvement of these genes in the strain-specific response. The potential role of these genes in the early preferential symbiotic interaction is discussed. PMID:18321191

  15. Phenotypic evaluation and genome wide association studies of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) diversity panels in multiple locations highlight evaluation techniques, traits and lines useful for trait based selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity is constrained by abiotic soil conductions including drought and low fertility as well as by high temperature. High temperature primarily impacts pollen viability and growth. Soil water content and nutrients occur heterogeneously and often in a stratif...

  16. Description of Phaseolus vulgaris L. aborting embryos from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenized plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM and cotyledons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to those observed in wild-type samples. Mutant embryos show also hyperhydricity and contain low amount of chlorophyll. Genetic analyses of F1, F2 and F3 populations from the crosses carried out between the mutagenized plants with aborting embryos and the wild-type plants indicated that the embryo abortion phenotype is maternally inherited and controlled by a single recessive gene. These Phaseolus mutant plants with aborting embryos constitute a valuable material for plant embryogenesis studies.

  17. Generation of promising lines of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) induced by mutations to increase competitiveness of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotechnology techniques combined to molecular and nuclear energy (Biotec/EN) can be used for inducing mutations in plants and therefore to develop new lines of crops with new characteristic such disease resistance, better quality or enhanced production. In Costa Rica, there is a National Project on Technical Cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the improvement of beans. This crop is the main source of protein and folic acid in the diet of Costa Ricans. The fungal disease known as Web blight (Thanatephorus cucumeris), is the main constraint in the production of the crop and there are not any naturally resistant lines. For this reason the main objective of this project is to select resistance lines and contribute to the increased competitiveness of the national production. In addition, the project will provide an effective technology transfer to the agricultural sector in Costa Rica and enhance the quality of life for farmers and the strengthening of alimentary security in the country. Seeds of 'Bribri' and 'Brunca' bean varieties were supplied by the Experimental Station Fabio Baudrit Moreno of the University of Costa Rica. A method has been improved for in vitro culture in the regeneration of the seedlings. The embryonic shoot apex irradiated with 0, 10, 20 and 30 Gy were cultivated in culture medium MS without growth regulators. The plants were evaluated at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after transplanted. The variables evaluated were: survival rate, percentage of abnormalities, number of leaves, plant size, number of flowers per plant, number of seeds per plant, seed size, fresh weight of seed per plant and flowering days. Lines resistant to Tanathephorus cucumeris through disconnected leaves were evaluated and selected. The currently obtained results are preliminary, because the experiments have not been finished yet. We hoped that this research project will help promote interest in the coordinated use of biotechnology and nuclear energy

  18. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. I. Growth can occur without photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Cell expansion in dicotyledonous leaves is strongly stimulated by bright white light (WL), at least in part as a result of light-induced acidification of the cell walls. It has been proposed that photosynthetic reactions are required for light-stimulated transport processes across plasma membranes of leaf cells, including proton excretion. The involvement of photosynthesis in growth and wall acidification of primary leaves of bean has been tested by inhibiting photosynthesis in two ways: by reducing chlorophyll content of intact plants with tentoxin (TX) and by treating leaf discs with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Exposure to bright WL stimulated growth of intact leaves of TX-treated plants. Discs excised from green as well as from TX-or DCMU-treated leaves also responded by growing faster in WL, as long as exogenous sucrose was supplied to the photosynthetically inhibited tissues. The WL caused acidification of the epidermal surface of intact TX-leaves, but acidification of the incubation medium by mesophyll cells only occurred when photosynthesis was not inhibited. It is concluded that light-stimulated cell enlargement of bean leaves, and the necessary acidification of epidermal cell walls, are mediated by a pigment other than chlorophyll. Light-induced proton excretion by mesophyll cells, on the other hand, may require both a photosynthetic product (or exogenous sugars) and a non-photosynthetic light effect.

  19. Isolation of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Kumar Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro screening of plant growth-promoting (PGP traits was carried out using eight Pseudomonas spp., PPR1 to PPR8, isolated from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris growing on the Uttarakhand Himalayan range in India. All the isolates were fast growers, positive for catalase, oxidase and urease activities, and utilized lactose and some amino acids. All the isolates were indole acetic acid (IAA positive, however PPR8 solubilized potassium and zinc along with various other types of inorganic (tricalcium, dicalcium and zinc phosphate and organic (calcium phytate phosphates, as well as producing siderophore and ACC deaminase. PPR8 also produced cyanogens, extracellular chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase and oxalate oxidase. Based on the PGP traits of all isolates, PPR8 was found to be the most potent plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Further, PPR8 was identified as Pseudomonas sp. PPR8, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Moreover, the PGP activities of PPR8 confirmed it to be a potent biocontrol agent, inhibiting the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi. This study reveals the potential of Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 to be used as a good bioinoculant for growth promotion of common bean and for the protection of important legume crops from various deleterious phytopathogens.

  20. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  1. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF ACTIVITY OF SERINE PROTEASES ACCOMPANY THE EXPOSURE OF COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. TO WATER DEFICIT

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    M. Budič

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of proteolytic enzymes exist in plants. On their levels depends protein turnover, a fundamental component in plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Cysteine proteases have frequently been reported to be influenced by drought, but only a few serine proteases (SP, among them the trypsin-like enzyme and two aminopeptidases from bean leaves (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Hieng et al., 2004. Our starting point was to identify proteolytic activities assigned to SPs that change with drought and then to characterize the corresponding proteases. A quantitative, analytical one-step method was used to separate endopeptidases and aminopeptidases active against a range of substrates in leaf extracts of plants grown in the field (FC. The influence of drought was determined for those of these activities which were confirmed as SPs, based on their inhibition by specific inhibitors. Under water deficit in plants grown under controlled conditions (CC their levels changed in different ways. The levels of SP activities in FC plants, observed during a period of relative drought, were similar to those measured in mildly stressed CC plants. The partial characterisations of some of these SPs will be presented. Our results point to a number of roles for different SPs in the plant response to water stress, which could range from enhanced protein turnover to limited proteolysis at specific sites.

  2. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  3. The formation of microorganism communities in the soil under the effect of chitosan and runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L. cultivation

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    Danuta Pięta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the studies was the soil with introduced solutions containing 0,1% chitosan. These materials were obtained from the Institute of Chemical Fibres in L6d2 (in the form of a microcrystalline gel and also from the Department of Food Biochemistry and Chemistry of the University of Agriculture in Lublin (in a liquid form,i.e.dissolved in acetic acid. In order to set an experiment in a growth chamber, grey brown podzolic soil formed from loesses and taken from a mechanically treated belt of black fallow was used. The soil (1000 g was watered every 8 days with 100 ml of examined chitosan solutions per pot. Control soil was watered with sterile distilled water. Seven days after each watering, soil samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Then 25 runner bean seeds were sown into each pot. After six weeks of plants' growth the experiment was finished and the number of plants was counted, their healthiness determined and soil microbiological analysis was performed. Regardless of chitosan form introduced to the soil it stimulated the growth of bacteria and fungi, since in these experimental combinations was found a significantly higher number of microorganisms as compared with the control. A particular high increase in the number of microorganism colonies was observed with simultaneous growth of plants and the application of chitosan. A considerable increase of fungi colonies from the Trichoderma genus was found in the soil treated with chitosan in the form ofboth a microcrystalline gel and a liquid. The species of this genus are considered to be antagonists; it affects pathogenic fungi through competition, antibiosis and over-parasitism. An increase in colonies of saprophytic microorganisms, including antagonistic ones of Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. was observed in the soil treated with chitosan . On the other hand, in the soil after the growth of bean and treated watered with chitosan only few colonies of Fusarium oxysporum f

  4. Can the critical temperature for photochemical damage in common bean plants be changed after a drought event?

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    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low water availability and high temperatures occur under field conditions and we hypothesize that the critical temperature for photochemical damage (TC in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants is increased by the occurrence of previous water deficit in a genotype-dependent manner. Five common bean cultivars A320, A222, Carioca, BAT477 and Ouro Negro were evaluated. Thirty days after seedlings emergence, one group of plants was exposed to water deficit for ten days and rehydrated and another one was maintained well hydrated during the experimental period. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (FO was monitored in leaf discs exposed to temperatures ranging from 25 to 45 oC and the TC values estimated. The previous water deficit did not affect TC, which varied between 38.8 and 43.8 oC when considering all cultivars and water regimes. Under well-watered conditions, BAT477 (41.9 oC and Carioca (43.8 oC presented higher TCthan Ouro Negro (38.8 oC. Our findings indicate a significant genotypic variation in thermal tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris, an important crop trait to be considered in breeding programs.

  5. Efeito da densidade e da distância de caruru-de-mancha e amendoim-bravo na cultura do feijoeiro Effect of the density and distance of slender amaranth and milkweed on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.M. Barroso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência causada pelo caruru-demancha (Amaranthus viridis e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, em função das densidades e distâncias, no feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar Pérola. Como recipientes, foram utilizadas caixas de cimento-amianto, com capacidade para 50 litros, preenchidas com LatossoloVermelho-Escuro. As mudas foram formadas em bandejas de 128 células preenchidas com substrato hortícola; quando as plântulas atingiram o estádio V2, foram transplantadas para as caixas, sendo as de feijoeiro numa linha central, reproduzindo a semeadura em campo, e as das plantas daninhas nas densidades de 8, 16 e 32 plantas m-2, distanciadas de 0, 12 e 24 cm das plantas de feijão e igualmente entre si. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x3+2T, com quatro repetições, constituindo as parcelas experimentais. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento e de produtividade da cultura e das plantas daninhas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Observou-se que as plantas daninhas obtiveram maior desenvolvimento quando em maior distância da cultura. O caruru-de-mancha causou reduções no número de vagens e na produtividade estimada do feijoeiro. Para o caruru-de-mancha, o aumento da densidade só causou redução na produtividade da cultura quando as plantas estavam distanciadas em pelo menos 12 cm. A 0 cm, o feijoeiro tornou-se mais competitivo e não sofreu interferência das plantas daninhas, independentemente da densidade destas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference caused by Slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis and Milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla at different densities and distances in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pérola. The experiment was carried out using asbestos cement boxes

  6. Leather Industry Solid Waste as Nitrogen Source for Growth of Common Bean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leather industry generates large amounts of a Cr-containing solid waste (wet blue leather). This material is classified by the Brazilian Environmental Council as a category-one waste, requiring a special disposal. The patented process Br n. PI 001538 is a technique to remove chromium from wet blue leather, with the recovery of a solid collagenic material (collagen), containing high nitrogen levels. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of soil application of collagen on the production of dry matter, content and accumulation of N in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), after the previous growth of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) cv. Napier, as well as to quantify the mineralization rate of N in the soil. The application of collagen, at rates equivalent to 16 and 32 tha-1, provided greater N contents in the common bean plants, indicating residual effect of these rates of application; the same was observed for the rates of 4 and 8tha-1, though in smaller proportions. Higher mineralization rates of N collagen occurred next to 16 days after soil incubation. During the 216 days of incubation, the treatments with collagen showed higher amounts of mineralized nitrogen.

  7. Genetic diversity, inter-gene pool introgression and nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; González, Laura F; Kimani, Paul M; Butare, Louis

    2010-07-01

    The Great Lakes region of Central Africa is a major producer of common beans in Africa. The region is known for high population density and small average farm size. The common bean represents the most important legume crop of the region, grown on over a third of the cultivated land area, and the per capita consumption is among the highest in the world for the food crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a collection of 365 genotypes from the Great Lakes region of Central Africa, including a large group of landraces from Rwanda as well as varieties from primary centers of diversity and from neighboring countries of Central Africa, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, using 30 fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers and automated allele detection. In addition, the landraces were evaluated for their seed iron and zinc concentration to determine if genetic diversity influenced nutritional quality. Principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses allowed the separation of the landraces into 132 Andean and 195 Mesoamerican (or Middle American) genotypes with 32 landraces and 6 varieties intermediate between the gene pools and representing inter-gene pool introgression in terms of seed characteristics and alleles. Genetic diversity and the number of alleles were high for the collection, reflecting the preference for a wide range of seed types in the region and no strong commercial class preference, although red, red mottled and brown seeded beans were common. Observed heterozygosity was also high and may be explained by the common practice of maintaining seed and plant mixtures, a coping strategy practiced by Central African farmers to reduce the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses. Finally, nutritional quality differed between the gene pools with respect to seed iron and zinc concentration, while genotypes from the intermediate group were notably high in both minerals. In conclusion, this study has shown that

  8. Agronomic Evaluation of Field Bean(Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated Phosphorus Source in an Andosol in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate rocks(PR) which have high reactivity may be effective as a direct application of fertilizer especially in highly weathered acid soils. The agronomic effectiveness of such PR, Minjingu rock phosphate (MRP)was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate,triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with seed bean (P. vulgaris L.) in a green house at the field station of faculty of Agriculture,University of Nairobi, Kenya. MRP final y ground with 30 Grade % P and TSP with 99.0 Grade % P fertiliser at rates 0, 30, 45 and 60 mg P per pot were applied on 2kg soil per pot. The soil used in the study was an acid humic andosol from fields with moribund tea bushes,tea bushes planted in 1958 and 1979 and newly cleared forest in Kagaa, Kenya. Shoot and root dry matter yields,dry seed yield responses and their responses estimates were determined and showed positive significance in most cases when TSP fertiliser was applied on the soils except that from moribund tea field. The relative agronomic effectiveness (efficiency) of MRP on biomass and also seed yield of beans was found to be significantly inferior to TSP in most of the soils except that from moribund tea field where both sources were found to be effective. This study confirms that in spite of its high reactivity, MRP is still agronomically ineffective as nutrient source of P for growing P. vulgaris in acid Soils

  9. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the 60Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 60 Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B1, B2 and B6 protein content, biological evaluation in rats [Food intake and Weight gain (in grams), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  10. Bio-reduction of graphene oxide using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) and its application as energy storage electrode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green reduction of GO using mung bean soaked water has been demonstrated. • The isolation of reduced is very simple and precludes extra purification process. • The specific capacitance of rGO is 137 F g−1 at a current density of 1.3 A g−1. • The retention in specific capacitance is ∼98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. - Abstract: Green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) has been demonstrated. In comparison to the toxic and hazardous reducing chemicals, the drained water from soaked mung beans (P. aureus L.) is completely green reducing agent, the reduction process is very simple and cost effective. The removal of oxygen containing functional groups of GO has been confirmed by UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Morphological characterization of rGO has been performed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Electrochemical performances of rGO have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The specific capacitance (SC) of rGO has been found to be 137 F g−1 at a current density of 1.3 A g−1. The retention in SC is more than 98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles suggesting long-term electrochemical cyclic stability as supercapacitor electrode materials

  11. Bio-reduction of graphene oxide using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) and its application as energy storage electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Milan [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovation Research (AcSIR), Anusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110001 (India); Saha, Sanjit [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Khanra, Partha [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Murmu, Naresh Chandra [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Srivastava, Suneel Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Kuila, Tapas, E-mail: tkuila@gmail.com [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Lee, Joong Hee, E-mail: jhl@jbnu.ac.kr [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green reduction of GO using mung bean soaked water has been demonstrated. • The isolation of reduced is very simple and precludes extra purification process. • The specific capacitance of rGO is 137 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1.3 A g{sup −1}. • The retention in specific capacitance is ∼98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. - Abstract: Green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) has been demonstrated. In comparison to the toxic and hazardous reducing chemicals, the drained water from soaked mung beans (P. aureus L.) is completely green reducing agent, the reduction process is very simple and cost effective. The removal of oxygen containing functional groups of GO has been confirmed by UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Morphological characterization of rGO has been performed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Electrochemical performances of rGO have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The specific capacitance (SC) of rGO has been found to be 137 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1.3 A g{sup −1}. The retention in SC is more than 98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles suggesting long-term electrochemical cyclic stability as supercapacitor electrode materials.

  12. Registration of Drought Tolerant, Rust Resistant, High Yielding Pinto Bean Germplasm Line CO46348

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought stress reduces dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yield in more than 60 % of the production regions worldwide. The release of CO465348 will provide plant breeders with drought tolerant, pinto bean germplasm that takes advantage of full-growing season (95 to 98 d), has high yield potential, exc...

  13. Response of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean genotypes to inoculation with rhizobium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production regions of Latin America, inoculants are rarely used by farmers in spite of several studies that demonstrate the importance of Rhizobium inoculation on commercial production of legume crops. This study investigated specific bean host plant-Rhizo...

  14. Physiological Responses of Two Varieties of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Foliar Application of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ibrahim El-Batal

    2016-02-01

    The foliar application of GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 signifi‐ cantly increased plant height, root length, number of leaves/plant, the leaves’ area, total fresh and dry weights/ plant and yield (i.e., number, fresh and dry weights of pods/ plant and 100-seed weight. It also altered protein patterns in the two varieties and changed the phytohormone balance in the Nebraska variety by increasing the levels of growth-regulating substances, which explains the increase in both growth parameters and yield in GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 treated plants. An Atomic Absorption Spectrosco‐ py (AAS study unveiled the movement and residual accumulation of both forms of silver in different parts of the two bean varieties. The results indicate the successful use of GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 in enhancing the growth and yield of the Bronco and Nebraska varieties under pot experiment conditions, and present a viable alternative to genetically modified (GM crops for ensuring food security.

  15. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  16. Physiological and sanity seed quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Goias state / Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. provenientes do estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Hilal Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a fabacea sufficiently spread out in all domestic territory. However, the quality of its seeds represents one of the main causes of low productivity in the beans farmings in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and sanitary seed qualities of eleven bean cultivars. The physiological seed quality was evaluated trough standard germination and vigor tests. The sanitary seed quality was evaluated through two tests: blotter test was employed to evaluate fungi incidence and “Koch & Menten” method was employed to observe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary occurrence. Xamego, BRS Valente, Bambu and Pérola had the best results of physiological tests. Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente and Aporé had no good results of vigor and germination, besides presenting the lowest indices of died seeds. Fusarium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp. and Botrytis sp. were the fungi detected in the sanity tests.O feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma fabacea bastante difundida em todo território nacional. A baixa qualidade de suas sementes representa uma das principais causas de baixa produtividade nas lavouras de feijão no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de nove cultivares de feijão provenientes do Estado de Goiás. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada através dos testes de germinação e vigor, e a análise sanitária, através dos métodos de papel de filtro, para verificar a ocorrência de fungos em geral, e do método de Koch e Menten, para a avaliação de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary. As cultivares que tiveram os melhores desempenhos nos testes fisiológicos foram Xamego, BRS Radiante, Bambu e Pérola. As cultivares Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente e Aporé apresentaram baixos índices de vigor e germinação de plântulas normais, além de apresentarem os maiores

  17. Evaluation and Selection of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) Genotypes for Root Traits Associated with Phosphorus (P) Acquisition Efficiency and the Use of 32P Isotope in Studies on P Uptake by Root Hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low phosphorus (P) availability is one of the main edaphic constraints limiting crop production and productivity in most of the tropical agro-ecosystems. Several root traits are known to be associated with P acquisition efficiency in low P soils. These root traits include root hairs. Computer modeling, laboratory and field studies show the depletion of 32P-phosphate around roots and that the depletion zone is influenced by the length and density of root hairs. We conducted a study involving a series of experiments with the objective of evaluating the variability of root traits associated with P uptake efficiency among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes, and to understand the mechanisms of long root hairs leading to the increase in P uptake in common bean. The study included (a) the screening of common bean genotypes in the laboratory and in the field for root traits, and (b) the use of radioactive phosphorus (32P) in the experiments conducted in the greenhouse. For laboratory screening, seedlings were germinated in paper rolls in a growth media for 3 days before evaluation for basal root whorl number (BRWN), basal root number (BRN), basal root growth angle (BRGA) and root hair length (RHL). Common bean genotypes were planted in the field with low P for 45 days after planting (DAP) before evaluation. For the 32P study four contrasting genotypes for root hairs were grown for 28 DAP in the greenhouse using 15-20 liter pots filled with a mixture of sand and vermiculate as the growth media. The radioactive P was incorporated in the growth medium in the form of alumina-P fertilizer. Normal phosphorus (non-radioactive 31P) was included in the nutrient solution in the form of calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2, and supplied through irrigation. Screened genotypes exhibited different root traits associated with P uptake efficiency, and that a given genotype can have one or more root traits responsible for it P uptake efficiency. Data analysis of radioactivity present in

  18. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  19. Soil to plant 137Cs transfer factors in Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris in a semi-arid ecosystem from a radioactive waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of 137Cs in soil, maize plants, (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been performed at the confined Storage Centre for Radioactive Waste from Mexico. Under field conditions the site was divided in four zones with different soil contamination characteristics. The plants were grown 'in situ' reproducing the local agricultural practices without fertilizers, pesticides or artificial irrigation.The 137Cs determinations were performed using a low background gamma spectrometry system with an HPGe detector. The results indicate that one of the zones had a striking 137Cs contamination in the soil and the uptake by the grown plants showed the highest specific activities at the root. For the edible parts of the plants the amount of 137Cs in the maize grains was one order of magnitude lower than for the beans. The transfer factors ranges for the different parts of the maize plants was from 0.001 in the grain to 0.6 in the root. (author)

  20. Effects of mineral nutrition on 35SO2 uptake by bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Warteresiewicz; Bronisław Wyżgolik; Jerzy Szdzuj

    2013-01-01

    Experiments with bean have shown, that the concentration of all of the mineral components in the nutrient solution exerts a significant influence on 35SO2 uptake by leaves. The greatest amount of 35SO2 was taken up by bean leaves grown either in a high supply of nutrients or in their deficiency. The bean leaves which were grown in favourable nutritional conditions took up less 35SO2 from the air.

  1. Studies on the kinetics of absorption of phosphorus by rice (Orysa sativa L.) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with the objectives of evaluating the effect of different concentrations of phosphorus and on the presence of other ions on the kinetic of absorption. Excised roots of rice and bean were placed in aereated solutions containing increasing concentrations of NaH2PO4 (10-7 M to 5x10 -2M) during 90 minutes. The rate of absorption (v = umols P/g dry matter) and the kinetic constants Vmax and Km were determined. Similar procedure was used to to evaluate the interaction of Mg+2, Al+3, K+, N-NH4+, N-NO3- and N-ureia in the uptake of phosphorus during 120 minutes. In another experiment, the effect of the presence of Mg+2 and/for Al+3 in the uptake and redistribution of phosphorus, was evaluated by varying the external concentration (1 ppm, 5 ppm, 10 ppm and 20 ppm) during a period of 17 hours, and utilizing whole rice plants. It was observed a dual mechanism, with two phases following the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and with transition phase 1 - 50 x 10-5 M. The best explanation of the experimental data was obtained, by transforming the data in accordance with HOFSTEE (1952). Bean was more efficient than rice in the first phase of uptake (higher Vmax). Al3 had a clear stimulatory effect on the uptake of phosphorus, promoting, however, the anion fixation in the root at lower concentrations. At the highest concentrations (20 ppm) of phosphorus this effect was not evident. No effect on the uptake was observed with Mg+2, K+ and different forms of nitrogen. Urea could have a depressive effect although, not significant. Possible mechanisms involved are discussed. (author)

  2. Diversidade genética em acessos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genetic diversity in common bean accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Os recursos genéticos devem ser devidamente caracterizados para permitir ganhos genéticos mais promissores no melhoramento e para o uso destes recursos pelo próprio agricultor. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética de acessos de feijão comum do germoplasma existente na Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, através de inter-relações entre os descritores agronômicos. O experimento foi conduzido a partir de outubro de 2005, constituído por 20 acessos de feijão comum, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com 3 repetições. Foi utilizada a técnica de análise multivariada para medir a divergência genética representada pela distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Com base na matriz de dissimilaridade genética gerada, foi construído o dendrograma pelo método de agrupamento da distância média. Das 12 variáveis envolvidas no estudo, o peso de 100 sementes teve a maior contribuição na separação dos genótipos, seguido pela espessura do legume, pelo comprimento do legume e pelo rendimento de grãos. Os acessos BAF 42, BAF 46, BAF 47 e BAF 57 se destacaram quanto ao nível de produtividade (3.500 a 5.000kg ha-1 e devem ser mais bem caracterizados para serem incorporados nos programas de melhoramento da cultura e/ou indicado para os agricultores.The correct characterization of genetic resources allows to identify sources of variability, a genetic profit during the plant breeding and use of these resources in the crop science. This research was aimed at evaluating genetic divergence in bean accessions of a germplasm of Santa Catarina, through interrelation among the agronomic character descriptor. Twenty bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. accessions were evaluated carried out in October 2005, using the randomized block design with three replications. The genotypes were studied using multivariable techniques to measure genetic divergence represented by the generalized distance of

  3. EFFECT OF THE TREATMENT OF SEEDS WITH FUNGICIDES IN CONTROLLING DAMPING OFF OF THE BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES COM FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DO TOMBAMENTO EM FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CAUSADO POR Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Vera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Some fungicides were tested in control of Rhizoctonia solani in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris planted in soil inoculated with this fungus. The evaluations were made at 10, 20 and 30 days after sowing, observing germination and damping-off. The results showed that the fungicides thiram (280g. a.i./ 100kg seeds have no increased plant stand in Phaseolus vulgaris, in relation to the non treated control. Seed treatments with PCNB (450g a.i./ 100kg seeds, iprodione + thiram (200g a.i/l00kg seeds and iprodione + thirarn (240g a.i./100kg seeds, increased plant stand in percentages varying from 65 to 73%, respectively in relation to non treated control, but the best treatment was with iprodione + thiram (320g a.i./l00kg seeds, presenting an increase around 83%.

    Foram testados alguns fungicidas no controle de Rhizoctonia solani em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., semeado em vasos com solo previamente inoculado por este fungo. As avaliações foram feitas aos 10, 20 e 30 dias após o plantio, levando-se em consideração ausência de germinação e plântulas tombadas. Os resultados mostraram que o fungicida thiram (280g i.a./100kg de sementes, não aumentou o stand de plantas em relação à testemunha. Sementes tratadas com PCNB (450g i.a./l00kg de sementes, com iprodione + thiram (200g i.a./l00kg de sementes e com iprodione + thiram (240g i.a./l00kg de sementes aumentaram o stand em percentagens que variaram de 65 a 73%, em relação à testemunha, mas o melhor resultado foi obtido com iprodione + thiram na concentração de 320g i.a./ 100kg de sementes, que promoveu aumento do stand em cerca de 83%.

  4. Genetic diversity of indigenous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. rhizobia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalgisa Ribeiro Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We characterized indigenous common bean rhizobia from five districts of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isolates were trapped by two common bean varieties, the Mineiro Precoce (Andean origin and Ouro Negro (Mesoamerican origin. Analysis by BOX-PCR of selected isolates detected a high level of genetic diversity.

  5. The cotyledon cell wall and intracellular matrix are factors that limit iron bioavailability of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glahn, Raymond P; Tako, Elad; Cichy, Karen; Wiesinger, Jason

    2016-07-13

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability of the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledons contain 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cells. The cotyledon cell walls are known to be resistant to digestion in the stomach and the upper small intestine. Therefore, given the above and the general belief that the primary site for human Fe absorption is the upper small intestine, the present study was designed to determine if the cotyledon cell walls represent a barrier to Fe absorption from the bean. To do so, we utilized high pressure to rupture bean cotyledon cells. The iron bioavailability of cooked bean samples was assessed using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. Microscopy analyses confirmed that the cotyledon cell walls are highly resistant to pepsin, the low pH of the stomach, and the pancreatic enzymes, indicating that the walls are a barrier to Fe absorption from the bean. Relatively high intracellular pressure (>4000 psi) was required to initiate cell wall rupture. Surprisingly, the lysis of cotyledon cells did not result in a consistent or strong enhancement of bioavailable Fe, suggesting that the liberated intracellular starch and protein influenced the Fe bioavailability by creating a matrix that inhibited the exchange of Fe with the cell transport mechanism. Such observations warrant further pursuit in vivo as the confirmation of these effects would reshape strategies to enhance Fe absorption from beans. PMID:27326892

  6. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Władysław Błaszczak; Grażyna Ellmann-Wąsik; Renata Lesiak-Jerzyk

    2013-01-01

    Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV) differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV) when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing prim...

