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Sample records for bean vicia faba

  1. Management of the broad bean weevil (Bruchus rufimanus Boh.) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Roubinet, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bruchus rufimanus Boh. is a common pest on faba beans (Vicia faba L.) all over Europe and worldwide. The area of faba bean production is increasing in Sweden and in Europe, partly encouraged by the CAP subsidies for legume crops and diversified crop rotations. At the same time, number of the insecticides commonly used against B. rufimanus have been removed from the market as pollinators risk to be harmed as the treatment timing corresponds to crop flowering. In Sweden, only one ins...

  2. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia Faba L.)- antinutritional properties in monogastric animals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats

  3. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

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    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  4. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M.; Sillero, Josefina C.

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri, or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited in faba

  5. Characterization resistance mechanisms in faba bean (Vicia faba against broomrape species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.

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    Diego Rubiales

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegytiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further

  6. Motor effects of broad beans (Vicia faba) in Parkinson's disease: single dose studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, P A; Bogetic, Z; Secombei, J W; Martin, H D; Balazs, N D; Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-06-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) are a natural source of L-dopa. To investigate a possible role for this substance in the treatment of Parkinsonian motor oscillations, we carried out single dose studies of Vicia faba pod mixture plus carbidopa in six patients. Motor responses of equivalent magnitude to those of conventional L-dopa medication occurred in five cases with mean onset of 39 min and mean duration of 104 min. Vicia faba meals produced comparable L-dopa blood levels to fasting standard tablet doses and recovery studies yielded 0.25% L-dopa per weight of bean pod mixture. Vicia faba contains sufficient L-dopa to be pharmacologically active in patients with Parkinson's disease and can potentially be incorporated into dietary strategies to manage Parkinsonian motor oscillations.

  7. Molecular tools for utilization of mitochondrial diversity in faba bean (Vicia faba

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    Aleksić Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed in silico PCR analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial (mtDNA genome sequences of faba bean (Vicia faba and two related species, Vigna angularis and Vigna radiata, currently available in GenBank, to infer whether 15 published universal primer pairs for amplification of all 14 cis-spliced introns in genes of NADH subunits (nad genes are suitable for V. faba and related species. Then, we tested via PCR reactions whether seven out of 15 primer pairs would generate PCR products suitable for further manipulation in 16 genotypes of V. faba representing all botanical varieties of this species (major, minor, equina and subsp. paucijuga of various levels of improvement (traditional and improved cultivars originating from Europe, Africa, Asia and south America. We provide new PCR primers for amplification of nad1 intron 2/3 in V. faba, and demonstrate intraspecific variability in primary nucleotide sequences at this locus. Based on outcomes of both in silico predictions and PCR amplification, we report a set of PCR primers for amplification of five introns in nad genes that are promising molecular tools for future phylogeographic and other studies in this species for which unambiguous data on wild ancestors, centre of origin and domestication are lacking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005

  8. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

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    Sara Ocaña

    Full Text Available Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136 subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H and susceptible genotype (Vf136, respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection.

  9. Phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis of native rhizobia nodulating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youseif, Sameh H; Abd El-Megeed, Fayrouz H; Ageez, Amr; Cocking, Edward C; Saleh, Saleh A

    2014-12-01

    The taxonomic diversity of forty-two Rhizobium strains, isolated from nodules of faba bean grown in Egypt, was studied using 16S rRNA sequencing, multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of three chromosomal housekeeping loci and one nodulation gene (nodA). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, most of the strains were related to Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium etli, and Rhizobium radiobacter (syn. Agrobacterium tumefaciens). A maximum likelihood (ML) tree built from the concatenated sequences of housekeeping proteins encoded by glnA, gyrB and recA, revealed the existence of three distinct genospecies (I, II and III) affiliated to the defined species within the genus Rhizobium/Agrobacterium. Seventeen strains in genospecies I could be classified as R. leguminosarum sv. viciae. Whereas, a single strain of genospecies II was linked to R. etli. Interestingly, twenty-four strains of genospecies III were identified as A. tumefaciens. Strains of R. etli and A. tumefaciens have been shown to harbor the nodA gene and formed effective symbioses with faba bean plants in Leonard jar assemblies. In the nodA tree, strains belonging to the putative genospecies were closely related to each other and were clustered tightly to R. leguminosarum sv. viciae, supporting the hypothesis that symbiotic and core genome of the species have different evolutionary histories and indicative of horizontal gene transfer among these rhizobia.

  10. Planting geometry to optimize growth and productivity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Bhatt, B P; Sundaram, P K; Gupta, A K; Singh, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) responses to alteration of its ambient environment leads to certain modification in the crop phenology, yield attributes and economic yield. To know the extent and pattern of response by faba bean to alterations, a two year field experimentation was carried out with two crop establishment methods (i) flatbed planting (ii) raised bed planting, four planting geometry (i) 30 x 20 cm(ii) 30 x 30 cm (iii) 30 x 45 cm and (iv) 45X45cm and three seeding depth. All the treatment (two crop establishment methods, four planting geometry and three seeding depth) were combined together consisting twenty four treatments, were organized in factorial experiment in complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Data were recorded on growth and development; yield attributes and yield. Soil analysis was done and finally statistical tool were applied to come in to valid conclusion. Raised bed planting proves superior over flatbed in case of seed yield. Square planting architect with 30 cm apart prove better (3690.9 kg ha(-1)) than other tested planting geometry. Seeding at 10 cm depth showed, significant improvement in seed yield per plant and per ha over other two tested seeding depth. Phosphorus availability was significantly higher in raised bed planting (36.9 kg ha(-1)). However, available K (kg ha(-1)) was significantly influenced by planting geometry and seeding depth. It was maximum (155.2 kg ha(-1)) with 30 x 45 cm plant geometry, proved significantly higher than 30 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm and at par with 45 x 45 cm planting.

  11. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats and increase

  12. The Impact of Processing on Antioxidant Activity of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.

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    Yu-Wei Luo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of 70% acetone extracts of raw and processed seeds of faba bean (Vicia faba. L was evaluated by various in vitro antioxidant assays, including total antioxidant, free radical scavenging, reducing power, metal ion chelating, &beta-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching and antihemolytic activities. The total phenolics and tannin contents were higher in the extract of seeds processed by autoclaving with 1% ash solution (3.6 and 1.9/100 g extract, respectively. In general, all the extracts of processed seeds exhibited higher activity in various antioxidant systems, when compared to raw seeds but significant differences were noticed between processing methods. The extract of seeds autoclaved with 1% sugar solution showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC507.4 mg/mL. Interestingly, the extract of dry heated seeds registered higher inhibition of hemolysis (76.8% compared to standards butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA (61.8% and α-tocopherol (52.6% at the concentration of 500 &mug/mL.

  13. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

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    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  14. Dietary effects of faba-bean (Vicia faba L.) tannins on the morphology and function of the small-intestinal mucosa of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wiebenga, J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of condensed tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on morphological and functional variables of the small-intestinal mucosa of piglets. In an experiment with young piglets (8-17 kg body weight), fed on either a control diet or a diet contain

  15. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.; conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris

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    Avila Carmen M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba, using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type and Vf27 (paucijuga type. Results Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs, one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of

  16. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

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    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  17. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

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    Cesare Castellini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of transgenic feed and synthetic amino acids in organic chicken diets has made necessary to find protein-rich feedstuffs which do not alter productive performance. The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed. The experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn; one thousand birds per season were split into 8 groups (4 groups of males and 4 groups of females, each duplicated and fed a double phase diet: a common starter diet for 20 days and two different growing-finisher diets containing either soybean (24%; S or faba bean (16%; F till the end of the rearing period (120 d. Average values of final live weight, feed intake and daily weight gain were significantly affected by sex, being higher in males than in females; the diets affected performance only in the 21-60 days of age period when the F group grew less and had poorer feed efficiency compared to the S group. Successively, the compensatory growth eliminated differences in slaughter weight. Regarding carcass traits, the diet affected only the ready- to-cook carcass percentage and the carena length, both of which were higher in S birds. Faba beans could be a valuable protein source in the diet of organic chickens when used after the critical starter period.

  18. Viruses of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Morocco; surveying, identification, and ecological aspects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortass, M.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic virus survey covering the main areas where faba bean ( Viciafaba L.) is grown in Morocco was conducted in 1988 and 1990. From the 240 leaf samples collected on the basis of symptoms suggestive of virus infection from 52 fields, the following viruses were detected by means of electron mi

  19. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

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    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  20. Faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

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    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (12% soybean meal, no faba beans was compared with a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% soybean meal and 10% flaked faba beans. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 1, hay only in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality and the characteristics of grab faecal samples as empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was slightly lower in the “Faba” group, particularly in experiment 2 (“Control” vs “Faba”: 34.6 vs 32.9 mg/dL in experiment 1, P<0.1; 27.4 vs 23.4 mg/dL in experiment 2, P<0.01; the plasma urea content in experiment 2 confirmed the trend observed in milk (3.9 vs 3.0 mmol/L, P<0.01. The inclusion of faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  1. Effect of Flower Removal on Senescence and Metabolism of Faba BeanVicia Faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaMingzhong

    1999-01-01

    In pot experiments of Xichang,China,during 1989-1994,visual scnescence symptoms and associated changes in constituent contents and activities of leaves of faba bean(Vicia faba L.)were compared in respones to flower removal.the leaves from upper, middle and lower positions were sampled six times during reproductive development phase.At 70 DAP flower removal had caused 37%-189% and 82%-197% increase of green leaf area and green leaf dry weight per plant respectively.Flower removal led to a significant increase in the chlorophyll,soluble surar and protein contents and the catalase activity.The leaf cell relative electroconductivity of those plants was maintained at a lower level,relative to the control,during the late growing stage.These results certainly implied that the leaves of flower removal plants were still fully functional at a very late growing stage,consequently the plants increased many new branches per plant.

  2. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Naser A. [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal); Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K. [University of Aveiro, Center for Mechanical Technology and Automation (TEMA) and Department of Mechanical Engineering (Portugal); Shah, Zahoor A. [University of Toledo, Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal, E-mail: ahmadr@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed 'graphene oxide') are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L{sup -1}) of graphene oxide (0.5-5 {mu}m) and evaluates glutathione ({gamma}-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L{sup -1}), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L{sup -1}) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and

  3. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua; Luo, Fengxia

    2012-10-01

    Two assays were conducted to investigate the changes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) phosphatases (phytase [Phy] and acid phosphatase [AcPh]) and the degradation of its substrates (inositol phosphate esters) during seed germination. The 1st assay was to establish the optimal germination conditions of faba bean and azuki bean to improve the endogenous phosphatases and increase the hydrolysis of phytate and, in the second assay, to determine the different lower phosphate esters of myo-inositol produced during the germination process. In the 1st assay, seeds were soaked for 12 and 24 h and germinated for 3 and 5 d with and without the addition of gibberellic acid (GA(3) ). In the second assay, seeds were soaked for 12 h and germinated for 1, 3, and 5 d with GA(3) . Phy (up to 3625 and 1340 U/kg) and AcPh (up to 9456 and 2740 U/g) activities, and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) (8.23 and 7.46 mg/g), inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) (0.55 and 0.82 mg/g), and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4) (0.26 and 0.01 mg/g) were detected in ungerminated faba bean and azuki bean, respectively. The germination process caused a significant increase of Phy and AcPh activities in faba bean (up to 147% and 210%) and azuki bean (up to 211% and 596%) and a reduction in the phytate phosphorus content (up to 81% and 63%, respectively). Phytate phosphorus content was affected only by soaking time in the case of faba bean. Finally, during the course of germination, IP6 and IP5 were rapidly degraded in faba bean (88% and 39%) and azuki bean (55% and 56%), and IP4 was only a short-living intermediate, which was increased during hydrolysis and degraded to inositol triphosphate. In this manner we could obtain a low-phytate, endogenous phosphatase-rich ingredient for enhancing human nutrition.

  4. Antioxidant Activities of Phenolic Compounds in Green and White Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.

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    Yu-wei Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols and tannins have implications for health and nutrition because of their antioxidant activities. Foods with high content of phenolics, such as fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes, show decreasing incidence of several diseases upon their consumption. However, there are limited reports on ant oxidative properties of tannins present in legumes. Faba bean seed has been known for high content of condensed tannin which is attributed as one of the ant nutritional factors in this highly proteinaceous pulse crop. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate and characterize the phenolic compounds in different tissues of this pulse and their ant oxidative activities. Fairly good amount of phenolics were observed in all tissues extract which was quite evident from their high FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power value. It was further, observed that the extract prepared from its seeds presented a potent radical scavenger activity as indicated by its high capacity to reduce the free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, whereas the tannin-free extract indicated loss of ant oxidative activities. The seed extract also interacted with superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals as well as the oxidant species, hydrogen peroxide. Thus, our results provide evidence that the extract prepared from different tissues of faba bean shows antioxidant and radical scavenging activities largely because of its condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins.

  5. Yield stability and relationships among stability parameters in faba bean(Vicia faba L.) genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamene; Temesgen; Gemechu; Keneni; Tadese; Sefera; Mussa; Jarso

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen faba bean genotypes were evaluated in 13 environments in Ethiopia during the main cropping season for three years(2009–2011). The objectives of the study were to evaluate the yield stability of the genotypes and the relative importance of different stability parameters for improving selection in faba bean. The study was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replications. G × E interaction and yield stability were estimated using 17 different stability parameters. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed that the main effects of both genotypes and environments, and the interaction effect, were highly significant(P ≤ 0.001) and(P ≤ 0.01), respectively. The environment main effect accounted for 89.27% of the total yield variation, whereas genotype and G × E interaction effects accounted for 2.12% and 3.31%, respectively.Genotypic superiority index(Pi) and FT3 were found to be very informative for selecting both high-yielding and stable faba bean genotypes. Twelve of the 17 stability parameters,including CVi, RS, α, λ, S2 di, bi, S(2)i, Wi, σ2i, EV, P59, and ASV, were influenced simultaneously by both yield and stability. They should accordingly be used as complementary criteria to select genotypes with high yield and stability. Although none of the varieties showed consistently superior performance across all environments, the genotype EK 01024-1-2ranked in the top third of the test entries in 61.5% of the test environments and was identified as the most stable genotype, with type I stability. EK 01024-1-2 also showed a17.0% seed size advantage over the standard varieties and was released as a new variety in2013 for wide production and named "Gora". Different stability parameters explained genotypic performance differently, irrespective of yield performance. It was accordingly concluded that assessment of G × E interaction and yield stability should not be based on a single or a few stability parameters but rather

  6. Yield stability and relationships among stability parameters in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamene Temesgen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen faba bean genotypes were evaluated in 13 environments in Ethiopia during the main cropping season for three years (2009–2011. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the yield stability of the genotypes and the relative importance of different stability parameters for improving selection in faba bean. The study was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replications. G × E interaction and yield stability were estimated using 17 different stability parameters. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed that the main effects of both genotypes and environments, and the interaction effect, were highly significant (P ≤ 0.001 and (P ≤ 0.01, respectively. The environment main effect accounted for 89.27% of the total yield variation, whereas genotype and G × E interaction effects accounted for 2.12% and 3.31%, respectively. Genotypic superiority index (Pi and FT3 were found to be very informative for selecting both high-yielding and stable faba bean genotypes. Twelve of the 17 stability parameters, including CVi, RS, α, λ, S2di, bi, Si(2, Wi, σi2, EV, P59, and ASV, were influenced simultaneously by both yield and stability. They should accordingly be used as complementary criteria to select genotypes with high yield and stability. Although none of the varieties showed consistently superior performance across all environments, the genotype EK 01024-1-2 ranked in the top third of the test entries in 61.5% of the test environments and was identified as the most stable genotype, with type I stability. EK 01024-1-2 also showed a 17.0% seed size advantage over the standard varieties and was released as a new variety in 2013 for wide production and named “Gora”. Different stability parameters explained genotypic performance differently, irrespective of yield performance. It was accordingly concluded that assessment of G × E interaction and yield stability should not be based on a single or a few

  7. Yield stability and relationships among stability parameters in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamene Temesgen; Gemechu Keneni; Tadese Sefera; Mussa Jarso

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen faba bean genotypes were evaluated in 13 environments in Ethiopia during the main cropping season for three years (2009–2011). The objectives of the study were to evaluate the yield stability of the genotypes and the relative importance of different stability parameters for improving selection in faba bean. The study was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replications. G × E interaction and yield stability were estimated using 17 different stability parameters. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed that the main effects of both genotypes and environments, and the interaction effect, were highly significant (P≤0.001) and (P≤0.01), respectively. The environment main effect accounted for 89.27% of the total yield variation, whereas genotype and G × E interaction effects accounted for 2.12% and 3.31%, respectively. Genotypic superiority index (Pi) and FT3 were found to be very informative for selecting both high-yielding and stable faba bean genotypes. Twelve of the 17 stability parameters, including CVi, RS,α,λ, S2di, bi, Si(2), Wi,σi2, EV, P59, and ASV, were influenced simultaneously by both yield and stability. They should accordingly be used as complementary criteria to select genotypes with high yield and stability. Although none of the varieties showed consistently superior performance across all environments, the genotype EK 01024-1-2 ranked in the top third of the test entries in 61.5% of the test environments and was identified as the most stable genotype, with type I stability. EK 01024-1-2 also showed a 17.0%seed size advantage over the standard varieties and was released as a new variety in 2013 for wide production and named “Gora”. Different stability parameters explained genotypic performance differently, irrespective of yield performance. It was accordingly concluded that assessment of G × E interaction and yield stability should not be based on a single or a few stability parameters but

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean(Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojiao; Wang; Hao; Liu; Guixing; Ren

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean(Vicia faba L.) seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS). Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares(PLS) regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation(r2) of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  9. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  10. Rumen microbial protein supply as estimated from purine derivative excretion on sheep receiving faba beans (vicia faba as supplement delivered at different feeding frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmuddin Natsir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and extensive degradation of faba beans (Vicia faba by ruminal microbes can result in substantial and undesirable N loss from the rumen. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that offering faba beans as a supplement more than once a day to sheep receiving a combination of oaten chaff and lucerne chaff as a basal diet will increase microbial protein supply to the intestines. The experiment was conducted in a Latin square design (4 x 4 using four mature merino sheep. The treatments were: T0 = basal diet ad libitum + nil supplements, T1 = T0 + faba beans (FB fed once daily, T2 = T0 + FB fed twice daily, T3 = T0 + FB fed 8 times daily. The basal diet was given once per day at 09:00 in the morning while FB were given at the rate of approximately 0.5% of live body weight and delivered according to the treatment protocol. Urinary excretion of purine derivative (PD was used to estimate microbial protein supply. The results indicated that even though treatment statistically had no effects on total urine output, PD excretion in the urine, PD absorbed, estimated microbial N supply, and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis, provision of supplement to sheep numerically improved microbial N supply by 92% compared to that of control group. However, there were no differences within the supplemented group. Therefore, it is concluded that feeding faba beans more than once a day was unnecessary.

  11. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

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    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  12. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

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    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  13. Development of a new diagnostic marker for growth habit selection in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, C M; Atienza, S G; Moreno, M T; Torres, A M

    2007-11-01

    Faba bean varieties with determinacy of the apical meristem are relevant to green production. A diagnostic CAPS (cleavage amplification polymorphic sequence) marker for determinate growth habit (ti) in faba bean was previously developed by Avila et al. (Mol Breed 17:185-190, 2006) but was effective only on a limited range of cultivars or genotypes. In this study, we studied the reasons for this limited application and developed a new marker useful for most faba bean-breeding programs. By designing a new set of primers, the complete genomic Vf_TFL1 sequences from different genotypes contrasting for the character were obtained and additional base changes associated with the ti phenotype were identified. The comparison among faba bean sequences showed that the previous CAPS marker was based on a SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) at position 469 in the intron 2-3, a silent mutation. On the contrary, a SNP at position 26 that distinguishes determinate and indeterminate growth habit genotypes lead to an amino acid change (Leu-9 to Arg) in the determinate growth habit genotypes that could account for the ti phenotype. A dCAPS marker based on this SNP that creates a TaqI site in the ti allele was developed. The marker was 100% successful in predicting ti phenotypes in a broad range of faba bean germplasm representing all major cultivars historically grown in Europe. The outcome confirms the utility of the new dCAPS in worldwide marker-assisted selection programs.

  14. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaadawi,I.S; KHALIQ,A.; A.A Al-Temimi; Matloob,A

    2011-01-01

    Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba) fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin) at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was ...

  15. Phenolics, phytic acid, and phytase in Canadian-grown low-tannin faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomah, B Dave; Luc, Geneviéve; Leprelle, Claire; Drover, John C G; Harrison, Judith E; Olson, Mark

    2011-04-27

    Thirteen low-tannin faba bean genotypes grown at two locations in north central Alberta in 2009 were evaluated to investigate the variation in seed characteristics, phenolic and phytate contents, and phytase and antioxidant activities and to elucidate the relationship of these components as a breeding strategy. Seed characteristics including color were predominantly genotype dependent. The faba bean genotypes with total phenolic content ranging from 5.5 to 41.8 mg of catechin equiv/g of sample was linearly related to tannin content and the best predictor of antioxidant activity. Phytic acid content and phytase activity varied significantly among genotypes and between locations, ranging from 5.9 to 15.1 g/kg and from 1606 to 2154 FTU/kg sample, respectively. Multivariate data analysis performed on 19 components analyzed in this study using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis demonstrate that differences in seed characteristics, phenolic components, phytic acid, and phytase are major factors in segregating faba bean genotypes. The relatively low phytic acid content and high phytase activity of these low-tannin faba bean genotypes are beneficial/essential traits for their use in human and animal nutrition.

  16. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Hassan, Amro B; Osman, Gammaa A M; Mohammed, Nagat; Rushdi, Mohamed A H; Diab, Eiman E; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2014-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction on tannin content for both cultivars. Cooking of faba bean seeds also insignificantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced phytic acid content for both cultivars, while irradiation process and/or cooking had fluctuated effect. For both cultivars, irradiation of seeds and/or cooking increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), with maximum value of IVPD (79.97%) obtained for cultivar BB7-S1. The results indicate that the treatments used in this study might improve the nutritive quality of faba bean seed due to reduction in antinutritional factors with a concomitant increase in IVPD.

  18. Genetic variation for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

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    Peyman SHARIFI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  An investigation was carried out to select the most successful faba bean genotype(s and to estimate the heritability for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the traits. For 100-seed weight, two north's of Iran landraces (G1 and G2 and two improved breeding cultivars containing France (G4 and Barrakat (G10 possessed the heaviest seed weight, 161.33, 139, 119.67 and 166 g, respectively. G1 and G10 presented the highest values for dry seed weight (473.98 and 495.44 g m-2, respectively. G1 and G10 showed significantly higher magnitude values of the other traits. Broad sense heritability (h2 estimates were generally high to moderate for all of the studied traits. The highest estimates of broad sense heritability was inscribed as 98 % for pod length, dry seed length and dry seed width and 0.95 for hundred seed weight. The estimated broad-sense heritability was 0.80 for dry seed yield per m2. These results suggested that the environmental factors had a small effect on the inheritance of traits with high heritability. High estimates of heritability indicated that selection based on mean would be successful in improving of these traits. High heritability indicate an additive gene action for the traits, and hence, possible trait improvement through selection. Path coefficient analysis indicated that the traits containing day to harvesting, pod length, hundred seed weight and number of stems per plant play major role in seed yield determination of faba bean. Attention should be paid to these characters for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. 

  19. Comparative Analysis of Defense Responses in Chocolate Spot-Resistant and -Susceptible Faba Bean (Vicia faba) Cultivars Following Infection by the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis fabae

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Komy, Mahmoud H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, resistance responses were investigated during the interaction of Botrytis fabae with two faba bean cultivars expressing different levels of resistance against this pathogen, Nubaria (resistant) and Giza 40 (susceptible). Disease severity was assessed on leaves using a rating scale from 1 to 9. Accumulation levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) were measured in leaf tissues at different times of infection. The expression profiles of two pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) encoded by the genes PR-1 and β-1,3-glucanase were also investigated using reverse transcription RT-PCR analysis. The accumulation of these defense responses was induced significantly in both cultivars upon infection with B. fabae compared with un-inoculated controls. The resistant cultivar showed weaker necrotic symptom expression, less ROS accumulation, a lower rate of lipid peroxidation and higher activity of the enzymatic ROS scavenging system compared with susceptible cultivar. Interestingly, ROS accumulated rapidly in the resistant leaf tissues and peaked during the early stages of infection, whereas accumulation was stronger and more intense in the susceptible tissues in later stages. Moreover, the response of the resistant cultivar to infection was earlier and stronger, exhibiting high transcript accumulation of the PR genes. These results indicated that the induction of oxidant/antioxidant responses and the accumulation of PRPs are part of the faba bean defense mechanism against the necrotrophic fungus B. fabae with a different intensity and timing of induction, depending on the resistance levels. PMID:25506300

  20. Variation in seed mineral elements profile and yield in field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor genotypes

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    Sara Lombardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor is one of the major leguminous crops cultivated in the world and mainly destined for animal feed. Although its seed is generally recognised as a good protein source, little is known about its mineral elements profile, which is an important aspect for a balanced animal diet. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the seed mineral elements composition, along with some key production parameters, in eight field bean genotypes grown in a Mediterranean environment, without intensive management, over two years (2009/10 and 2010/11. Independently of the year, the seed of Chiaro di Torre Lama was the richest in phosphorus (P, magnesium, calcium and iron contents, while that of Sint 6 and Motta Chiaro 69 were the most effective accumulators of potassium and zinc, respectively. While all the genotypes yielded better in the second year (with more rainfall, the seasonal effect on seed mineral elements composition depended on the genotype. Indeed, the P content was 46% lower in Chiaro di Torre Lama, Motta Chiaro 69 and Sint 6 in the second year, while there was only a negligible seasonal effect for Sint 8 with respect to Fe content. Overall, this crop is reasonably productive under a low management regime and its seed can supply significant amounts of certain minerals (particularly P in feed formulations. Both aspects are important in a perspective of optimising field bean production in the Mediterranean area and, hence, improving farmers’ income.

  1. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output

    OpenAIRE

    Gullón, P.; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatt...

  2. LC-MSdetermination of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean (Vicia fabaL. lines with common and rare flowercolors

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    Jinguo Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of muscle control, which causes trembling of the limbs and head as well as impaired balance. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine is the major ingredient of several prescription drugs used to treat PD. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the few plant species that is known to produce L-DOPA and has the potential to be developed as a functional food crop for people suffering with PD. Objective: Aimed to provide needed information for people who want to use faba bean as a natural remedy or functional food to relieve PD symptoms, this study analyzed the variation of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean lines with common and rare flower colors. Methods: Leaf and flower samples were taken from field grown plants with different flower colors, namely, pink with purple lines and black dots, pure white, brown, and crimson. Samples were freeze-dried and L-DOPA was quantified by a LC-MS system consisting of an ACQUITY UPLC in line with a Synapt G2 HDMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This experiment was carried out in two consecutive years (2012 and 2013 and the plants used in the second year were grown from the seeds harvested from the plants used in the first year. Results and Discussion: Our two-year study revealed a high level of variation in L-DOPA concentration for leaf and flower tissues among the six faba bean lines studied. The average L-DOPA concentration based on dry weight (DW in flowers ranged from 27.8 to 63.5 mg/g and 18.2 to 48.7 mg/g for leaf tissues. There was no significant correlation between L-DOPA concentrations in flowers and leaves. The L-DOPA concentration in flowers and in leaves of the same line varied but were not statistically significant between the two years. Ideally, the genotype with the highest average L-DOPA concentration in both flowers and leaves would be grown

  3. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Defense Responses in Chocolate Spot-Resistant and -Susceptible Faba Bean (Vicia faba Cultivars Following Infection by the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis fabae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud H. El-Komy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, resistance responses were investigated during the interaction of Botrytis fabae with two faba bean cultivars expressing different levels of resistance against this pathogen, Nubaria (resistant and Giza 40 (susceptible. Disease severity was assessed on leaves using a rating scale from 1 to 9. Accumulation levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were measured in leaf tissues at different times of infection. The expression profiles of two pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs encoded by the genes PR-1 and β-1,3-glucanase were also investigated using reverse transcription RT-PCR analysis. The accumulation of these defense responses was induced significantly in both cultivars upon infection with B. fabae compared with un-inoculated controls. The resistant cultivar showed weaker necrotic symptom expression, less ROS accumulation, a lower rate of lipid peroxidation and higher activity of the enzymatic ROS scavenging system compared with susceptible cultivar. Interestingly, ROS accumulated rapidly in the resistant leaf tissues and peaked during the early stages of infection, whereas accumulation was stronger and more intense in the susceptible tissues in later stages. Moreover, the response of the resistant cultivar to infection was earlier and stronger, exhibiting high transcript accumulation of the PR genes. These results indicated that the induction of oxidant/antioxidant responses and the accumulation of PRPs are part of the faba bean defense mechanism against the necrotrophic fungus B. fabae with a different intensity and timing of induction, depending on the resistance levels.

  5. Symbiotic effectiveness and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Sichuan hilly areas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Wang, Ke; Heng, Nan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yuan Xue

    2015-10-01

    A total of 54 rhizobial strains were isolated from faba bean root nodules in 21 counties of Sichuan hilly areas in China, and their symbiotic effectiveness, genetic diversity and phylogeny were assessed. Only six strains increased the shoot dry mass of the host plant significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the cluster analysis of combined 16S rDNA and intergenic spacer region (IGS) PCR-RFLP, the strains were divided into 31 genotypes in 11 groups, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity among the strains. The sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and 16S rDNA indicated that the strains represented two R. leguminosarum, two Rhizobium spp., R. mesosinicum, Agrobacterium sp. and A. tumefaciens. The strains representing four Rhizobium species were divided into two distinct nodC and nifH genotypes. However, the phylogeny of housekeeping genes and symbiotic genes was not congruent, implying that the strains had been shaped by vertical evolution of the housekeeping genes and lateral evolution of the symbiotic genes.

  6. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A; Johnson, David

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling.

  7. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Pickett, John A.; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. PMID:25200735

  8. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch (S

  9. The Effect of Weeds Interference Time and Plant Density on Weeds Control and Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dabaghzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Broad bean (Vicia faba L. belongs to the Fabaceae family and is the most important protein plant in the world. Although broad bean used as cover crop is able to deal with weeds, but the evidence show that yield of the plant decreased 32-82% because of competition with weeds. Using crop density is one of the ecological approaches in weed management. Broad bean density can produce biomass, weed competition, seed yield and ultimately influence the economic yield. Many reports show that increasing crop density reduced negative effects of weeds. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of weeds interference and different densities of broad bean on density and biomass of weeds and broad bean seed yield. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out as split plot in randomized complete block, with four replications, during 2009-2010 in a field experiment at Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, Ahwaz. Weeds interference was investigated on 5 levels, including V5, V9, V13 broad-bean phonological stages, full season weeding and full season weeds interference selected as main plots, and broad-bean density on 3 levels: including 8, 11 and 14 plants m-2 as subplots. Density, dry weight and diversity of weeds and seed yield of broad bean were evaluated. Results and Discussion The results showed that the weeds including wild beet, field bindweed and mallow had the highest occurrence (26.35, 21.17 and 18.46 plants m-2 respectively in V9 broad-bean phonological stage, where the peak abundance of weeds was observed. The frequency of mallow, clover and yellow alfalfa were high until V5 broad-bean phonological stage, but in the next stages, they were replaced by other weeds and sorrel. It was also observed that the environmental factors can affect composition of weeds, for example, as the temperature increased in the early spring, an increase in the density of field bindweed was recorded. In the treatment of 8 plants

  10. Potential impact of CO{sub 2} leakage from carbon capture and storage systems on field bean (Vicia faba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Traboulsi, M.; Sjoegersten, S.; Colls, J.; Black, C. [Univ. of Nottingham. School of Biosciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Steven, M. [Univ. of Nottingham. School of Geography, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Capture and geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has been suggested to be essential to reduce emissions to the atmosphere and aid mitigation of global climate change. However, leakage from transport pipelines or carbon capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs may pose risks to vegetation and contribute to rising atmospheric concentrations [CO{sub 2}]. This study examined effects on seedling emergence and growth when field bean plants (Vicia faba cv. Wizard) grown under field conditions were subjected to elevated soil [CO{sub 2}] for 39 days after planting. The strong negative correlation between soil [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 2}] during the injection period created a hypoxic soil environment under conditions of elevated soil [CO{sub 2}]. The damaging impact of this treatment became apparent early in the experiment as no seeds exposed to soil [CO{sub 2}] >50% emerged, even after injection was discontinued. Some seeds exposed to soil [CO{sub 2}] <50% produced seedlings, but many did not survive. Seedling emergence and survival in the gassed plots was greatest at [CO{sub 2}] of 5-20%, but root and shoot growth was reduced relative to control plants. Seedling emergence and growth were negatively related to soil [CO{sub 2}] and positively related to [O{sub 2}], although it is not known which was more important in inducing the observed effects. These findings suggest that leakage of CO{sub 2} from transport pipelines or CCS sites may greatly reduce seedling emergence and crop establishment in the vicinity of such infrastructures. (Author)

  11. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  12. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield and yield component in some of broad bean (Vicia faba l. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean is a grain legume and grown for its high protein content in the seed. It is also serves as a rotational crop which play great role in controlling disease epidemics in areas were cereal mono-cropping is abundant. Yield in faba bean, similar to the other crops, is a complex trait and constitute by many of morphological and physiological traits. This study was carried out during 2011-12 and 2012-13 in two region of Iran including Guilan and Lorestan provinces. Field experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications and ten genotypes. The results of combined analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the studied traits. The results indicated also environment effect and environment × genotype interaction effects were significant or highly significant for all of the traits. The highest seed yield were determined for genotype 1 (3159.9 and 4016.9 kg ha-1 at 2012 and 2013, respectively in Guilan and genotype 5 (495.44 kg ha-1 in Lorestan. The results of correlation analysis indicated that there were positive significant correlation coefficients between seed yield and seed length (LS, seed width (WS, pod length (PL and hundred seed weight (HSW in Guilan province at two cropping season. Path coefficient analysis indicated that traits containing number of pod per plant, number of steam per plant, pod length, seed length/width ratio and hundred seed weight had the highest positive direct effects on dry seed yield in studied faba bean genotypes. Attention should be paid to some of characters such as pod length, hundred seed weight, number of pods per plant and number of stems per plant for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. It could be

  13. Effect of air classification and fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-133328 on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Melama, Leena; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Sibakov, Juhani; Holopainen, Ulla; Pulkkinen, Marjo; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-16

    The effects of air classification and lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the reduction of anti-nutritional factors (vicine and convicine, trypsin inhibitor activity, condensed tannins and phytic acid) and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of faba bean flour were studied. Free amino acid (FAA) profile analysis was also carried out. Air classification allowed the separation of the flour into protein and starch rich fractions, showing different chemical compositions and microstructures. Lactobacillus plantarum growth and acidification in faba bean flour and its fractions were assessed. The anti-nutritional compounds were separated mostly to the fine protein-rich fraction. Fermentation caused the decrease of vicine and convicine contents by more than 91% and significantly reduced trypsin inhibitor activity and condensed tannins (by more than 40% in the protein-rich fraction). No significant (P>0.05) variation was observed for total phenols and phytic acid content. Fermentation increased the amount of FAA, especially of the essential amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and significantly lowered the hydrolysis index. This work showed that the combination of air classification and fermentation improved nutritional functionality of faba bean flour which could be utilized in various food applications.

  14. Field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein feed for growing lambs with and without protected lysine and methionine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Badii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Appenninica lambs were submitted to a growth trial from day 60 to day 110 of age (on average and the com-  position of gains was estimated by means of the comparative slaughter technique. Sixteen different diets, based on wheat  straw as the forage and on field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as the sole protein feed, were tested both by means of ANOVA  and of response surface analysis, a multiple regression method designed to study additive and interaction effects. This  study thus examined the combined effect of 4 levels of dietary CP (13, 15, 18, 20% DM and 4 levels of rumen protected  lysine and methionine, replacing 4 levels of field bean CP (0, 1, 2, 3 percent units, upon intakes, gains, digestibility and  retentions of nutrients within gains. The animals had rather high gains (250 g/d on average and retention efficiencies both  of feed nitrogen and energy. Dietary CP levels higher than 18% and amino acid supplementation appeared of no use in  improving the lambs’ performance. It is concluded that field bean may represent a valid alternative to soy bean as a pro-  tein feed for growing ruminants in the so-called “organic” animal production where transgenic soy is banned. 

  15. Association mapping for frost tolerance using multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmed; Martsch, Regina

    2015-08-01

    A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) derived from 11 founder lines in faba bean was used in this study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for frost tolerance traits using the association mapping method with 156 SNP markers. This MAGIC population consists of a set of 189 genotypes from the Göttingen Winter Bean Population. The association panel was tested in two different experiments, i.e. a frost and a hardening experiment. Six morphological traits, leaf fatty acid composition, relative water content in shoots were scored in this study. The genotypes presented a large genetic variation for all traits that were highly heritable after frost and after hardening. High phenotypic significant correlations were established between traits. The principal coordinates analysis resulted in no clear structure in the current population. Association mapping was performed using a general linear model and mixed linear model with kinship. A False discovery rate of 0.20 (and 0.05) was used to test the significance of marker-trait association. As a result, many putative QTLs for 13 morphological and physiological traits were detected using both models. The results reveal that QTL mapping by association analysis is a powerful method of detecting the alleles associated with frost tolerance in the winter faba bean which can be used in accelerating breeding programs.

  16. Nitrogen Fixation (C(2)H(2) Reduction) by Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Nodules and Bacteroids under Water-Restricted Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, V; Trinchant, J C; Rigaud, J

    1990-03-01

    Water potentials of leaves and nodules of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivated on a sandy mixture were linearly and highly (r(2) = 0.99) correlated throughout a water deprivation of plants. A decrease of 0.2 megapascal of the nodule water potential (Psi(nod)) induced an immediate 25% inhibition of the highest level of acetylene reduction of broad bean nodules attached to roots. This activity continued to be depressed when water stress increased, but the effect was less pronounced. Partial recovery of optimal C(2)H(2) reduction capacity of mildly water stressed nodules (Psi(nod) = -1.2 megapascals) was possible by increasing the external O(2) partial pressure up to 60 kilopascals. The dense packing of the cortical cells of nodules may be responsible for the limitation of O(2) diffusion to the central tissue. Bacteroids isolated from broad bean nodules exhibited higher N(2) fixation activity with glucose than with succinate as an energy-yielding substrate. Bacteroids from stressed nodules appeared more sensitive to O(2), and their optimal activity declined with increasing nodule water deprivation. This effect could be partly due to decreased bacteroid respiration capacity with water stress. Water stress was also responsible for a decrease of the cytosolic protein content of the nodule and more specifically of leghemoglobin. The alteration of the bacteroid environment appears to contribute to the decline in N(2) fixation under water restricted conditions.

  17. A study of arsenic speciation in soil, irrigation water and plant tissue: A case study of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-11-01

    Samples of soil, the broad bean plant, Vicia faba and irrigation water were collected from the same agricultural site in Dokan, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined in all materials by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Available arsenic (11%) was also determined within the soil, together with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of total arsenic were: soil (5.32μgg(-1)), irrigation water (1.06μgL(-1)), roots (2.065μgg(-1)) and bean (0.133μgg(-1)). Stems, leaves and pods were also measured. Inorganic As(V) dominated soil (90%) and root (78%) samples. However, organo-arsenic (MMA, 48% and DMA, 19%) was the more dominant species in the edible bean. The study provides an insight into the uptake, preferred disposal route, speciation changes and loss mechanism involved for arsenic with this food source.

  18. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    bean may prove to be a key component of future arable cropping systems where declining supplies and high prices of fossil energy are likely to constrain the affordability and use of fertilizers. This will help address the increasing demand by consumers and governments for agriculture to reduce its...... impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean...

  19. 蚕豆产量研究与高产育种%Yield Analysis and High Yield Breeding of Faba Bean(Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔世友; 缪亚梅

    2004-01-01

    对近30余年蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)产量研究与高产育种技术进行了总结,蚕豆产量研究表明:生物学产量是经济产量形成的物质基础,两者间存在高度正相关;产量构成因素对产量的形成均有较高的正向作用,但产量构成因素的改良受单株荚、粒数与粒重间负相关的制约;收获指数与籽粒产量间呈现极显著的正相关.还对蚕豆高产育种中高结荚率、早熟性的选择以及如何协调荚、粒数与粒重间的关系进行了讨论.

  20. Does ascorbate in the mesophyll cell walls form the first line of defence against ozone? Testing the concept using broad bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsányi, E; Lyons, T; Plöchl, M; Barnes, J

    2000-05-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants were exposed, in duplicate controlled environment chambers, to charcoal/Purafil-filtered air (CFA-grown plants) or to 75 nmol mol(-1) ozone (O(3)) for 7 h d(-1) (O(3)-grown plants) for 28 d, and then exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3 )for 8 h. The concentration of ascorbate (ASC) was determined in leaf extracellular washing fluid (apoplast) and in the residual leaf tissue (symplast) after 0, 4 and 8 h acute fumigation, and after a 16 h "recovery" period in CFA. Changes in stomatal conductance were measured in vivo in order to model pollutant uptake, while the light-saturated rate of CO(2) assimilation (A:(sat)) was recorded as an indicator of O(3)-induced intracellular damage. Measurements of A:(sat) revealed enhanced tolerance to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3) in plants pre-exposed to the pollutant compared with equivalent plants grown in CFA, consistent with the observed reduction in pollutant uptake due to lower stomatal conductance. The concentration of ASC in the leaf apoplast (ASC(apo)) declined upon O(3)-treatment in both CFA- and O(3)-grown plants, consistent with the oxidation of ASC(apo) under O(3)-stress. Furthermore, the decline in ASC(apo) was reversible in O(3)-grown plants after a 16 h "recovery" period, but not in plants grown in CFA. No significant change in the level and/or redox state of ASC in the symplast (ASC(symp)) was observed in plants exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3), and there was no difference in the constitutive level of ASC(symp) between CFA- and O(3)-grown plants. Model calculations indicated that the reaction of O(3) with ASC(apo) in the leaves of Vicia faba is potentially sufficient to intercept a substantial proportion (30-40%) of the O(3)entering the plant under environmentally-relevant conditions. The potential role of apoplastic ASC in mediating the tolerance of leaves to O(3) is discussed.

  1. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  2. Quality Analysis of Broad Bean(Vicia faba Linn.) Varieties%不同蚕豆品种的品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严清彪; 刘玉皎

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究不同蚕豆(Vicia faba Linn.)品种的品质差异.[方法]对111个不同蚕豆品种的种子蛋白质、单宁、钙以及硒含量进行了测定.[结果]蛋白质含量优异的品种有13个,单宁含量优异的品种有20个,钙含量优异的品种有16个,硒含量优异的品种有18个,通过对蛋白质、单宁、钙以及硒含量进行排序比对,筛选3个单项优质的品种分别为法7(1638)、青海83-26-12,2005-00,3个多项优质品种分别为H8096-3、青海马牙-1-1和伊拉克45-1.[结论]该研究可为进一步研究和加工利用蚕豆提供参考依据.%The purpose was to study the differences of quality of different broad bean varieties. [ Method ] The content of seed protein, tannins, calcium, and selenium of 111 kinds of broad bean varieties were measured. [ Result] The results showed that among the 111 different broad beans varieties, 13 varieties were high in protein content, 20 varieties were high in tannins content, 16 varieties were high in calcium content, and 18 varieties were high in selenium content. Though the sort and comparison of the content of protein, tannins, calcium, and selenium, 3 varieties were found to be single high-quality varieties; Fa7(1638) , Qinhai83-26-12, and2005-00, 3varieties were found to be multiply-quality varieties; H8096-3 , Qinhaiyama-1-1, and Iraq45-1. [ Conclusion] The study provides a reference basis for deeply researching, machining and utilizing of broad bean.

  3. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  4. Agronomic performance of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and faba bean intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.

  5. Occurrence of broad bean (Vicia faba L. diseases in Olsztyn-Elbąg and Bydgoszcz Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Sadowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1981-1985, there were conducted studies of the healthiness of broad bean,'Nadwiślański' variety, cultivated in different soil and climate conditions of the two regions: i.e. Bydgoszcz - comparatively warmer and drier, and Olsztyn-Elbląg - colder and moister. It was found that the main reason for a premature broad bean leaves dry in up in the Olsztyn-Elbląg Region was caused by the fungi Cercospora and Botrytis, and in the Bydgoszcz Region - the root rot which occurs here to a greater extent. Root gangrene was greater intensity in drier and lighter soils. Rotting broad bean roots were most frequently occupied by the fungi of the Fusarium family (ca. 70%. The prevailing species were Fusarium oxysporum, next F. solani and more rarely F. culmorum and F. avenaceum. Climate conditions and soil species affected considerably the species composition of the root fungi.

  6. Advances in faba bean genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Martin O'Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centres of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favoured plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea.However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fuelled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990’s and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are

  7. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Portuguese Cultivated Vicia faba L. through IRAP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Tomás

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean have been grown in Portugal for a long time and locally adapted populations are still maintained on farm. The genetic diversity of four Portuguese faba bean populations that are still cultivated in some regions of the country was evaluated using the Inter Retrotransposons Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP technique. It was shown that molecular markers based on retrotransposons previously identified in other species can be efficiently used in the genetic variability assessment of Vicia faba. The IRAP experiment targeting Athila yielded the most informative banding patterns. Cluster analysis using the neighbor-joining algorithm generated a dendrogram that clearly shows the distribution pattern of V. faba samples. The four equina accessions are separated from each other and form two distinct clades while the two major faba bean accessions are not unequivocally separated by the IRAP. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis of sequences amplified by IRAP Athila revealed a wide distribution throughout V. faba chromosomes, confirming the whole-genome coverage of this molecular marker. Morphological characteristics were also assessed through cluster analysis of seed characters using the unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA and principal component analysis (PCA, showing a clear discrimination between faba bean major and equina groups. It was also found that the seed character most relevant to distinguish accessions was 100 seed weight. Seed morphological traits and IRAP evaluation give similar results supporting the potential of IRAP analysis for genetic diversity studies.

  8. Meiotic changes in Vicia faba L. subsequent to treatments of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Husain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of mutagens for creating variations in crops like faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important criterion in the contemporary world where food insecurity and malnutrition is alarming at the doors of various nations. Impact of two chemical mutagens viz. hydrazine hydrate (HZ and maleic hydrazide (MH on the two varieties (NDF-1 and HB-405 of Vicia faba were analysed in terms of meiotic behavior and pollen sterility. Since there are not enough data about the effect of these mutagens on the chromosomal behaviors of Vicia faba, this study presents the role of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide as well as various types of chromosomal aberrations in crop improvement. The lower concentration of mutagens showed less pollen sterility compared to the higher concentrations. Manipulation of plant structural component to induce desirable alternations provides valuable material for the breeders and could be used favorably for increasing mutation rate and obtaining a desirable spectrum of mutation in faba beans based on preliminary studies of cell division.

  9. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  10. Embryological studies of reciprocal crosses between Vicia faba and Vicia narbonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Zenkteler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to asses the reciprocal crossability between Vicia faba and Vicia narbonensis. Flower buds or only ovaries of several varietes and genotypes were cross-pollinated in vivo (green house and field and in vitro. Only few pollen tubes passed the style and entered into the ovary. On the whole number of 5320 cross pollinated in vivo and in vitro flowers and ovaries of Vicia narbonensis only 78 globular hybrid embryos were observed. After cross pollination in vivo of 3860 flower buds and ovaries of Vicia faba globular embryos developed in 124 ovules. The highest number of globular embryos were obtained when the Vicia faba line 1/33 was pollinated with Vicia narbonensis lines P3, P5, 150, SE.Embryogenesis proceeded till the 6-10 day after pollination, however, karyological disturbances in the cells of embryos and endosperm were often noticed at earlier stages. In vitro pollen grains of Vicia faba germinated on stigmas and ovaries of Vicia narbonensis, a significant increase in the growth of pollen tubes was noticed after ovary pollination. The technique of in vitro pollination was not suitable for Vicia faba as the inoculated explants died shortly after transferring onto the medium. The results indicate that finding a more suitable genotype for crossing may give a chance to obtain higher number of embryos (example line 1/33 - thus sufficient number for culturing them on media.

  11. Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers in Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem S. Alghamdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments, of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding.

  12. 发芽对蚕豆中植酸和不同价态铁含量的影响%The Effect of Germination on Phytic Acid and Iron Content of Different Valence State in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗羽洧; 王丽君; 郁志芸

    2012-01-01

    以蚕豆为研究对象,探讨了发芽过程中植酸和铁在蚕豆不同部位含量分布及变化情况。植酸随发芽时间延长含量在不断减少,发芽至第8天,子叶中植酸含量减少50%。在发芽过程中,铁含量在子叶中最高,其次是胚轴,而胚根和胚芽中含量最低。蚕豆发芽过程中铁的化学价态发生改变,其中有利于人体吸收的二价铁的比例显著增加。因此,通过发芽处理可提高蚕豆中铁的生物有效性。%Phytic acid and iron content in faba bean fractions during germination are investigat ed. Germination is an effective approach to reducing phytic acid in cotyledon and phytic acid is removed by 50% in cotyledon of the bean on the eighth day during germination. The cotyledon has the highest content of Fe, followed by embryonic axis, radicle and plumula. During germi nation, some mechanisms of faba bean can lead to the changing of iron chemical forms. By this mechanism the content of soluble ferrous iron increases obviously. So germination is a good way to improve the iron bioactivity in faba bean.

  13. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes aggravated biochemical and subcellular damages in leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings under combined stress of lead and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chengrun, E-mail: chengrunwang@163.com [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China); Liu, Haitao; Chen, Jinyun [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China); Tian, Yuan [Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Shi, Jian; Li, Dongdong; Guo, Chen; Ma, Qingping [School of Life Science, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232001 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • MWCNTs-COOH disturb mineral elements and cause oxidative damages in the leaves. • Cd and Pb combination result in reduction of mineral elements and enrichment of Na, involving in toxicity mechanisms. • MWCNTs-COOH facilitate Cd and Pb uptake, and aggravate biochemical and subcellular damages. - Abstract: Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L) and their combination with 20 μM Pb and 5 μM Cd (shortened as Pb + Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb + Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb + Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb + Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals.

