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Sample records for bean seed water

  1. Bleaching of browned water yam (Dioscorea alata) with African oil bean seed lipoxygenase (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokwulu, M N

    2004-01-01

    Purified African oil bean seed lipoxygenase was used to bleach water yam tubers that were browned by exposing their cut surfaces to air. The enzyme solution destroyed the polyphenols extracted from the browned water yams and the polyphenols at the browned yam tubers which resulted in the bleaching of the browned yam tubers to their original white colour. The destruction of the polyphenol extract and the bleaching of the browned yam tubers were found to be dependent on the enzyme concentration of the enzyme.

  2. Effect of a bio-extract solution from water convolvulus and gypsum on yield and quality of yardlong bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santipracha, Q.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to determine yardlong bean seed production using an organic farming system by application of a bio-extract solution from water convolvulus rated 1:1,000, gypsum rated 50 kg./rai, anda bio-extract solution from water convolvulus rated 1:1,000 + gypsum rated 50 kg./rai, compared with a conventional method (chemical application for control, was done at the Department of Plant Science,Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai campus, Songkhla, during January-March, 2004. The results showed that yardlong bean with the bio-extract solution, gypsum and the bioextractsolution + gypsum produced seed yield of 40.06, 31.41 and 29.55 kg./rai respectively, which were not different among the treatments but the three treatments were different from the chemical method whichproduced seed yield of 89.78 kg./rai. Regarding the yardlong bean seed quality, all four treatments had highquality with no significantly differences among the treatments. The seed dry weight ranged from 128.54-131.90 mg/seed, standard germination 97.00-98.00%, soil emergence 99.50-100%, speed of germination index 33.16-33.33, and conductivity 27.92-28.31 μmho/cm/gm. The seedling dry weights were not significantlydifferent, and ranged from 73.21-76.00 mg/seedling, except for the gypsum treatment which gave a weight of 67.98 mg/seedling.With accelerated aging, the treatment of bio-extract solution + gypsum had thehighest germination rate of 98.00%, which was significantly different from the bio-extract solution and gypsum treatments which had germination rates of 92.50 and 90.50%, respectively, and the chemical methodwhich had a germination rate of 93.50% was not different from other treatments.

  3. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  4. Proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed as a natural coagulant for potential application in water turbidity removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antov, Mirjana G; Sćiban, Marina B; Petrović, Nada J

    2010-04-01

    The ability of coagulation active proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed for the removal of water turbidity was studied. Partial purification of protein coagulant was performed by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, dialysis and anion exchange chromatography. Adsorption parameters for ion-exchange process were established using dialysate extract. Results revealed that the highest values of the adsorbed protein were achieved in 50 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 and the maximum adsorption capacity was calculated to be 0.51 mg protein/mL matrix. Partially purified coagulant at initial turbidity 35 NTU expressed the highest value of coagulation activity, 72.3%, which was almost 22 times higher than those obtained by crude extract considering applied dosages. At the same time, the increase in organic matter that remained in water after coagulation with purified protein coagulant was more than 16 times lower than those with crude extract, relatively to its content in blank.

  5. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  6. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

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    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  7. Biological treatment to bean seeds before sowing them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Edel Castro Mayo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even in some bibliography about the bean cultivation is recommended the use of Rhizobium which association with the cultivation is very advantageous for the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen, as well as the employment of the antagonistic mushroom Trichoderma spp., for the control of fungous illnesses of the floor and knowing that the cultivation has its fertilization demands and of the plagues control and illnesses that are in definitive the causes that limit the yields of the cultivation, these practices are not used. We proceeded to the disinfection of bean seeds with the resulting solution of the laundry of 1Kg of Trichoderma harzianum of the stock A-34 with 2 liters of water and the mixture of this fluid with 1 Kg of Rhizobium, more a package (134 grams of Gaucho PS 70 for 45.35 kg (100 pounds of t seed. The disinfection of the seed was made by hand, 12 hour before sowing them and the results were very encouraging, so much in the delay of days in appearing the illnesses and the plagues and its low attack intensity as the increase of the yields with relationship to the not treated seed.

  8. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini R.; Carnovale E.; Campion B.

    1999-01-01

    Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show t...

  9. Toxicity of ricin present in castor bean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nayanna Brunna da Silva Fonseca; Benito Soto-Blanco

    2014-01-01

    The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a bush from Euphorbiacea family cultivated for obtaining oil from the seeds. This oil has broad industrial employment, particularly for biodiesel. However, castor bean seeds exhibit a potent toxin, ricin. It is a glycoprotein with highly toxic action of inactivating ribosomes. The toxic action of ricin is due to inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, causing cell death. Only one molecule of ricin that enters the cytosol is able to inactivate...

  10. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollini R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show that removal of phytohemagglutinin results in a higher true protein digestibility. Further modification in the composition of the lectin-related protein family is now under way.

  11. Germination test for identification of gamma-irradiated bean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of germination test for the practical detection of irradiated beans has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if the relationship between the root growth rate and radiation dose could be used to produce a rapid analytical method for identification of irradiated beans. Such detection method could be potentially used for both (a) identification of irradiated food, and (b) for quarantine inspection (to certify that the agricultural product has been irradiated, and the pests present in it do not pose a quarantine risk). Results presented in this paper indicate that the germination test is not always capable of discriminating satisfactorily between irradiated and unirradiated samples of bean seeds, because the sensitivity of the test is often higher than the low doses which are suggested for disinfestation purposes. However, using the germination test, an unexperienced person can easily discriminate untreated bean seeds from those irradiated with 0.3-1.5 kGy doses of gamma radiation. (orig./vhe)

  12. Crop physiological analysis of seed quality variation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Physiological maturity, harvest maturity, earliness, common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., morphological markers, variation, moisture content, dry weight, viability, vigour, electrical conductivity, tetrazolium, seed lot, seed filling, maturation drying, temperature, rainfa

  13. Changes due to cooking and sterilization in low molecular weight carbohydrates in immature seeds of five cultivars of common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Immature seeds of five bean cultivars (flageolet-type and those intended for dry-seed production) were assessed for changes in water-soluble carbohydrates including raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) due to boiling, sterilization, and storage of the sterilized product. About 100 g fresh weight of edible portion of fresh bean seeds contained 2449.3-3182.6 mg total soluble sugars, of which RFOs comprised 44-49%. The highest amounts of these compounds were found in the seeds of the cultivars Laponia and Mona. The dominant oligosaccharide was stachyose. Boiling fresh seeds to consumption consistency reduced total soluble sugars and RFOs: average values were 57% and 55%, respectively. Sterilization in cans resulted in 65% reductions of both total soluble sugars and RFOs. In general, there were no changes in the content of soluble sugars in canned and sterilized products stored for 12 months. PMID:24392956

  14. Changes due to cooking and sterilization in low molecular weight carbohydrates in immature seeds of five cultivars of common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Immature seeds of five bean cultivars (flageolet-type and those intended for dry-seed production) were assessed for changes in water-soluble carbohydrates including raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) due to boiling, sterilization, and storage of the sterilized product. About 100 g fresh weight of edible portion of fresh bean seeds contained 2449.3-3182.6 mg total soluble sugars, of which RFOs comprised 44-49%. The highest amounts of these compounds were found in the seeds of the cultivars Laponia and Mona. The dominant oligosaccharide was stachyose. Boiling fresh seeds to consumption consistency reduced total soluble sugars and RFOs: average values were 57% and 55%, respectively. Sterilization in cans resulted in 65% reductions of both total soluble sugars and RFOs. In general, there were no changes in the content of soluble sugars in canned and sterilized products stored for 12 months.