  7. Genetic control of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn. Scrib. reaction and corona color in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça H.A. de

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An important trait for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars with Carioca type grain is resistance to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose and a pale corona. The present study was conducted to understand the genetic control of common bean reaction to the fungus and of the corona color, to provide guides to future breeding studies. Genotypes P-45, with brown corona, and EMGOPA 201-Ouro, with yellow corona, are resistant to C. lindemuthianum. Cultivar Carioca is susceptible to anthracnose, but it has desirable grain and corona color. Anthracnose resistance and corona color were studied in the F1 and F2 generations of three populations resulting from crosses of P-45, EMGOPA 201-Ouro, and Carioca. The Carioca x P-45 cross indicated that the Mex.2 allele, which conditions resistance to the pathogen, is linked with a recombination frequency of 0.0604 ± 0.0232 to one of the alleles which determines the dark brown corona color. The EMGOPA 201-Ouro x Carioca cross revealed that the resistance allele of EMGOPA 201-Ouro was independent from the alleles which determine the yellow corona. These resistance alleles were also determined to be independent according to EMGOPA 201-Ouro x P-45 cross results.

  8. Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants

  9. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O3 exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H2O2 accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O3 m-2. Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, ΔF/Fm'). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  10. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerosa, Giacomo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Marzuoli, Riccardo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Fondazione Lombardia per l' Ambiente, piazza Diaz 9, 20123 Milano (Italy); Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto [Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Lab., DISAT, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Faoro, Franco [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Iriti, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.iriti@unimi.i [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O{sub 3} exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O{sub 3} m{sup -2}. Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, DELTAF/F{sub m}{sup '}). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  11. Perfil sensorial e aceitabilidade de cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Sensory profile and acceptability of cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Camilo Souza Carneiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil a recomendação de novos cultivares de feijão tem sido feita em função de suas características agronômicas. Porém, nos últimos anos os pesquisadores do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Feijoeiro têm reconhecido a importância das características tecnológicas, principalmente o perfil sensorial, dos grãos de cultivares de feijão na sua aceitação pelos consumidores. Assim, fica evidente a necessidade da caracterização sensorial dos grãos de cultivares de feijão que já são recomendados para o cultivo e daqueles que estão para serem recomendados. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação sensorial dos grãos de sete variedades de feijão recomendadas para o Estado de Minas Gerais (Ouro Negro, Meia Noite, Carioca, Aporé, Rudá, Pérola e Vermelhinho e de três linhagens promissoras para lançamento (MA733327, Vermelho2157 e CB733812. Estas variedades e linhagens foram produzidas pela UFV. Todas as amostras foram cozidas em panela de pressão por 23 minutos e servidas aos provadores. Análise descritiva quantitativa foi aplicada para verificar similaridades e diferenças na aparência, aroma, sabor e textura dos grãos de feijão. As amostras de feijão foram avaliadas por uma equipe composta por oito provadores previamente selecionados e treinados. Foi avaliada também a aceitabilidade das dez amostras, onde cada uma foi degustada por 30 consumidores de feijão, em condições laboratoriais, tomados ao acaso nas proximidades do laboratório de análise sensorial (DTA/UFV. Para o teste afetivo, as amostras foram temperadas. Os dez cultivares de feijão diferiram significativamente (p0,05 na aceitação dos cultivares. Todos tiveram boa aceitação e situaram-se entre os termos hedônicos "gostei moderadamente e gostei muito".In Brazil the recommendation of new cultivars of beans has been done according to the grains agronomic characteristics. However, in the last years researchers of the Genetic

  12. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfeng Xue

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop, is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9% displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22, signal transduction (21, protein synthesis and processing (20, development and cytoskeletal organization (12, transport of proteins (7, gene expression and RNA metabolism (4, redox reactions (4, defense and stress responses (3, energy metabolism (3, and hormone responses (2. Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as

  13. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueo us extract from white kidney bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5) of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect...... mechanism by which the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus...

  14. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Sergio O. Serna-Sáldivar; Janet A. Gutiérrez-Uribe

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and ph...

  15. Cinética de congelamento do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. a baixas temperaturas Freezing kinetics of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. R. M. Cavalcanti-Mata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi obter as curvas de congelamento do feijão, cultivar 'gordo', nas temperaturas de -25, -50, -170 e -196 ºC e determinar sua difusividade térmica efetiva. Com vista à obtenção das curvas de congelamento das sementes nas temperaturas de -25 e -50 ºC utilizou-se um freezer criogênico horizontal; para a temperatura de -170 ºC, o vapor de nitrogênio e, para a temperatura de -196 ºC, as sementes foram submersas no nitrogênio líquido. Afim de expressar o comportamento cinético do congelamento das sementes de feijão, foi usado o modelo de Fourier levando-se em consideração o primeiro termo da série, além dos Modelos I e II de Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os três modelos representam satisfatoriamente os dados experimentais da cinética de congelamento; apesar disto, com o Modelo II de Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte se obtém o maior coeficiente de determinação. Constata-se também que, para congelar as sementes de feijão até atingir o equilíbrio térmico na temperatura de -25 ºC, o tempo necessário foi de 1200 min; em temperatura de -50 ºC o equilíbrio foi atingido com 480 min; a -170 ºC o equilíbrio se deu em 180 min e, a -196 ºC, em 30 min.The objective of this study was to obtain the freezing curves of beans, variety 'gordo' at temperatures of -25, -50, -170 and -196 ºC, and determine their effective thermal diffusivity. For the curves of freezing beans seeds at temperatures of -25 and -50 ºC a cryogenic horizontal freezer was used, for temperature of -170 ºC, nitrogen vapor was used and at temperature of -196 ºC seeds were submerged in liquid nitrogen. To express the kinetic behavior of the freezing of bean seeds, the Fourier model was used taking into account the first term of the series and; Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte model I and II. The results indicate that the three models satisfactorily represent the experimental data of the kinetics of freezing, though with

  16. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosano Edmilson José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (15N released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea, velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground parts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean, and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experiment al period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox.

  17. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (15N) released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea), velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground arts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf) and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean), and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experimental period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox. (author)

  18. Bean yellow disorder virus: Parameters of transmission by Bemisia tabaci and host plant range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    German Martín; Isabel Maria Cuadrado; Dirk Janssen

    2011-01-01

    Bean yellow disorder virus(BnYDV)was recently identified as the first crinivirus(family Closteroviridae)that infects members of the family Leguminosae.It was first observed during the autumn of 2003,causing heavy losses in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)grown commercially in Spain.The virus is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci(Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)Q-biotype,and disease symptoms resemble nutritional disorders consisting of interveinal mottling and yellowing in leaves,combined with stiffness or brittleness,and are typically produced on the middle to lower parts of the plant.Transmission experiments showed that 50% and 100% of B.tabaci adults acquired the virus after a feeding period of 3 and 7 h,respectively.Viruliferous whiteflies infected 66% and 100% of P.vulgaris plants after a feeding period of 12 and 24 h,respectively.The transmission efficiency of single whiteflies was 37% and persistence of BnYDV in the vector lasted up to 2 weeks with a half-life of 9 days.BnYDV was transmitted to P.vulgaris,Pisum sativum L.,Lens culinaris Medik.,and Vicia faba L.,but not to Vigna unguiculata L.,Glycine max(L.) Merr.,Cicer arietum L.,and to crop species belonging to families of the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae.No virus was detected in field samples collected from 30 different species from Boraginaceae,Asteraceae,Geraniaceae,Lamiaceae,Leguminosae,Malvaceae,Scrophulariaceae,Thymelaeaceae and Verbenaceae.The restricted host range and efficient management of crops regarding whitefly infestation may be key elements in the control of BnYDV.

  19. Physico-chemical, functional and structural properties of RS3/RS4 from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Adil; Jan, Amreen; Shah, Asima; Masoodi, F A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Akhter, Rehana; Wani, Idrees Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Starch isolated from four kidney bean cultivars (Yellow bean, Red bean, Black bean and White bean) were physically and chemically modified in order to prepare resistant starch (RS3/RS4). Following the Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and Citric acid modification (CT) of the native starch, the amylose content got decreased whereas bulk and tapped density (g/ml) increased. Both HMT and CT reduced the swelling power and the solubility of native starch. Pasting temperature increased and peak, breakdown, final, and set-back viscosity decreased after both the modifications. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis displayed peaks at 1020cm(-1) in HMT and 1724cm(-1) in CT starches. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that samples were more stable after modification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed reordering of chain segments to more crystalline structure. These results suggested modifications resulted in starch with improved properties and could be a possible method for the RS preparation with better thermal stability. PMID:26976068

  20. Effects of Local Nitrogen Supply on Water Uptake of Bean Plants in a Split Root System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwei Guo; Qirong Shen; Holger Brueck

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of local nitrogen supply on water and nutrient absorption, French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)plants were grown in a split root system. Five treatments supplied with different nitrogen forms were compared:homogeneous nitrate (NN) and homogenous ammonium (AA) supply, spatially separated supply of nitrate and ammonium (NA), half of the root system supplied with N-free nutrient solution, the other half with either nitrate (NO) or ammonium (AO). The results showed that 10 d after onset of treatments, root dry matter (DM) in the nitratesupplied vessels treated with NA was more than two times higher than that in the ammonium-supplied vessels.Water uptake from the nitrate-supplied vessels treated with NA was 281% higher than under ammonium supply. In treatments NO and AO, the local supply of N resulted in clearly higher root DM, and water uptake from the nitratesupplied vessels was 82% higher than in the -N vessels. However, in AO plants, water uptake from the -N nutrient solution was 129% higher than from the ammonium-supplied vessels. This indicates a compensatory effect, which resulted in almost identical rates of total water uptake of treatments AA and AO, which had comparable shoot DM and leaf area. Ammonium supply reduced potassium and magnesium absorption. Water uptake was positively correlated with N, Mg and K uptake.

  1. Competitivity of the common-bean plant relative to the weed alexandergrass [Brachiaria plantaginea (link) hitch.

    OpenAIRE

    Passini Telma; Christoffoleti Pedro Jacob; Yada Inês Fumiko Ubukata

    2003-01-01

    Methodologies of competitive interaction quantification between weeds and crops are not widely elucidated and compared in the literature. The competitive ability of common-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) relative to alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea) was assessed and two approaches of replacement series experiment analysis were compared. The response of the species to the presence of each other at different densities and proportion was evaluated. Replacement series at total densities of 625, 8...

  2. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  3. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-07-15

    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120 min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity. PMID:26948633

  4. Genetic diversity, inter-gene pool introgression and nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew W. Blair; González, Laura F.; Kimani, Paul M.; Butare, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The Great Lakes region of Central Africa is a major producer of common beans in Africa. The region is known for high population density and small average farm size. The common bean represents the most important legume crop of the region, grown on over a third of the cultivated land area, and the per capita consumption is among the highest in the world for the food crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a collection of 365 genotypes from the Great Lakes regi...

  5. Controle de plantas daninhas com herbicidas na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Weed control in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.P. Cruz

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma pesquisa em 1970, para se conhecer os efeitos de três herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio incorporado (EPTC a 3,60 kg/ha, nitralin e trifluralin a 0,76 kg/ha e de um em pré-emergência (fluorodifen a 3,00 kg/ha na cultura de feijão comparados com uma testemunha sem herbicida. As duas gramíneas presentes no ensaio, Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. e Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. foram eficientemente controladas por todos os herbicidas, com indices de controle superiores a 87,00%, em contagem de plantas daninhas realizada 29 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas. Dentre as dicotiledóneas presentes, Amaranthus viridis L. também foi eficientemente controlado por todos os herbicidas, com indices de controle superiores a 92,00%. Ageratum conyzoides L. foi eficientemente controlado por fluorodifen (91,60% e regularmente por EPTC (78,99% e por nitralin (79,83%. Trifluralin não foi eficiente contra A. conyzoides L. Nenhum dos herbicidas testados controlou Ipomoea sp e Chenopodium ambrosioides L., também presentes no experimento. EPTC e nitralin apresentaram as menores porcentagens de infestação geral de plantas daninhas, tendo, aos 51 dias da aplicação dos produtos, quando suas parcelas foram capinadas mecanicamente, 8,00 e 17,00% de infestação, respectivamente. Trifluralin e fluorodifen precisaram de limpeza aos 42 dias da aplicação, e a testemunha já aos 29 dias, pois apresentavam parcelas com 25,00%, ou mais, de infestação, naquelas épocas. Os herbicidas experimentados não foram prejudiciais à germinação e ao desenvolvimento vegetativo dos feijoeiros, assim como à sua produção de grãos.The weed control with herbicides in beans crop was studied during 1970 year, in Campinas-SP, on a sandy-loam soil. The treatments employed were EPTC at 3.60 kg/ha, nitralin and trifluralin at 0.76 kg/ha, all applied in preplant i •porated; fluorodifen in preemergence at 3.00 kg/ha and a hoed check. Among the weeds

  6. Screening of iron bioavailability patterns in eight bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using the Caco-2 cell in vitro model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary goal of this research was to use an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model to study iron bioavailability in 8 bean genotypes (three Mesoamerican and five Andean) that represent diversity of grain types in the crop. Complementing this goal, we measured the distribution of both iron and phytate ...

  7. Characterization of a panel of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and its application to theimprovement of this orphan crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    High ambient temperature and drought stress as a result of climate change are increasingly critical factors affecting agriculture and specifically grain legume production. Tepary (Phaseolusacutifolius A. Gray), a drought and heat tolerant sister species of common bean (P. vulgaris L.), has long been...

  8. Imazamox Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism in Red Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) and Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazamox is an imidazolinone herbicide used to control many grasses and broadleaf weeds in leguminous crops such as soybeans, alfalfa and dry beans; however, imazamox cannot be used on red lentils because of unacceptable injury. Studies were conducted to compare imazamox absorption, translocation a...

  9. Effect of gamma radiation (Co60) in physic-chemical and sensory properties of aged beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of different doses of gamma radiation as an alternative process to improve the quality of aged beans. Beans of the 'Carioca 80' variety were submitted to an accelerated aging process according to the followings patterns: 30 deg C and 50 or 75% relative humidity and 40 deg C and 50 or 80% relative humidity, during 45 days. After that time samples were submitted to gamma irradiation at doses of 300, 600, 900 and 1200 Krad. At the same time samples of 1989, 1987 and 1983 harvest and submitted to slow aging process, 12 deg C and 50-60% relative humidity, were evaluated to comparison with former accelerated aging. All the samples were analysed on moisture and starch content, cooking time, texture and sensorial evaluation. The results showed that samples submitted to aged faster presented better quality, second the evaluated parameters, as far as irradiation applied was 300 Krad. The same happened to samples of harvest 1989 aged slowly. The 1987 and 1983 harvests, respectively, were the doses that gave better softness to the beans. This work permitted conclude that gamma irradiation is an alternative method of advantage for aged beans, for same decrease the cooking time and improvement the sensory quality of stored grain. (author)

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from InQpharm Europe Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight individuals. The applicant identified a total of four human intervention studies which investigated the effects of the aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight as being pertinent to the claim. No conclusions could be drawn from two of these four studies. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one human intervention study showed an effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean in reducing body weight when consumed for 12 weeks, that the reduction in body weight was mostly through a reduction in body fat and that the effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight was supported by a second study of shorter duration. However, the Panel also took into account that the first study was at risk of bias, that the supportive study suffered from methodological limitations and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight.

  11. Quinclorac-habituation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultured cells is related to an increase in their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; de Castro, María; Alonso-Simón, Ana; García-Angulo, Penélope; Acebes, José L; Encina, Antonio; Álvarez, Jesús M

    2016-10-01

    The habituation of bean cells to quinclorac did not rely on cell wall modifications, contrary to what it was previously observed for the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the bean cells habituation to quinclorac is related to an enhancement of antioxidant activities involved in the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species. Treating non-habituated bean calluses with 10 μM quinclorac reduced the relative growth rate and induced a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the exposition of quinclorac-habituated cells to a concentration of quinclorac up to 30 μM neither affected their growth rate nor increased their lipid peroxidation levels. Quinclorac-habituated calluses had significantly higher constitutive levels of three antioxidant activities (class-III peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) than those observed in non-habituated calluses, and the treatment of habituated calluses with 30 μM quinclorac significantly increased the level of class III-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The results reported here indicate that the process of habituation to quinclorac in bean callus-cultured cells is related, at least partially, to the development of a stable antioxidant capacity that enables them to cope with the oxidative stress caused by quinclorac. Class-III peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities could play a major role in the quinclorac-habituation. Changes in the antioxidant status of bean cells were stable, since the increase in the antioxidant activities were maintained in quinclorac-dehabituated cells. PMID:27318799

  12. Transcriptional Analysis of Drought-Induced Genes in the Roots of a Tolerant Genotype of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Mui Tsai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. productivity is severely affected by drought stress due to low technology cultivation systems. Our purpose was to identify differentially expressed genes in roots of a genotype tolerant to water deficit (BAT 477 when submitted to an interruption of irrigation during its development. A SSH library was constructed taking as “driver” the genotype Carioca 80SH (susceptible to drought. After clustering and data mining, 1572 valid reads were obtained, resulting in 1120 ESTs (expressed sequence tags. We found sequences for transcription factors, carbohydrates metabolism, proline-rich proteins, aquaporins, chaperones and ubiquitins, all of them organized according to their biological processes. Our suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH library was validated through RT-qPCR experiment by assessing the expression patterns of 10 selected genes in both genotypes under stressed and control conditions. Finally, the expression patterns of 31 ESTs, putatively related to drought responses, were analyzed in a time-course experiment. Our results confirmed that such genes are more expressed in the tolerant genotype during stress; however, they are not exclusive, since different levels of these transcripts were also detected in the susceptible genotype. In addition, we observed a fluctuation in gene regulation over time for both the genotypes, which seem to adopt and adapt different strategies in order to develop tolerance against this stress.

  13. Optimization of enzymatic production of anti-diabetic peptides from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins, their characterization and biological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Luis; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to optimize the production of bioactive peptides from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate and to determine their biological potential using biochemical and in silico approaches. Protein fractions were generated using eight commercially available proteases after 2, 3 and 4 h and 1:20, 1:30 and 1:50 enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios. The best combination of conditions to generate anti-diabetic peptides was with alcalase for 2 h and E/S of 1:20; with inhibition values for dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV, 96.7%), α-amylase (53.4%) and α-glucosidase (66.1%). Generated peptides were characterized using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Molecular docking analysis was performed to predict individual peptide biological potential using DockingServer®. Peptides EGLELLLLLLAG, AKSPLF and FEELN inhibited DPP-IV more efficiently in silico through free energy interactions of -9.8, -9.6 and -9.5 kcal mol(-1), respectively, than the control sitagliptin (-8.67 kcal mol(-1)). The peptide TTGGKGGK (-8.97 kcal mol(-1)) had higher inhibitory potential on α-glucosidase compared to the control acarbose (-8.79 kcal mol(-1)). Peptides AKSPLF (-10.2 kcal mol(-1)) and WEVM (-10.1 kcal mol(-1)) generated a lower free energy interaction with the catalytic site of α-amylase in comparison with acarbose (-9.71 kcal mol(-1)). Bean peptides inhibited the tested enzymes through hydrogen bonds, polar and hydrophobic interactions. The main bindings on the catalytic site were with ASP192, GLU192 and ARG 253 on DPP-IV; TYR151, HIS201 and ILE235 on α-amylase; and ASP34, THR83 and ASN32 on α-glucosidase. For the first time, a systematic evaluation and characterization of the anti-diabetic peptides from black bean protein isolate is presented with the potential for inhibiting important molecular markers related to diabetes. PMID:26824775

  14. Effects of water stress applied at different phenological phases on yield components of dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouhouche, B.; Ruget, F; Delécolle, R.

    1998-01-01

    Nos essais ont pour but d’étudier l’effet d’un stress hydrique de même intensité appliqué à différentes phases phénologiques de la période de reproduction, sur les composantes du rendement exprimées en nombre, du haricot nain (Phaseolus vulgaris L, variété Coco de Prague). Afin d’éviter le phénomène de chevauchement des différents organes fructifères, la période de reproduction est divisée en sept phases phénologiques, de la phase bouton floral à la phase de fin remplissage des gousses. Chaqu...

  15. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Błaszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing primary leaves and the age-dependent resistance to infection increased faster in plants of the cv. 'Złota Saxa'. Both cultivars of bean showed also age-dependent resistance to infection by BYMV. All these viruses restricted growth and yield of plants. The decreases were greater when younger plants were inoculated. These dependences appeared most distinctly in pea cv. 'Sześciotygodniowy' infected with CMV and in two cultivars of bean infected with BYMV.

  16. Diversified diazotrophs associated with the rhizosphere of Western Indian Himalayan native red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Suyal, Deep Chandra; Yadav, Amit; Shouche, Yogesh; Goel, Reeta

    2014-01-01

    Red kidney beans (RKBs) are one of the major components in the human diet of Western Indian Himalaya (WIH). Their cultivation in these habitats is strongly influenced by various biotic and abiotic stresses and therefore, there must be a selection of RKB associated microorganisms that are adapted to these harsh conditions. Seven cold adaptive diazotrophs from the same rhizosphere were isolated in our previous study to reveal the low-temperature associated proteins and mechanisms. However, the ...

  17. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  18. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  19. The Qualitative Differences for Photosynthetic Content of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Populations  in Kosovo

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    Sali Ali ALIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity analysis of common bean populations is useful for breeding programs, as it helps to select genetic material to be used for further crossings. Twenty (20 common bean populations were analyzed using qualitative traits, chlorophyll “a” (Chl ‘a’, chlorophyll “b” (Chl ‘b’, total chlorophyll “a+b” (Total Chl and carotenoides. The design of the experiment was conducted with leaves of common bean collected from different regions of Kosovo. The experiment was completely randomly with four repetitions. Pigments were extracted by grinding 80-100 mg freshly sampled leaves in 80% (v/v acetone/water containing MgCO3, at room temperature, preserved in the dark for 24 hours. Concentration of chlorophyll and carotenoid content was measured by spectrophotometer using absorbance recorded at 663 nm, 644 nm and 452.3 nm for maximum absorption of Chl ‘a’, Chl ‘b’, and carotenoids respectively. According to our data the differences between populations for Chl ‘a’, and Chl ‘b’ was significantly higher at level of probability LSDp=0.01. The average values for Chl ‘a’, was 1.67 mg.g-1, while for Chl‘b’was 0.74 mg.g-1. In addition, the results for carotenoids content between populations were with high differences.

  20. Selected excipients and surfactants in oral solid dosage form with extract of Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Marczyński Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an annual plant grown in many countries all over the world including its different varieties in Poland. Herbal raw material are elongated pods – pericarp. Phaseoli pericarpium decreases the glucose blood level. Phaseoli pericarpium extracts manifest duretic properties, can be used in the treatment of edema, kidney diseases with decreased urinary excretion, nephrolithiasis.

  1. Selected excipients and surfactants in oral solid dosage form with extract of Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marczyński Zbigniew; Kowalczykiewicz Katarzyna; Bodek Kazimiera Henryka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an annual plant grown in many countries all over the world including its different varieties in Poland. Herbal raw material are elongated pods – pericarp. Phaseoli pericarpium decreases the glucose blood level. Phaseoli pericarpium extracts manifest duretic properties, can be used in the treatment of edema, kidney diseases with decreased urinary excretion, nephrolithiasis.

  2. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results i

  3. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. II. Quantity and quality of light required

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    The quantity and quality of light required for light-stimulated cell expansion in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been determined. Seedlings were grown in dim red light (RL; 4 micromoles photons m-2 s-1) until cell division in the primary leaves was completed, then excised discs were incubated in 10 mM sucrose plus 10 mM KCl in a variety of light treatments. The growth response of discs exposed to continuous white light (WL) for 16 h was saturated at 100 micromoles m-2 s-1, and did not show reciprocity. Extensive, but not continuous, illumination was needed for maximal growth. The wavelength dependence of disc expansion was determined from fluence-response curves obtained from 380 to 730 nm provided by the Okazaki Large Spectrograph. Blue (BL; 460 nm) and red light (RL; 660 nm) were most effective in promoting leaf cell growth, both in photosynthetically active and inhibited leaf discs. Far-red light (FR; 730 nm) reduced the effectiveness of RL, but not BL, indicating that phytochrome and a separate blue-light receptor mediate expansion of leaf cells.

  4. TUC 510: nueva variedad de poroto negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. con alta tolerancia a las virosis presentes en el noroeste argentino TUC 510: New variety of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with high tolerance to viruses in Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N. Vizgarra

    2006-12-01

    to production. The objective of this work is to present a new cultivar of black dry edible bean that has high levels of tolerance to these viruses and that could replace commercial varieties already grown in Northwestern Argentina. In 1995, eight advanced lines of black dry edible bean from the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT were introduced. These were tested in comparison with commercial controls NAG 12, Camilo, TUC 390 and TUC 500. From 1997 to 2000, the lines were evaluated in yield comparative trials in Monte Redondo and La Cocha (Tucuman and Campichuelo (Salta. In every trial, a randomized complete block design was applied, and tests of individual variance and homogeneity of variance (Levenne's test were conducted. Each plot consisted of four six-meter-long lines, set at 0,70 m away from each other, with a plant density of 16 plants per meter. Assessment parameters were: a during the whole cycle: virus complex tolerance and vegetative and reproductive adaptation, and b during harvest: yield (kg/ ha and commercial quality. Genotype TUC 510 was found to exhibit the highest yield levels, both general and particular in each location, with an average rate of 1470 kg/ha. Moreover, this cultivar was outstanding for its tolerance to BGMV and BDMV (3.0 and its capacity of adaptation (3.0 to the evaluated environmental conditions. These features justify the official registration of TUC 500 as a new variety of black dry edible bean.

  5. In vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically pre-treated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. flour using commercial protease and Bacillus sp. protease Digestibilidade protéica in vitro de farinhas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pré-tratadas com protease comercial e protease de Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disney Ribeiro Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a staple food in the Brazilian diet and represents the major source of dietary protein and other micronutrients and minerals. Despite the considerable protein concentration in beans, the food is considered of low biological value when compared to animal proteins and other plant protein sources. To improve the availability of protein in beans, enzymatic treatments were performed in four cultivars (ON, OPNS, TAL and VC3. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. We used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments: treatment 1-addition of commercial protease (Trypsin 250, Difco, treatment 2-addition of protease from Bacillus sp., and treatment 3:-control without enzyme addition. The enzyme: substrate ratio was 5% w/w (amount of enzyme per total protein in bean flour. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. A 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments, the same as those mentioned above was used. The concentration of total protein (g.100 g-1 of dry matter in the samples ranged from 16.94 to 18.06%, while the concentration of total phenolics was between 0.78 and 1.12% (g Eq. tannic acid.100 g-1 dry matter. The in vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically untreated bean flour (control ranged from 47.30 to 56.17% based on the digestibility of casein. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Zn observed in the four cultivars tested were within the average values available in the literature. Treatment 2 with protease from Bacillus sp. induced decreases in the levels of Cu and Mn. The average Fe content increased in all bean flour samples when treated with proteases, reaching a maximum increase of 102% in the TAL flour treated with protease from Bacillus sp. The digestibility of all beans tested was significantly increased (p O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é um alimento básico na refeição do brasileiro

  6. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris lectin stimulation increases the number of enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine of suckling piglets

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    Zacharko-Siembida Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantities and distribution patterns of serotonin-immunoreactive (serotonin-IR enterochromaffin cells (EC were studied immunohistochemically in the small intestine of suckling piglets stimulated with red kidney bean lectin, and in nonstimulated, control animals. The co-expression patterns of serotonin with somatostatin (SOM or corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF were also studied. After the lectin treatment, the increased numbers of EC were noted in the duodenum of experimental animals. Lectin stimulation did not change the proportions of EC in the jejunum and ileum. In the duodenal epithelium of the lectin-stimulated piglets, the vast majority of serotonin-IR EC were distributed at the basis of crypts. After the lectin administration, the proportions of serotonin-IR/SOM-IR EC were statistically similar in all sections of the small intestine. No upregulation of CRF was found in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal EC of lectin-treated animals. The findings demonstrated that red kidney bean lectin increased the serotonin reservoir in the duodenum, and thus may be an effective stimulant of the gut maturation in suckling mammals.