  14. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Prandini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment. The RP and RF diets did not negatively affect the carcass characteristics both of the pigs slaughtered at the conventional weight (127.5 kg and heavy pigs (158.5 kg. The pigs fed the RP and RF diets ate similarly to the pigs fed the CTR overall the trial but RF pigs grew better than CTR animals. The subcutaneous fat of the fresh hams destined for Parma ham production and obtained from pigs fed RP diet had a higher omega 3 fatty acid percentage. Moreover, the RP and RF diets resulted in fat with better omega 3/omega 6 ratio compared with CTR. All the fat samples had iodine numbers within the limit value (70 reported by the Production Disciplinary of Parma ham. No treatment effect was found on the analytical and sensorial characteristics of the Parma hams, except for the aged taste which was more intense in the hams obtained from pigs fed the RF diet. These results indicate that pea and faba bean may be used as an alternative to imported SBM.

  15. Oospora populations of Peronospora viciae: quantification, germinability andsurvival.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Peronospora viciae causes downy mildew on pea, field and broad bean. Two pathogens can be distinguished, P. viciae f.sp. pisi on pea (Pisum sativum) and P. viciae f. sp. fabae on field and broad bean (Vicia faba). These pathogens form resting spores, called oospores, in their host plant tissue. The

  16. Effects of Different Germination Conditions on Phytase Activity on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)%不同发芽条件对蚕豆植酸酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗羽洧; 解卫华; 马娟; 郁志芸

    2012-01-01

    以蚕豆为试材,研究发芽过程中植酸酶在蚕豆不同部位的变化和性质.发芽蚕豆不同部位植酸酶活性呈现先高后低的变化趋势,子叶植酸酶在发芽第6天达最高值.超声波处理对发芽蚕豆胚根、子叶和胚芽植酸酶活性有一定促进作用,其中以15min超声波处理对胚根和胚芽植酸酶活性影响最大,5min处理、10min处理和15min处理均对子叶植酸酶活性有显著影响.在发芽过程中不同光照对蚕豆进行处理,不论胚根、子叶还是胚芽,黑暗处理植酸酶活性高于光照处理.核酸抑制剂放线菌素(Act-D)和蛋白质抑制剂环已酰胺(CHM)对发芽蚕豆胚根、子叶和胚芽中的植酸酶活性有一定影响,其中以CHM的抑制效果最为明显.%Phytase activity and property in different faba bean fractions during germination were investigated with faba bean as the testing piece. The phytase activity appeared a change trend of increasing first then decreased with the maximum value at the sixth day during germination in cotyledon. Ultransonic treatments had facilitations on phytase activity in cotyledon, radicle and plumule among which 15 min treatment has the biggest effect on phytase activity in radicle and plumule. 5 min treatment, 10 min treatment and 15 min treatment had obvious effects on phytase activity in cotyledon. Whether cotyledon,radicle and plumule,faba bean during darkness treatment had higher phytase activity than that of different illuminations during germination. Act - D and CHM had certain effects on cotyledon, radicle and plumule of phytase activity in faba bean, among which, the CHM had the largest inhibition effect on phytase activity.

  17. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Alsaadawi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was even better than herbicide used alone. Integration of recommended dose of Treflan with sunflower residue at 1,400 g m-² produced maximum (987.5 g m-2 aboveground biomass of broad bean, which was 74 and 36% higher than control and recommended herbicide dose applied alone, respectively. Combination of herbicide and sunflower residue appeared to better enhance pod number and yield per unit area than herbicide alone. Application of 50% dose of Treflan in plots amended with sunflower residue resulted in similar yield advantage as was noticed with 100% herbicide dose. Chromatographic analysis of residue-infested field soil indicated the presence of several phytotoxic compounds of phenolic nature. Periodic data revealed that maximum suppression in weed density and dry weight synchronized with peak values of phytotoxins observed 4 weeks after incorporation of sunflower residues. Integration of sunflower residues with lower herbicide rates can produce effective weed suppression without compromising yield as a feasible and environmentally sound approach in broad bean fields.O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de utilizar resíduos agrícolas com potencial alelopático para reduzir o uso de herbicidas sintéticos em fava (Vicia faba. Resíduos de girassol (600 e 1,400 g m-2 e Treflan (50, 75 e 100% da dose recomendada foram incorporados ao solo isoladamente ou em combinação uns com os outros. Parcelas não tratadas foram mantidas como controle. A aplicação de

  18. ROLE OF ASCORBIC ACID ON GERMINATION INDEXES AND ENZYME ACTIVITY OF VICIA FABA SEEDS GROWN UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Awatif A. Mohsen; Mohsen K. H. Ebrahim; Wael F. S. Ghoraba

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate changes in growth and some metabolic activities in NaCl-stressed bean seedlings, and assessing the role of ascorbic acid to alleviate these changes. The germination was carried out to study the response of presoaked faba bean seeds (Vicia faba cv. Misr 2) in freshly prepared ascorbic acid (50 ppm ≈ 0.3 mM; as recommended dose as described by El-Tayeb, 1995) or distilled water (control) for 4 hrs at natural environmental conditions, to salinity stress duri...

  19. 氯化盐和激素对发芽蚕豆中γ-氨基丁酸富集的影响%Effects of chloride salts and hormones on γ-aminobutyric acid enrichment in germinated faba beans( Vicia faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠; 杨润强; 李岩; 韩永斌; 顾振新

    2012-01-01

    Effects of CaCl2,NaCl,gibberellic acid(GA3)and abscisic acid (ABA) on glutamate decarboxylase(GAD) ,diamine oxidases (DAO)and -γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA)of germinated faba beans ( Vicia faba L. ) , together with the contribution rate of polyamines (Pas) degradation to the enrichment of GABA were studied. The results showed that CaCl2, NaCl and GA3, except ABA, could increase the content of GABA in germinated faba beans under hypoxia stress. It was indicated that the optimal culture components for GABA en richment were:NaCl at a concentration of 37.1 mmol·L-1 ,CaCl2 at a concentration of 7. 3 mmol·L-1 and GA3 at a concentration of 27. 0 μmol·L-1. Under those conditions,the content of GABA was the highest,reaching(6. 14±0. 12) mg·g-1 ,which was 1. 58 times of the control. And the contribution rate of Pas degradation to enrichment of GABA ranged from 37.6% to 38.9% .%以蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)为试材,研究CaCl2 、NaCl、赤霉素(GA3)和脱落酸(ABA)对发芽蚕豆谷氨酸脱羧酶(GAD)、二胺氧化酶(DAO)和γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的影响,以及多胺(PAs)降解对GABA富集的贡献率.结果表明:低氧胁迫下,除ABA外,CaCl2、NaCl和GA3处理均可提高发芽蚕豆GABA含量;培养液组分中NaCl、CaCl2、GA3浓度分别为37.1 mmol·L-1、7.3 mmol·L-1和27.0 μmol·L-1时,发芽蚕豆中GABA富集量(6.14±0.12) mg·g-1是对照的1.58倍;PAs降解对GABA富集的贡献率为37.6%~ 38.9%.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manuela; Lopes, Susana; Viegas, Wanda; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0–0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction. PMID:27168146

  1. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  2. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns.

  3. Vicia faba Hypersensitivity and ASA Intolerance in a Farmer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Damiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The IgE-mediated allergic reactions to food are caused, generally, by ingestion. However, they can be rarely induced by exposure to airborne food particles through the handling or the cooking. Vicia faba is a vegetable which belongs to Legumes or Fabaceae family, Fabales order. Allergic reactions after ingestion of legumes and cases of asthma after exposure to the cooking vapors have been reported in the literature. A paper assessed the volatile substances (insect repellents released by V. faba. The authors demonstrated that this plant produces several chemical substances, such as small quantities of methyl salicylate. We describe a case of occupational allergy, induced by handling during picking up of fresh broad beans, in a farmer with history of adverse reaction after eating the cooked and raw vegetable.

  4. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy) approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  5. Botrytone, a new naphthalenone pentaketide produced by Botrytis fabae, the causal agent of chocolate spot disease on Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Villegas-Fernández, Angel M; Andolfi, Anna; Melck, Dominique; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2011-09-14

    A strain of Botrytis fabae isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants displaying clear chocolate spot disease symptoms produced phytotoxic metabolites in vitro. The phytotoxins isolated from the culture filtrate organic extract were characterized by spectroscopic and optical methods. A new naphthalenone pentaketide, named botrytone, was isolated and characterized as (4R)-3,4-dihydro-4,5,8-trihydroxy-1(2H)-naphthalenone together with other well-known closely related naphthalenones such as regiolone and cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones. When tested on leaves of the host plant, with the cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones assayed in mixture, regiolone demonstrated the highest level of phytotoxicity together with cis- and trans-3,4-dihydro-2,4,8-trihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-ones. Botrytone showed moderate phytotoxic activity at 1 mg/mL and was still phytotoxic at 0.5 mg/mL.

  6. High-throughput novel microsatellite marker of faba bean via next generation sequencing

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    Yang Tao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important food legume crop, grown for human consumption globally including in China, Turkey, Egypt and Ethiopia. Although genetic gain has been made through conventional selection and breeding efforts, this could be substantially improved through the application of molecular methods. For this, a set of reliable molecular markers representative of the entire genome is required. Results A library with 125,559 putative SSR sequences was constructed and characterized for repeat type and length from a mixed genome of 247 spring and winter sown faba bean genotypes using 454 sequencing. A suit of 28,503 primer pair sequences were designed and 150 were randomly selected for validation. Of these, 94 produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 32 faba bean genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8, the expected heterozygocities ranged from 0.0000 to 1.0000, and the observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.0908 to 0.8410. The validation by UPGMA cluster analysis of 32 genotypes based on Nei's genetic distance, showed high quality and effectiveness of those novel SSR markers developed via next generation sequencing technology. Conclusions Large scale SSR marker development was successfully achieved using next generation sequencing of the V. faba genome. These novel markers are valuable for constructing genetic linkage maps, future QTL mapping, and marker-assisted trait selection in faba bean breeding efforts.

  7. Effect of nitroxin and humic acid on yield and yield components of faba bean

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    Kholdi Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality and quantity improvement of crops using organic matter and low-cost method in the field is very important. Bio-fertilizer nitroxin and humic acid can increase root and shoot biomass through improved intake of nutrition and they can lead to quality and quantity improvement of product. An experiment was carried out as a completely randomized block design with 4 treatments to study the effect of nitroxin and humic acid on faba bean (Vicia faba L. traits. Trial treatments included control, nitroxin, humic acid and nitroxin + humic acid. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of combination of nitroxin + humic acid was significant (p< 1% on some traits such as stem height and yield of faba bean. The highest yield (2,315 kg ha-1 was obtained under nitroxin + humic acid treatment.

  8. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas.

  9. Nutritional value of raw and micronised field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Ivanova, Sonya Georgieva; Staykova, Genoveva Petrova; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2016-10-01

    An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens. The Control diet contained per kg 221 g crude protein and 12.83 MJ ME. Four additional diets contained 300 g/kg of each of the two untreated or micronised experimental field bean cultivar samples. Each diet was then split into two batches and one of them was supplemented with 3400 units tannase per kg diet resulting in 10 diets in total. Each diet was fed to seven pens with two randomly selected male broilers each. Birds fed the high tannin bean sample had a lower weight gain (p value of the different field bean samples were not improved by heat treatment, but enzyme supplementation improved the feeding value of all diets regardless of the bean samples or heat treatment. Further research is warranted to study the effectiveness of tannase supplementation in poultry diet formulations by dose response trials with purified tannase preparations.

  10. Genetic Damage of Root Tip Cells in Broad Bean Plant (Vicia faba) Induced by Water in Liao River Valley%辽河流域水诱发蚕豆根尖细胞遗传损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利红; 徐成斌; 陈忠林; 苏丹; 王家懿

    2009-01-01

    以辽河流域12个不同断面的河水为诱变剂,运用蚕豆根尖微核检测技术和染色体畸变实验方法,测定蚕豆根尖细胞的有丝分裂指数、微核率和染色体畸变率.结果表明:不同断面的河水均能降低蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数,能诱发较高频率的微核和染色体畸变,产生染色体断片、核突起和核碎裂.所有样点微核率和染色体畸变率均高于对照组.根据采样点水质污染指数分析町知,福德店水质属重度污染,东辽河、条子河、红庙子水质属中度污染,招苏台河水质属轻度污染.%Water in 12 sections of Liao River Valley was sampled as mutagen and micronucleus test and chromosome aberration assay were used to detect mitotic index,micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio of root tip cells in broad bean plant(Viciafaba).Results showed that water in different sections can decrease the mitotic index in Vicia faba root tip ceHs,induce higher raftos of either micronucleus or chromosome aberration and produce chromosomal segments,nuclear protuberances and fragments.Micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio in different sections were higher than those of the control group.Analysis of pollution index in 12 sections showed that water quality Was graded as heavy pollution in Fudedian River,moderate pollution in Dongliao River,Tiaozi River and Hongmiaozi River and light pollution in Zhaosutai River.

  11. Genotoxic effects and induction of phytochelatins in the presence of cadmium in Vicia faba roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béraud, Eric; Cotelle, Sylvie; Leroy, Pierre; Férard, Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates different effects in roots of Vicia faba (broad bean) after exposure to cadmium. Genotoxic effects were assessed by use of the well-known Vicia root tip micronucleus assay. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the mitotic index in root tip cells. Finally, molecular induction mechanisms were evaluated by measuring phytochelatins with HPLC. After hydroponical exposure of V. faba roots to a range of cadmium concentrations and during different exposure times, the results of this approach showed large variations, according to the endpoint measured: after 48 h of exposure, genotoxic effects were found between 7.5 x 10(-8) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2), and cytotoxic effects were observed between 2.5 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-7)M CdCl(2). Statistically significant phytochelatin (PC) concentrations were measured at >or=10(-6)M CdCl(2) for PC(2), and at >or=10(-5)M CdCl(2) for PC3 and PC4.

  12. Faba bean drought responsive gene identification and validation

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    Megahed H. Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify drought-responsive genes in a drought tolerant faba bean variety (Hassawi 2 using a suppressive subtraction hybridization approach (SSH. A total of 913 differentially expressed clones were sequenced from a differential cDNA library that resulted in a total of 225 differentially expressed ESTs. The genes of mitochondrial and chloroplast origin were removed, and the remaining 137 EST sequences were submitted to the gene bank EST database (LIBEST_028448. A sequence analysis identified 35 potentially drought stress-related ESTs that regulate ion channels, kinases, and energy production and utilization and transcription factors. Quantitative PCR on Hassawi 2 genotype confirmed that more than 65% of selected drought-responsive genes were drought-related. Among these induced genes, the expression levels of eight highly up-regulated unigenes were further analyzed across 38 selected faba bean genotypes that differ in their drought tolerance levels. These unigenes included ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL gene, non-LTR retroelement reverse related, probable cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel, polyubiquitin, potassium channel, calcium-dependent protein kinase and putative respiratory burst oxidase-like protein C and a novel unigene. The expression patterns of these unigenes were variable across 38 genotypes however, it was found to be very high in tolerant genotype. The up-regulation of these unigenes in majority of tolerant genotypes suggests their possible role in drought tolerance. The identification of possible drought responsive candidate genes in Vicia faba reported here is an important step toward the development of drought-tolerant genotypes that can cope with arid environments.

  13. Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. nodulates Vicia faba on several continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Álvarez-Martínez, Estela; Peix, Alvaro; Mhamdi, Ridha; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    Several fast-growing strains nodulating Vicia faba in Peru, Spain and Tunisia formed a cluster related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to that of R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T), whereas rpoB, recA and atpD gene sequences were phylogenetically distant, with sequence similarities of less than 96 %, 97 % and 94 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed a mean relatedness value of 43 % between strain FB206(T) and R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T). Phenotypic characteristics of the novel strains also differed from those of the closest related species of the genus Rhizobium. Therefore, based on genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify this group of strains nodulating Vicia faba as a novel species of the genus Rhizobium named Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. The type strain is FB206(T) ( = LMG 27434(T) = CECT 8280(T)).

  14. GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Qianghui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2013-01-01

    GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was investigated. GABA content, GAD and DAO activity were significantly increased under hypoxia treatment. Glu and polyamine contents enhanced largely and thus supplied as sufficient substrates for GABA formation. In contrast, GABA content decreased, mainly in the embryo, after removing the hypoxia stress. DAO activity, Glu and polyamines contents decreased, while an increment of GAD activity was observed. This indicated that GAD activity can be not only regulated by hypoxia, but by the rapid growth of embryo after the recovery from hypoxia stress. When treated with AG, DAO activity was almost inhibited completely, and the GABA content decreased by 32.96% and 32.07% after treated for 3 and 5 days, respectively. Hence, it can be inferred that about 30% of GABA formed in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was supplied by polyamine degradation pathway.

  15. Feeding value of field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2017-04-01

    Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets. The Control diet contained as major ingredients wheat (400 g/kg) and soybean meal (SBM) (127 g/kg and 221 g crude protein/kg and 12.83 MJ AMEn/kg. To reduce nutrient density, the Control diet also contained washed sand at 119 g/kg. Another three diets containing 300 g/kg of each of three experimental field bean cultivar samples in replacement for SBM and sand were also mixed. Each diet was fed to nine pens with two male Ross 308 broilers. Diets high in tannin had low AMEn, ECR, DMR and NR (p < 0.001). Feeding field beans increased (p < 0.001) the weights of the pancreas and the proventriculus and gizzard (PG) of the birds. Supplementing diets with the enzyme mixture improved (p < 0.001) feed conversion efficiency, AMEn and all nutrient utilisation coefficients despite the tannins in diets. The enzyme mixture reduced ileal digesta viscosity (p < 0.001) and the weight of pancreas, total GIT and PG (p < 0.05) of the birds. It can be concluded that the feeding value of field beans with different tannin contents may vary when fed to broilers. The supplementation of the enzyme mixture improved the feeding value of diets for broilers. The beneficial effect of the addition of the enzyme mixture seems to be mediated through reduced ileal digesta viscosity and improved nutrient availability.

  16. Mutagenic effects of chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓徽

    2004-01-01

    In this study on the mutagenic effects of different concentrations of chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Vicia faba root tip, micronucleus assay and chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic indexes, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. The results showed that the effects of CrO3 concentration on the mitotic indexes were complicated. CrO3 increases the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. It was found that within certain range of CrO3 concentration the micronucleus rate increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3, but that the micronucleus rate decreased at higher level of CrO3 and that CrO3 also caused various types of chromosome aberration at a rate which increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3. We concluded that CrO3 has significant mutagenic effect on Vicia faba root tip cells.

  17. Eff ect of microwave fi eld on trypsin inhibitors activity and protein quality of broad bean seeds (Vicia faba var. major

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    Mirosław Pysz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In human nutrition legume seeds are usually subjected to soaking and thermal processes, mainly by using traditional cooking method. This method which has been used for decades, does not allow to control and adjust the parameters of this process. Therefore it does not seem to be the optimal method. Undoubtedly, microwave fi eld is an alternative thermal process to conventional technique. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of microwave fi eld on the activity of trypsin inhibitors and protein quality of three varieties of broad bean seeds. Material and methods. The study was performed on dry seeds of broad bean varieties Windsor White, Bachus and Basta. The seeds were soaked and heated in a microwave. The seeds absorbed different energy doses from 500 J/g, through 750, 1000, 1250, 1500, 1750 to 2000 J/g. The study material prepared in this way was tested for trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility and in vitro protein digestibility. The results were analysed by the one-way analysis of variance. Results. Microwave heating resulted in decreased activity of trypsin inhibitors and protein solubility and increased digestibility of protein in all tested varieties of broad bean seeds. With increasing doses of the microwave fi eld energy a decrease in protein solubility was observed. Satisfactory reduction in trypsin inhibitors at the level of 70-75% and highest protein digestibility were obtained by using a microwave fi eld with energy dose of 1000 J/g of seeds. Conclusion. It can be concluded that the optimal dose of microwave energy fi eld which will produce a relatively low activity of trypsin inhibitors and the highest protein digestibility together with maintaining solubility of broad been seeds was 1000 J/g seed.

  18. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming.

  19. Response of bean (Vicia faba L. plants to low sink demand by measuring the gas exchange rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics.

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    Bo-Fang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs and net photosynthetic rate (Pn. These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand. On the 1(st day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca. From the 3(rd to 9(th day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5(th day. From the 11(th to 21(st day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21(st day. CONCLUSIONS: Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn

  20. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khazaei

    Full Text Available Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L. collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  1. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Faba Bean Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

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    Sukhjiwan Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of genetic diversity is important for characterisation of crop plant collections in order to detect the presence of valuable trait variation for use in breeding programs. A collection of faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes was evaluated for intra- and inter-population diversity using a set of 768 genome-wide distributed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers, of which 657 obtained successful amplification and detected polymorphisms. Gene diversity and polymorphism information content (PIC values varied between 0.022–0.500 and 0.023–1.00, with averages of 0.363 and 0.287, respectively. The genetic structure of the germplasm collection was analysed and a neighbour-joining (NJ dendrogram was constructed. The faba bean accessions grouped into two major groups, with several additional smaller sub-groups, predominantly on the basis of geographical origin. These results were further supported by principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA, deriving two major groupings which were differentiated on the basis of site of origin and pedigree relationships. In general, high levels of heterozygosity were observed, presumably due to the partially allogamous nature of the species. The results will facilitate targeted crossing strategies in future faba bean breeding programs in order to achieve genetic gain.

  2. Cytotoxic effects of cylindrospermopsin in mitotic and non-mitotic Vicia faba cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garda, Tamás; Riba, Milán; Vasas, Gábor; Beyer, Dániel; M-Hamvas, Márta; Hajdu, Gréta; Tándor, Ildikó; Máthé, Csaba

    2015-02-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin known as a eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor. We aimed to study its effects on growth, stress responses and mitosis of a eukaryotic model, Vicia faba (broad bean). Growth responses depended on exposure time (3 or 6d), cyanotoxin concentration, culture conditions (dark or continuous light) and V. faba cultivar ("Standard" or "ARC Egypt Cross"). At 6d of exposure, CYN had a transient stimulatory effect on root system growth, roots being possibly capable of detoxification. The toxin induced nucleus fragmentation, blebbing and chromosomal breaks indicating double stranded DNA breaks and programmed cell death. Root necrotic tissue was observed at 0.1-20 μg mL(-1) CYN that probably impeded toxin uptake into vascular tissue. Growth and cell death processes observed were general stress responses. In lateral root tip meristems, lower CYN concentrations (0.01-0.1 μg mL(-1)) induced the stimulation of mitosis and distinct mitotic phases, irrespective of culture conditions or the cultivar used. Higher cyanotoxin concentrations inhibited mitosis. Short-term exposure of hydroxylurea-synchronized roots to 5 μg mL(-1) CYN induced delay of mitosis that might have been related to a delay of de novo protein synthesis. CYN induced the formation of double, split and asymmetric preprophase bands (PPBs), in parallel with the alteration of cell division planes, related to the interference of cyanotoxin with protein synthesis, thus it was a plant- and CYN specific alteration.

  3. Response of faba bean to phosphate fertilizer and weed control on nitisols of ethiopian highlands

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    Getachew Agegnehu

    Full Text Available The effects of phosphorus fertilizer and weed control on yield and major yield components of faba bean (Vicia faba L. were studied on Nitisols of Ethiopian highlands. Factorial combinations of four levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg P ha-1 as triple super phosphate (TSP and two levels of weeding (W1 = no weeding and W2 = hand weeding once six weeks after crop emergence were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that highly significant positive responses of number of pods per plant, total biomass and seed yields of faba bean to phosphorus fertilizer and weeding treatments were noted. Phosphorus level × weed control interaction over three years significantly (P ≤ 0.05 affected faba bean seed yield at Rob Gebeya but not at Welmera. Phosphorus application at the rates of 10, 20 and 30 kg P ha-1 resulted in mean seed yield increases compared to the control of 20, 41 and 53%, respectively on the average of locations; 13, 33 and 51%, respectively at Welmera, and 26, 48 and 55%, respectively at Rob Gebeya.Weeding once increased mean seed yields of faba bean by 25% on the average (35 and 17% at Welmera and Rob Gebeya, respectively compared to unweeded check. Seed yield was positively correlated with total biomass and number of pods per plant (r = 0.95*** and 0.75***, respectively at Welmera, and (r = 0.94*** and 0.55**, respectively at Rob Gebeya. The results of economic analysis indicated that the highest marginal rate of return was obtained from weeding once six weeks after crop emergence and application of 20 kg P ha-1, which is economically the most feasible alternative on Nitisols of central Ethiopian highlands.

  4. Joint effects of microwave and chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of microwave and chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Viciafaba root tip were studied. Micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic index, the micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency of Vicia faba root tip cells induced by microwave and CrO3. The results showed that the micronucleus frequency decreased, and that the mitotic index and chromosomal aberration frequency showed linear dose responses to CrO3, in treatment of microwave for 5 s. In microwave of 25 s, the mitotic index decreased, the micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency increased with increase of CrO3 concentration. We concluded that microwave and CrO3 had antagonistic effect on the mitotic index of Vicia faba root tip cells, but had synergetic effect on micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberration frequency of Vicia faba root tip cells.

  5. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans.

  6. Polyphenol content and glycemic load of pasta enriched with Faba bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Turco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legumes contain elevated levels of health functional components. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the nutritional properties and the post-prandial glycaemic responses of pasta obtained using 35% Vicia Faba (VF bean flour, which is an important source of fiber and phytochemical compounds. Results: Protein and fiber content were higher in VF pasta compared with durum wheat semolina (DWS pasta. The total phenol content in VF pasta was about two fold higher compared to that of DWS pasta. A higher total flavonoid content, higher antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay was also observed in VF pasta. The comparison of post-prandial increase of glucose after VF intake or DWS demonstrated significant differences and VF pasta exhibited a lower glycemic index value, a lower glycemic load and higher glycemic profile compared with DWS pasta. Conclusion: The results suggest that enrichment with 35% Vicia faba bean has potential health benefits and that VF flour can be used as an ingredient to prepare added-value products.

  7. Role of Ascorbic Acid on Germination Indexes and Enzyme Activity of Vicia faba Seeds Grown under Salinity Stress

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    Awatif A. Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to investigate changes in growth and some metabolic activities in NaCl-stressed bean seedlings, and assessing the role of ascorbic acid to alleviate these changes. The germination was carried out to study the response of presoaked faba bean seeds (Vicia faba cv. Misr 2 in freshly prepared ascorbic acid (50 ppm ≈ 0.3 mM; as recommended dose as described by El-Tayeb, 1995 or distilled water (control for 4 hrs at natural environmental conditions, to salinity stress during germination period. The radicle and plumule lengths were inhibited at high dose of NaCl but, ascorbic acid application to salt-treated seeds seemed to increase radicle and plumule elongation. The radicle and plumule fresh and dry weights were gradually decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations but, a noticeable increase of radicle and plumule fresh and dry weights were reached in seedlings treated with ascorbic acid. The pigment biosynthesis was substantially affected by salt treatment. Addition of ascorbic acid to stressed seedlings more or less furthered the inhibitory effects of salinity. Salinity enhanced the accumulation of reducing sugars in both radicle and plumule of Vicia faba seedlings as compared with control. Ascorbic acid treatment furthered the stimulatory effects of NaCl. Salinity gradually lowered the protein content of plumules. Ascorbic acid treatments raised the accumulation of protein contents in radicle to a great extent compared to those subjected only to NaCl. Plumule alkaloid content was lowered by low and moderate levels of NaCl. Coupling ascorbic acid to salt treated seeds induced a highly significant increase in alkaloid content of plumules compared to its corresponding controls. Sodium chloride treatments to Vicia faba seeds for two days caused a drastic suppression of α- and β-amylase activities. Ascorbic acid application to non-salinized seeds seemed without effects whereas, the salt-treated seeds showed more or less

  8. Sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes induced by propoxur following plant activation by Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Calderón-Segura, M E; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1995-01-01

    Because the carbamate insecticide propoxur induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba but was ineffective in producing SCE in lymphocytes in culture, it was hardly suspected that plant metabolism was involved. Experiments were conducted in which metabolic activation was afforded by Vicia faba roots, and SCE in human lymphocytes in vitro was used to assess cytogenetic damage. Several concentrations of propoxur (250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm) were applied for 4 hr to the roots of Vicia faba. Extracts prepared from these treatments were added to the lymphocyte cultures and a significant increase of SCE frequencies with a concentration-response relationship could be detected. The lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and the proliferation rate index (PRI) were not affected (except in the highest concentration, of 2,000 ppm). This general behavior was in agreement with the presence of an enzymatic system (S10 fraction) in Vicia roots capable of metabolizing or activating the propoxur. With 2,000 ppm, cell necrosis was produced in Vicia; therefore, this extract did not induce SCE in lymphocytes. However, lymphocyte proliferation kinetics were delayed and PRI was significantly decreased. Ethanol, a promutagen activated by this plant, was applied directly to the lymphocyte cultures as a positive control, and the response was negative. On the other hand, the extracts of roots treated with ethanol increased the SCE to more than twice that of the negative control, but the lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and PRI were not affected.

  9. Performance of faba bean genotypes with Orobanche foetida Poir. and Orobanche crenata Forsk. infestation in Tunisia

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    Imen Trabelsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche foetida Poir. and O. crenata Forsk. are major constraints to faba bean (Vicia faba L. cultivation in Tunisia. To evalúate the different levels of resistance of seven small-seeded faba bean genotypes to these parasitic weed species, three trials were conducted in fields infested and non-infested with O. foetida in the Oued Beja Agricultural Experimental Unit and O. crenata in an experimental field at Ariana of the National Institute of Agricultural Research during three cropping seasons. Compared to the susceptible cv. Bad'i, the seven genotypes showed moderate to high levels of resistance to both Orobanche species. The number and dry weight of emerged broomrapes and underground tubercles recorded on the new improved genotypes were lower than those recorded on released and resistant 'Najeh' and 'Baraca'. The parasitism index on the new genotypes varied from 2-6 times less than susceptible 'Bad'i' in both Oued-Beja and Ariana. Yield reduction due to O.foetida infection varied from 13.5% on genotype XAR-VF00.13-89-2-1-1-1-1 to 59.7% on 'Baraca', whereas the yield loss was about 92% on the susceptible control. Parasitic infection did not affect dry grain protein accumulation in the tested genotypes.

  10. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations.

  11. Improvement of Faba Bean Yield Using Rhizobium/Agrobacterium Inoculant in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil

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    Sameh H. Youseif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is one of the major limiting factors for crop’s productivity in Egypt and the world in general. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF has a great importance as a non-polluting and a cost-effective way to improve soil fertility through supplying N to different agricultural systems. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the most efficient nitrogen-fixing legumes that can meet all of their N needs through BNF. Therefore, understanding the impact of rhizobial inoculation and contrasting soil rhizobia on nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean is crucial to optimize the crop yield, particularly under low fertility soil conditions. This study investigated the symbiotic effectiveness of 17 Rhizobium/Agrobacterium strains previously isolated from different Egyptian governorates in improving the nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean cv. Giza 843 under controlled greenhouse conditions. Five strains that had a high nitrogen-fixing capacity under greenhouse conditions were subsequently tested in field trials as faba bean inoculants at Ismaillia Governorate in northeast Egypt in comparison with the chemical N-fertilization treatment (96 kg N·ha−1. A starter N-dose (48 kg N·ha−1 was applied in combination with different Rhizobium inoculants. The field experiments were established at sites without a background of inoculation under low fertility sandy soil conditions over two successive winter growing seasons, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Under greenhouse conditions, inoculated plants produced significantly higher nodules dry weight, plant biomass, and shoot N-uptake than non-inoculated ones. In the first season (2012/2013, inoculation of field-grown faba bean showed significant improvements in seed yield (3.73–4.36 ton·ha−1 and seed N-yield (138–153 Kg N·ha−1, which were higher than the uninoculated control (48 kg N·ha−1 that produced 2.97 Kg·ha−1 and 95 kg N·ha−1, respectively. Similarly, in the second season (2013

  12. Mutagenic effects of chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓薇

    2004-01-01

    In this study on the mutagenic effects of different concentrations of chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Vicia faba root tip, micronucleus assay and chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic indexes, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate of Viciafaba root tip cells. The results showed that the effects of CrO3 concentration on the mitotic indexes were complicated. CrO3 increases the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. It was found that within certain range of CrO3 concentration the micronucleus rate increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3, but that the micronucleus rate decreased at higher level of CrO3 and that CrO3 also caused various types of chromosome aberration at a rate which increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3. We concluded that CrO3 has significant mutagenic effect on Viciafaba root tip cells.

  13. Isolation and expression of an aquaporin-like gene VfPIP1 in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xianghuan; HAO Fushun; CHEN Hui; CAI Jinghui; CHEN Jia; WANG Xuechen

    2005-01-01

    To explore the effects of aquaporins on stomatal movement, we isolated a full length cDNA of aquaporin-like gene VfPIP1 ( Vicia faba plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene, GenBank accession number: AY667436), which encodes for a 290-amino-acid polypeptide, from Vicia faba leaf epidermis by 5′/3′ RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The analyses of VfPIP1 transmembrane regions and amino acid sequence show that VfPIP1 owns six membrane-spanning domains and the special plasma membrane signature sequences GGGANXXXXGY and TGI/TNPARSL/FGAAI/VI/VF/YN, and it should be a member of PIP1 subfamily. The results of in situ hybridization and Northern blot indicate that VfPIP1 is strongly expressed in guard cells and induced by ABA. Hereby, VfPIP1 may be involved in the water-transmembrane movement of guard cells.

  14. Identification of integrin-like in guard cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We addressed the existence and localization of integrin-like in guard cells of Vicia faba by using a probe of polyclonal antibody against the human integrin (avb3/b5). Western blot results showed that three integrins-like of about 47.3, 43.7 and 41.1 ku were detected from the preparation of membrane fragments of purified guard cell protoplasts. Further research with immunofluorescent scanning micro-scopy indicated that those integrins-like were localized on plasma membrane of guard cells, most nearing the dorsal wall, which is consistent with the reception of signals from epidermal cells to guard cells. Thus our results indicate, for the first time, that integrins-like are present at guard cell plasma membrane of Vicia faba.

  15. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm).

  16. Cytogenetic effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, L K S; Pande, P N; Gupta, S K

    2004-04-01

    The contamination of surface- and groundwater by the leaching of solid wastes generated by industrial activities as a result of water runoff and rainfall is a matter of great concern. The leachates from tannery solid waste (TSW), a major environmental pollutant, were examined for their possible genotoxic effects on the somatic cells of Vicia faba. Leachates were prepared from solid wastes procured from leather-tanning industrial sites, and V. faba seedlings were exposed to three test concentrations, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, through soil and aqueous media for 5 days. The root tips examined for cytogenetic damage revealed that leachate of TSW significantly inhibited the mitotic index and induced significantly frequent chromosomal and mitotic aberrations (CA/MA) in a dose-dependent manner. The chemical analysis of TSW samples revealed that the chief constituents were chromium and nickel, which may cause genetic abnormalities. The frequency of aberrations was found to be higher in the root meristematic cells of Vicia faba exposed through the aqueous medium than those exposed through the soil medium. The results of the present study indicated that contamination of potable water bodies by leachates of TSW may cause genotoxicity. For the biomonitoring of complex mixtures of toxicants with the V. faba bioassay, the use of the aqueous medium seems to be a more promising method than the use of the soil medium.

  17. Badania wpływu herbicydów i nawożenia mineralnego na zawartość kwasów tłuszczowych w nasionach bobiku (Vicia faba [Influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the fatty acids content in the seeds of the field bean (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sykut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the herbicides Afalon (active substance Linuron. Gesatop 50 (active substance simazine, Aretit (active substance dinoseb acetate was tested concomitantly with two NPK fertilization levels on the crude lipid content and the fatty acids composition of field bean seeds.

  18. Characterization of root-nodule bacteria isolated from Vicia faba and selection of plant growth promoting isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Chebil, Samir; Gtari, Maher; Mhamdi, Ridha

    2013-06-01

    A collection of 104 isolates from root-nodules of Vicia faba was submitted to 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP typing. A representative sample was further submitted to sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. Isolates were assigned to 12 genera. All the nodulating isolates (45 %) were closely related to Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA2370(T) (99.34 %). The remaining isolates, including potential human pathogens, failed to nodulate their original host. They were checked for presence of symbiotic genes, P-solubilization, phytohormone and siderophore production, and then tested for their growth promoting abilities. Results indicated that 9 strains could induce significant increase (41-71 %) in shoot dry yield of faba bean. A Pseudomonas strain was further assessed in on-farm trial in combination with a selected rhizobial strain. This work indicated that nodule-associated bacteria could be a valuable pool for selection of effective plant growth promoting isolates. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of nodules in increasing risks related to pathogenic bacteria should not be neglected and needs to be investigated further.

  19. Einflüsse des Ackerbohnenkäfers (Bruchus rufimanus) und von Bodenpathogenen auf Feldaufgang und Ertrag bei bunt- und weißblühenden Ackerbohnensorten (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We compared field emergence and yield of a white- and a coloured-flowered variety of faba bean (Vicia faba) in relation to Bruchus rufimanus seed damage in a factorial, hand sown mini-plot field experiment. Further manipulating factors at sowing were, foot root rot inoculation with a 4-species Fusarium-mixture, a seed dressing with powdered testa material of the coloured-flower variety and sowing depth. In both varieties Fusarium-inoculation was the most detrimental and significant factor to ...

  20. Physiological response of vicia faba to prohexadione-calcium under saline conditions Resposta fisiológica de vicia faba a prohexadiona-cálcio sob condições salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bekheta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the activities of oxidative enzymes (indole acetic acid oxidase, peroxidase and catalase, endogenous hormones (gibberellic acid (GA3, indole acetic acid (IAA, abscisic acid (ABA and cytokinins (AsZeatin, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, total carbohydrates, total soluble sugars, amino acid proline and vegetative growth parameters were used as indicators to explain the physiological role of the growth retardant prohexadione-calcium on Vicia faba seedlings 40 days after sowing under salinity stress for 30 days. The obtained results show that soaking faba bean seeds prior to sowing at different concentrations of prohexadione-calcium (0, 10, 20 and 30 ppm significantly increased the activities of indole acetic acid oxidase (IAA-oxidase and peroxidase enzymes, but decreased the catalase enzyme activity as compared with their respective control. Application of prohexadione-Ca caused markedly decreases in the endogenous contents of gibberellins and indole acetic acid (IAA but increased the levels of natural growth inhibitor abscisic acid (ABA and cytokinins in the shoots of faba bean seedlings. All the prohexadione-Ca concentrations increased the contents of amino acid proline, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, total carbohydrates and total soluble sugars in faba bean seedlings grown under salt stress. Application of prohexadione-Ca decreased significantly seedling height and shoot fresh weight but significantly increased shoot dry weight.Mudanças nas atividades de enzimas oxidativas (oxidase, peroxidase e catalase do ácido indol-acético, hormônios endógenos (ácido giberélico (GA3, ácido indol-acético (AIA, ácido abscísico (ABA e citocininas (AsZeatin, pigmentos fotossintéticos (clorofila a, clorofila b e carotenóides, carboidratos totais, açúcares solúveis totais, aminoácido prolina e parâmetros de crescimento vegetativo foram usados como

  1. Response of different genotypes of faba bean plant to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M; Al-Wahibi, Mona S; Bukhari, Najat A

    2015-05-05

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant-1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant-1, area leaf-1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes "C5" and "Zafar 1" were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype "C5" and "Zafar 1" were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes "G853" and "C4" were sensitive to drought stress.

  2. Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days Growth of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2 Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days'Grown of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days Growth of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2 Hadron Radiobiology : Investigation of the Inhibition of ten days'Grown of Vicia Faba Roots after Exposure in the 600 MeV Neutron Beam from SC2

  3. ESTUDIO DE LA CALIDAD PROTEICA Y DEL CONTENIDO DE ENERGÍA METABOLIZABLE DEL HABA (VICIA FABA*

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    Ana Silvia Bermudez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determínate the faba bean CEP, the possible role of bis hemaglutinine on this valué and to know the metabolizable energy in this legume we made two experiments in the poultry section of the experimental Center of Tibaitatá. In each experiment we used 45 chickens in random distribution in groups of five. In the first experiment we used diets whose proteic source was respectively isolated soybean protein (control diet, raw faba bean, and faba bean treated with steam in an autoclave. The results obtained show a low utilization of food when the ratio was prepared with faba beans, probably due to the aminoacids imbalance, also it produced hypertrophia of the páncreas due probably to the presence of antitriptyc agents which were not destroyed by the heat treatment. The nutritional valué of the faba bean protein increase 67o with the inactivation of the favine, although it is still lower (27% compared with the control diet. In the second experiment we obtain relatively high valúes for the faba beans metabolical useful energy compared with other legume valúes like ajonjolí, which shows us that this bean is a good energy supplier.

  4. Effects of faba beans with different concentrations of vicine and convicine on egg production, egg quality and red blood cells in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, M; Gallo, V; Prato, M; Akide-Ndunge, O; Mandili, G; Marget, P; Arese, P; Duc, G

    2016-12-29

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn-soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (Phens fed high V+C diets. A decrease in GSH concentration in RBCs of hens fed the highest levels of V+C was observed. Faba bean genotypes with low concentrations of V+C can therefore be used in laying hen diets up to 25% without any detrimental effects on performance levels or egg characteristics, without any risk of hemolysis of RBCs.

  5. NMR imaging of root water distribution in intact Vicia faba L plants in elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottomley, P.A.; Rogers, H.H.; Prior, S.A. (GE Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (USA))

    1993-04-01

    The effect of elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2] on water distribution in the intact roots of Vicia faba L. bean seedlings grown in natural soil was studied noninvasively with proton ([sup 1]H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. Exposure of 24-d-old plants to atmospheric CO[sub 2] enriched air at 650 cm[sup 3] m[sup -3] produced significant increases in water imaged in upper roots, hypogeal cotyledons and lower stems in response to a short-term drying-stress cycle. Above ground, drying produced negligible stem shrinkage and stomatal resistance was unchanged. In contrast, the same drying cycle caused significant depletion of water imaged in the same upper root structures in control plants subject to ambient CO[sub 2] (350 cm[sup 3] m[sup -3]), and stem shrinkage and increased stomatal resistance. The results suggest that inhibition of transpiration caused by elevated CO[sub 2] does not necessarily result in attenuation of water transport from lower root structures. Inhibition of water loss from upper roots and lower stem in elevated CO[sub 2] environments may be a mitigating factor in assessing deleterious effects of greenhouse changes on crops during periods of dry climate.

  6. Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, A K

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against arsenic (As)-induced structural disturbances in Vicia faba have been investigated. As treatment (0.25, 0.50, and 1 mM) resulted in a declined growth of V. faba seedlings. Arsenic treatment stimulates the activity of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST content were decreased. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX, and GST activity), mitotic index, and induction of different chromosomal abnormalities, hence led to oxidative stress. The concentration of SNP (0.02 mM) was very effective in counteracting the adverse effect of As toxicity. These abnormalities use partially or fully reversed by a simultaneous application of As and NO donor and sodium nitroprusside and has an ameliorating effect against As-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in V. faba roots.

  7. Up-regulation and interaction of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein are involved in the regulation of citrate exudation from the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Al stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Guo, Chuan-Long; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Wu, Kong-Huan; Li, Kui-Zhi; Yu, Yong-Xiong; Chen, Li-Mei

    2013-09-01

    Our previous study showed that citrate excretion coupled with a concomitant release of protons was involved in aluminum (Al) resistance in the broad bean. Furthermore, genes encoding plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (vha2) and the 14-3-3 protein (vf14-3-3b) were up-regulated by Al in Al-resistant (YD) broad bean roots. In this study, the roles of PM H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) and the 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of citrate secretion were further investigated in Al-resistant (YD) and Al-sensitive (AD) broad bean cultivars under Al stress. The results showed that greater citrate exudation was positively correlated with higher activities of PM H(+)-ATPase in roots of YD than AD. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that vha2 was clearly up-regulated by Al in YD but not in AD roots, whereas the transcription levels of vf14-3-3b were elevated in a time-dependent manner in both YD and AD roots. Immunoprecipitation and Western analysis suggested that phosphorylation and interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein of the VHA2 were enhanced in YD roots but not in AD roots with increasing Al treatment time. Fusicoccin or adenosine 5'-monophosphate increased or decreased the interaction between the phosphorylated VHA2 and the vf14-3-3b protein, followed by an enhancement or reduction of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity and citrate exudation in both cultivars under Al stress conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that Al enhanced the expression and interaction of the PM H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein, which thereby led to higher activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase and more citrate exudation from YD plants.

  8. Faba bean hulls as a potential source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed for the first time to assess the potential use of faba bean hulls as a source of pectin. The study involved extracting pectin under various conditions of pH, temperature and extraction time and determining how these conditions affected pectin yield and its characteristics. The maximum yield of extracted pectin did not coincide with the highest degree of esterification since the maximum yield (15.75 %) was recorded at pH 1.5 and at a temperature of 85 °C for an 80-min extraction period and solid to liquid (1: 25) ratio, while the highest degree of esterification (54.62 %) occurred at pH 2.5 and at temperature of 90 °C for a 60-min extraction period. The composition of the pectin varied according to the extraction conditions: the neutral sugars galactose, arabinose and rhamnose increased under milder extraction conditions while glucose, mannose and xylose sugars predominated under harsher extraction conditions. The results indicated that faba bean hulls contains adequate amount of pectin, suitable for commercial utilization.

  9. Phosphorylation and Interaction with the 14-3-3 Protein of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase are Involved in the Regulation of Magnesium-Mediated Increases in Aluminum-Induced Citrate Exudation in Broad Bean (Vicia faba. L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Kan, Qi; Wang, Ping; Yu, Wenqian; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Yongxiong; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that external application of micromolar magnesium (Mg) can increase the resistance of legumes to aluminum (Al) stress by enhancing Al-induced citrate exudation. However, the exact mechanism underlying this regulation remains unknown. In this study, the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which Mg enhances Al-induced citrate exudation to alleviate Al toxicity were investigated in broad bean. Micromolar concentrations of Mg that alleviated Al toxicity paralleled the stimulation of Al-induced citrate exudation and increased the activity of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase. Northern blot analysis shows that a putative MATE-like gene (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) was induced after treatment with Al for 4, 8 and 12 h, whereas the mRNA abundance of the MATE-like gene showed no significant difference between Al plus Mg and Al-only treatments during the entire treatment period. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses suggest that the transcription and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase were induced by Al but not by Mg. In contrast, immunoprecipitation suggests that Mg enhanced the phosphorylation levels of VHA2 and its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein under Al stress. Taken together, our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of Mg can alleviate the Al rhizotoxicity by increasing PM H(+)-ATPase activity and Al-induced citrate exudation in YD roots. This enhancement is likely to be attributable to Al-induced increases in the expression of the MATE-like gene and vha2 and Mg-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of VHA2, thus changing its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein.

  10. Effect of high temperature treatment of Vicia faba roots on the oxidative stress enzymes in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filek, M; Baczek, R; Niewiadomska, E; Pilipowicz, M; Kościelniak, J

    1997-01-01

    The following types of superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been found in the leaves of Vicia faba: one isoenzyme of Mn-SOD and four isoenzymes of Cu/Zn-SOD. The treatments of roots with boiling water caused an increase of SOD activity in the leaves. The highest increase was measured after 5 s of the treatment. It was accompanied by a significant increase in catalase activity. Analysis of cell fractions' revealed an increase of SOD activity in the plastids and mitochondria isolated from the leaves of those plants whose roots were heat-treated. However, there was no distinct change of SOD activity in the cytosolic fraction. The possibility of an electric wave intervention inducing oxidative stress in the leaves is discussed.

  11. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS ON FABA BEAN PLANT

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    Magdi T. Abdelhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A possible survival strategy of plants under saline conditions is to use some compounds that could alleviate salt stress effect. One of these compounds is nicotinamide. The effect of exogenously application of nicotinamide with different concentrations (0, 200 and 400 mg/l on Vicia faba L. plant against different NaCl treatments (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl was investigated at the wire house of the National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. Salinity stress reduced significantly plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot, seed yield, total carbohydrates & total crude protein of the yielded seeds compared with those of the control plants. In contrast, salinity induced marked increases in sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, proline, lipid peroxidation product (MDA and some oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Also, salinity stress increased Na+ contents with the decreases of other macro and micro elements contents (P, K+, Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ of shoots and the yielded seeds of faba bean. Foliar spraying of nicotinamide alleviated the adverse effects of salinity stress through increased plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot and seed yield as well as, sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids and proline, compared with those of the corresponding salinity levels, while decreased lipid peroxidation product as MDA and the oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Nicotinamide inhibited the uptake of Na+ and accelerated the accumulation of P, K+ , Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ contents in the shoots of salt stressed plants and enhanced total carbohydrate and total crude protein percentage and solutes concentrations in seeds of salinity treated plants. 

  12. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y.; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A.; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M.; Al-Wahibi, Mona S.; Bukhari, Najat A.

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant−1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress. PMID:25950766

  13. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

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    Manzer H. Siddiqui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853 under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i normal irrigation (ii mild stress (iii moderate stress, and (iv severe stress on plant height (PH plant−1, fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC, proline (Pro content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl content, electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, and activities of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD, and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress.