  15. 厨房废水对绿豆、乌头叶菜豆和鹰嘴豆种子萌发及其生物量的影响%Impacts of kitchen waste water on seed germination and biomass in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek], moth bean(Vigna aconitifolia Jacq.) and gram (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Goel Arti; Porwal Shalini

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨厨房废水对不同作物种子萌发和生物量的影响,为厨房废水利用途径的改进提供参考.[方法]分析厨房废水的生理生化特性,采用不同浓度废水(0,10%,25%,50% and 100%)处理绿豆、乌头叶菜豆和鹰嘴豆种子,探讨其对种子萌发和幼苗茎、根的长度、鲜干重的影响.[结果]厨房废水具有较高的总溶解浓度、化学需氧量和生物需氧量及较低的溶解氧量.经50%厨房废水处理24h后,不同作物种子发芽率均为100%,不同作物的茎、根长度和干、鲜重均达到最高.说明50%厨房废水处理可使不同作物获得最大的生物量.[结论]从餐馆里收集的厨房废水可作为较好的营养基质,用于大规模栽培绿豆、乌头叶菜豆和鹰嘴豆,成本低廉.%[Objective]The present study was done with an aim to investigate the impacts of kitchen waste water on seed germination and biomass of some crop plants.This study will provide the way of utilization of waste water in crop improvement purposes.[Method] In this study,the physico-chemical characteristics of the kitchen waste water were analyzed.Seeds of gram,mung bean and moth bean were treated with different concentrations i.e.0,10%,25%,50% and 100% of kitchen waste water.The effects of different concentrations of kitchen waste on seed germination,length as well as fresh and dry weight of both root and shoot of gram,mung bean and moth bean seedlins after treatment were recorded.[Result]The kitchen waste water had a high value of TDS,COD and BOD,and very low value of DO.50% concentration of kitchen waste water was responsible for 100% germination of seeds of all the crop plants after 24 hours of treatment.All crops showed the highest value of length,fresh and dry weight of shoot and root under treatment of 50% concentration of kitchen waste water.It suggested that maximum biomass of all the three crop plants could be found at 50% concentration of the

  16. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma. PMID:27584560

  17. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma. PMID:27584560

  18. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma.

  19. Water relations in seed biology

    OpenAIRE

    Villela F. A.

    1998-01-01

    The water relations play a fundamental role in seed biology. Thus, the purpose of the present paper was to analyze the performance of water status in seed development and germination. The researches have suggested that the water potential of the seed or seed structures provides a better indicator of the seed water status than water content. The seed water status plays a regulatory role in seed development and germination.

  20. KARAKTERISASI EDIBLE FILM KOMPOSIT PROTEIN BIJI KECIPIR DAN TAPIOKA [Characterization of Composite Edible Film of Winged Bean Seeds Protein and Tapioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Dewi Poeloengasih1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantageous winged bean seeds and tapioca as edible film ingredients are due to its relative abundance, inexpensive, biodegradable and their renewable nature. Research objectives were to isolate protein of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. (DC. seeds and to characterize physical, mechanical and barrier properties of edible film made from protein fraction of winged bean seeds, tapioca and palmitic acid. The first group of edible film was prepared using 1% (w/v of tapioca, 1 – 2,5% (w/v of protein fraction of winged bean seeds and 1% (w/v of sorbitol. Second group of edible film was prepared using 1% (w/v of tapioca, 2,5% of protein fraction of winged bean seeds, 1% (w/v of sorbitol and 0-8% (w/w polymer of palmitic acid. Proximate analysis of protein fraction of winged bean seeds showed that protein, lipid, ash and water content were 57,88%, 29,39%, 1,66% and 7,10%, respectively. Increasing the concentration of protein fraction of winged bean seeds decreased water vapor transmission rate and elongation, and increased thickness and tensile strength. Increasing the concentration of palmitic acid decreased water vapor transmission rate and tensile strength, and increased elongation. Utilization of 1% (w/v of tapioca, 2,5% (w/v of protein fraction of winged bean seeds, 1% (w/v of sorbitol and 8% (w/w polymer of palmitic acid to wrap the fresh-cut apple has significant effect on reducing of weight loss and browning during storage.

  1. Sanitary quality of castor bean seeds (cv. IAC-226

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    Andréia Márcia Santos de Souza David

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the fungicides efficacy on the castor seeds IAC-226 sanitary quality. The seeds were treated with two doses of the fungicides captan (250 and 300 g ai 100 kg-1 seed, thiophanate-methyl (100 and 150 g ai 100 kg-1 seed and thiabendazole (100 and 150 g kg ai 100 seeds. Seeds without fungicide treatment were the control. The seeds sanitary quality was evaluated by sanity test, using 10 replications of 20 seeds per treatment/lot, superficially sterilized (sodium hypochlorite and placed in plastic boxes (gerbox with filter paper and sterilized distilled water, under controlled temperature 25°C for 20 days. Seeds were examinated individually using a stereoscopic microscope and optical microscope. The results were expressed as percentage of infected seeds. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement (2 x 7, two lots and seven treatments, with ten repetitions. The fungicides captan, tiabendazol and tiofanato-metílico reduced the incidence of fungi, being recommended for the castor seeds IAC-226 treatment. There was a predominance of fungi Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Bipolar, Botrytis ricini, Curvularia sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp.

  2. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Gupta; Nidhi Shrivastava; Pramod Kumar Singh; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean acces...

  3. Heat-Induced Structural Changes in Faba Bean Starch Paste: The Effect of Steaming Faba Bean Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczynska, B.; Autio, K.; J. Fornal

    1993-01-01

    Heat-induced structural changes of faba bean starch dispersions were examined at a concentration range of 8-10% as a function of heat treatment. Faba bean starch was isolated from raw (RF-starch) and steamed (SF-starch) faba bean seeds. Hydrothermal treatment resulted in an increase in the amount of non-starch components in the isolated starch. Microstructure of low-sheared 8% starch suspensions heated at 75, 90 and 98°C (for 10 minutes) was studied by light microscopy. Heating induced huge s...

  4. Modified bean seed protein phaseolin did not accumulate stably in transgenic tobacco seeds after methionine enhancement mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major seed storage protein phaseolin of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is deficient in methionine, an essential amino acid for human and animal health. To improve the nutritional quality of common bean, we designed methionine enhancement of phaseolin based on the three dimensional structure...

  5. Extraction and partial purification of coagulation active components from common bean seed

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    Šćiban Marina B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An active coagulation component was extracted from common bean seed by NaCl solution and the obtained crude extract was partially purified through a sequence of steps that included precipitation of protein by ammonium sulphate, desalting by dialysis and anion exchange. A turbid water was treated by protein fractions obtained in the anion- exchange elution process by stepwise increase in NaCl concentration. The jar tests were conducted at various dosages of eluates. Different mode of relation between coagulation activity and applied coagulant dose for each protein fraction indicated the existence of different mechanisms of coagulation/flocculation, depending of characteristics of different proteins in the fractions.

  6. Growth characteristics of mung beans and water convolvuluses exposed to 425-MHz electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinapang, Peeraya; Prakob, Panida; Wongwattananard, Pongtorn; Islam, Naz E; Kirawanich, Phumin

    2010-10-01

    Effects of high-frequency, continuous wave (CW) electromagnetic fields on mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) and water convolvuluses (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) were studied at different growth stages (pre-sown seed and early seedling). Specifically, the effects of the electromagnetic source's power and duration (defined as power-duration level) on the growth of the two species were studied. Mung beans and water convolvuluses were exposed to electromagnetic fields inside a specially designed chamber for optimum field absorption, and the responses of the seeds to a constant frequency at various power levels and durations of exposure were monitored. The frequency used in the experiments was 425 MHz, the field strengths were 1 mW, 100 mW, and 10 W, and the exposure durations were 1, 2, and 4 h. Results show that germination enhancement is optimum for the mung beans at 100 mW/1 h power-duration level, while for water convolvuluses the optimum germination power-duration level was 1 mW/2 h. When both seed types were exposed at the early sprouting phase with their respective optimum power-duration levels for optimum seed growth, water convolvuluses showed growth enhancement while mung bean sprouts showed no effects. Water content analysis of the seeds suggests thermal effects only at higher field strength.

  7. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collection for agromorphological and seed mineral concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of common bean comprising totally 223 genotypes of which 176 genotypes from the USDA, 37 common bean landraces and 10 commercial cultivars from Turkey, evaluated for several agromorphological plant characters and mineral concentrations in seeds. There were wide range of variations for t...