  7. Impact of dehulling on the physico-chemical properties and in vitro protein digestion of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Giosafatto, C V L; Masi, P; Mariniello, L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of dehulling on the microstructural, physico-chemical characteristics, and in vitro protein digestion of common bean flours with particular regard to differences between adults and infants. The microstructure of flour samples from undehulled (WB) and manually dehulled (SB) beans, observed through scanning electron microscopy, showed that WB starch granules appeared to be surrounded by an integral matrix, while the SB starch granule structure was still visible although covered by protein clusters. The starch granules were oval and spherical, with heterogeneous sizes ranging from 19 to 30 μm in diameter. Particle size analysis determined with a laser diffraction particle size analyzer showed similar bimodal particle size distributions of small (1-25 μm) and large (>100 μm) granules, though the particle size of WB was obviously higher than SB. Color and other physico-chemical analyses showed that dehulling had significant (P flour protein digestion which could be utilized in various food applications. PMID:25778680

  8. Physicochemical characterization of a navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) protein fraction produced using a solvent-free method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mousa; Rajabzadeh, Amin Reza; Tabtabaei, Solmaz; Marsolais, Frédéric; Legge, Raymond L

    2016-10-01

    A solvent-free electrostatic separation method was employed to separate navy bean flour (NBF) into protein-rich (PR) and starch-rich (SR) fractions. The physicochemical properties of NBF and separated fractions were compared to proteins (navy bean isolate (NBI) and 7S globulin) prepared using a wet process. Gel electrophoresis confirmed that the protein distribution in the isolated fractions was similar to that of NBF. The protein profile of NBI and 7S globulin was found to be devoid of certain proteins that were found in the NBF and PR fraction. Amino acid analysis revealed that the NBI and 7S globulin had a lower content of sulfur-containing amino acids compared to NBF and the electrostatically isolated fractions. CD and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that denaturation of the proteins during the acid precipitation is likely. This novel solvent-free electrostatic separation process preserves the native protein structure found in NBF and improves the recovery of some of the smaller MW proteins. PMID:27132821

  9. Multivariate analysis and determination of the best indirect selection criteria to genetic improvement the biological nitrogen fixation ability in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golparvar Reza Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the best indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of biological nitrogen fixation, sixty four common bean genotypes were cultivated in two randomized complete block design. Genotypes were inoculated with bacteria Rhizobium legominosarum biovar Phaseoli isolate L-109 only in one of the experiments. The second experiment was considered as check for the first. Correlation analysis showed positive and highly significant correlation of majority of the traits with percent of nitrogen fixation. Step-wise regression designated that traits percent of total nitrogen of shoot, number of nodule per plant and biological yield accounted for 92.3 percent of variation exist in percent of nitrogen fixation. Path analysis indicated that these traits have direct and positive effect on percent of nitrogen fixation. Hence, these traits are promising indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation capability in common bean genotypes especially in early generations.

  10. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on growth, flowering and yield of central and southern European bush bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different cultivars of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originating from Central and Southern Europe were grown from July to August/September 1993 up to 7 and 8 weeks, respectively, in two greenhouses covered by different UV-B-absorbing (280-320nm) plastic foils. By using the ambient UV-B radiation of the southern location (Portugal, 38.7°N, 9.1°W) in one of the greenhouses as intense UV-B radiation compared to the reduced radiation in the second greenhouse at the same place, a difference in UV-B of about 8–10% was simulated. All cultivars examined showed significant reductions in height of up to 31,8% in most growth phases under intense UV-B. Also fresh and dry weight as well as leaf area were reduced under intense UV-B in the cultivars Purple Teepee, Cropper Teepee and Goldstrahl, and in early growth phases also in Coco bianco, but with ongoing development this cultivar caught up. Cultivars Hilds Maja, Primel, Manata and Cannellino exhibited no UV-B effects on weight and leaf area. A flowering delay of up to 1 day was observed under intense UV-B in several cultivars. Probably due to this delay the yield (fresh weight of fruits) decreased in all cultivars up to 55% under intense UV-B at harvest time, while the potential yield (sum of buds, opened flowers and fruits) was reduced only in the cultivars Cropper Teepee, Purple Teepee, Cannellino and Goldstrahl. The UV-sensitivity index (UVSI) calculated according to the UV induced changes in growth, dry weight and yield at the second harvest date has shown that all cultivars are UV-sensitive, however the index was numerically higher for Southern European cultivars (average = 2.5) than for Central European ones (average = 2.3) which means that the first group was slightly less UV-sensitive than the second. (author)

  11. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  12. Seeds with high molybdenum concentration improved growth and nitrogen acquisition of rhizobium-inoculated and nitrogen-fertilized common bean plants

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    Fernanda Fátima Delgado Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris with high molybdenum (Mo concentration can supply Mo plant demands, but to date no studies have concomitantly evaluated the effects of Mo-enriched seeds on plants inoculated with rhizobia or treated with N fertilizer. This work evaluated the effects of seed Mo on growth and N acquisition of bean plants fertilized either by symbiotic N or mineral N, by measuring the activities of nitrogenase and nitrate reductase and the contribution of biological N2 fixation at different growth stages. Seeds enriched or not with Mo were sown with two N sources (inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with N, in pots with 10 kg of soil. In experiment 1, an additional treatment consisted of Mo-enriched seeds with Mo applied to the soil. In experiment 2, the contribution of N2 fixation was estimated by 15N isotope dilution. Common bean plants grown from seeds with high Mo concentration flowered one day earlier. Seeds with high Mo concentration increased the leaf area, shoot mass and N accumulation, with both N sources. The absence of effects of Mo application to the soil indicated that Mo contents of Mo-enriched seeds were sufficient for plant growth. Seeds enriched with Mo increased nitrogenase activity at the vegetative stage of inoculated plants, and nitrate reductase activity at late growth stages with both N sources. The contribution of N2 fixation was 17 and 61 % in plants originating from low- or high-Mo seeds, respectively. The results demonstrate the benefits of sowing Mo-enriched seeds on growth and N nutrition of bean plants inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with mineral N fertilizer.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation (60Co) on the organoleptic and nutritive properties of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. mulatinho)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the influence of gamma radiation on the organoleptic and nutritive properties of kidney beans is presented. Samples of this vegetable were irradiated with 15 krad and stored for five months. Immediately after irradiation and monthly, sensory evaluations and chemical analysis of the vitamins thiamin (B1) and riboflavin (B2) were accomplished in the samples. The results showed an evident influence of radiation during its application since the higher losses occurred immediately after this treatment, mainly in riboflavin, which from the total losses observed, 47,9% occurred during irradiation. The riboflavin is much more sensitive to gamma radiation and in terms of organoleptic properties it was observed the development of an undesirable flavor and a hardening of the texture in the irradiated samples. However, at the end of the experiment no difference was found between control and irradiated samples

  14. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l.) walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation. (Author)

  15. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l. ) walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.C.P.; Fernandes, M.S.; Sa, M.F.M. (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Solos)

    1982-05-01

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation.

  16. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Ormeño-Orrillo Ernesto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical

  17. TUC 241: nueva variedad de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no tradicional tipo Cranberry para el noroeste argentino TUC 241: A new non-traditional bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. variety, Cranberry type, for Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N. Vizgarra

    2006-12-01

    non- traditional dry edible beans, such as Cranberry type, whose trade is characterized by more dependable markets and stable prices. The objective of this work was to present a new cultivar of Cranberry dry edible bean with high tolerance to viruses and capable of replacing the already released commercial varieties in Northwestern Argentina. On the first stage of the project (1987, 50 advanced Cranberry dry edible bean lines were introduced to Tucumán. The materials were obtained from the germplasm collection of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, and were evaluated according to their yield level, commercial quality, growth behavior and tolerance to main diseases. Due to the lack of commercial Cranberry bean cultivars, the red dry edible bean cultivar PVAD 1111 was used as a local control. From 1989 to 1991, the control and the selected lines were evaluated in Yield Comparative Trials in Viclos, La Cocha and Monte Redondo (Tucumán and Pichanal (Salta. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications per variety/line in each place/year. Each plot consisted of four six-meter- long lines separated by a distance of 70 cm, with a plant density of 16 plants per meter. The new genotype TUC 241 exhibited the highest yield levels, both general and particular at each location, with a mean production rate of 1570 kg/ha.

  18. Desempenho fisiológico de sementes de feijão colhidas em diferentes períodos do desenvolvimento Physiological performance of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds harvested in different developmental periods

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    Frederico José Evangelista Botelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., a época adequada de colheita para produção de sementes de alta qualidade é de suma importância. No presente trabalho objetivou-se determinar a época ideal de colheita para a obtenção de sementes com maior qualidade e produtividade. Para a instalação do campo experimental foram utilizadas sementes de feijão de duas cultivares (BRS Majestoso e BRS Horizonte. A colheita foi realizada manualmente, aos 70, 80, 90 e 100 dias após a emergência (DAE. Após a colheita foi feita a determinação do teor de água das sementes, e então as plantas foram secas ao sol, debulhadas manualmente e as sementes pesadas para verificação da produtividade. Em seguida, as sementes foram separadas ou não em quatro 4 classes de tamanho, sendo 3 em peneiras (14/64, 17/64 e 18/64. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial, em faixa, com quatro repetições. A avaliação da qualidade das sementes foi realizada por meio dos testes de germinação, índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE e condutividade elétrica. Concluiu-se que a colheita aos 90 DAE propicia maior produtividade e qualidade de sementes de feijão das cultivares avaliadas.In beans crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L., the ideal time of harvest for high quality seeds yield is very important. The objective of the present work was to determine the ideal time of harvest to abtain seeds with higher quality and productivity. For field experiment, seeds of two cultivars of the Carioca group (BRS Majestoso and BRS Horizonte were used. The sowing was done manually and each parcel had four 12-meter-long lines, with a space of 0.40 m between them. The harvest was done manually, at 70, 80, 90 and 100 days after the emergency (DAE. After the harvest, seed water content was determined and then, the plants were drought in the sun, threshed and weighed for productivity verification. After that, seeds were separated in 4 classes

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain CCGE-LA001, Isolated from Field Nodules of the Enigmatic Wild Bean Phaseolus microcarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Rogel, Marco A; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Zayas-Del Moral, Alejandra; Sánchez, Federico; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. strain CCGE-LA001, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from nodules of Phaseolus microcarpus. Strain CCGE-LA001 represents the first sequenced bradyrhizobial strain obtained from a wild Phaseolus sp. Its genome revealed a large and novel symbiotic island. PMID:26988045

  20. Effects of moisture stress levels at different growth stages on nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l. Genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ndimbo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Moisture stress is among the limiting factors to crop yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of moisture stress imposed at different growth stages of bean plants on nodulation and nitrogen fixation. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse and in the field, at Sokoine University of Agriculture. The bean genotype “Kijivu” was used, the stages were; (i VC (Cotyledonary and unifoliolate leaves visible, (ii V2 (Second trifoliolate leaf unfolded, (iii V4 (Fourth trifoliolates on the main stem, blossom clusters not opened and (iv R2 (Pods 1/2 inch long. Irrigation treatments were initiated to maintain moisture treatments of 100%, 75%, 50%, or 25% of the soils field capacity for each plant growth stage until plant maturity. Moisture stress significantly affected nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and finally grain yields. Numbers of nodules per plant were reduced by 56.0% in greenhouse and 69.2% in the field between V4 and VC at 25% moisture regime. Shoot biomass was reduced by 40.8% and 26.8% while root biomass was reduced 23.5% and 31.5% in greenhouse and field, respectively. These results suggest that for maximum nodulation and nitrogen fixation to be achieved, moisture stress must be avoided at the VC and V2 growing stages.

  1. Gene-based SSR markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. derived from root and leaf tissue ESTs: an integration of the BMc series

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    Giraldo Martha C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing of cDNA libraries for the development of expressed sequence tags (ESTs as well as for the discovery of simple sequence repeats (SSRs has been a common method of developing microsatellites or SSR-based markers. In this research, our objective was to further sequence and develop common bean microsatellites from leaf and root cDNA libraries derived from the Andean gene pool accession G19833 and the Mesoamerican gene pool accession DOR364, mapping parents of a commonly used reference map. The root libraries were made from high and low phosphorus treated plants. Results A total of 3,123 EST sequences from leaf and root cDNA libraries were screened and used for direct simple sequence repeat discovery. From these EST sequences we found 184 microsatellites; the majority containing tri-nucleotide motifs, many of which were GC rich (ACC, AGC and AGG in particular. Di-nucleotide motif microsatellites were about half as common as the tri-nucleotide motif microsatellites but most of these were AGn microsatellites with a moderate number of ATn microsatellites in root ESTs followed by few ACn and no GCn microsatellites. Out of the 184 new SSR loci, 120 new microsatellite markers were developed in the BMc (Bean Microsatellites from cDNAs series and these were evaluated for their capacity to distinguish bean diversity in a germplasm panel of 18 genotypes. We developed a database with images of the microsatellites and their polymorphism information content (PIC, which averaged 0.310 for polymorphic markers. Conclusions The present study produced information about microsatellite frequency in root and leaf tissues of two important genotypes for common bean genomics: namely G19833, the Andean genotype selected for whole genome shotgun sequencing from race Peru, and DOR364 a race Mesoamerica subgroup 2 genotype that is a small-red seeded, released variety in Central America. Both race Peru and Mesoamerica subgroup 2 (small red beans

  2. Reflexos da interação genótipo X ambiente e suas implicações nos ganhos de seleção em genótipos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Reflexes of the interaction genotype X environment and their implications in the gains of selection in genotypes of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luís Meirelles Coimbra

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A importância das leguminosas de grãos na alimentação humana, principalmente do feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris, tem estimulado os melhoristas a selecionar genótipos com alto potencial de rendimento de grãos e com adaptabilidade às diferentes condições de cultivo do sul do Brasil. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os reflexos da interação genótipo x ambiente e suas implicações nos ganhos genéticos com diferentes critérios de seleção. Os resultados revelaram que o componente da interação genótipo x ambiente superestima a predição dos parâmetros genéticos, como por exemplo a variância genética e a herdabilidade. As diferenças observadas entre estas estimativas parecem ocorrer devido à alta percentagem da parte complexa da interação. Além disto, os ganhos genéticos obtidos com a seleção direta foram sempre superiores à resposta indireta. Comparativamente, o par de ambientes 1x3 revelou uma resposta correlacionada inferior e de sinal contrário às demais estimativas para os outros pares de ambientes estudados neste trabalho. O primeiro ambiente foi o que mais acumulou a interação genótipo x ambiente. Portanto, pode ser concluído que o componente da interação tem grande relevância nas estimativas dos ganhos genéticos, evidenciando que essa influência deva ser considerada na seleção e na recomendação de genótipos específicos nos programas de melhoramento genético da cultura do feijoeiro.The importance of grains of legume plants for human feeding, specially black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., has stimulated the breeders to select genotypes with high grains yield potential and wide adaptability to different conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil. The present work aimed at evaluating the reflexes of the genotype x environment interaction and its implications in the genetic gains of different selection approaches. The results revealed that the component of the

  3. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... (76 FR 16700-16703, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0101) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations by allowing... (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States...

  4. Growth Control and Biophoton Radiation by Plant Hormones in Red Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Shoichi; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Fujimoto, Tokio

    1995-12-01

    The growth kinetics of seeds of red beans ( Phaseolus angularis ) was investigated by externally adding various hormones (gibberellin (GA3)), abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA)) during germination. For root growth of red beans, GA3 always acted as an activator while ABA as an inhibitor. IAA was both an activator and an inhibitor depending on its concentration. Root growth could be described by a stochastic logistic equation. The hormone concentration dependences of coefficients of the equation were determined. The hormone influences on biophoton radiation were also investgated. With GA3, the intensity of spontaneous bioluminescence increased with time and showed two strong radiation periods, in which strong localization of bioluminescence was induced. However with ABA and IAA, weaker bioluminescences were observed. The location of the strong radiation induced by GA3 was determined as the growing point near a root cap, by use of a two-dimensional photon counting system.

  5. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Foliar Application of Some Micro nutrients on Growth and Yield Quality of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments were carried out on common bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) cv Bronco under sandy-loam soil conditions in the farm of the Research Station of the Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Kalubia Governorate on October 15 th in the two successive growing seasons of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. The aim of the experiments was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiated seeds at the doses of 0, 40 and 80 Gy and foliar spray with Zn, Mn and Fe micro nutrients at the concentrations of 0, 25 and 50 ppm on vegetative growth, yield and chemical responses of common bean plants at age of 21 days. Three levels of application namely 0.0 (control), 25 and 50 ppm were sprayed twice during the growing seasons after two and four weeks of planting. Data analysis showed that all sprayed concentrations improved plant growth i.e plant height, number of branches and helped in earliness of flowering. Pod yield as well as pod quality parameters were also improved with the increase of concentration of sprayed materials. The improvement in plant growth and production were positively correlated with the doses and concentrations. The highest response recorded with the concentration 50 ppm with irradiated dose of 40 Gy after which the response started to decline but still significantly higher than control treatment. Pod yield was positively correlated with the applied concentration of the two substances with the highest effect recorded with 50 ppm of micro nutrients. The treatments resulted in higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control. Also treatments significantly improved chemical compositions of pod quality particularly total nitrogen and total sugar contents which responded more positively to all applied treatments. Mineral contents of Zn, Mn and Fe in un cracked seeds also showed similar trend to the applied concentrations. While the best results were in treated plants at 40 Gy and 50 ppm micro nutrient.

  6. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris innate immune system against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum infection.

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    Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to

  7. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants to low-let ionizing radiation: Growth and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, C.; De Micco, V.; Aronne, G.; Pugliese, M.; Virzo De Santo, A.; De Maio, A.

    2013-10-01

    The scenarios for the long-term habitation of space platforms and planetary stations involve plants as fundamental part of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) to support the crew needs. Several constraints may limit plant growth in space: among them ionizing radiation is recognized to severely affect plant cell at morphological, physiological and biochemical level. In this work, plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were subjected to four different doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50 and 100 Gy) in order to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on this species and to analyze possible mechanisms carried out to overcome the radiation injuries. The effects of X-rays on plant growth were assessed by measuring stem elongation, number of internodes and leaf dry weight. The integrity of photosynthetic apparatus was evaluated by photosynthetic pigment composition and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity, whereas changes in total antioxidant pool and glutathione S transferase activity (GST) were utilized as markers of oxidative stress. The distribution of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues as natural shielding against radiation was also determined. Irradiation of plants at 0.3 and 10 Gy did not determine differences in all considered parameters as compared to control. On the contrary, at 50 and 100 Gy a reduction of plant growth and a decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, as well as an increase in phenolic compounds and a decrease in total antioxidant content and GST activity were found. Only a slight reduction of Rubisco activity in leaves irradiated at 50 and 100 Gy was found. The overall results indicate P. vulgaris as a species with a good potential to face ionizing radiation and suggest its suitability for utilization in BLSSs.

  8. Isolation of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Pankaj; Dubey Ramesh Chandra; Maheshwari Dinesh Kumar; Park Yong-Ha; Bajpai Vivek K.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro screening of plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits was carried out using eight Pseudomonas spp., PPR1 to PPR8, isolated from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris growing on the Uttarakhand Himalayan range in India. All the isolates were fast growers, positive for catalase, oxidase and urease activities, and utilized lactose and some amino acids. All the isolates were indole acetic acid (IAA) positive, however PPR8 solubilized potassium and zinc alon...

  9. Low gamma radiation dose effect on germination and initial growing of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds; Efeito de baixas doses de radiacao gama na germinacao de sementes de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Silva, Anderson de O. Melo [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.br; Marsico, Eliane T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos]. E-mail: elianee@vm.uff.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work we analyze the effect of low gamma irradiation doses and low concentrations of sodium alginate on the germination and growing of black beans seeds. The seeds were obtained from an organic farmer at Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State. The seeds were submitted to radiation doses between 0 and 150 Gy with a Cobalt 60 source in a Gammacell Excel 220 Nordion Irradiator with a dose rate of 70 Gy/min. After germination the seeds were left to grow three weeks on a hydroponics system. The system used was the water culture with nutritive solution that was supplemented with the nutritional needs for plant grows. We also tested the influence of the sodium alginate on the plant grows. A 4% solution of sodium alginate in distilled water was irradiated with 120 kGy gamma ray dose. Concentrations of sodium alginate irradiated and non-irradiated varying from 50 to 500 {mu}g/g were used in the hydroponics' solution. After three weeks the mass and the height of the plant were measured. Statistic analyses of he result with the SAS program show that there was no significant difference between the height and mass of seeds submitted different doses, but irradiated solution of sodium alginate with concentration of 400 and 500 {mu}g/g present a significant difference on plant grow. (author)

  10. 78 FR 25623 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... distributed within the United States. Currently, we do not allow the importation of fresh beans (Phaseolus... accessing Regulations.gov ). The PRA, titled ``Importation of Fresh Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Shelled... allow the importation of commercial shipments of fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), shelled or in...

  11. Evaluation of alkaline phosphatase activity and availability of various P fractions for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in some calcareous soils amended with municipal sewage sludge

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    T. Raeisi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relationship of various P fractions and alkaline phosphatase activity with bean indices growing in 10 calcareous soils, amended with municipal sewage sludge from Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province, a greenhouse research was carried out. Soil samples were incubated for one month with sludge at a rate equivalent to 1% (w/w. Then, the P fractions, including P adsorbed by Fe and Al oxides (]NaOH+CB]-P, occluded P (CBD-P and P absorbed by Ca (HCl-P, were determined by Olsen and Summers' sequential fractionation procedure. Furthermore, total P, organic P and residual P were determined. Also, alkaline phosphatase activity was measured. A pot experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications in the ten soils was done to evaluate the bean plant indices. The results showed that the amount of P fractions decreased in the following order: HCl-P>residual-P>]NaOH+CB]-P > OP>CBD-P. The results also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly correlated with CBD-P fraction, organic P and total P. In addition, significant correlations were found between ([NaOH+CB]-P and HCl-P and plant shoots. In general, the results of this research showed that P fractionation method appears to be a powerful tool to identify the P status and availability in the soils amended with sewage sludge.

  12. Jasmonic acid and herbivory differentially induce carnivore-attracting plant volatiles in Lima bean plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Gols, R.; Ludeking, D.; Posthumus, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Lima bean plants respond to feeding damage of two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) with the emission of a complex blend of volatiles that are products of several different biosynthetic pathways. These volatiles attract the carnivorous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of

  13. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

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    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  14. GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF FRENCH BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. AS INFLUENCED BY SULPHUR AND BORON APPLICATION ON INCEPTISOLS OF KASHMIR

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    MUMTAZ A. GAINE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during Kharif 2011 to study the response of french bean to different levels of sulphur and boron. The treatment combination of S45B1.0 recorded significantly higher values for nodulation parameters like number of nodules, their fresh and dry weight, dry matter accumulation at flowering, pod picking and harvesting stages, pod yield, yield attributes like number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1 and test weight, seed yield, stover yield and protein content. The percent increase in these parameters over control was observed to be 210.90, 150.11, 164.88, 83.85, 61.55, 35.01, 42.33, 93.13, 30.80, 12.14, 27.13, 40.82 and 28.70, respectively. From the study it was concluded that for realizing higher yield and quality of french bean on inceptisols under temperate conditions of Kashmir valley, the nutrient management may centre around 45 and 1.0 kg ha-1 of sulphur and boron respectively, along with the recommended fertilizer dose of N, P, K and FYM.

  15. Fate of labelled allitin in bean plant and mosquito

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allitin, the insecticidal principle of garlic (Allium sativum L) is a mixture of diallyl di- and tri-sulfides. 35S-labelled allitin has been synthesised using different methods and used for the evaluation of its persistence in water. Results of these experiments showed that allitin has low persistence; more than 80% of the initial radioactivity was lost in 24 hr. when an aqueous emulsion of labelled allitin was exposed under the laboratory conditions. Fate of labelled allitin was studied in larvae and pupae of mosquitoes, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say. Assimilation of allitin was found to be faster in larva compared to pupa. Intake of allitin by bean plant was also studied. Implications of the results obtained in the above experiments will be discussed. (author)

  16. NON PREFERENCE FOR OVIPOSITION AND FEEDING OF Weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA-BRUCHIDAE IN BEAN LINES (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BEARERS OF ARCELIN NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA OVIPOSIÇÃO E ALIMENTAÇÃO DE Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PORTADORES DE ARCELINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Divina de Tolêdo Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Arcelin is a seed protein only found in wild beans which gives resistance to bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemann, 1833. In this study the non preference for oviposition and feeding of the bean weevil was evaluated on a series of near isogenic bean lines: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 and Arc 4. The bean cultivars Porrillo 70 and Goiano Precoce were utilized as susceptible checks. There wasn’t oviposition preference among the six genotypes studied. The near isogenic lines that contain Arcelin 1 and Arcelin 2 were the last in preference for feeding.

    KEY-WORDS: Resistance; non preference.

    A arcelina é uma proteína encontrada somente em feijões silvestres e é o fator que confere resistência ao caruncho Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833. Procurou-se verificar a não-preferência para oviposição e alimentação de Z. subfasciatus em uma série de linhagens de feijão quase isogênicas contendo diferentes alelos de arcelina: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 e Arc 4. Os controles suscetíveis utilizados foram Porrillo 70 e Goiano Precoce. Não houve preferência para oviposição entre os seis genótipos estudados. As linhagens quase isogênicas contendo Arcelina 1 e Arcelina 2 foram as menos preferidas para alimentação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; Phaseolus; Zabrotes; não-preferência.

  17. Qualidade nutricional e microbiológica de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cozido com ou sem água de maceração Nutritional and microbiological quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cooked with or without the use of soaking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani Ruffo de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade nutricional e microbiológica de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., processado com o aproveitamento ou não da água de maceração. Grãos de duas cultivares de feijão comum - Iraí (grãos bege com estrias vermelhas e BRS Expedito (grãos pretos -foram submetidos à embebição em água destilada por oito horas, à temperatura ambiente. O cozimento foi realizado com e sem o aproveitamento da água de maceração. Os minerais foram determinados nos grãos e no caldo, separadamente, e os microrganismos, na mistura de grãos e caldo. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que a composição de minerais nos grãos e no caldo de feijão não foi alterada pelo descarte da água de maceração para o cozimento. O caldo de feijão apresentou altos teores de fósforo, potássio, magnésio e enxofre. A eliminação da água de maceração não melhorou a qualidade microbiológica do feijão processado. O cozimento das cultivares de feijão Iraí e BRS Expedito pode ser realizado com o aproveitamento ou com o descarte da água de maceração, pois há manutenção do teor de minerais e da qualidade microbiológica do feijão.The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional and microbiological quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. processed with or without soaking water. Two common bean cultivars grains (Iraí and BRS Expedito were subjected to soaking in distilled water for eight hours, at environmental temperature. The cooking was made with the use or discard of soaking water. The minerals were determinated in grains and broth separatedely and microorganisms associated. The results did not show changes for the minerals content in grains and broth with discard of the soaking water. The bean broth showed high phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and sulfur content. The discard of the soaking water did not improve microbiological quality of the processed common beans. Iraí and BRS Expedito cultivars may

  18. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the {sup 60}Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais dos feijoes Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    1998-07-01

    The effects of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 6} protein content, biological evaluation in rats (Food intake and Weight gain (in grams)), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) diversity panel for response to the NL 3 strain of Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and for biological nitrogen fixation with Bradyrhizobium strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyviruses that are seed transmitted in tepary bean. Developing resistance to these viruses will be critical for expanding production in areas where they are endemic. Biological nitrogen fixation (BN...