  14. Alleviation of salinity stress on Vicia faba L. plants via seed priming with melatonin

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    Mona Gergis Dawood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is an environmentally friendly-molecule with a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant capacity. Two pot experiments were conducted during two successive winter seasons (2011/2012 and 2012/2013 at the wire-house of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to study the potentiality of melatonin (100 mM and 500 mM in alleviating the harmful effect of diluted sea water at a relatively low and high concentrations (3.85 dS/m and 7.69 dS/m, respectively on the performance of faba bean plant. The results revealed that irrigation of faba bean plants with diluted sea water reduced growth parameters (plant height, leaves number/plant, fresh and dry weights /plant, relative water content (RWC, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids, indole acetic acid, total carbohydrate, K+,Ca+2, as well as the ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca+2/Na+ .Thiswasaccompanied by significant increases in phenolic content, compatible solutes (total soluble carbohydrate, free amino acids, proline, Na+ and Cl- , relative to the control plants (untreated plants. On the other hand, melatonin treatments improved growth parameters, RWC, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrate, total phenolic content, indole acetic acid, K+,Ca+2 as well as K+/Na+ and Ca+2/Na+ ratios, either in the plants irrigated with tap water or with diluted sea water, as compared with corresponding controls. Meanwhile, melatonin treatments reduced the levels of compatible solutes, as well as Na+ and Cl-  contents, relative to those of corresponding controls. Salinity stress and/ or melatonin treatments induced the production of new protein bands that did not occur in the control plants. Melatonin at 500 mM had a more pronounced effect in alleviating the adverse effects of the two salinity levels under study on the performance of faba bean plants than 100 mM melatonin.

  15. Impact of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR on growth and antioxidant status of Vicia faba L. under copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-04-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in plants in polluted environments. In this work, the effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR strains on the growth of Vicia faba grown under copper stress were assessed during hydroponic culture. Growth parameters, copper (Cu) accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. Copper concentrations above 1mM damaged plant growth, but co-inoculation reduced its harmful effect. Co-inoculation of plants treated with 1mM Cu and 2mM Cu increased the dry weights as compared with Cu-treated and uninoculated plants. However, it decreased copper uptake up to 80% in the roots of 1-mM-Cu-treated plants as compared to non-inoculated control. Copper tolerance in Vicia faba is linked to the activity of antioxidant systems that are modulated by metal concentrations: both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the presence of Cu; a lower Cu dose of 0.5mM stimulated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and/or peroxidase (POX) activities in shoots and roots; however in nodules CAT appeared to be the main peroxidase in H2O2 scavenging. The 1mM Cu treatment enhanced SOD, CAT and APX activities in roots and only SOD and POX were activated in shoots. All enzyme activities were inhibited by inoculation of 2mM Cu. The effect of inoculation with copper-accumulating PGPRs and the status of the antioxidant enzyme system were linked to changes in the copper tolerance status of Vicia faba. Our results suggested that Vicia faba inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR Enterobacter clocae and Pseudomonas sp. could help to alleviate copper stress under hydroponic conditions. This result should be tested under field conditions for soil fertilization and phytostabilisation purposes.

  16. Environmental impact of sunscreen nanomaterials: Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of altered TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites on Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltete, Anne-Sophie, E-mail: as.foltete@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Masfaraud, Jean-Francois, E-mail: masfa@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Nahmani, Johanne, E-mail: Johanne.nahmani@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Chaurand, Perrine, E-mail: chaurand@cerege.fr [Centre Europeen de Recherches et d' Enseignement des Geosciences de l' Environnement (CEREGE), UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Mineral sunscreen nanocomposites, based on a nano-TiO{sub 2} core, coated with aluminium hydroxide and dimethicone films, were submitted to an artificial ageing process. The resulting Altered TiO{sub 2} Nanocomposites (ATN) were then tested in the liquid phase on the plant model Vicia faba, which was exposed 48 h to three nominal concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg ATN/L. Plant growth, photosystem II maximum quantum yield, genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and phytochelatins levels showed no change compared to controls. Oxidative stress biomarkers remained unchanged in shoots while in roots, glutathione reductase activity decreased at 50 mg ATN/L and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased for 5 and 25 mg ATN/L. Nevertheless, despite the weak response of biological endpoints, ICP-MS measurements revealed high Ti and Al concentrations in roots, and X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy revealed titanium internalization in superficial root tissues. Eventual long-term effects on plants may occur. - Highlights: > TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites were artificially aged. > Vicia faba was exposed 48 h to the alteration byproducts in liquid phase. > Few endpoints were modified significantly from control. > A clogging on the roots and titanium penetration in tissues were suspected. > Eventual long-term effects of the particles may occur. - Artificially aged TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites caused few damages to Vicia faba in 48 h exposure, but particles clogged on roots and Ti entered the root tissues.

  17. 我国蚕豆育种进展%Advances in the Breeding of Vicia faba L.in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建群; 杨梅; 李洋; 陈丽君; 余东梅

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed the advances in research on genetic resources, breeding objectives, genetic regularities and breeding methods of Vicia faba L. The goal of breeding Vicia faba L. Was stable yield, high yield, great quality and resistance, the collection, research and utilization of genetic resources should be strengthened, the genetic map was established to combine the new and traditional breeding technology; it was proposed to encourage the seed company joining in the select breeding of Viciafaba L. .%系统地回顾了我国在蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)种质资源、育种目标、遗传规律和育种方法等方面中取得的进展;认为我国蚕豆育种的目标是稳产、高产、优质、抗逆性强,应该加强对种质资源的收集、研究、利用,建立蚕豆遗传图谱,将现代育种技术与传统育种方法相结合;提出了鼓励种子公司加入到蚕豆新品种选育中的设想.

  18. Digestibility of amino acids in organically cultivated white-flowering faba bean and cake from cold-pressed rapeseed, linseed and hemp seed in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, Magdalena Høøk; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed at determining the ileal apparent (IAD) and standardised ileal (SID) digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in organically cultivated white-flowering faba beans (Vicia faba), and cakes from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). The experiment was designed as a four period cross-over trial with six castrated male Yorkshire pigs fitted with post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas. The IAD and SID of CP for the feed ingredients ranged from 79.2-85.9% and were affected by dietary treatment, with significantly lower values in rapeseed cake. The IAD and SID of most AA in the feed ingredients were also significantly affected by dietary treatment, but without any consistent trend. However, the overall digestibilities were in general comparable with conventional protein feed ingredients. Thus, these alternative protein feed ingredients have the potential to be used to a greater extent when formulating organic pig diets.

  19. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

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    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  20. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae.

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    Komivi S Akutse

    Full Text Available Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1 and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1 on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd and 3(rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68 and D. isaea (p = 0.45 and adult' survival times (p = 0.06. The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001 in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54 was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression.

  1. Effect of straw mulch residues of previous crop oats on the weed population in direct seeded faba bean in Organic Farming

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    Massucati, Luiz Felipe Perrone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of Organic Farming, we investigated whether direct seeding of faba bean (Vicia faba L. into straw mulch from residues of precrop oats used for weed control enables at least occasional/opportunistic direct seeding in Organic Agriculture. Eight field trials were carried out at different study sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Direct seeding (DS was performed into mulch layers of 0,4 and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues applied to the remaining stubble, simulating different yield levels of the precrop oats. LBS was used as a reference treatment, where straw was harvested, stubble tillage performed and seedbed prepared in fall and oil radish (Raphanus sativus grown as winter cover crop. Mouldboard ploughing combined with conventional seedbed preparation was performed in early spring to V. faba. Compared with LBS, straw mulch with subsequent direct seeding suppressed especially dicotyledonous annuals significantly. DS treatments with straw reduced the abundance of this group by 81 and 85% compared with LBS. Straw mulch resulted in effective suppression of photosensitive weeds such as Matricaria spp. and late germinating Chenopodium album. Grasses and perennial species occurred independent of the amount of straw. Compared with DS, the abundance of these weeds was reduced by 64 and 82% in LBS treatment. The shoot dry matter production of faba bean was retarded by DS compared with LBS, but significant yield losses could be avoided with straw residues of at least 4 t ha-1. Sufficient amount of straw of from the previous crop is a key criterion to facilitate organic no-till farming of faba bean in a suitable crop sequence when pressure of perennials and grasses is low.

  2. Faba Bean Can Adapt to Chocolate Spot Disease by Pretreatment with Shikimic and Salicylic Acids through Osmotic Adjustment, Solutes Allocation and Leaf Turgidity

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    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of shikimic and salicylic acids at the concentrations of 0.4 and 0.7 mM, respectively, or their combination as phenolic compounds and Ridomil MZ at the concentration of 250 g/100 L as a fungicide on osmotic pressure (OP, solutes allocation, organic acids, inorganic ions and relative water content were quantified in Vicia faba leaves infected by Botrytis fabae. Pathogen induced noticeable decrease in osmotic pressure, total soluble sugar (TSS and inorganic osmolytes (i.e. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- while caused obvious increase in proline, total soluble nitrogen (TSN and organic acids (i.e. Keto and citric acids in water extract of the leaf of faba bean plants. Furthermore, pathogen caused marked decrease in relative water content (RWC of infected leaves and as a consequence the saturation water deficit (SWD was increased. Exogenous application of shikimic acid, salicylic acid or their combination could counteract the adverse effects of B. fabae on osmotic adjustment by inducing additional increase in proline, total soluble sugars, total soluble nitrogen and organic acids which in turn increase the osmotic pressure as well as relative water content in leaves of infected plants. Recovery of osmotic adjustment as well as leaf turgidity of infected host by using these chemical inducers may encourage the using of them as protective control means. The results of the present study showed also that the application of chemical inducers such as shikimic and salicylic acids or their interaction increased the resistance of Vicia faba against the chocolate spot disease.

  3. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different.

  4. Promutagen activation of triazine herbicides metribuzin and ametryn through Vicia faba metabolism inducing sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes in vitro and in V. faba root tip meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Maya, Saúl; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan M; de la Cruz, Leticia Gómez

    2005-03-01

    The aim of our study was the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes in vitro and in root tip meristems of Vicia faba to evaluate the genotoxic effects of metribuzin and ametryn. Direct treatments of these herbicides on human lymphocytes in vitro applied 24 h after the beginning of culture did not induce SCE; however, they showed a cytotoxic effect in the cultures expressed as cellular death. On the contrary, when extracts of V. faba roots, treated for 4 h with metribuzin and ametryn (in vivo activation), were added to the lymphocyte cultures, SCEs were significantly induced with an asymptotic response. Negative responses appeared with the in vitro assays, in which metribuzin and ametryn were added directly to the 48 h lymphocyte cultures for 4 h. Nevertheless, in treatments in which the S10 metabolic mix was added, the SCE frequencies were significantly different to the control, although a concentration-response relationship was only observed with metribuzin. The results showed that both herbicides needed the V. faba metabolism to produce SCE in human lymphocyte cultures. Metribuzin and ametryn applied to V. faba root tip meristems for 4 h increased SCE frequency significantly, and a concentration-response relationship was observed with both herbicides.

  5. Effect of kiln dust from a cement factory on growth of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ismet; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Oztürk, Münir

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to study the effects of different amounts of kiln dust mixed with soil on the seed germination, plant growth, leaf area and water content of Vicia faba cv. Eresen. The reason for this was that cement kiln dust generated as a by-product from the cement factories is rich in potassium, sulfate and other compounds. This product becomes a serious problem when it comes in contact with water. The dust was collected from a cement factory located in Canakkale. Various elements such as Al, Co, Mo, Ca, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se and Zn were determined both in soil as well as kiln dust. Kiln dust was mixed with soil in pots (20 cm diameter) to make seven different treatments varying from 15 to 105 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil. The experiment lasted for 4 months. Seeds of V faba were sown in the pots filled with mixtures of preanalysed kiln dust and soil. Germination was high in the pots with a lower treatment of cement kiln dust. However, lower germination rates were observed in the pots mixed with the highest and the medium amounts of cement kiln dust. Plants growing in the soil including 15 g kiln dust showed better performance in length as compared to control. Leaf area increased with increase in cement kiln dust content up to 60 g kiln dust kg(-1) of soil, but declined after 75 g kg(-1). Water content of leaves (mg cm(-2) leaf area) was found to be constantly decreasing with respect to increasing cement kiln content in the pots. Differences between the averages were evaluated by Tukey test and results were found to be significant.

  6. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  7. Cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumulation under water stress in Vicia faba leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; He, F; Jia, W

    2001-08-01

    Water stress-induced ABA accumulation is a cellular signaling process from water stress perception to activation of genes encoding key enzymes of ABA biosynthesis, of which the water stress-signal perception by cells or triggering mechanism of the ABA accumulation is the center in the whole process of ABA related-stress signaling in plants. The cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumulation under water stress was studied in leaves of Vicia faba. Mannitol at 890 mmol * kg(-1) osmotic concentration induced an increase of more than 5 times in ABA concentration in detached leaf tissues, but the same concentration of mannitol only induced an increase of less than 40 % in ABA concentration in protoplasts. Like in detached leaf tissues, ABA concentration in isolated cells increased more than 10 times under the treatment of mannitol at 890 mmol * kg(-1) concentration, suggesting that the interaction between plasmalemma and cell wall was essential to triggering of the water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Neither Ca(2+)-chelating agent EGTA nor Ca(2+)channel activator A23187 nor the two cytoskeleton inhibitors, colchicine and cytochalasin B, had any effect on water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Interestingly water stress-induced ABA accumulation was effectively inhibited by a non-plasmalemma-permeable sulfhydryl-modifier PCMBS (p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonic acid), suggesting that plasmalemma protein(s) may be involved in the triggering of water stress-induced ABA accumulation, and the protein may contain sulfhydryl group at its function domain.

  8. Structure and chromosomal localization of DNA sequences related to ribosomal subrepeats in Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, F; Cremonini, R; Zolfino, C; Tucci, G F; D'Ovidio, R; Delre, V; DePace, C; Scarascia Mugnozza, G T; Cionini, P G

    1991-05-01

    Subrepeating sequences of 325 bp found in the ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) of Vicia faba and responsible for variations in the length of the polycistronic units for rRNA were isolated and used as probes for in situ hybridization. Hybridization occurs at many regions of the metaphase chromosomes besides those bearing rRNA genes, namely chromosome ends and all the heterochromatic regions revealed by enhanced fluorescence after quinacrine staining. The DNA homologous to the 325 bp repeats that does not reside in the IGS was isolated, cloned and sequenced. It is composed of tandemly arranged 336 bp elements, each comprising two highly related 168 bp sequences. This structure is very similar to that of the IGS repeats and ca. 75% nucleotide sequence identity can be observed between these and the 168 bp doublets. The most obvious difference lies in the deletion, in the former, of a 14 bp segment from one of the two related sequences. It is hypothesized that the IGS repeats are derived from the 336 bp elements and have been transposed to ribosomal cistrons from other genome fractions. The possible relations between these sequences and others with similar structural features found in other species are discussed.

  9. DNA Damage in Vicia faba by Exposure to Agricultural Soils from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Santacruz, L; García-Nieto, E; García-Gallegos, E; Romo-Gómez, C; Ortiz-Ortiz, E; Costilla-Salazar, R; Luna-Zendejas, H S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify some POPs, such as p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, and PCBs in agricultural soils of Tlaxcala, Mexico and evaluate their capacity for eliciting DNA damage, using Vicia faba as bioindicator. The values of ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs ranged from 8-24 to 118-26,983 µg/kg, respectively. The samples T1 (HQ = 9.3) and T2 (HQ = 53.9) showed concentrations of ΣPCBs higher than Canadian guidelines (SQGE = 500 µg/kg). The genotoxicity testing produced percentages of DNA fragmentation higher than negative control and statistically significant (p < 0.05), both in agricultural soils and organic extracts. The soils T2, T3, N4, and N5 showed a DICA from 2.6 to 3.1 times, statistically higher (p < 0.05) than negative control. In general, the agricultural soils have greater genotoxic capacity than the organic extracts, suggesting a potential risk to biota that depends upon this ecosystem.

  10. Nuclear DNA content and ultrastructure of secretory cells of Vicia faba L. stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Wróbel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of study was the level of nuclear DNA and the ultrastructural transformations in the secretory cells of the stigma in Vicia faba L. It has been found that the stigmal cells which are active in biogenesis and exudate secretion are diploid cells whose differentiation starts from 2C DNA level. The presence of a population of nuclei with an amount DNA of about 2.5 C suggests that the metabolic activity of those cells may be regulated through supplementary incomplete replication. The ultrastructural transformations of secretory cells point to three stages of biogenesis and secretion of exudate. Stage I, before the start of the cell's secretory functions, is characterized by the development of the protein synthesizing apparatus and the activity of dictyosomes. In development stage II vesicular electron-transparent exudate is secreted. Stage III of exudate biogenesis is production of lipids. They form mainly in the plastids and are secreted with the involvement of the cell's vacuolar system.

  11. Short-term toxic effects of chlorobenzenes on broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Wan; LI; Peijun; ZHOU; Qixing; SUN; Tieheng; TAI; Peid

    2005-01-01

    The root growth, changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity,malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein level of broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings were researched at different soil concentrations of chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The results showed that root growth of seedlings was growth was, however, restored to some extent although there was a delay in returning to the control level. The total soluble protein content in seedlings increased with TCB concentration and duration of exposure. Effect of TCB stress on SOD activity in seedlings displayed a significant were placed in clean tap water for 3 d following exposure to 5 d of TCB stress to clear tap water (P<0.05). The experiments also revealed that a significant increase of MDA level in seedlings was a positive correlation between TCB concentration and MDA level. All the above results showed that SOD activity and MDA level of broadbean seedlings might be proposed as the biomarkers for short-term TCB contamination in soil. Compared to TCB, the toxicity of 50-1000 μg · g-1 CB or HCB in soil to broadbean seedlings was not observed after a 3 d exposure.

  12. Effects of Glomus mosseae on the toxicity of heavy metals to Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu-hong; LIN Ai-jun; CHEN Bao-dong; WANG You-shan; SMITH Sally E; SMITH F Andrew

    2006-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on the growth of Vicia faba and toxicity induced by heavy metals (HMs) (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) in a field soil contaminated by a mixture of these metals. There was also uninoculation treatment (NM) simultaneously. Mycorrhizal (GM) plants have significantly increased growth and tolerance to toxicity induced by heavy metals compared with NM plants. P uptake was significantly increased in GM plants. Mycorrhizal symbiosis reduced the transportation of HMs from root to shoot by immobilizing HMs in the mycorrhizal, shown by increasing the ratios of HMs from root to shoot. Oxidative stress, which can induce DNA damage, is an important mechanism of heavy metal toxicity. GM treatment decreased oxidative stress by intricating antioxidative systems such as peroxidases and non-enzymic systems including soluble protein. The DNA damage induced by heavy metals was detected using comet assay, which showed DNA damage in the plants was decreased by the GM treatment.

  13. Analyse de la tolérance des populations locales de fève (Vicia faba L. à la sécheresse au stade juvénile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora AQTBOUZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most important abiotic stress responsible of the production instability and lower levels of yields of faba bean (Vicia faba L.. The cropping of tolerant varieties can be an opportunity to stabilize production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic variability and to study the drought tolerance in the juvenile plant stage in a collection of local Moroccan faba bean populations from the province of Taounate. A number of 60 local populations were studied under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Different morphological and physiological traits were studied before and under water stress and during the recovery phase. The difference between recovery and water stress phases estimates the capacity of local populations to recover from drought. The local populations contain a wide diversity for different studied traits. The gain in dry matter has a negative and highly significant correlation with dry matter yield under water stress (r = -0.64 **. The populations 16, 47, 1 and 9 have proven to be the most drought tolerant at juvenile stage.

  14. De novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L. for transfer cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruba Shankari eArun Chinnappa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba (L. is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC development. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC development. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb, however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form TCs, generated 69.5M reads, of which 65.8M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach within CLC Genomics Workbench v6.1 generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species.

  15. 蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶片蒸腾速率的因子分析%Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Transpiration Rate of Vicia faba L. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍思伟

    2001-01-01

    利用LI-1600稳态气孔计测定了蚕豆叶片蒸腾速率的日变化,以及水分胁迫下蒸腾速率的变化,探讨了环境因子对蚕豆叶片蒸腾速率的影响.结果表明,光量子通量密度是影响蒸腾速率的主要气象因子,土壤含水量影响叶片相对含水量,并通过气孔扩散阻力来影响蒸腾速率.%By using LI-1600 steady state porometer,the transpiration changes of the Vicia faba L.leaves were determined through a day and under the condition of the water stress,in order to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on the transpiration rate of the Vicia faba leaves.The result indicated that PFD is the principal meteorological factor influencing transpiration.The soil water content influenced the relative water content of leaf leaves,and also influenced the transpiration by stoma diffusing resistance.

  16. Multielemental Fingerprinting as a Tool for Authentication of Organic Wheat, Barley, Faba Bean, and Potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Olesen, Jørgen E;

    2011-01-01

    The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma−optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and −mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically...

  17. Short-term toxic effects of chlorobenzenes on broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan; Li, Peijun; Zhou, Qixing; Sun, Tieheng; Tai, Peidong; Xu, Huaxia

    2005-05-01

    The root growth, changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein level of broadbean (Vicia faba) seedlings were researched at different soil concentrations of chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The results showed that root growth of seedlings was interrupted after 5 d of 50-200 microg x g(-1) TCB treatment. During a 3 d recovery period, root growth was, however, restored to some extent although there was a delay in returning to the control level. The total soluble protein content in seedlings increased with TCB concentration and duration of exposure. Effect of TCB stress on SOD activity in seedlings displayed a significant dose-effect relationship for 1-5 d of 50-200 microg x g(-1) treatment. When broadbean seedlings were placed in clean tap water for 3 d following exposure to 5 d of TCB stress to clear tap water for 3 d, SOD activity at 50 microg x g(-1) TCB recovered towards control level (P>0.05) while a significant increase in SOD activity was observed at 100 and 200 microg x g(-1) TCB compared to control (P<0.05). The experiments also revealed that a significant increase of MDA level in seedlings occurred after 3 and 5 d of 100 and 200 microg x g(-1) TCB treatment (P<0.05 and P<0.01), and there was a positive correlation between TCB concentration and MDA level. All the above results showed that SOD activity and MDA level of broadbean seedlings might be proposed as the biomarkers for short-term TCB contamination in soil. Compared to TCB, the toxicity of 50-1000 microg x g(-1) CB or HCB in soil to broadbean seedlings was not observed after a 3 d exposure.

  18. Exposure to 915 MHz radiation induces micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavino, Bianca; Carboni, Giovanni; Petrillo, Roberto; Paoluzzi, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Rizzoni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones and wireless networks raised a great debate about the real carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure associated with these devices. Conflicting results are reported by the great majority of in vivo and in vitro studies on the capability of RF-EMF exposure to induce DNA damage and mutations in mammalian systems. Aimed at understanding whether less ambiguous responses to RF-EMF exposure might be evidenced in plant systems with respect to mammalian ones, in the present work the mutagenic effect of RF-EMF has been studied through the micronucleus (MN) test in secondary roots of Vicia faba seedlings exposed to mobile phone transmission in controlled conditions, inside a transverse electro magnetic (TEM) cell. Exposure of roots was carried out for 72h using a continuous wave (CW) of 915 MHz radiation at three values of equivalent plane wave power densities (23, 35 and 46W/m(2)). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured with a calorimetric method and the corresponding values were found to fall in the range of 0.4-1.5W/kg. Results of three independent experiments show the induction of a significant increase of MN frequency after exposure, ranging from a 2.3-fold increase above the sham value, at the lowest SAR level, up to a 7-fold increase at the highest SAR. These findings are in agreement with the limited number of data on cytogenetic effects detected in other plant systems exposed to mobile phone RF-EMF frequencies and clearly show the capability of radiofrequency exposure to induce DNA damage in this eukaryotic cell system.

  19. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  20. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value.

  1. A New Mechanism for the Regulation of Stomatal Aperture Size in Intact Leaves (Accumulation of Mesophyll-Derived Sucrose in the Guard-Cell Wall of Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw Jr, W. H.; Smith, B. G.; Freed, G. A.

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Sucspecific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 [mu]m. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  2. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ping; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol{sup -1}) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO, incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol{sup -1}) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma{sup -1} min{sup -1}). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, M a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 pm. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and N high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism. 50 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  4. Contaminant bioavailability in soil and phytotoxicity/genotoxicity tests in Vicia faba L.: a case study of boron contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the model plant for genotoxicity studies Vicia faba L. was used to investigate the relation between Boron (B) content and bioavailability in soil and plant genotoxic/phytotoxic response. A total of nine soil samples were investigated: two soil samples were collected from a B-polluted industrial area in Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), the other samples were obtained by spiking control soil (from a not polluted area of the basin) with seven increased doses of B, from about 20 to 100 mg B kg(-1). As expected, B availability, evaluated by chemical extraction, was higher (twofold) in spiked soils when compared with collected polluted soils with the same B total content. To analyze the phytotoxic effects of B, seed germination, root elongation, biomass production, and B accumulation in plant tissues were considered in V. faba plants grown in the various soils. Moreover, the cytotoxic/genotoxic effects of B were investigated in root meristems by mitotic index (MI) and micronuclei frequency (MCN) analysis. The results highlighted that V. faba was a B-sensitive plant and the appearance of phytotoxic effects, which altered plant growth parameters, were linearly correlated to the bioavailable B concentration in soils. Concerning the occurrence of cytotoxic/genotoxic effects induced by B, no linear correlation was observed even if MCN frequency was logarithmic correlated with the concentration of B bioavailable in soils.

  5. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality.

  6. Physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austruy, A; Wanat, N; Moussard, C; Vernay, P; Joussein, E; Ledoigt, G; Hitmi, A

    2013-04-01

    In order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, Solanum nigrum and Agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and Vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. Following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of Auzon, it appears that the As is the principal pollutant. Particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciation in the soil that the level of its accumulation in plants. In V. faba and A. capillaris, the trace metals and metalloids inhibit the biomass production and involve a lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Furthermore, these pollutants cause a photosynthesis perturbation by stomatal limitations and a dysfunction of photosystem II. Whatever the plant, the As content is less than 0.1 percent of dry matter, the majority of As absorbed is stored in the roots which play the role of trap organ. In parallel, the culture of S. nigrum decreases significantly the exchangeable and weakly adsorbed fraction of As in rhizospheric soil. This study has highlighted the ability of tolerance to trace metals of S. nigrum and to a lesser extent A. capillaris. Our data indicate that V. faba is not tolerant to soil pollution and is not a metallophyte species.

  7. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y.; Mohammed A. Al-Qutami; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.; Anil Grover; Ali, Hayssam M.; Al-Wahibi, Mona S.; Bukhari, Najat A.

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stres...

  8. De novo assembly of a genome-wide transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L.) for transfer cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S; McCurdy, David W

    2015-01-01

    Vicia faba (L.) is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC) development. TCs are specialized nutrient transport cells in plants, characterized by invaginated wall ingrowths with amplified plasma membrane surface area enriched with transporter proteins that facilitate nutrient transfer. Many TCs are formed by trans-differentiation from differentiated cells at apoplasmic/symplasmic boundaries in nutrient transport. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC trans-differentiation. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb), however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC differentiation, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a genome-wide transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form epidermal TCs, generated 69.5 M reads, of which 65.8 M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This genome-wide transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC trans-differentiation, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species.

  9. The content of chlorophyll response to salt stress in the leaf of Vicia faba L.%盐胁迫对蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶绿素a和b含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军华; 冯桂莲; 高榕

    2000-01-01

    用不同的盐浓度对蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)处理的实验表明:叶绿素含量随盐浓度的增大而有所降低,而叶绿素a/b则无明显变化.当NaCl浓度升至1%时,叶绿素的含量在处理后的第三天呈现"增-降"现象,在1.5%NaCl浓度下,"增-降"尤为显著.这种叶绿素含量的变化势必影响到以叶片叶绿素含量比来判断植物抗盐性大小.

  10. Mutagenic Effects of Pesticides Detected by Micronucleus on Different Vicia faba Linn%用微核技术检测农药对不同蚕豆的诱变效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雁霞; 王跃华; 苟兴华; 苟小军; 邬晓勇; 李文娴

    2011-01-01

    根据发芽率、微核率参数从3种蚕豆种子中筛选最佳的微核实验材料,采用微核技术研究4种农药对蚕豆根尖细胞的诱变效应.结果表明:广元蚕豆种子是最佳的微核实验材料.4种农药单独使用时,农药浓度与微核率呈剂量-效应关系,敌敌畏的诱变效应最大,除它杀虫剂的诱变效应最小.4种农药的最佳使用浓度为:敌敌畏1.9 mg/L,敌杀死-溴氰菊酯2.5mg/L,甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐1.4 mg/L,除它强力广谱高效杀虫剂2.3 mg/L.%To screen the best Vicia faba for the micronucleus experiment,three broad bean seeds were selected according to the germination rate and the micronucleus rate parameters. Four kinds of pesticides were used to inducce the Vicia faba root-tip by the technology of micronucleus. The results showed that: Cuangyuan bean seed was the best Micronucleus test material. When each of the four pesticides was used alone,the pesticide concentration and micronuclei in a dose-response relationship. The maximum mutagenic effect was the dichlorvos and Chuta was the minimum. The best concentrations of four kinds of pesticides were: dichlorvos 1.9 mg/L,deitamethrin 2. 5 mg/L,dyloxvolaton 1.4 mg/L and ememectin benzoate 2.3 mg/L.

  11. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam E. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vicia faba L. Giza 834 were exposed to γ-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He–Ne (632.8 nm or diode (650.0 nm laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He- Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy of γ-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of γ-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (3.9 μmol/g d.w. Laser treatment by He–Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P 2O2 content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (2.3 μmol/g d.w.. On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with γ-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with γ-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by γ-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of γ-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone.Semillas de Vicia faba L. Giza 834 fueron expuestas a γ-irradiación a dosis de 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 y 20.0 kGy y después expuesta a una radiación laser de He–Ne (632.8 nm o de diodo (650.0 nm durante 5 minutos. Las actividades de las enzimas POD, APOX, CAT, SOD y GST fueron favorecidas significativamente, y éstas alcanzaron un máximo a una dosis de 5.0 kGy para las enzimas

  12. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2007-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas.In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas...

  13. Faba bean in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two consecutive trials were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal (SBM in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows. In both trials a “Control” concentrate (12% dehulled SBM was compared to a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% dehulled SBM; 10% flaked faba beans. Forages fed to animals included hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus green mixed grass in trial 1, hay only in trial 2. Concentrate intake, faecal scores, milk yield and quality were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was lower in the “Faba” group (“Control” vs. “Faba”: 34.6 vs. 32.9mg/dl in trial 1, P<0.1; 27.4 vs. 23.4mg/dl in trial 2, P<0.01. The plasma urea was different only in trial 2 (“Control” vs. “Faba”: 3.9 vs. 3.0mmol/l, P<0.01. The inclusion of faba beans within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of SBM.

  14. Effect of extrusion, espansion and toasting on the nutritional value of peas, faba beans and lupins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment was made of the effect that different treatments (toasting, expansion, extrusion have on the nutritionalvalue of protein plants (pea, faba bean, lupin. In a randomized block design, feeds were screened for enzymaticdigestibility of starch and protein, N solubility and in vitro protein degradability. Expansion and extrusion cause increasedstarch enzymatic degradability while toasting produced virtually no effects. In peas this value increased from 11.80% inmeal to 39.70% in the extruded product; 85.37% is the percentage for the expanded product, while 10.90% is the starchdigestibility value for toasted peas. In faba beans the extrusion process increased starch digestibility from 11.39% to85.05%, while in extruded lupins a complete starch hydrolysis was obtained, while in the meal the polysaccharide digestionwas 54.48%.The expansion and extrusion processes significantly decreased rumen degradability during the first 8 hours of incubation.Toasted peas had lower degradability if compared with controls but not with the other treatments. The onlypotentially alternative source to soybean is the extruded faba bean. In spite of its lower protein content, this feed ischaracterized by a considerably lower in vitro protein degradability than soybean. This implies that the digestible foodprotein content is comparable (124.90 g/kg DM to that of soybean (109.78 g/kg DM and definitely higher than thatof all other protein plants.

  15. Laboratory invesitgations of variability of Ascochyta fabae Speg. isolates obtained from horse bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Józef Filipowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty five isolates of Ascochyta fabae Speg. were investigated. They were selected from 1650 isolates of this fungus obtained from horse bean seeds in 1974-1976. All the isolates grew and sporulated on Potato Dextrose Agar, Malt Agar and Horse Bean Agar. The rate of their growth amounted to 1-4 mm per 24 hours. The variability of isolates in size of pycnidia and conidia and number of sepia was noticed. A few spores with untypical shapes were observed as well.

  16. Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Vicia faba: A Pilot Study on the Environmental Monitoring of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital role in ecosystems. The study reports the use of Vicia faba root-tip meristem to investigate the genotoxicity of AgNPs under modified GENE-TOX test conditions. The root tip cells of V. faba were treated with four different concentrations of engineered AgNPs dispersion to study toxicological endpoints such as mitotic index (MI, chromosomal aberrations (CA and micronucleus induction (MN. For each concentration, five sets of microscopy observations were carried out. The results demonstrated that AgNPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05 the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and decreased the MI in exposed groups compared to control. From this study we infer that AgNPs might have penetrated the plant system and may have impaired mitosis causing CA and MN. The results of this study demonstrate that AgNPs are genotoxic to plant cells. Since plant assays have been integrated as a genotoxicity component in risk assessment for detection of environmental mutagens, they should be given full consideration when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment.

  17. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg.

  18. 烟草浸提液对蚕豆根尖的遗传损伤%The Genetic Damage of Smokeless Tobacco Extract on Vicia Faba Root Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂芳; 吴学进; 黄先忠.; 张婷婷

    2012-01-01

    利用不同浓度的烟草浸提液对蚕豆根尖进行常温处理,结果对蚕豆根尖细胞造成不同程度的遗传损伤,而且根尖细胞微核率与烟草浸提液浓度成正相关。%Vicia faba root tip was treated using different concentrations of smokeless tobacco extract at normal temperature. Result indicated that the rc,ot tip cells of Vicia faba suffered different degree of genetic damage, and root tip cell micronucleus rate was positively ~'orrelated with the concentration of smokeless tobacco extract.

  19. An Assessment of the Potential of Vicia faba minor in the Storage of the L-Form of 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larher, F; Gerard, J; Gerant-Sauvage, D; Hamelin, J; Briens, M

    1984-08-01

    The uncommon amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) was determined colorimetrically using isonicotinic acid hydrazide (IAH) in the crude extracts obtained from fresh material of Vicia faba minor. DOPA was found to accumulate at concentrations inconsistent with its solubility in water. Other orthodiphenols do not interfere in DOPA determination. The accumulated DOPA was only of the L-form. The DOPA content in the dry material of Vicia faba was significantly lower than that from the corresponding fresh material, suggesting some kind of DOPA oxidation during drying. Subsequent analyses designed to evaluate the actual potential of V. faba minor in the accumulation of DOPA were performed with fresh material. It was observed that the DOPA concentration in the tissues of V. faba minor is reproducible when expressed on a fresh matter weight basis. In young seedlings L-DOPA production is significantly enhanced by light via an increased fresh matter yield. The DOPA content was found to be increased in mature plants grown on media enriched with low concentrations of NaCl (up to 25 mM) that showed a positive effect on their growth. NaCl induced an overproduction of L-DOPA even when growth was restricted by ion excess. On the contrary, the DOPA level dropped in mature plants submitted to water stress. Nodulated plants were found to contain higher content of L-DOPA than the non-nodulated ones grown with NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+). It is suggested that DOPA hyperproduction by Vicia faba minor might be optimized by growing plants in mild saline conditions and by inoculating them with efficient salt tolerant strains of R. leguminosarum.

  20. Protective role of α-tocopherol on two Vicia faba cultivars against seawater-induced lipid peroxidation by enhancing capacity of anti-oxidative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa A. Orabi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of seawater stress on growth, yield, physiological and antioxidant responses of faba bean plant and whether the exogenous application with vitamin E could mitigate the adverse effect of salinity stress or not, a pot experiment was carried out during 2011/12 winter season under green house of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Two faba bean cultivars (Giza 3 and Giza 843 irrigated with diluted seawater (Tap water, 3.13 or 6.25 dS m−1 and α-tocopherol (0, 50 or 100 mg L−1 were used. At 75 days after sowing, growth sample was taken for vegetative growth measurement, proline, carotenoids, antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, POX and PAL, lipid peroxidation, and inorganic ions as well as seed yield and yield attributes were determined. The results revealed that seawater triggered significant inhibitory effects on faba bean growth and yield especially for Giza 3 cultivar with obvious increments in MDA and Na+ ion contents. Foliar application with α-tocopherol at rate of 100 mg L−1 followed by 50 mg L−1 on faba bean plants exerted certain alleviative effects on these indices in particular on Giza 843. α-Tocopherol could play an important role in alleviation of injury of faba bean irrigated with diluted seawater through the enhancement of the protective parameters such as antioxidant enzymes, proline, carotenoids, and inorganic ions (K+ and Ca2+ to be effective in decreasing MDA content, lessening the harmful effect of salinity, and improving faba bean growth, seed yield and seed yield quality.

  1. Enhancement of faba bean competitive ability by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is highly correlated with dynamic nutrient acquisition by competing wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xu; Bei, Shuikuan; Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Zhang, Junling

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic understanding of the dynamic processes linking nutrient acquisition and biomass production of competing individuals can be instructive in optimizing intercropping systems. Here, we examine the effect of inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae on competitive dynamics between wheat and faba bean. Wheat is less responsive to mycorrhizal inoculation. Both inoculated and uninoculated wheat attained the maximum instantaneous N and P capture approximately five days before it attained the maximum instantaneous biomass production, indicating that wheat detected the competitor and responded physiologically to resource limitation prior to the biomass response. By contrast, the instantaneous N and P capture by uninoculated faba bean remained low throughout the growth period, and plant growth was not significantly affected by competing wheat. However, inoculation substantially enhanced biomass production and N and P acquisition of faba bean. The exudation of citrate and malate acids and acid phosphatase activity were greater in mycorrhizal than in uninoculated faba bean, and rhizosphere pH tended to decrease. We conclude that under N and P limiting conditions, temporal separation of N and P acquisition by competing plant species and enhancement of complementary resource use in the presence of AMF might be attributable to the competitive co-existence of faba bean and wheat.

  2. Protective role of α-tocopherol on two Vicia faba cultivars against seawater-induced lipid peroxidation by enhancing capacity of anti-oxidative system

    OpenAIRE

    Salwa A. Orabi; Abdelhamid, Magdi T.

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect of seawater stress on growth, yield, physiological and antioxidant responses of faba bean plant and whether the exogenous application with vitamin E could mitigate the adverse effect of salinity stress or not, a pot experiment was carried out during 2011/12 winter season under green house of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Two faba bean cultivars (Giza 3 and Giza 843) irrigated with diluted seawater (Tap water, 3.13 or 6.25 dS m−1) and α-tocopherol (0,...

  3. Genotoxicity assessment of soils from wastewater irrigation areas and bioremediation sites using the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y F; Gong, P; Wilke, B M; Zhang, W; Song, X Y; Sun, T H; Ackland, M L

    2007-02-01

    Genotoxicity potential of soils taken from wastewater irrigation areas and bioremediation sites was assessed using the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus assay. Twenty five soils were tested, of which 8 were uncontaminated soils and taken as the control to examine the influence of soil properties; 6 soils were obtained from paddy rice fields with a history of long-term wastewater irrigation; 6 soils were obtained from bioremediation sites to examine effects of bioremediation; and 5 PAH-contaminated soils were used to examine methodological effects between direct soil exposure and exposure to aqueous soil extracts on micronuclei (MN) frequency ( per thousand) in the V. faba root tips. Results indicate that soil properties had no significant influences on MN frequencies (p > 0.05) when soil pH varied between 3.4 to 7.6 and organic carbon between 0.4% and 18.6%. The MN frequency measured in these control soils ranged from 1.6 per thousand to 5.8 per thousand. MN frequencies in soils from wastewater irrigation areas showed 2- to 48-fold increase as compared with the control. Soils from bioremediation sites showed a mixed picture: MN frequencies in some soils decreased after bioremediation, possibly due to detoxification; whereas in other cases remediated soils induced higher MN frequencies, suggesting that genotoxic substances might be produced during bioremediation. Exposure to aqueous soil extracts gave a higher MN frequency than direct exposure in 3 soils. However, the opposite was observed in the other two soils, suggesting that both exposure routes should be tested in case of negative results from one route. Data obtained from this study indicate that the MN assay is a sensitive assay suitable for evaluating genotoxicity of soils.

  4. 铀尾矿浸出液对蚕豆(Vicia faba)早期生长的影响%Effects of Uranium Tailings Lixivium on Early Growth of Vicia Faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易俗; 王瑞兰; 冯涛; 向言词; 周红超

    2007-01-01

    利用室内培养法研究了铀尾矿浸出液对蚕豆(Vicia faba)根尖细胞的微核率、核酸酶活性及对蚕豆种子萌发的影响.结果表明:铀尾矿浸出液达到一定剂量时均可引起蚕豆根尖细胞微核数增加,微核数随浓度增大而逐渐增多,说明铀尾矿对蚕豆幼苗具有明显的遗传毒性效应;铀尾矿对蚕豆种子的萌发率没有影响;铀尾矿促进幼苗的生长,低浓度比高浓度明显;低浓度铀尾矿浸出液对核酸酶有一定的激活作用,高浓度则抑制.当铀尾矿浸出液浓度逐渐增大时,抑制作用逐渐增强.图1,表4,参14.

  5. Carbon Monoxide-induced Stomatal Closure Involves Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide in Vicia faba Guard Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping She; Xi-Gui Song

    2008-01-01

    Here the regulatory role of CO during stomatal movement In Vicla faba L. was surveyed. Results Indicated that, like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), CO donor Hematin induced stomatal closure in dose- and time-dependent manners. These responses were also proven by the addition of gaseous CO aqueous solution with different concentrations, showing the first time that CO and H2O2 exhibit the similar regulation role in the atomatal movement. Moreover, our data showed that ascorbic acid (ASA, an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of the H2O2-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase) not only reversed stomatal closure by CO, but also suppressed the H2O2 fluorescence induced by CO, implying that CO induced-atomatal closure probably involves H2O2 signal. Additionally, the CO/NO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) and CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX, ASA and DPI reversed the darkness-induced stomatal closure and H2O2 fluorescence. These results show that, perhaps like H2O2, the levels of CO in guard cells of V. faba are higher In the dark than in light, HO-1 and NADPH oxidase are the enzyme systems responsible for generating endogenous CO and H2O2 in darkness respectively, and that CO is involved in darkness-induced H2O2 synthesis in V. faba guard cells.

  6. Ca2+ is involved in muscarine-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated acetylcholine signal transduction in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanxia; MIAO Long; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neurochemical transmitter in animals; it also exists in plants and plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. ACh has been known to induce the stomatal opening. By monitoring the changes of cytosolic Ca2+ with fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM under the confocal microscopy,we found that exogenous ACh increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of guard cells of Vicia faba L. Muscarine, an agonist of muscarine acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), could do so as well. In contrast, atropine, the antagonist of mAChR abolished the ability of ACh to increase Ca2+ in guard cells.This mechanism is similar to mAChR in animals. When EGTA was used to chelate Ca2+ or ruthenium red to block Ca2+ released from vacuole respectively, the results showed that the increased cytosolic Ca2+ mainly come from intracellular Ca2+ store. The evidence supports that Ca2+ is involved in guard-cell response to ACh and that Ca2+ signal is coupled to mAChRs in ACh signal transduction in guard cells.

  7. Efecto de la acetilación sobre las propiedades funcionales y nutricionales de almidones de haba (VICIA FABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron algunas propiedades funcionales del almidón de haba (Vicia faba, con dos niveles de proteína -12,89% y 4,41%-, obtenido por fraccionamiento por vía húmeda de las semillas secas. Se comparan el secado en rodillos y la liofilización como métodos para deshidratar la muestra, así como las propiedades funcionales del almidón antes y después de acetilarlo con anhídrido acético. También se investigaron ciertas propiedades de interés nutricional con el fin de observar la influencia de la modificación química en la biodisponibilidad del almidón de haba. Se realizó la determinación de almidón total, almidón resistente por retrogradación (AR3, almidón disponible y la velocidad de hidrólisis enzimática en el almidón nativo y en el modificado.

  8. Actin Dynamics Regulates Voltage-Dependent Calcium-Permeable Channels of the Vicia faba Guard Cell Plasma Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Liu-Min Fan

    2009-01-01

    Free cytosolic Ca~(2+) ([Ca~(2+)]_(cyt)) is an ubiquitous second messenger in plant cell signaling, and [Ca~(2+)]_(cyt) elevation is associated with Ca~(2+)-permeable channels in the plasma membrane and endomembranes regulated by a wide range of stimuli. However, knowledge regarding Ca~(2+) channels and their regulation remains limited in planta. A type of voltage-dependent Ca~(2+)-permeable channel was identified and characterized for the Vicia faba L. guard cell plasma membrane by using patch-clamp techniques. These channels are permeable to both Ba~(2+) and Ca~(2+), and their activities can be inhibited by micromolar Gd~(3+). The unitary conductance and the reversal potential of the channels depend on the Ca~(2+) or Ba~(2+) gradients across the plasma membrane. The inward whole-cell Ca~(2+) (Ba~(2+)) current, as well as the unitary current amplitude and NP. of the single Ca~(2+) channel, increase along with the membrane hyperpolarization. Pharmacological experiments suggest that actin dynamics may serve as an upstream regulator of this type of calcium channel of the guard cell plasma membrane. Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization blocker, activated the NP_o of these channels at the single channel level and increased the current amplitude at the whole-cell level. But these channel activations and current increments could be restrained by pretreatment with an F-actin stabilizer, phalloidin. The potential physiological significance of this regulatory mechanism is also discussed.

  9. CYTOGENETIC AND MOLECULAR RESPONSES OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE APPLICATION FOR TOLERANCE TO EXTREME TEMPERATURES IN VICIA FABA L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öney, S; Tabur, S; Tuna, M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] on mitosis, cell cycle and chromosomes in Vicia faba L. seeds exposed to extreme temperatures were investigated using flowcytometric and cytogenetic analysis. Seeds germinated at high and low temperatures showed a signiicant decrease in mitotic index as compared to those of optimum temperature conditions. Application of 50 and 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 were successful in alleviating the negative effects of low and high temperature on mitotic activity, respectively. 50 µM (NH4)2SO4 showed the most positive effect on cell cycle at the extreme temperatures. This concentration increased the cell division removing or decreasing the negative effects of temperature stress. Namely, the highest G2/M and S phase percentages under stress conditions were obtained with application of 50 µM (NH4)2SO4. Chromosomal aberrations were not observed in cells of seeds germinated in distilled water and also at any temperatures. However, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly by increasing (NH4)2SO4 concentration. The highest aberration frequency in all temperature degree tested was found at 1000 µM (NH4)2SO4 concentration.

  10. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of pRb-like protein in root meristem cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) regulates cell cycle progression by controlling the G1-to-S phase transition. As evidenced in mammals, pRb has three functionally distinct binding domains and interacts with a number of proteins including the E2F family of transcription factors, proteins with a conserved LxCxE motif (D-type cyclin), and c-Abl tyrosine kinase. CDK-mediated phosphorylation of pRb inhibits its ability to bind target proteins, thus enabling further progression of the cell cycle. As yet, the roles of pRb and pRb-binding factors have not been well characterized in plants. By using antibody which specifically recognizes phosphorylated serines (S807/811) in the c-Abl tyrosine kinase binding C-domain of human pRb, we provide evidence for the cell cycle-dependent changes in pRb-like proteins in root meristems cells of Vicia faba. An increased phosphorylation of this protein has been found correlated with the G1-to-S phase transition.

  11. Localization of NOS-like protein in guard cells of Vicia faba L. And its possible function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; WANG YouQun; JIA WenSuo; LOU ChengHou; ZHANG ShuQiu

    2007-01-01

    Using the immuno-fluorescence and immuno-gold electron microscope technology, localization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like proteins was determined in guard cells of Vicia faba L. NOS is mainly localized in nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplast, mitochondria and the cell wall of guard cells. Scorch and exogenous JA can enhance the level of nitric oxide (NO) and increase NOS activity in both leaf and epidermis, and the changing pattern of NOS activity was consistent with the change of NO. NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, inhibited JA-induced NO generation. From the results, we presumed that NO generation from NOS pathway is the main pathway in the stress and JA responses. The pharmacological experiment showed that increasing the Ca2+ at a suitable concentration promoted leaf NOS activity and the NO level, indicating that NOS activity together with the distribution of NO is Ca2+-dependent. NOS and NO are possibly involved in the regulation of stomatal movement thus playing an important role in plant stress responses.

  12. Effect of different processing methods on the nutritional characteristics and tannin content of fababean seed (Vicia faba minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Poli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, because of their high protein content, the demand of legume seeds is significantly increased. In the centre and southern Italy fababean (Vicia faba minor can play an important role as alternative protein source in ruminant nutrition. In this trial has been studied the effect of different treatments (flaking, cooking, dehulling, germination on the in vitro digestibility and tannin content of fababean seeds. The in vitro OM and NDF digestibility of seeds were significantly (P<0.05 improved by dehulling and flaking. The in vitro OM digestibility of dehulled fababean (99.27% showed higher values (P<0.05 than the other treated seeds as well as in vitro NDF digestibility (90.33%, P<0.05. Germination of fababean reduces the in vitro digestibility of OM and NDF. Cooking in water was more effective in reducing tannins than other treatments. Compared to the untreated the cooked has significantly (P<0.05 reduced the tannin content over 55% (2.71 g/kgDM vs. 6.10 g/kgDM. Germinated fababean did not affect the tannin content of seeds. The results from this trial suggest that thermal treatments applied to fababean seeds in order to reduce the tannins must be evaluated according to the cost/benefits ratio because this factors in seeds is low (<10 g/kgDM.

  13. Nitric oxide involved in signal transduction of Jasmonic acid-induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; SHI Wuliang; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and Jasmonic acid (JA) are two key signaling molecules involved in many and diverse biological pathways in plants. Growing evidence suggested that NO signaling interacts with JA signaling. In this work, Our experiment showed that NO exists in guard cell of Vicia faba L., and NO is involved in signal transduction of JA- induced stomata closuring: (ⅰ) JA enhances NO synthesis in guard cell; (ⅱ) both JA and NO induced stomatal closure, and had dose response to their effects; (ⅲ) there are synergetic correlation between JA and lower NO concentration in regulation of stomatal movement; (ⅳ) JA-induced stomatal closure was largely prevented by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetrame- thylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), a specific NO scavenger. An inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) in mammalian cells, NG-nitro-L-Arg-methyl eater (L-NAME) also inhibits plant NOS, repressing JA-induced NO generation and JA-induced stomatal closure. We presumed that NO mainly comes from NOS after JA treatment.