  8. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  9. Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa): effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminigo, Ebiokpo R; Metzger, Lloyd E

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pretreatment (soaking in sodium salts and blanching) on hydration coefficient (HC), chemical composition, texture, and color of African yam bean (AYB) was investigated. Soaking in water and in salt solutions increased the HC and about 90% of final HC values were attained at 12 and 4 hr of soaking for whole and dehulled beans, respectively. Protein content was slightly increased by soaking and blanching while ash and fat contents were reduced. Generally, a combination of dehulling and wet-processing reduced firmness of the beans more than soaking or blanching of the whole beans. Antioxidant activity was lowest (3260 TE(3)100 g) in cream-colored beans and highest (16,600 TE/100 g) in brown-colored beans. The tannin contents of unprocessed cream-colored beans and dehulled wet-processed marble variety were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The levels of tannins in the marble variety were reduced by blanching for 40 min (19.2%), soaking for 12 hr (16.0%), dehulling (72.0%), dehulling and blanching (88.8%). The whiteness of bean flours was increased significantly by dehulling, slightly by wet-processing of marble variety, and reduced significantly by wet-processing of cream-colored beans.

  10. Proximate, functional and pasting properties of FARO 44 rice, African yam bean and brown cowpea seeds composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Iwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available FARO 44 rice, brown cowpea and African yam bean seeds were processed into flours and their proximate, functional and pasting properties were assessed. Functional properties—loose bulk density, packed bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, foam capacity, gelation capacity and swelling index ranged from 0.63 to 0.69 g/ml, 0.84 to 1.00 g/ml, 0.63 to 1.32%, 0.46 to 1.48%, 42.50 to 56.78%, 10.40 to 18.17%, 50.93 to 57.90°C and 0.45 to 0.67, respectively. Proximate and amylose composition ranged as follows; Moisture: 8% (75% rice:25% African yam bean to 14% (100% rice; Protein: 12.86% (100% wheat to 28.13% (50% rice:50% African yam bean; Fat: 1.64% (100% rice to 5.79% (100% cowpea; Ash: 1% (100% cowpea, 75% rice:25% African yam bean, 50% rice:50% African yam bean to 1.97% (25% rice:75% African yam bean; Crude fibre: 0.95% (100% wheat to 6.27% (100% African yam bean; Carbohydrate: 52.62% (50% rice:50% African yam bean to 72.58% (100% wheat and Amylose: 17.13% (100% rice to 28.07% (100% African yam bean. Pasting properties—peak, trough, breakdown, final, peak time and pasting temperature ranged from 128.50 to 245 RVU, 85.08 to 159.25 RVU, 22.08 to 106.75 RVU, 123.58 to 294.33 RVU, 33.50 to 135.08 RVU, 5.18 to 5.92 min and 79.95 to 84.75°C.

  11. New bean seeds and the struggle for their dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Aguilar, E.; Herrera, R.

    2007-01-01

    The northern region of Nicaragua has always been an important bean and maize producing area. But a widespread presence of the Golden Mosaic Virus made it impossible to grow beans in the last years. A Participatory Plant Breeding programme started in 1999, aiming to develop new bean varieties that wo

  12. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L. Seeds and Their Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8.

  13. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3-10 in a molecular weight range of 11-170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6-8. PMID:27239343

  14. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6 h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels

  15. Investigation of isolation conditions and ion-exchange purification of protein coagulation components from common bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of an extraction procedure of protein coagulants from common bean seed regarding concentration of NaCl and pH was performed. High values of protein concentration and coagulation activity in crude extract (9.19 g/l and 23.9%, respectively were obtained when the extraction was performed using 0.5 mol/l NaCl and water as solvent, which represents an advantage for economic and environmental reasons. Crude extract of common bean seed was purified by precipitation at two different percentages of (NH42SO4 saturation, followed by batch ion-exchange chromatography. The highest obtained coagulation activity, 45%, was determined in fraction that was eluated at 1.75 mol/l NaCl from resin loaded with proteins precipitated upon 80-100% (NH42SO4 saturation. High values of coagulation activity showed by some eluates suggest their application as natural coagulant for water purification. .

  16. Allelopathic potential of Hyptis suaveolens on physio-biochemical changes of mung bean seeds

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    Parthapratim Maiti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens is an exotic invasive weed in many areas of West Bengal, India. The allelopathic potential of leaf extracts and leachates of H. suaveolens was investigated on germination and metabolism of mung bean seeds (Vigna radiata cv. K851. The extracts and leachates reduced the germination and seed viability. The insoluble carbohydrates, proteins, and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes were significantly reduced. Amino acid and soluble carbohydrate levels were increased in seeds pretreated with leaf extracts and leachates. The overall biochemical results indicate that various inhibitors present in H. suaveolens impart strong inhibitory effect on mung bean. The leaves of H. suaveolens possess phytotoxic chemicals, which potentially rendered the inhibitory action on mung bean seeds and provided key information for the proper management of H. suaveolens and other invasive weeds showing similar behavior.

  17. Functional properties of proteins from Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chel-Guerrero, L; Gallegos-Tintoré, S; Martínez-Ayala, A; Castellanos-Ruelas, A; Betancur-Ancona, D

    2011-04-01

    Functional properties were identified for the total globulin (TG), 7S and 11S fractions of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds. The 11S component accounted for 58.3% of TGs and the 7S for 41.7%. Solubility was higher in the 7S fraction, especially at alkaline pHs. Water-holding capacity was similar (3 g water/g sample) in both globulin fractions. Oil-holding capacity was higher in the 11S fraction, which also exhibited better foaming capacity and foam stability than the 7S and TG fractions at alkaline pHs. The TG and 7S fractions exhibited low emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability at different pHs (5, 7 and 9), but the 11S fraction had relatively higher values. In suspension at low concentrations, all fractions exhibited shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. The studied Lima bean globulin fractions exhibit functional properties which make them potentially apt for use in some industrial food systems.

  18. Biocontrol of seed pathogens and growth promotion of common bean seedlings by Trichoderma harzianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate isolates of Trichoderma harzianum regarding biocontrol of common bean seed-borne pathogens, plant growth promotion, and rhizosphere competence. Five isolates of T. harzianum were evaluated and compared with commercial isolate (Ecotrich, Carboxin+Thiram, and an absolute control. Bean seeds of the cultivar Jalo Precoce, contaminated with Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were microbiolized with antagonists, and seed health tests were carried out. Isolates were evaluated on autoclaved substrate and in field conditions. Ten days after sowing (DAS, plant length was measured. To test rhizosphere competence, isolates were applied in boxes containing autoclaved washed sand, and root colonization was evaluated at 10 DAS, using five plants per box. The most effective isolates in the seed health tests were: CEN287 and CEN289 to control Aspergillus; the commercial isolate to control Cladosporium; and CEN287 and CEN316 to control S. sclerotiorum. Isolates CEN289 and CEN290 promoted bean growth in greenhouse and field. Seed treatment with T. harzianum reduces the incidence of Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and S. sclerotiorum in 'Jalo Precoce' common bean seeds.

  19. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world, but its production is severely limited by several biotic and abiotic stressors. In search of a sustainable solution to this problem, we conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11...

  20. Water transport in parchment and endosperm of coffee bean

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Martinez, Alejandra; Salgado-Cervantes, M.A.; Rodriguez-Jimenes, G.C.; Garcia-Alvarado, M.A.; Cherblanc, Fabien; Benet, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    International audience This paper aims at contributing to identify the eventual regions where fungus Aspergillus ochraceus could grow and produce ochratoxin A (OTA) during drying of coffee beans. Internal structure of coffee bean was analyzed by optical microscopy for endosperm and parchment. From the expression of the dissipation in the grain due to the water transport, we show that a relationship formally analogous to an equation of diffusion governs the water transport. Three structures...

  1. Internal structure and water transport in the coffee bean

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Martinez, Alejandra; Benet, Jean-Claude; Cherblanc, Fabien; Garcia-Alvarado, M.A.; Rodriguez-Jimenes, G.

    2010-01-01

    Microscope observations gave evidence of the coffee bean structure heterogeneity, whereas, coffee bean isotherms of different parts of grain show not significant difference excluding the parchment. Diffusion tests allowed determining the relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the water content. Therefore we propose an original method to determine the water transfer resistance in different parts of grain including the parchment. The set of results will permit to simulate a coffee g...