  20. Certain physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects of kidney bean plants originating from gamma-irradiated seeds during seed germination and plant development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of kidney bean (phaseolus vulgaris cv. Giza 6) were irradiated with different dosages of gamma rays (2.5-15.0 k.rad) and germinated under laboratory conditions or sown in soil. The produced seedlings and growing plants at different stages of development were analysed for some physiological and biochemical events. In addition, SDS-PAGE profile of the harvested seeds was investigated. Results obtained revealed that the germination potential of kidney bean seeds and growth criteria of the produced seedlings were mostly highly significantly increased due to irradiating the seeds with the relatively low dosages of gamma rays (2.5 and 5.0 K. rad). The contents of DNA, RNA, protein-N, total-N, poly-saccharides and total sugars were substantially increased. This was at the expense of amino-N, glucose and sucrose contents coupled with a reduced leakage of the soluble metabolites from the seedlings. The growth parameters and yield components of plants exhibited mostly high significant increases with concomitant marked increases in the contents of auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3)and cytokinins (BA). On the other hand, all the aforementioned indices underwent a reverse pattern of change as a consequence of irradiating the seeds with 10.0 and 15.0 K.rad. SDS-PAGE profile of proteins extracted from the seeds harvested from plants originated from the seeds irradiated with 2.5 or 150.0 K.rad exhibited a disappearance of one protein band(M.W: 69.83 kDa) or four ones (M.W:69.83, 61.14, 51.29 and 46.86 kDa), respectively. The total number of protein bands remained unchanged in case of 5.0 and 10.0 k.rad exposure. Moreover, the intensities of protein in the existed bands showed variable changes

  1. Root uptake of uranium by a higher plant model (Phaseolus vulgaris) bioavailability from soil solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, L.; Henner, P.; Camilleri, V.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    Uranium behaviour in soils is controlled by actions and interactions between physicochemical and biological processes that also determine its bioavailability. In soil solution, uranium(+VI) aqueous speciation undergoes tremendous changes mainly depending on pH, carbonates, phosphates and organic matter. In a first approach to identify bioavailable species of U to plants, cultures were performed using hydroponics, to allow an easy control of the composition of the exposure media. The latter, here an artificial soil solution, was designed to control the uranium species in solution. The geochemical speciation code JCHESS using a database compiled from the OECD/NEA thermochemical database project and verified was used to perform the solution speciation calculations. On this theoretical basis, three domains were defined for short-duration well-defined laboratory experiments in simplified conditions: pH 4.9, 5.8 and 7 where predicted dominant species are uranyl ions, hydroxyl complexes and carbonates respectively. For these domains, biokinetics and characterization of transmembrane transport according to a classical Michaelis Menten approach were investigated. The Free Ion Model (or its derived Biotic Ligand Model) was tested to determine if U uptake is governed by the free uranyl species or if other metal complexes can be assimilated. The effect of different variables on root assimilation efficiency and phyto-toxicity was explored: presence of ligands such as phosphates or carbonates and competitive ions such as Ca{sup 2+} at the 3 pH. According to previous experiments, uranium was principally located in roots whatever the pH and no difference in uranium uptake was evidenced between the main growth stages of the plant. Within the 3 studied chemical domains, results from short-term kinetics evidenced a linear correlation between total uranium concentration in bean roots and that in exposure media, suggesting that total uranium in soil solution could be a good predictor

  2. THE RESPONSE STRATEGY OF MAIZE, PEA AND BROAD BEAN PLANTS TO DIFFERENT OSMOTIC POTENTIAL STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad; SHADADD M.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differen...

  3. Toxigenic fungi in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes black and color cultivated in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil Fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes preto e cores cultivado no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Luzia Freitas Costa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxigenic fungi were studied in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of Classes black and color, cultivated in different regions of the State of Santa Catarina, south region of Brazil. The mean counts of filamentous fungi were 2.8 x 103 and 6.7 x 103 CFU/g for beans Classes black and color, respectively. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Phoma spp. were the most frequent genera isolated, followed by Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. and Dreschelera spp. Among beans Class black, 24.6% of the Aspergillus strains produced mycotoxins: 13.1% produced aflatoxins (AFs; 11.5% produced ochratoxin A (OTA and 28.9% of Penicillium produced citrinin (CTR. On the other hand, 22.1% of Aspergillus strains isolated from beans Class color produced mycotoxins (16.7% produced AFs and 5.4% produced OTA, while Penicillium genera had 35.4% of CTR producing strains. The toxigenic species were A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and P. citrinum Thom.Foram estudados fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., classes preto e cores, cultivados em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, região Sul do Brasil. A média total de fungos filamentosos foi de 2,8x10³ e 6,7x10³ UFC/g para feijão classe preto e cores, respectivamente. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Phoma spp. foram os gêneros mais frequentes isolados, seguidos por Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. e Dreschelera spp. No feijão classe preto, 24,6% das cepas de Aspergillus isolados eram toxigenicas: 13.1% eram produtoras de aflatoxinas (AFs e 11,5% de ocratoxina A (OTA; e 28,9% de Penicillium produziram citrinina (CTR. Por outro lado, 22,1% de cepas de Aspergillus isolados do feijão classe cores, produziram micotoxinas (16,7% produziram AF e 5,4% produziram OTA, já do g

  4. Reduction of viral load in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gen.) feeding on RNAi-mediated bean golden mosaic virus resistant transgenic bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Nayhanne T; de Faria, Josias C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-12-01

    The RNAi concept was explored to silence the rep gene from the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) and a genetically modified (GM) bean immune to the virus was previously generated. We investigated if BGMV-viruliferous whiteflies would reduce viral amount after feeding on GM plants. BGMV DNA amount was significantly reduced in whiteflies feeding in GM-plants (compared with insects feeding on non-GM plants) for a period of 4 and 8 days in 52% and 84% respectively. PMID:26297125

  5. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 is associated with the homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Lund, Ole Søgaard; Larsen, Richard;

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) play a central role in potyviral infection. Accordingly, mutations in the gene encoding eIF4E have been identified as a source of recessive resistance in several plant species. In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, b...

  6. Long-distance transport of natrium in bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Na+-application to a certain zone of the root or after application to the tip or to the base of a primary leaf or along the stem of bean plants, the long-distance transport of Na+ was studied. The age of the plants was 8 d when root application took place, 10 d at the time of leaf application. After application to the root zone, the long-distance transport of Na+ in the direction of the shoot was strongly prevented, and the transport in the direction of the root point could be neglected. Presence of K+ in the ambient nutritive solution led to a strong increase of Na+ efflux from the roots. Within 48 hrs., 30-40% of the Na+ applied to a primary leaf were transported towards the roots. The Na+ efflux to the ambient nutritive solution came from the basal regions; it was mostly more than 10% of the amount recepted through the leaf and was only slightly increased by the presence of K+ in the external solution. In the case of Na+ application through the hypokotyl, this Na+-efflux from the roots was even more than 25% within 12 hrs. Both with leaf and with stem application, only 1% of the Na+ taken up was transported in the direction of the shoot point. The separation of the hypocotyl tissue in the bark and in the central cylinder showed the extremely high Na+ storage capacity of the central cylinder. The transfer of Na+ from the central cylinder into the bark seems to be fast in the hypocotyl, while the escape of Na+ from the phloem of the bark into the central cylinder is rather limited. Long-distance transport of Na+ in the phloem of the bark is highly basispetal and of high efficiency. Low Na+-contents in bean leaves are thus due to several regulation mechanisms: K+-stimulated Na+-efflux in the root, restricted long-distance transport in the xylemadue to high storage capacity of the xylemparenchyma, Na+ influx pumps at the phloem in stem and leaf and strictly basipetal phloem-retransport of Na+ in the root and efflux into the surrounding solution. (orig./MG)

  7. Emission of CO2 and N2O from soil cultivated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fertilized with different N sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition of different forms of nitrogen fertilizer to cultivated soil is known to affect carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. In this study, the effect of urea, wastewater sludge and vermicompost on emissions of CO2 and N2O in soil cultivated with bean was investigated. Beans were cultivated in the greenhouse in three consecutive experiments, fertilized with or without wastewater sludge at two application rates (33 and 55 Mg fresh wastewater sludge ha-1, i.e. 48 and 80 kg N ha-1 considering a N mineralization rate of 40%), vermicompost derived from the wastewater sludge (212 Mg ha-1, i.e. 80 kg N ha-1) or urea (170 kg ha-1, i.e. 80 kg N ha-1), while pH, electrolytic conductivity (EC), inorganic nitrogen and CO2 and N2O emissions were monitored. Vermicompost added to soil increased EC at onset of the experiment, but thereafter values were similar to the other treatments. Most of the NO3- was taken up by the plants, although some was leached from the upper to the lower soil layer. CO2 emission was 375 C kg ha-1 y-1 in the unamended soil, 340 kg C ha-1 y-1 in the urea-amended soil and 839 kg ha-1 y-1 in the vermicompost-amended soil. N2O emission was 2.92 kg N ha-1 y-1 in soil amended with 55 Mg wastewater sludge ha-1, but only 0.03 kg N ha-1 y-1 in the unamended soil. The emission of CO2 was affected by the phenological stage of the plant while organic fertilizer increased the CO2 and N2O emission, and the yield per plant. Environmental and economic implications must to be considered to decide how many, how often and what kind of organic fertilizer could be used to increase yields, while limiting soil deterioration and greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Emission of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O from soil cultivated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fertilized with different N sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Luqueno, F.; Reyes-Varela, V.; Martinez-Suarez, C.; Reynoso-Keller, R.E.; Mendez-Bautista, J.; Ruiz-Romero, E. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, F. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Luna-Guido, M.L. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Addition of different forms of nitrogen fertilizer to cultivated soil is known to affect carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions. In this study, the effect of urea, wastewater sludge and vermicompost on emissions of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O in soil cultivated with bean was investigated. Beans were cultivated in the greenhouse in three consecutive experiments, fertilized with or without wastewater sludge at two application rates (33 and 55 Mg fresh wastewater sludge ha{sup -1}, i.e. 48 and 80 kg N ha{sup -1} considering a N mineralization rate of 40%), vermicompost derived from the wastewater sludge (212 Mg ha{sup -1}, i.e. 80 kg N ha{sup -1}) or urea (170 kg ha{sup -1}, i.e. 80 kg N ha{sup -1}), while pH, electrolytic conductivity (EC), inorganic nitrogen and CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions were monitored. Vermicompost added to soil increased EC at onset of the experiment, but thereafter values were similar to the other treatments. Most of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} was taken up by the plants, although some was leached from the upper to the lower soil layer. CO{sub 2} emission was 375 C kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the unamended soil, 340 kg C ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the urea-amended soil and 839 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the vermicompost-amended soil. N{sub 2}O emission was 2.92 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in soil amended with 55 Mg wastewater sludge ha{sup -1}, but only 0.03 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in the unamended soil. The emission of CO{sub 2} was affected by the phenological stage of the plant while organic fertilizer increased the CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emission, and the yield per plant. Environmental and economic implications must to be considered to decide how many, how often and what kind of organic fertilizer could be used to increase yields, while limiting soil deterioration and greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Comportamento da cv. Pérola(Phaseolus vulgaris L. Submetida a diferentes níveis de desfolha artificial Effect of Different levels of defoliation on productivity of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Perola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre desfolha artificial são muito úteis, principalmente para simular danos às plantas, como os causados por insetos ou granizo, por exemplo. Em trabalhos com o feijoeiro, ficou evidente que os resultados são altamente dependentes da cultivar utilizada e das condições climáticas prevalecentes. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a redução na produtividadedevida à redução artificial da área foliar da cv. Pérola nas condições de Rio Branco, AC. O experimento foi conduzido no campo experimental da Embrapa Acre, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e esquema experimental de parcelas subdivididas, estudando-se nas parcelas cinco das etapas de desenvolvimento da planta (V3= primeira folha trifoliolada, V4= terceira folha trifoliolada, R6= floração, R7= formação de vagens e R8= enchimento de vagens e nas subparcelas, quatro níveis de desfolhamento (0%, 33%, 66% e 100%. Foram avaliadas, em média, 480 plantas nas 4 linhas centrais de cada subparcela, determinando-se o número de vagens por planta, o número de grãos por vagem e a produtividade de grãos. Paralelamente, em uma área adjacente, foram colhidas, ao acaso, 50 plantas de cada etapa de desenvolvimento para a obtenção da área foliar média. Nas etapas de desenvolvimento V3, V4 e R7, níveis de desfolhamento a partir de 33% causaram decréscimo no número de vagens por planta. O número de sementes por vagem não sofreu influência dos níveis de desfolhamento das plantas. O rendimento dos grãos foi significativamente reduzido à medida que as plantas foram submetidas a níveis crescentes de desfolha. A etapa de florescimento (R6 foi a que apresentou maior redução na produtividade como resposta à desfolha.Studies to evaluate artificial defoliation are very useful, mainly to simulate damages to plants, such, as the ones caused by insects or hail. Experiments with bean plant, indicated that the results are higly dependent on the

  10. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Common Bean Genotypes Assessed by the 32P Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes on phosphorus (P) utilization, and verify if P from the seed affects the classification of common bean genotypes on P uptake efficiency when the 32P isotopic dilution technique is used. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, and plants were grown in pots with surface samples of a dystrophic Typic Haplustox. The treatments consisted of 50 common bean genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). Sangue de Boi, Rosinha, Thayu, Grafite, Horizonte, Pioneiro and Jalo Precoce common bean genotypes were the most efficient on P uptake, and Carioca 80, CNF 10, Perola, IAPAR 31, Roxao EEP, Apore, Pioneiro, Pontal, Timbo and Ruda were the most efficient in P utilization. The P derived from seed influences the identification of common bean genotypes for P uptake efficiency. (author)

  11. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M1 was cultivated in 1978

  12. Registration of 'Croissant' pinto bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Croissant’ (Reg. No. CV-299, PI 656597), a new medium-maturity (94–98 d) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar was released by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station to provide dry bean producers in the USA with a high-yielding cultivar that combines resistance to rust [caused by Uromyc...

  13. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Nozomi Satoh; Tatsuya Kon; Noriko Yamagishi; Tsubasa Takahashi; Tomohide Natsuaki; Nobuyuki Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic sym...

  14. Response of Eight Market Classes of Dry Bean (<i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i> L.) to Pendimethalin

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Soltani; Robert E. Nurse; Christy Shropshire; Peter H. Sikkema

    2011-01-01

    There is little information on the tolerance of dry bean to pendimethalin. Field studies were conducted in 2007 to 2009 at Exeter, Ontario and in 2008 and 2009 at Ridgetown, Ontario to evaluate tolerance of black, cranberry, kidney, otebo, pink, pinto, Small Red Mexican and white bean to the pendimethalin applied preplant incorporated at 1080 and 2160 g.a.i.ha-1. Pendimethalin PPI caused minimal injury in most market classes of dry bean at 1 and 2 WAE. There was no inju...

  15. The Qualitative Differences for Photosynthetic Content of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Populations  in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Sali Ali ALIU; Rusinovci, Imer; Shukri FETAHU; Bekim GASHI

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity analysis of common bean populations is useful for breeding programs, as it helps to select genetic material to be used for further crossings. Twenty (20) common bean populations were analyzed using qualitative traits, chlorophyll “a” (Chl ‘a’), chlorophyll “b” (Chl ‘b’), total chlorophyll “a+b” (Total Chl) and carotenoides. The design of the experiment was conducted with leaves of common bean collected from different regions of Kosovo. The experiment was completely randomly ...

  16. The bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on growth of phaseolus-vulgaris plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Mehdipour, L.A.; Behnejad, B.B. [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Objective: Plants absorb radioactive elements from phosphate fertilizers, and also from naturally occurring radiation in the soil, air and water. It has long been known that low doses of ionizing radiation evoke stimulatory effects in a wide variety of living organisms. However, as far as we know, there is no published report on the bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-effects of low doses of diagnostic X-rays on growth rate of Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) plants. Materials and Methods: Before cultivation, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) seeds were soaked in tap water for 2 days followed by another 2 days of covering under a wet cloth. Four hundred newly cultivated seeds were randomly divided into two groups of 200 plants each. In this experiment, two seeds were cultivated in each dish (100 dishes for irradiation group and 100 for sham-irradiation group). Fifteen days after starting cultivation, newly grown plants were irradiated with X-rays. Plants were exposed to a single dose of X-ray (80 kVp, 80 mAs) for 6 days. On day 29, plants were pulled out from the ' soil. Length of plant stem, length of root, number of leaves and plant weight were measured. Results: The stem length in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants was 296.5{+-}13.57 and 223.96{+-}15.02 mm respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Although the number of leaves in irradiated plants was higher than that of sham-irradiated plants (7.05{+-}0.18 and 6.74{+-}0.19 respectively), the difference was not statistically significant. The stem diameter in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants were 3.52{+-}0.12 and 3.35{+-}0.09 mm respectively, but the difference again was not statistically significant (P<0.00 1). Plant weight in irradiated samples was less than that of non-irradiated plants but it was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The overall results indicate that diagnostic doses of X-rays can

  17. Water deficit at different growth stages for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Imbabello) on yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify specific growth stages of the common bean crop at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress, in which irrigation could be omitted without significant decrease in biological nitrogen fixation and final yield, a field experiment was conducted at 'La Tola' University Experiment Station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, on a sandy loam soil (Typic Haplustoll). The climate is tempered and dry (mean air temperature 16 C and mean relative humidity 74%) during the cropping season, and 123 mm of rainfall were recorded during the cropping period. The treatments consisted of the combinations of 7 irrigation regimes (IR1=normal watering; IR2= full stress; IR3= traditional practice; IR4=single stress at vegetation; IR5= flowering; IR6=yield formation and IR7=ripening) and 2 levels of applied N (20 and 80 kg/ha). These 14 treatment combinations were arranged and analysed in a split-plot design with 4 replications. The plot size was 33.6 m sub 2 (8 rows, 7 m long) with a population of 120.000 plants/ha. Irrigation treatments were started after uniform germination and crop establishment. Soil moisture was monitored with neutron probe down to the 0.50 m depth, 24 hours before and after each irrigation. Yield data show that treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those with supplementary irrigation (1% prob). The yield formation stage was the most sensitive to moisture stress, in which crop water use efficiency (0.46 kg/m3) was the lowest and the yield response factor (Ky=2.2.) was higher. Nitrogen fixation was significantly affected by water stress at the flowering and yield formation stages. (author)

  18. Binding of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectin to the intestinal cells of the rat and its effect on the absorption of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of this investigation were to study the binding of a lectin from navy beans with the epithelial cells of the rat intestine and to assess the effect of such binding on the ability of the intestine to absorb glucose. A Scatchard plot, based on the binding of 125I-labeled lectin to isolated intestinal epithelial cells, was used to calculate an association constant (Ka) of 15 x 10(6)M-1 and the number of binding sites per cell, 12 x 10(6). Metabolic studies were conducted over a period of 5 d on groups of rats fed raw or autoclaved navy bean flour and casein with or without the purified lectin. Growth, protein digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization were significantly lower in animals that had been fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin than in control groups fed diets containing autoclaved navy bean flour or casein alone. Vascular perfusion was used to measure the rate of uptake of glucose by the intestines of rats that had received the various dietary treatments. The rate of absorption of [14C]glucose by intestines from rats fed raw navy bean flour or casein plus lectin was approximately one-half that of their counterparts fed the autoclaved flour or casein alone. These results provide evidence that the lectin, by virtue of its interference with intestinal absorption, is responsible, at least in part, for the nutritional inferiority of raw navy beans

  19. Selección de la fecha de siembra como estrategia de adaptación a los efectos del estrés térmico sobre los rendimientos simulados de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en un área montano baja del centro-occidente de Venezuela Planting date selection as an adaptation strategy to elevated temperature effects on simulated yields of dry bean in a low mountainous area of Midwestern Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    R Warnock de Parra; L Guillén; M Puche; Silva, O.; M Morros

    2007-01-01

    El estrés causado por las altas temperaturas sobre los rendimientos de sistemas de producción comerciales de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) con riego puede ser reducido a través de la optimización de la fecha de siembra. Empleando 41 años de información climática diaria, se cuantificaron y evaluaron los rendimientos simulados de siete materiales genéticos de caraota en un área (09°43´ N - 09°46´ N, 69°37´ O - 69°40´ O y 1228 msnm - 1502 msnm) productora ubicada en las estribaciones andinas d...

  20. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

  1. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  2. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris by high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peláez Pablo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. MiRNAs play essential roles in almost all plant biological processes. Currently, few miRNAs have been identified in the model food legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used Illumina's sequencing by synthesis (SBS technology to identify and characterize the miRNA population of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results Small RNA libraries were generated from roots, flowers, leaves, and seedlings of P. vulgaris. Based on similarity to previously reported plant miRNAs,114 miRNAs belonging to 33 conserved miRNA families were identified. Stem-loop precursors and target gene sequences for several conserved common bean miRNAs were determined from publicly available databases. Less conserved miRNA families and species-specific common bean miRNA isoforms were also characterized. Moreover, novel miRNAs based on the small RNAs were found and their potential precursors were predicted. In addition, new target candidates for novel and conserved miRNAs were proposed. Finally, we studied organ-specific miRNA family expression levels through miRNA read frequencies. Conclusions This work represents the first massive-scale RNA sequencing study performed in Phaseolus vulgaris to identify and characterize its miRNA population. It significantly increases the number of miRNAs, precursors, and targets identified in this agronomically important species. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding common bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of P. vulgaris miRNAs in relation to those of other legumes.

  3. Detailed analysis of seed coat and cotyledon reveals molecular understanding of the hard-to-cook defect of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jianyong; Njoroge, Daniel M; Sila, Daniel N; Kinyanjui, Peter K; Christiaens, Stefanie; Bi, Jinfeng; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2016-11-01

    The hard-to-cook (HTC) defect in legumes is characterized by the inability of cotyledons to soften during the cooking process. Changes in the non-starch polysaccharides of common bean seed coat and cotyledon were studied before and after development of the HTC defect induced by storage at 35°C and 75% humidity for 8months. Distinct differences in the yields of alcohol insoluble residues, degree of methoxylation (DM), sugar composition, and molar mass distribution of non-starch polysaccharides were found between the seeds coat and cotyledons. The non-starch polysaccharide profiles, both for seed coats and cotyledons, significantly differed when comparing HTC and easy-to-cook (ETC) beans. In conclusion, differences in the structure, composition and extractability of non-starch polysaccharides between the ETC and HTC beans confirmed the significant role of pectin polysaccharides in interaction with divalent ions in the HTC development, which consequently affect their cooking behaviors. PMID:27211674

  4. Competition of Amaranthus species with dry bean plants Competição de espécies de Amaranthus com plantas de feijoeiro

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    Saul Jorge Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Weeds compete with field crops mainly for water, light and nutrients, and this competition is among other factors, a function of the occurrence of weed density, and the intrinsic competitive ability of each vegetal species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the competitive ability of five weed species of the Amaranthus L. genus (A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus and A. viridis with dry bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. - 'Carioca Precoce' cultivar, using the replacement series design. A fixed total density equivalent to 80 plants m-2 was used in pots of 2.8 L capacity varying the proportions between the species in coexistence. To install the experiment, Amaranthus seedlings were transplanted to the pots at the phenological stage of completely expanded cotyledon leaves, while the crop was seeded. A factorial scheme (5 x 5 was used to carry out the experiment, consisting of five species of Amaranthus (pigweeds and five species proportions (beans:pigweeds: 4:0, 3:1, 2:2, 1:3 and 0:4. Randomized blocks with four replicates were installed and the experiment was repeated twice. Dry bean plants were more competitive than each one of the five Amaranthus species when the species proportion was equivalent. A. deflexus and A. viridis were the weed species which phenology were less affected by the competition with dry bean; the intraspecific competition was more damaging for dry bean plants, suggesting that the damages caused by the weeds are more related to high density of infestation than to the intrinsic competitive ability of the species.As plantas daninhas competem com as culturas por água, luz e nutrientes, sendo que esta competição é função da densidade de ocorrência das plantas daninhas, bem como da habilidade competitiva intrínseca de cada espécie. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a competitividade de cinco espécies de Amaranthus L. (A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus e A. viridis

  5. Functional interplay between glutathione and hydrogen sulfide in regulation of thiol cascade during arsenate tolerance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2015-01-01

    Changes in expressions of up- and downstream thiol cascade were studied in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. VL-63 and its mutant, pvsod1 (deficient in superoxide dismutase activity) under 50 μM sodium arsenate (As), As + l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) and As + BSO + Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS)-treatments for 10 days. Main objective was to investigate the functional relationship between hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and glutathione (GSH) in regulation of sulfate transporters and cysteine metabolism...

  6. How does Phytoseiulus Persimilis find its prey when foraging within a bean plant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zemek, R.; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Ru°z¿ic¿kova´, S

    of laboratory experiments were carried out. In the first series we studied searching behavior of P. persimilis females on young bean plants in which a single leaf was infested with spider mites. The effect of spider mite colony location on the walking pattern of predatory mites while on a leaf was...... studied in the second series of experiments. We found that P. persimilis individuals were unable to discriminate between infested and uninfested leaves when they walked up the stem of a bean plant. On the other hand, results of the second series of experiments indicate that walk was not random once a...

  7. Bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have similar high antioxidant capacity, in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase while diverse phenolic composition and concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common beans are a good source of essential nutrients such as protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals; they also contain phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals. Phenolic compounds exhibit high antioxidant capacity that promotes health benefits by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to c...

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P≤0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: Monique_Lacroix@iaf.uquebec.ca

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P{<=}0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  10. Development of an event-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treml, Diana; Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-12-10

    A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, resistant to the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Brazilian regulation for genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling requires that any food containing more than 1% GMO be labeled. The event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been the primary trend for GMO identification and quantitation because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence. This work reports the development of an event-specific assay, named FGM, for Embrapa 5.1 detection and quantitation by use of SYBR Green or hydrolysis probe. The FGM assay specificity was tested for Embrapa 2.3 event (a noncommercial GM common bean also resistant to BGMV), 46 non-GM common bean varieties, and other crop species including maize, GM maize, soybean, and GM soybean. The FGM assay showed high specificity to detect the Embrapa 5.1 event. Standard curves for the FGM assay presented a mean efficiency of 95% and a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 genome copies in the presence of background DNA. The primers and probe developed are suitable for the detection and quantitation of Embrapa 5.1. PMID:25437743

  11. 13N-nitrate uptake sites and rhizobium-infectible region in a single root of common bean [Phaseolus vulgaris] and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron emitting tracer-imaging system (PETIS) was used to determine whether it was possible to obtain on image of 13N distribution in common bean in which a single root was fed with a liquid medium containing nitrate at different concentrations with different 13N specific activities. The distribution of the images of the 13N atoms in the root could be obtained over a wide range of nitrate concentrations and 13N specific activities in the medium. As for nitrate stress on leguminous root nodulation, the positional relationship between the nitrate uptake sites and root hair just elongating area, where rhizobia capably initiate their infection, was studied in common bean and soybean. PETIS gave direct evidence that single roots of both common bean and soybean showed one or two dense 13N-distribution areas after 2 min pulse-feeding of 13NO3(-). These areas remained stable over 30 min, and the first dense site, which was common in all the examined roots, extended over ca. 1 cm above the root apex. Microscopic observation revealed that this area covered both sites of rhizobium infection and of early nodule development in a common bean and soybean single root

  12. Uniformity of liquid distribution in the canopy of the bean plant, using the spectrophotometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Mesquita Baesso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diseases are important factors limiting common bean yield. White mold is one of the main diseases caused by soil pathogens. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of a fungicide solution sprayed into the canopy of bean plants by spectrophotometry, using a boom sprayer with and without air assistance. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial (two types of nozzles, two application rates, and air assistance on and off randomized block design with four replications. Air assistance influenced the deposition of solution on the bean plant and yield increased significantly with the increased rate of application and air assistance in the boom sprayer.