  14. Regulating role of acetylcholine and its antagonists in inward rectified K~+ channels from guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷强; 花宝光; 郭玉海; 娄成后

    2000-01-01

    The inward rectified potassium current of Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts treated with acetylcholine (ACh) or the antagonists of its receptors were recorded by employing the patch clamp technique. The results show that ACh at lower concentrations increases the inward K+ current, in contrast, ACh at higher concentrations inhibits it. Treated with d-Tubocurarine (d-Tub), an antagonist of the nicotine ACh receptor (nAChR) inhibits the inward K+ current by 30%. Treated with atropine (Atr), an antagonist of the muscarine (Mus) ACh receptor (mAChR) also inhibits it by 36%. However, if guard cell protoplasts are treated with d-Tub and Atr together, the inward K+ current is inhibited by 60%-75%. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a strong inhibitor of K+ channels has no effect on the inward K+ current regulated by ACh, suggesting that there are inward K+ channels modulated by AChRs on the membrane of the guard cell protoplasts. These data demonstrate an ACh-regulated mechanism for stomatal movement.

  15. Regulating role of acetylcholine and its antagonists in inward rectified K+ channels from guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The inward rectified potassium current of Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts treated with acetylcholine (ACh) or the antagonists of its receptors were recorded by employing the patch clamp technique. The results show that ACh at lower concentrations increases the inward K+ current, in contrast, ACh at higher concentrations inhibits it. Treated with d-Tubocurarine (d-Tub), an antagonist of the nicotine ACh receptor (nAChR) inhibits the inward K+ current by 30%. Treated with atropine (Atr), an antagonist of the muscarine (Mus) ACh receptor (mAChR) also inhibits it by 36%.However,if guard cell protoplasts are treated with d-Tub and Atr together, the inward K+ current is inhibited by 60%-75%. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a strong inhibitor of K+ channels has no effect on the inward K+ current regulated by ACh, suggesting that there are inward K+ channels modulated by AChRs on the membrane of the guard cell protoplasts. These data demonstrate an ACh-regulated mechanism for stomatal movement.

  16. MAP kinase specifically mediates the ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jing; AN Guoyong; WANG Pengcheng; WANG Pengtao; HAN Jinfeng; JIA Yanbin; SONG Chunpeng

    2003-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is involved in ABA- or H2O2-signaling, and H2O2 acts as intermediate in the downstream of ABA signal transduction pathway, which has recently emerged as a secondary messenger of ABA signaling. Using an epidermal strip bioassay and laser scanning confocal microscope, we provided the first evidence that MAP kinase plays an important role in H2O2 signal initial, amplification and specific targeting in response to stimuli in guard cells. ABA- or H2O2-induced Vicia faba stomatal closure was inhibited or reversed by the specific inhibitor PD98059 of MEK1/2; the guard cells were pre-incubated or -microinjected by 10 (mol·L-1 PD98059, ABA could not enhance the fluorescence intensity of H2O2 probe dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Meanwhile, after ABA induced the H2O2 accumulation in guard cells, the exogenous or intracellular PD98059 could reduce the DCF fluorescence intensity. Most interestingly, on the contrary to ABA, the DCF fluorescence intensity of guard cells treated by 100 (mol·L-1 salicylic acid (SA) was not down-regulated by PD98059, yet PD98059 did not regulate the stomatal movement being induced by light, dark or salicylic acid. These results suggest that MEK1/2 could mediate stomatal closure by abolishing the ABA-induced H2O2 generation/accumula- tion in the specific manner.

  17. Low strigolactone root exudation: a novel mechanism of broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) resistance available for faba bean breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Rubiales, Diego; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2014-07-23

    Faba bean yield is severely constrained in the Mediterranean region and Middle East by the parasitic weeds Orobanche crenata, O. foetida, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Seed germination of these weeds is triggered upon recognition of host root exudates. Only recently faba bean accessions have been identified with resistance based in low induction of parasitic seed germination, but the underlying mechanism was not identified. Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones involved in the host recognition by parasitic plants. Our LC-MS/MS analysis of root exudates of the susceptible accession Prothabon detected orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and a novel germination stimulant. A time course analysis indicated that their concentration increased with plant age. However, low or undetectable amounts of these germination stimulants were detected in root exudates of the resistant lines Quijote and Navio at all plant ages. A time course analysis of seed germination induced by root exudates of each faba bean accession indicated important differences in the ability to stimulate parasitic germination. Results presented here show that resistance to parasitic weeds based on low strigolactone exudation does exist within faba bean germplasm. Therefore, selection for this trait is feasible in a breeding program. The remarkable fact that low induction of germination is similarly operative against O. crenata, O. foetida, and P. aegyptiaca reinforces the value of this resistance.

  18. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  19. Transferable analysis of pea EST-SSRs on faba bean and its application%豌豆EST-SSR标记在蚕豆中的通用性与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚亚明; 徐盛春; 毛伟华; 李泽昀

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop novel molecular markers for faba bean (Vicia faba L. ), the transferability of pea (Pisum sativum L. ) EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats) markers and their application were studied in faba bean germplasms. The results revealed that 99 of 163-pair primers for pea EST-SSRs achieved the effective amplification in faba bean, indicating a significant transferability (60. 74%) of pea EST-SSR primers to faba bean. Thirty-six of these transferable markers exhibited polymorphism and totally 148 alleles were detected with an average variation of 4. 1. The polymorphism information contents of polymorphic markers varied from 0. 035 to 0. 810 with an average of 0. 483 4, while observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0. 000 1 to 0. 700 0 and expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0. 035 7 to 0. 845 2, with an average of 0.210 3 and 0.538 8 respectively. Furthermore, UPGMA (unweight pair group method with arithemetic averages) analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCA) revealed that the 30 germplasms were classified into two major clusters. Because of their polymorphism and transferability, the developed markers in this study will provide the valuable tool for genetic diversity, resource conservation, comparative mapping and marker-assisted breeding of faba bean in the future.In order to develop novel molecular markers for faba bean (Vicia faba L. ), the transferability of pea (Pisum sativum L. ) EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats) markers and their application were studied in faba bean germplasms. The results revealed that 99 of 163-pair primers for pea EST-SSRs achieved the effective amplification in faba bean, indicating a significant transferability (60. 74%) of pea EST-SSR primers to faba bean. Thirty-six of these transferable markers exhibited polymorphism and totally 148 alleles were detected with an average variation of 4. 1. The polymorphism information contents of polymorphic markers varied from 0

  20. Investigación preliminar de la influencia del tratamiento térmico y tiempo de almacenamiento sobre el aroma de habas (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos-Díaz, José; University of Helsinki; Suvanto, Sonja; University of Helsinki; Forsten, Elina; University of Helsinki; Seppa, Laila; University of Helsinki

    2016-01-01

    Haba (Vicia faba) es una leguminosa disponible en Finlandia que se utiliza en la alimentación humana y animal debido a su alto contenido de proteína y fibra. A diferencia de otras legumbres, poco se sabe acerca de las sustancias volátiles que se producen durante el almacenamiento y los descriptores de aroma asociados a las mismas. durante el almacenamiento y los descriptores de aroma asociados a las mismas. Las suspensiones fueron elaboradas en base a harina de habas. Muestras fueron sometida...

  1. Study on Micronucleus Rates of Vicia Faba Root Tips Induced by TMV Solution%TMV溶液诱导蚕豆根尖微核的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘开全; 马学萍; 宋路平; 李波

    2013-01-01

    In order to preliminary studying on effect of TMV solution to environmental deterioration,Micronucleus tests were conducted in Vicia faba root tips treated with different concentrations of TMV solution in the study.The results as follows:TMV solution had some inductive effect on micronucleus of Vicia faba root tips.Compared with the control group,the difference was very significant between different concentration of TMV solution and micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tips (P=0.003<0.01).Its micronucleus rate tended to increase with the increasing of TMV solution concentration (r=0.982).Comparing with the control group,the difference was not significant(P>0.01,r=0.312) between different processing time and micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tips treated by the same concentration of TMV solution.It is suggested that micronucleus test can be applied to monitor inherent toxicity of tobacco mosaic virus.%应用蚕豆根尖微核试验初步研究了一定浓度的烟草花叶病毒(Tobacco Mosaic Virus,TMV)溶液对环境污染的效应.结果表明,TMV溶液浓度与各处理蚕豆根尖微核率的相关性较强(r=0.982),且差异极显著(P=0.003<0.01),即蚕豆根尖微核率随着TMV溶液浓度的升高而增加;同一浓度的TMV溶液处理蚕豆根尖不同时间后其微核率在各组间没有显著差异(P>0.01),且蚕豆根尖微核率与处理时间相关性不强(r=0.312).研究表明蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术可应用于烟草花叶病毒遗传毒性监测.

  2. Action of some micronutrients on the infestation and yield components of faba bean by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Hammad, S A; Guirguis, G Z; Zaghloul, O A; Sadek, Hanan A

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out in the two growing seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 on faba bean (Vicia faba) plants in the Experimental Farm of Agriculture Research Station at Nubaria region, Alexandria, which is considered as a newly reclaimed calcareous soil. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of spraying faba bean plants with certain micronutrients, i.e. Iron, Manganese and Zinc either in single double or triple combinations on the infestation by the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homoptera) and the leaf miner, Liriomyza trfolü (Burgess) (Agromyzidae, Diptera). The infestation by these insects was assessed using the parameters of Infestation grades as well as the injury indices. Faba bean plants cv. Giza Blanca were sprayed twice (45 and 66 days) after planting with the above-mentioned micronutrients. However, results of this investigation showed, with no doubt, that Mn, Zn and Fe individually or in double or triple combinations have increased to varied extents the infestation rates (%) of faba bean plants compared to the untreated ones. Such varied increases were mainly due to the metabolic roles of the used foliar sprays and their interactions, which indirectly affect the physio-biological actions of plants that may render them suitable for either A. craccivora or L. trifoii reproduction. This phenomenon might be also due to the different environmental factors. In both seasons, the relationship between nutrients applications and pests Infestation followed the same trend of increase in the percentages of infested plants. This assures and confirms the constant metabolic roles of such micronutrients. The biological seed weight (ton/fed.) was positively affected by the application of the used micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the maximum response was observed in case of the triple treatment followed by the double and single treatments in a descending order. Application of the investigated micronutrients alone or in

  3. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oil treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Peleggi, Francesco

    2016-12-24

    Essential oils have recognized antimicrobial and antifungal properties which allow their utilization in agriculture like an alternative to pesticides, but their utilization requires the knowledge of all the potential structural changes and damages produced by the interaction with the vegetal organisms. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two essential oils, the tea tree oil (TTO) and the mixture of clove and rosemary oils (C + R), on the molecular structure of Vicia faba roots by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier near infrared transform (FTNIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy showed structural modifications of the absorption bands related to DNA (1100 and 1050 cm(-1), carbohydrate backbones, and nucleotide bands within 900 and 850 cm(-1)), proteins (1700 and 1600 cm(-1) amide I band, 1580 and 1520 cm(-1) amide II band), and lipids (methylene group of aliphatic chains between 2950 and 2800 cm(-1)). The changes in the secondary structures of proteins consisted of a denaturation depending on increased presence of random coil structures. In addition, in the samples treated with TTO oils, we observed the presence of protein oxidation, an effect negligible instead for the C + R-treated samples. The modified shapes of the infrared methyl bands of aliphatic chains suggested an increased lipid disorder which could also determine lipid peroxidation. The changes observed for the DNA structures at the highest concentration of the above essential oils can be related to the genotoxic effect of eugenol, an important constituent of both TTO and C + R mixture oils. FTNIR spectroscopy showed the modified shape of the second overtone bands belonging to methyl and methylene groups, between 8500 and 8000 cm(-1). This confirmed the increased lipid disorders already observed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results obtained on the probe organism V. faba show that FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy can become a useful support to the conventional cytogenetic tests used

  4. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na(+) and to Cl(-) separately in comparison with the response to NaCl in a soil-based system using two varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba), that differed in salinity tolerance. The variety Nura is a salt-sensitive variety that accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) to high concentrations while the line 1487/7 is salt tolerant which accumulates lower concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). Soils were prepared which were treated with Na(+) or Cl(-) by using a combination of different Na(+) salts and Cl(-) salts, respectively, or with NaCl. While this method produced Na(+)-dominant and Cl(-)-dominant soils, it unavoidably led to changes in the availability of other anions and cations, but tissue analysis of the plants did not indicate any nutritional deficiencies or toxicities other than those targeted by the salt treatments. The growth, water use, ionic composition, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Both high Na(+) and high Cl(-) reduced growth of faba bean but plants were more sensitive to Cl(-) than to Na(+). The reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greater under NaCl stress and the effect was mainly additive. An important difference to previous hydroponic studies was that increasing the concentrations of NaCl in the soil increased the concentration of Cl(-) more than the concentration of Na(+). The data showed that salinity caused by high concentrations of NaCl can reduce growth by the accumulation of high concentrations of both Na(+) and Cl(-) simultaneously, but

  5. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host–parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  6. Cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumula-tion under water stress in Vicia faba leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water stress-induced ABA accumulation is a cellular signaling process from water stress perception to activation of genes encoding key enzymes of ABA biosynthesis, of which the water stress-signal perception by cells or triggering mechanism of the ABA accumulation is the center in the whole process of ABA related-stress signaling in plants. The cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumulation under water stress was studied in leaves of Vicia faba. Mannitol at 890 mmol· kg-1 osmotic concentration induced an increase of more than 5 times in ABA concentra-tion in detached leaf tissues, but the same concentration of mannitol only induced an increase of less than 40 % in ABA concentration in protoplasts. Like in detached leaf tissues, ABA concentra-tion in isolated cells increased more than 10 times under the treatment of mannitol at 890 mmol·kg-1 concentration, suggesting that the interaction between plasmalemma and cell wall was essential to triggering of the water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Neither Ca2+-che- lating agent EGTA nor Ca2+ channel activator A23187 nor the two cytoskeleton inhibitors, colchicine and cyto-chalasin B, had any effect on water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Interestingly water stress-induced ABA accumulation was effectively inhibited by a non-plasmalemma-perme- able sulfhy-dryl-modifier PCMBS (p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonic acid), suggesting that plasmalemma pro-tein(s) may be involved in the triggering of water stress-induced ABA accumulation, and the protein may contain sulfhydryl group at its function domain.

  7. Sugar and organic acid accumulation in guard cells of Vicia faba in response to red and blue light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, L.D.; Zeiger, E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Changes in neutral sugar and organic acid content of guard cells were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography during stomatal opening in different light qualities. Sonicated Vicia faba epidermal peels were irradiated with 10 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of blue light, a fluence rate insufficient for the activation of guard cell photosynthesis, or 125 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] of red light, in the presence of 1mM KCl, 0.1 mM CaCl[sub 2]. The low-fluence-rate blue light stimulated an average net stomatal opening of 4.7 [mu]m in 2 h, whereas the saturating fluence rate of red light stimulated an average net opening of 3.8 [mu]m in 2 h. Under blue light, the malate content of guard cells increased to 173% of the initial level during the first 30 min of opening and declined as opening continued. Sucrose levels continuously rose throughout the blue light-stimulated opening, reaching 215% of the initial level after 2 h. The starch hydrolysis products maltose and maltotriose remained elevated at all times. Under red light, guard cells showed very little increase in organic acid or maltose levels, whereas sucrose levels increased to 208% of the initial level after 2 h. Total measured organic metabolite concentrations were correlated with stomatal apertures in all cases except where substantial malate increases occurred. These results support the hypothesis that light quality modulates alternative mechanisms of osmotic accumulation guard cells, including potassium uptake, photosynthetic sugar production, and starch breakdown. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tab.

  8. Protein tyrosine phosphatases involved in signaling of the ABA-induced H2O2generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wuliang; JlA Wensuo; LIU Xin; ZHANG Shuqiu

    2004-01-01

    Although protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) play an important role in signal transduction in animal cells, little is known about the function of PTPases in higher plants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are the critical components of ABA signaling pathway in guard cells. PTPase is an important regulator of MAPK, which is believed to mediate ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Viciafaba L. Here, we investigate the possible role of PTPases in stomatal movement process. Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a specific inhibitor of PTPases, could prevent ABA or H2O2-induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L; furthermore, it could promote opening of the stomata closed by ABA or H2O2. The activity of PTPases can be effectively inhibited by PAO and H2O2. DTT had no effect on the PAO-induced inhibition of PTPases activity, but it could relieve the inhibition of H2O2 on PTPases activity. PAO could also inhibit the ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L. These results suggested that PTPases is a critical signaling component in ABA-induced stomatal closure, and serve as targets for H2O2 lying on the signaling pathways downstream of ABA induced H2O2 generation.

  9. 饲喂蚕豆的草鱼肠道细菌群落的PCR-DGGE 分析%PCR-DGGE analysis of intestinal microecology of Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed with Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴康; 胡俊; 黄晓声; 夏虎; 陈亮; 李男; 张学振

    2014-01-01

    为探讨饲喂蚕豆( Vicia faba)对草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道菌群的影响,采用PCR-DGGE技术比较了饲喂蚕豆的草鱼(脆肉鲩组)及饲喂配合饲料的草鱼(普通草鱼组)肠道微生物菌群的异同。结果显示, DGGE图谱上出现了20条明显条带,表明脆肉鲩组及普通草鱼组肠道中均存在大量细菌群落。对这20条条带测序后,获得了其中17条条带的序列,这17条条带中有9条是尚未被培养的细菌。经分析发现,这17条条带分属于变形菌门( Proteobacteria )、放线菌门( Actinobacteria )、厚壁菌门( Firmicutes )、拟杆菌门( Bacteroidetes )及未分类的细菌,其中变形菌门为两组肠道的优势菌。实验还发现,饲喂蚕豆对肠内容物菌群的影响大于对肠壁菌群的影响。结果表明,饲喂蚕豆不改变草鱼肠道菌群的种类,但对肠道菌群的相对丰度有一定影响。%To evaluate the effect of faba bean on intestinal flora , the intestinal microbiota of crisp grass carp group ( grass carp fed with faba bean ) and grass carp group ( grass carp fed with formula feed ) were investigated using 16S rDNA PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology.Twenty DGGE bands appearing in DGGE fingerprint re-vealed that there were numerous intestinal microbiota in the two groups .Seventeen DGGE bands were successfully se-quenced.However, nine of these bands were classified as unculturable according to the phylogenetic analysis .The domi-nant bacteria in the fore-gut and mid-gut of the two groups all belonged to Proteobacteria , and other bacteria identified be-longed to actinobacteria, firmicutes, bacteroidetes and unclassified-bacteria.The result also showed that the influence caused by faba bean on intestinal microbiota was more remarkable in intestinal content than in intestinal wall .These results suggested that feeding faba bean did not change the microbial

  10. Potential bioetanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 degrees C, 15 min, 2 g l(-1) Na2CO3 and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape......) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found...... be concluded that all three materials are possible raw materials for either biogas or ethanol production; however, improvement of biogas productivity or ethanol yield is necessary before an economical process can be achieved....

  11. The potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum in alleviation the adverse effects of salinity in faba bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Baki, G K; Mostafa, Doaa

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between sodium chloride and Trichoderma harzianum (T24) on growth parameters, ion contents, MDA content, proline, soluble proteins as well as SDS page protein profile were studied in Vicia faba Giza 429. A sharp reduction was found in fresh and dry mass of shoots and roots with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments promoted the growth criteria as compared with corresponding salinized plants. The water content and leaf area exhibited a marked decrease with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments induced a progressive increase in both parameters. Both proline and MDA contents were increased progressively as the salinity rose in the soil. Trichoderma treatments considerably retarded the accumulation of both parameters in shoots and roots. Both Na+ and K+ concentration increased in both organs by enhancing salinity levels. The treatment with Trichoderma harzianum enhanced the accumulation of both ions. Exposure of plants to different concentrations of salinity, or others treated with Trichoderma harzianum produced marked changes in their protein pattern. Three types of alterations were observed: the synthesis of certain proteins declined significantly, specific synthesis of certain other proteins were markedly observed and synthesis of a set specific protein was induced de novo in plant treated with Trichoderma harzianum.

  12. Morphological and physiological characterization of different genotypes of faba bean under heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y.; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A.; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M.; Al-Wahibi, Mona Suliman

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) is the major constraint to crop productivity worldwide. The objective of the present experiment was to select the tolerant and sensitive genotype(s) on the basis of morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of ten Vicia faba genotypes. These genotypes were as follows: Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam 1, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853. The experimental work was undertaken to study the effects of different levels of temperature (control, mild, and modest) on plant height (PH) plant−1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant−1, area leaf−1, content of leaf relative water (RWC), proline content (Pro) and total chlorophyll (Total Chl), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde level (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. HS significantly affected growth performance of all genotypes. However, the magnitude of reduction in genotypes ‘C5’ was relatively low, possibly due to its better antioxidant activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, ‘C5’ was noted to be the most HS tolerant and ‘Espan’ most HS sensitive genotypes. It was concluded that the heat-tolerant genotypes may have better osmotic adjustment and protection from free radicals by increasing the accumulation of Pro content with increased activities of antioxidant enzyme. PMID:26288573

  13. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Mediate the Signaling Pathway of Stomatal Closure of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-Liang SHI; Xin LIU; Wen-Suo JIA; Shu-Qiu ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The regulation of stomatal movement is one of the most important signaling networks in plants.The H+-ATPase at the plasma membrane of guard cells plays a critical role in the stomata opening, while there are some conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase inhibitor,vanadate, in inhibiting stomata opening. We observed that 2 mmol/L vanadate hardly inhibited light-stimulated stomata opening in epidermal peels of Viciafaba L., but significantly inhibited dark- and ABA-induced stomatal closure. These results cannot be explained with the previous findings that H+-ATPase was inhibited by vanadate. In view of the fact that vanadate is an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases),we investigated whether the stomatal movement regulated by vanadate is through the regulation of PTPase.As expected, phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a specific inhibitor of PTPase, has very similar effects and even more effective than vanadate. Typical PTPase activity was found in guard cells of V. faba; moreover, the phosphatase activity could be inhibited by both vanadate and PAO. These results not only provide a novel explanation for conflicting results about vanadate modulating stomatal movement, but also provide further evidence for the involvement of PTPases in modulating signal transduction of stomatal movement.

  14. Thidiazuron-induced plant regeneration from protoplasts of Vicia faba cv. Mythos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Gebhardt, D; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts of 10 cultivars of V. faba were isolated from etiolated shoot-tips and tested for their regeneration capacity. After purification, protoplasts were embedded in sodium alginate and cultivated in the medium of Kao and Michayluk (1975) containing 0.5 mg·1(-1) of each 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine. Depending on cultivar, division frequencies of up to 40% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred to Gelrite-solidified media with different combinations of growth regulators. A two step protocol (auxin high/low) was tested for its ability to induce somatic embryogenesis. The formation of globular structures was observed, but no embryo formation could be achieved. In contrast, cultivation of protocalluses on medium supplemented with thidiazuron resulted in shoot development in cultivar Mythos. To generate mature plants, the shoots were grafted onto young seedlings. In order to optimize the in vitro-conditions, different concentrations of thidiazuron alone or in combination with naphthylacetic acid were tested, showing that an increase of thidiazuron and the addition of naphthylacetic acid positively affects both the viability of protocalluses and the regeneration frequency.

  15. Genetic Diversity and Symbiotic Efficiency of Nodulating Rhizobia Isolated from Root Nodules of Faba Bean in One Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qin; Wang, Ke; Liu, Ming; Peng, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Zeng, Xiangzhong; Xu, Kai Wei

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-one nodulating rhizobium strains were collected from root nodules of spring and winter type faba bean cultivars grown in micro ecoarea, i.e. the same field in Chengdu plain, China. The symbiotic efficiency and phylogeny of these strains were studied. Effectively nitrogen fixing strains were isolated from both winter type and spring type cultivars. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and concatenated sequence of atpD, glnII and recA genes, the isolates were assigned as Rhizobium anhuiense and a potential new Rhizobium species. The isolates were diverse on symbiosis related gene level, carrying five, four and three variants of nifH, nodC and nodD, respectively. Strains carrying similar gene combinations were trapped by both winter and spring cultivars, disagreeing with the specificity of symbiotic genotypes to reported earlier faba bean ecotypes. PMID:27936180

  16. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...... or with wheat bran uncovers a potential for increased protein and P digestibility and thereby reduced N and P excretion from pigs and poultry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry...

  17. Enhancement of faba bean competitive ability by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is highly correlated with dynamic nutrient acquisition by competing wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Xu; Bei, Shuikuan; Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; ZHANG, JUNLING

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic understanding of the dynamic processes linking nutrient acquisition and biomass production of competing individuals can be instructive in optimizing intercropping systems. Here, we examine the effect of inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae on competitive dynamics between wheat and faba bean. Wheat is less responsive to mycorrhizal inoculation. Both inoculated and uninoculated wheat attained the maximum instantaneous N and P capture approximately five days before it attained ...

  18. Using deficit irrigation with treated wastewater to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz HIRICH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir during two seasons 2010 and 2011 in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on several crops (quinoa, sweet corn, faba bean and chickpeas. During the first season (2010 three crops were tested, quinoa, chickpeas and sweet corn applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments during all crop stages alternating 100% of full irrigation as non-stress condition and 50% of full irrigation as water deficit condition applied during vegetative growth, flowering and grain filling stage. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season (2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of full irrigation during vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity.

  19. The effect of herbicides on Chenopodium album L. phenology in fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the time of occurrence of the emergence, budding, fruiting and seed shedding stages, as well as the degree of advancement of the white goosefoot fruiting and diaspores shedding stages in fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean crops under mechanical and chemical weed control. Phenological observations were conducted in the years 2000-2002 at 10-day intervals, starting from the day of crop sowing on alluvial soil made of light loam. Chemically weed controlled objects were treated with herbicides: fodder beet - lenacil 80%; spring wheat - MCPA 30% + dicamba 4%; faba bean - linuron 50%. It was proven that the times of occurrence and the scale of the studied phenological stages of white goosefoot depended on the crop species, the in-crop weed control method and the pattern of weather conditions in the study years. White goosefoot had the most favourable conditions of growth in the fodder beet crop. The herbicides in the fodder beet and faba bean crops delayed the emergence and the time of occurrence of successive white goosefoot growth stages. These agents also decreased the degree of diaspores shedding by the weed species studied. The most white goosefoot specimens shed fruits on the mechanically weed controlled plots. The diaspores dissemination was promoted by a warm and moist growing season.

  20. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, A.; El-Beltagi, H. E. S.

    2010-07-01

    The seeds of Vicia f aba L. Gaza 834 were exposed to {gamma}-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He-Ne (632.8 nm) or diode (650.0 nm) laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He-Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy) of {gamma}-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of {gamma}-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 {mu}mol/g d.w) compared to the control (3.9 {mu}mol/g d.w). Laser treatment by He-Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P < 0.05) in MDA content (4.4 and 5.08 {mu}mol/g d.w respectively) compared to the control (3.9 {mu}mol/g d.w). H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 {mu}mol/g d.w) compared to the control (2.3 {mu}mol/g d.w.). On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with {gamma}-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with {gamma}-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by {gamma}-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of {gamma}-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone. (Author) 46 refs.

  1. The role of maize root size in phosphorus uptake and productivity of maize/faba bean and maize/wheat intercropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yikai; Chen, Fanjun; Li, Long; Chen, Yanhua; Liu, Bingran; Zhou, Yuling; Yuan, Lixing; Zhang, Fusuo; Mi, Guohua

    2012-11-01

    Interspecific root/rhizosphere interactions affect phosphorus (P) uptake and the productivity of maize/faba bean and maize/wheat intercropping systems. The aim of these experiments was to determine whether manipulation of maize root growth could improve the productivity of the two intercropping systems. Two near isogenic maize hybrids (the larger-rooted T149 and smaller-rooted T222) were intercropped with faba bean and wheat, under conditions of high- and low-P availability. The larger-rooted T149 showed greater competitive ability than the smaller-rooted T222 in both maize/faba bean and maize/wheat intercropping systems. The higher competitive ability of T149 improved the productivity of the maize/faba bean intercropping system in P-sufficient conditions. In maize/wheat intercropping systems, root growth, shoot biomass, and P uptake of maize were inhibited by wheat, regardless of the P-supply. Compared with T222, the larger-rooted T149 suffered less in the intercropping systems. The total biomass of the maize/wheat intercropping system was higher for wheat/T149 than for wheat/T222 under low-P conditions. These data suggested that genetic improvement of maize root size could enhance maize growth and its ability to compete for P resources in maize/faba bean and maize/wheat intercropping systems. In addition, depending on the P availability, larger maize roots could increase the productivity of intercropping systems.

  2. Experiment on oxidative damage of Vicia faba by domestic sewage%生活污水对蚕豆的氧化损伤实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚青

    2012-01-01

    研究了某污水处理厂不同取样点的污水对蚕豆根部和叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性及丙二醛(MDA)含量的影响.结果表明:各取样点的污水引起蚕豆根部和叶片SOD活性增加和叶片中POD和CAT活性的增加;随着各取样点CODCr增加,根部的CAT和POD的活性均表现为先升后降.且除了B沉外,各取样点的污水均使得根部和叶片的MDA含量显著增高.由于加氯消毒,出水的毒性高于B沉池污水.%The present study investigated toxic impacts of domestic sewage from different treatment processes on malondialdehyde (MDA) , superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) and peroxidase(POD) in roots and leaves of Vicia faba. The results showed that SOD activities were increased at all samples both in roots and leaves of Vicia faba; CAT and POD activities were also enhanced in leaves; In roots, CAT and POD activities were enhanced at low CODCr concentrations, and were decreased at high CODCr concentrations. Except for secondary settler, MDA were significantly increased at all samples both in roots and leaves.

  3. Genotoxic effects of the carbamate insecticide Pirimor-50® in Vicia faba root tip meristems and human lymphocyte culture after direct application and treatment with its metabolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Milić, Mirta; Olivares, José Luis Gómez; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate genotoxic effects of Pirimor-50®, a pirimicarb-based formulation (50 % active ingredient), in human lymphocyte cultures and Vicia faba root meristems. Furthermore, the objective was to examine a combined influence of insecticide treatment with mammalian microsomal S9 and vegetal S10 metabolic fractions or S10 mix metabolic transformation extracts (after Vicia faba primary roots treatment with Pirimor-50®). We used sister chromatid exchange assay-SCE and measured cell cycle progression and proliferation (proportion of M1-M3 metaphases and replication index ratio-RI). Two processes were used for plant promutagen activation: in vivo activation-Pirimor-50® was applied for 4 h to the plant and then S10 mix was added to lymphocytes; and, in vitro activation-lymphocytes were treated with Pirimor-50® and S10 or S9 for 2 h. Direct treatment induced significantly higher SCE frequencies in meristems at 0.01 mg mL-1. In lymphocytes, significantly higher SCE was at 1 mg mL-1 with decrease in RI and M1-M3 metaphase proportions at 0.5 mg mL-1 and cell division stop at 2.5 mg mL1. S10 mix lymphocyte treatment showed significantly elevated SCE values at 2-2.5 mg mL-1, with cell death at 3 mg mL-1. Lymphocyte treatment with Pirimor-50® together with S9 or S10 showed slightly elevated SCE frequency but had a significant influence on RI decrease, with lowest values in S9 treatment. Since no data are available on the genotoxicity of Pirimor-50®, this study is one of the first to evaluate and compare its direct effect in two bioassays, animal and vegetal, and also the effect of plant and animal metabolism on its genotoxic potential.

  4. Three major nucleolar proteins migrate from nucleolus to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. exposed to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rong; Zhang, Huaning; Li, Shaoshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-09-01

    Results from our previous investigation indicated that Al could affect the nucleolus and induce extrusion of silver-staining nucleolar particles containing argyrophilic proteins from the nucleolus into the cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. So far, the nucleolar proteins involved have not been identified. It is well known that nucleophosmin (B23), nucleolin (C23), and fibrillarin are three major and multifunctional nucleolar proteins. Therefore, effects of Al on B23, C23, and fibrillarin in root tip cells of V. faba exposed to 100 μM Al for 48 h were observed and analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. The results from this work demonstrated that after 100 μM of Al treatment for 48 h, B23 and C23 migrated from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm and fibrillarin from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. In some cells, fibrillarin was present only in the cytoplasm. Western blotting data revealed higher expression of the three major nucleolar proteins in Al-treated roots compared with the control and that the B23 content increased markedly. These findings confirmed our previous observations.

  5. Electrophoretic assay for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in guard cells and other leaf cells of Vicia faba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarczynski, M.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Arold, N.; Neuhoff, V.; Hampp, R. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA) Max-Planck-Institute fuer Experimentelle Medizin, Goettingen (West Germany) Universitaet Tuebingen (West Germany))

    1989-04-01

    The ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) contents of guard cells and other cells of Vicia faba L. leaflet were determined. To prevent proteolysis, proteins of frozen protoplast preparations or of cells excised from freeze-dried leaf were extracted directly in a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-containing solution which was heated immediately after sample addition. Protein profiles of the different cell types were obtained by electrophoresis of the extracts and subsequent densitometry of the stained protein bands. About one-third of the protein of palisade parenchyma and of spongy parenchyma was Rubisco large subunit. Using chlorophyll (Chl):protein ratios previously obtained, we calculate mesophyll contained ca. 22 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. In contrast, guard-cell protoplast preparations were calculated to contain from 0.7 to 2.2 millimoles Rubisco per mole Chl. The upper end of this range is an overestimate resulting from contamination by mesophyll and to the method of peak integration. Extracts of excised guard cells were calculated to contain 0.05 to 0.17 millimole Rubisco per mole Chl. We conclude that Rubisco is absent, or virtually so, in guard cells of V. faba.

  6. Modification of catalase and MAPK in Vicia faba cultivated in soil with high natural radioactivity and treated with a static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Nazanin; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Payez, Atefeh

    2014-03-01

    The effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) and high natural radioactivity (HR) on catalase and MAPK genes in Vicia faba were investigated. Soil samples with high natural radioactivity were collected from Ramsar in north Iran where the annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation is higher than 20mSv/year. The specific activity of the radionuclides of (232)Th, (236)Ra, and (40)K was measured using gamma spectrometry. The seeds were planted either in the soil with high natural radioactivity or in the control soils and were then exposed to a SMF of 30mT for 8 days; 8h/day. Levels of expression of catalase and MAPK genes, catalase activity and H2O2 content were evaluated. The results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of catalase and MAPK genes in SMF- and HR-treated plants compared to the controls. An increase in catalase activity was accompanied by increased expression of its gene and accumulation of H2O2. Relative expression of the MAPK gene in treated plants, however, was lower than those of the controls. The results suggest that the response of V. faba plants to SMF and HR may be mediated by modification of catalase and MAPK.

  7. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Rybaczek

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD was a secondary result of caffeine (CF induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU [double-stranded breaks (DSBs mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant-DSBs versus alkaline-DSBs or SSBs. The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i extensive vacuolization; (ii abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv protoplast shrinkage (v fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD.

  8. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments.

  9. 从蚕豆叶片中提取保卫细胞原生质体方法的改进%Improved Method for Preparation of Guard Cell Protoplasts from Leaves of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项燕; 武永军; 张花; 梁宗锁

    2009-01-01

    以蚕豆为试材,对其进行不同表皮撕取方式、不同离心分离方式处理后制备保卫细胞原生质体的实验,确定了蚕豆叶片保卫细胞制备过程中表皮的撕取和原生质体分离的方式,建立了一套高效制备高纯度保卫细胞原生质体的方法.%Guard cell protoplasts preparation on different epidermis tearing and centrifugation were studied by leaves of vicia faba , main methods were determined,and a high-efficiency guard cell protoplasts preparing method was established in leaves of vicia faba.

  10. Effects of water stress on the osmoregulation ability in Vicia faba L.leaves%水分胁迫对蚕豆叶片渗透调节能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍思伟

    2001-01-01

    为探讨蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)对水分胁迫的适应机理,经人工水分胁迫处理,研究了水分胁迫对蚕豆叶片渗透调节能力的影响.结果表明:蚕豆叶片中作为细胞内渗透调节物质的游离脯氨酸、K++、可溶性总糖等细胞内溶质含量在水分胁迫下都有明显增加.这些指标均与土壤含水量呈负相关,表明蚕豆具有一定的渗透调节能力.但是,渗透调节作用有一定的局限性,在中度和严重水分胁迫下,蚕豆的蒸腾速率明显下降,气孔扩散阻力大大增加,最终表现为植株生物量的明显降低.%In order to study Vicia faba L.adaptable mechanism of water stress.By artificial imposed water stress,the result showed that under the condition of water stress,contents of the osmotic regulators such as the free proline,K++ and soluble sufar increased significantly in leaves of Vicia faba L.The osmotic potential of cell decreased,and the increased quantities of these indices correlated negatively to the water content of soil significantly.These facts indicated that Vicia faba L.had certain osmoregulation ability.However,osmoregulation ability had certain limitation.Under the medial and high water stress,the rate of transpiration decreased significantly and stoma diffusing resistance increased greatly.Ultimately,the biomass of plant decreased significantly.

  11. 空气中高浓度二氯乙烷对蚕豆根尖细胞遗传毒性研究%The genotoxicity of High-Dose Concentration in the Air on Vicia faba Root Tips Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洋; 周小敏; 熊旭辉; 谭广辉; 张琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of micronucleus test of Vicia faba root-tip cell in application of mutation detection caused by air pollutants. Methods This experiment takes available Vicia faba as research objects, which was poisoned by high concentration dichloroethane of simulated indoor air at airtight container. Results With the increasing of concentration, the descending trend of mitotic index and the escalation of average micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate had been observed, which showed a conspicuous dose-response relationship. Conclusion Genetic toxic effects of Vicia faba root-tip cell caused by dichloroethane are unquestionable under all experiment concentration. Furthermore, it is possible that the using of micronucleus test in Vicia faba linn root-tip cell for high concentration dichloroethane of indoor air.%目的 探讨将蚕豆根尖微核检测系统(micronucleus,MCN)应用于空气污染物致突变性检测的可行性.方法 以市售蚕豆为材料,在密闭容器中模拟室内空气的高浓度二氯乙烷污染,对蚕豆进行染毒.结果 随着浓度的递增,平均微核率、染色体畸变率逐步上升,有丝分裂指数有下降趋势,表现出明显的剂量效应关系.结论 在实验浓度下,1,2-二氯乙烷有对蚕豆根尖细胞产生遗传毒害效应.应用蚕豆根尖微核技术检测室内高浓度1,2-二氯乙烷污染物是可行的.

  12. Effects of Wheat and Faba Bean Intercropping on Microorganism Involved in Nitrogen Transformation in the Rhizosphere Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Yan-fen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganism is one of the key factors that affects soil ecological activity. It is an important symbol of soil health, and the soil nitrogen cycle is closely related to the microorganisms. The relationship between nitrogen and microorganisms under the intercropping is im-portant for the farmland ecosystem. In this paper, phospholipid fatty acids(PLFA analysis was used to determine soil microbial communi-ties, e.g., biomasses of anaerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria, bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria. The abundance of nitrifying genes(AOB, AOA and three denitrifying genes (nirK, norB, nosZ were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The enzymes, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were measured using conventional methods. The results showed that along with the growth period, the TPLFAs(total phospholipid fatty acids increased and the bacterias, fungus, actinomyces and aerobic bacterias significantly(P<0.05 dif-fered between intercropping and monoculture. The greater abundance of AOB than AOA and the variation range of 105~106 were observed in all samples. The gene copies of norB and nosZ were pronounced by intercropping in the rhizosphere of faba bean at elongation and heading stages, respectively. The abundance of nirK remarkably(P<0.05differed between intercropping and monoculture. In intercropping rhizo-sphere, the contents of NO3--N were lower than monoculture, while the NH4+-N contents were converse (P<0.05. Conclusively, wheat and fa-ba bean intercropping system could change rhizosphere microenvironment, and then the microbial community structure in the soils, which would facilitate the conservation and supplying of soil nitrogen and reduce the nitrogen loss and pollution under the intercropping conditions to some extent. This might be the nitrogen nutrition mechanism for the overyielding of wheat and faba bean intercropping system.

  13. Oxidative Damage and Mutagenic Potency of Fast Neutron and UV-B Radiation in Pollen Mother Cells and Seed Yield of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram Abdel Haliem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by exposure of crop plant cells to physical radiations. Henceforth, the current study was planned to compare oxidative stress and mutagenic potential of different irradiation doses of fast neutron (FN and UV-B on meiotic-pollen mother cells (PMCs, pollen grains (PGs and seeds yielded from irradiated faba beans seedlings. On the cytogenetic level, each irradiation type had special interference with DNA of PMC and exhibited wide range of mutagenic action on the frequency and type of chromosomal anomalies, fertility of PGs and seed yield productivity based on the irradiation exposure dose and radiation sensitivity of faba bean plants compared with un-irradiated ones. On the molecular level, SDS-PAGE and RPAD-PCR analyses of seeds yielded from irradiated seedlings exhibited distinctive polymorphisms based on size, intensity, appearance, and disappearance of polypeptides bands compared with un-irradiated ones. The total values of protein and DNA polymorphisms reached 88% and 90.80% respectively. The neutron fluency (2.3 × 106 n/cm2 and UV-B dose for 1 hr were recorded as bio-positive effects. The present study proved that genetic variations revealed by cytogenetic test could be supported by gene expression (alterations in RAPD and protein profiles.

  14. Effect of salt stress on plant growth and metabolism of bean plant Vicia faba (L.

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    Amira M.S. Abdul Qados

    2011-01-01

    An increase was observed in the protein content in the two measurement periods due to the impact of salinity stress. A directly proportional relationship was found between protein content and the increase in salt concentrations in the first measurement period, while it was inversely proportional in the second.

  15. Sporoderm infrastructural and cytochemical modifications in cytoplasmic male sterile broad-bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Audran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of mature sporoderms of sterile and fertile pollen grains was performed using electron microscopic techniques. In sterile pollen grains, intine is lacking; ectexine sculpture is reduced and tectum is overlaid by membranous systems. Infratectal texture is compact and a sporopollenin granulous mass is obturing the aperture central region. Endexine reacts with proteins and acidic carbohydrates tests.

  16. Effect of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum allelopathy on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells%宜宾油樟的化感作用对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓骛远; 罗通; 郑田喜

    2011-01-01

    利用油樟水浸提液作用蚕豆根尖研究了油樟化感作用对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响.结果表明:油樟对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的化感作用和浸提液浓度、作用时间有密切关系.在实验设计的范围内,随油樟水浸提液浓度的加大,蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数显著减小,而细胞微核率显著提高;油樟浸提液作用48 h时,对蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂的化感作用最强;油樟水浸提液诱导蚕豆根尖细胞产生染色体断片和滞后染色体等多种畸变染色体,并使有丝分裂各时期的分裂相减少.说明油樟化感物质抑制了细胞的有丝分裂,促进微核的产生,从而影响蚕豆根尖的生长和细胞的遗传稳定性.%The effect of Youzhang [Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble), N.Chan]allelopathy on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells was studied with Youzhang water extracts acting Vicia faba root tips.The result shows the allelopathy has a close relation to the extract concentration and treating time.Within designed range of the experiment, the mitosis index of Vicia faba root tip cells decreases obviously, and the micronucleus frequency rises remarkably along with the increase of Youzhang extract concentrations.When acting time comes to 48 hours, the allelopathy of Youzhang extracts on the mitosis of Vicia faba root tip cells is the strongest.Youzhang water extracts induce a variety of aberrant chromosomes, such as chromosome fregments and delaying chromosomes, and inhibit mitosis different phases.It is implied that Youzhang's allelopthy matter inhibits cell mitosis, and promotes micronucleus generation of cells, and finally affects the growth of Vicia faba root tips and the genetic stability of cells.

  17. Study of Micronucleus Phenomenon of Vicia faba Induced by Four lnvorment Pollution Reagent%4种环境污染试剂诱导蚕豆微核现象的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓓; 许守明; 赵丽芸; 苏思

    2011-01-01

    [目的]检测4种试剂处理后蚕豆的微核情况,以此评估一些污染物的危害性.[方法]通过蚕豆根尖微核试验,根据微核出现的频率来评价环境诱变因子对蚕豆微核的损害程度,镜捡计数后计算微核率.[结果]甲醛、丙烯酰胺、硝酸铅、O2衍生物可导致蚕豆根尖细胞间期细胞微核频率明显升高,但每种污染物在不同浓度会有不同程度的微核现象,且在一定浓度范围内微核率上升,浓度达到一定值时下降.[结论]丙烯酰胺、甲醛对蚕豆根尖细胞具有明显的遗传毒性效应;硝酸铅对蚕豆根尖细胞不具有明显的遗传毒性效应;SO2衍生物低浓度时对蚕豆根尖细胞有一定遗传毒性效应,高浓度效应明显.%[Objective] The aim was to study micronucleus phenomenon of Vicia faba induced by four invorment pollution reagent in order to assess some of the dangers of pollution. [ Method] By the mature root tip cells of Vicia faba micronucleus in substantial progress in water pollution monitoring, micronucleus phenomenon of Vicia faba induced by four invorment pollution reagent was studied. [Result] It was found that a representative of the environmental pollutants such as formaldehyde, acrylamide, lead nitrate, SO, derivatives could result in root tip cells of Vicia faba micronucleus frequency of interphase cells to increase significantly, but different pollutants at different concentrations varied degrees of micro-nuclear phenomenon, and in a certain range of concentration would increase the micronucleus rate, but would decline. [ Conclusion] Formaldehyde and acrylamide had evident genotoxic effects on root tip cells of Vicia faba, lead nitrate had not evident genotoxic effects, and S02 derivatives had a certain genotoxic effect at low concentration, and had evident genotoxic effects at high concentration.

  18. Early insights into the genome sequence of Uromyces fabae

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    Tobias eLink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Uromyces fabae is a major pathogen of broad bean, Vicia faba. U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. Using U. fabae, enormous progress was made regarding nutrient uptake and metabolism and in the search for secreted proteins and effectors. Here, we present results from a genome survey of U. fabae. Paired end Illumina sequencing provided 53 Gb of data. An assembly gave 59,735 scaffolds with a total length of 216 Mb. K-mer analysis estimated the genome size to be 329 Mb. Of a representative set of 23,153 predicted proteins we could annotate 10,209, and predict 599 secreted proteins. Clustering of the protein set indicates families of highly likely effectors. We also found new homologs of RTP1p, a prototype rust effector. The U. fabae genome will be an important resource for comparative analyses with U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi and provide information regarding the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Uromyces with respect to other rust fungi already sequenced, namely Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, Melampsora lini, and Melampsora larici-populina.

  19. Involvement of carbon monoxide produced by heme oxygenase in ABA-induced stomatal closure in Vicia faba and its proposed signal transduction pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has recently proven to be an important bioactive or signaling molecule in mammalian cells. Its effects are mainly mediated by nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP (cGMP). In Vicia faba leaves, CO production and heme oxygenase (HO) activity, an important CO synthetic enzyme, are first reported to increase in response to ABA treatment, which could result in stomatal closure. Inter-estingly, ABA-induced stomatal closure in V. Faba guard cells is partially blocked when the synthetic CO inhibitor ZnPP, or the CO/NO scavenger Hb is added. Furthermore, we show that, exogenously applied CO donor, hematin, and CO aqueous solution not only result in the enhancement of CO release, but also time-dependently induce stomatal closure, and the latter is mimicked by the application of an NO donor SNP. The above-mentioned stomatal closure effects are differentially reversed by the addition of tungstate, a potent inhibitor of NO synthetic enzyme nitrate reductase (NR), the specific NO scavenger cPTIO, ZnPP, or Hb. During treatment for 4 h, SNP, 0.01% CO aqueous solution or hematin significantly triggers NO synthesis, whereas cPTIO, or tungstate approximately fully inhibits NO fluorescence. Additionally, application of the GC inhibitor ODQ blocks CO-induced stomatal closure. This inhibition could be reversed when 8-Br-cGMP is added. Thus, the above results suggest that CO produced by HO is involved in ABA-induced stomatal closure, and NO and cGMP may function as downstream intermediates in the CO signaling responsible for stomatal closure.

  20. [Effect of the same amount of faba bean fresh straw returning with different ratios of chemi- cal fertilizer on single cropping late rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-hong; Zhang, Xian; Cao, Kai; Hua, Jin-wei

    2015-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on paddy soil derived from alluvial materials at Bihu Town, Lishui City, Zhejiang Province, China to explore the effects of combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer on nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiencies, and yields of single cropping late rice and to determine the optimal rate of chemical fertilizer under the condition of application of faba bean fresh straw at the rate of 15 t · hm(-2) (GM15) in 2012, April to December. The experiments consisted of 7 treatments: CK (no fertilizers) , CF (conventional chemical fertilizer rate) , and combined application of 15 t · hm(-2) of faba bean fresh straw and 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate. The results showed that the highest total uptake amounts of N, P and K by the aboveground part were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60%CF and GM15 + 80% CF, but the highest nutrient agronomy use efficiencies of N, P and K in rice grains were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60% CF and GM15 + 40% CF. The agronomy use efficiencies and physiological use efficiencies of N, P, and K were significantly correlated with rice grain yields, thus they could be used for accurate comprehensive evaluation of fertilizer efficiencies of N, P, and K. Compared with no fertilizer treatment, the treatments of 100% CF and combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer increased rice gain yields by 25.0% and 6.1%-29.2%, respectively. In the cropping system of faba bean-single cropping late rice, returning of 15 t · hm2 faba bean fresh straw to the paddy field did not result in the runt seedling of rice. From the point of improving fertilizer use efficiency and reducing environmental risk perspective, the optimum rate of chemical fertilizer was 60% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate when 15 t · h(-2) of faba bean fresh straw was applied.