  2. Identification of anastomosis group of Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of seed rot and damping-off of bean in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlooli, A; Okhowat, S M; Javan-Nikkhah, M

    2005-01-01

    Bean is one of the major crops in Iran. Seed rot and damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the most important disease of bean. In this research, infected roots and seedlings of beans were collected from different fields of Tehran Province. The samples were sterilized with 10% sodium hypochloride (5% stock) and incubated on PDA surface in petri-dishes. The purified fungi kept on filter paper and identified, pathogenicity test of R. solani was carried out on 2 cultivars of bean (red bean cv. Naz and white bean cv. Dehghan) and it determined. For identification of the anastomosis groups, the discs of cultured media with 5 mm. diameter of standard AG placed on one side of microscopic slides covered with water agar (2%) of 1 mm. thick and the isolates of the fungus on another side of slide about 2 cm away from each other. Experiment carried out in 4 replications. The cultures were incubated in 25 +/- 1 degrees C incubator for 24 hours, then the mycelial contact stained with lactophenol, cotton blue and hyphal anastomosis looked for under the light microscope with 10 x 40 and 10 x 100 magnifications. As a result, anastomosis groups: AG4, AG4HGII, AG2-2-2B and AG6 determined, frequency of these groups were 64, 18, 2, 16%, respectively. The group AG6 and subgroups AG4HGII and AG2-2-2B are introduced as new anastomosis groups on bean in Iran. PMID:16637168

  3. Micro-PIXE investigation of bean seeds to assist micronutrient biofortification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvitanich, Cristina, E-mail: crc@mb.au.dk [Centre for Carbohydrate Recognition and Signalling, Department of Molecular Biology Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Blair, Matthew W.; Astudillo, Carolina [CIAT - Centro International de Agricultura Tropical, Cali (Colombia); Orlowska, Elzbieta; Jurkiewicz, Anna M.; Jensen, Erik O.; Stougaard, Jens [Centre for Carbohydrate Recognition and Signalling, Department of Molecular Biology Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    This study compares the distribution and concentrations of micro- and macronutrients in different bean cultivars with the aim of optimizing the biofortification, a sustainable approach towards improving dietary quality. Micro-PIXE was used to reveal the distribution of Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, P, S in seeds of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus). Average concentrations of elements in different tissues were obtained using ICP-AES. The highest concentrations of Zn in the studied beans were found in the embryonic axis, but an increased concentration of this element was also detected in the provascular bundles of the cotyledons. The first layer of cells surrounding provascular bundles accumulated high concentrations of Fe, while the next cell layer had an increased concentration of Mn. The analysis showed that the provascular bundles and the first cell layers surrounding them could have a significant role in the storage of important seed micronutrients - Zn, Fe, and Mn. This information has important implications for molecular biology studies aimed at seed biofortification.

  4. Italian Common Bean Landraces: History, Genetic Diversity and Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Piergiovanni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The long tradition of common bean cultivation in Italy has allowed the evolution of many landraces adapted to restricted areas. Nowadays, in response to market demands, old landraces are gradually being replaced by improved cultivars. However, landraces still survive in marginal areas of several Italian regions. Most of them appear severely endangered with risk of extinction due to the advanced age of the farmers and the socio-cultural context where they are cultivated. The present contribution is an overview of the state of the art about the knowledge of Italian common bean germplasm, describing the most important and recent progresses made in its characterization, including genetic diversity and nutritional aspects.

  5. Isolation and characterization of culturable seed-associated bacterial endophytes from gnotobiotically grown Marama bean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimwamurombe, Percy Maruwa; Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) is an indigenous non-nodulating legume to the arid agro-ecological parts of Southern Africa. It is a staple food for the Khoisan and Bantu people from these areas. It is intriguing how it is able to synthesize the high-protein content in the seeds since its natural habitat is nitrogen deficient. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of seed transmittable bacterial endophytes that may have growth promoting effects, which may be particularly important for the harsh conditions. Marama bean seeds were surface sterilized and gnotobiotically grown to 2 weeks old seedlings. From surface-sterilized shoots and roots, 123 distinct bacterial isolates were cultured using three media, and identified by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. Phylogenetic analyses of 73 putative endophytes assigned them to bacterial species from 14 genera including Proteobacteria (Rhizobium, Massilia, Kosakonia, Pseudorhodoferax, Caulobacter, Pantoea, Sphingomonas, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium), Firmicutes (Bacillus), Actinobacteria (Curtobacterium, Microbacterium) and Bacteroidetes (Mucilaginibacter, Chitinophaga). Screening for plant growth-promoting activities revealed that the isolates showed production of IAA, ACC deaminase, siderophores, endoglucanase, protease, AHLs and capacities to solubilize phosphate and fix nitrogen. This is the first report that marama bean seeds may harbor endophytes that can be cultivated from seedlings; in this community of bacteria, physiological characteristics that are potentially plant growth promoting are widespread. PMID:27118727

  6. Development of Combined Dry Heat and Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment with Mechanical Mixing for Inactivation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo on Mung Bean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annous, Bassam A; Burke, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh sprouted beans. The sprouting conditions of mung bean seeds provide optimal conditions of temperature and relative humidity for any potential pathogenic contaminant on the seeds to grow. The lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. Thus, the use of a kill step on the seeds prior to a sprouting step would enhance the safety of fresh sprouts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined thermal and chlorine dioxide gas (3.5 mg/liter of air) treatment with mechanical mixing (tumbling) to eliminate Salmonella on artificially inoculated mung bean seeds. Although no viable Salmonella was recovered from seeds treated in hot water at 60°C for 2 h, these treated seeds failed to germinate. Dry heat treatments (55, 60, or 70°C) for up to 8 h reduced Salmonella populations in excess of 3 log CFU/g. The use of tumbling, while treating the seeds, resulted in up to 1.6 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella populations compared with no tumbling. Dry heat treatment at 65°C for 18 h with tumbling resulted in a complete inactivation of Salmonella populations on inoculated seeds with low inoculum levels (2.83 log CFU/g) as compared with high inoculum levels (4.75 log CFU/g). The increased reductions in pathogenic populations on the seeds with the use of tumbling could be attributed to increased uniformity of heat transfer and exposure to chlorine dioxide gas. All treated seeds were capable of germinating, as well as the nontreated controls. These results suggest that this combined treatment would be a viable process for enhancing the safety of fresh sprouts. PMID:25951379

  7. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Sergio O. Serna-Sáldivar; Janet A. Gutiérrez-Uribe

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and ph...

  8. Application of semi-selective mediums in routine diagnostic testing of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola on common bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Popovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Halo blight, caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (Psp, is considered to be an important bacterial disease on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Serbia. Use of pathogen-free seeds is one of the most effective control measures against this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate a detection method for Psp on untreated common bean seeds (23 genotypes from commercial crops grown within Serbia. Detection of this pathogen was made by plating onto the modified sucrose peptone (MSP and Milk Tween (MT semi-selective mediums from soaked whole common bean seed. Colonies growing on the MSP medium were light yellow, convex and shiny, whereas on the MT medium, they were creamy white, flat and circular. The pathogenicity of the obtained strains was confirmed by the inoculation of germinated bean seed. The isolates recovered from the seed assay were further confirmed to be Psp by using both Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (Nested-PCR detection methodologies. The International Seed Testing Association (ISTA method selected for this work was found to be effective in detecting the presence of Psp in common bean seed. The bacterium Psp was detected in only two of the 23 seed samples analyzed by this method, which shows that the bacterium is not widespread in Serbia.

  9. Purification and some properties of African oil bean seed lipoxygenase--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokwulu, M N

    2003-11-01

    Lipoxygenase was extracted from African oil bean seed and purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE--cellulose column. The enzyme was purified 79.63 fold and 36% of the enzyme activity was recovered. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 102,000 daltons and the peroxide value was 10.56 x 10(-3) mM. The Vmax was 0.14 OD min-1 while the Km value was 1.92 x 10(-4) M. The enzyme had an optimum pH of 7.0 and optimum temperature of 30 degrees C. While diethyl-dithiocarbamate was the best inhibitor of the enzyme's oxidation of linoleic acid, nordihydroguiaretic acid was the best antioxidant for its oxidation of the fatty acid. African oil bean seed lipoxygenase had high enzyme activity of 86% when compared to soybean lipoxygenase (considered to be the best source of the enzyme). This means that African oil bean seed is a good source of lipoxygenase for biotechnology such as the bleaching of browned yam tubers.