  13. Deficit irrigation at different growth stages of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Imbabello Deficiência de água em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Imbabello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calvache

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify specific growth stages of the common bean crop at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress, in which irrigation could be omitted without significant decrease hi final yield, two field experiments were conducted at "La Tola" University Experimental Station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, on a sandy loam soil (Typic Haplustoll. The climate is tempered and dry (mean air temperature 16°C and mean relative humidity 74%, during the cropping season 123 and 109 mm of rainfall were recorded during the experimental cropping periods (July to October, of 1992 and 1994, respectively. The treatments consisted of combinations of 7 irrigation regimes including normal watering; full stress; (traditional management practice; single stress at vegetative stage; flowering; seed formation and ripening, and of 2 levels of applied N (20 and 80 kg/ha. These 14 treatment combinations were arranged and analysed in a split-plot design with 4 replications. The plot size was 33.6 m² (8 rows, 7 m long with a plant population of 120,000 pl/ha. Irrigation treatments were started after uniform germination and crop establishment Soil water content was monitored with a neutron probe down to 0.50 m depth, before and 24 h after each irrigation. The actual evapotranspiration of the crop was estimated by the water-balance technique. Field water efficiency and crop water use efficiency were calculated. Yield data showed that the treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those that had supplementary irrigation. The flowering stage was the most sensitive to water stress. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the number of pods and gram yield. Crop water use efficiency (kg/m³ was the lowest with stress at the flowering period, and the yield response factor (Ky was higher hi treatments of full stress and stress at flowering. In relation to the traditional management practice adopted by farmers, only treatments of normal watering and stress

  14. Phytotoxicity, Uptake, and Translocation of Fluorescent Carbon Dots in Mung Bean Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zheng, Yinjian; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Zulang; Su, Wei; Chen, Shi; Liu, Yingliang; Zhuang, Jianle; Lei, Bingfu

    2016-08-10

    Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) have been widely studied in bioscience and bioimaging, but the effect of CDs on plants has been rarely studied. Herein, mung bean was adopted as a model plant to study the phytotoxicity, uptake, and translocation of red emissive CDs in plants. The incubation with CDs at a concentration range from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/mL induced physiological response of mung bean plant and imposed no phytotoxicity on mung bean growth. The lengths of the root and stem presented an increasing trend up to the treatment of 0.4 mg/mL. Confocal imaging showed that CDs were transferred from the roots to the stems and leaves by the vascular system through the apoplastic pathway. The uptake kinetics study was performed and demonstrated that the CDs were abundantly incubated by mung beans during both germination and growth periods. Furthermore, in vivo visualization of CDs provides potential for their successful application as delivery vehicles in plants based on the unique optical properties. PMID:27425200

  15. Cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions affecting nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivar, ano de cultivo e condições de armazenagem influenciam a qualidade nutricional do feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Roberto Dorneles Prolla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen common bean cultivars were compared concerning the physicochemical characteristics of their raw seeds in the course of two consecutive harvests, as well as the effect of storage conditions on starch and dietary fiber content of cooked beans. Using cluster analysis it was possible to identify groups of cultivars with different nutritional features. Bean cultivars were categorized into four different groups according either to their macronutrient content (crude protein-PROT, total dietary fiber-TDF, insoluble dietary fiber-IDF, soluble dietary fiber-SDF, digestible starch-DS, and resistant starch-RS or to their micronutrient levels (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, and P. Guateian 6662 and Rio Tibagi appeared to be the most suitable cultivars to prevent nutritional deficiencies, because they had high PROT, DS, Fe, and Zn content. The high total dietary fiber and RS content of Iraí, Minuano, and TPS Bonito cultivars, and specially the high soluble fiber content of Guateian 6662 and Rio Tibagi cultivars suggests that they could have a beneficial role in controlling blood lipid and glucose levels. Cooked beans had a decrease in DS and an increase in RS content after storage (4 °C or -20 °C, but these changes were more prominent in beans that had low RS content before cooking than in those of high RS content. TDF, IDF, and SDF did not change after storage.Compararam-se as características físico-químicas de dezesseis cultivares de feijão-comum cru ao longo de duas safras consecutivas, assim como se avaliou o efeito das condições de armazenagem nos teores de amido e fibra alimentar em grãos cozidos. A análise de agrupamento possibilitou a identificação de grupos de cultivares com características nutricionais distintas. Estas cultivares foram categorizadas em quatro grupos de acordo com o conteúdo de macronutrientes (proteína bruta-PROT, fibra alimentar total-TDF, fibra alimentar insolúvel-IDF, fibra alimentar solúvel-SDF, amido dispon

  16. Buried Alive! An Investigation of Plant Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ashley J.; Balschweid, Mark; Hammond, Paul; Henderson, Brian; Johnson, Peggy A.; Kite, Abigayle; Martin, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, pairs of upper elementary students test germination percentage using seeds of Indian corn ("Zea mays"), scarlet runner beans ("Phaseolus coccineus"), and the prairie cup-plant ("Silphium perfoliatum") grown on rolled, damp paper towels. The pairs compare seeds that have been stratified, a simulation of overwintering and…

  17. Efeito da irrigação com água salina em um solo cultivado com o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effect of irrigation water salinity in a soilcultivated with french beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sal, da água de irrigação, na salinização de um Latossolo Roxo distrófico, onde cultivou-se o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação no Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, em Lavras, MG, com o propósito de evitar a interferência das precipitações pluviométricas. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco níveis de salinidade da água (condutividade elétrica de 0,1; 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 com seis repetições. A condutividade elétrica do extrato saturado do solo foi medida no início do experimento, no final da fase vegetativa e após a colheita. Constatou-se uma diminuição da salinidade do solo para o tratamento 0,1 dS m-1, nas diferentes datas de análise do extrato. Para os demais tratamentos, houve um aumento significativo na salinidade: 116,98%, 195,10%, 565,84% e 955,17% para os níveis 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1, respectivamente. Houve uma queda acentuada de produção com níveis crescentes de salinidade do solo. O aumento da salinidade da água promoveu um acréscimo linear na condutividade elétrica do solo e no potencial osmótico.The objective this study was to evaluate the different irrigation water salt concentrations effects in the salinization of a "Dystrophic Dusky Red Latossol", cultivated with (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the Engineering Department at Federal University of Lavras, of Lavras - MG to avoid the interference of the precipitations. The treatments consisted of five level of water salt concentration (electric conductivity of 0.10; 1.0; 2.5; 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1 with six replications. The electric conductivity of the soil saturation extract was measured at the beginning of the experiment, at the end of the vegetative phase and after the crop harvest. A decrease of soil

  18. Using giant scarlet runner bean embryos to uncover regulatory networks controlling suspensor gene activity

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Kelli F.; Goldberg, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    One of the major unsolved issues in plant development is understanding the regulatory networks that control the differential gene activity that is required for the specification and development of the two major embryonic regions, the embryo proper and suspensor. Historically, the giant embryo of scarlet runner bean (SRB), Phaseolus coccineus, has been used as a model system to investigate the physiological events that occur early in embryogenesis—focusing on the question of what role the susp...

  19. Apple latent spherical virus vector as vaccine for the prevention and treatment of mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants by bean yellow mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases. PMID:25386843

  20. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Satoh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  1. The fermented non-digestible fraction of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) triggers cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Bravo, R. K.; Guevara-González, R. G.; Ramos-Gómez, M.; B D Oomah; Wiersma, P.; Campos-Vega, R.; Loarca-Piña, G.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide with colorectal cancer (CRC) ranking as the third contributing to overall cancer mortality. Non-digestible compounds such as dietary fiber have been inversely associated with CRC in epidemiological in vivo and in vitro studies. In order to investigate the effect of fermentation products from a whole non-digestible fraction of common bean versus the short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) on colon cancer cells, we evaluated the human gut microbiota fermented...

  2. Population Dynamics of Bean Leaf Beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on Edamame Soybean Plants In Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Edamame soybeans are a speciality food item for fresh and processed markets and they are harvested at a physiologically immature (R6 stage. Bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, is a sporadic pest of soybean in Nebraska, however, its pest status and abundance has increased in the recent years due to an increase in soybean acreage. This was a field experiment aimed at determining the population growth rate of bean leaf beetle on two edamame soybean cultivars, ‘Butterbeans’ and ‘Envy,’ at two planting dates during 2004 and 2005 in Nebraska. The population growth of beetles was significantly higher on 'Butterbeans' than on 'Envy' for both the first and second planting periods in both 2004 and 2005 seasons. The beetle infestation differences were noticed on plants at the late reproductive growth stages, R5 and R6. Additionally, the beetle infestation on 'Butterbeans' growth stages in 2004 and 2005 was significantly different for the first and second planting dates. On average, the beetles were higher on plants at the late reproductive stages than the other stages for first and second planting periods. Similarly, ‘Envy’ growth stages showed significant difference in beetle infestation during the first and second planting dates. Significantly high beetle infestations were observed at the vegetative growth stages. The study revealed that population growth of bean leaf beetles on edamame soybeans is affected by the planting date, season and cultivar choice.

  3. Consideraciones e importancia social en torno al cultivo del frijol en el centro de México Considerations and social importance of the bean crop in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Ma. Sangerman-Jarquín

    in national importance after maize. The production of pulses, mainly of dry beans, has dropped to a 3.2% rate, whereas population growth is higher than dry bean production. The dry bean seed is a natural source of protein and carbohydrates, is also rich in vitamin B such as niacin, folic acid and thiamine, provides iron, copper, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium, and contains high fiber content. There exist many classes of beans that are characterized by their seed size, color, shape and the type of plant growth. It is considered that in total there are 70 species in the genus, and at least 50 in Mexico; five species have been domesticated Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean, Phaseolus coccineus L. (runner bean, Phaseolus lunatus L. (lima bean, Phaseolus dumosus L. (fat kidney bean and Phaseolus acutifolius Gray (tepari bean. In Mexico, around 70 cultivars are grown, according to the standard seed classification they are: black, pinto, brown, yellow and pink. The bean crop possesses particular characteristics that are important in the context of food sovereignty, considering it as a staple food for rural and urban poor. The bean breeding program of the National Research Institute, Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock (INIFAP, at the Campo Experimental Valle de Mexico (CEVAMEX, has contributed in the development of the technology required for the country to achieve self-sufficiency in this crop. This technology includes improved varieties with higher yielding ability and better seed nutritive and cooking quality.

  4. The Substitution of Wheat Flour with Mixed-Cassava (Manihot utilissima and Red Beans-Flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Toward The Characteristics of Instant Noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novelina Novelina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Instant noodles are defined as dry food products made of wheat flour with the addition of other foodstuffs. Cassava flour can be used together with wheat flour as a basic ingredient for the noodles, in order to reduce the use of wheat flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of substitution of cassava flour to the wheat flour which was enriched with red bean flour toward the quality of instant noodles that had been produced. The treatment in this study was done by mixing 70% of wheat flour with 30% of cassava and red beans flour mixture at various levels. The observations was carried out on raw materials and the instant noodle products, including moisture content, ash content, protein content, fat content and carbohydrate content as well as by different organoleptic test of the flavour, aroma, texture and colour. The results showed that the noodles product that was the most qualified and preferred was the product with the treatment D (a mixture of 70% of wheat flour; 20% of cassava flour and 10% of red bean flour, with the test results of 2.24% of moisture content, 1.07% of ash content, 9.36% of protein content, 17.77% of fat content, carbohydrate content by different of 69.95%, and 71.53% of yield.

  5. Production of maize tortillas and cookies from nixtamalized flour enriched with anthocyanins, flavonoids and saponins extracted from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Perez-Carrillo, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Ethanolic extract from black beans coat is a source of flavonoids, saponins and antocyanins. Nixtamalized maize flours (NF) are used for the preparation of products such as tortillas, tortillas chips, cookies among others. The objective of this research was to study the effect on textural parameters and color after adding flavonoids, saponins and anthocyanins from black bean seed coat in NF used for the production of tortillas and gluten-free cookies. Furthermore, the retention of bioactive compounds after tortilla and gluten-free-cookie preparation was assessed. Ethanolic extracts of black bean seed coats were added (3g/kg or 7 g/kg) to NF in order to prepare corn tortillas and gluten free cookies characterized in terms of dimensions, color and texture. Addition of 7 g/kg affected the color of cookies and tortillas without effect on texture and dimensions. It was possible to retain more than 80% and 60% of bioactives into baked tortillas and cookies, respectively. PMID:26304324

  6. Effect of chemical stress on germination of cv Dalia bean (Phaseolus vularis L.) as an alternative to increase antioxidant and nutraceutical compounds in sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Magdalena; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chitosan (CH), salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at different concentrations on the antinutritional and nutraceutical content, as well as the antioxidant capacity of bean sprouts (cv Dalia). All elicitors at medium and high concentrations reduced the antinutritional content of lectins (48%), trypsin inhibitor (57%), amylase inhibitor (49%) and phytic acid (56%). Sprouts treated with CH, SA and H2O2 (7μM; 1 and 2mM, and 30mM respectively) increased the content of phenolic compounds (1.8-fold), total flavonoids (3-fold), saponins (1.8-fold) and antioxidant capacity (37%). Furthermore, the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed an increase of several nutraceutical compounds in bean sprouts treated with SA such as coumaric (8.5-fold), salicylic (115-fold), gallic (25-fold) and caffeic (1.7-fold) acids, as well as epigallocatechin (63-fold), rutin (41-fold) and quercetin (16.6-fold) flavonoids. The application of elicitors in bean seed during sprouting enhances their nutraceutical properties. PMID:27374516

  7. Biochemical changes and color properties of fresh-cut green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv.gina treated with calcium chloride during storage

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    Rezzan Kasim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium chloride is widely used in industries as a firming agent, and also to extend shelf-life of vegetables. The aim of this study was to determine, the effect of different doses of calcium chloride on biochemical and color properties of fresh-cut green bean. Fresh-cut green beans were dipped for 90 seconds in 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3% solution of calcium chloride at 25°C. The fresh-cut green bean samples were packaged in polystyrene foam dishes, wrapped with stretch film and stored in a cold room at 5±1°C temperature and 85-90% RH. Calcium chloride treatments did not retain the green color of samples. Whiteness index, browning index and total color difference (ΔE values of CaCl2 treated samples were high. Saturation index and hue angle were low compared to the control, especially at higher doses of CaCl2. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO enzyme activity in samples treated with CaCl2 at 3% doses, was low at the 7th days of storage than with other treatments. Fructose and sucrose content of samples increased in all treatment groups whereas glucose level decreased during the first 4th days of storage.

  8. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Two Cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Application of Organic Fertilizers and Nile Compost in Sandy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Salwa Mohamed; Latif, Hanan Helmy; Magdy, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The present work aims to stimulate some physiological changes in the plants using organic fertilizer and compost by enhancing some compounds such as total amino acids and phytohormones in two cultivars of bean. Study Design: The pots of the (Phaseolus vulgaris) L. cv. bronco were divided into 7 subgroups they will be prepared as in the seven treatments via1- control , Nile compost ,compost and rice straw , compost and maize stalks , rice straw and maize stalks , rice straw , maize stalk...

  9. Common Bean: A Legume Model on the Rise for Unraveling Responses and Adaptations to Iron, Zinc, and Phosphate Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Guerrero, Norma A.; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C.; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G.; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was domesticated ∼8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein) and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development, and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals. PMID:27200068

  10. Common Bean: A Legume Model on the Rise for Unraveling Responses and Adaptations to Iron, Zinc, and Phosphate Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Guerrero, Norma A; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was domesticated ∼8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein) and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development, and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals. PMID:27200068

  11. Pesticide effects on the plant cuticle. IV. The effect of EPTC on the permeability of cabbage, bean, and sugar beet cuticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC, 2.24 kg/ha) inhibited epicuticular wax production on developing leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., resulting in an increase in cuticular permeability. This increased penetration of 14C-1-naphthaleneacetic acid (14C-NAA) and increased cuticular transpiration. EPTC-enhanced penetration was a consequence of increased diffusion across the cuticle, and not of active uptake. Application of EPTC increased penetration of NAA 200% in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and 121% in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). For cabbage, the percent increase in penetration due to EPTC inhibition of cuticle development 7 days after treatment (141%) was similar to that at 42 days (112%). The effect of EPTC declined until full leaf expansion (28 days after application). Silver nitrate was preferentially taken up by the cuticular ledges of guard cells and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and was greater in leaves from EPTC-treated plants than in those from non-treated plants. 27 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  12. RENDIMIENTO Y REACCIÓN A COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM EN CULTIVARES DE FRÍJOL VOLUBLE (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. YIELD AND REACTION TO COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM IN CULTIVARS OF CLIMBING BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gallego G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de la sabana de Bogotá (Colombia, se evaluaron 32 cultivares de fríjol voluble por componentes del rendimiento y por su reacción a una mezcla de aislamientos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum procedentes de Boyacá y Cundinamarca. Los genotipos que presentaron un buen comportamiento en rendimiento y una reacción en campo a la resistencia de la enfermedad fueron: D. Moreno y 3198. Los que expresaron una reacción de resistencia a la antracnosis fueron: 3180, 3182, 3177 y G-2333. Aquellos que mostraron un buen comportamiento en componentes de rendimiento fueron: 3164, 3159, 3176 y Radical. Estos genotipos podrían usarse como posibles candidatos parentales ó sobresalientes en el programa de mejoramiento de fríjol. También se realizó análisis de dos marcadores moleculares tipo SCAR ligados a los genes Co-4 y Co-5 que confieren resistencia a C. lindemuthianum, ninguno de los materiales de evaluación a excepción del testigo resistente G-2333, amplificó los marcadores SCAR, asociados a los genes de resistencia de interés.Under Bogotá plateau (Colombia conditions, 32 cultivars of climbing bean were evaluated by components of yield and by reaction with a mixture of isolations of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum coming from Boyacá and Cundinamarca. The cultivars that presented a good behavior in yield and resistance reaction to the disease were: D. Moreno and 3198. Those that expressed a resistant reaction to the anthracnose were: 3180, 3182, 3177 and G-2333. Finally those that showed a good behavior in yield components were 3164, 3159, 3176 and Radical. These genotypes could be used as excellent candidates in the breeding program of common bean. It was also carried out a test for each cultivar, by means of two markers molecular type SCAR tried to resistance genes to anthracnose Co-4 and Co-5. Any of the evaluation materials amplified for the couple of genes, except for the resistant control G-2333.

  13. Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determinada com uso de 15N Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determined using the 15N isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI com o método da diferença (MD para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2 compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS, o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate

  14. EFFECT OF ORGASOL ON SNAP BEAN CROP (Phaseolus vulgaris L. WITH AND WITHOUT CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS EFEITO DO ORGASOL NA CULTURA DE FEIJÃO-DE-VAGEM (Phaseolus vulgaris L. NA PRESENÇA E NA AUSÊNCIA DE ADUBAÇÃO QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Orgasol, an organic compound of animal origin, was tested on seeds and on snap crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, with and without chemical fertilizer (NPK in two planting dates. The orgasol-s with three applied doses (0, 1 and 2 ml/l of water on a first date and 0, 3 and 6 ml/l, on a second date had no influence on seed germination and pods production on this crop.

    O Orgasol, um composto orgânico de origem animal, foi testado em sementes e na cultura do feijão-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, em duas épocas de plantio, na presença e na ausência de adubação química. O Orgasol-S foi empregado nas doses de 0, 1 e 2 ml/litro de água na primeira época de plantio e 0, 3 e 6 ml/litro de água na segunda época. Este composto não influenciou a germinação nem a produção de vagens na cultura estudada.

  15. The Substitution of Wheat Flour with Mixed-Cassava (Manihot utilissima) and Red Beans-Flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Toward The Characteristics of Instant Noodles

    OpenAIRE

    Novelina Novelina; Neswati Neswati; Anggun Fitria

    2014-01-01

    Instant noodles are defined as dry food products made of wheat flour with the addition of other foodstuffs. Cassava flour can be used together with wheat flour as a basic ingredient for the noodles, in order to reduce the use of wheat flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of substitution of cassava flour to the wheat flour which was enriched with red bean flour toward the quality of instant noodles that had been produced. The treatment in this study was done by mixing 7...

  16. Daily balance of leaf sugars and amino acids as indicators of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) metabolic response and drought intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Mauro Guida; Pimentel, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Leaf soluble sugar, starch and free amino acid amounts were evaluated in two bean genotypes, Carioca and Ouro Negro, grown in 10 L pots in a greenhouse. This was realized during a single day for Carioca and during ten days of water deficit for both genotypes, at 06:00 and 18:00 h. During the day, an increase in all parameters occurred up to midday, while in the afternoon, carbohydrate amounts varied in opposition to amino acids amounts. Under water deficit, the leaf soluble sugars at 18:00 an...

  17. Alteration of cell-wall porosity is involved in osmotic stress-induced enhancement of aluminium resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are the two major abiotic stress factors limiting common bean production in the tropics. Using hydroponics, the short-term effects of combined Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth and Al uptake into the root apex were investigated. In the presence of Al stress, PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol)-induced osmotic (drought) stress led to the amelioration of Al-induced inhibition of root elongation in the Al-sensitive genotype VAX 1. PEG 6000 (>> PEG 1000)...

  18. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses. PMID:26111585

  19. Research of Screening of New Mung Bean(Phaseolus radiatus L.) Cultivars%绿豆新品种筛选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽

    2014-01-01

    [目的]筛选出适合乐山地区栽培的优质绿豆(Phaseolus radiatus L.)新品种.[方法]根据当地气候、土壤、温度等自然生态条件,对引进绿豆新品种(LL101-1、冀绿7号、304008、SL1104)与当地的传统绿豆品种(CK)进行对比试验.[结果]LL101-1和SL1104两个品种不适宜在当地种植,冀绿7号和304008可以在当地种植,冀绿7号产量高、抗性强,适宜在当地作主推品种大面积推广.[结论]该研究可为改善乐山地区绿豆品质、提高产量、解决生产上绿豆品种混杂的问题提供参考,并为当地绿豆产业发展作出贡献.

  20. Characterization of Glomerella strains recovered from anthracnose lesions on common bean plants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Quélen L; Pinto, Joyce M A; Vaillancourt, Lisa J; Souza, Elaine A

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is an important disease of common bean, resulting in major economic losses worldwide. Genetic diversity of the C. lindemuthianum population contributes to its ability to adapt rapidly to new sources of host resistance. The origin of this diversity is unknown, but sexual recombination, via the Glomerella teleomorph, is one possibility. This study tested the hypothesis that Glomerella strains that are frequently recovered from bean anthracnose lesions represent the teleomorph of C. lindemuthianum. A large collection of Glomerella isolates could be separated into two groups based on phylogenetic analysis, morphology, and pathogenicity to beans. Both groups were unrelated to C. lindemuthianum. One group clustered with the C. gloeosporioides species complex and produced mild symptoms on bean tissues. The other group, which belonged to a clade that included the cucurbit anthracnose pathogen C. magna, caused no symptoms. Individual ascospores recovered from Glomerella perithecia gave rise to either fertile (perithecial) or infertile (conidial) colonies. Some pairings of perithecial and conidial strains resulted in induced homothallism in the conidial partner, while others led to apparent heterothallic matings. Pairings involving two perithecial, or two conidial, colonies produced neither outcome. Conidia efficiently formed conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs), but ascospores never formed CATs. The Glomerella strains formed appressoria and hyphae on the plant surface, but did not penetrate or form infection structures within the tissues. Their behavior was similar whether the beans were susceptible or resistant to anthracnose. These same Glomerella strains produced thick intracellular hyphae, and eventually acervuli, if host cell death was induced. When Glomerella was co-inoculated with C. lindemuthianum, it readily invaded anthracnose lesions. Thus, the hypothesis was not supported: Glomerella strains from anthracnose

  1. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of vitamin C in immature seeds of five cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Słupski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Legumes are usually consumed when physiologically mature, as dry seeds, however, flageolet beans seeds are also consumed immature. They are harvested when dry matter content is about 40%, pods are filled, grown, seeds succulent, showing green or light green colour and do not require lengthy thermal processing when prepared for consumption. Material and methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin C content in immature seeds of five bean cultivars harvested when dry matter content was 40%. The analysis included raw, blanched and cooked fresh seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 0, 4, 8 and 12 months of storage: frozen products obtained using the traditional method (blanching–freezing–frozen storage–cooking, frozen products obtained using a modified method (cooking–freezing–frozen storage–thawing and heating in a microwave oven, a ready-to-eat product to consumption at ambient temperature, and canned products obtained by sterilization. Results. The application of technological processes, frozen and sterilized products storage, and the preparation for consumption had a cumulative effect in retention vitamin C content on final products. Conclusion. Comparing frozen seeds obtained by modified method with seeds treated by traditional method, generally, this one could retain more vitamin C. Canned seeds retained significantly less vitamin C than other frozen products.  

  2. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  3. Effective Symbiosis between Rhizobium etli and Phaseolus vulgaris Requires the Alarmone ppGpp

    OpenAIRE

    Moris, Martine; Braeken, Kristien; Schoeters, Eric; Verreth, Christel; Beullens, Serge; Vanderleyden, Jos; Michiels, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between Rhizobium etli and Phaseolus vulgaris, the common bean plant, ultimately results in the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Many aspects of the intermediate and late stages of this interaction are still poorly understood. The R. etli relA gene was identified through a genome-wide screening for R. etli symbiotic mutants. RelA has a pivotal role in cellular physiology, as it catalyzes the synthesis of (p)ppGpp, which mediates the stringent response in bacteri...

  4. Produtividade de linhagens de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris dos grupos Rosinha e Roxinho resistentes ao fungo da antracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Productivity of dry bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris of rosinha and roxinho groups resistant to the anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando conhecer a capacidade produtiva de linhagens resistentes ao agente da antracnose e pertencentes aos grupos Rosinha e Roxinho, dezesseis ensaios em blocos ao acaso foram instalados em Campinas, no cultivo das águas de 1977 e 1978, tendo como controles 'Rosinha G2' e 'Roxo-Minas', nos respectivos grupos. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos para as linhagens comuns aos ensaios de 1977 e 1978, mostrou que nenhuma do grupo Rosinha foi superior a Rosinha G2, embora produções médias de 1.876, 1.813 e 1.800kg/ha tenham sido observadas na ausência do patógeno, conseguindo o controle 1.533kg/ha. No grupo Roxinho, oito linhagens, com produções médias de 1.490 a 2.027kg/ha, foram superiores às observadas para o controle 'Roxo-Minas', as quais variaram de 880 a 1.367kg/ha, sem que fosse notada a presença do fungo da antracnose. A interação linhagem x ano não foi significativa, não acontecendo o mesmo com o efeito de ano. As melhores linhagens serão incluídas nos ensaios regionais e algumas terão suas sementes aumentadas em quantidade, para posterior distribuição aos agricultores da região de Campinas.Aiming at the knowledge of yielding capacity of dry bean lines resistant to the anthracnose agent and belonging to the Rosinha and Roxinho groups, sixteen trials in randomized complete-block design were carried out in the Main Experimental Station of Campinas in the rainy season of 1977 and 1978, having 'Rosinha G2' and 'Roxo-Minas' as controls. None of the Rosinha lines outyielded 'Rosinha G2', at the 5% level although high mean yields, around 1,830kg/ha, were observed for some of them in the pathogen absence. On the other hand, 8 lines of 'Roxinho' group were superior to the control 'Roxo-Minas' at the 5% level having mean yields ranging from 1,490 to 2,027 kg/ha, without the presence of the pathogen. The interaction line x year was not significant but the year effect was. The best lines will be included in the regional

  5. Effects of urea foliar application and of ammonium sulphate and urea applied to the soil on yield and N utilization by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of nitrogen applied to the soil (as ammonium sulphate and urea) and foliar application of urea supplementing or not the soil application, on bean yield and nitrogen utilization are studied in a cerrado soil. Labelled ammonium sulphate is applied at the rate of 20Kg N/ha at seeding or 15 or 25 days after seeding and 40 Kg N/ha at seeding or in two different applications. Labelled urea is applied at the rate of 20kg N/ha at seeding and 40 Kg N/ha splitted. Foliar application is done at 15,22, 29,36 and 45 days after seeding, with 2% urea solution labelled with 10% 15N. (M.A.C.)

  6. Phytoaccumulation of uranium by Phaseolus Vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of the environment surrounding facilities where uranium has been mined and processed has occurred in many countries. If phytomanagement of uranium contaminated areas is envisaged, the impact of the contamination on the vegetation has to be investigated. Uranium is a radiotoxic and chemotoxic heavy metal. Mechanisms of toxicity have been predominantly studied on man and on some animal species. For plants, little information on uranium toxicity at the cellular level is available. In plants facing environmental stress, for example contamination by heavy metals, an increase in the formation of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) is often observed. ROS are naturally produced in the plant cells and consequently, cells have developed several anti-oxidative defense mechanisms in order to control the redox state of the cell, an essential parameter for normal physiological and biochemical functioning. The defense system comprise antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutases, peroxidases, catalases, glutathione reductase) and antioxidants (e.g. glutathione, ascorbate,I). The presence of heavy metals, in particular uranium, results in an enhancement of the antioxidative defense mechanism. The objective of the study was to analyze the biological effects (biometry, stress enzyme and antioxidant content, DNA integrity) induced by bioaccumulation of uranium in the bean Phaseolus vulgaris, to evaluate whether the various investigated biomarkers are related and to define possible dose-effect relationships

  7. Infrared thermometry to schedule irrigation of common bean Termometria ao infravermelho na programação da irrigação de feijoeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Almeida Lobo; Marco Antonio Oliva; Morethson Resende; Nei Fernandes Lopes; Moacyr Maestri

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the critical irrigation time for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca) using infrared thermometry. Five treatments were analyzed. Canopy temperature differences between plants and a well-watered control about 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5±0.5ºC were tested. Physiological variables and plant growth were analyzed to establish the best time to irrigate. There was a significant linear correlation between the index and stomatal resistance, transpiration ra...