  1. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF FABA BEAN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDI T. ABDELHAMID

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Una posible estrategia de supervivencia para plantas que se desarrollan bajo condiciones de salinidad es emplear algunos compuestos que les permitan disminuir el estrés salino. Uno de estos compuestos es la nicotinamida (vitamina B3/ niacina. Se investigó el efecto de la aplicación exógena de nicotinamida en diferentes concentraciones (0, 200 o 400 mg l-1 sobre plantas de haba (Vicia faba L. creciendo a diferentes niveles de NaCl (0, 50 o 100 mM en los terrenos del National Research Centre, Cairo, Egipto. El estrés por salinidad reduce significativamente los contenidos de pigmentos fotosintéticos, polisacáridos, carbohidratos totales, nitrógeno total, peso de las plantas, número de hojas, pesos fresco y seco de tallos, rendimiento de semillas, y contenido de carbohidratos y proteina cruda total en semillas comparado con plantas control. En contraste, la salinidad induce incrementos marcados en sacarosa, azúcares solubles totales, aminoácidos libres totales, prolina, productos de peroxidación de lípidos como el malondialdehido (MDA y algunas enzimas oxidativas (polifenol oxidasa y peroxidasa. También, el estrés por salinidad incrementa el contenido de Na+ y genera disminución de otros macronutrientes y micronutrientes (P, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ y Cu2+ de los tallos y el rendimiento de semillas en plantas de haba. La aspersión foliar de nicotinamida disminuye los efectos adversos del estrés salino incrementando los pigmentos fotosintéticos, polisacáridos, carbohidratos totales, concentración total de nitrógeno en tallos, peso de las plantas, número de hojas, pesos frescos y secos de tallos, y rendimiento de semillas; así como los niveles de sacarosa, azúcares solubles totales, aminoácidos libres totales y prolina, comparado con aquellos correspondientes al estrés por salinidad, mientras disminuyeron los productos de peroxidación de lípidos (MDA y las enzimas oxidativas (polifenol oxidasas y peroxidasas. La

  2. AMPLIFICATION OF MICRODISSECTED CHROMOSOMES FROM VICIA FABA BY TWO PCR TECHNIQUES%2种PCR技术扩增微分离的蚕豆染色体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽华; 陈正华

    2004-01-01

    用接头介导的PCR (polymerase chain reaction, LA-PCR) 和简并寡核苷酸PCR(DOP-PCR)2种技术对微分离的蚕豆(vicia faba)大M染色体进行了扩增,并对扩增结果及2种PCR技术的优缺点进行了比较.结果表明,LA-PCR的扩增产物大小为0.3~3kb, 而DOP-PCR的扩增产物大小为0.3~1.3kb. LA-PCR的对照中未观察到扩增产物,而DOP-PCR的对照中却明显观察到扩增产物,此扩增产物是由于引物之间相互退火而形成的二聚体或更高级的聚合体. LA-PCR的Southern杂交信号明显强于DOP-PCR,可见LA-PCR的扩增效率明显高于DOP-PCR.

  3. Chloride-inducible transient apoplastic alkalinizations induce stomata closure by controlling abscisic acid distribution between leaf apoplast and guard cells in salt-stressed Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mithöfer, Axel; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Zörb, Christian; Muehling, Karl H

    2015-11-01

    Chloride stress causes the leaf apoplast transiently to alkalize, an event that is presumed to contribute to the ability of plants to adapt to saline conditions. However, the initiation of coordinated processes downstream of the alkalinization is unknown. We hypothesize that chloride-inducible pH dynamics are a key chemical feature modulating the compartmental distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and, as a consequence, affecting stomata aperture. Apoplastic pH and stomata aperture dynamics in intact Vicia faba leaves were monitored by microscopy-based ratio imaging and porometric measurements of stomatal conductance. ABA concentrations in leaf apoplast and guard cells were compared with pH dynamics by gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results demonstrate that, upon chloride addition to roots, an alkalizing factor that initiates the pH dynamic propagates from root to leaf in a way similar to xylem-distributed water. In leaves, it induces a systemic transient apoplastic alkalinization that causes apoplastic ABA concentration to increase, followed by an elevation of endogenous guard cell ABA. We conclude that the transient alkalinization, which is a remote effect of chloride stress, modulates the compartmental distribution of ABA between the leaf apoplast and the guard cells and, in this way, is instrumental in inducing stomata closure during the beginning of salinity.

  4. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of urban surface waters using freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 and Vicia faba root tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Ma; Xiaochang Wang; Yongjun Liu

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 test and the Vicia faba root tip test associated with solid-phase extraction were applied for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of organic substances in three rivers,two lakes and effluent flows from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Xi'an,China.Although the most seriously polluted river with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) showed high cytotoxicity (expressed as TH50,the toxicity impact index) and genotoxicity (expressed as RMCN,the relative frequency of micronucleus),no correlative relation was found between the ecotoxicity and organic content of the water samples.However,there was a linear correlative relation between TⅡ50 and RMCN for most water samples except that from the Zaohe River,which receives discharge from WWTP and untreated industrial wastewaters.The ecotoxicity of the organic toxicants in the Chanhe River and Zaohe River indicated that cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were related to the pollutant source.The TⅡ50 and RMCN were also found to correlate roughly to the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water.Sufficient dissolved oxygen in surface water is thus proved to be an indicator of a healthy water environmental condition.

  5. Identification and Morphological Diversity of Vicia faba L.Germplasm Imported%外引蚕豆种质资源鉴定与形态多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 万正煌; 陈宏伟; 仲建锋; 伍广洪

    2013-01-01

    研究了10份外引蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)种质资源的生育期、子粒形态特征、主要农艺性状等.结果表明,埃塞俄比亚蚕豆种质资源具有较高的变异系数,为8.01%~55.80%,其中种皮光滑度和百粒重的变异系数最高,达55%以上,变异系数较小的是主茎节数(8.01%)和株高(8.99%).4个质量性状中种皮光滑度的形态多样性指数最高,而15个数量性状中每果节荚数的形态多样性指数最高.

  6. Mineral nutrient imbalance, DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink involved in growth retardation of Vicia faba L.seedlings exposed to lanthanum ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengrun Wang; Kegui Zhang; Mei He; Chuanjun Jiang; Liumin Tian; Yuan Tian; Xiaorong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Effects of mineral nutrient imbalance,DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink on growth of Vicia faba L.seedlings hydroponically cultivated in concentrations of extraneous lanthanum (La) for 20 days were investigated in the present experiment.The results showed that contents of La,Cu or K elements in roots generally changed synchronously with those in leaves,while Ca,Fe,Zn,Mg,Mn or P in the roots altered inversely to those in the leaves.Thus,the extraneous La led to redistribution and imbalance of mineral nutrient elements in the roots and leaves.DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink were investigated by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)and sodium dodecyl sulfate/potassium (SDS/K+) precipitation methods,respectively.The results demonstrated that the increasing La induced DNA break and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) in the seedlings.These results suggested that mineral nutrient imbalance,DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink were involved in the growth retardation and growth alteration of the seedlings,which may help to understand the mechanisms of rare earth elements (REEs) on plant growth.

  7. Okadaic acid (1 microM) accelerates S phase and mitosis but inhibits heterochromatin replication and metaphase anaphase transition in Vicia faba meristem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Kazmierczak, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinases and phosphatases are the foremost agents which take part in cell cycle regulation in both plants and other eukaryotes. Protein kinases are a very well examined group of proteins with respect to chemical structure and function. Nowadays protein phosphatases, including PP1 and PP2A belonging to the PSP family, are the focus of interest. Okadaic acid (OA) which is a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase activity is widely used to study them. In the present research, the involvement of OA-sensitive phosphatases in the regulation of progression of the plant cell cycle was analysed (in planta) using Vicia faba root meristems synchronized with hydroxyurea and divided into five series. Each series was treated with 1 muM OA for 3 h for different time periods corresponding to the consecutive cell cycle phases. The results showed that in the OA-treated cells DNA replication and mitosis began earlier than in the control cells, since G(1) and G(2) phases were significantly shorter and the H1 histone kinases activity was higher. Moreover, autoradiography and morphological analyses of mitotic figures revealed that the OA-treated cells entered mitosis before the end of heterochromatin replication. An immunocytochemical search showed that earlier initiation of S phase in the OA-treated cells correlated with more abundant phosphorylation of Rb-like protein in comparison with the control cells. OA also induced significant condensation of metaphase chromosomes and blocked metaphase-anaphase transition.

  8. EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF AMINOACIDS ON PLANT YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FABA BEAN PLANTS IRRIGATED WITH SEAWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. ABDELHAMID

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity decreases yield in arid and semi-arid areas. With increasing demand for irrigation water, alternative sources are being sought. Seawater salinity was previously considered unusable for irrigation. However, this water can be used successfully to grow crops under certain conditions. Amino acids is well known biostimulant which has positive effects on plant growth and yield, and significantly mitigates the injuries caused by abiotic stresses Therefore, in the present study, the effect of exogenously treatment amino acid on faba bean plant growing under sea water salt stress was investigated. Reduction of salinity damage in faba bean by using a mixture of amino acids to improve morphological and biochemical parameters, and thus raising the level of plant yield was tested. A pot experiment was conducted to alleviate the harmful effects of seawater salinity on faba bean cv. Giza 843 by foliar spraying of an amino acid mixture with different concentrations (0.0, 500, 1000 or 1500 mg L-1. Irrigation of faba bean plants with seawater levels of 3.13 and 6.25 dS m-1 led to significant reductions in plant height, number of leaves plant, fresh and dry weight of shoots, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates, polysaccharides, nucleic acid DNA and RNA contents of faba bean leaves. Seawater salinity induced higher contents of Na+ and Cl- and decreased contents of K+, K+:Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and P3+. Irrigation of faba bean plant with different levels of seawater decreased seed yield and total dry weight per plant compared with those irrigated with tap water. Also, total carbohydrates and total protein contents in seeds were reduced by increased seawater salinity levels. Amino acid application as foliar spray significantly improved all the reduced parameters due to seawater stress. However, the highest level of amino acid of 1500 mg L-1 exerted the strongest effect in alleviating the harmful effect of seawater salinity stress. Efecto de la aplicaci

  9. 核桃根、茎、叶提取物对蚕豆的遗传毒性分析%Genetic toxicity of active ingredients extracted from roots,stems, and leaves of walnut on Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄元河; 潘乔丹

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究核桃根、茎、叶不同提取物的化感作用机制,为开发新型无公害植物源除草剂提供科学依据.[方法]采用蚕豆根生长试验和蚕豆微核试验,测定核桃根、茎、叶不同提取物对蚕豆生长的影响和遗传毒性.[结果]经核桃根、叶正丁醇提取物培养24和48h的蚕豆根生长减慢,当核桃根、叶正丁醇提取物浓度大于0.050 g/mL时,培养72 h的蚕豆根生长停滞.微核试验结果,核桃根、叶正丁醇提取物能抑制蚕豆根尖细胞生长,损伤其遗传物质,导致其有丝分裂指数下降、微核率增高,与对照相比呈显著性差异(P<0.05),且在试验浓度范围内(0.025~0.100 g/mL)表现出显著的浓度效应和时间效应.[结论]核桃根和叶中含有一定遗传毒性的化感物质,能够抑制植物细胞分裂,导致细胞遗传物质损伤,对周围植物产生不可逆的遗传损伤效应.%In order to provide scientific evidences for the development of pollution-free botanical herbicides, this study explored the allelopathic mechanism of different extracts from the roots, stems, and leaves of walnut (Juglans regia L.). [ Method jThe Vicia (aba root growth test and micronucleus test were used to study the effects of the different ingredients derived from the roots, stems, and leaves of walnut on Vicia faba growth and their genetic toxicity. [ResultJThe research results showed that the Vicia faba root grew slowly after being cultured by the n-butanol extracts (0.025, 0.050, 0.100 g/mL) from walnut roots and leaves for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. When the extracts concentration was greater than 0.050 g/mL, the Vicia faba root, which was cultured for 72 hrs, stopped growing. The micronuclear test indicated that the n-butanol extracts of roots and leaves could inhibit the growth of Vicia faba root tip cells and damage the genetic material, which resulted in the mitotic index of Vicia faba root tips to decrease and micronuclear rate to

  10. Sucrose synthase activity and carbohydrates content in relation to phosphorylation status of Vicia faba root meristems during reactivation from sugar depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Ciereszko, Iwona

    2012-11-01

    Carbohydrate starvation of Vicia faba root meristems leads to readjustment of carbohydrate metabolism and blocks the cell cycle in two principal control points (PCP1/2). The cell cycle reactivation is possible after sucrose provision, although with a delay of about 12h. During this period, the cells are sensitive to 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) and okadaic acid (OA), inhibitors of protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether those inhibitors are involved in inhibition of cell cycle revival through interference with the activities of two sucrose-cleaving enzymes: sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) and invertase (INV; EC 3.2.1.26). In sugar-starved cells, the in situ activity of both enzymes decreased significantly. Following supplementation of root meristems with sugar, INV remained inactive, but SuSy activity increased. Despite the lack of INV activity, glucose was present in meristem cells, but its content was low in cells treated with OA. In the latter case, the size of plastids was reduced, they had less starch, and Golgi structures were affected. In sugar-starved cells, SuSy activity was induced more by exogenous sucrose than by glucose. The sucrose-induced activity was strongly inhibited by OA (less by 6-DMAP) at early stages of regeneration, but not at the stages preceding DNA replication or mitotic activities. The results indicate that prolongation of regeneration and a marked decrease in the number of cells resuming proliferation (observed in previous studies) and resulting from the action of inhibitors, are correlated with the process of SuSy activation at the beginning of regeneration from sugar starvation.

  11. IMPROVING THE TOLERANCE OF Vicia faba AGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY RESULTED FROM THE IRRIGATION WITH SEA WATER BY USING KNO3 AND (NH42SO4 AS CHEMICAL OSMOREGULATORS Mejoramiento de la tolerancia de Vicia faba a salinidad ocasionada por irrigación con agua de mar usando KNO3 AND (NH42SO4 como osmoreguladores químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMEL MOHAMED

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The familiar solutes, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO4(3-, SO4(2-, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids and soluble proteins, which play a role in osmotic adjustment were estimated to investigate the role of potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate as osmoregulators and their effects on the solutes composition. Vicia faba L. was cultivated and irrigated with 5, 10, 15 and 20 % (v:v sea water. The plants were divided to three groups. The first was irrigated with sea water only. The second was treated with 5 mM KNO3 while the third was treated with 5mM (NH42SO4. The plants were left to grow until flowering stage. The results indicated that the non treated group increased the soluble carbohydrates in the roots to avoid the influx of sodium. The treatment with KNO3 decreased the sodicity (SAR while (NH42SO4 treatment decreased the SK:Na value in the shoots at higher salinity. The availability of nitrogen as nitrate or ammonium ions enhances the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates in shoots. The plants of all groups were depended on Ca2+, as compatible solute more than Na+, and K+.Los solutos Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO4(3-, SO4(2-, carbohidratos y proteínas solubles, así como amino ácidos son importantes en ajuste osmótico y fueron estimados para determinar el papel de nitrato de potasio y sulfato de amonio como osmoreguladores y su efecto en la composición de solutos. Vicia faba L. fue cultivada e irrigada con 5, 10, 15 y 20 % (v:v de agua de mar permitiendo crecimiento hasta el estado de floración. Las plantas fueron divididas en tres grupos. El primero fue irrigado con agua de mar solamente. El segundo fue tratado con 5 mM KNO3, mientras que el tercer grupo fue expuesto a 5mM (NH42SO4. Los resultados indican que las plantas del primer grupo (no tratado incrementan carbohidratos solubles en sus raíces para evitar influjo de sodio. El tratamiento con KNO3 disminuye riqueza de sodio (SAR mientras que la exposición a (NH42SO4 diminuye la de SK

  12. Shift from complementarity to facilitation on P uptake by intercropped wheat neighboring with faba bean when available soil P is depleted

    OpenAIRE

    Chunjie Li; Yan Dong; Haigang Li; Jianbo Shen; Fusuo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere processes stimulate overyielding and facilitative phosphorus (P) uptake in cereal/legume intercropping systems. However, little is known about when and how rhizosphere alteration of legumes plays a role in improving P uptake by cereals. Wheat was grown isolated, monocropped or intercropped with faba bean in pots with low-P soil. The biomass, P content, carboxylates and phosphatases activity were measured in 15 destructive samplings. Intraspecific competition of the biomass and P u...

  13. 微波对蚕豆根尖细胞的遗传损伤%Microwave radiation-induced genetic damage of root-tip cells in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗蔚华; 钱晓薇; 朱睦元

    2012-01-01

    以蚕豆(Vcia faba L.)根尖为实验材料,研究微波辐射对蚕豆根尖细胞的损伤效应.采用蚕豆根尖微核试验和染色体畸变试验方法,以不同处理时间(0~30 s)的微波辐射为诱变剂,测定蚕豆根尖细胞的微核率、有丝分裂指数及染色体畸变率等指标.结果表明:6个时间微波处理组的微核率、染色体畸变率均明显高于阴性对照组(P<0.001).而6个时间微波处理组的有丝分裂指数却明显低于阴性对照组(P<0.001).在本实验处理时间范围内,3个指标均具有一定的时间效应.即随着微波处理时间的延长,微核率及染色体畸变率逐渐升高,而有丝分裂指数则逐渐降低.结论是在该实验微波剂量及处理时间下,微波对蚕豆根尖细胞具有明显的损伤效应.%Microwave radiation-induced genetic damage was investigated in root-tip cells of Vicia faba. Taking the microwave as a mutagen in micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays, mitotic index, micronucleus frequency, and chromosome aberration frequency were detected in time-course treatments of Vicia faba root tip cells. The results showed that micronucleus frequencies, chromosome aberration frequencies in 6 microwave treatment groups were significantly higher than the controlling without microwave treatment (P<0. 001) , while their mitotic index was much lower than that of control group (P<0. 001). During microwave treatments, micronucleus frequency and chromosome aberration frequency were increased in treatment time-dependent manner in root-tip cells, whereas the mitotic index was decreased. These data suggest that microwave causes obvious genetic damage to root-tip cells in Vicia faba.

  14. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens B. Hafke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from a few using cut aphid stylets, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (-130 mV to -110 mV, while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. -100 mV. In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to -55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H+-induced depolarisations were recorded. Data analysis by nonlinear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie-Hofstee (EH -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: Km1 1.2-1.8 mM, Km2 6.6-9.0 mM of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC favoured single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, Km values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher Km values (EH: Km1 10 mM, Km2 70 mM as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (-0.1 to -0.3 pA/ pF were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a Km values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in-situ determination of Km values, (c As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved in sucrose uptake by sieve

  15. Nitric Oxide Blocks Blue Light-Induced K+ Influx by Elevating the Cytosolic Ca2+ Concentration in Vicia faba L.Guard Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhao; Yuan-Yuan Li; Hui-Li Xiao; Chang-Shui Xu; Xiao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ plays a pivotal role in nitric oxide (NO)-promoted stomatal closure.However,the function of Ca2+ in NO inhibition of blue light (BL)-induced stomatal opening remains largely unknown.Here,we analyzed the role of Ca2+ in the crosstalk between BL and NO signaling in Vicia faba L.guard cells.Extracellular Ca2+ modulated the BL-induced stomatal opening in a dose-dependent manner,and an application of 5 μM Ca2+ in the pipette solution significantly inhibited BL-activated K+ influx.Sodium nitroprusside (SNP),a NO donor,showed little effect on BL-induced K+ influx and stomatal opening response in the absence of extracellular Ca2+,but K+ influx and stomatal opening were inhibited by SNP when Ca2+ was added to the bath solution.Interestingly,although both SNP and BL could activate the plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and induce the rise of cytosolic Ca2+,the change in levels of Ca2+ channel activity and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration were different between SNP and BL treatments.SNP at 100 μM obviously activated the plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and induced cytosolic Ca2+ rise by 102.4%.In contrast,a BL pulse (100 μmol/m2 per s for 30 s) slightly activated the Ca2+ channels and resulted in a Ca2+ rise of only 20.8%.Consistently,cytosolic Ca2+ promoted K+ influx at 0.5 μM or below,and significantly inhibited K+ influx at 5 μM or above.Taken together,our findings indicate that Ca2+ plays dual and distinctive roles in the crosstalk between BL and NO signaling in guard cells,mediating both the BL-induced K+ influx as an activator at a lower concentration and the NO-blocked K+ influx as an inhibitor at a higher concentration.

  16. 苦藠对蚕豆根尖微核率的影响研究%Effect of Scallion on Micronucleus Frequency in Vicia Faba Root Tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 李睿

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mutation of Scallion and compare the effect of different polar Scallion extract on micronucleus rate. Methods: Micronucleus tests were conducted in Vicia faba root tips treated with different concentrations of Scallion extract .Results: Different concentrations of Scallion water extract and ethanol extract treated in Viciafaba root tips. Comparing with the control group, the difference was not significant (P>0.05), and micronucleus index<1.5. So Scallion water extract and ethanol extract had no mutagenic effect. Scallion water extract had more inhibitory effect on micronucleus rate Compared with ethanol extract. The concentrations of scalli water extract between 0.008 g/ml and 0.08g/ml had micronucleus index in the range between 0.76-0.95 (mean <1.0), and reduced with the increasing of the concentration.The ethanol extract on micronucleus was no significant effect. Its micronucleus index 1.09-1.28 (<1.5) tended to decrease with increasing concentration.%目的:探讨苦藠在致突变性方面的作用,并比较不同极性苦藠提取液对蚕豆根尖微核率的影响作用.方法:蚕豆根尖细胞微核实验.结果:通过将不同浓度的苦藠水提取液和乙醇提取液处理蚕豆根尖细胞,与空白对照组比较,差别无显著性(P>0.05),且微核指数均<1.5,即苦蹔无任何致突变作用;苦藠水提取液比较乙醇提取液对蚕豆根尖微核率有一定抑制作用,其浓度在0.008g/mL-0.08g/mL之间微核指数范围在0.76-0.95(均<1.0),随浓度增加而降低,乙醇提取液对蚕豆根尖微核率无显著影响,微核指数在1.09-1.28(<1.5),随着浓度增加有降低趋势.

  17. Assessment of arsenic toxicity using Allium/Vicia root tip micronucleus assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihua; Yi, Huilan; Yi, Min

    2010-04-15

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and is a potential human carcinogen. Its carcinogenicity has been demonstrated in several models. In this study, broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and common onion (Allium cepa L.), two plant species which are commonly used for detecting the genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants, were used to measure possible genotoxic effect of arsenite (0.3-30 mg/l). Present results showed that arsenite (As(III)) induced micronuclei (MN) formation in both Allium and Vicia root tips. MN frequency significantly increased in Vicia root cells exposed to 0.3-10 mg/l arsenite and in Allium root cells exposed to 1-30 mg/l arsenite, which indicated that Vicia root tip cells are more sensitive to arsenite than Allium. Mitotic index (MI) decreased in a concentration-dependent manner and showed significant differences in Vicia/Allium roots among treatments and the control, after exposure to 1-30 mg/l arsenite for at least 4 h. In the present study, MN frequency was positively associated with lipid peroxidation, which indicated that arsenite exposure can induce oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in plant cells. The results also suggested that Vicia/Allium root micronucleus (MN) assays are simple, efficient and reproducible methods for the genotoxicity monitoring of arsenic water contamination.

  18. Study on Organic Wastewater Monitoring of Laboratory Using MCN Test of Vicia Faba Root Tips%蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术监测实验室有机废水的污染研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晶晶; 屈艾; 刘小燕; 贾蓉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The genetic toxicity and pollution effects of biological and chemical organic wastewater were studied. [ Method] Organic wastewater which was formed during the preparation of cyclohexanone were diluted eight concentration gradients and detected using MCN test of Vicia faba root tips. [ Results] The results showed that different concentration gradients of organic wastewater had genetic toxicity. In certain concentration range, with the rising of organic wastewater treatment concentration, rate of micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells, pollution index and mitotic index gradually increased. However, beyond concentration gradient, organic wastewater restrained Viciafaba cell micro nuclear formation and mitosis. [ Conclusion] Organic wastewater has obvious genetic toxicity and environment pollution effect. VAMCN can be used to monitor and evaluate pollution effect of organic wastewater and the laboratory wastewater after reasonably diluted or eliminate heavy metals can be discharged.%[目的]对生物及化学类实验室的有机废水进行遗传毒性和污染效应的研究.[方法]将实验室条件下制备环已酮时所排有机废水逐级稀释成8个梯度浓度,采用蚕豆(Vicia faba)根尖细胞微核技术进行检测.[结果」不同浓度梯度的实验室有机废水对蚕豆根尖细胞有遗传毒性,在一定浓度范围内,随着废水处理浓度增大,蚕豆根尖细胞微核率、污染指数和有丝分裂指数逐渐增加;但浓度过高,反而会抑制蚕豆根尖细胞微核的形成和有丝分裂的进行.[结论]实验室有机废水有明显的遗传毒性和环境污染效应,可以利用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术对其污染效应进行监测和评价,实验室废水必须进行合理的处理(稀释或吸附消除重金属)方能排出.

  19. Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Seed Yield and Yield Components in Some Faba Bean Genotypes in Sulaimani Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwan E. Tofiq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Bakrajo, Sulaimani, Iraq during three successive seasons 2011-2014. This research was conducted using seven faba bean cultivars namely (Zaina, Seher, Yieldiz, Civilla, Luz di Otono, Tanyari and local. The following measurements and observations were made: 100 seed weight, first node height, number of seeds/plant, number of seeds/pod, pod length, number of pods/plant and seed yield. The results indicated that highly significant and negative correlations were presented between 100 seed weight and seed yield, whereas, significant and positive correlations were presented between the numbers of seed/plant and seed yield at the second season. In addition, the results of the third season indicate that the number of seeds/plant correlated significantly and positively with seed yield, and the number of seeds/pod correlated significantly and negatively with seed yield, whereas, number of pods/plant correlated high significantly and positively with the seed yield. The character first node height showed maximum direct effect value in seed yield at the first season and the third season, while number of pods/plant showed maximum direct effect value in seed yield at the second season.

  20. Imapact of replacing corn and soya beans with sorghum and faba beans on ruminal fermentation and milk quality in sicilo sarde dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Selmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the first study: Four rams bred Sicilo - Sarde aged of 4.8 years with an average live weight of 45.25 kg, permanently canulated in the rumen. Rams received a daily ration in two equal meals. The diet contained 1.5 kg DM of oat hay, complemented by two concentrates: The control concentrate (A included 10 % barley, 43.3 % corn, 25 % wheat bran, 17.7 % soybean meal, and 4 % of sheep mineral mixture (VMC and the experimental concentrate (B included 66 % white sorghum, 30 % faba bean, and 4% of VMC. The results showed that ruminal pH is statistically different before and 2 hours after the morning meal distribution between the two types of concentrates but stabilizes at the end of the day. The rate of ammonia nitrogen is in favor of the control diet before the distribution of the morning meal. The population of ciliated protozoa is similar for both diets. Different genres are statistically comparable for the two regimes.

  1. 蛹虫草胞内锌多糖对丝裂霉素诱发蚕豆根尖细胞微核的影响%Effect of intra-polysaccharide zinc-riched of Cordyceps militaris on micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells induced by Mitomycin-c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素婷; 朱蕴兰; 张城; 陈宏伟; 宋海燕

    2011-01-01

    以蛹虫苹为材料,利用蚕豆根尖细胞微核实验,探讨了蛹虫草胞内锌多糖对丝裂霉素(MMC)诱发的蚕豆根尖细胞微核的影响。结果表明:胞内锌多糖对蚕豆根尖细胞微核的产生具有显著的抑制作用,且胞内锌多糖抑制微核产生的能力随胞内锌多糖浓度增加而增强.当胞内锌多糖浓度为100ug/mL时,抑制MMC诱发的蚕豆根尖细胞微核率最高到达59.56%。蛹虫草胞内锌多糖具有显著抑制蚕豆根尖细胞微核产生的能力。%With Cordyceps militaris as material,micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells was tested,discussing effects of intra-polysaccharide zinc-riched of Cordyceps militaris on micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells induced by Mitomycin-c. Results showed that: intra-polysaccharids zinc-riched of Cordyceps militaris inhibited the production of micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells significantly. And the inhibition effect of intra- polysaccharide zinc-riched of Cordyceps militaris on micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells was intenser as the concentration of intra-polysaccharids zinc-riched increased. When the concentration of intra-polysaccharids zinc-riched was 100ug/mL,the inhibition density of intra-polysaccharids zinc-riched on micronuclear of Vicia faba root tip cells induced by Mitomycin-c reached to the highest at 59.56%. Intra-polysaccharide zinc-riched of Cordyceps militaris had significant ability to inhibit the production of micronucleus of Vicia faba root tip cells.

  2. The effects of nitrogen form on root morphological and physiological adaptations of maize, white lupin and faba bean under phosphorus deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Caixian; Li, Chunjian

    2016-01-01

    Root morphological/physiological modifications are important for phosphorus (P) acquisition of plants under P deficiency, but strategies differ among plant species. Detailed studies on the response of maize roots to P deficiency are limited. Nitrogen (N) form influences root morphology/physiology, and thus may influence root responses to P deficiency. This work investigated adaptive mechanisms of maize roots to low P by comparison with white lupin and faba bean supplied with two N forms. Plants were grown for 7–16 days in hydroponics with sufficient (250 µmol L−1) and deficient P supply (1 µmol L−1) under supply of NH4NO3 or Ca(NO3)2. Plant growth and P uptake were measured, and release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity in the root were monitored. The results showed that P deficiency significantly decreased shoot growth while increased root growth and total root length of maize and faba bean, but not white lupin. It enhanced the release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity, from the roots of both legumes but not maize. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, NH4NO3 dramatically increased proton release by roots but did not alter root morphology or physiology of the three species in response to low P. It is concluded that the N form did not fundamentally change root morphological/physiological responses of the three species to P deficiency. Morphological variation in maize and morpho-physiological modifications in white lupin and faba bean were the main adaptive strategies to P deficiency. PMID:27519912

  3. Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy

    2013-03-01

    Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the

  4. Phylogenetic diversity based on rrs, atpD, recA genes and 16S-23S intergenic sequence analyses of rhizobial strains isolated from Vicia faba and Pisum sativum in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillana, Nery; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris

    2008-03-01

    In this study 17 isolates from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum var. macrocarpum growing in different soils from Peru were isolated and characterized. The isolates, presenting 11 different RAPD profiles, were distributed in three groups on the basis of their 16S-RFLP patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains from 16S-RFLP groups I, II and III were closely related (identities higher than 99.5%) to Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii DSM 30141 (=ATCC 14480), R. leguminosarum bv. viciae DSM 30132(T) and Rhizobium etli CFN42(T) (=USDA 9032(T)), respectively. The analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) and two housekeeping genes, atpD and recA, confirmed the identification of strains from group I, however those from groups II and III were phylogenetically divergent to strains DSM 30132(T) and CFN42(T). These results support the fact that the 16S rRNA gene is not adequate for identification at species level within genus Rhizobium and suggest the existence of putative new species within the phylogenetic group of R. leguminosarum. They also confirm the need of a taxonomic revision of R. leguminosarum since the reference strains of the three biovars included in this study are phylogenetically divergent according to their ITS, atpD and recA gene sequences.

  5. lAA and BAP affect protein phosphorylation-dependent processes during sucrose-mediated G1 to S and G2 to M transitions in root meristem cells of Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Teresa Polit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In carbohydrate-starved root meristems of Vicia faba subsp. minor, the expression of two Principal Control Points located at the final stages of the G1 (PCP1 and G2 (PCP2 phases has been found to be correlated with a marked decrease of protein phosphorylation within cell nuclei, nucleoli and cytoplasm. Adopting the same experimental model in our present studies, monoclonal FITC conjugated antibodies that recognize phosphorylated form of threonine (αTPab-FITC were used to obtain an insight about how the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP, and the mixture of both phytohormones influence the time-course changes in an overall protein phosphorylation during sucrose-mediated PCP1→S and PCP2→M transitions. Unsuspectedly, neither IAA, BAP, nor the mixture of both phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose did up-regulate protein phosphorylation. However using the block-and-release method, it was shown that root meristems of Vicia provided with sucrose alone indicated higher levels of αTPab-FITC. Contrarily, phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose induced apparent decline in phosphorylation of cell proteins, which - when compared with the influence of sucrose alone - became increasingly evident in time. Thus, it seems probable, that a general decline in the amount of αTPab-FITC labeled epitopes may overlay specific phosphorylations and dephosphorylations governed by the main cell cycle kinases and phosphatases.

  6. 局部灼伤对茉莉酸在蚕豆幼苗中运输和分配的影响%Effect of Localized Scorch on the Transport and Distribution of Exogenous Jasmonic Acid in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 张蜀秋; 娄成后; 于风义

    2002-01-01

    用示踪技术研究了3H-JA (jasmonic acid)在双子叶植物蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)中的运输和分配规律以及局部灼伤对其运输与分配的影响.外源3H-JA 能够以高于4~5 cm*min-1的速率在蚕豆幼苗体内向上和向下运输.幼叶局部灼伤能提高3H-JA的向上运输能力,促进3H-JA向受伤部位的调运;增加3H-JA向成熟叶片下表皮的运输分配比率;阻止3H-JA从受伤部位的向外输出.据此推测,伤胁迫下JA的运输与分配的改变可能与植物体防御伤反应密切相关,并有可能参与了对气孔运动的调控.%Exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) has been showed to be able to induce stomatal closure in Vicia faba L. in previous investigations. The transport and distribution of 3H_JA affected by localized scorch on V. faba seedling were studied with radioisotope technique. The results showed that 3H_JA could be transported up or down at the rate of 4-5 cm*min-1 following feeding into root or shoot tip. The transport of 3H_JA in shoot reached a relative stable rate at 30 min after being fed through root. Wounding by scorch in the youngest leaf caused an increase in the transport of 3H_JA from root to shoot and enhanced the distribution of 3H_JA in the wounded leaf. However, distribution of 3H_JA in unwounded leaves increased after 5 h being fed through the youngest leaf. It was noticed that wounding improved accumulation of 3H_JA in abaxial epidermis. Consistent results were obtained: wounding prevented transport of 3H_JA out from the youngest leaf to root; These observations suggest that JA plays an important role as a defense signal and might be involved in the regulation of the stomatal movement in response to wounding stress.

  7. Effects of alternative irrigation on eco-physiological characteristics of wheat/faba-bean intercropping%交替灌溉对小麦/蚕豆间作系统作物生理生态特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彩红; 柴强

    2016-01-01

    为探明交替灌溉对小麦/蚕豆间作系统作物生理状况和生长发育的影响,揭示交替灌溉的节水机理,以小麦、蚕豆为材料,采用根箱试验,设置交替灌溉(A)、传统灌溉(T)2种灌溉方式和单作小麦(SW)、单作蚕豆(SF)、小麦间作蚕豆(IWF)3种种植模式,于2008年3—11月在甘肃农业大学网室系统研究了交替灌溉对小麦/蚕豆间作作物叶片水分生理和生物量分配的影响。结果表明:1)与传统灌溉相比,交替灌溉条件下间作小麦、间作蚕豆叶片的叶绿素含量增加,叶片相对含水量、叶水势等水分生理指标减小;不同灌溉方式间小麦间作蚕豆生理特性差异不显著。不同种植模式之间,间作显著增加了小麦和蚕豆叶片的叶绿素含量、叶片相对含水量和叶水势。2)交替灌溉小麦间作蚕豆在保持光合速率基本不变的情况下,蒸腾速率、气孔导度降低,与传统灌溉相比,交替灌溉间作小麦蒸腾速率、气孔导度分别降低了10.99%、20.99%,间作蚕豆分别降低6.66%、11.63%。3)与传统灌溉相比,交替灌溉降低了作物的地上部干物质量,增加了根冠比,其中交替灌溉间作小麦和间作蚕豆的根冠比分别较传统灌溉提高14.47%和18.18%。4)间作有利于作物产量的提高,交替灌溉和常规灌溉间作小麦的收获指数分别较相应单作增加8.68%和2.72%,间作蚕豆分别较相应单作处理增加4.78%和5.23%。可见,对小麦间作蚕豆实行交替灌溉,可以调节光合产物在根冠间的分配,优化根冠比,是一种切实可行的灌溉方式。%AbstractWheat/faba-bean strip intercropping is a common intercropping system in Northwest China, which has significantly contributed to food security and poverty alleviation. However, traditional net irrigation quota for wheat/faba-bean intercropping is relative higher, deepening the conflict between water resources supply

  8. Effect of Egyptian cooking methods of faba beans on its nutritive value, dietary protein utilization and iron deficiency anemia. 1. The role of main technological pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A

    1996-01-01

    In order to study the effects of main technological pretreatments practised for preparing Egyptian faba bean products, i.e. decortication as well as soaking and germination followed by dehulling on the nutritional value, series of experiments were carried out. Such pretreatments had a significant effect on the changes in the chemical composition of faba beans. The proportion of the removed hulls reached generally about 14%. Data revealed also pronounced improvements on the nutritive value as a result of all studied pretreatments, especially germination being the most effective. Chemical scoring of all determined essential amino acids was > 60, except methionine and cystine showed the lowest score (< 20). Germinated seeds had the highest chemical score for the restricting amino acids beside the lowest GDR value [Grams consumed of product to cover the daily requirements for adult man in protein (63 g) and in energy (2900 kcal)]. All pretreatments caused a significant decrease in the antinutritional factors, especially soaking followed by dehulling, whereas decortication led to a significant increase in phytic acid content.

  9. Enrichment of pasta with faba bean does not impact glycemic or insulin response but can enhance satiety feeling and digestive comfort when dried at very high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Molinari, Nicolas; Cassan, Denis; Sutra, Thibault; Avignon, Antoine; Micard, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Enrichment of durum wheat pasta with legume flour enhances their protein and essential amino acid content, especially lysine content. However, despite its nutritional potential, the addition of a legume alters the rheological properties of pasta. High temperature drying of pasta reduces this negative effect by strengthening its protein network. The aim of our study was to determine if these changes in the pasta structure alter its in vitro carbohydrate digestibility, in vivo glycemic, insulin and satiety responses. We also investigated if high temperature drying of pasta can reduce the well-known digestive discomfort associated with the consumption of legume grains. Fifteen healthy volunteers consumed three test meals: durum wheat pasta dried at a low temperature (control), and pasta enriched with 35% faba bean dried at a low and at a very high temperature. When enriched with 35% legume flour, pasta maintained its nutritionally valuable low glycemic and insulin index, despite its weaker protein network. Drying 35% faba bean pasta at a high temperature strengthened its protein network, and decreased its in vitro carbohydrate digestion with no further decrease in its in vivo glycemic or insulin index. Drying pasta at a very high temperature reduced digestive discomfort and enhanced self-reported satiety, and was not associated with a modification of energy intake in the following meal.

  10. Shift from complementarity to facilitation on P uptake by intercropped wheat neighboring with faba bean when available soil P is depleted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere processes stimulate overyielding and facilitative phosphorus (P) uptake in cereal/legume intercropping systems. However, little is known about when and how rhizosphere alteration of legumes plays a role in improving P uptake by cereals. Wheat was grown isolated, monocropped or intercropped with faba bean in pots with low-P soil. The biomass, P content, carboxylates and phosphatases activity were measured in 15 destructive samplings. Intraspecific competition of the biomass and P uptake of monocropped wheat was not significant before 40 and 36 days after sowing (DAS), whereas there was interspecific competition of biomass of intercropped wheat before 66 DAS. However, afterwards, the increments of the biomass and P uptake of the intercropped wheat were 1.3-1.9 and 1.9-2.3 times of increment of monocropped wheat. Meanwhile, the concentrations of malate and citrate and the acid phosphatase activity in the rhizospheres of intercropped wheat were significantly increased, which suggested that wheat/faba bean intercropping is efficient in P utilization due to complementary P uptake in the early growth stage and the positive interactions of the rhizosphere processes when the soil P was depleted.

  11. Genetic Diversity and Similarity of Global Faba Bean(Vcia faba L.)Germplasm Revealed by ISSR Markers%世界蚕豆种质资源遗传多样性和相似性的ISSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海飞; 关建平; 孙雪莲; 马钰; 宗绪晓

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose of this research is to analyze the genetic diversity of global faba bean germplasm, to explore their genetic similarity and population structure, and to provide essential information for germplasm evaluation and effective utilization of faba bean genetic resources. [Method] The genetic similarity of 383 faba bean accessions from 35 countries was analyzed by using ISSR marker. [Result] Eleven ISSR primers generated 229 unambiguous bands, of which 212 were polymorphic,and the rate of polymorphic bands was 0.93. Gene diversity index (H) and allelic richness (NA) of different geographic groups of germplasm ranged from 0.16 to 0.28 and from 104 to 193, respectively. Chinese spring-seeding area group showed the highest genetic diversity (H = 0.28, NA = 193), and America group showed the lowest (H = 0.16, NA = 104). The spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from winter faba bean germplasm of China in UPGMA clustering analysis based on ISSR molecular marker data. Germplasm from China is quite distinct to that from exotic accessions. The accessions from Europe had a closer genetic similarity with that from North Africa. While the germplasm resources from Asia, Europe and Africa are closely related to their geographical distribution. [Conclusion ] Accessions from spring-seeding area of China were most diverse. Germplasm from America showed lowest diversity. The results indicated that the genetic similarity and diversity of faba bean germplasm are closely associated with their growth habit, their geographical origin and ecological distribution.%[目的]分析国内外蚕豆种质资源的遗传多样性,探索其遗传相似性和遗传结构,为世界蚕豆资源的综合评价和优良种质资源的发掘利用提供依据.[方法]利用ISSR标记技术,对来自世界35个国家的383份蚕豆资源的遗传相似性进行分析.[结果]筛选出的11条ISSR引物共扩增出229条条带,其中多态性条带212条(占93%).不同地理

  12. Impact of seeding rate, seeding date, rate and method of phosphorus application in faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor in the absence of moisture stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during the winter seasons of 1998-1999, 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 at the semi-arid region in north of Jordan, to study the effect of seeding dates (14 January, 28 January and 12 February, seeding rates (50, 75 and 100 plants per metre, phosphorus levels (0, 17.5, 35.0 and 52.5 kg P per ha and two methods of P placement (banding and broadcast. Seeding rate, seeding date, and rate of phosphorus had a significant effect on most of the measured traits and the yield determinates. Method of phosphorus application had only a significant effect on seed yield and seed weight per plant. In general high yields were obtained by early seeding (14 January, high seeding rate (100-plant per square metre, and P application (52.5 kg P per ha drilled with the seed after cultivation (banded.

  13. Hydrogen Sulfide Mediates ABA-induced Stomatal Closure of Vicia faba L.%H2S介导ABA诱导蚕豆气孔运动的生理机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁; 侯智慧; 赵方贵; 刘新

    2011-01-01

    Through pharmacological combined with spectrophotography to study the effects of ABA and ABA with inhibitors of H2S synthesis on stomatal closure of Vicia faba L., H2S generation and L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase (pyridoxalphosphate dependent enzymes) activity.The results showed that AOA and NH2OH, inhibitors of pyridoxal-5 ‘-phosphate-dependent enzymes, C3H3KO3 + NH3, products of L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase all inhibited ABA- induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L.obviously under light condition.Treatment with ABA induced H2S generation and increased L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase activity.AOA,NH2OH,C3H3KO3+NH3 reduced H2S generation induced by ABA and the activity increase of L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase.Those results suggested that ABA enhanced the activity of L-/D-cysteine desulfhydrase,inducing the accumulation of H2S via L-/D-cysteine resolving, and finally induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L..%以蚕豆为实验材料,利用药理学实验和分光光度法,研究了ABA处理及ABA与H2S合成抑制剂共处理对蚕豆气孔运动的影响,以及体内H2S水平、H2S合成酶L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶(磷酸吡哆盐依赖性酶)活性变化.结果表明:(1)光下H2S的合成抑制剂羧甲氧基胺半盐酸盐(AOA)、羟氨(NH2OH)、L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶分解产物C3H3KO3+NH3均明显抑制ABA诱导的蚕豆气孔关闭;(2)外源ABA能够明显提高叶片的H2S水平及L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶活性;(3)AOA、NH2OH、C3H3KO3和NH3均可以逆转ABA所引起的H2S水平及L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶活性的升高.研究发现,ABA可通过增强L-/D-半胱氨酸脱巯基酶活性,促进L-/D-半胱氨酸分解生成H2S,进而诱导蚕豆气孔关闭.

  14. Ca2+对蚕豆种子萌发及根生长的影响%Effects of Ca2+ on the Germination and Root Growth of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英慧

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To study the effects of Ca2+ on seed germination, root length, and mitotic index of root tip cells of Vicia faba. [ Method] Vicia faba seeds were cultured with CaCl2 solutions at different concentration using distilled water treatment as CK. Germination rates were counted;root lengths were measured;and the root tips were fixed,dyed and squashed for microscopic examination,and mitotic index of its root tip cells were calculated. [ Result ] There was no effect on germination of Vicia faba seeds treated with 1.0 - 5.0 mmol/L Ca2+.The speed of germination decreased when the seeds were treated with Ca2+ above 10.0 mmol/L,but at last there was no effect on the rate of germination. The root length and mitotic index of root tip cells were increased after the treatment with Ca2+ at concentration of 1.0 - 10.0 mmol/L. When the root tips were treated with Ca2+ at higher concentration ,the root length and mitotic index decreased, and even the growth of root and cell division were inhibited. [ Conclusion ] Ca2+ is an essential element for plants ,but the application of excessive Ca2+ would generate toxicity. This study provides scientific evidence for rational application of calcium fertilizer.%[目的]研究不同浓度Ca对蚕豆种子萌发、根长以及根尖细胞有丝分裂的影响.[方法]用不同浓度的CaCl 溶液培养蚕豆种子,以蒸馏水培养为对照,统计不同处理下蚕豆种子萌发率;测量根长;根尖固定、染色、压片后进行观察,计算有丝分裂指数.[结果]1.0-5.0 mmol/L Ca 对蚕豆种子萌发没有影响.当Ca 浓度超过10.0 mmol/L后,随着Ca浓度的增高,蚕豆种子萌发速率降低,但对最终萌发率没有影响;1.0-10.0mmol/L Ca 能不同程度地促进蚕豆根生长和细胞分裂,其中5.0mmol/L Ca 处理的蚕豆根长和有丝分裂指数最高,之后随着Ca 浓度的继续增高,根生长和细胞分裂速度开始下降,甚至受到抑制.[结论]Ca 是植物体生长的必需元素,但Ca

  15. Effect of phthalate esters on micronuclei rates in vicia faba root tip cells%邻苯二甲酸酯类物质对蚕豆根尖细胞微核率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段丽菊; 王海雪; 高留闯; 唐智敏; 吉宗慧; 范清堂; 崔留欣

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the mutagenicity of some kinds of phthalate esters. METHODS:Vicia faba root tips were exposed to different concentrations of phthalate esters including dimethyl phthalate,dibuthyl phthalate,bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate,diethyl phthalate and dipropyl phthalate for 24 hours. Number of micronuclei of vicia faba root tips cells was observed. RESULTS:Compared with the negative control group,while dimethyl phthalate at the concentration of 0.008,0.016,0.032 mg/L,phthalate dibutyl and phthalate dioctyl at the concentration of 0.016,0.032 mg/L,respectively, there were significant differences in micronucleus rate (P0.05). CONCLUSION:The present study demonstrats that dimethyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate,dioctyl phthalate displayed genetic toxicity and low concentration of diethyl phthalate and phthalate dipropyl showed no genotoxicity.%目的:研究几种邻苯二甲酸酯类物质的遗传毒性。方法:用不同浓度邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯、邻苯二甲酸二丙酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯对蚕豆根尖染毒24 h后,观察蚕豆根尖细胞的微核数。结果:邻苯二甲酸二甲酯在浓度为0.008、0.016和0.032 mg/L,邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯在浓度为0.016和0.032 mg/L时,所致蚕豆根尖细胞微核率均显著高于阴性对照组(P0.05)。结论:在本实验条件下,邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯、邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯对蚕豆根尖具有遗传毒性,低浓度邻苯二甲酸二乙酯和邻苯二甲酸二丙酯对蚕豆根尖不具有遗传毒性。

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-CHEMICAL METHODS OF PLANT PROTECTION ON THE PRESENCE OF HERBIVOROUS BEETLES IN BROAD BEANS GROWING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of accompanying plants: sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima L.) and white mustard (Synapis alba L.), on the incidence of pests of the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) variety Bartek, in the intercropping system. The observations of the number of the beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp were made. The broad bean was grown along with two other plants in varying spacing (the distances between rows were 50, 65 and 80 cm) and in homogeneous cult...

  17. 空心莲子草不同部位水浸提液对蚕豆、玉米化感作用机制的研究%The Study on Allelopathy Mechanism of Aqueous Extracts from the Different Organizations of Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb on Vicia faba and Zea mays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊勇; 屈睿; 王红斌; 熊开金; 姜传亮

    2011-01-01

    用空心莲子草为研究材料,以农作物蚕豆、玉米为受试植物,采用培养皿滤纸法测定空心莲子草对受试农作物种子萌发率的影响,并检测幼苗的生理指标丙二醛(MDA)含量、超氧化物歧酶(SOD)活性、过氧化物酶(POD)活力以及蚕豆根尖细胞微核率变化,来探讨化感作用机制.结果表明,空心莲子草根、茎、叶不同浓度水浸提液对受试农作物种子萌发率具有不同程度的抑制作用,且处理浓度越高抑制作用越强,水浸提液使受体幼苗体内的MDA含量增加,SOD活性、POD活性先增加后降低趋势,使蚕豆根尖细胞微核率上升.空心莲子草水溶性化感物质使受试农作物受到了氧化胁迫,抗氧化酶系统、蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂受到了抑制作用,从而影响了农作物幼苗的萌发和生长.%The study used Alternanthera philoxeroides as material, the subjects plants were Vicia faba and Zea may. The effects of Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb on the seed germination of two species were studied by using culture dish filter paper method. The physiological index of tested crops MDA content, peroxidase (POD) activity changes, micronucleus rate changes of Vicia faba root-tip cell were detected. The result showed aqueous extracts form Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb were affected to different degrees for the tested Vicia faba and Zea mays germination rate, made seedlings malondialdehyde (MDA) content to increase, made seedlings superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity firstly to increase and then to decrease trend, also made root tip cells of Vicia micronucleus rate to increase. The tested crops were oxidative stressed by water-soluble allelochemicals from Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb. Antioxidant enzyme systems and root tip cells mitosis were inhibited. The aqueous extracts from the different organizations Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb affected the germination and growth of Vicia faba and

  18. 亚硫酸氢钠对蚕豆光合生产和蛋白含量的影响%Effect of hydrogen sulfite sodium on the photosynthetic production and the content of protein of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌平; 闵运江; 汪马成

    2007-01-01

    在蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)灌浆期对其叶面喷施50 mg·L-1和100 mg·L-1的亚硫酸氢钠溶液,结果表明:两种浓度的亚硫酸氢钠均可提高叶片净光合速率,增加籽粒产量,其中50 mg·L-1的促进效果明显.同时研究表明,亚硫酸氢钠虽然可以增加籽粒产量,但却降低了籽粒的蛋白质含量,其中100mg·L-1处理后的降低幅度较大.此外,试验还测定了各处理组的叶绿素含量,结果表明,亚硫酸氢钠对促进叶绿素含量增加与光合产量增加呈正相关.