  10. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility.

  11. Influence Mf Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Yield and Seed Quality of French Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Kakon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the research field of Agronomy Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur during Rabi (winter season of 2010-11 to 2011-12 to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on yield and seed quality of French bean. A randomized complete block design was followed with ten treatment combinations such as N0P0, N0 P44, N50 P44, N100 P44, N150 P44, N200 P44, N150P0, N150P22, N150P33 and N150P55. Number of pods and yield of French bean were significantly increased with the increase in N (150 and P (44 kg ha--1. Averaged over the years, maximum number of pod (9.45 plant-1 and seed yield (1563.33 kg ha-1 were obtained when N and P were applied at the rate of 150 and 44 kg ha-1, respectively while lowest yield to N0P0 treatment in both the years. The treatment (N150P44 kg ha-1 gave the highest seed yield which was 51.4 and 54.30% higher than the control. Quality in terms of germination percentage and vigour index of harvested seed was also significantly influenced by higher doses of N and P while the lowest seed quality from plants that received no fertilizer in both the years.

  12. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity.

  13. Disasters and development in agricultural input markets: bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainville, Denise Y

    2003-06-01

    The bulk of developing countries' populations and poor depend on agriculture for food and income. While rural economies and people are generally the most severely affected by natural disasters, little is known about how disasters and subsequent relief activities affect agricultural markets with differing levels of development. The article addresses this gap, drawing evidence from bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Case studies are used to address hypotheses about a disaster's effects on supply and demand in seed markets, farmers' responses and the performance of relief interventions in markets showing differing levels of development. The results show the importance of tailoring relief interventions to the markets that they will affect and to the specific effects of a disaster; the potential to use local and emerging seed distribution channels in a relief intervention; and opportunities for relief activities to strengthen community seed systems. PMID:12825438

  14. KARAKTERISASI EDIBLE FILM KOMPOSIT PROTEIN BIJI KECIPIR DAN TAPIOKA [Characterization of Composite Edible Film of Winged Bean Seeds Protein and Tapioca

    OpenAIRE

    C Dewi Poeloengasih1); Djagal W Marseno2)

    2003-01-01

    The advantageous winged bean seeds and tapioca as edible film ingredients are due to its relative abundance, inexpensive, biodegradable and their renewable nature. Research objectives were to isolate protein of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. (DC.)) seeds and to characterize physical, mechanical and barrier properties of edible film made from protein fraction of winged bean seeds, tapioca and palmitic acid. The first group of edible film was prepared using 1% (w/v) of tapioca, 1 Ã...

  15. WATER NEEDS FOR WINTER BEAN CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Klar

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of water use by bean winter crop (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., cv. Carioca was carried out in a Red Yellow Latosol, clay texture. A furrow irrigation system maintained soil water potentials higher than -40 KPa. Two broadcast nitrogen treatments (0 and 30 kg N/ha were applied 25 days after planting. The major objectives were to study the nitrogen and evapotranspiration interaction and measure the crop coefficients (Kc. The maximum average evapotranspiration (ETm was 1.71 mm/day, or 157.16 mm over 92 days of observations; the ETm values for the vegetative (1, flowering (2 and pod formation (3 phases were 1.48, 2.35, and 1.50 mm/day, respectively, for the 30 kg/ha nitrogen treatment, and 1.48, 1.88 and 1.45 mm/day for the no nitrogen treatment. The crop coefficients (Kc = ETm / ETo were 0.62 and 0.78 for the phase 1, 0.80 and 1.10 for the phase 2, 0.45 and 0.55 for the phase 3 and 0.61 and 0.80 for the entire cycle, based on the FAO-Penman and Class A Pan reference methods (ETo, respectively. The latter one was the best approach to estimate maximum water use by winter bean crop. Nitrogen treatments did not affect evapotranspiration significantly. However, the measured evapotranspiration obtained from the water balance method was 59.78 and 27.12% higher in the flowering than in the vegetative phase, respectively, under 30 and 0 kg N/ha.Um estudo sobre o uso de água do feijoeiro de inverno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca foi realizado num solo Latossol Vermelho Amarelo de textura argilosa. Um sistema de sulcos de infiltração foi usado para proceder a irrigação com o intuito de manter o solo em potenciais de água superiores a -40,0 KPa. Duas doses de aplicação de N em cobertura (0 a 30 Kg N/ha foram colocados 25 dias após o plantio. Os principais objetivos do estudo foram: avaliar a interação entre as duas doses de N com a evapotranspiração e medir os coeficientes de cultura (Kc. A evapotranspiração média máxima (ETm foi 1,71 mm

  16. Viability and stability of biological control agents on cotton and snap bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M L; Des Jardin, E A; Batson, W E; Caceres, J; Brannen, P M; Howell, C R; Benson, D M; Conway, K E; Rothrock, C S; Schneider, R W; Ownley, B H; Canaday, C H; Keinath, A P; Huber, D M; Sumner, D R; Motsenbocker, C E; Thaxton, P M; Cubeta, M A; Adams, P D; Backman, P A; Fajardo, J; Newman, M A; Pereira, R M

    2001-08-01

    Cotton and snap bean were selected for a multi-year, multi-state regional (south-eastern USA) research project to evaluate the efficacy of both commercial and experimental bacterial and fungal biological control agents for the management of damping-off diseases. The goal for this portion of the project was to determine the viability and stability of biological agents after application to seed. The biological seed treatments used included: (1) Bacillaceae bacteria, (2) non-Bacillaceae bacteria, (3) the fungus Trichoderma and (4) the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Seed assays were conducted to evaluate the following application factors: short-term (seed treatment; quality (i.e. isolate purity); compatibility with chemical pesticides and other biocontrol agents; application uniformity between years and plant species. For the bacterial treatments, the Bacillaceae genera (Bacillus and Paenibacillus) maintained the greatest population of bacteria per seed, the best viability over time and the best application uniformity across years and seed type. The non-Bacillaceae genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas had the least viability and uniformity. Although Beauveria bassiana was only evaluated one year, the seed fungal populations were high and uniform. The seed fungal populations and uniformity for the Trichoderma isolates were more variable, except for the commercial product T-22. However, this product was contaminated with a Streptomyces isolate in both the years that it was evaluated. The study demonstrated that Bacillaceae can be mixed with Trichoderma isolates or with numerous pesticides to provide an integrated pest control/growth enhancement package. PMID:11517723

  17. Characteristics and Composition of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhuoria, Esther U.; Aiwonegbe, Anthony E.; Okoli, Peace; Idu, Macdonald

    The African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed was analyzed for its proximate composition. The seed oil was also analyzed for mineral content and physicochemical characteristics. Proximate analysis revealed that the percentage crude protein, crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate were 9.31, 21.66, 39.05 and 38.95%, respectively. The percentage oil content was 47.90% while the ash content was 3.27%. Results of minerals analysis showed that calcium had the highest concentration of all the elements analyzed and were found to be of the order: Ca > Mg > Pb > Fe > Mn > P > Cu. The low iodine value of the seed oil showed that it can be classified as non-drying oil and thus not suitable for paint and polish production. However, the low acid and free fatty acid values suggest its utilization as edible oil.

  18. Distribution of implanted ions in seeds and roots of mung bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuDong-Hua; HouWen-Qiang

    1998-01-01

    Doses of 1×1016,and 2×1016cmand 1×1016,2×1016,3×1016and 3.6×1016cm-2 for iron and cpper ioons are implanted in dry seeds of mung bean,respectively.The results show that the accumulated-copper and -iron ion amounts in the seeds and rrots vary with different doses of ion beam,and the fresh and dry weights of the roots decresase progressively with increasing iron and copper doses,except the treatment of 1×1016 Cu+ ions/cm2,and the accumulated-copper and -iron ion amounts in the seeds of the different test groups can be correlated with the ion distribution in the roots.