  8. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid

    2016-06-17

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  9. Green bean biofortification for Si through soilless cultivation: plant response and Si bioaccessibility in pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Francesco Fabiano; D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Parente, Angelo; Cardinali, Angela; Renna, Massimiliano; Serio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Food plants biofortification for micronutrients is a tool for the nutritional value improvement of food. Soilless cultivation systems, with the optimal control of plant nutrition, represent a potential effective technique to increase the beneficial element content in plant tissues. Silicon (Si), which proper intake is recently recommended for its beneficial effects on bone health, presents good absorption in intestinal tract from green bean, a high-value vegetable crop. In this study we aimed to obtain Si biofortified green bean pods by using a Si-enriched nutrient solution in soilless system conditions, and to assess the influence of boiling and steaming cooking methods on Si content, color parameters and Si bioaccessibility (by using an in vitro digestion process) of pods. The Si concentration of pods was almost tripled as a result of the biofortification process, while the overall crop performance was not negatively influenced. The Si content of biofortified pods was higher than unbiofortified also after cooking, despite the cooking method used. Silicon bioaccessibility in cooked pods was more than tripled as a result of biofortification, while the process did not affect the visual quality of the product. Our results demonstrated that soilless cultivation can be successfully used for green bean Si biofortification. PMID:27530434

  10. Green bean biofortification for Si through soilless cultivation: plant response and Si bioaccessibility in pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Francesco Fabiano; D’Imperio, Massimiliano; Parente, Angelo; Cardinali, Angela; Renna, Massimiliano; Serio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Food plants biofortification for micronutrients is a tool for the nutritional value improvement of food. Soilless cultivation systems, with the optimal control of plant nutrition, represent a potential effective technique to increase the beneficial element content in plant tissues. Silicon (Si), which proper intake is recently recommended for its beneficial effects on bone health, presents good absorption in intestinal tract from green bean, a high-value vegetable crop. In this study we aimed to obtain Si biofortified green bean pods by using a Si-enriched nutrient solution in soilless system conditions, and to assess the influence of boiling and steaming cooking methods on Si content, color parameters and Si bioaccessibility (by using an in vitro digestion process) of pods. The Si concentration of pods was almost tripled as a result of the biofortification process, while the overall crop performance was not negatively influenced. The Si content of biofortified pods was higher than unbiofortified also after cooking, despite the cooking method used. Silicon bioaccessibility in cooked pods was more than tripled as a result of biofortification, while the process did not affect the visual quality of the product. Our results demonstrated that soilless cultivation can be successfully used for green bean Si biofortification. PMID:27530434

  11. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    OpenAIRE

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of droug...

  12. Leaf senescence of common bean plants as affected by soil phosphorus supply Senescência foliar do feijoeiro afetada pelo suprimento de fósforo no solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelson Paulo Araújo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Responses of leaf senescence to P supply could constitute adaptive mechanisms for plant growth under P-limiting conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil P supply on leaf senescence of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Eight P levels, ranging from 5 to 640 mg kg-1 P, were applied to pots containing four bean plants of cultivar Carioca in 10 kg of an Oxic Haplustult soil. Attached leaves were counted weekly, abscised leaves were collected every other day, and seeds were harvested at maturity. The number of live leaves increased until 48 days after emergence (DAE and decreased afterwards, irrespective of applied P levels. At lower applied P levels, the initial increase and the final decrease of leaf number was weak, whereas at higher applied P levels the leaf number increased intensively at the beginning of the growth cycle and decreased strongly after 48 DAE. Dry matter and P accumulated in senesced leaves increased as soil P levels increased until 61 DAE, but differences between P treatments narrowed thereafter. The greatest amounts of dry mass and P deposited by senesced leaves were observed at 48-54 DAE for high P levels, at 62-68 DAE for intermediate P levels and at 69-76 DAE for low P levels. These results indicate that soil P supply did not affect the stage of maximal leaf number and the beginning of leaf senescence of common bean plants, but the stage of greatest deposition of senesced leaves occurred earlier in the growth cycle as the soil P supply was raised.As respostas da senescência foliar ao suprimento de P podem constituir estratégias adaptativas para o crescimento vegetal sob condições limitantes do nutriente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do suprimento de P no solo na senescência foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Oito doses de P, variando entre 5 e 640 mg kg-1 de P, foram aplicadas em vasos com 10 kg de Argissolo óxico, onde foram crescidas quatro plantas da cultivar

  13. Development of microsatellite markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) based on screening of non-enriched, small-insert genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Torres, Monica Muñoz; Pedraza, Fabio; Giraldo, Martha C; Buendía, Hector F; Hurtado, Natalia

    2009-09-01

    Microsatellite markers are useful genetic tools for a wide array of genomic analyses although their development is time-consuming and requires the identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from genomic sequences. Screening of non-enriched, small-insert libraries is an effective method of SSR isolation that can give an unbiased picture of motif frequency. Here we adapt high-throughput protocols for the screening of plasmid-based libraries using robotic colony picking and filter preparation. Seven non-enriched genomic libraries from common bean genomic DNA were made by digestion with four frequently cutting restriction enzymes, double digestion with a frequently cutting restriction enzyme and a less frequently cutting restriction enzyme, or sonication. Library quality was compared and three of the small-insert libraries were selected for further analysis. Each library was plated and picked into 384-well plates that were used to create high-density filter arrays of over 18 000 clones each, which were screened with oligonucleotide probes for various SSR motifs. Positive clones were found to have low redundancy. One hundred SSR markers were developed and 80 were tested for polymorphism in a standard parental survey. These microsatellite markers derived from non-SSR-enriched libraries should be useful additions to previous markers developed from enriched libraries. PMID:19935925

  14. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  15. In-Vitro Evaluation of Fungicides and Fungicide Combinations Against Fusarium Root-Rot Fungal Pathogens of French Beans(Phaseolus Vulgaris L. c v. Monel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratories studies were undertaken to evaluate In-vitro efficacy of captan, thiram, pyrazophos, triforine and metalaxyl + mancozeb fungicides against Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel and Wollenw fsp. phaseoli (Burk) Synder and Hansen Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht fsp. phaseoli kend and Synder root-rot fungal pathogens of French beans. Five fungicides and four combinations were tested for their antifungal activity. Fungicides treatments significantly (P=0.05) inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination. Fungicides suppressed the growth of F. oxysporum fsp. Phaseoli more than that of F. solani fsp. phaseoli. All fungicides except metalaxyl + mancozeb failed to suppress sporulation of the two fungi In-vitro. In the case of thiram the sporulation capacity of F. oxysporum fsp. phaseoli 3.43 times higher than in the control. Although, no fungicides treatment was seen to inhibitor of all the three measures of fungitoxicity, the ranking of the best three fungicide treatments would be, thiram 50 + captan so > triforine > metalaxyl + mancozeb. The relatively higher inhibitory effect of fungicides on the growth of F. oxysporum Ssp. Phaseoli than that of F. solani fsp. Phaseoli suggested that F. oxysporum Esp. Phaseoli was more sensible to fungicide treatments. Such differences may reflect inherent variations in accessibility of the active toxicants within the fungal systems. The ability attributed to the low growth rate, N depletion temperature and oxygen

  16. Enzyme-assisted extraction and identification of antioxidative and α-amylase inhibitory peptides from Pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoh, Ying-Yuan; Gan, Chee-Yuen

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitor peptides were successfully extracted from Pinto bean protein isolate (PBPI) using Protamex. A factorial design experiment was conducted and the effects of extraction time, pH and temperature were studied. pH 7.5, extraction time of 1h, S/E ratio of 10 (w/w) and temperature of 50 °C gave the highest antioxidant activities (i.e., ABTS scavenging activity (53.3%) and FRAP value (3.71 mM)), whereas pH 6.5 with the same extraction time, S/E ratio and temperature, gave the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity (57.5%). It was then fractioned using membrane ultrafiltration with molecular weight cutoffs of 100, 50, 30, 10 and 3 kDa. Peptide fraction amylase inhibitory activity (62.1%), was then subjected to LCMS and MS/MS analyses. Six sequences were identified for antioxidant peptides, whereas seven peptides for α-amylase inhibitor. PMID:26212978

  17. Molecular identification and expression of the peroxidase responsible for the oxidative burst in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and related members of the gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, K A; Jupe, S C; Richard, G; Zimmerlin, A; Davies, D R; Bolwell, G P

    2001-11-01

    Molecular characterization has been accomplished for five members of the peroxidase gene family in French bean. The most important of these, designated FBPI, corresponds to the isoform believed to be responsible for the apoplastic oxidative burst demonstrated by suspension-cultured cells in response to fungal elicitor. Identification was made by a complete match of six peptide sequences derived from the native protein to the translated sequence of the cDNA. Modelling of the surface structure in comparison with two other members of the peroxidase family did not reveal any unusual features which might account for its role in the oxidative burst. However, FBP1 when expressed in Pichia pastoris generated H2O2 using cysteine at pH 7.2, a specific property of the native protein when isolated from suspension-cultured cells. FBP1, together with other members of the family, were all induced in cell cultures by elicitor action although they all showed some expression in non-induced cultured cells. They were also expressed in all tissues examined with varying levels of intensity of detection in northern blots. This was confirmed by in situ hybridization and FBP1 expression was confirmed in tissues where it has been previously detected by immunolocalization methods. Assigning roles to individual peroxidases is an important goal and molecular identification of the oxidative burst peroxidase allows further exploration of the relative roles of the different systems involved in generating reactive oxygen species. PMID:11725946

  18. Use of 32P in aluminum sensibility tests with bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the possibility of using 32P in aluminium tolerance tests of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The cultivars were previously classified according to dry matter yield date by regression analysis as aluminium tolerant (C20-Mulatinho Paulista; C26-Ricobaio 1014 and C33-Roxo 750) and aluminium sensitive (C17-Jamapa; C28-Rio Tibagi and C34-Tambo). Chopped roots from plant grown in a complete nutrient solution during 30 days and submerged in another solution containing aluminium showed to be a reliable indicator of 32P absorption efficiency to aluminium tolerant and sensitive cultivars. (M.A.C.)

  19. Alteration of cell-wall porosity is involved in osmotic stress-induced enhancement of aluminium resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-07-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are the two major abiotic stress factors limiting common bean production in the tropics. Using hydroponics, the short-term effects of combined Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth and Al uptake into the root apex were investigated. In the presence of Al stress, PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol)-induced osmotic (drought) stress led to the amelioration of Al-induced inhibition of root elongation in the Al-sensitive genotype VAX 1. PEG 6000 (> PEG 1000) treatment greatly decreased Al accumulation in the 1 cm root apices even when the roots were physically separated from the PEG solution using dialysis membrane tubes. Upon removal of PEG from the treatment solution, the root tips recovered from osmotic stress and the Al accumulation capacity was quickly restored. The PEG-induced reduction of Al accumulation was not due to a lower phytotoxic Al concentration in the treatment solution, reduced negativity of the root apoplast, or to enhanced citrate exudation. Also cell-wall (CW) material isolated from PEG-treated roots showed a low Al-binding capacity which, however, was restored after destroying the physical structure of the CW. The comparison of the Al(3+), La(3+), Sr(2+), and Rb(+) binding capacity of the intact root tips and the isolated CW revealed the specificity of the PEG 6000 effect for Al. This could be due to the higher hydrated ionic radius of Al(3+) compared with other cations (Al(3+) > La(3+) > Sr(2+) > Rb(+)). In conclusion, the results provide circumstantial evidence that the osmotic stress-inhibited Al accumulation in root apices and thus reduced Al-induced inhibition of root elongation in the Al-sensitive genotype VAX 1 is related to the alteration of CW porosity resulting from PEG 6000-induced dehydration of the root apoplast. PMID:20511277

  20. Effect of pesticides on the uptake and transport of radiophosphorus in horse-bean and cucumber plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the treatment of the roots of intact bean and cucumber plants with the preparation Pirimor (pirimicarb) and on the second day after application of the insecticides Bi 58 (dimethoate), Pirimor and Lannate (methomyl) to roots of minished 32P uptake was also noted after treatment of overground parts of bean plants with the preparation Pirimor. On the other hand, on the second day after application of the fungicide Folcidin (cypendazole) to the roots of cucumber plants 32P uptake was significantly stimulated, radioactivity being accumulated in the overground parts of plants. (author)

  1. A new approach to use rice husk and different types of opener in punch planting of common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Dehkordi; Rouhollah Farhadi

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to improve planting common bean in different soils. Punch planting method was used and the effect of different openers and rice husk mulch as a new idea in punch planting was tested. A factorial experiment in Completely randomized design was implemented in the farm of Shahrekord University. Shahrekord has a temperate and cold region with dry and warm summer. Common bean was planted to test the seedbed shape (bar, conical and grooved), sowing depth (6 and 9 cm) and the seed...

  2. Diversity of Rhizobium-Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis: Overview and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has become a cosmopolitan crop, but was originally domesticated in the Americas and has been grown in Latin America for several thousand years. Consequently an enormous diversity of bean nodulating bacteria have developed and in the centers of origin the predominant species in bean nodules is R. etli. In some areas of Latin America, inoculation, which normally promotes nodulation and nitrogen fixation is hampered by the prevalence of native strains. Many other species in addition to R. etli have been found in bean nodules in regions where bean has been introduced. Some of these species such as R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, R. gallicum bv. phaseoli and R. giardinii bv. phaseoli might have arisen by acquiring the phaseoli plasmid from R. etli. Others, like R. trap id, are well adapted to acid soils and high temperatures and are good inoculants for bean under these conditions. The large number of rhizobia species capable of nodulating bean supports that bean is a promiscuous host and a diversity of bean-rhizobia interactions exists. Large ranges of dinitrogen fixing capabilities have been documented among bean cultivars and commercial beans have the lowest values among legume crops. Knowledge on bean symbiosis is still incipient but could help to improve bean biological nitrogen fixation. (author)

  3. Developmental and environmental regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-beta-glucuronidase gene fusion in transgenic tobacco plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, X W; Dron, M; J. Schmid; Dixon, R. A.; Lamb, C J

    1989-01-01

    A 1.1-kilobase promoter fragment of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) gene PAL2 was translationally fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated leaf disk transformation. The distribution of beta-glucuronidase activity in these transgenic plants is very similar to that of endogenous PAL2 transcripts in bean, with very high levels in petals; marked accumulation in anthers, stigmas, roots, ...

  4. EVALUATION OF SWINE ORGANIC MATTER ON COMMON BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris L YIELD AVALIAÇÃO DO EFEITO DE RESÍDUOS ORGÂNICOS DE SUÍNOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE FEIJÃO COMUM (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Rodrigues da Cunha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    An experiment was carried out to test the effect of organic manure (swine slurry on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grain yield, CV. Carioca, on a red latossol, with low fertility, high acidity (pH = 4.8, medium aluminum toxicity (0.5 me/100 ml, medium contents of P (6.1 ppm and K+ (53 ppm and low contents of calcium plus magnesium (1.1 me/100ml at the Federal University of Goiás, School of Agronomy, Goiânia, Goiás. A randomized block design with four repetitions was used and the treatments: KPK dressing (T1; liming (T2; swine slurry (T3; NPK dressing + liming + swine slurry (T4 and NPK dressing + liming. The following average grain yield (kg/ha were obtained: T2 (liming = 400.7; T1 (NPK dressing = 537.8; T3 (swine slurry = 576.4; T5 (NPK dressing + liming = 577.1 and T4 (NPK dressing + liming + swine slurry = 616.4. The “complete” treatment (T4 showed the highest grain production, whilst the others showed no significant differences among them. However, the treatment with swine slurry gained a productivity of common beans equivalent to that obtained by conventional NPK dressings used in Brazil. Due to its easy obtention, swine slurry can be used as an alternative economic choice for little growers to fertilize their common beans crops.

    Conduziu-se um experimento para testar o efeito da adubação orgânica (Chorume de suíno na produção de grãos de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L., CV. Carioca, em um solo LE de baixa fertilidade, elevada acidez (pH = 4,8, toxidez média de A1+ + + (0,5 meq./100ml, com teores médios de P (6,1 ppm e de K+ (53 ppm nas dependências da Escola de Agronomia da UFG, Goiânia, Goiás. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, e os tratamentos: adubação NPK (T1, calagem (T2, chorume de suínos (T3, adubação NPK + chorume de su

  5. Quitosana reduz a severidade da antracnose e aumenta a atividade de glucanase em feijoeiro-comum Chitosan reduces the anthracnose severity and increases the glucanase activity in common bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle da antracnose em feijoeiro-comum pela aplicação de quitosana. A quitosana foi pulverizada em plantas de feijão-comum, em diferentes concentrações, no estádio V3, em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram também submetidas à inoculação de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. A dose de 9 mg de quitosana por planta propiciou redução em mais de 50% na severidade da antracnose e não causou fitotoxicidade. O efeito protetor foi local e mais intenso no intervalo de tempo de 4 dias entre tratamento e inoculação. Observou-se redução significativa no crescimento micelial e inibição total da germinação de esporos de C. lindemuthianum, quando se utilizou o polissacarídeo a 1 mg mL-1 e 80 µg mL-1, respectivamente. Em folhas do feijoeiro, a quitosana provocou o aumento na atividade de glucanase. Quitosana apresenta propriedades antifúngicas contra C. lindemuthianum, bem como potencial para induzir resistência à planta, e pode ser uma alternativa para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of chitosan on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris anthracnose. Different concentrations of chitosan suspension were sprayed on plants at V3 stage, in greenhouse; plants were also infected with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The concentration of 9 mg per plant reduced the anthracnose severity in more than 50%, without causing any toxic effect on bean plants. The protecting effect was local and more intense in a time interval of 4 days between treatment and inoculation. Mycelium growth reduction and spore germination inhibition of C. lindemuthianum were observed, when chitosan was used at 1 mg mL-1 and 80 µg mL-1, respectively. Chitosan increased the glucanase activity in bean leaves. Chitosan presents antifungal properties against C. lindemuthianum, as well as potential to induce resistance on bean plants. Therefore, the plant spraying with chitosan can be an

  6. Western bean cutworm survival and the development of economic injury levels and economic thresholds in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Moraes, S; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

    2013-06-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native pest of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Historically, the western bean cutworm was distributed in the western United States, but since 1999 eastward expansion has been observed. In corn, economic impact is caused by larval ear feeding. Information on western bean cutworm biology, ecology, and economic impact is relatively limited, and the development of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs) is required for more effective management. Studies during 2008-2011, across three ecoregions of Nebraska, sought to characterize western bean cutworm survival and development of EILs and ETs. Calculations of EILs and ETs incorporated the dynamics of corn price, management cost, and pest survival. The results from the current study demonstrated low larval survival of this species (1.51-12.82%). The mean yield loss from one western bean cutworm larva per plant was 945.52 kg/ha (15.08 bu/acre), based on 74,100 plants per ha. Economic thresholds are expressed as a percentage of plants with at least one egg mass. This study is the first study that explicitly incorporates variable management costs and crop values into western bean cutworm EIL calculations, and larval survival into ET calculations. PMID:23865192

  7. Growth and accumulation of phosphorus by bean plants treated with foliar phosphate and phosphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josinaldo Lopes Araujo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently the use of phosphite as fungicide in agriculture or as a supplementary source of phosphorus (P has been widespread, however little is known about its effects on phosphate nutrition of important crops such as bean plants. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of foliar applied phosphite and phosphate on the growth and phosphated nutrition of the bean plant cultivated under low and adequate P supply conditions. The experiment was conducted in an entirely random layout, in factorial scheme 2 x 3 x 2, where two phosphate concentrations were combined in the nutrient solution (1.5 mg L-1 = low phosphorous and 20 mg L-1 = adequate phosphorous, three foliar application products: KH2PO3 (monobasic potassium phosphite, KH2PO4 (monobasic potassium phosphate and KCl (potassium chloride as control and two treatments referring to the number of applications (one application, at the appearance of the first trifoliolate leaf and two applications: one at the appearance of the first trifoliolate leaf and the other application at the pre-flowering, with four repetitions. Overall the dry matter, fosfatase activity, phosphorus content and phosphorus use efficiency was not were affected by the foliar application treatments. Under low readiness of that nutritient the application of foliar phosphite had a negative effect on these variables. It was concluded that foliar applied phosphite has a depressive effect on the growth of the bean plant under low supply of P. The foliar phosphite slightly affects the total concentration of P in the roots and shoots, especially under low P supply, and provides no changes in levels of soluble fractions of P in leaves under conditions of low or adequate supply this nutrient.

  8. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H.; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry. PMID:27379151

  9. Detecção do Southern bean mosaic virus no Paraná, e separação do Bean rugose mosaic virus em feijoeiro Detection of Southern bean mosaic virus in the State of Paraná and separation from Bean rugose mosaic virus in bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. G. Gasparin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Em lavouras de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris da cultivar Carioca Comum, no município de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, foram encontradas plantas com sintomas de necrose da haste, mosaico clorótico leve e porte reduzido, semelhantes aos sintomas causados por infecção viral. Exames de microscopia eletrônica revelaram a presença de partículas isométricas. Em testes de imunodifusão dupla em gel de ágar os extratos foliares de plantas infetadas reagiram positivamente com anti-soro específico para o Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV. O vírus foi purificado e a massa molecular de sua proteína capsidial foi estimada em 30 kDa, valor esperado para proteínas do capsídeo de vírus do gênero Sobemovirus. A gama de hospedeiras do SBMV isolado no Paraná foi restrita ao feijoeiro e a algumas cultivares de soja (Glycine max. A separação de dois vírus isométricos comuns em infecções mistas no feijoeiro foi possível através da reação de imunidade ao SBMV apresentada por Crotalaria sp, Chenopodium quinoa e Mucuna deeringiana, e da reação de susceptibilidade dessas mesmas hospedeiras ao Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV.Plants of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, showing symptoms of stunt, stem necrosis and chlorotic mosaic, similar to those induced by virus infection were found in a bean field in Londrina, Paraná. Electron microscopy examinations showed isometric virus particles in the cell cytoplasm. Double immunodifusion serological tests with antiserum for Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV gave positive results when tested against plant sap from infected bean plants. The virus was purified and the molecular mass of its coat protein was estimated as 30 kDa, the expected value for the coat protein of viruses from the genus Sobemovirus. The host range of the virus was restricted to bean and some soybean (Glycine max cultivars. It was possible to separate two isometric viruses commonly found in bean based on the immunity reaction of Crotalaria sp

  10. Competitivity of the common-bean plant relative to the weed alexandergrass [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.] Competitividade do feijoeiro-comum com o capim-marmelada [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.

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    Telma Passini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies of competitive interaction quantification between weeds and crops are not widely elucidated and compared in the literature. The competitive ability of common-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris relative to alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea was assessed and two approaches of replacement series experiment analysis were compared. The response of the species to the presence of each other at different densities and proportion was evaluated. Replacement series at total densities of 625, 816 and 1,111 plants m-2 were performed at the proportions of common-bean:alexandergrass of 100:0 (pure stand of common-bean, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100% (pure stand of alexandergrass, at four replicates in a randomized block design. Data analyses were performed by the qualitative compared to the quantitative approach. The quantitative approach provided larger number of information than did the qualitative approach, and indicated that there was intraspecific competition among common-bean plants, and a minimum of interspecific competition from alexandergrass. There was no intraspecific competition among alexandergrass plants, being the crop effect on the weed larger than the effect among alexandergrass plants. The ecological niche differentiation was partial, since the crop intraspecific competition was larger than the interspecific, and the last one was negligible, at the same time that the weed interspecific competition was larger than the intraspecific. Common-bean, as a competitor species, is superior to alexandergrass.As metodologias de quantificação das interações competitivas entre plantas cultivadas e daninhas não estão amplamente elucidadas e comparadas na literatura. A competitividade da cultura de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris em relação ao capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea foi avaliada pela comparação entre o método qualitativo e um método quantitativo de análise de resultados. A resposta de cada espécie à presença da

  11. Growth, grain yield and calcium, potassium and magnesium accumulation in common bean plants as related to calcium nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas da Silva Domingues

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the plant growth and grain yield characteristics and the accumulation of calcium, potassium and magnesium in the leaves and grains of common bean cultivars grown with different calcium concentrations in the nutrient solution. Two experiments were conducted with nutrient solutions in a soilless system in a greenhouse. In the first experiment, five calcium concentrations (1.10, 1.65, 2.20, 2.75 and 3.30 mmol L-1 and three common bean cultivars (Iraí, BRS Expedito and Carioca were evaluated. Higher calcium concentrations (2.20, 2.75, 3.30, 3.85, 4.40 and 4.95 mmol L-1and two common bean cultivars (BRS Expedito and Carioca were tested in the second experiment. Dry mass of the shoot and root, grain yield and calcium accumulation in the leaves and grains increased linearly in common bean plants supplied with calcium concentrations between 2.20 and 4.95 mmol L-1. The high calcium concentration did not reduce the accumulation of calcium, potassium and magnesium in the leaves and grains. Common bean plants grown with high calcium concentrations present higher dry mass of the shoot and root, high grain yield and high calcium concentration in the leaves and grains.

  12. Electron microscopical studies of defence mechanisms of Phaseolus vulgaris against Uromyces phaseoli and Pseudomonas phaseolicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucanes isolated from the germ-tube cell walls of Uromyces phaseoli were effective as elicitors and induced phytoalexin accumulation and protection against bean rust fungus in susceptible primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean). Both effects were first visible two days after infiltration of the glucane elicitor into the bean tissue. Five days after elicitor treatment, rust development was completely inhibited. Elicitor treatment had no effect on spore germination and appressoria formation of leaf surfaces. Two days after inoculation in treated leaves, many substomatal vesicles were destroyed or heavily damaged. The absence of haustoria was apparently related to the deposition of electron dense material between the plasmalemma and cell wall of plant cells at the sites of contact between host and fungal cells. These deposits were found in the treated tissue two days after inoculation in response to contact with disorganized substomatal vesicles and cells of intercellular hyphae. In elicitor treated, non-inoculated tissue, as well as in water treated, inoculated control tissue, no comparable deposition of electron dense material was observed. Investigations of the bean/bacterial host-parasite interaction indicated that cells of Pseudomonas phaseolicola were entrapped against plant cell walls in both susceptible (Red Kidney) and resistant (Red Mexican) cultivars of French bean. After staining of samples with ruthenium red for electron microscopy, pectic polysaccharides within plant cell walls became particularly well contrasted, as did fibrillar material connecting bacteria to the plant cell walls. Ruthenium red also stains acidic bacterial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and some of the fibrillar material in intercellular spaces is probably from this source. 22 refs, 7 figs

  13. Genetic and Molecular Characterization of the I Locus of Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejos, C. Eduardo; Astua-Monge, Gustavo; Jones, Valerie; Plyler, Tammy R.; Sakiyama, Ney S.; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2006-01-01

    The I locus of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, controls the development of four different phenotypes in response to inoculation with Bean common mosaic virus, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus, several other related potyviruses, and one comovirus. We have generated a high-resolution linkage map around this locus and have aligned it with a physical map constructed with BAC clones. These clones were obtained from a library of the cultivar “Sprite,” which carries the dominant allele at the ...

  14. APPLICATION OF PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA TO RUNNER BEAN INCREASES SEED CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN YIELD

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    Marius Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential of two rhizobacterial strains with plant growth promoting capabilities (mineral phosphate solubilization and IAA production traits to influence the nutritive value of runner bean grains was assessed on plants cultivated in organic crop system. Seed inoculation with rhizobacterial strains improve the nutritive value of the harvested grains by enhancing the soluble protein content up to 11.97 % and total reducing carbohydrates content up to 28.97%. The number of fractions detected by SDS-PAGE analysis in the all extracts was around 20, without any significant differences between the control and the inoculated samples. Our study suggests that the two PGPR strains may be used as biofertilizer for vegetable production in sustainable and ecological agricultural systems.

  15. COMBINED EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Gaurav Bhushan Jaspal Singh *, Sudhir K. Upadhyay and A.P. Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, screened PGPR and Fungi were influence the growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata plant in the pot. Two rhizobacteria viz. Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas putida and three fungi Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated and purified. The effect of inoculation of different strains of bacteria and fungus on growth responses of Vigna radiata under pot condition was enumerated. The result revealed that the single and dual inoculation of these microbial strains enhances the plant growth in terms of root and shoot length and dry-biomass. The maximum increase in root length (up to 86.57%, shoot length (up to 56.91%, root dry weight (up to 94.42%, and shoot dry weight (up to 56.09% was observed in response to dual inoculation of Pseudomonas putida with Trichoderma viride compared to uninoculated control.