  19. 核酸类似物诱导蚕豆高频率类减数分裂%Somatic Meiosis-like Reduction Induced at High Frequency by Nucleotide Analogues in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽华; 陈一华; 陈正华

    2000-01-01

    建立了用咖啡因、尿嘧啶处理蚕豆(Vicia faba)根尖细胞,诱导高频率体细胞类减数分裂的体系.筛选出最佳药物处理浓度及最佳恢复时间,咖啡因处理过程中减数分裂的频率最高达54.0 %,尿嘧啶处理类减数分裂频率最高达35.7%.观察体细胞类减数分裂的全过程,发现体细胞染色体减数存在着两种类型, 其一为染色体减数分组,多数情况下染色体分为两个组,但未见纺锤丝的作用;另一类型为与配子发生过程相似的减数分裂,出现染色体配对、交叉的图样.这一体系的建立对单倍体的诱导及细胞工程育种有着重要意义.

  20. 活性氧介导砷诱导的蚕豆保卫细胞死亡%Involvement of ROS in Arsenic-Induced Guard Cell Death in Detached Epidermis of Vicia faba Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛美昭; 仪慧兰

    2013-01-01

    采用蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)表皮条生物法,研究砷的细胞毒性作用机制.结果发现,一定浓度的NaAsO2可使气孔保卫细胞活性降低,部分细胞死亡,细胞死亡率呈浓度依赖性增高;砷处理组保卫细胞内活性氧(reactive oxygen species,ROS)水平升高.抗氧化剂抗坏血酸和过氧化氢酶及Ca2+特异性螫合剂EGTA、Ca2+通道抑制剂LaCl3与NaAsO2共同作用时,砷诱发的细胞死亡被显著抑制;MAPK激酶抑制剂PD98059亦能有效阻止NaAsO2诱发的细胞死亡.研究结果表明,砷胁迫引起的胞内ROS合成增加可能通过Ca2+信号途径介导了保卫细胞的死亡过程,MAPK途径参与了砷诱导的细胞死亡.

  1. Genotoxicity of Cr6+ on the Tip Cell of Vicia faba L.Root%Cr6+对蚕豆根尖细胞的遗传毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕

    2013-01-01

    采用蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)根尖细胞微核试验研究了不同浓度的铬对蚕豆根尖细胞微核率和染色体畸变的影响,以此评价铬(Cr6+)的遗传毒性.结果表明,随铬浓度升高,蚕豆根尖细胞微核率先升后降,染色体畸变率升高.50 mg/L铬处理48 h微核率和100 mg/L铬处理48 h染色体畸变率达到最大值,达到最大值后随着铬浓度增加微核率下降,但仍高于对照,铬引起的染色体畸变以染色体断片、落后染色体和染色体桥为主.试验结果表明,铬能诱导蚕豆根尖细胞微核的产生和染色体畸变.

  2. Role of Inducible - NOS in Light/Darkness - Regulated Stomatal Movement of Vicia Faba%诱导型一氧化氮合酶在光暗调控的蚕豆气孔运动中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋喜贵; 王娜; 佘小平

    2012-01-01

    以蚕豆叶片下表皮为材料,借助表皮条分析、免疫细胞化学染色、细胞核染色和激光扫描共聚焦显微镜技术,对一氧化氮(nitricoxide,NO)在光暗调控的蚕豆气孔运动中的作用进行探索。实验证明,NO专一性清除剂2,4-羧基苯-4,4,5,5-四甲基咪唑-l-氧-3-氧化物(cPrIO)和一氧化氮合酶(Nos)抑制剂NG-氮-L-精氨酸-甲酯(L-NAME)能够逆转黑暗诱导气孔关闭的效应,并能阻断黑暗诱导的蚕豆保卫细胞NO水平的提高。但二者对光下气孔孔径几乎没有影响。结果表明,光暗调控的蚕豆气孔运动与保卫细胞胞质内的NO水平有关,在保卫细胞细胞核中存在诱导型一氧化氮合酶(inducible-nitric喇desynthase,iNOS),而光暗条件下iNOS活性不同,进而引起NO水平变化并最终影响气孔开关。%In this study, the abaxial epidermis of Vicia faba is used as materials, and role of NO in light/dark - regulated / stomatal movement is investigated by epidermal strip bioassay, immunocytochemical methods, carbolfuchsin staining and la- serseanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Our data shows that the darkness - induced stomata closure and NO generation in guard cell can be prevented by 2- (4 - carboxyphenyl) - 4,4,5,5 - tetmmethylimidazohne - 1 - oxyl - 3 - oxide (cP- TIO) and NG - nitro - L - Arg - methyl ester (L - NAME), the specific NO scavenger and an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) respectively, which has no significant effect on stomatal aperture in light. So we suggest that light/darkness- regu- lated stomata] movement is related to the levels of NO in guard cell. In addition, we also indicate that in nucleus of V. faba guard cells plant possess inducible- nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and light/darkness - regulated NO levels in guard cells of Vicia faba is likely related to the change of iNOS activeness, and then results in the opening or closing of the stomata.

  3. Mutation Effects of Sodium Sulfite and Sodium Nitrite in Root TiP Cells of Vicia Faba%亚硫酸钠和亚硝酸钠对蚕豆根尖细胞致突变作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虹; 王小娟; 高向丽

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: We studied the mutation effects of sodium sulfite and sodium nitrite in root tip cells of Vicia faba . MATERIALS AND METHODS: The root tips of Vicia faba were treated with different concentrations of sodium sulfite and sodium nitrite (in the concentrations of 25,50,100,200,400 mg/L) with distilled water as control for four hours.The root tips of Vicia faba were stained with carbol fuchsin and examined. The micronucleus rate and the rate of chromosome aberration were determined within root tip cells of Vicia faba . RESULTS: Different concentrations of sodium sulfite and sodium nitrite increased the micronucleus rate and the rate of chromosome aberration in root tip cells of Vicia faba . Both these rates increased with treatment concentration. The micronucleus rate of sodium nitrite was higher than that of sodium sulfite at the some concentration. Sodium sulfite and sodium nitrite induced chromosome to produce various types of chromosomal aberrations: free chromosome, chromosome fragments, chromosome adhesion, lagging chromosome, chromosome bridge, polarized chromosome and ring chromosome. CONCLUSION: Sodium sulfite and sodium nitrite revealed obvious mutation effects and caused certain genetic toxicity in root tip cells of Vicia faba . The effects of sodium nitrite were stronger than that of sodium nitritet.%背景与目的:研究亚硫酸钠和亚硝酸钠对蚕豆根尖细胞的致突变作用. 材料与方法:用不同浓度的亚硫酸钠和亚硝酸钠(25、50、100、200、400 mg/L)分别处理蚕豆根尖4 h,并以蒸馏水作为对照,用石炭酸品红染液染色,分别观察、测定蚕豆根尖细胞的微核率和染色体畸变率. 结果:与对照组相比,不同浓度的亚硫酸钠和亚硝酸钠均能诱导蚕豆根尖细胞微核率和染色体畸变率增加(P<0.05或P<0.01),且随处理浓度的增大而增加.在相同浓度下,亚硝酸钠诱导的微核率高于亚硫酸钠诱导的微核率.亚硫酸钠和亚硝酸钠诱

  4. Compatibility of rhizobial genotypes within natural populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae for nodulation of host legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-04-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy.

  5. Effects of Pb2+ on the Germination and Root Growth of Vicia faba L.%铅对蚕豆种子萌发及根生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英慧; 韩善华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究铅对蚕豆种子萌发、根生长以及细胞分裂的影响.[方法]用不同浓度的PbCl溶液培养蚕豆种子,以蒸馏水培养作为对照,统计蚕豆种子萌发率,测量根长,根尖固定、染色、压片后镜检,计算有丝分裂指数.[结果]1.0×10~5.0×10mol/L Pb处理第1、2天,蚕豆种子萌发率稍高于对照,培养第3、4天则与对照相当,Pb对蚕豆种子的萌发没有显著影响.Pb对蚕豆根尖生长产生抑制作用,随着浓度增加,根的生长速率递减,随着处理时间延长,每单位时间的根生长速度递减或停止.根尖细胞有丝分裂指数随Pb浓度的增高和处理时间的延长而递减.[结论]Pb对蚕豆根尖生长发育有影响,其影响程度与Pb处理浓度、处理时间有关.%[ Objective ] The aim was to study the effects of Pb2+ on the seed germination, root length,and mitotic of Viciafaba L.. [ Method ] With the distilled water treatment as the control, Viciafaba L. seeds were cultured with PbCl2 solutions at different concentration,and then their germination rate and root lengths were measured,and their root tips were fixed,dyed and squashed for microscopic examination,and the mitotic index (%) of root tip cells was calculated. [Result]When seeds were treated with 1 × 10-4 -5 × 10-4 mol/L Pb2+ for 1 and 2 days,the germination percentage of seeds lightly increased. But 3 and 4 days later,there was no difference between the seeds treated by Pb2+ and the control. Pb2+ had no significant influence on seed germination. Pb2+ inhibited root growth of Vicia faba L.. The rate of root growth decreased successively with the increasing Pb2+ concentration. The speed of the root growth per time unit also decreased successively or stopped with the increasing treatment duration. The mitotic index decreased progressively with both the increasing Pb2 + concentration and treatment duration. [ Conclusion ] Pb2 + showed effects on the root growth of Vicia faba L. in a dose

  6. Método para la obtención de germinados de haba y lenteja (Vicia faba L y Lens esculenta) / Method for obtaining sprouts bean and lentil (Vicia faba L and Lens esculenta)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Lee, Ximena

    2010-01-01

    En este proyecto se propone como método de obtención de germinados de lenteja el que menos altere las semillas física y químicamente para su germinación, el método comienza con el remojo de semillas durante doce horas en agua, luego el escurrido y depósito de las semillas en frascos de vidrio de boca angosta por un periodo de cuatro días realizando enjuagues diarios (dos). Una vez obtenidos brotes de mas o menos tres centímetros de largo en sus tallos, se almacenan en bolsas de polietileno de...

  7. 不同污水对蚕豆根尖微核诱导率的影响%Effects of Different Sewages on Micronucleus Induction Rates of Vicia faba Root Tip cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余代龙; 杨先泉; 谭利; 蒋琴

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨不同工业污水对环境的污染程度.[方法]采用蚕豆根尖微核技术,测定了雅安2种类型工业污水对蚕豆根尖细胞微核的遗传毒性.[结果]铸造厂污水和制药厂污水诱发的蚕豆根尖微核细胞率分别为21.65‰和23.55‰.卡方分析结果显示,2种污水样品诱发的微核细胞率与阴性对照间差异极显著.[结论]不同类型的工业污水对蚕豆根尖细胞微核的诱导程度有差异,蚕豆根尖细胞微核对各种工业污水的遗传毒性十分敏感.%[Objective] The aim was to explore pollution degrees of different industrial sewages on environment. [ Method] The genotoxicity of 2 kinds of industrial sewages from Ya' an on root tip cells of Viciafaba were tested by micronucleus assay. [ Result] Micronucleus frequencies induced by the sewages from a pharmaceutical industry and a plating factory in Ya' an were 21.65%. And 23.55%., respectively. There were significant differences between the two treated groups and negative control (P<0.01). [Conclusion] The micronucleus frequencies induced by different industrial sewages are different The micronuclens of Vicia faba root tip cells are very sensitive to the genotoxicity of various sewages.

  8. Plastic Membrane Mulching Effect on Varieties of Vicia Faba Linn--Experimenting in Kangding County of Ganzi, Sichuan Province%蚕豆不同品种的地膜覆盖效应*--以四川省甘孜州康定县为试点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈安茹

    2013-01-01

    Four different kinds of Vicia faba Linn were used in two groups of experiments respectively,one group with plastic membrane mulching and the other without. It turned out that Vicia faba in the former group grew rapidly and the yields of fresh green pod and seeds all shared improvement to different extent. Planting modes such as intercropping,interplanting and mixed planting can be utilized to increase economic and ecological benefits.%采用4种不同品种的蚕豆进行覆膜和不覆膜试验,结果证明覆膜栽培的蚕豆生长发育迅速,青鲜荚和籽粒的产量均有不同程度的提高,同时还可利用间作、套种、混作等种植方式来提高经济及生态等各方面效益。

  9. Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 160 Hisex Brown laying hens to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of faba bean (FB and enzyme supplementation on productive performance and egg quality parameters. The experimental diets consisted of five levels of FB: 0% (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, substituting soybean meal (SBM, and two levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 250 mg/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to four replicate groups and the experiment lasted 22 weeks. A positive relationship (P  0.05. The main effect of FB levels replacing for SBM affected (P < 0.05 yolk and shell percentages, yolk index, yolk to albumen ratio, shell thickness and egg shape index. It can be concluded that FB and enzyme supplementation could be included in hens diet at less than 50% instead of SBM to support egg productive performance, however higher raw FB levels negatively affected egg production indices and quality.

  10. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  11. Facilitation in Puptake by Faba Bean from Organic P by Inoculating Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium%丛枝菌根真菌和根瘤菌对蚕豆吸收有机磷的促进作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑敏; 孟令波; 张晶

    2004-01-01

    采用盆栽试验研究了接种根瘤菌(Rhizobium)、丛枝菌根真菌(AM)和双接种对蚕豆(Vicia fabaL.)吸收有机磷的影响.与对照相比,接种根瘤菌使蚕豆根瘤数和根瘤重明显增加,但对有机磷吸收促进作用不明显;接种AM真菌和双接种使蚕豆植株磷浓度和吸收有机磷量显著增加,AM真菌对吸磷量的贡献率分别为38.9%和43.3%.同时接种根瘤菌和AM真菌对蚕豆生长和吸收有机磷有协同促进作用.

  12. 4种典型PPCPs对蚕豆和大蒜根尖细胞微核率的影响%Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰君; 王金花; 朱鲁生; 王军; 赵祥

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline ( DOX) , ciprofloxacin ( CIP) , triclocarban ( TCC) and carbamazepine ( CBZ) in the concentration range of 12. 5-100 mg•L-1 were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-faba and garlic. The results showed that:①When the Vicia-faba root-tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1. 67‰( CK1 ) , it was significantly different from that of the control group ( P﹤0. 05) , and the micronucleus index was even greater than 3. 5;With the increasing concentrations of the PPCPs, the micronucleus rates first increased and then decreased. ②When the garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0. 67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3. 5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg•L-1 and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg•L-1; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. ③Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. ④ The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP﹥CBZ﹥TCC﹥DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different.%药物及个人护理品( PPCPs)对生态环境的潜在风险受到世界各国科学家

  13. A study of the genetic toxicological action of germinated Solanum tuberosum using micronuclei in Vicia faba root-tip test technique%用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术研究发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋梅兰

    2001-01-01

    To explore the genetic toxicological action in germinated Solanum tuberosum, an experiment on the micronucleus frequence of maceration extract of germinated Solanum tuberosum had been carried out with the micronucleus test technique of Vicia faba root-tip cell. The results showed that when the concentrations of maceration extract are 25 g/L, 50 g/L, 100 g/L and 200 g/L, the micronucleus frequence of Vicia faba root-tip cell was 17.21‰, 23.53‰, 29.55‰, 39.40‰ separately. There existed significant differences when compared with negative control, but didn′t cause significant differences as for the non-germinated Solanum tuberosum′s maceration extract with the corresponding concentration to the formation of the micronucleus frequence of Vicia faba root-tip cell when compared with the negative control. Thus,the experiment showed that the formation of micronucleus might be induced greatly by the maceration extract in germination Solanum tuberosum. This technique can be used to test the genetic toxicological action of germinated Solanum tuberosum.%为探讨发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用,用蚕豆根尖细胞微核监测技术对发芽马铃薯浸渍液的微核率进行了测定,结果表明:发芽马铃薯浸渍液的质量浓度为25 g/L、50 g/L、100 g/L、200 g/L时,蚕豆根尖细胞微核率分别为17.21‰、23.53‰、29.55‰、39.40‰,与阴性对照组相比存在显著性差异;相应浓度的未发芽马铃薯浸渍液对蚕豆根尖细胞微核率的形成与阴性对照组相比无显著性差异.实验结果提示发芽马铃薯浸渍液能显著诱发蚕豆根尖细胞微核的形成,利用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术可以监测发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用.

  14. 微核技术在蚕豆氯化钠胁迫和碳酸钠胁迫中的应用研究%Application of Micronucleus Test Technology to Vicia faba L.Under the Stress of NaCl or Na2CO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫秋洁; 罗明华; 唐倩; 陈嫚

    2012-01-01

    The aim was is explore the application approach of applying the micronuclear testing technology to NaCl stress and Na2CO3 stress in Vicia faba L.. The seeds were soaked under the concentration of 0.5%-4.0% NaCl and 0.5%-3.0% Na2CO3 respectively, for contrast with distilled water treatment. And then, the germination rate, the micronucleus frequency, the relative salinity-injury rate and salt-sensitivity index of the seeds were calculated. And the variance analysis and multiple comparisons were used to study relation in treatments. The results showed that: (1) the germination rate and the relative salinity-injury rate of Vicia faba were reduced with the increasing concentration of NaCl and Na2CO3, while the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root-tip cell increased firstly and then decreased, the peak value appeared in 2% NaCl and 2% Na2CO3 respectively. (2)There were significant differences {P<0.05) and very significant differences (P<0.01) in germination and micronucleus rate among different treatments of NaCl concentration and Na2CO3 concentration. (3) Under the same concentration value of NaCl and Na2CO3, the treatment of Na2CO3 stress showed higher influence in the germination rate, the relative salinity- injury rate, the micronucleus rate and the relative salinity-injury rate compare to the treatment of NaCl stress. Therefore, the suitable concentrate range of applying the micronuclear testing technology to NaCl stress or Na2CO3 stress in Vicia faba L. Both was 0.5%-2%.%为探索微核技术在蚕豆耐盐胁迫中的应用途径.以蒸馏水处理为对照,测定在浓度为0.5%~4.0%的NaCl和0.5%~3.0%的Na2CO3溶液处理下蚕豆种子的发芽率和微核率,计算相对盐害率和盐敏指数,通过方差分析和多重比较对比其变化趋势.结果表明:(1)蚕豆种子的发芽率和相对盐害率随盐胁迫浓度的升高而降低,而微核率和盐敏指数随盐胁迫浓度的升高先增大后减小,峰值时的浓度为2%;(2)发

  15. Effects of volatile allelochemicals from Chenopodium ambrosioides on the stoma guard cells in leaf epidermis of Vicia faba%土荆芥挥发性化感物质对蚕豆叶表皮保卫细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 马丹炜; 陈永甜; 袁立娜; 黄雪婷; 瞿欢欢

    2016-01-01

    化感作用是外来植物土荆芥( Chenopodium ambrosioides)成功入侵的机制之一。为了探讨土荆芥挥发油的化感作用机制,该文以蚕豆( Vicia faba)叶的下表皮为材料,将表皮条孵育在分别含土荆芥挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素的MES [2-( N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid]缓冲液中,25℃下光照培养30 min,采用吖啶橙/溴乙锭( AO/EB)双荧光染色法和Feulgen染色法,研究土荆芥挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素对保卫细胞活性和细胞核形态的影响。结果表明:在土荆芥挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素的作用下,蚕豆气孔保卫细胞活性降低,细胞核出现固缩、畸形或降解等细胞凋亡特征。随着处理剂量增加,保卫细胞活性显著下降,核异常率显著增加,表明土荆芥挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素均对蚕豆保卫细胞具有细胞毒性,其中,挥发油毒性最大,α-萜品烯的毒性次之,对伞花素的毒性最小;Caspase抑制剂Z-VAD-FMK可缓解挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素对保卫细胞的毒性,提高细胞活性,这种缓解效应随着抑制剂浓度的增加而增大。由此可见,土荆芥挥发油、α-萜品烯和对伞花素诱导蚕豆保卫细胞发生了Caspase依赖性的细胞凋亡。%Chenopodium ambrosioides, an aromatic herbnative to tropical Central and South America, has become a major invasive plant in China. Allelopathy plays a crictical role in the successful invasion of C. ambrosioides, and has an allelopathic stress on neighbor plants. To explore the allelopathy mechanism, the effects of volatile oil from C. am-brosioides,α-terpinene and cymene on guard cell viabilities and nucleus morphology in Vicia faba leaves were investi-gated using epidermal strips bioassay, AO/EB fluorescent staining and conventional Feulgen staining. Epidermal strips of leaves were incubated in 2-( N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid ( MES) buffer containing volatile oil, α-terpinene and cymene for

  16. Eff ect of microwave fi eld on trypsin inhibitors activity and protein quality of broad bean seeds (Vicia faba var. major)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosław Pysz; Szymon Polaszczyk; Teresa Leszczyńska; Ewa Piątkowska

    2012-01-01

    Background. In human nutrition legume seeds are usually subjected to soaking and thermal processes, mainly by using traditional cooking method. This method which has been used for decades, does not allow to control and adjust the parameters of this process. Therefore it does not seem to be the optimal method. Undoubtedly, microwave fi eld is an alternative thermal process to conventional technique. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of microwave fi eld on the activity of trypsin i...

  17. Screening and analysis of genes expressed upon infection of broad bean with Clover yellow vein virus causing lethal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Yuji

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV causes lethal systemic necrosis in legumes, including broad bean (Vicia faba and pea (Pisum sativum. To identify host genes involved in necrotic symptom expression after ClYVV infection, we screened cDNA fragments in which expression was changed in advance of necrotic symptom expression in broad bean (V. faba cv. Wase using the differential display technique and secondarily with Northern blot analysis. Expression changes were confirmed in 20 genes, and the six that exhibited the most change were analyzed further. These six genes included a gene that encodes a putative nitrate-induced NOI protein (VfNOI, and another was homologous to an Arabidopsis gene that encodes a glycine- and proline-rich protein GPRP (VfGPRP. We recently reported that necrotic symptom development in ClYVV-infected pea is associated with expression of salicylic acid (SA-dependent pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and requires SA-dependent host responses. Interestingly, VfNOI and VfGPRP expression was correlated with that of the putative SA-dependent PR proteins in ClYVV-infected broad bean. However, broad bean infected with a recombinant ClYVV expressing the VfGPRP protein showed weaker symptoms and less viral multiplication than that infected with ClYVV expressing the GFP protein. These results imply that VfGPRP plays a role in defense against ClYVV rather than in necrotic symptom expression.

  18. Research on Stress Tolerance of Faba Bean Rhizobia in Panxi%攀西地区蚕豆根瘤菌抗逆性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹兰; 王科; 钟坤仲; 周涛; 杨玲; 杨华; 徐开未

    2013-01-01

    对采自四川省攀西地区8个县市14个采样点的22株蚕豆根瘤菌进行耐盐、耐酸碱、抗生素抗性和耐高温或低温等抗逆性测定,结果表明,供试菌株普遍耐盐性差,仅有4株菌株能在10 g/L NaCl上生长,其中2株菌株能在50 g/L NaCl上生长;供试菌株对酸碱的耐性比较强,所有菌株都能在pH 5.0~10.0范围内生长,68.2%的菌株能在pH 4.0~12.0范围内生长;对温度的适应范围较宽,63.6%的菌株既能耐受8℃低温,又能耐受60℃高温热激30 min;对抗生素的抗性表现为氨苄青霉素>氯霉素>红霉素>四环素>庆大霉素>卡那霉素.筛选出2株耐盐、耐酸碱、生长温度范围广和耐抗生素较强的菌株,分别为B1和B3.%The tolerance of 22 faba bean rhizobia isolated from 14 sample spots in 8 counties of Panxi to NaCl,pH,antibiotic,heat or cold were tested.The results showed that the strains tested had bad tolerance to salt.Only 4 strains could grow under 10 g/L NaCl,2 strains could tolerate 50 g/L NaCl.All the strains could grow under pH 5.0~10.0,and 68.2% could growth under pH 4.0~12.0.The toleration range of the strains to temperature were wide,as 63.6% of the rhizobia could endure low temperature of 8 ℃ or heat shock at 60 ℃ for 30 min.Their tolerance of antibiotic were different,ranking as ampicillin >chloromycetin > erythromycin >tetracycline > gentanmicin >kanamycin.With all factors considered,two strains,B1,B3 with high tolerance to NaCl,pH,antibiotic and wide range of growth temperature were selected.

  19. Controlling effects of different fungicides on faba bean chocolate spot (Botrytisfabae)%不同杀菌剂对蚕豆赤斑病防治效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾和平; 陈新; 陈华涛; 崔晓燕; 袁星星; 张红梅

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different fungicides in controlling faba bean chocolate spot disease (Botritis fabae) to screen suitable fungicides applying in production. [Method] Different fungicides were used during the early stage of faba bean podding stage, i.e., from April to June, 2011. The incidence rate and disease index were investigated at 30* day after treatment. The grains per pod and pods per plant were surveyed before maturity and 100-grain weight and yield of faba bean were recorded at harvest stage. [ Result ]The incidence rate, disease index and agronomic traits of faba bean differed under different fungicide treatments. The lowest incidence rate was observed in treatment with 50% carbendazim WP (1000 times diluted), followed by treatments 80% Dasheng M-4S WP (600 times diluted), Zaijun (800 times diluted) and Baithai (800 times diluted). The lowest disease index was recorded in Zaijun (800 times diluted) treatment, followed by treatment 80% Dasheng M-45 WP (600 times diluted), Baithai (800 times diluted), 50% carbendazim WP (1000 times diluted) and 25% Sportak (1000 times diluted). Different fungicides did not significantly influence pods per plant. However, the pods per plant were the highest in Zaijun (800 times diluted) treatment, followed by treatment 80% Dasheng M-45 WP (600 times diluted), 50% carbendazim WP (1000 times diluted), 25% Sportak (1000 times diluted) and Baithai (800 times diluted). The 100-grain weight was found the highest in treatment with 80% Dasheng M-45 WP (600 times diluted), followed by treatment Zaijun (800 times diluted), 25% sportak (1000 times diluted), Baithai (800 times diluted) and 50% carbendazim WP (1000 times diluted). The highest yield was recorded in 80% Dasheng M-45 WP (600 times diluted) treatment, followed by Zaijun (800 times diluted), 25% Sportak (1000 times diluted), 50% carbendazim WP (1000 times diluted) and Baithai (800 times diluted) treatments

  20. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137Cs pollution.

  1. Assessment of the genotoxicity of {sup 137}Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minouflet, Marion [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite et Sante Environnementale, CNRS FRE 2635, UFR Sci.F.A., Universite de Metz-Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France)]. E-mail: marion.minouflet@terre.unige.ch; Ayrault, Sophie [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Badot, Pierre-Marie [Laboratoire de Biologie Environnementale, EA 3184 USC INRA, Universite de Franche-Comte, Place Leclerc, F-25030 Besancon cedex (France); Cotelle, Sylvie [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite et Sante Environnementale, CNRS FRE 2635, UFR Sci.F.A., Universite de Metz-Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Ferard, Jean-Francois [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite et Sante Environnementale, CNRS FRE 2635, UFR Sci.F.A., Universite de Metz-Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France)

    2005-07-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including {sup 137}Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of {sup 137}Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to {sup 137}Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid {sup 137}Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive {sup 137}Cs pollution.

  2. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  3. 马铃薯间作蚕豆的边行效应及增产机理%Marginal Effects and Mechanism of Increasing Yield of Fava Beans and Potatoes Intercropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马子林

    2014-01-01

    对靠近马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum)的蚕豆(Vicia faba)边行的地表温度、相对湿度、形态指标及产量构成因子进行了比较试验,并对蚕豆与马铃薯不同间作模式的产量与经济效益进行了对比。结果表明,蚕豆边行越靠近马铃薯,地表温度越高,蚕豆的有效分枝数越多,根瘤越多越大且分布广而密集,有效根瘤也越多,且单株荚数与单株产量也越高,而株高和地表相对湿度降低。蚕豆与马铃薯不同间作模式中,以8行蚕豆+3垄马铃薯间作模式的马铃薯与蚕豆的总产量和纯收入最高。%Different boundary lines of broad bean(Vicia faba) near the potato(Solanum tuberosum) were compared with different potato and faba bean from test components for surface soil moisture and temperature, plant traits and yield, and the ntercropping yield and economic benefit. The results showed that when broad bean was closer to potato, the temperature is higher, the effective branch, root and nodule number was more, the root was more widely distributed and intensive. The pod number per plant and grain yield per plant was higher, while plant height and surface relative humidity was less. Under different modes of potato and faba bean intercropping, the total output of the intercropping with 8 rows of broad bean and 3 ridges of potatoes was the highest.

  4. 蚕豆/玉米间作接种AM真菌和根瘤菌对外源有机磷利用的影响%Effect of Inoculating Rhizobium and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Organic P Uptake in Faba Bean/maize Intercropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑敏; 李隆

    2011-01-01

    本研究以植酸钠为有机磷源,利用根系不同分隔方式的盆栽实验研究了蚕豆/玉米问作体系中,接种根瘤菌、AH真菌(Glomus mosseae)和双接种对间作体系利用有机磷的影响.结果表明:接种AM真菌使蚕豆和玉米的根际磷酸酶活性增加,显著提高了蚕豆/玉米间作体系对有机磷的吸收,双接种处理蚕豆和玉米总吸磷量平均比单接AH真菌和根瘤菌平均分别增加了11.7%和90.8%;相对干其它处理,在双接种条件下蚕豆对玉米吸收有机磷的促进作用更显著,不分隔和尼龙网分隔处理玉米的吸磷量比完全分隔处理分别提高43.4%(5.29mg)和17.9%(2.18 mg);在问作体系中同时接种AM真菌和根瘤菌能提高玉米的菌根侵染率,间作产量优势显著高于单接AM真菌和根瘤菌.%Pot experiments with different root barriers were carried out to investigate rhizobium, mycorrhizal/fungus and interaction of rhizobium and mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) on organic P (phytate) uptake in faba bean/maize intercropping system.The results showed that: acid phosphatase activities in soil rhizosphere of faba bean and maize were improved due to inoculating arbuscular mycorrhiza.P uptake from organic P source in faba bean/maize intercropping system was enhanced significantly.Total P uptake by maize and faba bean inoculated with both microorganisms was increased 11.7% and 90.8% than that inoculated with single arbuscular mycorrhiza and rhizobium respectively.Compared with the other treatments, organic P uptake by maize was most significantly facilitated by associated faba bean.P uptake by maize with no barriers or mesh barriers was improved 43.4%( 5.29mg )and 17.9%( 2.18 mg)than that with solid barriers respectively.Mycorrhizal root colonization of maize inoculated with rhizobium and mycorrhizai fungus in maize/faba bean intercropping system was higher than that single inoculated with mycorrhizal fungus and rhizobium.Yield advantage

  5. NO和H2O2在光/暗调控蚕豆气孔运动中的作用及其相互关系%Role and Relationship of Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide in Light/Dark-regulated Stomatal Movement in Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘小平; 宋喜贵; 贺军民

    2004-01-01

    Role and relationship of NO and H2O2 in light/dark-regulated stomatal movement in Vicia faba L. were investigated by epidermal strip bioassay and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Results showed that the effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO-releasing compound) and H2O2 on stomatal closure were more significant in light than those in the dark. Dark-induced closure of stomata was largely prevented not only by 2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), a specific NO scavenger and NG-nitro-L-arg-methyl eater (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) in mammalian cells that also inhibits plant NOS, but also by addition of ascorbic acid (Vc) and exogenous catalase (CAT),which are an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal and an H2O2 scavenger, respectively. Experiments based on fluorescent probe DAF-2 DA and H2DCF-DA showed that the level of endogenous NO and H2O2 in guard cells was greater in the dark than that in light. These results prove that light/dark regulates stomatal movement via influencing NO and H2O2 production. In addition, H2O2-induced NO production and stomatal closure in light were abolished partly by cPTIO and L-NAME. Interestingly, SNP-induced H2O2accumulation and stomatal closure were reversed by Vc and CAT in light. These show that NO and H2O2cross talk in light/dark-regulated stomatal movement. Furthermore, L-NAME could reverse stomatal closure and NO generation induced by darkness and H2O2 in light, we presume that the NO generation in guard cells of Vicia faba is likely related to NOS-like enzyme.%借助表皮条分析和激光扫描共聚焦显微镜技术,对NO和H2O2在光/暗调控蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)气孔运动中的作用及其相互关系进行了探索.结果显示,光下外源NO供体硝普钠(SNP)和H2O2促进气孔关闭的效应明显大于暗中,暗中NO专一性清除剂2,4-羧基苯-4,4,5,5-四甲基咪唑-1-氧-3-氧化物(cPTIO)、一氧化氮合酶(NOS)抑制剂NG-氮-L

  6. Reaction of faba bean genotypes to Rhizoctonia solani and resistance stability Reação de genótipos de fava a Rhizoctonia solani e estabilidade da resistência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraildes P Assunção

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of faba bean (Phaseolus lunatus is limited due to the occurrence of Rhizoctonia canker, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. In order to select materials with potential for use in faba beans breeding programs and/or disease integrated management, 72 genotypes were evaluated and also stability of the disease resistance in relation to different pathogen isolates, inoculum densities and soil type. The seeds were sown in soil infested with the pathogen by the addition of colonized substrate (rice grains. The evaluation of genotypes was done after 15 days, using a note scale to discriminate the genotypes into five reaction classes. None of the 72 genotypes showed immunity to R. solani and only four genotypes (F-42, F-49, F-53 and F-58 behaved as highly resistant. The reactions presented by these genotypes varied according to the R. solani isolate, inoculum density and soil used. The genotype F-58 showed more stable resistance to pathogen isolates and inoculum densities. The genotype F-53 showed resistance stability in soils collected in different locations, remaining highly resistant in all situations. The genotype F-58 did not show high resistance to only one tested soil. Therefore, the genotypes F-58 and F-53 are promising sources of resistance to R. solani and should be indicated in areas infested by the pathogen.A produção de fava (Phaseolus lunatus é limitada pela ocorrência da rizoctoniose, causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani. Visando selecionar materiais com potencial de utilização nos programas de melhoramento e/ou no manejo integrado da doença, foram avaliados 72 genótipos de fava e verificada a estabilidade da resistência em relação a diferentes isolados do patógeno, densidades de inóculo e tipos de solo. As sementes foram plantadas em solo infestado com o patógeno pela incorporação de substrato (grãos de arroz colonizado. A avaliação dos genótipos foi realizada após 15 dias, com o auxílio de

  7. Effect of formaldehyde from artificial wood-based boards on micronucleus rate of vicia faba cells%木质板材释放的甲醛对蚕豆根尖细胞微核的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光学; 王芸; 严彦; 郭君毅; 杨旭

    2003-01-01

    为了研究木质人造板材释放气体的遗传毒性,用木质人造板材释放的不同浓度的甲醛气体对蚕豆vicia faba根尖进行染毒,用显微镜观测根尖细胞的微核率.结果表明,蚕豆根尖细胞微核率与甲醛气体的浓度有良好的正相关性.经1.24mg/m3和3.71mg/m3甲醛气体灌流染毒的细胞微核率与对照组之间具有显著性差异(P<0.01)甲醛气体可以通过液相的吸收产生高浓度的蓄积,从而引起浸泡其中的根尖细胞发生DNA损伤.

  8. 小麦蚕豆间作对根际土壤氮转化微生物的影响%Effects of Wheat and Faba Bean Intercropping on Microorganism Involved in Nitrogen Transformation in the Rhizosphere Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳芬; 续勇波; 郑毅; 雷宝坤

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganism is one of the key factors that affects soil ecological activity. It is an important symbol of soil health, and the soil nitrogen cycle is closely related to the microorganisms. The relationship between nitrogen and microorganisms under the intercropping is im-portant for the farmland ecosystem. In this paper, phospholipid fatty acids(PLFA)analysis was used to determine soil microbial communi-ties, e.g., biomasses of anaerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria, bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria. The abundance of nitrifying genes(AOB, AOA)and three denitrifying genes(nirK, norB, nosZ)were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The enzymes, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were measured using conventional methods. The results showed that along with the growth period, the TPLFAs(total phospholipid fatty acids)increased and the bacterias, fungus, actinomyces and aerobic bacterias significantly(P<0.05)dif-fered between intercropping and monoculture. The greater abundance of AOB than AOA and the variation range of 105~106 were observed in all samples. The gene copies of norB and nosZ were pronounced by intercropping in the rhizosphere of faba bean at elongation and heading stages, respectively. The abundance of nirK remarkably(P<0.05)differed between intercropping and monoculture. In intercropping rhizo-sphere, the contents of NO-3-N were lower than monoculture, while the NH+4-N contents were converse(P<0.05). Conclusively, wheat and fa-ba bean intercropping system could change rhizosphere microenvironment, and then the microbial community structure in the soils , which would facilitate the conservation and supplying of soil nitrogen and reduce the nitrogen loss and pollution under the intercropping conditions to some extent. This might be the nitrogen nutrition mechanism for the overyielding of wheat and faba bean intercropping system.%通过田间小区试验,采用磷脂脂肪酸(PLFA)、实时荧光定量PCR研究了

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-CHEMICAL METHODS OF PLANT PROTECTION ON THE PRESENCE OF HERBIVOROUS BEETLES IN BROAD BEANS GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the impact of accompanying plants: sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima L. and white mustard (Synapis alba L., on the incidence of pests of the broad bean (Vicia faba L. variety Bartek, in the intercropping system. The observations of the number of the beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp were made. The broad bean was grown along with two other plants in varying spacing (the distances between rows were 50, 65 and 80 cm and in homogeneous cultivation (the distances between rows were 50 cm. Broad bean in a homogeneous cultivation served as a control. In addition, the broad bean from homogeneous cultivation subjected to a standard protection by chemical insecticides was also analyzed. The measurements were carried out in field conditions, by using an entomological bucket, through the shedding of insects from randomly selected 30 plants per plot. The sweet alyssum as an accompanying plant showed no significant influence on the occurrence of herbivorous beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp., regardless of the spacing between the rows. The white mustard as a companion plant showed a significant impact on increasing the number of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. beetles in the middle row spacing (65 cm. The impact of white mustard on other beetles has not been detected.

  10. Ca2+参与水杨酸诱导蚕豆气孔运动时的信号转导%Ca2+ is Involved in the Signal Transduction During Stomatal Movement in Vicia faba L. Induced by Salicylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 孟繁霞; 张蜀秋; 娄成后

    2003-01-01

    在一定条件下,外源水杨酸(SA)可以诱导蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)气孔关闭,阻止气孔张开.以Fluo-3-AM作为Ca2+的荧光探针,利用激光共聚焦扫描显微技术,对水杨酸调控气孔运动中保卫细胞胞质Ca2+的变化趋势及Ca2+的来源进行了研究.结果表明,水杨酸可引起胞质Ca2+增加,这种变化发生在气孔开度改变之前.Ca2+螯合剂BAPTA(1,2-bis(2-amino phenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid,1 mmol/L)几乎可以完全抑制水杨酸诱导气孔开度减小的作用;胞外Ca2+螯合剂EGTA(2 mmol/L)、质膜Ca2+通道抑制剂尼群地平(nifedipine,NIF, 1 μmol/L)和LaCl3(1 mmol/L)可不同程度地减弱水杨酸诱导气孔关闭的效应.BAPTA(1 mmol/L)预处理后,水杨酸不再引起胞质Ca2+含量改变;尼群地平能够降低水杨酸引起的胞质Ca2+ 增加的幅度.说明Ca2+可能参与水杨酸诱导气孔运动的信号转导.水杨酸引起胞内升高的Ca2+可能既来自胞外又来自胞内,胞内Ca2+库可能是其主要来源.

  11. The analysis of core and symbiotic genes of rhizobia nodulating Vicia from different continents reveals their common phylogenetic origin and suggests the distribution of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains together with Vicia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Martínez, Estela R; Valverde, Angel; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Tejedor, Carmen; Mateos, Pedro F; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    In this work, we analysed the core and symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains isolated from Vicia sativa in three soils from the Northwest of Spain, and compared them with other Vicia endosymbionts isolated in other geographical locations. The analysis of rrs, recA and atpD genes and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer showed that the Spanish strains nodulating V. sativa are phylogenetically close to those isolated from V. sativa and V. faba in different European, American and Asian countries forming a group related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The analysis of the nodC gene of strains nodulating V. sativa and V. faba in different continents showed they belong to a phylogenetically compact group indicating that these legumes are restrictive hosts. The results of the nodC gene analysis allow the delineation of the biovar viciae showing a common phylogenetic origin of V. sativa and V. faba endosymbionts in several continents. Since these two legume species are indigenous from Europe, our results suggest a world distribution of strains from R. leguminosarum together with the V. sativa and V. faba seeds and a close coevolution among chromosome, symbiotic genes and legume host in this Rhizobium-Vicia symbiosis.

  12. An Analysis of Albumin and Globulin of Qinghai Faba Bean Varieties with SDS-PAGE%青海蚕豆清蛋白与球蛋白分级提取SDS-PAGE比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 侯万伟; 严清彪; 刘玉皎

    2011-01-01

    The albumin and globulin of 2005 -00 and Qinghai 13, two varieties of Qinghai Faba bean were studied by improved SDS - PAGE. At the same time by using micro - Kjeldahl Method the appropriate protein content were measured. The result showed that the content of globulin was twice that of albumin.Therefore globulin was the main component of the total protein content. Almost all the albumin and globulin were extracted after extraction for five times with extract solution Ⅰ which included NaCl. But only the globulin were obtained with extract solution Ⅰ for one time after with extraction for four times extract solution Ⅱ which didn't include NaC1, and the globulin had the same mobility as the albumin. The result indicated that albumin was also extracted while extracting globulin, but globulin was not extracted while extracting albumin.%利用改进的SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳,对2种青海蚕豆品种2005-00和青海13号的清蛋白、球蛋白进行研究,并采用微量凯氏定氮法测得相应的蛋白质含量.结果表明:球蛋白含量比清蛋白含量高,是总蛋白含量的主要成分.用含有NaCl的球蛋白提取液Ι提取5次蛋白质后,清蛋白和球蛋白被同时提取出来;而用不含NaCl的清蛋白提取液Π提取4次蛋白质后,再用提取液Ι提取,可得到球蛋白组分,而且和清蛋白一样也有相同迁移位置的谱带存在.表明对球蛋白进行提取操作时,总有清蛋白相伴随;而对清蛋白进行提取分析时一般不会有球蛋白的存在.

  13. Response of Root Border Cells of Vicia faba L.to Volatile Oil from Erigeron canadensis L.%蚕豆根缘细胞对加拿大蓬挥发油的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 贾贵芳; 王亚男; 李群; 马丹炜

    2011-01-01

    Allelopathy is one of the mechanisms by which an invasive alien species, Erigeron canadensis L.(horseweed) invades successfully and spreads rapidly.In order to further explore allelopathic and invasion mechanisms of this species, allelopathic effects ofvolatile oil from this species on root border cells and the activity of pectin methylesterase(PME) of broad bean were studied by aeroponic culture.The results showed that the volatile oil from E.canadensis inhibited the root growth, and the survival rate of root border cells decreased, and the activity of root pectin methylesterase increased.But the stimulating effect gradually lowered down along with the increasing doses of the volatile oil and treatment times.These results suggested that volatile oil from this species caused root border cells death and inhibited the growth of ambient plants.%化感作用是入侵植物加拿大蓬(Erigeron canadensis L.)成功入侵和快速扩散的机制之一.为了深入探讨加拿大蓬的化感机制和入侵枧制,以蚕豆为材料,采用悬空气法研究了加拿大蓬挥发油对根边缘细胞和果胶甲基酯酶的化感效应.结果表明在加拿大蓬挥发油作用下,蚕豆根的生长受到抑制,根缘细胞存活率下降,根果胶甲基酯酶活性升高,但随着挥发油剂量增大和作用时间延长,这种促进效应逐渐降低.这些结果说明加拿大蓬挥发油对根边缘细胞具有致死效应,从而抑制了周围植物的生长发育.

  14. The effect of various sapropel concentrations on content and fluorescence of photosynthetic pigments of bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Januškaitienė

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarosiškio lake sapropel impact on beans (Vicia faba L. photosynthesis parameters (content of chlorophylls and chlorophyll a fluorescence was investigated in this study. Plants were sown in 1 L volume pots by 5 seeds with light loamy soil and grown in growth chambers. Considering sapropel composition, 2.2; 3.1 and 4 t/ha dry sapropel concentrations were chosen for investigation. Sapropel affected plants were compared with plants grown in unfertilised and with synthetic fertiliser fertilised soils. On 14th day of experiment, when the plants reached two leaves growths stage (BBCH 12, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of investigated plants were measured. Then plants were grown for 4 weeks more and at stem elongation stage (BBCH 31 chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were measured repeatedly and also the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids were investigated. The efficiency II photosystem of bean increased by increasing sapropel concentration in soil, but insignificantly (p>0.05. Photosynthesis performance index was increasing (r=0.91; p<0.05 up to 3.1 t/ha sapropel concentration increase at BBCH 12 growth stage. The same tendency was detected for electron transfer rate of bean (r=0.9; p<0.05 at this growth stage, but at later stage (BBCH 31 it slightly lowered (r=-0.02; p>0.05. At BBCH 12 stage the highest non photochemical quenching (NPQ value was measured in control beans, while at BBCH 31 stage, opposite trend was noticed (r=0.86; p <0.05. At BBCH 31 growth stage sapropel concentration increase made bean chlorophyll content to decrease, but insignificantly (r=-0.18, p>0.05, and the changes in carotenoid contents were similar to chlorophyll a+b.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.72.4.16585

  15. Detection and comparison of fungicide resistance in Botrytis fabae and B.cinerea causing broad-bean chocolate spot disease%两种蚕豆赤斑病菌对常用杀菌剂的抗药性检测及比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚慧; 戴德江; 沈鑫; 张传清

    2013-01-01

    Disease samples of broad-bean chocolate spot(BBCS)from Zhejiang,Hubei and Anhui provinces were collected to isolate and identify the pathogens.Resistance of Botrytis fabae and B.cinerea which cause BBCS to fungicides was detected through the mycelial growth rate method.And the fungicide resistance risk of B.fabae and B.cinerea was assessed in vitro.Results showed that a total of 153 isolates were collected and 122 of them were B.fabae with the frequency of 79.7%.The rest 31 isolates were B.cinerea with the frequency of 20.3 %.Thirty-seven high-level carbendazim resistance isolates(9 of them were B.fabae)and 42 low-level iprodione resistance isolates(17 of them were B.fabae)were detected.The EC50 values of pyrimethanil ranged from 0.01 to 5.13μg/mL with a mean value of 0.72±0.15μg/mL.These results indicated that BBCS developed resistance to common fungicides and more serious resistance was developed in B.cinerea than in B.fabae.Moreover,results suggested that the resistance risk of B.cinerea was significantly higher than that of B.fabae in vitro.%对采自浙江、湖北和安徽3省的蚕豆赤斑病样品进行了病原菌的分离和鉴定,采用菌丝生长速率法检测了引起赤斑病的2种病原菌——蚕豆葡萄孢Botrytis fabae和灰葡萄孢B.cinerea的抗药性发生情况,并在离体条件下通过抗药性诱导试验比较了二者的抗药性风险.结果共分离得到153个菌株,其中蚕豆葡萄孢122株(占79.7%),灰葡萄孢31株(占20.3%).共检测到37株多菌灵高水平抗药性菌株(其中蚕豆葡萄孢9株)和42株异菌脲低水平抗药性菌株(其中蚕豆葡萄孢17株);嘧霉胺对153个菌株的EC50值在0.01~5.13μg/mL之间,平均EC50值为0.72±0.15μg/mL;表明蚕豆赤斑病菌对常见杀菌剂已表现出一定的抗药性,且灰葡萄孢的抗药性问题比蚕豆葡萄孢要严重得多.抗药性诱导试验进一步证实,灰葡萄孢的抗药性风险明显高于蚕豆葡萄孢.

  16. Evaluation for fresh consumption of new broad bean genotypes with a determinate growth habit in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Baginsky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad bean (Vicia faba L. [unranked] major (Harz Beck is usually consumed dry. In Chile, however, broad bean is grown as a vegetable crop with indeterminate genotypes. The new 'Alarga', 'Retaca' and 'Verde Bonita' broad bean genotypes, which have a determinate growth habit, were evaluated in six irrigated environments in central Chile at three locations (Rancagua, Talca, and Talagante and on two planting dates (F1 and F2; 1-mo apart. The aim was to characterize their yield and select the best-yielding genotypes in terms of pod yield (PY and fresh grain yield (GY. The best location(s to produce fresh pods and fresh grain were also identified and described. Fresh grain yield and components were measured and the genotype x environment interaction (GxE was analyzed. Pod yield differed among genotypes; 'Verde Bonita' and 'Retaca' had the highest PY (15 500 kg ha-1, 8% higher than 'Alarga'. There was a GxE interaction for GY and 'Retaca' had its highest yield in Talca on the two planting dates and in Rancagua when planted late (F2. Mean GY of 'Retaca' was 3900 kg ha-1 with the highest number of grains per 1 m² (NG. The best GY was related to a higher seasonal photothermal quotient (ranging from 1.15 to 1.82 MJ m-2 d-1 °C-1, r = 0.90, P d" 0.001. The lowest GY was in Talagante on F1. Genotypes differed in yield composition; 'Retaca' had many small pods giving many seeds per unit area and 'Verde Bonita' had large pods yielding fewer grains per unit area. The 'Retaca' genotype is preferred by the frozen broad bean industry, whereas 'Verde Bonita' is preferred by the fresh broad bean market.