  19. A highly efficient and thermostable α-amylase from soya bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Jaiswal, Nivedita

    2010-12-01

    The α-amylase from soya bean seeds was purified by affinity precipitation, resulting in approx. 20-fold purification with approx. 84% recovery. The purified α-amylase had an optimum pH of 5.5, optimum temperature of 75 °C, Arrhenius energy of activation of 6.03 kcal/mol (1 kcal≈4.184 kJ) and a Km of 2.427 mg/ml (starch substrate). The enzyme had maximum substrate specificity for starch. Among the various metal ions tested, Co2+ and Mn2+ were found to be strong activators. The effect of thiol group modifying agents showed that the thiols of soya bean α-amylase are not directly involved in catalysis. The thermostability of the enzyme makes it suitable for starch liquefaction and the detergent industry respectively.

  20. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. PMID:27109374

  1. Water infiltration in an ultisol after cultivation of common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida do Nascimento dos Santos; Elói Panachuki; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho; Paulo Tarso Sanches de Oliveira; Dulce Buchala Bicca Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Water infiltration in the soil is an important hydrological process that occurs at the interface of the soil-atmosphere system; thus, the soil management practice used has a strong influence on this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate water infiltration in the soil and compare equations for estimating the water infiltration rate in an Ultisol after harvesting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under simulated rainfall. Field tests with a rainfall simulator were carried out in thre...

  2. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  3. Water binding in legume seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    The physical status of water in seeds has a pivotal role in determining the physiological reactions that can take place in the dry state. Using water sorption isotherms from cotyledon and axis tissue of five leguminous seeds, the strength of water binding and the numbers of binding sites have been estimated using van't Hoff analyses and the D'Arcy/Watt equation. These parameters of water sorption are calculated for each of the three regions of water binding and for a range of temperatures. Water sorption characteristics are reflective of the chemical composition of the biological materials as well as the temperature at which hydration takes place. Changes in the sorption characteristics with temperature and hydration level may suggest hydration-induced structural changes in cellular components.

  4. Influence of the organic matter and soil water deficit on the castor bean absolute growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Even when under low precipitations conditions, the castor bean production decrease, it constitutes a very good alternative. It has an elevated economical importance, because from the plant it is used their leaves, stem and seeds. From the stem it is obtained cellulose for the paper industry, from the leaves textile products and from the seeds oil and tort. The oil is the only glycerin soluble in alcohol and the base for several industrial products such as the biodiesel. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean, BRS 188 cultivar rate growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) regressions were used. It was observed that both, organic matter and available water for plants proportionated benefit effects to the growth rate of the plant. (author)

  5. Characterization and Utilization of castor bean seed oil extract for production of medicated soap.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrasheed A; Aroke U. O; Muazu M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The research work is to investigate the potential utilization of castor bean seed oil extract in the production of medicated soap. The oil was extracted via soxhlet extractor using hexane as solvent. The characterization analysis reveals the acid value and saponification value of the oil which were between the ranges of values specified by ASTM. The soap produced gave a pH of (8.9), foam height (16cm), alcohol insoluble (3.45%), moisture content (4.2%) and free acidity of (0.10). The antibact...

  6. Nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) seeds from plants chronically exposed to ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Di Maro, Antimo; Bernasconi, Silvana; Burlini, Nedda; Simonetti, Paolo; Picchi, Valentina; Panigada, Cinzia; Gerosa, Giacomo; Parente, Augusto; Faoro, Franco

    2009-01-14

    The effect of chronic exposure to ozone pollution on nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) seeds from plants grown in filtered and nonfiltered open-top chambers (OTCs) has been investigated. Results showed that, among seed macronutrients, ozone significantly raised total lipids, crude proteins, and dietary fiber and slightly decreased total free amino acid content, although with a significant reduction of asparagine, lysine, valine, methionine, and glycine, compensated by a conspicuous augmentation of ornithine and tryptophan. Phytosterol analysis showed a marked increase of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol in seeds collected from nonfiltered OTCs. With regard to secondary metabolites, ozone exposure induced a slight increase of total polyphenol content, although causing a significant reduction of some flavonols (aglycone kaempferol and its 3-glucoside derivative) and hydroxycinnamates (caffeic, p-coumaric, and sinapic acids). Total anthocyanins decreased significantly, too. Nevertheless, ozone-exposed seeds showed higher antioxidant activity, with higher Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values than those measured in seeds collected from filtered air.

  7. The water budget of rainfed maize and bean intercrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S.; Ogindo, H. O.

    Food production in the South African Development Community (SADC) region is predominantly under rainfed conditions and therefore experiences annual fluctuations due to the rainfall variability. Although the staple food of maize ( Zea mays) is commonly grown in the same field as dry beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris) little work has been done to characterize the soil water budget of this intercropping system. The evapotranspiration can theoretically be divided into transpiration from the leaves and evaporation from the soil surface. However, it is difficult to separate the components in field studies. In this paper the Ritchie model is used to estimate the soil surface evaporation using the fractional radiation interception which depends on the crop leaf area. The intercropping system has higher leaf area than the sole crops of both maize and beans in all seasons. Therefore, the soil surface is shaded and the canopy is more dense resulting in a lower soil surface evaporation. The water budget thus gives a higher value of transpiration for the intercrop during each of the four growing seasons. This appears to be due to the complimentary use of the water resources by the maize and bean plants in the intercropping system. This illustrates the ability of the intercrop to use the available soil water in a semi-arid environment more productively. Thus the experience of the small-holder farmers in the SADC region is based on sound physical principles of water use by the two crops.

  8. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans.

  9. Kinetic analysis of the thermostability of peroxidase from African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabinus Oscar Onyebuchi EZE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A major problem in the storage and marketing of processed African oil bean seeds is its high deterioration rates due to the undesirable activity of peroxidases. The effect of heat treatment on the activity of peroxidase (POD from African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla seeds was studied over a range of 30°C to 80°C. A simple first-order reaction which assumes a biphasic thermoinactivation curves was used to study the denaturation of this enzyme. Results suggested that peroxidase is a stable enzyme with a Z-value as low as 0.0147. This indicates that it is more sensitive to increase in temperature than to the duration of the heat treatment making high temperature short time treatment a technique to be used for its inactivation. The results of the thermodynamic investigations indicated that the oxidation reactions were: (a not spontaneous (ΔG > 0 for peroxidase at 323oK, and at all the temperatures (2 slightly endothermic (ΔH > 0 at 323 K and (3 reversible (ΔS < 0 at all the temperatures under study.

  10. Characterization and Utilization of castor bean seed oil extract for production of medicated soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research work is to investigate the potential utilization of castor bean seed oil extract in the production of medicated soap. The oil was extracted via soxhlet extractor using hexane as solvent. The characterization analysis reveals the acid value and saponification value of the oil which were between the ranges of values specified by ASTM. The soap produced gave a pH of (8.9, foam height (16cm, alcohol insoluble (3.45%, moisture content (4.2% and free acidity of (0.10. The antibacterial activity of soap produced from castor oil on bacteria isolate (Staphylococcus Aureus was promising with an inhibition zone of 15.5mm but at dilutions of 10-1 , 10-2 and 10-3 , were found to be 11.5mm, 9.5mm and 6mm respectively. This shows that as concentration decreases, the sensitivity of the soap to the bacteria isolate also decreases. The sensitivity of the medicated soap to the bacteria isolate is as a result of the presence of ricinoleic acid present in large proportion in the fatty acid composition of castor oil. It can be concluded that a highly effective soap can be produced from castor bean seed oil extract.