  16. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) are a nutrient dense, low cost food and therefore are an excellent value for consumers (Drewnowski and Rehm, 2013). In spite of this value, long cooking times limit bean consumption. This is true in developing countries where cooking fuel is sometimes scarce and in d...

  17. Response of French Bean Cultivars to Plant Spacing Under Agroclimatic Condition of Baffa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed Ahmed; Muhammad Razaq; Hasnain Alam; and Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out at Mansehra during cropping season of 2013. There were three French bean cultivars and four different plant spacings. The experiment was laid out on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different cultivars, plant spacings and their interactions significantly influenced all the parameters studied. Maximum days to flowering (59.33) and seed maturity (97.66) were recorded in cultivar Komal Green grown at 15 cm spacing, while, maximum 100-grain weight (42.20 g) was noted in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 60 cm spacing. However, maximum fresh pod yield• plant-1 (109.67 g), number of seed• pod-1 (7.99) and seed yield• hm-2 (1 437.3 kg) were recorded in cultivar Paulista grown at spacing of 45 cm. Whereas, maximum plant height (40.50 cm) was noticed in cultivar Paulista grown at 15 cm plant spacing. While, the least number of days to flowering (50.33) and to seed maturity (85.66) were taken by cultivar Paulista grown at 60 cm plant spacing. Likewise, minimum seed yield (311.9 kg• hm-2) was recorded in plants of cultivar Komal Green spaced at 60 cm plant spacing. While, minimum fresh pod weight• plant-1 (67.00 g) and number of seed• pod-1 (4.66) were attained in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 15 cm plant spacing. Whereas, minimum plant height (27.59 cm) and 100-grain weight (15.60 g) were recorded for cultivar Komal Green grown at 45 and 15 cm, respectively.

  18. Effect of phytohormones on absorption and distribution of ions in salt-stressed bean plants

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    Zofia Starck

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bean plant seedlings grown in water culture were treated for 5 days either with NaCl or with 7-times concentrated nutrient solution (diminished water potential by 3-103 hPa in both cases. Control and stressed plants were treated for 24 hrs with zeatin and GA,. NaCl-stress reduced distinctly ion absorption rate (K, Ca and P. Zeatin and GA3 promoted potassium uptake, but only in NaCI-treated plants. These hormones diminished Na accumulation in metabolically active organs but increased P- and Ca-content. In plants grown under both kind of stresses zeatin and GA3 partially reestablished the ratio of the main mono- to divalent cations, which increased in the leaves and apical part of the stressed plants. ABA introduced into the nutrient solution caused inhibition of the ion uptake (K, Ca, Mg and P. similar to that caused by NaCl-stress. The above reported results seem to confirm the supposition, that hormones act as an important factor contributing to regulation of both uptake and distribution of ions. In this way growth substances may also participate in the regulation of transport of various substances (among others - assimilates in the whole plant.

  19. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  20. Efeitos alelopáticos de extratos vegetais na germinação, colonização micorrízica e crescimento inicial de milho, soja e feijão Allelopathic effects of plant aqueous extracts on germination, mycorrhization and Initial growth of corn, soybean and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Mendes Faria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Restos vegetais e liteira podem interferir no desenvolvimento de plantas. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de Pinus sp., milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke e mucuna (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy sobre a germinação, colonização micorrízica e crescimento inicial de milho (Zea mays L., soja (Glycine max L. e feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Os extratos foram elaborados utilizando folhas trituradas. O experimento in vitro empregou papel Germitest umedecido com extratos ou água destilada por sete dias. O experimento em casa de vegetação teve esquema fatorial 3 x 3 x 4, com quatro repetições: três espécies vegetais (soja, milho e feijão, três extratos aquosos (Pinus, milheto e mucuna e quatro doses de extrato (0,0; 0,5; 1,0; e 2,0 kg L-1. O substrato foi Latossolo Vermelho coletado no município de Selvíria-MS, no bioma Cerrado. Após a semeadura, os vasos receberam, a cada cinco dias, por 45 dias, 50 mL dos extratos. Para a soja, extratos de mucuna e milheto diminuíram o comprimento do hipocótilo e da radícula e os de Pinus aumentaram esses comprimentos. Em feijão, o extrato de Pinus diminuiu o comprimento do hipocótilo e da radícula, mas os extratos de mucuna e milheto aumentaram-no. O extrato do milheto reduziu a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação em feijão. Todos os extratos reduziram a colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em soja, milho e feijão.Plant residues and litter may affect the plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of pine (Pinus sp., millet [Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke] and velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy on germination, mycorrhizal colonization and initial growth of corn (Zea mays L., soybean (Glycine max L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Extracts of ground leaves were prepared. For the in vitro seven day

  1. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability

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    Devaraj Illakkiam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified.

  2. Determination of the Effects of Nutrient sources on Enhancement of Crop Tolerance to Bean Root Rot and Bean Stem Maggot in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field bean phaseolus vulgaris tolerance to root rot (BRR) and bean stem maggot (BSM) is enhanced by improvement of soil nutrients. Organic and inorganic sources of soil nutrients were evaluated in this study to determine their effects on crop tolerance to BRR and BSM. Three variety of GLP 585 susceptible to BRR and BSM; GLP X92 tolerant to BRR and BSM; and KK-8 resistant to BRR and BSM were used. The study was conducted in farmer's field with high level of BRR and BSM over three seasons in a split plot design. Nutrient sources were laid down in main plots while varieties were in subplots. KK-8 gave the highest plant survival and yield over the seasons. GLP 585 had the lowest mean yield and plant survival. Crop tolerance was greatly improved by application of DAP as applied as nutrient sources and varieties for crop tolerance were identified

  3. The influence of rat endogenous nitrogen excretion on the assessment of bean protein quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, A C; Sgarbieri, V C

    1986-08-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study the interference of rat endogenous nitrogen excretion with the assessment of digestibility and biological value of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) protein. Dry bean plants were cultivated under (15NH4)2SO4 fertilization and at harvest dry beans had 1.080 atoms % of 15N-excess. Nitrogen balance studies indicated that bean protein digestibility and biological value were higher when N-balance was based on 15N-excess as compared to total nitrogen, both for undenaturated and heat-denaturated protein. The 15N-balance also showed that heat treatment significantly improved (p less than or equal to 0.05) the digestibility of bean protein in the integral flour and in protein isolate while the biological value decreased for both materials. The results permitted the conclusion that the conventional methods employed for calculation of bean protein digestibility and biological value, based on total nitrogen balance and protein-free diet, underestimate these indices of protein quality. PMID:3806256

  4. Exposure of cerium oxide nanoparticles to kidney bean shows disturbance in the plant defense mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Kidney bean roots uptake nCeO2 primarily without biotransformation. • Cerium reached the root vascular tissues through gaps in the Casparian strip. • On longer exposure to high concentration, roots demonstrate stress response. • In leaves, guaiacol peroxidase plays a major role in ROS scavenging. - Abstract: Overwhelming use of engineered nanoparticles demands rapid assessment of their environmental impacts. The transport of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) in plants and their impact on cellular homeostasis as a function of exposure duration is not well understood. In this study, kidney bean plants were exposed to suspensions of ∼8 ± 1 nm nCeO2 (62.5 to 500 mg/L) for 15 days in hydroponic conditions. Plant parts were analyzed for cerium accumulation after one, seven, and 15 days of nCeO2 exposure. The primary indicators of stress like lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble protein and chlorophyll contents were studied. Cerium in tissues was localized using scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron μ-XRF mapping, and the chemical forms were identified using μ-XANES. In the root epidermis, cerium was primarily shown to exist as nCeO2, although a small fraction (12%) was biotransformed to Ce(III) compound. Cerium was found to reach the root vascular tissues and translocate to aerial parts with time. Upon prolonged exposure to 500 mg nCeO2/L, the root antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly reduced, simultaneously increasing the root soluble protein by 204%. In addition, leaf's guaiacol peroxidase activity was enhanced with nCeO2 exposure in order to maintain cellular homeostasis

  5. Exposure of cerium oxide nanoparticles to kidney bean shows disturbance in the plant defense mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Peralta-Videa, Jose R. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Susmita [Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Castillo-Michel, Hiram [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220-38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose-Angel [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Sahi, Shivendra [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Kidney bean roots uptake nCeO{sub 2} primarily without biotransformation. • Cerium reached the root vascular tissues through gaps in the Casparian strip. • On longer exposure to high concentration, roots demonstrate stress response. • In leaves, guaiacol peroxidase plays a major role in ROS scavenging. - Abstract: Overwhelming use of engineered nanoparticles demands rapid assessment of their environmental impacts. The transport of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO{sub 2}) in plants and their impact on cellular homeostasis as a function of exposure duration is not well understood. In this study, kidney bean plants were exposed to suspensions of ∼8 ± 1 nm nCeO{sub 2} (62.5 to 500 mg/L) for 15 days in hydroponic conditions. Plant parts were analyzed for cerium accumulation after one, seven, and 15 days of nCeO{sub 2} exposure. The primary indicators of stress like lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble protein and chlorophyll contents were studied. Cerium in tissues was localized using scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron μ-XRF mapping, and the chemical forms were identified using μ-XANES. In the root epidermis, cerium was primarily shown to exist as nCeO{sub 2}, although a small fraction (12%) was biotransformed to Ce(III) compound. Cerium was found to reach the root vascular tissues and translocate to aerial parts with time. Upon prolonged exposure to 500 mg nCeO{sub 2}/L, the root antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly reduced, simultaneously increasing the root soluble protein by 204%. In addition, leaf's guaiacol peroxidase activity was enhanced with nCeO{sub 2} exposure in order to maintain cellular homeostasis.

  6. Estimativa da área foliar do feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. por meio da largura máxima do folíolo central Model to estimate the leaf area of snap bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel L. Queiroga

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento objetivou estabelecer um modelo matemático para estimar a área foliar de feijão-vagem de crescimento determinado por meio da largura máxima do folíolo central. As medidas foram realizadas em seis plantas (método não-destrutivo e em quatro plantas (método destrutivo aos 21, 30, 37, 44 e 51 dias após a emergência. A área foliar real foi determinada por meio do medidor "Area Meter" (modelo LICOR LI-3000. Os modelos matemáticos obtidos por regressão foram aplicados aos métodos destrutivos e não destrutivos, e comparados à área foliar estimada e a real. O modelo de potência (AF = 0,1026*L1,6871, R²=0,98 estima a área foliar (AF de plantas de feijão-vagem de crescimento determinado, portanto a largura máxima do folíolo central (L pode ser usada para determinar a área foliar pelo método não-destrutivo.An experiment was conducted to establish a mathematical model based on the linear measurement of the maximum width of the central leaflet to estimate the leaf area of determinate type of snap bean. The measurements were made using the non-destructive method in six plants and the destructive method in four plants on the 21, 30, 37, 44 and 51 days after emergence. The area of each leaflet was obtained by using an area meter LICOR LI-3000 model. The models, obtained by regression, were tested in destructive and non-destructive methods comparing the estimated and the measured leaf area. The model AF = 0.1026*L1,6871 (R²=0.98 was effective to estimate the leaf area (AF of snap bean plants in non-destructive way showing that the maximum width of the central leaflet (L estimates the real leaf area.

  7. A C subunit of the plant nuclear factor NF-Y required for rhizobial infection and nodule development affects partner selection in the common bean-Rhizobium etli symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio A; Beker, María Pía; Battaglia, Marina; Aguilar, O Mario

    2010-12-01

    Legume plants are able to interact symbiotically with soil bacteria to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Although specific recognition between rhizobia and legume species has been extensively characterized, plant molecular determinants that govern the preferential colonization by different strains within a single rhizobium species have received little attention. We found that the C subunit of the heterotrimeric nuclear factor NF-Y from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) NF-YC1 plays a key role in the improved nodulation seen by more efficient strains of rhizobia. Reduction of NF-YC1 transcript levels by RNA interference (RNAi) in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots leads to the arrest of nodule development and defects in the infection process with either high or low efficiency strains. Induction of three G2/M transition cell cycle genes in response to rhizobia was impaired or attenuated in NF-YC1 RNAi roots, suggesting that this transcription factor might promote nodule development by activating cortical cell divisions. Furthermore, overexpression of this gene has a positive impact on nodulation efficiency and selection of Rhizobium etli strains that are naturally less efficient and bad competitors. Our findings suggest that this transcription factor might be part of a mechanism that links nodule organogenesis with an early molecular dialogue that selectively discriminates between high- and low-quality symbiotic partners, which holds important implications for optimizing legume performance. PMID:21139064

  8. Competitivity of the common-bean plant relative to the weed alexandergrass [Brachiaria plantaginea (link) hitch.] Competitividade do feijoeiro-comum com o capim-marmelada [Brachiaria plantaginea (link) hitch.

    OpenAIRE

    Telma Passini; Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti; Inês Fumiko Ubukata Yada

    2003-01-01

    Methodologies of competitive interaction quantification between weeds and crops are not widely elucidated and compared in the literature. The competitive ability of common-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) relative to alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea) was assessed and two approaches of replacement series experiment analysis were compared. The response of the species to the presence of each other at different densities and proportion was evaluated. Replacement series at total densities of 625, 8...

  9. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with...

  10. The use of C-14 as tracer in the carbon flow assimilated by the plants (maize, sugar cane, bean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow of carbon in three different crops (maize, beans and sugar cane) was studied by use of C-14. The plants were exposed to an atmosphere with a constant concentration of the tracer for 12 hours in a biosynthesis chamber. The detection of the isotope permitted the distribution and concentration of the photosynthetates in the various organs of the plants to be followed. (M.A.C.)

  11. Description des embryons de Phaseolus vulgaris en cours d'avortement issus de plantes mutagénisées au méthanesulfonate d'éthyle (EMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Silué, Souleymane; Diarrasouba, Nafan; Fofana, Inza Jesus; Muhovski, Yordan; TOUSSAINT, André; Mergeai, Guy; Jacquemin, Jean-Marie; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM) and cotylédons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to tho...

  12. Novel vitamin E forms in leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Phaseolus coccineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Jerzy; Pisarski, Adam; Szymańska, Renata

    2011-11-15

    In the present study, we isolated novel tocochromanols from green leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana and primary leaves of etiolated seedlings of Phaseolus coccineus that were identified as β-, γ-, and δ-tocomonoenols with unsaturation at the terminal isoprene unit of the side chain. The content of γ-tocomonoenol in leaves of etiolated bean increased gradually with the age of seedlings, reaching 50% of the γ-tocopherol level in 40-day-old plants. The content of this compound in leaves was increased by short illumination of etiolated plants and by addition of homogentisic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of tocopherols. These data indicated that γ-tocomonoenol is synthesized de novo from homogentisic acid and tetrahydro-geranylgeraniol diphosphate, a phytol precursor. Based on these results, a biosynthetic pathway of tocomonoenols is proposed. PMID:21856038

  13. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS ON FABA BEAN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. Abdelhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A possible survival strategy of plants under saline conditions is to use some compounds that could alleviate salt stress effect. One of these compounds is nicotinamide. The effect of exogenously application of nicotinamide with different concentrations (0, 200 and 400 mg/l on Vicia faba L. plant against different NaCl treatments (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl was investigated at the wire house of the National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. Salinity stress reduced significantly plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot, seed yield, total carbohydrates & total crude protein of the yielded seeds compared with those of the control plants. In contrast, salinity induced marked increases in sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, proline, lipid peroxidation product (MDA and some oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Also, salinity stress increased Na+ contents with the decreases of other macro and micro elements contents (P, K+, Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ of shoots and the yielded seeds of faba bean. Foliar spraying of nicotinamide alleviated the adverse effects of salinity stress through increased plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot and seed yield as well as, sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids and proline, compared with those of the corresponding salinity levels, while decreased lipid peroxidation product as MDA and the oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Nicotinamide inhibited the uptake of Na+ and accelerated the accumulation of P, K+ , Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ contents in the shoots of salt stressed plants and enhanced total carbohydrate and total crude protein percentage and solutes concentrations in seeds of salinity treated plants

  14. Effect of water stress on nitrogen fixation and nodule structure of common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Maria Lucrecia Gerosa; Parsons Richard; Sprent Janet Irene; James Euan Kelvin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of water stress on N2 fixation and nodule structure of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars Carioca and EMGOPA-201. Plants were harvested after five and eight days of water stress. Carioca had lower nodule dry weight on both water stress periods; shoot dry weight was lower at five days water stress and did not differ from control after eight days stress. Both cultivars had lower nitrogenase activity than control after five and ei...

  15. Registration of ‘Eldorado’ pinto bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Eldorado’ (Reg. No. CV-302, PI 665012) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which was developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch, was released in 2012 as an upright, full-season,disease-resistant cultivar. Eldorado, tested as MSU breeding line P07863, was developed using the single-seed-de...

  16. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  17. Tracing evolutionary and developmental implications of mitochondrial stoichiometric shifting in the common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Montiel, M; Lyznik, A; Woloszynska, M; Janska, H; Tohme, J; Mackenzie, S

    2001-01-01

    The recombination and copy number shifting activities of the plant mitochondrial genome are widely documented across plant genera, but these genome processes have not been as well examined with regard to their roles in plant evolution. Because of the extensive plant collections of Phaseolus spp and the degree to which cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) has been characterized in the common bean, this system would be valuable for investigating mitochondrial genome dynamics in natural populations. We have used the cms-associated sequence pvs-orf239 as a mitochondrial genetic marker for these studies and have demonstrated its universal presence throughout a diversity of undomesticated Phaseolus lines. Within these populations, the pvs-orf239 sequence is present in high copy number in approximately 10% of the lines, but substoichiometric in all others. This mitochondrial sequence, derived apparently by at least two recombination events, is well conserved with two point mutations identified that are both apparently silent with regard to the sterility phenotype. A putative progenitor sequence was identified in Phaseolus glabelus in substoichiometric levels, suggesting that the present-day pvs-orf239 sequence was likely introduced substoichiometrically. Copy number shifting within the mitochondrial genome results in a 1000- to 2000-fold change, so that substoichiometric forms are estimated at less than one copy per every 100 cells. On the basis of PCR analysis of root tips, we postulate that a mitochondrial "transmitted form" resides within the meristem to assure transmission of a complete genetic complement to progeny. PMID:11404346

  18. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (Alcalase and Flavourzyme, respectively, and for the Phaseolus vulgaris with Alcalase and Flavourzyme with about 63.8 and 65.8 μg/mL values, respectively. The amino acid composition of these fractions showed residues in essential amino acids, which make a good source of energy and amino acids. On the other hand, the presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as V and P is a determining factor in the ACE-I inhibitor effect. The results suggest the possibility of obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension. PMID:26061663

  19. Jack bean urease inhibition by crude juices of Allium and Brassica plants. Determination of thiosulfinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olech, Zofia; Zaborska, Wiesława; Kot, Mirosława

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was the elucidation of the inhibitory influence of Allium (garlic, onion, leek) and Brassica (cabbage, Brussels sprouts) plants juices, on jack bean urease activity. Concentrations of thiosulfinates, the compounds responsible for the inhibition, were determined in studied materials. The kinetics and mechanism of the inhibitions were investigated. Biphasic, time-dependent courses of the inhibition reactions were observed for all tested Allium and Brussels sprouts from Brassica. The cabbage material caused the monophasic course of the inhibition. In the presence of dithiothreitol, a total reactivation of the inhibited urease proceeded for the tested plants except for the onion. The onion juice modified urease, regained only half of the initial activity. The irreversible contribution was related to the presence of 1-propanethial-S-oxide, cepaenes and zwiebelanes formed in the onion juice. It was found that the thermal processing of the plant juices, results in the decrease of thiosulfinates concentration, as well as the efficiency of urease inhibition. PMID:24128461

  20. EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF AMINOACIDS ON PLANT YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FABA BEAN PLANTS IRRIGATED WITH SEAWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. ABDELHAMID

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity decreases yield in arid and semi-arid areas. With increasing demand for irrigation water, alternative sources are being sought. Seawater salinity was previously considered unusable for irrigation. However, this water can be used successfully to grow crops under certain conditions. Amino acids is well known biostimulant which has positive effects on plant growth and yield, and significantly mitigates the injuries caused by abiotic stresses Therefore, in the present study, the effect of exogenously treatment amino acid on faba bean plant growing under sea water salt stress was investigated. Reduction of salinity damage in faba bean by using a mixture of amino acids to improve morphological and biochemical parameters, and thus raising the level of plant yield was tested. A pot experiment was conducted to alleviate the harmful effects of seawater salinity on faba bean cv. Giza 843 by foliar spraying of an amino acid mixture with different concentrations (0.0, 500, 1000 or 1500 mg L-1. Irrigation of faba bean plants with seawater levels of 3.13 and 6.25 dS m-1 led to significant reductions in plant height, number of leaves plant, fresh and dry weight of shoots, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates, polysaccharides, nucleic acid DNA and RNA contents of faba bean leaves. Seawater salinity induced higher contents of Na+ and Cl- and decreased contents of K+, K+:Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and P3+. Irrigation of faba bean plant with different levels of seawater decreased seed yield and total dry weight per plant compared with those irrigated with tap water. Also, total carbohydrates and total protein contents in seeds were reduced by increased seawater salinity levels. Amino acid application as foliar spray significantly improved all the reduced parameters due to seawater stress. However, the highest level of amino acid of 1500 mg L-1 exerted the strongest effect in alleviating the harmful effect of seawater salinity stress. Efecto de la aplicaci

  1. 蔓生型菜豆品种比较试验%Comparison of Climbing Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰梅; 张丽琴; 钟利

    2014-01-01

    对10个露地栽培的蔓生菜豆品种的抗性、产量及商品特性等进行考察比较,旨在筛选出适于昆明地区栽培的菜豆品种,为该地区菜豆的种植和推广提供依据。试验结果表明,泰国架豆王(黑皮、桂林天宇)、特级泰国架豆王和泰国架豆王(重庆华渝)3个品种的综合性状表现较好,产量较高,每667 m2分别达到了4148.7,3957.9,3891.3 kg,比较适宜昆明地区种植推广。%In this paper, we investigated and compared the resistance, yield and commercial characteristics of ten climbing kidney bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) planted in open field in Kunming, in order to screen out suitable kidney bean cultivars for Kunming and provide basis for kidney bean cultivation and extension in Kunming. The results showed that, the three cultivars, Thailand King Pole Bean (with black seed coat, from Guilin Tianyu Seed Co., Ltd.), Super Thailand King Pole Bean and Thailand King Pole Bean (from Chongqing Huayu Seed Co., Ltd.), had better comprehensive characters, and their yields were 4 148.7, 3 957.9 and 3 891.3 kg/667 m2 respectively, thus they were suitable to be planted in Kunming area.

  2. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Tawaraya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. root exudates under phosphorus (P deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0, 1 (P1 and 8 (P8 mg P L−1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT. Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS. The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159, 13% (26/203 and 9% (20/212 of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency.

  3. Avaliação da produtividade de linhagens de feijoeiro resistentes ao fungo da antracnose Productivity of dry bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris resistant to the anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade produtiva de linhagens de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris resistentes ao fungo da antracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum pertencentes aos grupos Preto, Chumbinho e Diversas, foi estimada em experimentos em blocos ao acaso, instalados em Campinas, no cultivo das águas de 1977, 1978 e 1979. Utilizaram-se os cultivares Moruna, Aroana e Carioca como controles para as linhagens dos grupos Preto, Chumbinho e Diversos respectivamente. Pela análise estatística dos dados obtidos pelas linhagens do grupo Preto, comuns aos ensaios de 1977 e 1978, 1978 e 1979, observou-se que as de prefixos 5-9-4-3-1-4, 5-9-4-3-1-5, 18-1-6 e 5-9-4-3-1-6, com médias de 2.100, 2.079, 2.055 e 2.028kg/ha, foram superiores ao 'Moruna', que produziu 1.580kg/ha. No grupo Chumbinho, cujas linhagens foram avaliadas em 1978 e 1979, a de prefixo 5-1-1-5-1-9, com 2.336kg/ha, destacou-se das demais, embora esta produtividade média estivesse ao mesmo nível, estatisticamente, da verificada para o 'Aroana', 2.136kg/ha. Para as linhagens do grupo Diversos, estudadas em 1978 e 1979, apenas 10-3-1 e 10-6-2, com produções médias de 3.133 e 2.823kg/ha, foram superiores, respectivamente, a 2.375 e 2.355kg/ha, observadas para o 'Carioca'. Outras linhagens deste grupo tiveram médias acima do controle, como 10-9-2, 10-9-1 e 10-5-1, com 2.698, 2.686 e 2.649kg/ha (Carioca - 2.355kg/ha na ausência do patógeno. Nas análises conjuntas foram notados efeitos significativos para ano em onze dos doze grupos de experimentos e em apenas dois para a interação tratamento x ano. As melhores linhagens serão colocadas nos ensaios regionais e algumas terão suas sementes aumentadas e colocadas à disposição dos agricultores da região de Campinas.With the objective of knowing the yielding ability of dry bean lines of Preto, Diversos and Chumbinho groups resistant to the anthracnose agent, trials in randomized complete-block design were carried out in the Main Experimental Station of

  4. Study of the Castor Oil Plant Pie in the Planting of the Castor Beans with Different Global Density of the Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Xavier Costa; Edivan Silva Nunes Júnior; José Sebastião de Melo Filho

    2010-01-01

    It was aimed at with this work to evaluate the chlorophyll tenor in the leaves, of potassium in the pecíolos of the castor beans, the physical analysis of the soil and the tenors of the present macronutrientes in the leaves of the castor beans cultivated with growing doses of castor oil plant pie and degrees different from density of the soil. The experiment had beginning in the period of May 02, 2006 and he/she extended to September 02, 2006, in house-of-vegetation, without atmosphere contro...

  5. Variabilidad espacial de los atributos físico-hídricos del suelo y de la productividad del cultivo de fréjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L irrigado bajo un sistema de siembra directa Spatial variability of soil physical and hydrological characteristics in re­lation to the productivity of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L irrigated under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Mestas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variabilidad espacial del sue-lo con una producción de fréjol irrigado ba­jo un sistema de siembra directa, el objetivo fue evaluar la dependencia espacial de los atributos físico-hídricos del suelo relacio­nándolos con la variabilidad espacial de la producción del fréjol. Fue sembrada una parcela y demarcados 60 puntos muéstrales en una malla de 3 x 3 m. Fueron colectadas muestras sin disturbar para determinación de la densidad del suelo, en el campo se de­terminaron la resistencia del suelo a la pe­netración y la conductividad hidráulica satu­rada. La dependencia espacial fue evaluada por el método geoestatístico del krigeado puntual. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que las regresiones obtenidas entre mapas fueron significativas, siendo que la densidad del suelo y la resistencia del suelo a la pene­tración se correlacionaron negativamente con la producción y la conductividad hidráulica saturada se correlacionó positi­vamente.The spatial variability of a soil used for bean production under an irrigated no-tillage system was studied. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial dependence of soil physical and hydrological characteristics in relation to the spatial variability of the irri­gated bean yield. For that reason, 60 sam­pling points were planted and demarcated in a 3 x 3 m grid. Disturbed samples were col­lected for determining soil density. In the field, soil resistance to penetration and satu­rated hydraulic conductivity were deter­mined. The spatial dependence was ana­lyzed by geostatistics using punctual kriging. According to the results, it is possi­ble to observe that the obtained regressions among maps were significant; soil density and resistance to penetration were nega­tively related to the yield, while the saturated hydraulic conductivity was related positively.