  17. Radiocaesium and radiostrontium uptake by turnips and broad beans via leaf and root absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Paniagua, J.M.; Rufo, M. [Departamento Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, E. Politecnica - Uex, Avda. Universidad s/n, Caceres, (Spain); Sterling, A. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Barandica, J. [Departamento Ecologia, F. De Biologia, UCM Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-03-01

    One of the immediate consequences of massive radioisotope release into the atmosphere is contamination of the biosphere. This contamination can affect plants either by direct deposition onto the leaves, or by contaminating the soil followed by absorption by the roots. Knowledge of the efficacy of the two routes of radionuclide incorporation into the food chain is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms by which radioactive contamination reaches man. The present work analyzes the incorporation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr via root and leaf uptake into the parts consumed by man, for two very different crops: turnip (Brassica napus) and broad bean (Vicia faba). The root uptake studies consider the available soil fraction for these two radionuclides, and indicate greater availability for {sup 85}Sr than for {sup 134}Cs which is fixed rapidly in the soil. For the study of leaf uptake, leaves were contaminated at three different stages of plant growth; the results indicate an inverse dependence of the transfer coefficients on the time elapsed from the moment of the contamination to harvesting of the edible parts.

  18. PI3P 和 NO 在 UV-B 诱导蚕豆气孔关闭中的关系%The interactions of PI3P and NO in UV-B-induced stomatal closure of broad bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊彩明; 王静; 胡洁; 贺军民

    2015-01-01

    By stomatal bioassay and measurement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO)level in guard cells,the interactions of NO and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P)[the product of phos-phatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)]in UV-B-induced stomatal closure were studied in the epidermal strips of abaxial surface of broad bean(Vicia faba L.)leaves.The results showed that both the NO production in guard cells and stomatal closure induced by UV-B were significantly inhibited by PI3K inhibitors wortmannin (WM)and LY294002 (LY).Meanwhile,exogenous NO-relea-sing compound sodium nitroprusside (SNP)could completely reverse the inhibitory effect of LY and WM on the UV-B-induced stomatal closure,and WM and LY could not inhibit exogenous SNP-induced stomatal closure of broad bean.These results indicate that PI3P acts upstream of NO in the signal transduction pathway of UV-B-induced stomatal closure of broad bean.%以蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶片下表皮为材料,结合气孔开度分析和保卫细胞内源一氧化氮(NO)水平的测定,研究了 NO 和磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(PI3K)的催化产物磷脂酰肌醇3-磷酸(PI3P)在紫外线 B(UV-B)诱导气孔关闭中的关系。结果显示:UV-B 辐射诱导蚕豆保卫细胞 NO 产生和气孔关闭的效应能被 PI3K 抑制剂沃曼青霉素(WM)和 LY294002(LY)显著抑制。同时,外源 NO释放剂硝普钠(SNP)处理能完全逆转 WM 和 LY 对 UV-B 诱导气孔关闭的抑制效应,而 WM 和LY 却不能抑制外源 SNP 诱导蚕豆气孔关闭的效应。结果说明,在 UV-B 诱导蚕豆气孔关闭的信号转导途径中 PI3P 的作用在 NO 上游。

  19. Bean yellow disorder virus: Parameters of transmission by Bemisia tabaci and host plant range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    German Martín; Isabel Maria Cuadrado; Dirk Janssen

    2011-01-01

    Bean yellow disorder virus(BnYDV)was recently identified as the first crinivirus(family Closteroviridae)that infects members of the family Leguminosae.It was first observed during the autumn of 2003,causing heavy losses in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)grown commercially in Spain.The virus is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci(Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)Q-biotype,and disease symptoms resemble nutritional disorders consisting of interveinal mottling and yellowing in leaves,combined with stiffness or brittleness,and are typically produced on the middle to lower parts of the plant.Transmission experiments showed that 50% and 100% of B.tabaci adults acquired the virus after a feeding period of 3 and 7 h,respectively.Viruliferous whiteflies infected 66% and 100% of P.vulgaris plants after a feeding period of 12 and 24 h,respectively.The transmission efficiency of single whiteflies was 37% and persistence of BnYDV in the vector lasted up to 2 weeks with a half-life of 9 days.BnYDV was transmitted to P.vulgaris,Pisum sativum L.,Lens culinaris Medik.,and Vicia faba L.,but not to Vigna unguiculata L.,Glycine max(L.) Merr.,Cicer arietum L.,and to crop species belonging to families of the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae.No virus was detected in field samples collected from 30 different species from Boraginaceae,Asteraceae,Geraniaceae,Lamiaceae,Leguminosae,Malvaceae,Scrophulariaceae,Thymelaeaceae and Verbenaceae.The restricted host range and efficient management of crops regarding whitefly infestation may be key elements in the control of BnYDV.

  20. Avaliação de algumas propriedades funcionais das farinhas de tremoço doce (Lupinus albus e feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp e sua utilização na produção de fiambre Evaluation of some functional properties of lupin sweet flour (Lupinus albus and faba bean flour (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp and their utilization in cooked ham production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castilho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O aumento na demanda de alimentos no mundo tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem fontes alternativas a fim de enriquecer nutricionalmente alimentos industrializados e torná-los viáveis economicamente às populações menos favorecidas. O tremoço doce e o feijão guandu são leguminosas com elevado conteúdo proteico e grande potencial de utilização no enriquecimento nutricional de alimentos industrializados, além de desempenharem funcionalidades. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho permitiram observar que a farinha de tremoço doce é capaz de absorver de 172 a 186% do seu peso em água e de ~62% em óleo, enquanto que a farinha de feijão guandu absorve cerca de 100% de seu peso em água e 50% em óleo. Boa atividade e estabilidade foram observadas para as emulsões obtidas com estas farinhas, indicando potencial de aplicação na produção de embutidos. Objetivou-se neste trabalho, avaliar algumas propriedades funcionais das farinhas de tremoço doce e feijão guandu e sua utilização na fabricação de fiambres. Os fiambres foram elaborados no Laboratório de Controle de Qualidade de Alimentos da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, na cidade de Araraquara, com o intuito de oferecer um alimento enriquecido nutricionalmente. Quando comparados ao fiambre elaborado com a adição de concentrado proteico de soja, estes fiambres não apresentaram diferenças significativas nos atributos sensoriais aparência, cor, aroma, textura e impressão global, embora tivessem pouca aceitabilidade sensorial.The increase in food demand worldwide has motivated researchers to seek alternative food crops to nutritionally enrich industrialized foods and make them economically viable to poorer populations. Sweet lupin and faba bean are high protein content legumes of great potential for nutritional enrichment of industrialized foods, besides performing a functional purpose. The results obtained in this work

  1. Micronucleus Test in Vicia Faba Root Tip Cell to Inspect the Water Quality of Qingyi River in Wuhu City%青弋江芜湖市段水环境质量的蚕豆根尖微核检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友保; 刘登义

    2001-01-01

    @@ 微核实验(micronucleus test,MCNT)是根据环境污染物能引起染色体畸变而形成微核的原理来测诱变物质对染色体损伤用的一种简便易行的法.陈光荣在1983年开始用蚕豆根尖微核技术(Vicia-MCN)来检测农药和化学诱变剂对染色体的损伤情况[8].1986年,国家环保局把用蚕豆根尖微核技术监测水污染的测试方法编入了[3].目前利用蚕豆初生根尖微核技术监测环境污染和危险化学品的研究已得到了广泛的用[4~7],成为我国水环境监测的规范化方法之一[8,9].本文应用该技术对青弋江芜湖市段水体的致突变性进行分析和研究.

  2. Cd胁迫下绿豆和箭舌豌豆叶片抗氧化系统的变化%The Change of Antioxidant System in Leaves of Mung Bean (Phaseolus aureus ) and Common Vetch ( Vicia sativa ) Seedlings Under Cd Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芬琴; 沈振国; 徐朗莱

    2012-01-01

    研究了Cd胁迫下绿豆(Phaseolus aureus)和箭舌豌豆(Vicia sativa)幼苗的生长,叶片内过氧化氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)、超氧化岐化酶(SOD)、愈创木酚过氧化物酶(GPOD)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)的同工酶活性,还原性谷胱甘肽(GSH)和抗坏血酸( ASC)以及Cd含量的变化.结果显示,100 μmol·L-l Cd胁迫9d期间,随着Cd胁迫时间的延长,绿豆和箭舌豌豆幼苗主根的伸长量和其根系干重显著降低(P<0.05),根表面出现越来越明显的褐色,绿豆叶表面出现可见的褐色斑点;两种植物叶片的CAT、APX和SOD同工酶活性以及绿豆叶片的GR活性呈先升后降的趋势,而两种植物叶的GPOD活性明显增加;在箭舌豌豆叶片中,GR活性随Cd暴露时间的延长而增加,而GSH先降后升;在绿豆叶片中,GSH和ASC随Cd暴露时间的延长而降低;与此同时,两种植物叶片中Cd的含量也随Cd胁迫时间的延长而增加,和箭舌豌豆相比,绿豆叶片中Cd含量增加更多.结果表明,箭舌豌豆有较强的抗氧化能力.%The effects of cadmium(Cd) on the plant growth, activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants in leaves of mung bean(Phaseolus aureus) and common vetch(Vicia saliva) were investigated using hydriponic experiments. Cadmium at 100 μmol·L-1 significantly decreased the main root elongation and roots dry weight, and increased activities of superoxide, dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), ascorbate peroxidase(APX) and guaiacol peroxidase(GPOD) in the leaves of both species. Activity of glutathione reductase(GR) in V. Sativa leaves increased, and content of ascorbic acid( ASC ) remained unchanged with Cd exposure time, whereas reduced glutathione(GSH) appeared to decrease for initial 6 days and then increased. But in P. Aureus leaves, activity of GR and contents of GSH and ASC decreased with Cd exposure time. Compared to P. Aureus, V. Saliva had higher activities of SOD, CAT, APX and GR, and

  3. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  4. Peripheral odour perception by adult aphid forms with the same genotype but different host-plant preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardie, J.; Visser, J.H.; Piron, P.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    As adults, the summer (alate virginopara) and autumn (gynopara) winged forms of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, utilise different host plants, the bean Vicia faba, and the spindle tree, Euonymus europaeus, respectively. Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the antennae of these aphid for

  5. Effect of replacing Soya by broad beans on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef Hammami,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of replacing Soybean meal by broad bean (Vicia faba L. in the formulation of concentrates on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams. Parameters were pH, N-NH3 concentrations, protozoa, total gas and methane productions and in sacco digestibility of oat hay for different protein sources. Four Sicilo-Sarde rams with permanent canulas were used in this trial. Rams (mean age = 4.75±0.5; mean live weight = 53.3±6.6 kg were kept in individual boxes and received a ration distributed in two meals. The ration included 1.5 kg dry matter of oat hay and 500 g /ram/day of Soybean (S during one month and there after the broad bean (V during another one month period. Each of the trial periods was preceded by a two weeks adaptation period. Water was ad libitum. The S concentrate was 82.5% barley, 13.5% Soya, and 4% mineral mixture, while the F concentrate included 71.5% barley, 17.5% Vicia faba, 7% Soya and 4% mineral mixture. The energy and protein contents were 0.54, 0.96 and 0.96 UFV/kg DM and 5.20, 16.8 and 16.2 % for hay, S and V concentrates, respectively. Samples of 50 ml of rumen juice were taken before the morning meal and after 2, 5 and 8 hours to determine pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration. Types and counts of protozoa were determined on unfiltered rumen juice taken 2 hours after the morning meal and kept in a 100 ml fixing mixture. Protozoa types were counted by means of a HAWSKLEY counter. To determine gas production (CO and CH , rumen content was 2 4 collected in 100 ml plastic syringes before the morning meal and was filtered through four surgical gas layers. Rams were deprived from drinking water during the night before sampling. The DM degradability was determined by in sacco method using nylon bags with 50 micron diameter. Each bag contained 3 g of crushed hay and was incubated in the rumen for 48 hours. The pH of ruminal juice was comparable (P>0.05 for the S and V

  6. Effect of replacing Soya by broad beans on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef Hammami,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of replacing Soybean meal by broad bean (Vicia faba L. in the formulation of concentrates on fermentation parameters in the rumen of Sicilo-Sarde rams. Parameters were pH, N-NH3 concentrations, protozoa, total gas and methane productions and in sacco digestibility of oat hay for different protein sources. Four Sicilo-Sarde rams with permanent canulas were used in this trial. Rams (mean age = 4.75±0.5; mean live weight = 53.3±6.6 kg were kept in individual boxes and received a ration distributed in two meals. The ration included 1.5 kg dry matter of oat hay and 500 g /ram/day of Soybean (S during one month and there after the broad bean (V during another one month period. Each of the trial periods was preceded by a two weeks adaptation period. Water was ad libitum. The S concentrate was 82.5% barley, 13.5% Soya, and 4% mineral mixture, while the F concentrate included 71.5% barley, 17.5% Vicia faba, 7% Soya and 4% mineral mixture. The energy and protein contents were 0.54, 0.96 and 0.96 UFV/kg DM and 5.20, 16.8 and 16.2 % for hay, S and V concentrates, respectively. Samples of 50 ml of rumen juice were taken before the morning meal and after 2, 5 and 8 hours to determine pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration. Types and counts of protozoa were determined on unfiltered rumen juice taken 2 hours after the morning meal and kept in a 100 ml fixing mixture. Protozoa types were counted by means of a HAWSKLEY counter. To determine gas production (CO and CH , rumen content was 2 4 collected in 100 ml plastic syringes before the morning meal and was filtered through four surgical gas layers. Rams were deprived from drinking water during the night before sampling. The DM degradability was determined by in sacco method using nylon bags with 50 micron diameter. Each bag contained 3 g of crushed hay and was incubated in the rumen for 48 hours. The pH of ruminal juice was comparable (P>0.05 for the S and V

  7. 蚕豆下表皮细胞外钙调素的存在及其对气孔运动的调节%Existence of Extracellular Calmodulin in the Lower Epidermis of the Leaves of Vicia faba and Its Role in Regulating Stomatal Movements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉玲; 张学琴; 陈珈; 王学臣

    2003-01-01

    细胞外钙调素可能作为多肽第一信使,调节细胞增殖、花粉萌发、特定基因表达等生理过程.气孔能灵敏地对外界刺激作出反应,快速开闭.本文用免疫电镜和免疫荧光显微镜技术证明保卫细胞及其它表皮细胞胞外都存在钙调素.外源纯化钙调素能促进气孔关闭、抑制气孔开放,最适浓度为10-8mol/L;不能透过质膜的大分子钙调素拮抗剂W7-agarose和钙调素抗血清都能抑制气孔关闭、促进开放,说明保卫细胞的内源胞外钙调素确实能促进气孔关闭、抑制开放,而且只能在细胞外起作用.推测在自然情况下,保卫细胞内源胞外钙调素可能作为胞外第一信使和其它信号分子一起调节气孔的开关运动,而且可能在环境刺激与细胞响应之间起重要作用.%As a possible peptide primary messenger, extracellular calmodulin (CaM) may regulate processes such as cell proliferation, pollen germination and expression of some genes. Stomata open or close quickly in response to environmental stimuli. CaM was found to be extracellular both in guard cells of broad bean leaves and in epidermal cells by immuno-electron microscopy and immuno-fluorescence microscopy techniques. Exogenous purified CaM enhanced stomatal closure and inhibited stomatal opening with an optimal concentration of 10-8 mol/L; CaM antagonist W7-agarose and anti-CaM serum, which were membrane-impermeable macromolecules, inhibited stomatal closure and promoted stomatal opening. All these data showed that endogenous extracellular CaM of guard cells did promote stomatal closure and inhibit stomatal opening, and could be active only outside the cells. Therefore under natural conditions, the endogenous extracellular CaM of guard cells might regulate stomatal movements as a primary messenger together with other signal molecules, and might be an important linkage between environmental stimuli and cell responses.

  8. Soil genotoxicity assessment--results of an interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay in the context of ISO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelle, Sylvie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Muller, Serge; Chenon, Pascale; Manier, Nicolas; Pandard, Pascal; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Maritxu; Pinelli, Eric; Giorgetti, Lucia; Barbafieri, Meri; Silva, Valéria C; Engel, Fernanda; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2015-01-01

    The Vicia micronucleus assay was standardized in an international protocol, ISO 29200, "Assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants-Vicia faba micronucleus test," for soil or soil materials (e.g., compost, sludge, sediment, waste, and fertilizing materials). The aim of this interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay was to investigate the robustness of this in vivo assay in terms of its applicability in different countries where each participant were asked to use their own seeds and reference soil, in agreement with the ISO 29200 standard. The ISO 29200 standard protocol was adopted for this study, and seven laboratories from three countries (France, Italy, and Brazil) participated in the study. Negative and positive controls were correctly evaluated by 100 % of the participants. In the solid-phase test, the micronucleus frequency (number of micronuclei/1,000 cells) varied from 0.0 to 1.8 for the negative control (i.e., Hoagland's solution) and from 5.8 to 85.7 for the positive control (i.e., maleic hydrazide), while these values varied from 0.0 to 1.7 for the negative control and from 14.3 to 97.7 for the positive control in the case of liquid-phase test. The variability in the data obtained does not adversely affect the robustness of the protocol assessed, on the condition that the methodology described in the standard ISO 29200 is strictly respected. Thus, the Vicia micronucleus test (ISO 29200) is appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests cited in legislation related to risk assessment of genotoxicity potential.

  9. COMPARISON OF CHOICE VERSUS NO-CHOICE TESTS OF A DRY BEAN IBL POPULATION FOR RESISTANCE TO POTATO LEAFHOPPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temperate potato leafhopper (PLH), Empoasca fabae, is currently a major insect pest of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Michigan. Choice and no-choice tests are commonly used in insect resistance breeding programs in order to control for a number of factors, and can be useful in identifying the ...

  10. ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY STRESS ON Vicia faba L. PLANTS VIA SEED PRIMING WITH MELATONIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Gergis DAWOOD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La melatonina es una molécula ambientalmente amigable con una potente capacidad antioxidante y de trampa de radicales libres. Dos experimentos en materas fueron realizados en dos inviernos consecutivos (2011/2012 y 2012/2013 en instalaciones del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones, Dokki, Cairo, Egipto, para estudiar el potencial de la melatonina (100 mM and 500 mM para disminuir los efectos nocivos del agua de mar diluida a concentraciones relativamente bajas y altas (3,85 dS/m and 7,69 dS/m, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que la irrigación de plantas de haba con agua de mar diluida reduce los parámetros de crecimiento (altura de la planta, número de hojas/planta, peso fresco y seco de la planta, el contenido relativo de agua (RWC, los pigmentos fotosintéticos (clorofilas a, b y carotenoides, el ácido indo lacético, los carbohidratos totales, K+, Ca+2, al igual que las relaciones K+/Na+ y Ca2+/Na+. Esto fue acompañado por un incremento significativo en el contenido de fenoles, solutos compatibles (carbohidratos solubles totales, aminoácidos libres, prolina, Na+ y Cl- en comparación con las plantas control (plantas no tratadas. De otro lado, los tratamientos con melatonina mejoraron los parámetros de crecimiento, RWC, los pigmentos fotosintéticos, carbohidratos totales, contenido fenólico total, ácido indo acético, K+,Ca+2 al igual que las relaciones K+/Na+ y Ca+2/ Na+ , tanto en las plantas irrigadas con agua dulce de la llave como en las irrigadas con agua de mar diluida en comparación con los controles correspondientes. De otro lado, los tratamientos con melatonina redujeron los niveles de solutos compatibles, al igual que los contenidos de Na+ y Cl-, en comparación con los controles. El estrés por salinidad y/o los tratamientos con melatonina indujeron la producción de nuevas bandas de proteínas que no estuvieron presentes en las plantas control. El tratamiento de melatonina 500 mM tuvo un efecto más pronunciado que el tratamiento de 100 mM en disminuir los efectos adversos de los dos niveles de salinidad estudiados sobre el comportamiento de las plantas de haba.

  11. Alleviation of salinity stress on Vicia faba L. plants via seed priming with melatonin

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Gergis Dawood

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is an environmentally friendly-molecule with a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant capacity. Two pot experiments were conducted during two successive winter seasons (2011/2012 and 2012/2013) at the wire-house of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to study the potentiality of melatonin (100 mM and 500 mM) in alleviating the harmful effect of diluted sea water at a relatively low and high concentrations (3.85 dS/m and 7.69 dS/m, respectively) on the performanc...

  12. The effect of osmotic stress on the metabolism in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Naoko

    2000-01-01

    When plant is subjected to drought stress (low water potential caused by drying soil and/or low humidity), stomata are closed mainly by the action of a phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) which is synthesized in the mesophyll cells or root cells and transported to the stomata. This stomatal closure causes a delay of wilting. Under drought stress,stomatal guard cells are possible to be exposed to low water potential in the substomatal cavity. However, the protective mechanism of guard cells from ...

  13. Identification of Candidate Transcriptional Regulators of Epidermal Transfer Cell Development in Vicia faba Cotyledons

    OpenAIRE

    Arun-Chinnappa, Kiruba S.; McCurdy, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Transfer cells (TCs) are anatomically-specialized cells formed at apoplasmic-symplasmic bottlenecks in nutrient transport pathways in plants. TCs form invaginated wall ingrowths which provide a scaffold to amplify plasma membrane surface area and thus increase the density of nutrient transporters required to achieve enhanced nutrient flow across these bottlenecks. Despite their importance to nutrient transport in plants, little is known of the transcriptional regulation of wall ingrowth forma...

  14. Assessment of the Genotoxicity of olive mill waste water (OMWW) with the Vicia faba Micronucleus test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajjouji, H.; Pinelli, E.; Revel, J. C.; Hafidi, M.

    2009-07-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMW) can cause serious environmental hazards in olive producing countries, especially around the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, olive mills are noe of the foremost polluters: the volume of OMW produced annually is estimated at 250 000 m{sup 3} during the season of production. the present study concerns the genotoxicity of OMW generated in mills producing olive oil in Morocco. (Author)

  15. The effect of endogenous hydrogen peroxide induced by cold treatment in the improvement of tissue regeneration efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Skrzypek, E.; Dabrowska, G.; Wedzony, M.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose that oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance between generation and scavenging hydrogen peroxide contributes to tissue regeneration efficiency during somatic embryogenesis of hexaploid winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Kamila) and organogenesis of faba bean (Vicia faba ssp. minor c

  16. Cross-Amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa Microsatellites across 22 Other Vicia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa. For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  17. Effects of soil pH on the Vicia-micronucleus genotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyèvre, Adrien; Foltête, Anne Sophie; Aran, Delphine; Muller, Serge; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    In the field of contaminated sites and soil management, chemical analyses only bring typological data about pollution. As far as bioavailability and effects on organisms are concerned, we need ecotoxicology tools. In this domain, among many existing tests, we chose to study genotoxicity because it is a short-term endpoint with long-term consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of soil pH on the results of the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test for the two following reasons: (i) to define the pH range within which the test can be performed without modifying the soil to be tested, within the framework of the ISO standard of the test and (ii) to provides information about the effects of the pH on the genotoxic potential of soils. In this context, we modified the pH of a standard soil with HCl or NaOH and we spiked the matrix with copper (2, 4 and 8 mmol kg(-1) dry soil) or with maleic hydrazide, an antigerminative chemical (5, 10 and 20 μmol kg(-1) dry soil). We concluded that the pH had no effect on the mitotic index or micronucleus frequency in the root cells of the negative controls: extreme pH values did not induce micronucleus formation in root cells. Moreover, according to our results, the Vicia-micronucleus test can be performed with pH values ranging between 3.2 and 9.0, but in the ISO 29200 "Soil quality--assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants--V. faba micronucleus test" we recommended to use a control soil with a pH value ranging between 5 and 8 for a more accurate assessment of chemical genotoxicity. We also found that acid pH could increase the genotoxic potential of pollutants, especially heavy metals. With hydrazide maleic spiked soil, plants were placed in a situation of double stress, i.e. toxicity caused by extreme pH values and toxicity induced by the pollutant.

  18. Mutualisme pucerons – fourmis : étude des bénéfices retirés par les colonies d'Aphis fabae en milieu extérieur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheggen F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphid – ant mutualism: an outdoor study of the benefits for Aphis fabae. Aphid – ant relationships are common examples of mutualism. Aphids are indeed submitted to predation and therefore require protection, while ants are continuously looking for new sugar sources. The present work aimed to study the benefits that a mutualistic relationship with Lasius niger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae could bring to the black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Homoptera, Aphididae. Several parameters were observed in the field, on broad bean plants infested with an initial amount of 100 A. fabae and in presence or not of a L. niger colony. More aphids were observed on plants being visited by ants as well as a higher proportion of winged individuals. One explanation is that fewer predators were observed on plants being visited by ants, demonstrating their protective role. However, the number of parasitized aphids was not reduced in presence of L. niger. On the other hand, fewer different aphid species were present on plants foraged by ants, what suggests that they could exert a predation on unattended aphids. Our observations do not allow to conclude on any impact of L. niger on the fitness of the aphid host plant, although fewer exuvia and honeydew spots were observed when they were present. All these results confirm that L. niger increase the fitness of A. fabae colonies mainly by decreasing the number of predators and by reducing competition from aphid species unattended by ants.

  19. Pulse diversity for polyphenolic secondary metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pulse species including guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.), Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng, alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), fava beans (Vicia faba L.), blackeye pea (Vigna unguiculat...

  20. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny.

  1. 长柔毛野豌豆编码甘油-3-磷酸酰基转移酶基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of cDNA for the Glycerol-3- phosphate Acyltsansferase from Vicia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕燕波; 陈善娜; 鄢波; 杨明挚; 黄兴奇

    2002-01-01

    甘油-3-磷酸酰基转移酶(GPAT)基因与植物抗冷性密切相关.克隆到的长柔毛野豌豆(Vicia villosa)GPAT基因的编码区完整的cDNA片段长1377bp,编码458个氨基酸残基,与蚕豆(Vicia faba)和豌豆(Pissum sativum)比较,其核苷酸序列的同源性分别为94.1%和93.3%,氨基酸序列的同源性分别为96.9%和98.0%.

  2. Peppery Hot Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Peppery Hot Bean Curd is a famous dish that originated in Chengdu,Sichuan Province.Dating back to the year under the reign of Emperor Tongzhi during the Qing Dynasty(1862-1875),a woman chef named Chen created this dish.In Chinese it is called Mapo Bean Curd. Ingredients:Three pieces of bean curd,100 grams lean pork,25 grams green soy beans or garlic

  3. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.;

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of N derived from rhizodeposition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and the effects of the rhizodeposition on the subsequent C and N turnover of its crop residues were investigated in an incubation experiment (168 days, 15 degrees....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...

  4. THE ADAPTABILITY OF VICIA FABA L. LEAVES TO SOIL DROUGHT%蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶片对土壤干旱胁迫的适应机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍思伟; 谈锋

    2001-01-01

    蚕豆在不同土壤干旱条件下的盆栽试验结果表明,蚕豆对土壤干旱胁迫有一定的适应能力这种适应能力主要通过三种调节过程实现,即通过叶片水分饱和亏缺的反馈控制实现的气孔运动的调节;通过K+、游离脯氨酸和可溶性总糖积累实现的渗透调节;以及通过活性氧产生与清除而对自由基平衡的调节.

  5. Effects of Water Stress on the State of Water in Vicia faba L. Leaves%水分胁迫对蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶片水分状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍思伟

    2001-01-01

    两个蚕豆品种经水分胁迫,蚕豆叶片的含水量、叶片相对含水量(RWC)降低,水分饱和亏缺(WSD)明显增大,主要是自由水含量减少而致. 香珠豆的气孔调节能力强,RWC、自由水下降幅度小,保水能力强,抗旱性强. 经离体叶片失水速率实验也证明了这一点.

  6. Effects of Water Stress on the Photosynthesis and Output in Vicia faba L. Leaves%水分胁迫对蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)光合作用及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍思伟

    2001-01-01

    以重庆市的蚕豆当家品种香珠豆为材料,通过人工水分胁迫处理,发现随土壤干旱程度的增加,蚕豆叶片的净光合速率下降,光饱和点降低,光补偿点提高,CO2补偿点提高,光呼吸增大;生长减弱,同化产物的积累减少,最终表现为植株的株高、根长、鲜干重、叶面积、根瘤的数量与重量、开花数、结荚数都明显下降,根冠比则上升.这是导致生物量积累减少的主要原因.

  7. Chromosomal aberrations induced by sulfur dioxide hydrates in Vicia faba root tips%SO2水合物诱发蚕豆(Vicia faba) 根尖细胞染色体畸变效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪慧兰; 姜林

    2007-01-01

    以蚕豆为材料,研究SO2水合物-亚硫酸钠与亚硫酸氢钠混合液(3∶ 1, mmol·L-1/ mmol·L-1)对根尖细胞的遗传毒效应.结果表明:SO2水合物处理可诱发蚕豆根尖细胞遗传不稳定,出现染色体数目和结构变异,使非整倍体和染色体结构异常明显增加.中期染色体出现了缺失、断片、环(染色体和染色单体环)、易位、双着丝粒等异常;在细胞分裂后期出现了滞后染色体、桥和断片等异常.研究结果表明,SO2是DNA分子断裂剂、非整倍体诱变剂,能够破坏生物细胞的基因组稳定性,是一种具有遗传毒性的环境诱变剂.

  8. 蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)对不同水分胁迫的光合适应性研究%Studies on the Photosynthetic Adaptability of Vicia faba L. to Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍思伟; 谈锋; 廖志华

    2001-01-01

    以重庆市的蚕豆当家品种之一的大白豆为材料,通过人工水分胁迫处理,发现随干旱程度的增加,蚕豆叶片的叶绿素a、叶绿素b含量和叶绿素总量降低,Hill反应活力下降,净光合速率下降,同化产物的积累减少,最终表现为植株生物量的降低.水分胁迫下植株净光合速率下降,光饱和点降低,光补偿点提高,CO2补偿点提高,光呼吸增大,生长减弱,这是导致生物量积累减少的主要原因.

  9. 影响蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶片蒸腾速率的几个因子%Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Transpiration Rate of Vicia faba L.Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍思伟

    2001-01-01

    利用LI-1600稳态气孔计测定了蚕豆叶片蒸腾速率的日变化以及水分胁迫下蒸腾速率的变化,探讨了环境因子对蚕豆叶片蒸腾速率的影响.结果表明,光量子通量密度是影响蒸腾速率的主要气象因子,土壤含水量影响叶片相对含水量,并通过气孔扩散阻力来影响蒸腾速率.

  10. Interactions and compatibility of 11 S globulin from Vicia faba seeds and sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose in an aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Yu A; Dmitrochenko, A P; Leontiev, A L

    2006-02-28

    This work studies specific interactions and compatibility between a legumin and a linear carboxylated polysaccharide using gel permeation chromatography, sedimentation analysis, SDS gel electrophoresis, viscometry and phase analysis measurements. It uses the system water/11 S globulin/CMC as a model. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) molecules are able to cause a partial dissociation of the protein, subsequent formation of soluble interbiopolymeric complexes and partial aggregation of the free non combined protein at room temperature and pH 6.0-6.5. The maximal binding of biopolymers is observed at their equimolar ratio. The decrease in temperature of the mixture from 293 to 277 K leads to formation of the complex coacervate. The increase in pH from 6.0 to 7.6 results in suppression of complex formation and manifestation of the phenomenon of thermodynamic incompatibility if the total concentration of biopolymers in the system exceeds the critical concentration of segregative phase separation.

  11. Utilización de harina de haba (vicia faba l.) en la elaboración de pan

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Espinoza, Ma. Del Carmen; Vásquez Arreaga, María N.; Cornejo Zuñiga, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    En nuestro país, se han venido desarrollando investigaciones que permiten reemplazar parcialmente la harina de trigo por harinas no tradicionales, con el fin de reducir costos. En el presente trabajo se pretende conocer la influencia del uso de harinas no tradicionales (harina de haba) en la retro degradación del pan. Se comenzó con una caracterización de los aspectos físicos y químicos más importantes de la materia prima; color, olor, estado de madurez, humedad, pH, acidez y actividad de ...

  12. Preparación y determinación de propiedades funcionales de Concentrados proteicos de haba (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Modercay

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Con cl propósito de obtener concentrados proteicos de haba, que eventualmente puedan ser empleados en la elaboración de alimentos para consumo humano, se establecieron a nivel de laboratorio, las condiciones para la extracción de las proteínas a partir de harina de haba baja en tegumento. Los resultados muestran que se obtiene un concentrado con más de 60% de proteína bruta en base seca, al suspender la harina de haba en agua en unarclaci'on I:6apH 8 manteniendo el sistema con agitación constante durante 0.5 hora a 40 °C y posteriormente acidificando el sobrenadante con HCl IN hasta pH 5.5. El método más aconsejable para el proceso de secado, es cl de rodillos de acuerdo con las características químicas, físicas y funcionales del producto.

  13. Ca2+-mediated remote control of reversible sieve tube occlusion in Vicia faba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furch, Alexandra C.U.; Hafke, Jens B.; Schulz, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    According to an established concept, injury of the phloem triggers local sieve plate occlusion including callose-mediated constriction and, possibly, protein plugging of the sieve pores. Sieve plate occlusion can also be achieved by distant stimuli, depends on the passage of electropotential waves......) suddenly dispersed, as observed at 3-4 cm from the stimulus site. The dispersion was reversible; the forisomes had fully re-contracted 7-15 min after burning. Meanwhile, callose appeared at the sieve pores in response to the heat shock. Callose production reached a maximum after 20 min and was also...

  14. Multilevel UV-B Attenuance : Morphological and Chemical Adaptations of Vicia faba to Ultraviolet-B Radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijkamp, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic reduction of stratospheric ozone, levels of potentially harmful solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) have been increasing on earth during the last three decades. The main aim of this thesis was to study growth responses and morphological and chemical adaptation mechanisms to harmf

  15. Preparación de películas para alimentos a partir de concentrados proteicos de haba (vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Rozo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se planeó con el objeto de evaluar la factibilidad de utilizar concentrados proteicos de haba en la preparación de películas para recubrir alimentos, utilizando como patrón de comparación películas preparadas con albúmina fresca de huevo. Los resultados muestran que utilizando concentrados proteicos de haba sin deshidratar, en suspensiones que contengan 5 g de proteína por 100 g de agua, y adicionando glicerol como agente plastificante, se pueden obtener películas cuyas características de permeabilidad al vapor de agua, solubilidad y contenido de agua dependen de las condiciones de secado del material.

  16. PREPARACIÓN DE PELÍCULAS PARA ALIMENTOS A PARTIR DE CONCENTRADOS PROTEICOS DE HABA (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Rozo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se planeó con el objeto de evaluar la factibilidad de utilizar concentrados proteicos de haba en la preparación de películas para recubrir alimentos, utilizando como patrón de comparación películas preparadas con albúmina fresca de huevo.Los resultados muestran que utilizando concentrados proteicos de haba sin deshidratar, en suspensiones que contengan 5 g de proteína por 100 g de agua, y adicionando glicerol como agente plastificante,se pueden obtener películas cuyas características de permeabilidad alvapor de agua, solubilidad y contenido de agua dependen de las condiciones de secado del material.

  17. Impact of fly ash soil amendment on seed germination, seedling growth and metal composition of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.N.; Kulshreshtha, K.; Ahmad, K.J. [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India). Environmental Botany Lab.

    1997-12-01

    A study was conducted to test fly ash suitability for application to agricultural soils to improve plant growth. While lower application of fly ash enhanced seed germination, as well as seedling growth, higher application either delayed or inhibited these processes drastically. Fly ash application to the agricultural soils increased Ni plant uptake but reduced that of Cr and Cu.

  18. Dual effects of NO on stomatal movement in broad bean%NO在蚕豆气孔运动中的双重效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋欣媛; 贺军民

    2009-01-01

    以蚕豆叶片下表皮为材料,利用NO释放剂硝普钠(SNP)和S-亚硝基谷胱甘肽(GSNO)研究了不同浓度一氧化氮(NO)对光、暗、过氧化氢(H_2O_2)和脱落酸(ABA)处理下叶片表皮条气孔运动的影响.结果显示,低浓度和高浓度范围内的SNP和GSNO不仅能引起可见光下开放的气孔关闭,而且使暗、H_2O_2或ABA处理下处于关闭状态的气孔的开度进一步减小;中浓度范围内的SNP和GSNO对可见光下开放气孔的开度无显著影响,而能诱导暗、H_2O_2或ABA处理下处于关闭状态的气孔开放.恢复实验表明高浓度范围的SNP和GSNO处理后的气孔不能再次开放,说明其对保卫细胞造成伤害;中浓度以下SNP和GSNO处理后的气孔能够在光或暗下再次开放或关闭.结果表明,NO不仅能诱导气孔关闭,而且能诱导气孔开放,其决定于保卫细胞内的NO浓度.%The effects of different concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) released by NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) on stomatal movement of the abaxial epidermal strip of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaves were studied under light, darkness, in presence of H_2O_2 and ABA. The results showed that both SNP and GSNO at low and high concentration could induce not only the closure of opened-stomata under light but also the aperture of closed-stomata under darkness, H_2O_2 or ABA; Both SNP and GSNO at middle range of concentrations have no obvious effect on the aperture of opened-stomata under light, but induce the opening of closed-stomata under darkness, H_2O_2 or ABA. The recovery experiment results further showed that non-specific damage of cells was guarded in the high range of NO donors, but no guard in low and middle ranges of NO donors, because the high range-closed stomata was not reopened under a subsequent light recovery, but the low and middle range-closed or opened stomata could be reopened or reclosed by a subsequent light or dark recovery respectively

  19. Comparative study on macro- and micro-elements concentration in Nicotiana tabacum and Faba siliquis plants by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Zoltan; Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Magdas, Dana Alina; Ristoiu, Dumitru

    2015-12-01

    Plants are important components of ecosystems as they transfer elements from abiotic into biotic environments. The concentration of macro and micro-elements in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) and bean (Faba siliquis) was analyzed using ICP-MS technique. The results obtained indicated that the mean concentration of Mg, P, K and Ca in tobacco leaves was 0.965, 0.812, 4.412 and 2.694 g.kg-1, respectively, while in bean samples were 0.899, 2.024, 6.725 and 1.387 g.kg-1, respectively. Mn concentration ranged from 156.835 mg.kg-1 to 234.593 mg.kg-1 in tobacco leaves and from 116.174 mg.kg-1 to 440.423 mg.kg-1 in bean samples. The results for Cu and Zn were between 7.262 mg.kg-1 and 105.738 mg.kg-1, 68.549 mg.kg-1 and 113.720 mg.kg-1 (tobacco leaves); and 6.830 mg.kg-1 and 46.034 mg.kg-1, 50.166 mg.kg-1 and 77.242 mg.kg-1 (bean samples), respectively. In analyzed samples, Pb, Cd and As concentrations ranged between <0.001-0.717 mg.kg-1, 0.046 mg.kg-1 -6.218 mg.kg-1, <0.001-0.381 mg.kg-1. The paper discusses the transfer of metal ions (Mn, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively) from soil to these plants in terms of transfer factors (TF).

  20. Effects of laser pretreatment on cells of broad bean in UV-B-induced damage protection%激光预处理可保护蚕豆细胞免受UV-B辐射的损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐智; 岳明; 王勋陵

    2000-01-01

    The embryos of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) were irradiated for 5 min by a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm,1.63 J·mm-2) or for 1 min by a CO2 laser (1,060 nm,2.53 J·mm-2).Afterwards they were cultivated in Petri dish in the constant temperature incubator in Knop until the length of epicotyl of broad bean was perhaply 3 cm that could be treated by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation.The epicotyl of broad bean was irradiated for 7 h by 1.02,3.03,4.52 kJ·m-2 UV-B respectively in the ambient condition of 70 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the growth cabinet.According to the changes of content of MDA,ascorbate acid (AsA) and UV-B absorbing compounds (absorbance at 300 nm),the effects of protecting of laser to the epicotyl of broad bean from UV-B radiation were tested.The results showed that laser pretreatment on the embryos could enhance the resistance of UV-B stress in epicotyl.Comparing with the control (without UV-B or laser radiation) and UV-B radiation alone,the MDA content was decreased significantly while AsA content was increased in the condition of laser pretreatment.It was also found that laser pretreatment alone could improve the content of UV-B absorbing compounds.If laser pretreatment followed UV-B radiation,the content of UV-B absorbing compounds was improved higher than laser treatment and UV-B treatment respectively.We suppose that laser pretreatment could enhance stress resistance in plant by a pathway of increasing the content of AsA and UV-B absorbing compounds while decreasing the MDA concentration.%当蚕豆的胚被He-Ne激光(632.8 nm,1.63 J·mm-2)照射5 min或被CO2激光(1060 nm,2.53 J·mm-2) 照射1 min后,将其置入Knop营养液中进行恒温培养.当蚕豆的上胚轴长到大约3 cm时,在光背景(PAR)为70 μmol·m-2·s-1条件下,分别用1.02、3.03、4.52 kJ·m-2的UV-B 辐射蚕豆的上胚轴7 h.根据蚕豆丙二醛(MDA)、抗坏血酸(AsA)和UV-B吸收物的含量变化,来测试激光对UV-B照射蚕豆的上

  1. HPLC analysis of Vicia guard cells indicates that products from photosynthetic carbon fixation and starch hydrolysis have an osmotic role during stomatal opening under blue (BL) and red (RL) light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, L.D.; Zeiger, E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1991-05-01

    HPLC was used to quantify neutral sugars and organic acids in guard cells of sonicated Vicia faba epidermal peels irradiated with BL or RL in the presence of 1 mM KCl. Under photosynthetically inactive, low fluence-rates of BL, guard cells initially accumulate malate and citrate. At later times, sucrose and starch breakdown products such as maltose predominate. Guard cells opening under saturating fluence rates of RL show very little organic acid or maltose accumulation, and accumulate mainly sucrose. Changes in metabolite concentrations were correlated with stomatal apertures in both light treatments. These results support previous observations that light quality modulated alternative mechanisms of osmotic accumulation in guard cells, including K{sup +} uptake, photosynthesis and starch hydrolysis. At 5 mM, KCl suppresses RL but not BL-induced opening. These contrasting KCl treatments can be used to investigate osmoregulatory features in guard cells.

  2. Of mice and men

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    At the end of March , sixty mice were irradiated at the synchro-cyclotron in the course of an experimental programme studying radiation effects on mice and plants (Vicia faba bean roots) being carried out by the CERN Health Physics Group.

  3. Vicia (Leguminosae en el norte de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo O. Vanni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se rehabilita el nombre Vicia macrograminea y se aclaran interpretaciones erróneas de algunas especies, como V. epetiolaris, V. graminea var. transiens y V. stenophylla. Se amplía el área de dispersión de V. graminea var. transiens y se propone una nueva variedad para la ciencia: Vicia epetiolaris var. microcarpa. Se confirma la presencia de V. andicola y V. setifolia en el NO de la Argentina. Se incluye una clave e ilustraciones para diferenciar las especies estudiadas.

  4. Impact of Wheat/Faba Bean Mixed Cropping or Rotation Systems on Soil Microbial Functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbi, Sanâa; Prin, Yves; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Maghraoui, Tasnime; Oufdou, Khalid; Le Roux, Christine; Galiana, Antoine; Hafidi, Mohamed; Duponnois, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases, and enhancing ecological services. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the 2 years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI) measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and MSI. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after two cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities. PMID:27695462

  5. Baked Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Two pieces of tender bean curd, shredded shrimp, minced fat and lean pork, minced ham, minced fresh mushrooms, fried dried shrimps, mashed scallion, ginger and garlic, cooking wine, salad oil, salt, MSG and pepper powder. Directions:

  6. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  7. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tocci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

  8. Inhibition of Blue Light-Dependent H+ Pumping by Abscisic Acid in Vicia Guard-Cell Protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, C. H.; Kinoshita, T.; Oku, T.; Shimazaki, Ki.

    1996-06-01

    Blue-light (BL)-dependent H+ pumping in guard-cell protoplasts (GCPs) from Vicia faba was inhibited by 65% in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA). The inhibition increased with the time after application of ABA and was concentration dependent with a saturating concentration of 1 [mu]M at pH 6.2. The inhibition was nearly independent of the pH of the medium in the range 5.4 to 7.2 when ABA was applied at 10 [mu]M, whereas it was dependent on pH when the ABA concentration was decreased. The protonated form of ABA was saturating at 40 nM in inhibiting BL-dependent H+ pumping under various experimental conditions, whereas the dissociated form at 500 nM had no inhibitory effect on the pumping, suggesting that the protonated form of ABA is the form active in inhibiting the pumping. Fusicoccin (10 [mu]M), an activator of plasma membrane H+-ATPase, induced H+ pumping from GCPs, and the rate of H+ pumping was decreased to 70% by ABA. In contrast, ABA did not inhibit H+ pumping in isolated microsome vesicles from GCPs. These results suggest that the inhibition of BL-dependent H+ pumping by ABA in GCPs may be due to indirect inactivation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase and/or inhibition of the BL-signaling pathway. The pump inhibition by ABA causes membrane depolarization and can be an initial step to induce stomatal closure and reduces the transpirational water loss under drought stress in the daytime.

  9. Root hair deformation activity of nodulation factor and their fate on Vicia sativa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, R.; Geurts, R.; Franssen, H.; Spaink, H.P.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1994-01-01

    We used a semiquantitative root hair deformation assay for Vicia sativa (vetch) to study the activity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae nodulation (Nod) factors. Five to 10 min of Nod factor-root interaction appears to be sufficient to induce root hair deformation. The first deformation is visibl

  10. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  11. Diversity enhances agricultural productivity via rhizosphere phosphorus facilitation on phosphorus-deficient soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Li, Shu-Min; Sun, Jian-Hao; Zhou, Li-Li; Bao, Xing-Guo; Zhang, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2007-07-01

    Intercropping, which grows at least two crop species on the same pieces of land at the same time, can increase grain yields greatly. Legume-grass intercrops are known to overyield because of legume nitrogen fixation. However, many agricultural soils are deficient in phosphorus. Here we show that a new mechanism of overyielding, in which phosphorus mobilized by one crop species increases the growth of a second crop species grown in alternate rows, led to large yield increases on phosphorus-deficient soils. In 4 years of field experiments, maize (Zea mays L.) overyielded by 43% and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) overyielded by 26% when intercropped on a low-phosphorus but high-nitrogen soil. We found that overyielding of maize was attributable to below-ground interactions between faba bean and maize in another field experiment. Intercropping with faba bean improved maize grain yield significantly and above-ground biomass marginally significantly, compared with maize grown with wheat, at lower rates of P fertilizer application (112.5 kg of P(2)O(5) per hectare). By using permeable and impermeable root barriers, we found that maize overyielding resulted from its uptake of phosphorus mobilized by the acidification of the rhizosphere via faba bean root release of organic acids and protons. Faba bean overyielded because its growth season and rooting depth differed from maize. The large increase in yields from intercropping on low-phosphorus soils is likely to be especially important on heavily weathered soils.

  12. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  13. Transformation of Vicia narbonensis via Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickardt, T; Meixner, M; Schade, V; Schieder, O

    1991-02-01

    Shoot tips and epicotyl-segments of Vicia narbonensis were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 pGV 3850 HPT, carrying a plasmid coding for hygromycin-phosphotransferase. On callus-induction medium containing 60 mg/l hygromycin for selection, approximately 18% of the explants produced hygromycin-resistant callus. After transfer to regeneration-medium these calluses produced hygromycin-resistant and nopaline-positive somatic embryos which could be regenerated to plantlets. The integration of the T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by Southern analysis.

  14. Observaciones cariológicas en Vicia amphicarpa sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardío Pato, F. Javier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytological studies were carried out on twenty four amphicarpic wild populations of Vicia sativa group from different sites (19 from Spain, 4 from Syria and 1 from Turkey. Morphologically, 19 accessions can be attributed to taxon Dorthes and 5 to V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío, comb. nov. In our studies, these two taxa show different chromosome numbers, V. amphicarpa Dorthes, has 14 chromosomes, while V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia has only 12. Furthermore, the form of the chromosomes in the karyotypes of both taxa is quite different. The chromosome number and the morphology of the karyotype found in the first taxon agree with most of previous reports on V. amphicarpa, with a very characteristic short metacentric and six acrocentric chromosomes, one of them satellited. However, the second taxon has a very different karyotype with three large chromosomes, one of them submetacentric and another satellited, plus another three chromosomes which are significantly smaller. Therefore, we can conclude that within the genus Vicia, at least two amphicarpic taxa exist, clearly differentiated, both in morphological and karyotypical characteristics.Se estudian cariológicamente 24 poblaciones anficárpicas silvestres pertenecientes al grupo Vicia sativa, de distinta procedencia (19 españolas, cuatro de Siria y una de Turquía. Se encuentran diferencias en los números cromosomáticos y en los cariótipos. Diecinueve poblaciones presentan 14 cromosomas y cariotipo como el observado por otros autores, constituido por un pequeño cromosoma metacéntrico y seis acrocéntricos, uno de ellos con satélite. Éstas corresponden a V. amphicarpa Dorthes. Las otras cinco, con 2n = 12 y cariotipo con tres cromosomas grandes, uno de ellos submetacéntrico, otro con satélite, y otros tres mucho más pequeños, corresponden a V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío. Esta anterior se propone como combinación nueva. Por

  15. Climate Change and Phenology: Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Migration and Severity of Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mitchell B; Venugopal, P Dilip; Lamp, William O

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can benefit individual species, but when pest species are enhanced by warmer temperatures agricultural productivity may be placed at greater risk. We analyzed the effects of temperature anomaly on arrival date and infestation severity of potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, a classic new world long distance migrant, and a significant pest in several agricultural crops. We compiled E. fabae arrival dates and infestation severity data at different states in USA from existing literature reviews and agricultural extension records from 1951-2012, and examined the influence of temperature anomalies at each target state or overwintering range on the date of arrival and severity of infestation. Average E. fabae arrival date at different states reveal a clear trend along the south-north axis, with earliest arrival closest to the overwintering range. E. fabae arrival has advanced by 10 days over the last 62 years. E. fabae arrived earlier in warmer years in relation to each target state level temperature anomaly (3.0 days / °C increase in temperature anomaly). Increased temperature had a significant and positive effect on the severity of infestation, and arrival date had a marginal negative effect on severity. These relationships suggest that continued warming could advance the time of E. fabae colonization and increase their impact on affected crops.