  11. Engineering soya bean seeds as a scalable platform to produce cyanovirin-N, a non-ARV microbicide against HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Barry R; Murad, André M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Ramessar, Koreen; Saucedo, Carrie J; Wilson, Jennifer; Buckheit, Karen W; da Cunha, Nicolau B; Araújo, Ana Claudia G; Lacorte, Cristiano C; Madeira, Luisa; McMahon, James B; Rech, Elibio L

    2015-09-01

    There is an urgent need to provide effective anti-HIV microbicides to resource-poor areas worldwide. Some of the most promising microbicide candidates are biotherapeutics targeting viral entry. To provide biotherapeutics to poorer areas, it is vital to reduce the cost. Here, we report the production of biologically active recombinant cyanovirin-N (rCV-N), an antiviral protein, in genetically engineered soya bean seeds. Pure, biologically active rCV-N was isolated with a yield of 350 μg/g of dry seed weight. The observed amino acid sequence of rCV-N matched the expected sequence of native CV-N, as did the mass of rCV-N (11 009 Da). Purified rCV-N from soya is active in anti-HIV assays with an EC50 of 0.82-2.7 nM (compared to 0.45-1.8 nM for E. coli-produced CV-N). Standard industrial processing of soya bean seeds to harvest soya bean oil does not diminish the antiviral activity of recovered rCV-N, allowing the use of industrial soya bean processing to generate both soya bean oil and a recombinant protein for anti-HIV microbicide development.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of pretreatment and preservation on macro- and microelements retention in flageolet (Phaseolus vulgaris L. bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Słupski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Legume seeds, including beans, are a good source of mineral constituents. The level of these compounds depends among other factors, on the species, cultivar and the methods of processing applied. However, there are no studies in the literature which deal with the content of mineral constituents in physiologically immature bean seeds. Material and methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of ash and 13 mineral constituents in immature seeds of three bean cultivars. The investigation included raw, blanched and cooked seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: a frozen product obtained using the traditional method (blanching-freezing-frozen storage-cooking; a frozen product obtained using the modified method (cooking-freezing-frozen storage-defrosting and heating in a microwave oven; and a sterilized canned product. Results. The application of technological processes; the storage of frozen and sterilized products; and the preparation of frozen products for consumption had an effect on minerals content in finished products. The frozen product obtained using the modified method retained greater amounts of the investigated elements (apart from calcium, lead and cadmium than the traditional frozen product. Canned bean seeds retained less ash, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and iron than the products of the two ways of freezing, while the retention of the remaining constituents depended on the cultivar. Conclusions. Modified method of freezing of immature bean seeds resulted in greater retention of the investigated components in products prepared for consumption than the traditional method of freezing or canning.  

  13. Premeability measurements of castor-bean seed indicative of cold-test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS, C A

    1960-04-01

    The conductivity and reducing-sugar content of water extracts of seeds were found to be correlated with stands produced under conditions favoring pre-emergence damping-off. Conductivity proved to be a rapid method of predicting relative differences in cold-test stands from lots of seed of the same variety. PMID:13837926

  14. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment. PMID:26589321

  15. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment.

  16. Chemical Composition and Sensory and Pasting Properties of Blends of Maize-African Yam Bean Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Atinuke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to improve the nutritional content of maize flour by incorporating African yam bean (an underutilized crop with high nutritional value and to evaluate its effect on the chemical, sensory and pasting properties of the flour blends. Maize and African yam bean seed were processed into flours at ratios 100:0; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40 and 0:100 and used to produce tuwo, a maize-based meal, its sensory attributes being evaluated. Chemical and pasting properties of the flour blends were determined. Crude protein (9.61- 14.71%, crude fibre (1.34-5.81%, total ash (1.39-2.09% and sugar (4.11-6.01% contents increased while fat (4.53-3.94%, amylase (24.18-11.40%, starch (66.66-51.15% contents and some of the sensory qualities decreased significantly (p0.05 from control sample. Among the pasting parameters, final viscosity and break down viscosity reduced while peak viscosity and trough viscosity increased with increasing quantity of AYBF.

  17. TOTAL AND FRACTIONAL CONTENTS OF PROTEINS IN BEAN SEEDS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF VARIED FERTILISATION WITH MICROELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KOZERA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 2003-2005 at the Experiment Station at Wierzchucinek at the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, there was performed a strict one-factor micro-plot experiment in split-splot design. The factor tested was a type of microelements [n=5: Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, B]. The microelements were foliar sprayed in a chelated form, as the series of Symfonia fertilizers. The study aimed at comparing the effect of five agricultural-engineering basic microelements on the contents and protein composition of the seeds of Aura cultivar. The fertilization applied, boron and manganese in particular, showed an effect on the increase in the contents of total protein in bean seeds. It also modified the fractional composition of the bean seed protein. There was observed a clear increase in the fraction of albumins and globulins in seeds as a result of the microelements applied, except for boron. The fertilization with molybdenum, boron, copper and zinc reduced the content of glutelins, and the sum of glulelins and prolamines in the bean seeds.

  18. Comparative Proximate and Elemental Analysis of Four Species of Cowpea Beans Seed Coat (Vigna Ungucuilata in Enugu State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ape David I

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is an important bean which play significant role in the diets of Africans. It serves as a major source of protein in the absence of sufficient animal protein for the population. Four varieties large white beans seed coat (LWB small white beans seed coat (SWB large brown beans seed coat (LBB and small brown beans seed coat (SBB of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata were analyzed for their proximate and elemental contents. These varieties belong to the same species in the family leguminosae. The brown and white seed coats were found to be nutritious. Both contained carbohydrate, protein, fibres and minerals such as calcium, magnesium, manganese and phosphorus. The moisture content was found to be 9.70 and 14.0% for (LWB and (SWB, and 11.20 and 10.80% for (LBB and (SBB respectively with the (SWB having the higher amount. The carbohydrate content analyzed was found to be 9.0 and 10.81% for (LWB and (SWB, and 8.40 and 7.80% for (LBB and (SBB with the (SWB having the higher value. The oil content was 0.37 and 0.21% for (LWB AND (SWB and 0.41 and 0.29% for (LBB and (SBB. The crude fibre was 70.55 and 68.20% (LWB AND (SWB and 68.17 and 70.01% for (LBB and (SBB respectively. The protein was 2.28 and 1.98% for (LWB AND (SWB and 2.52 and 2.40% for (LBB and (SBB respectively. The ash content was 8.1 and 4.8% for (LWB AND (SWB and 9.3 and 8.7% for (LBB and (SBB. The elemental analysis in the four species gave the following ranges:- Mg from 0.72 – 0.49ppm with (SWB having highest concentration and (LBB with lowest, Ca from 3.10 – 2.29ppm with (LBB highest and (LWB lowest, Mn from 0.31 – 0.18ppm with (LWB highest concentration and (SBB having the least, and finally P from 0.03 – 0.01ppm with (LBB with highest concentration and (SWB least concentration. From the analyses carried out it shows that cowpea beans seed coats are a good nutritional food source with higher crude fibre content.

  19. Genotypic variability in faba bean (vicia faba L.) for seed yield and protein content under drought stress during vegetative and Reproductive Stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faba bean (viciafaba L.) is subjected to drought stress during different growth stages. In this study, variability in seed yield and protein content was investigated when drought occurred during the vegetative and reproductive stages. Twenty two genotypes of faba bean were field evaluated under three levels of drought stress at two locations in the Sudan. The three levels of drought were normal watering (non-stress), drought during the vegetative stage and drought during the reproductive stage. Data were collected on yield and vegetative traits and protein content. The results showed that yield, as well as other traits, were reduced by drought. The genotypes exhibited significant differences for 100 seed weight, plant height and protein content. The interaction between the genotypes and drought was significant for yield/plant. Some genotypes were more sensitive when drought occurred during the vegetative stage, some when drought occurred during the vegetative stage, and others were more stable under the three levels of drought. yield/plant showed significant covariance with pods/plant and plant height. The association between different characters varied according to trait and the time of drought incidence. The correlation of yield/plant with protein content was negative under all drought levels, and the average correlation coefficient was 0.32. It could be concluded that the specific adaptation and the wide adaptation have great implication for improving faba bean under drought. To select for high seed yield under drought, secondary characters, such as pods/plant and plant height could be of great importance. Drought could reduce protein content and affect its association with yield/plant.(Author)

  20. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Hassan, Amro B; Osman, Gammaa A M; Mohammed, Nagat; Rushdi, Mohamed A H; Diab, Eiman E; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2014-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction on tannin content for both cultivars. Cooking of faba bean seeds also insignificantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced phytic acid content for both cultivars, while irradiation process and/or cooking had fluctuated effect. For both cultivars, irradiation of seeds and/or cooking increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), with maximum value of IVPD (79.97%) obtained for cultivar BB7-S1. The results indicate that the treatments used in this study might improve the nutritive quality of faba bean seed due to reduction in antinutritional factors with a concomitant increase in IVPD.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P≤0.05) reduction on tannin content for both cultivars. Cooking of faba bean seeds also insignificantly (P≤0.05) reduced phytic acid content for both cultivars, while irradiation process and/or cooking had fluctuated effect. For both cultivars, irradiation of seeds and/or cooking increased the invitro protein digestibility (IVPD), with maximum value of IVPD (79.97%) obtained for cultivar BB7-S1. The results indicate that the treatments used in this study might improve the nutritive quality of faba bean seed due to reduction in anti-nutritional factors with a concomitant increase in IVPD.(author)