  6. UV-induced peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonialyase activity and phaseollin accumulation in leaves of Phaseolus Vulgaris in relation to ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attached or detached leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were irradiated with short-wave UV light (254 nm) which resulted in increased ethylene production, increased activity of soluble and ionically bound peroxidase, increased activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and an accumulation of phaseollin, accompanied by bronzing of these leaves. In order to evaluate the role of ethylene in this process, plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, or with 0.45 mM 5-methyl-7-chloro-4-ethoxycarboxylmethoxy-2,1,3-benzothiodiazole (DU), a presumed inhibitor of ethylene action. Both compounds showed an inhibitory effect on UV-induced ethylene production. DU stimulated UV-induced peroxidase activity, whereas AVG seemed to decrease UV-induced peroxidase activity. DU and AVG had only a weak inhibitory effect on UV-induced PAL activity. Both compounds retarded slightly the accumulation of phaseollin and the appearance of necrotic symptoms in UV-irradiated bean leaves. Ethephon treatment (500 or 1000 ppm) failed to induce the accumulation of phaseollin in attached or detached leaves of bean. The role of ethylene in UV-induced peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and accumulation of phaseollin in bean leaves is discussed. (author)

  7. Carbon Isotope Composition of Carbohydrates and Polyols in Leaf and Phloem Sap of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Influences Predictions of Plant Water Use Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Millicent; Wild, Birgit; Richter, Andreas; Simonin, Kevin; Merchant, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The use of carbon isotope abundance (δ(13)C) to assess plant carbon acquisition and water use has significant potential for use in crop management and plant improvement programs. Utilizing Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a model system, this study demonstrates the occurrence and sensitivity of carbon isotope fractionation during the onset of abiotic stresses between leaf and phloem carbon pools. In addition to gas exchange data, compound-specific measures of carbon isotope abundance and concentrations of soluble components of phloem sap were compared with major carbohydrate and sugar alcohol pools in leaf tissue. Differences in both δ(13)C and concentration of metabolites were found in leaf and phloem tissues, the magnitude of which responded to changing environmental conditions. These changes have inplications for the modeling of leaf-level gas exchange based upon δ(13)C natural abundance. Estimates of δ(13)C of low molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols increased the precision of predictions of water use efficiency compared with those based on bulk soluble carbon. The use of this technique requires consideration of the dynamics of the δ(13)C pool under investigation. Understanding the dynamics of changes in δ(13)C during movement and incorporation into heterotrophic tissues is vital for the continued development of tools that provide information on plant physiological performance relating to water use. PMID:27335348

  8. Geminiviral vectors based on bean yellow dwarf virus for production of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiang; He, Junyun; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo; Mason, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of recombinant vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies using plant viral vectors has developed extensively during the past several years. The approach benefits from high yields of recombinant protein obtained within days after transient delivery of viral vectors to leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, a tobacco relative. Modified viral genomes of both RNA and DNA viruses have been created. Geminiviruses such as bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) have a small, single stranded DNA genome...

  9. Radiation-induced abscopal stimulation of primary leaves in Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight-day old seedlings of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) var. Vaghya were irradiated with X-rays at a dose rate of 100 R/min. Specific part-irradiation on the intact seedling was carried out subsequently giving 5 KR 60Co at 100 R/min dose rate. Results show that: (1) doses over 250 R stimulate dry weight accumulation in primary leaves, (2) the highest effect is seen in 2000 R and 5000 R which also significantly improve chlorophyll level expressed on per disc alone. The effect is comparable to detopping, (3) irradiation of apex is more stimulatory than that of whole plant, (4) irradiation of only primary leaves is slightly inhibitive in the early period but more inhibition is shown by 20th day. (M.G.B.)

  10. Relação entre tricomas foliares de genótipos de feijoeiro comum, Phaseolus vulgaris L. e resistência a Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Relationship between foliar trichomes of common bean genotypes, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and resistance to Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Fachini de Oliveira Paron

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que a pubescência foliar pode afetar a preferência alimentar do inseto, com o presente estudo objetivou-se verificar a influência da pilosidade dos folíolos na resistência de genótipos de feijoeiro a D. speciosa. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e oito repetições. Os tratamentos foram seis genótipos de feijoeiro: Emgopa Ouro e IAPAR 57, do centro de domesticação Mesoamericano (MA e Jalo Precoce, Goiano Precoce, PR 10595142 e PR 10595146 do centro de domesticação Andino (AN. Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso com 1,2 Kg de solo e uma planta encerrada em um telado individual. No 25º dia após o plantio, em cada telado foram liberados dez adultos de D. speciosa, após jejum de 24 horas, durante 72 horas. Os danos sofridos foram estimados de acordo com a área consumida em cada genótipo. Os tricomas das folhas dos genótipos foram contados usando microscópio estereoscópico (40x, com uma escala micrométrica sobre 1 cm² de área da superfície abaxial (AB e adaxial (AD, contando-se os tricomas unciformes e aciculares presentes em cinco folhas de cada genótipo. O genótipo IAPAR 57 (MA foi o preferido no teste de alimentação, enquanto os genótipos andinos foram menos consumidos por adultos de D. speciosa. Os genótipos apresentaram variabilidade quanto ao número de tricomas, tanto aciculares quanto unciformes, em ambas as superfícies, abaxial e adaxial. Os genótipos andinos não diferiram quanto ao número de tricomas unciformes na superfície adaxial. O somatório do número de tricomas aciculares e unciformes na superfície abaxial dos genótipos sugerem relação inversa entre esta característica e a área consumida por D. speciosa.Considering that foliar pubescence may affect insect feeding preference on plant genotypes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of leaflet pubescence on resistance of common bean

  11. USO DE REGULADOR DE CRESCIMENTO EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO DE INVERNO PLANT GROWTH STIMULANT APPLICATION ON WINTER COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatiér Buzetti

    2011-04-01

    contradictory. For that reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant growth stimulant application on components and grains yield of two winter common bean cultivars under Brazilian savannah conditions. The experiment was conducted during the 2007 fall-winter season, at the Unesp experimental farm, Ilha Solteira campus, in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a strips scheme, with four replications. The treatments consisted of a combination of five plant growth stimulant doses (0 L ha-1; 0.5 L ha-1; 1.0 L ha-1; 1.5 L ha-1; and 2.0 L ha-1, composed of three vegetable hormones (kinetin, gibberellic acid, and indolbutyric acid, in two application periods: at the vegetative stage (V4 and at the reproductive stage (R5. Vegetative characteristics such as plant height, first pod insertion height, number of grains per pod, and weight of 100 grains were not affected by the product application. However, its application at the reproductive stage (R5 increased the number of grains per plant and grain yield of the Carioca Precoce and IAC Apuã bean cultivars. For that increase, 2 L ha-1 was the best plant growth stimulant dose.

    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; yield components; application period.

  12. Regulation of copper homeostasis and biotic interactions by microRNA 398b in common bean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Naya

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are recognized as important post-transcriptional regulators in plants. Information about the roles of miRNAs in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., an agronomically important legume, is yet scant. The objective of this work was to functionally characterize the conserved miRNA: miR398b and its target Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase 1 (CSD1 in common bean. We experimentally validated a novel miR398 target: the stress up-regulated Nodulin 19 (Nod19. Expression analysis of miR398b and target genes -CSD1 and Nod19- in bean roots, nodules and leaves, indicated their role in copper (Cu homeostasis. In bean plants under Cu toxicity miR398b was decreased and Nod19 and CSD1, that participates in reactive oxygen species (ROS detoxification, were up-regulated. The opposite regulation was observed in Cu deficient bean plants; lower levels of CSD1 would allow Cu delivery to essential Cu-containing proteins. Composite common bean plants with transgenic roots over-expressing miR398 showed ca. 20-fold higher mature miR398b and almost negligible target transcript levels as well as increased anthocyanin content and expression of Cu-stress responsive genes, when subjected to Cu deficiency. The down-regulation of miR398b with the consequent up-regulation of its targets was observed in common bean roots during the oxidative burst resulting from short-time exposure to high Cu. A similar response occurred at early stage of bean roots inoculated with Rhizobium tropici, where an increase in ROS was observed. In addition, the miR398b down-regulation and an increase in CSD1 and Nod19 were observed in bean leaves challenged with Sclerotinia scleortiorum fungal pathogen. Transient over-expression of miR398b in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infected with S. sclerotiorum resulted in enhanced fungal lesions. We conclude that the miR398b-mediated up-regulation of CSD and Nod19 is relevant for common bean plants to cope with oxidative stress generated in abiotic and biotic

  13. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 co-segregates with homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, M; Lund, O Søgaard; Larsen, R;

    2008-01-01

    In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, bc-3 and bc-u control resistance to potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). To identify candidates for the bc-genes, we cloned and sequenced homologues of genes encoding cap...

  14. Alleviation Effect of Lanthanum on Cadmium Stress in Seedling Hydroponic Culture of Kidney Bean and Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaohua; Zhou Qing

    2006-01-01

    The seedling hydroponic culture experiment of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and corn (Zea mays) was conducted to investigate the alleviation effect of lanthanum on Cd stress.It is found that growth is seriously inhibited and metabolism is maladjusted in the two crops under 30 and 300 μmol·L-1 Cd2+ stress.Plant height, taproot length, leaf area, and fresh or dry weight of root, stem, and leaf are all obviously decreased.Further, chlorophyll content decreases, membrane permeability, malonydialdehyde (MDA) content, activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) increases under Cd stress, as compared with the control.The damage to these two crops becomes more conspicuous with the prolongation of Cd stress.It is suggested that lanthanum might help kidney bean and corn seedlings alleviate Cd stress by improving the photosynthetic capacity, reducing membrane permeability and MDA content, and maintaining the activities of CAT and POD of these two crops.

  15. Desempenho fisiológico de sementes de feijão colhidas em diferentes períodos do desenvolvimento Physiological performance of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds harvested in different developmental periods

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico José Evangelista Botelho; Renato Mendes Guimarães; João Almir Oliveira; José Renato Emiliorelli Evangelista; Tiago de Aguiar Eloi; Danille Pereira Baliza

    2010-01-01

    Na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a época adequada de colheita para produção de sementes de alta qualidade é de suma importância. No presente trabalho objetivou-se determinar a época ideal de colheita para a obtenção de sementes com maior qualidade e produtividade. Para a instalação do campo experimental foram utilizadas sementes de feijão de duas cultivares (BRS Majestoso e BRS Horizonte). A colheita foi realizada manualmente, aos 70, 80, 90 e 100 dias após a emergência (DAE). Ap...

  16. A distribution pattern of cadmium, gadolinium and samarium in Phaseolus vulgaris (L) plants as assessed by dynamic neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualitative and semi-quantitative distributions, presumably apoplast transport patterns for the Gd, Sm and Cd were investigated in the primordial leaf tissues of the bean using dynamic neutron radiography. According to the applied 3D, 2D images and the pixel count distribution histograms of the considered gray levels, peculiar distribution patterns were postulated for the elements. Main and lateral vascular systems for Gd, the cell walls as well as intercellular spaces for Sm and the main leaf vein for Cd assumed to be the apoplast transport spaces and volumes

  17. Phaseolus vulgaris L. Seedlings Exposed to Prometryn Herbicide Contaminated Soil Trigger an Oxidative Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulahia, Kerima; Carol, Pierre; Planchais, Séverine; Abrous-Belbachir, Ouzna

    2016-04-27

    Herbicides from the family of S-triazines, such as prometryn, have been widely used in crop production and can constitute an environmental pollution in both water and soil. As a valuable crop, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is grown all over the world and could be exposed to such herbicides. We wanted to investigate the possible stress sustained by the common bean growing in prometryn-polluted soil. Two situations were observed: when soil was treated with ≥100 μM prometryn, some, but not all, measured growth parameters were affected in a dose-dependent manner. Growth was reduced, and photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic products were less accumulated when soil was treated with ≥100 μM prometryn. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced had a deleterious effect, as seen by the accumulation of oxidized lipid in the form of malondialdehyde (MDA). Higher prometryn (500 μM) concentrations had a disastrous effect, reducing antioxidant activities. At a low (10 μM) concentration, prometryn increased antioxidant enzymatic activities without affecting plant growth or MDA production. Gene expression of proline metabolism genes and proline accumulation confirm that bean plants respond to a stress according to the prometryn concentration. Physiological responses such as antioxidative enzymes APX, CAT, and the enzyme implicated in the metabolization of xenobiotics, GST, were increased at 10 and 100 μM, which indicated a prevention of deleterious effects of prometryn, suggesting that bean is a suitable material both for herbicide pollution sensing and as a crop on a low level of herbicide pollution. PMID:27019272

  18. Can leek interfere with bean plant–bean fly interaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Bandara, PB; V Kumar; Ninkovic, Velemir; Ahmed, Elham; Pettersson, Jan; Glinwood, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Effects of volatile odors from leek, Allium porum L., on the behavior of bean ßy, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), were tested in laboratory olfactometer bioassays. Aqueous and solvent extracts (dichloromethane and methanol) of leek were repellent to adult ßies. Whole leek plants were repellent and prevented attraction to the host plant, beans. Beans that had been exposed to volatiles from living leek plants for 7 d became repellent to the ßy. Leek and several...

  19. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (∼10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein

  20. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  1. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  2. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Devaraj Illakkiam; Manoharan Shankar; Paramasivan Ponraj; Jeyaprakash Rajendhran; Paramasamy Gunasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases) achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The ...

  3. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzer H. Siddiqui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853 under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i normal irrigation (ii mild stress (iii moderate stress, and (iv severe stress on plant height (PH plant−1, fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC, proline (Pro content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl content, electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, and activities of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD, and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress.

  4. Control of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli on Bean_Using Copper Compounds and Plant Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Todorović

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of several new formulations of copper compounds, namely Cuprozin 35 WP (copper-oxychloride, Cuproxat (copper-sulphate, Funguran OH (copper-hydroxideand the plant activator Bion(acibenzolar-S-methyl, and their combinations with dithiocarbamates(Dithane M-70 was estimated in controlling Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (artificial inoculation in field conditions in two localities during 2006. In the locality Zemun, the efficacy of copper compounds ranged from 92.7% to 98.5%. The plant activator Bion 50 WG exhibited similar efficacy (94.4-97.1%. Combinations of Funguran OH and Dithane M-70, applied at different concentrations, also showed high efficacy (98.3-99.3%, as well as the combinations of Bion 50 WG and the other bactericides (95.5-96.8%. There was no significantdifference between the efficacies achieved by the compounds applied individually and their combinations, except Cuproxat, which exhibited decreased efficacy at lower concentration. In the locality Smederevska Palanka, the efficacy of copper compounds was 95.0-98.2%, while Bion achieved 96.8-97.7% efficacy. Combinations of copper-hydroxide(Funguran OH and dithiocarbamates (Dithane M-70 also showed high efficacy (98.1-99.4% but without a significant difference. The efficacy of combinations of Bion and copper-hydroxide, and Bion and mancozeb was 97.9-98.9%. There was no significant difference in the efficacies of the bactericides tested or the efficacies of their combinations in that locality.Our investigation confirmed high efficacy of acibenzolar-S-methyl, which was equal to the efficacy of standard bactericide treatment. This compound therefore offers a very good alternative to conventional chemicals used for controlling bacterial diseases in beans.

  5. Effect of bean diets (Phaseolus vulgaris) heated in different modes and times, with and without addition of methionine, on the growth, on the liver and on the thyroid of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weanling rats were divided into 13 groups of six animals and were fed 'ad libitum' for four weeks with diets containing casein as protein source for the control group and bean cooked in an autoclave at 1200C for 30, 45 and 60 minutes or cooked in an ordinary pot for 60, 120 and 180 minutes, with and without addition of methionine. Oleic acid 125i, mixed with other nutrients, was added to the diets in order to study the distribution of radioactivity in the animal body and its excretion. The influence of heating the beans by different ways and times, with and without addition of methionine, on the growth of the animals was verified by means of the gain in weight, food efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER). Studies in animal feces, urine and carcass were carried out. The quantity of lipids in the feces and carcass was determined. The influence of the diets on the liver and thyroid was verified by means of their weights and the quantity of radioactivity in these organs. The quantity of radioactivity was greater in the liver and smaller in the thyroid gland in animals fed with beans without addition of methionine. Higher fecal excretion and radioactivity in the urine were also observed in these animals. The nutritive value of beans increases with the addition of methionine. (Author)

  6. Screening of Rhizobacteria for Their Plant Growth Promotion Ability and Antagonism Against Damping off and Root Rot Diseases of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S Indira Devi; Talukdar, N. C.; K. Chandradev Sharma; Jeyaram, K.; Rohinikumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Development of microbial inoculants from rhizobacterial isolates with potential for plant growth promotion and root disease suppression require rigorous screening. Fifty-four (54) fluorescent pseudomonads, out of a large collection of rhizobacteria from broad bean fields of 20 different locations within Imphal valley of Manipur, were initially screened for antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani, of diseased roots of broad bean and also three other reference...

  7. SNP Assay Development for Linkage Map Construction, Anchoring Whole-Genome Sequence, and Other Genetic and Genomic Applications in Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qijian; Jia, Gaofeng; Hyten, David L; Jenkins, Jerry; Hwang, Eun-Young; Schroeder, Steven G; Osorno, Juan M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jackson, Scott A; McClean, Phillip E; Cregan, Perry B

    2015-11-01

    A total of 992,682 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was identified as ideal for Illumina Infinium II BeadChip design after sequencing a diverse set of 17 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) varieties with the aid of next-generation sequencing technology. From these, two BeadChips each with >5000 SNPs were designed. The BARCBean6K_1 BeadChip was selected for the purpose of optimizing polymorphism among market classes and, when possible, SNPs were targeted to sequence scaffolds in the Phaseolus vulgaris 14× genome assembly with sequence lengths >10 kb. The BARCBean6K_2 BeadChip was designed with the objective of anchoring additional scaffolds and to facilitate orientation of large scaffolds. Analysis of 267 F2 plants from a cross of varieties Stampede × Red Hawk with the two BeadChips resulted in linkage maps with a total of 7040 markers including 7015 SNPs. With the linkage map, a total of 432.3 Mb of sequence from 2766 scaffolds was anchored to create the Phaseolus vulgaris v1.0 assembly, which accounted for approximately 89% of the 487 Mb of available sequence scaffolds of the Phaseolus vulgaris v0.9 assembly. A core set of 6000 SNPs (BARCBean6K_3 BeadChip) with high genotyping quality and polymorphism was selected based on the genotyping of 365 dry bean and 134 snap bean accessions with the BARCBean6K_1 and BARCBean6K_2 BeadChips. The BARCBean6K_3 BeadChip is a useful tool for genetics and genomics research and it is widely used by breeders and geneticists in the United States and abroad. PMID:26318155

  8. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  9. A new approach to use rice husk and different types of opener in punch planting of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Dehkordi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to improve planting common bean in different soils. Punch planting method was used and the effect of different openers and rice husk mulch as a new idea in punch planting was tested. A factorial experiment in Completely randomized design was implemented in the farm of Shahrekord University. Shahrekord has a temperate and cold region with dry and warm summer. Common bean was planted to test the seedbed shape (bar, conical and grooved, sowing depth (6 and 9 cm and the seedbed mulching (with husk and without it. The percentage of emerged plants at the time of dividing in two leaves, average height of bushes in flowering and average leaf number of each bush in flowering, the rate of height growth and the number of leaves over day and night (appropriate time of measurement from budding to flowering was considered were measured. The grooved shape and seed coverage using rice husk mulch are recommended. There were no significant differences in depth factor.

  10. [Role of Bacterial Adhesin RAPA1 in Formation of Efficient Symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum with Bean Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullina, L R; Lavina, A M; Vershinina, Z R; Baimiev, Al Kh

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesins, the proteins responsible for attachment of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to plant roots, are involved in formation of stable associative symbioses. In the present work enhanced expression of the rapA1 adhesin gene in Rhizobium leguminosarum PVu5 was shown to improve the efficiency of nodulation on bean roots inoculated with the modified strain. The rapA1 gene was cloned into the pJN105Turbo plasmid, this construct was used for transformation of R. leguminosarum PVu5, bean plants were inoculated by this transgenic strain, and efficiency of root nodule formation was determined. In the plants treated with rapA1-transgenic rhizobia, the number of root nodules was on average two times higher than in the plants inoculated with the original strain. Aggregation of R. leguminosarum was achieved when the rapA1 gene expression was enhanced either in rhizobia or in the co-cultured modified strain E. coli pJN105TurboRapA1. PMID:26964360

  11. Evaluation of aminoacids in irradiated beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradinho-bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is originated from Africa and is known in Brazil as 'caupi', 'corda' or 'macassar'. It is grown in the interior of Northeast Brazil (semi-arid region) and can be found in parts of the North, being one of the most important components of people's diet in those regions. The Northeast area produces around 429,375 ton of fradinho-bean per year. Leguminous plants are very important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. This kind of bean is an excellent source of proteins (around 23- 25% of its nutritional content), being superior to regular beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The irradiation process is an alternative to avoid post-harvesting losses, without changing the nutritional value of food. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 kGy) on aminoacid content of fradinho-bean by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the accompanying of the grains during storage time of 6 months. After irradiation, the bean grains went through a milling process in order to make flour for posterior extraction. A liquid chromatographer Waters, model Alliance 2695, with fluorescent detector Waters 2475, having a mobile phase with gradient elution of sodium acetate. acetonitrile and Milli-Q water, was employed. The flux used was 1 mL/min and the injection volume of 10 μL. The column (C 18 150.0 x 3.9 mm) was kept at 36 deg C. The results show that gamma irradiation is a promise process for fradinho bean during conservation storage time of 6 months, until the dose of 10.0 kGy. Even the most radio-sensitive aminoacids like aromatics and basic lateral chains were preserved. (author)

  12. Evaluation of aminoacids in irradiated beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Souza, Luciana B.; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Hernandes, Nilber K. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    Fradinho-bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is originated from Africa and is known in Brazil as 'caupi', 'corda' or 'macassar'. It is grown in the interior of Northeast Brazil (semi-arid region) and can be found in parts of the North, being one of the most important components of people's diet in those regions. The Northeast area produces around 429,375 ton of fradinho-bean per year. Leguminous plants are very important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. This kind of bean is an excellent source of proteins (around 23- 25% of its nutritional content), being superior to regular beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The irradiation process is an alternative to avoid post-harvesting losses, without changing the nutritional value of food. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 kGy) on aminoacid content of fradinho-bean by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the accompanying of the grains during storage time of 6 months. After irradiation, the bean grains went through a milling process in order to make flour for posterior extraction. A liquid chromatographer Waters, model Alliance 2695, with fluorescent detector Waters 2475, having a mobile phase with gradient elution of sodium acetate. acetonitrile and Milli-Q water, was employed. The flux used was 1 mL/min and the injection volume of 10 {mu}L. The column (C 18 150.0 x 3.9 mm) was kept at 36 deg C. The results show that gamma irradiation is a promise process for fradinho bean during conservation storage time of 6 months, until the dose of 10.0 kGy. Even the most radio-sensitive aminoacids like aromatics and basic lateral chains were preserved. (author)

  13. Water deficit imposed by partial irrigation at different plant growth stages of common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific growth stages of common bean crop, at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress so that irrigation can be omitted without significant decrease in biological nitrogen fixation and yield. Two field experiments were conducted at a University experiments station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, on a sandy loam soil ( Typic durustoll ). The climate is warm and dry ( mean air temperature 16 degree Celcius and mean relative humidity 74% ) during the cropping season and rainfall of 123 mm was recorded during the cropping period. The treatments consisted of combinations of 7 irrigation regimes ( I1 = all normal watering; I2 = all stres; I3 = traditional practice; I4 = single stress at vegetation; I5 flowering; I6 = yield formation and I7 = ripening stages ) and 2 levels of applied N ( 20 and 80 kg/ ha ). Differential irrigation was started after 3 uniform irrigations for germination and crop establishment. Soil moisture was monitored with a neutron probe down to 0.60 m depth, before and 24 h after each irrigation. Biological Nitrogen Fixation was calculated using the N- 15 metodology in the 20 kg N/ ha treatment. From the yield data, it can be concluded that treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those that had suplementary irrigation. The flowering stage was the most sensitive to number of pods and grain yield. Biological Nitrogen Fixation was significantly affected by water stress at flowering and formation stages. The crop water use efficiency ( kg/ m 3 ) was the lowest at flowering period and the yield response factor ( Ky ) was higher in treatments I2 ( all stress ) and I5 (stress at flowering ). Comparing with traditional practice by farmers of the region, only treatments I1 and I7 had 13 and 10 % higher crop water use effeciency. 15 tabs., 7 refs. ( Author )

  14. Pinto Bean Hull Extract Supplementation Favorably Affects Markers of Bone Metabolism and Bone Structure in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) have many health benefits attributed to their high content of protein, non-digestible starches, fiber, and other bioactive components. Hulls from dry beans are rich in phenolics known to possess antioxidant activity that is beneficial to human health. The object...

  15. A reference genome for common bean and genome wide analysis of dual domestications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the single most important grain legume for human consumption and, due to its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms, has a valuable place in sustainable agriculture. We assembled 473 Mb of the common bean genome and geneti...

  16. Quantification of N2 fixation in genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by the isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports measurements of biological nitrogen fixation by ten cultivars and breeding lines of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Measurements were performed by the 15N dilution technique, and wheat (Triticum aestivum) and a non-nodulating isoline of soybean were used as non-fixing reference crops. 2 refs, 1 tab

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean Genotypes in Response to Soybean Cyst Nematode Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shalu; Chittem, Kishore; Brueggeman, Robert; Osorno, Juan M; Richards, Jonathan; Nelson, Berlin D

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) reproduces on the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and can cause reductions in plant growth and seed yield. The molecular changes in common bean roots caused by SCN infection are unknown. Identification of genetic factors associated with SCN resistance could help in development of improved bean varieties with high SCN resistance. Gene expression profiling was conducted on common bean roots infected by SCN HG type 0 using next generation RNA sequencing technology. Two pinto bean genotypes, PI533561 and GTS-900, resistant and susceptible to SCN infection, respectively, were used as RNA sources eight days post inoculation. Total reads generated ranged between ~ 3.2 and 5.7 million per library and were mapped to the common bean reference genome. Approximately 70-90% of filtered RNA-seq reads uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In the inoculated roots of resistant genotype PI533561, a total of 353 genes were differentially expressed with 154 up-regulated genes and 199 down-regulated genes when compared to the transcriptome of non- inoculated roots. On the other hand, 990 genes were differentially expressed in SCN-inoculated roots of susceptible genotype GTS-900 with 406 up-regulated and 584 down-regulated genes when compared to non-inoculated roots. Genes encoding nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance (NLR) proteins, WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and heat shock proteins involved in diverse biological processes were differentially expressed in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. Overall, suppression of the photosystem was observed in both the responses. Furthermore, RNA-seq results were validated through quantitative real time PCR. This is the first report describing genes/transcripts involved in SCN-common bean interaction and the results will have important implications for further characterization of SCN resistance genes in common bean

  18. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replicates. Treatments consisted of five N sources (urea, urea + NBPT, urea + polymer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium nitrate and a control (without N being applied 20 kg ha-1 of N at sowing and 80 kg ha-1 onf N in topdressing. We evaluated the chlorophyll content in leaves of common beans, the leaf N content and dry mass weight (MSPA in the flowering of common beans, the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, grain yield and final stand of the common beans. The sources of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence, leaf N content, the mass of MSPA and the relative chlorophyll index of common beans. The use of polymerized urea and urea with urease inhibitor, did not produce increases in the number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, mass of 100 grains and common beans yield compared to traditional sources of N, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

  19. O/sub 2/-insensitive photosynthesis in C/sub 3/ plants: its occurrence and a possible explanation. [Phaseolus vulgaris; Xanthium strumarium L. ; Scrophularia desertorum (Shaw. ) Munz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Leaves of C/sub 3/ plants which exhibit a normal O/sub 2/ inhibition of CO/sub 2/ fixation at less than saturating light intensity were found to exhibit O/sub 2/-insensitive photosynthesis at high light. This behavior was observed in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Xanthium strumarium L., and Scrophularia desertorum (Shaw.) Munz. O/sub 2/-insensitive photosynthesis has been reported in nine other C/sub 3/ species and usually occurred when the intercellular CO/sub 2/ pressure was about double the normal pressure. A lack of O/sub 2/ inhibition of photosynthesis was always accompanied by a failure of increased CO/sub 2/ pressure to stimulate photosynthesis to the expected degree. O/sub 2/-insensitive photosynthesis also occurred after plants had been water stressed. Under such conditions, however, photosynthesis became O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitive at physiological CO/sub 2/ pressures. Postillumination CO/sub 2/ exchange kinetics showed that O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitivity was not the result of elimination of photorespiration. It is proposed that O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurs when the concentration of phosphate in the chloroplast stroma cannot be both high enough to allow photophosphorylation and low enough to allow starch and sucrose synthesis at the rates required by the rest of the photosynthetic component processes. Under these conditions, the energy diverted to photorespiration does not adversely affect the potential for CO/sub 2/ assimilation.

  20. Characterization of Two Putative Protein Phosphatase Genes and Their Involvement in Phosphorus Efficiency in Phaseolus vulgari<