  16. Climate Change and Phenology: Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Migration and Severity of Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B Baker

    Full Text Available Climate change can benefit individual species, but when pest species are enhanced by warmer temperatures agricultural productivity may be placed at greater risk. We analyzed the effects of temperature anomaly on arrival date and infestation severity of potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, a classic new world long distance migrant, and a significant pest in several agricultural crops. We compiled E. fabae arrival dates and infestation severity data at different states in USA from existing literature reviews and agricultural extension records from 1951-2012, and examined the influence of temperature anomalies at each target state or overwintering range on the date of arrival and severity of infestation. Average E. fabae arrival date at different states reveal a clear trend along the south-north axis, with earliest arrival closest to the overwintering range. E. fabae arrival has advanced by 10 days over the last 62 years. E. fabae arrived earlier in warmer years in relation to each target state level temperature anomaly (3.0 days / °C increase in temperature anomaly. Increased temperature had a significant and positive effect on the severity of infestation, and arrival date had a marginal negative effect on severity. These relationships suggest that continued warming could advance the time of E. fabae colonization and increase their impact on affected crops.

  17. Histopathological And Biological Studies On The Role Of Soybean And Broad Bean AgainstRadiation Induce Damage In Rat Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Fathy Waer, **Abdel El ­ Rahman Mohamed Attia

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the physiological and histological activities in the animal body are disturbed after exposure to ionizing radiation. These disturbances are either due to direct harmful effect of radiation on the biological systems or to the indirect effect of free radicals formed in the body after irradiation. There is growing evidence that the type of food plays an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The biological disturbance due to ionizing radiation makes search for ways of protecting living organisms essential for controlling the radiation hazards. Much of the world population relies on legumes, as a stable food. Legumes can affectively protect cells and tissues against damage. Our present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of single dose !"#$%#&f the possible protective effect of feeding beans (broad beans and soybeans against radiation exposure. Histopathological, and biological changes of kidney function in irradiated, and bean fed animals were carried out. Animals were weighted and daily food intake was determined. The result obtained revealed that soybean is an extremely rich source of protein and fat as compared to faba bean. Radiations cause a reduction in food intake and weight gain. It causes great changes in the kidney glomeruli and collecting tubules. The recovery of the cells depend on the type of feeding so, feeding soybean gives a significant radiation protection and decreases the extent of changes induced by radiation

  18. Allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Ageratum conyzoides with Vicia-micronucleus test%利用蚕豆根尖微核试验研究入侵植物胜红蓟的化感作用潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚娟; 何兴金

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To study the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Ageratum conyzoides Linn. [Method] The allopathic effects of aqueous extracts of leaf, stem, flower and ground part of A. Conyzoides were studied by using View-micronucleus test. [Result]The results showed that the aqueous extracts had genetic toxicity to Vi-cia faba root tip cells. The aqueous extracts of leaf, stem, flower and ground part had the mitotic index decreased, the micronucleus frequency increased, and aberrant chromosomes such as micronucleus, chromosome bridge and chromosome ring. These effects were concentration-dependent. The allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts increased in the following order: flower, stem, leaf and ground part. Compared with the ground part, the allelopathic potential of the three parts did not increase simply, but the role of leaf was strongest. [Conclusion] The leaf had the highest allelopathic potential.%[目的]研究入侵植物胜红蓟(Ageratum conyzoides Linn.)的化感作用潜力.[方法]运用蚕豆(Vicia fabaL)根尖细胞微核试验研究入侵植物胜红蓟叶、茎、花以及地上部分(除去根以外的植物体,下同)水浸提液的化感效应.[结果]胜红蓟水浸提液具有较强的遗传毒性.在叶、茎、花和地上部分水浸提液作用下,蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数下降,微核率升高,细胞中出现了微核、染色体桥、染色体环等多种染色体畸变,胜红蓟水浸提液对蚕豆根尖的影响存在显著的浓度效应.胜红蓟叶、茎、花和地上部分的整体效应为叶>茎>花>地上部分,与地上部分相比三部位之间的化感作用潜力不存在简单加和作用,但仍以叶片效应最强.[结论]叶片具有最高的化感作用潜力.

  19. Effects of Nitric Oxide in ABA- and Darkness-Induced Stomatal Closure of V. faba%一氧化氮在脱落酸和黑暗诱导蚕豆气孔关闭中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋喜贵; 闫茂华; 朱艳萍; 柳建仪; 佘小平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究一氧化氮(NO)在脱落酸(ABA)和黑暗诱导的蚕豆(Vicia faba)气孔关闭中的作用.[方法]以蚕豆叶片下表皮为材料,借助表皮条分析和激光扫描共聚焦显微镜技术对NO在ABA和黑暗诱导的气孔关闭中的作用进行了探索.[结果] ABA和黑暗都能诱导蚕豆气孔关闭,而且ABA和黑暗诱导都能提高保卫细胞胞质内的NO水平.NO专一性清除剂2,4-羧基苯-4,4,5,5-四甲基咪唑-1-氧-3-氧化物(cPTIO)、一氧化氮合酶(NOS)抑制剂NG-氮-L-精氨酸-甲酯(L-NAME)能够大大抵消ABA和黑暗诱导气孔关闭的效应,并能阻断ABA和黑暗诱导的气孔保卫细胞内NO水平的提高,表明NO是ABA和黑暗诱导蚕豆气孔关闭的共同信号分子.[结论]该研究可为探索保卫细胞信号转导网络积累一定的资料,并为提高植物抗逆能力和促进农业生产提供理论依据.%[ Objective ] The role of NO in ABA- and darkness-induced stomatal closure in V. faba was studied. [ Method ] The abaxial surface of V. faba leaf was selected as the material, the research was carried out by epidermal strip bioassay and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. [ Result ] The results showed that both phytohormones ABA and darkness induced stomatal closure in V. faba. Furthermore, ABA and darkness could also improve the NO level of stomatal guard cells. ABA- and darkness-induced stomatal closure was largely prevented by 2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-letramethylimidazoline-1-oxy1-3-oxide (cPTIO), a specific NO scavenger and NG-nitro-L-arg-methgl eater (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) in mammalian cells that also inhibit plant NOS. The data indicate that NO is the common signaling molecule in ABA- and darkness-induced stomatal movement in V. faba. [ Conclusion ] The study can accumulate information for seeking network of the guard cell signal conduction pathway, and provide theoretical support for improving plant resistance and promoting agricultural production.

  20. Phylogeny and diversity of broad bean rhizobium in Qinghai%青海蚕豆根瘤菌的系统发育与多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩梅; 马晓彤; 曹卫东; 张宏亮; 王雪翠

    2015-01-01

    To explore and exploit broad bean rhizobium of Qinghai, and determine their classification status.Broad bean rhizobia were collected in Qinghai and 16 SrDNA identification, phylogeny and diversity were studied.The results showed that 6 strains belonging to 4 groups respectively, andR. leguminosarum, R.laguerreae, R.fabae, R.pisi have the closest phylogenetic relationship.The species diversity is rich in Qinghai.%为发掘和利用青海冷凉地区蚕豆优良的根瘤菌种质资源,确定其分类地位.通过对青海冷凉地区采集的蚕豆根瘤菌进行16 SrDNA鉴定、系统发育及多样性研究.结果表明:6株供试菌株属于4个类聚,分别与Rhizobium leguminosarum,R.laguerreae,R.fabae,R.pisi亲缘关系最为接近,种类多样性较为丰富.

  1. 7 CFR 201.58 - Substrata, temperature, duration of test, and certain other specific directions for testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toxicity of a paper substratum or from the use of potassium nitrate, retests shall be made on soil or on a... spp., Melilotus spp., and Vicia faba. (12) Garden bean; use of calcium nitrate. If hypocotyl collar... at 15 °C for 24 hrs Hemp B, T 20-30 3 7 Indiangrass, yellow P, TS 20-30 7 14 Light; KNO3 Prechill...

  2. Determinación de las mejores condiciones para la extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. De navarro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Para la determinación de las mejores condiciones de extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (LRH, se utilizaron iniciaimente raíces enteras y paredes celulares de raíces. De acuerdo con los resultados, se establecieron las condiciones experimentales para la preparación de paredes celulares por tres métodos. Se encontró que el Método I, en el cual se usó Sarkosyl 0.5%, KH2PO4 0.01 M pH 6.0 para la obtención de paredes celulares y luego se extrajo la lectina con buffer de citrato de sodio 0.1 M pH 4.2, es el más adecuado. El fraccionamiento se realizó por filtración por gel usando Sephadex G-25.

  3. Evaluación de cinco genotipos de haba (Vicia faba L. con seis niveles de fósforo en Tecámac, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Jesús Morales Rosales

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de una investigación de campo, basada en el diseño de bloques al azar con 30 tratamientos y tres repeticiones con un arreglo factorial, se evaluó: altura a la primera vaina (APV, altura final (AF, número de tallos (NT, número de granos por vaina (NGV, número de vainas por planta (NVP, peso de 100 semillas P(100S y rendimiento de grano (REND. El análisis de varianza reveló efectos significativos e interesantes para los cinco genotipos de haba.

  4. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  5. Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VC (20%, TC (20% and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata. Plants grown with VC (20% produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2, winged bean (1168.61 g m-2 and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2. In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20% treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1 grown with VC (20%. The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1, winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1 and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1 were also found in VC (20% treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g, followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g and winged bean (22.04 g/100g, under VC (20% treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20% produced the highest yield and yield attributes.

  6. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae populations in soils with increasing heavy metal contamination: abundance, plasmid profiles, diversity and metal tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakzian, A.; Murphy, P.; Turner, A.; Beynon, J.L.; Giller, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae were investigated from plots of a long-term sewage sludge experiment in Braunschweig, Germany, which represented a gradient of increasing metal contamination. The number of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae decreased from 105 cells g¿1 soil in uncontaminat

  7. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. “Lima Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Bacon in Sauce,”...

  8. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B-vitamins, iron, folate, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and zinc. Most beans are also low in fat. Legumes ... pressure, heart rate, and other heart disease and diabetes risks. Beans and legumes contain antioxidants that help ...

  9. A Substrate Mimic Allows High-Throughput Assay of the FabA Protein and Consequently the Identification of a Novel Inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FabA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynié, Lucile; Hope, Anthony G; Finzel, Kara; Schmidberger, Jason; Leckie, Stuart M; Schneider, Gunter; Burkart, Michael D; Smith, Andrew D; Gray, David W; Naismith, James H

    2016-01-16

    Eukaryotes and prokaryotes possess fatty acid synthase (FAS) biosynthetic pathways that comprise iterative chain elongation, reduction, and dehydration reactions. The bacterial FASII pathway differs significantly from human FAS pathways and is a long-standing target for antibiotic development against Gram-negative bacteria due to differences from the human FAS, and several existing antibacterial agents are known to inhibit FASII enzymes. N-Acetylcysteamine (NAC) fatty acid thioesters have been used as mimics of the natural acyl carrier protein pathway intermediates to assay FASII enzymes, and we now report an assay of FabV from Pseudomonas aeruginosa using (E)-2-decenoyl-NAC. In addition, we have converted an existing UV absorbance assay for FabA, the bifunctional dehydration/epimerization enzyme and key target in the FASII pathway, into a high-throughput enzyme coupled fluorescence assay that has been employed to screen a library of diverse small molecules. With this approach, N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-(2-furyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-amine (N42FTA) was found to competitively inhibit (pIC50=5.7±0.2) the processing of 3-hydroxydecanoyl-NAC by P. aeruginosa FabA. N42FTA was shown to be potent in blocking crosslinking of Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein and FabA, a direct mimic of the biological process. The co-complex structure of N42FTA with P. aeruginosa FabA protein rationalises affinity and suggests future design opportunities. Employing NAC fatty acid mimics to develop further high-throughput assays for individual enzymes in the FASII pathway should aid in the discovery of new antimicrobials.

  10. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  11. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  12. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  13. 供水及丁香酚对间作小麦蚕豆生长速率及籽粒产量的影响%Effect of Eugenol and Water Application on Crop Growth Rate and Grain Yield of Wheat Fava Bean Intercropping Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静; 柴强; 赵财; 刘辉娟; 周海燕

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for the manual control regulation of intercropping system that existed allelochemicals, pot experiment was carried out to research the effect of eugenol on crop growth rate and grain yield of wheat faba/bean intercropping system at water application of 75%, 60% and 45% field capacity. The results showed that eugenol could inhibite the crop growth rate (CGR)of fava bean in the seedling-beginning flower and pod setting-mature period of faba bean, except sole faba bean with 75% water supply level and the intercropped faba bean with 60% water supply level, increased water supply can alleviate the inhitory action of eugenol on the sole faba bean, but the inhitory action of eugenol on the intercropped fava bean exacerbate, intercropping planting pattern can alleviate the inhitory action; eugenol could inhibite the wheat CGR after seedling period, increasing water supply can not alleviate the inhitory action of eugenol, intercropping planting pattern can alleviate the inhitory action of eugenol on the wheat CGR at the stage of flowering to maturity. Compared to weighted average sole grain yield, intercropped grain yield was increased by 24.92%~52.74% under the same water supply. Other treatments showed mat allelopathy has inhibitory effect on the grain yield of two crops except 45%water supply level. Intercropping planting pattern can alleviate the allelopathy of eugeno on the wheat, fava bean grain yield.%为了寻求人工调控存在化感物质间作群体的理论依据,通过盆栽试验,探讨不同供水水平下(田问持水量的75%、60%和45%),小麦根系分泌物丁香酚对单作和间作蚕豆、小麦生长速率(Crop Growth Rate,CGR)及籽粒产量的影响.结果表明:在蚕豆苗期-始花期、结荚-成熟期2个生育阶段,丁香酚对蚕豆生长速率整体表现为抑制作用,但结荚-成熟期75%供水水平下的单作、60%供水水平下的问作除外,增加供水缓解了单作蚕豆的

  14. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  15. 豌豆基因组SSR标记在蚕豆中的通用性分析%Transferability of Pea SSR Markers in Horsebean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯万伟; 刘玉皎

    2012-01-01

    分析了21对豌豆(Pisum sativum)基因组SSR引物在10个蚕豆(Vicia faba)品种中的通用性.结果表明,豌豆基因组SSR引物在蚕豆中的通用性达38.10%,有效引物在蚕豆品种中的多态性比例为100%.%Transferability of 21 pairs of SSR markers of pea (Pisum sativum) in horsebean (Vicia faba) was tested. Results showed that the transferability rate of pea SSR in horsebean was 38.10%, and polymorphism rate of effective SSR in horse-bean was 100%.

  16. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  17. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  18. Rhizobium ecuadorense sp. nov., an indigenous N2-fixing symbiont of the Ecuadorian common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genetic pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Martins, Talita Busulini; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Marçon Delamuta, Jakeline Renata; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2015-09-01

    There are two major centres of genetic diversification of common bean (Phaseolus vilgaris L.), the Mesoamerican and the Andean, and the legume is capable of establishing nitrogen-fixing symbioses with several rhizobia; Rhizobium etli seems to be the dominant species in both centres. Another genetic pool of common bean, in Peru and Ecuador, is receiving increasing attention, and studies of microsymbionts from the region can help to increase our knowledge about coevolution of this symbiosis. We have previously reported several putative new lineages from this region and here present data indicating that strains belonging to one of them, PEL4, represent a novel species. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, PEL4 strains are positioned in the Rhizobium phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade, but show unique properties in several morphological, physiological and biochemical analyses, as well as in BOX-PCR profiles ( Rhizobium fabae. DNA-DNA hybridization ( Rhizobium ecuadorense sp. nov. The type strain is CNPSo 671(T) ( = UMR 1450(T) = PIMAMPIRS I 5(T) = LMG 27578(T)).

  19. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans.

  20. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  1. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  2. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  3. Integrating and Processing XML Documents with JavaBeans Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Wah Chiou

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The eXtensible Markup Language (XML and JavaBeans component model have gained wide popularity in the Object Web computing. This paper explores how JavaBeans components can be used to integrate and process the XML documents. It covers Bean Markup Language (BML, XML BeanMaker, XML Bean Suite, and Xbeans. The most powerful JavaBeans connection language is BML, which represents an integration of XML and JavaBeans components to provide a mechanism for implementing active content. XML BeanMaker is used to generate JavaBeans from XML DTD files. XML Bean Suite is a toolkit of JavaBeans components to provide a comprehensive set of functionality to manipulate XML content. The Xbean is a powerful paradigm to process XML-based distributed applications.

  4. Mung Bean: Technological and Nutritional Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Khetarpaul, N.; Grewal, R.B.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop’s potential as food and to s

  5. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  6. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  7. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake.

  8. Performance of the Bean-protein Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光亭; 杜宁; 孙亚宁

    2003-01-01

    The methods in testing the bean-protein fiber and the standards used were simply introduced. The fiber's mechanical and chemical performances were further analyzed. And the correlative performance of the bean-protein fibers and other natural fibers have been compared, then full knowledge of the fiber's performance was concluded.

  9. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  10. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  11. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vetch (Vicia sativa is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program.

  13. Vitamins A, C, and E and β-Carotene Content in Seeds of Seven Species of Vicia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet SAHIN; Yasar KIRAN; Fikret KARATAS; Senem SONMEZ

    2005-01-01

    To determine the vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene content of Vicia species that can be used in animal feed, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to investigate the vitamin and β-carotene content in mature and immature seeds of seven Vicia species (Vicia anatolica Turrill., V. ervilia (L.) Willd., V. michauxii Sprengel, V. mollis Boiss. et Hausskn. ex Boiss., V. noeana Reuter ex Boiss., V. peregrina L., and V. sericocarpa Fenzl.), which are useful plants in animal feed in the eastern Anatolia region in Turkey. The vitamin content was found to differ between mature and immature seeds. The levels of vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene were higher in mature seeds than in immature seeds (P < 0.01).

  14. Market strategies for Central American dry beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertínez, Lourdes; Bernsten, Richard; Zamora, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, the dry bean sub-sector in CentralAmerica has witnessed many dynamic changes. Unless wefind ways to increase the competitiveness of the regionalbean sub-sector, Central American countries will likelyexperience significant negative social and economic impacts,especially since these countries are facing the challenge ofadjusting to new open markets, such as the Central AmericanFree Trade Agreement (CAFTA). Bean traders, retailers, andknowledgeable government official in C...

  15. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils; Evaluacion del Uso Agricola de Vicia sativa L. en Suelos Contaminados con Mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-03-08

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  16. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krehenbrink Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP, a twin-arginine translocase (TAT secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to

  17. Symbiotic Autoregulation of nifA Expression in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Marta; Palacios, José M.; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2004-01-01

    NifA is the general transcriptional activator of nitrogen fixation genes in diazotrophic bacteria. In Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791, the nifA gene is part of a gene cluster (orf71 orf79 fixW orf5 fixABCX nifAB) separated by 896 bp from an upstream and divergent truncated duplication of nifH (ΔnifH). Symbiotic expression analysis of genomic nifA::lacZ fusions revealed that in strain UPM791 nifA is expressed mainly from a σ54-dependent promoter (PnifA1) located upstream of orf71. Th...

  18. Genetic diversity of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates nodulating two different host plants during soil restoration with alfalfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.X.; Kosier, B.; Priefer, U.B. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    A total of 360 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains was isolated from three brown-coal mining restoration fields of different age and plant cover (without and in the first and second year of alfalfa, Medicago sativa, cultivation) using two host species (Vicia hirsuta and Pisum sativum) as capture plants. The strains were genetically typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions (IGS-RFLP) and characterized by plasmid profiles and RFLP analysis of amplified nodABC genes. The R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population was dominated by the same group of strains (irrespective of the trap plant used). According to type richness, the genetic diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum in the second year of restoration was lower than in the first year and it resembled that of the fallow field, except for plasmid types, in which it was higher than that of the fallow field. Some of the less frequent nodABC genotypes were associated with distinct chromosomal IGS genotypes and symbiotic plasmids (pSyms) of different sizes, indicating that horizontal transfer and rearrangements of pSym can occur in natural environments. However, the dominant pSym and chromosomal genotypes were strictly correlated suggesting a genetically stable persistence of the prevailing R. leguminosarum bv, viciae genotypes in the absence of its host plant.

  19. Transfer and loss of naturally-occuring plasmids among isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakzian, A.; Murphy, P.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid transfer among isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in heavy metal contaminated soils from a long-term experiment in Braunschweig, Germany, was investigated under laboratory conditions. Three replicate samples each of four sterilized soils with total Zn contents of 54, 104, 208 and

  20. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  1. The Effect Different Fertilizers, on Germination, Yield, of Vicia vilosa Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the interaction of germination, yield of Vicia vilosa Roth to use of biological fertilizer, chemical, and manure, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications at Research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013-2014 growing season. The experimental treatments was included three kinds of bio fertilizers and their integration with each other and vermicompost and chemical fertilizer as following : 1- mycorhhizaarbuscular species Glomus mosseae+vermicompost2- mycorhhiza+Nitrocsin (included bacteries Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. 3- mycorhhiza arbuscular+ Rhizobium (Rhizobium sp. 4-mycorhhiza arbuscular + Chemical fertilizer NPK 5- mycorhhizaarbuscular (Glomus moseae 6-control. The results showed that, although the treatments has not significant effects on height of stem , it has significant effects on characteristics of root length colonization percent, number the root node, Root dry weight, soggy yield, yield dry and protein Percent. The results showed that the highest percent of root length colonization(76 percent, number the root node (20, Root dry weight (.94 g, soggy yield (1894.5 g m-2, yield dry (473.63 g m-2 and protein Percent (27.33 percent was gained in integrated mycorhhiza and nitrocsine treatment. On the basis of results, the integration of mycrhhoriza and biological rhizobium is suggested as the best fertilizer treatment for Vicia vilosa Roth.

  2. Blanching of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaack, K

    1994-12-01

    Experiments with one and two steps blanching of green beans have been carried out. Inactivation of the peroxydase requires more heating than inactivation of the enzymes which gives rise to off flavour from aldehydes. When blanching for about one minute to inactivate lipoxygenase, aldehyde formation of flavour ceases. The content of vitamin C decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction. Since considerable loss of vitamin C occurs during blanching, the treatment time should be reduced to a minimum. During preblanching at 65-75 degrees C and final blanching, chlorophyll is degraded to pheophytin and the surface colour expressed by the Hunter-values (-a/b) increases with time which means that the colour of the beans changes from green to yellow. The firmness of beans, which was measured by use of a tenderometer, decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction with 40 kcal/mole activation energy. Preblanching at 65-75 degrees C increases the firmness of the beans linearly with treatment time. This increase in firmness is stable after final blanching at 95 degrees C and even after thawing of frozen beans.

  3. 蚕豆赤斑病病原菌鉴定%Identification of the pathogens causing chocolate spot on the broad bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕; 段灿星; 陆鸣; 东方阳; 朱振东

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Chocolate spot is one of the most important diseases on broad bean, causing severe yield loss in China. In this study, the pathogens for chocolate spot of broad bean were isolated from Gansu, Qinghai, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Hebei and Chongqing provinces and were identified on the basis of the morphological and molecular characteristics. Three Botrytis species, namely B. fabae, B. cinerea and B. fabiopsis, were found in all of the surveyed provinces. The isolates of each species differed greatly in pathogenicity. However, most isolates of each species showed strong pathogenicity on broad bean. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. fabiopsis in other provinces of our country since the nomenclature of this species in Hubei Province.%蚕豆赤斑病是蚕豆的重要病害之一,严重影响蚕豆生产.本研究通过形态学和分子特征,对采自甘肃、青海、江苏、四川、河北、重庆等6个省市的蚕豆赤斑病病原菌进行鉴定.结果表明,在6个省市均鉴定到蚕豆葡萄孢(Botrytis abae)、灰葡萄孢(B.cinerea)和拟蚕豆葡萄孢(B.fabiopsis)3种病原菌.致病力测定表明:不同地理来源的3种病原菌分离物都存在致病力差异,但均以强致病力分离物为主.本研究是继湖北省之后在其他省市首次发现拟蚕豆葡萄孢.

  4. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  5. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  6. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describ

  7. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  8. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (f) Earthquake; (g) Volcanic eruption; or (h) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if caused by an..., or that could be received, for contract seed beans under a seed bean processor contract if the... total production under contract with the seed company. Beans—Dry beans and contract seed...

  9. New bean seeds and the struggle for their dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Aguilar, E.; Herrera, R.

    2007-01-01

    The northern region of Nicaragua has always been an important bean and maize producing area. But a widespread presence of the Golden Mosaic Virus made it impossible to grow beans in the last years. A Participatory Plant Breeding programme started in 1999, aiming to develop new bean varieties that wo

  10. Origin and diversity of the words for ancient Eurasian grain legumes in Slavic languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Mikic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This short research note aims at demonstrating the importance of the role that grain legumes, such as pea ("Pisum sativum L.", lentil ("Lens culinaris Medik". or field bean ("Vicia faba L.", have been playing in the everyday lives of both modern Slavic nations and their ancestors. This role has been witnessed by rather rich lexicological evidence and supported by attested etymological connections. This note also links Slavic roots to the other members of Indo-European language families and presents their common ProtoIndo-European origins.

  11. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  12. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... individual beans. We would require the beans to be inspected by the Kenyan NPPO and found to be free of..., primarily to the European Union (EU). The EU provides a well-established market and it is unlikely that there would be a large diversion of French bean exports by Kenya from this market to the United...

  13. Complete genome sequence of bean leaf crumple virus, a novel begomovirus infecting common bean in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Zambrano, Leidy; Bueno, Juan M; Raatz, Bodo; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2017-02-10

    A copy of the complete genome of a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia was obtained by rolling-circle amplification (RCA), cloned, and sequenced. The virus is associated with leaf crumple symptoms and significant yield losses in Andean and Mesoamerican beans. Such symptoms have been reported increasingly in Colombia since at least 2002, and we detected the virus in leaf material collected since 2008. Sequence analysis showed that the virus is a member of a distinct species, sharing 81% and 76% nucleotide (nt) sequence identity (in DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively) to other begomoviruses infecting common bean in the Americas. The data obtained support the taxonomic status of this virus (putatively named 'bean leaf crumple virus', BLCrV) as a member of a novel species in the genus Begomovirus.

  14. Improvement of Vicia-micronucleus test for assessment of soil quality: a proposal for international standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltête, Anne-Sophie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2011-11-01

    The Viciafaba root tip micronucleus test is one of the most employed plant genotoxicity assays, and has been used on various types of contaminated materials. This test has been standardized by AFNOR, the French member organization of ISO. However, this test is usually performed with a water extraction step but soil genotoxicity assessment would be more relevant when performed directly in the soil itself. In order to harmonize these protocols, an ISO standard for the V.faba micronucleus test in both liquid phase (exposure of plants to different liquid matrix, including soil water extracts) and solid phase (direct exposure of plants to the soil) would be very useful. In this context, we compared two exposure durations in the solid phase (48 h and 5 d) for the V.faba micronucleus test with two different well-known genotoxicants, maleic hydrazide and copper sulfate. We concluded that these two durations induced equivalent sensitivity: the micronucleus frequency was significantly increased with 5 μmol maleic hydrazide per kg dry soil and with 2 mmol copper sulfate per kg dry soil with both exposure durations. However, exposing roots to soil during 48 h is more practical. Moreover, organically and conventionally cultured seeds were employed to determine whether the seed provenance influenced the test sensitivity. Organic seeds were less sensitive to copper, possibly because copper-based treatments are permitted, and often applied, in organic farms. Therefore, in the absence of completely non-treated seeds, organically-cultured seeds did not appear to offer any advantages over conventional seeds.

  15. Tannin, protein contents and fatty acid compositions of the seeds of several Vicia L. species from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kökten, Kağan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedoils of six Vicia species (Leguminosae were investigated for their protein, tannin contents and fatty acid compositions. The protein contents of the seeds were found to be between 21.87%-31.33%. The tannin contents of the seeds were found to be between 0.13%-1.07%. The fatty acid compositions of these six different species were determined by the GC of the methyl esters of their fatty acids. The oilseeds of Vicia species contain palmitic and stearic acids as the major component of their fatty acids, among the saturated acids, with small amounts of myristic, palmitoleic and margaric acids. The major unsaturated fatty acids found in the oilseeds were oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. In this study, the total saturated fatty acids of Vicia species were between 18.5 and 22.4% while the total unsaturated fatty acids were between 71.1 and 80.3%.

    Las semillas oleaginosas de seis especies de Vicia (Leguninoas fueron investigadas por su proteína, contenido en taninos y composición en ácidos grasos. El contenido de proteína en las semillas vario entre un 21.87%-31.33%. El contenido de taninos en las semillas vario entre un 0.13%- 1.07%. La composición de ácidos grasos de estas seis diferentes especies fue determinada por GC mediante los esteres metílicos de sus ácidos grasos. Las semillas oleaginosas de las especies de Vicia contienen ácidos palmítico y esteárico como componentes mayoritarios entre los ácidos grasos saturados, con pequeñas cantidades de ácido mirístico, ácido palmitoleico y ácido margárico. Los ácidos grasos insaturados mayoritarios encontrados en las semillas oleaginosas fueron el ácido oleico, ácido linoleico y ácido linolénico. En este estudio, el contenido total de ácidos grasos saturado de las especies de Vicia vario entre 18.5 y 22.4% mientras que el de insaturados vario entre 71.1 y 80.3%.

  16. Binding of Shewanella FadR to the fabA fatty acid biosynthetic gene: implications for contraction of the fad regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huimin; Zheng, Beiwen; Gao, Rongsui; Feng, Youjun

    2015-09-01

    The Escherichia coli fadR protein product, a paradigm/prototypical FadR regulator, positively regulates fabA and fabB, the two critical genes for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis. However the scenario in the other Ɣ-proteobacteria, such as Shewanella with the marine origin, is unusual in that Rodionov and coworkers predicted that only fabA (not fabB) has a binding site for FadR protein. It raised the possibility of fad regulon contraction. Here we report that this is the case. Sequence alignment of the FadR homologs revealed that the N-terminal DNA-binding domain exhibited remarkable similarity, whereas the ligand-accepting motif at C-terminus is relatively-less conserved. The FadR homologue of S. oneidensis (referred to FadR_she) was over-expressed and purified to homogeneity. Integrative evidence obtained by FPLC (fast protein liquid chromatography) and chemical cross-linking analyses elucidated that FadR_she protein can dimerize in solution, whose identity was determined by MALDI-TOF-MS. In vitro data from electrophoretic mobility shift assays suggested that FadR_she is almost functionally-exchangeable/equivalent to E. coli FadR (FadR_ec) in the ability of binding the E. coli fabA (and fabB) promoters. In an agreement with that of E. coli fabA, S. oneidensis fabA promoter bound both FadR_she and FadR_ec, and was disassociated specifically with the FadR regulatory protein upon the addition of long-chain acyl-CoA thioesters. To monitor in vivo effect exerted by FadR on Shewanella fabA expression, the native promoter of S. oneidensis fabA was fused to a LacZ reporter gene to engineer a chromosome fabA-lacZ transcriptional fusion in E. coli. As anticipated, the removal of fadR gene gave about 2-fold decrement of Shewanella fabA expression by β-gal activity, which is almost identical to the inhibitory level by the addition of oleate. Therefore, we concluded that fabA is contracted to be the only one member of fad regulon in the context of fatty acid

  17. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  18. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  19. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eBeebe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  20. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  1. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  2. Differences in uptake and distribution patterns between zinc and cadmium in Vicia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PIAO Hechun; LIU Congqiang

    2010-01-01

    Vicia villosa is an annual legume plant. Field-growing experiments were performed on six plots under different soil conditions. Variations in the concentrations of Zn and Cd in tissues were investigated. Differences in distribution patterns between Zn and Cd appeared during growing: the concentrations of Zn in roots in sandstone-derived soils were relatively higher than those in limestone-derived soils, and the uptake patterns of Zn by roots should be similar to those of iron (Fe). However, the concentrations of Cd in roots in limestone-derived soils were higher than those in sandstone-derived soils, and the uptake patterns of Cd by roots should be similar to those of manganese (Mn). On the contrast, the distribution patterns of Zn were similar to those of Mn, while the distribution patterns of Cd were similar to those of Fe in tissues, indicating that the uptake patterns of Zn and Cd were different from distribution patterns.

  3. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl– ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl–) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na+ accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na+ and to ...

  4. Einfluss der Kaliumdüngung auf das Wachstum und die Wassernutzungseffizienz von Ackerbohne (Vicia faba), Sommerweizen (Triticum aestivum) und Tomate (Solanum lycopersicum) unter Kontroll-, Trockenstress- bzw. Salinitätsbedingungen

    OpenAIRE

    Reeb, verh. Gerwers, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, den speziellen Einfluss einer Kalium-(K)-Düngung auf das Pflanzenwachstum herauszustellen. Es wurde untersucht, ob der Wasserhaushalt der Pflanzen durch Kalium verbessert und inwiefern die Wassernutzungseffizienz (WUE) verändert wird. Dabei wurde auch nach speziellen Wirkungen von K auf die Verbesserung der WUE unter Trockenstress- und Salinitätsbedingungen geforscht. Die Verbesserung der WUE könnte auf eine Verringerung des Wasserverbrauches und /...

  5. Ca2+参与NO对蚕豆气孔运动的调控%Involvement of Ca2+ in Stomatal Movements of Vicia faba L. Regulated by Nitric Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 张蜀秋; 娄成后

    2003-01-01

    观察了Ca2+、Ca2+的螯合剂和Ca2+通道抑制剂对NO调控的蚕豆气孔运动的影响.结果表明,NO的供体1~100 μmol/L SNP (sodium nitroprusside,硝普纳)可诱导气孔关闭;除去表皮条缓冲液中的Ca2+后, NO不再影响气孔的运动; Ca2+的螯合剂EGTA和BAPTA几乎可以完全抑制NO诱导的气孔关闭作用;胞内钙通道抑制剂钌红(ruthenium red)和L型Ca2+通道阻断剂硝苯吡啶(nifedipine)能够减弱SNP诱导气孔运动的关闭趋势;加入Ca2+通道抑制剂LaCl3,则外源NO失去其诱导气孔关闭的作用.说明在NO调控的气孔运动中,在NO信号途径的下游可能涉及来自胞内和胞外Ca2+的参与,并且胞外Ca2+更为重要.

  6. 除草剂对蚕豆根尖微核细胞率的影响%The Micronucleus Rate of Root Tip Cells of Vicia faba Induced by Herbicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高惠仙; 张晓红

    2011-01-01

    To explore the impact of herbicides on crops, three herbicides, Paraquat, Butachlor, 2, 4-D butylate were chosen, and the micronucleus test was used to test the toxicity of root tip cells of Viciafaba induced by herbicide. The results showed that, three herbicides all induced the micronuclei effects on root tip cells of Viciafaba, and showed dose-effect relationship. The toxic of Butachlor was higher than 2, 4-D butylate and Paraquat.%为探讨除草剂对经济作物的影响,选择百草枯、丁草胺、2,4-D丁酯这3种除草剂,采用微核方法测定除草剂对蚕豆根尖细胞的毒性.结果表明,3种除草剂均不同程度引起蚕豆根尖微核细胞率的增高,且呈现明显的剂量效应关系;3种除草剂中,丁草胺毒性最高,2,4-D丁酯次之,百草枯最低.

  7. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. In vivo phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in guard cells of Vicia faba L. is enhanced by fusicoccin and suppressed by abscisic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Z.; Aghoram, K.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Plants regulate water loss and CO{sub 2} gain by modulating the aperture sizes of stomata that penetrate the epidermis. Aperture size itself is increased by osmolyte accumulation and consequent turgor increase in the pair of guard cells that flank each stoma. Guard-cell phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, which catalyzes the regulated step leading to malate synthesis, is crucial for charge and pH maintenance during osmolyte accumulation. Regulation of this cytosolic enzyme by effectors is well documented, but additional regulation by posttranslational modification is predicted by the alteration of PEPC kinetics during stomatal opening. In this study, the authors have investigated whether this alteration is associated with the phosphorylation status of this enzyme. Using sonicated epidermal peels (isolated guard cells) pre-loaded with {sub 32}PO{sub 4}, the authors induced stomatal opening and guard-cell malate accumulation by incubation with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with the FC antagonist, 10 {micro}M abscisic acid (ABA). The phosphorylation status of PEPC was assessed by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and autoradiography. PEPC was phosphorylated when stomata were stimulated to open, and phosphorylation was lessened by incubation with ABA.

  8. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  9. Post-transcriptional regulation of NifA expression by Hfq and RNase E complex in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghua Zhang; Guofan Hong

    2009-01-01

    NifA is the general transcriptional activator of nitrogen fixation genes in diazotrophic bacteria. In Rhizobium leguminosarum by. viciae strain 8401/pRL1JI, the NifA gene is part of a gene cluster (fixABCXNifAB). In this study, results showed that in R. leguminosarum by. viciae 8401/pRLI1I, host factor required (Hfq), and RNase E were involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of NifA expression. It was found that Hfq-dependent RNase E cleavage of NifA mRNA was essen-tial for NifA translation. The cleavage site is located at 32 nucleotides upstream of the NifA translational start codon. A possible explanation based on predicted RNA secondary structure of the NifA 5'-untranslated region was that the cleavage made ribosome-binding sites accessible for translation.

  10. Biological Characteristics and Control of Orobanche Crenata Forsk., a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Restuccia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic phanerogam which is particularly noxious to legumes, such as faba bean (Vicia faba L., pea (Pisum sativum L., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., etc., and commonly considered one of the major causes which has contributed to re-rizing the area designed to their cultivation. After a few brief references on the origin and diffusion of O. crenata, in this work summarises the results of research into biological aspects and control of this species. The information obtained especially concerns seed production, seed viability, seed longevity and dormancy, seed conditioning and germination, parasitism phases, the effects of parasite attacks on host plants and the means of control.

  11. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  12. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  13. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  14. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  15. Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ana; Correia, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial...

  16. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  17. Nutritional characteristics of biofortified common beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Brigide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc deficiency can cause anemia and alterations in the immune response and impair work capacity. To minimize this problem, biofortification has been developed to improve and/or maintain the nutritional status of the population. Beans are an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals. The objective of this study is to characterize biofortified beans, quantify the minerals in different cultivars, and determine mineral dialysis. Grains of raw and cooked beans were analyzed for moisture, protein, lipids, fiber, minerals, and in vitro availability using four treatments and one control. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, and the Tukey test (p<0.05. The chemical composition of the raw and cooked treatments showed a moisture content ranging from 13.4 to 81.4%, protein from 22.24 to 31.59%, lipids from 1.66 to 2.22%, fiber from 16.81 to 40.63%, carbohydrates from 27.80 to 34.78%, and ash from 4.1 to 4.82%. Different varieties of beans showed statistically significant differences in iron and zinc content compared to the control cultivar (Pérola. The iron content differed significantly from that of the Pérola cultivar in the raw treatment, while in the cooked treatment, the control cultivar did not differ from the Piratã. The same behavior was observed for the zinc content in both treatments. There was no significant difference between the cultivars in the treatments in terms of the content of the dialysis of Calcium (Ca, Iron (Fe, Magnesium (Mg, and Zinc (Zn.

  18. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  19. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  20. Yam bean oleoresin and seed quality of common bean infested by Acanthoscelides obtectus Say.

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel-Lucio, José Antonio; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo; García-Moya, Edmundo; Fernández-Andrés, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Hernández, Cesáreo; Alvarado-Bárcenas, Estéfana

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of yam bean oleoresin on common bean seed quality and bean weevil control. The oleoresin extract was obtained by the HPLC technique, the presence of rotenone was detected(15 mg/l). Three concentrations of oleoresin extract were tested (Ci, g/ml): C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, …5x10-2); C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,…6x10-2); C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,…9x10-1) and one control treatment per concentration, applied to recipients of 300 ml with 50 g of common bea...

  1. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Ana Maria R. Junqueira; Aragão, Francisco JL; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) ...

  2. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean characteristics in Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora should be taken into considerations in coffee breeding. Beside genetic factor, environment has been known as an important factor in the formation and change of composition of bean characteristics. This research aimed to find out the effect of long dry season on changes of bean characteristics. The population observed consisted of 277 genotypes originated from reciprocal crossings of three parental namely BP 409, BP 961 and Q 121. Observation was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Garden of ICCRI in Jember, East Java during two years with different drought intensity i.e. 2005—2006 and 2006—2007 production years. The result showed that long dry season decreased the range value of population of normal beans, pea beans and triage beans, and followed by decreasing in the mean value except for normal beans. Long dry season also influence the change of value range of empty bean to higher proportion, and followed by increasing in the mean value. Distribution pattern of normal beans tend in to remain at high proportion, in contrast to those of pea and triage beans. In other side, long dry season tended to change distribution pattern of empty beans to at high proportion. Correlation analysis among beans characteristics showed that normal beans had negative correlations with pea beans and empty beans. Pea beans had a positive correlation with empty beans. Long dry season decreased proportion of pea bean and triage bean, in contrast to those of empty beans. Increasing proportion of empty bean was caused by failure of growth to normal bean under stress condition. Key words : Coffee canephora, bean characteristics, long dry season, variation, correlation, composition.

  3. Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa): effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminigo, Ebiokpo R; Metzger, Lloyd E

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pretreatment (soaking in sodium salts and blanching) on hydration coefficient (HC), chemical composition, texture, and color of African yam bean (AYB) was investigated. Soaking in water and in salt solutions increased the HC and about 90% of final HC values were attained at 12 and 4 hr of soaking for whole and dehulled beans, respectively. Protein content was slightly increased by soaking and blanching while ash and fat contents were reduced. Generally, a combination of dehulling and wet-processing reduced firmness of the beans more than soaking or blanching of the whole beans. Antioxidant activity was lowest (3260 TE(3)100 g) in cream-colored beans and highest (16,600 TE/100 g) in brown-colored beans. The tannin contents of unprocessed cream-colored beans and dehulled wet-processed marble variety were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The levels of tannins in the marble variety were reduced by blanching for 40 min (19.2%), soaking for 12 hr (16.0%), dehulling (72.0%), dehulling and blanching (88.8%). The whiteness of bean flours was increased significantly by dehulling, slightly by wet-processing of marble variety, and reduced significantly by wet-processing of cream-colored beans.

  4. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  5. Fatty acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cloning and characterization of the fabAB operon encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabA) and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I (FabB).

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, T.T.; Schweizer, H P

    1997-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabA and fabB genes, encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I, respectively, were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Northern analysis demonstrated that fabA and fabB are cotranscribed and most probably form a fabAB operon. The FabA and FabB proteins were similar in size and amino acid composition to their counterparts from Escherichia coli and to the putative homologs from Haemop...

  6. Microtubules Are Essential for Guard-Cell Function in Vicia and Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Eisinger; David Ehrhardt; Winslow Briggs

    2012-01-01

    Radially arranged cortical microtubules are a prominent feature of guard cells.Guard cells expressing GFPtubulin showed consistent changes in the appearance of microtubules when stomata opened or closed.Guard cells showed fewer microtubule structures as stomata closed,whether induced by transfer to darkness,ABA,hydrogen peroxide,or sodium hydrogen carbonate.Guard cells kept in the dark (closed stomata) showed increases in microtubule structures and stomatal aperture on light treatment.GFP-EB1,marking microtubule growing plus ends,showed no change in number of plus ends or velocity of assembly on stomatal closure.Since the number of growing plus ends and the rate of plus-end growth did not change when microtubule structure numbers declined,microtubule instability and/or rearrangement must be responsible for the apparent loss of microtubules.Guard cells with closed stomata showed more cytosolic GFP-fluorescence than those with open stomata as cortical microtubules became disassembled,although with a large net loss in total fluorescence.Microtubule-targeted drugs blocked guard-cell function in Vicia and Arabidopsis.Oryzalin disrupted guard-cell microtubules and prevented stomatal opening and taxol stabilized guard-cell microtubules and delayed stomatal closure.Gas exchange measurements indicated that the transgenes for fluorescent-labeled proteins did not disrupt normal stomatal function.These dynamic changes in guard-cell microtubules combined with our inhibitor studies provide evidence for an active role of microtubules in guard-cell function.

  7. Plant regeneration from protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Kohn, H; Nibbe, M; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1996-11-01

    Protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis isolated from epicotyls and shoot tips of etiolated seedlings were embedded in 1.4% sodium-alginate at a final density of 2.5×10(5) protoplasts/ml and cultivated in Kao and Michayluk-medium containing 0.5 mg/I of each of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6 -benzylaminopurine. A division frequency of 36% and a plating efficiency of 0.40-0.5% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred onto gelrite-solidified Murashige and Skoog-media containing various growth regulators. Regeneration of plants was achieved via two morphologically distinguishable pathways. A two step protocol (initially on medium with a high auxin concentration followed by a culture phase with lowered auxin amount) was used to regenerate somatic embryos, whereas cultivation on medium containing thidiazuron and naphthylacetic acid resulted in shoot morphogenesis. Mature plants were recovered from both somatic embryos as well as from thidiazuron-induced shoots.

  8. Characterization of the urease gene cluster from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffanin, Annita; Cadahia, Esther; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Palacios, Manuel

    2002-04-01

    Moderate levels of urease activity (ca. 300 mU mg(-1)) were detected in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791 vegetative cells. This activity did not require urea for induction and was partially repressed by the addition of ammonium into the medium. Lower levels of urease activity (ca. 100 mU mg(-1)) were detected also in pea bacteroids. A DNA region of ca. 9 kb containing the urease structural genes ( ureA, ureB and ureC), accessory genes ( ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG), and five additional ORFs ( orf83, orf135, orf207, orf223, and orf287) encoding proteins of unknown function was sequenced. Three of these ORFs ( orf83, orf135 and orf207) have a homologous counterpart in a gene cluster from Sinorhizobium meliloti, reported to be involved in urease and hydrogenase activities. R. leguminosarum mutant strains carrying Tn 5 insertions within this region exhibited a urease-negative phenotype, but induced wild-type levels of hydrogenase and nitrogenase activities in bacteroids. orf287 encodes a potential transmembrane protein with a C-terminal GGDEF domain. A mutant affected in orf287 exhibited normal levels of urease activity in culture cells. Experiments aimed at cross-complementing Ni-binding proteins required for urease and hydrogenase synthesis (UreE and HypB, respectively) indicated that these two proteins are not functionally interchangeable in R. leguminosarum.

  9. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv in the solid-carrier inoculant. In a pot experiment the highest number of nodules was detected on roots of pea plants inoculated with the dual-culture inoculant containing Rlv and A. chroococcum, slightly lower numbers on pea roots inoculated with the mono-culture inoculum of Rlv and almost no nodules were found on the roots of pea un-inoculated (control treatment with the bacteria. In the micro-plot experiment conducted in the years 2011–2012 pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds with the mono-culture inoculant of Rlv or with the mixed inoculant of Rlv and A. chroococcum slightly increased nodule numbers/plant, pod numbers/plant and seed numbers/pod, as compared to the un-inoculated control, but these differences were not reflected in pea seed yields/m2, which were similar in all treatments.

  10. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Wang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC, rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins.

  11. Identification of Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Toxoplasma Proteins by Vicia villosa Lectin Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kevin; Peng, Eric D; Huang, Amy S; Xia, Dong; Vermont, Sarah J; Lentini, Gaelle; Lebrun, Maryse; Wastling, Jonathan M; Bradley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii maintains its intracellular life cycle using an extraordinary arsenal of parasite-specific organelles including the inner membrane complex (IMC), rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules. While these unique compartments play critical roles in pathogenesis, many of their protein constituents have yet to be identified. We exploited the Vicia villosa lectin (VVL) to identify new glycosylated proteins that are present in these organelles. Purification of VVL-binding proteins by lectin affinity chromatography yielded a number of novel proteins that were subjected to further study, resulting in the identification of proteins from the dense granules, micronemes, rhoptries and IMC. We then chose to focus on three proteins identified by this approach, the SAG1 repeat containing protein SRS44, the rhoptry neck protein RON11 as well as a novel IMC protein we named IMC25. To assess function, we disrupted their genes by homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. The knockouts were all successful, demonstrating that these proteins are not essential for invasion or intracellular survival. We also show that IMC25 undergoes substantial proteolytic processing that separates the C-terminal domain from the predicted glycosylation site. Together, we have demonstrated that lectin affinity chromatography is an efficient method of identifying new glycosylated parasite-specific proteins.

  12. Evaluation of several methods for breaking dormancy of bitter vetch seeds (Vicia ervilia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhi Hossein Reza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the effects of different treatments on breaking dormancy and germination of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L. freshly harvested seeds for seeding immediately. Partial scarified seeds (30 seconds with sandpaper were subjected to different treatments including: GA3 (250, 500 and 750 ppm, KNO3 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% w/v, cold stratification (2, 4 and 6 days, sulfuric acid (25, 50 and 75 seconds, hot water (90°C; for 2.5 and 5 minutes, hydropriming via seed soaking in distilled water (4 and 8 hours and mechanical scarification. Among the mentioned treatments, cold stratification for 6 days had a best effect on germination related parameters final germination percentage, mean germination time and vigour indexthan the other periods. In contrast to scarification with acid and hot water, mechanical scarification improved germination parameters but this effect was lower than the cold stratification. The results suggest that bitter vetch seed has both physical and physiological dormancy.

  13. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  14. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  15. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree gro

  16. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to s

  17. Variability for Biological Nitrogen Fixation Capacity in Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    As legumes, common beans have the capacity to form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia and fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Common beans however are considered to be poor nitrogen fixers as compared to other legumes. Identification of genetic variability for N fixation capac...

  18. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  19. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata

      that the distribution of iron is dependant on the genotype. Using immunolocalization, we visualized the localization of  ferritin in mature common bean seeds.   This knowledge can contribute to the discovery of factors that affect the bioavailability of micronutrients and  can contribute to breeding common beans...