  3. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  4. Role of bacteria isolates in the spoilage of fermented African oil bean seed ugba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwamaka, Nwagu Tochukwu; Chike, Amadi; Obiajulu, Alaekwe

    2010-05-15

    Study was carried out to determine the spoilage association of traditionally fermented ugba, product of African oil bean seed. Samples were collected from three markets within Enugu metropolis in Eastern Nigeria. Microbial population of ugba was isolated, characterized and identified. Effect of time on product quality, total viable cell count and individual growth pattern of isolates was evaluated. Microorganisms isolated were Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus epidermidis, E. coli, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. Initial viable cell count increased from 4.6 x 10(8) -6.2 x 10(8), 6.0 x 10(9) -6.9 x 10(9) and 3.9 x 10(8) -5 x 10(8) cfu g(-1) by the 4th day for samples from Mayor, Kenyatta and Garki markets, respectively. Organoleptic changes in texture and colour were seen to be a factor of time of storage. A decline in growth of Proteus sp., E. coli, Klebsiella sp. and S. epidermidis by the 4th day of storage was observed for all samples. Viable cells of B. licheniformis increased from 6.1 x 10(7) -17.7 x 10(7) cfu g(-1), 13.9 x 10(8) -20.0 x 10(8) and 8.7 x 10(7) -15.5 x 10(7) by the 4th day of storage for samples from Mayor, Kenyatta and Garki markets respectively. Growth of B. subtilis increased from 9.2 x 10(7) -19.9 x 10(7), 14.9 x 10(8) -21.2 x 10(8) and 11.5 x 10(7) -17.2 x 10(7) cfu g(-1) for samples from Mayor, Kenyatta and Garki markets respectively. Our results indicate that ugba spoilage is primarily a result of the continued activity of African oil bean seed fermentative organisms B. subtilis and B. licheniformis.

  5. Water uptake curve in physic nut seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Caetano Pimenta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is a useful species in oil production for energy purposes, however its agricultural crop counts on little scientific knowledge. This work aimed to determine the water uptake curve in physic nut seeds, with the purpose to help future researches depending on this information. Two batches of seeds were used, represented by two sub-samples (intact seeds and dead seeds of each batch. The water uptake curve was determined weighing samples at specified intervals of time. A fully randomized experimental delineation was applied, with two treatments and four repetitions of 10 seeds each. Data were submitted to Bartlett, Anova and Turkey tests; regression equations were adjusted for the uptake curves. It was concluded that Jatropha curcas seeds follow the three-phases water uptake pattern , being phase I between 0 and 15h, phase II between 15h and 60h and phase three starting after 60h.

  6. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination, oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium. [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effect of metabolic fluxes among different storage materials. Addition of glutamine led to a 7% increase of labeling in lipids and an inverse decrease of labeling in carbohydrates. It was postulated that changes in the glutamine concentration in the medium are likely to influence the partitioning of resources between the various storage products, especially carbohydrates and oil. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of assimilate partitioning in developing castor seeds and the development of molecular strategies to improve castor bean seed quality and plant breeding studies.

  7. Minerals and chosen heavy metals retention in immature common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds depending on the method of preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Słupski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Legumes are a good source of protein, and are also abundant in carbohydrates, B-group vita­mins, dietary fibre and mineral compounds. Material and methods. This work evaluates the retention of ash, eleven minerals and two heavy metals in products obtained from two common bean cultivars harvested before reaching full maturity, with a diy mat­ter content of about 40%. Analyses were conducted on raw, blanched and cooked seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: two frozen and one canned (sterilized. The former com­prised two types of frozen product: one traditionally produced (blanching-freezing-frozen storage-cooking, the other a convenience, "ready-to-eat" product obtained using a modified method (cooking-freezing-frozen storage-defrosting-heating to consumption temperature in a microwave oven. Results. In cooked bean seeds of both cultivars, levels of potassium, calcium, magnesium and copper were significantly lower, the only exception being the content of ash and sodium (due to added salt, than in blanched seeds; the changes in the remaining components were not so clear-cut and depended on the cultivar. Seeds frozen using the modified technology generally showed higher levels of the elements investigated than frozen products produced traditionally, with the exception of chromium, nickel and lead. Sterilized seeds had lower levels of ash, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper and chromium com­pared with both types of frozen product; retention levels of individual components depended on the cultivar examined. Conclusions. Compared with the traditionally produced frozen product, prepared for consumption, seeds after modified method of freezing (convenience food contained significantly higher levels of ash and all macroelements, regardless of the cultivar. Seeds preserved by sterilization, compared with frozen seeds (ei­ther method of production prepared for consumption

  8. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  9. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  10. Certain physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects of kidney bean plants originating from gamma-irradiated seeds during seed germination and plant development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of kidney bean (phaseolus vulgaris cv. Giza 6) were irradiated with different dosages of gamma rays (2.5-15.0 k.rad) and germinated under laboratory conditions or sown in soil. The produced seedlings and growing plants at different stages of development were analysed for some physiological and biochemical events. In addition, SDS-PAGE profile of the harvested seeds was investigated. Results obtained revealed that the germination potential of kidney bean seeds and growth criteria of the produced seedlings were mostly highly significantly increased due to irradiating the seeds with the relatively low dosages of gamma rays (2.5 and 5.0 K. rad). The contents of DNA, RNA, protein-N, total-N, poly-saccharides and total sugars were substantially increased. This was at the expense of amino-N, glucose and sucrose contents coupled with a reduced leakage of the soluble metabolites from the seedlings. The growth parameters and yield components of plants exhibited mostly high significant increases with concomitant marked increases in the contents of auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3)and cytokinins (BA). On the other hand, all the aforementioned indices underwent a reverse pattern of change as a consequence of irradiating the seeds with 10.0 and 15.0 K.rad. SDS-PAGE profile of proteins extracted from the seeds harvested from plants originated from the seeds irradiated with 2.5 or 150.0 K.rad exhibited a disappearance of one protein band(M.W: 69.83 kDa) or four ones (M.W:69.83, 61.14, 51.29 and 46.86 kDa), respectively. The total number of protein bands remained unchanged in case of 5.0 and 10.0 k.rad exposure. Moreover, the intensities of protein in the existed bands showed variable changes

  11. Domestication of small-seeded lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) landraces in Mesoamerica: evidence from microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andueza-Noh, Rubén H; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Chacón-Sánchez, María I

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the Mesoamerican small-seeded landraces of Lima bean may have been domesticated more than once in Mesoamerica, once in central-western Mexico and another one in an area between Guatemala and Costa Rica. However, these findings were based on sequencing of only one locus from nuclear DNA, and additional confirmation was needed. Here we contribute with additional data on the origin of the Mesoamerican landraces and document the founder effect due to domestication. We characterized 62 domesticated, 87 wild and six weedy Lima bean accessions with ten microsatellite loci. Genetic relationships were analyzed using genetic distances and Bayesian clustering approaches. Domestication bottlenecks were documented using inter-population comparisons and M ratios. The results support at least one domestication event in the area of distribution of gene pool MI in central-western Mexico and also show that some landraces are genetically related to wild accessions of gene pool MII. Also, our data support founder effects due to domestication in Mesoamerican Lima bean landraces. Although we could not establish more specifically the place of origin of the Mesoamerican Lima bean landraces, our results show that these are not a genetically homogeneous group, a finding that may be compatible with a scenario of more than one domestication event accompanied by gene flow. The complex genetic makeup of landraces that we found indicates that a more comprehensive geographic and genomic sampling is needed in order to establish how domestication processes and gene flow have shaped the current genetic structure of landraces.

  12. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  13. Factors Affecting Water Permeability of Aleurone Layer in Soybean Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Hiroko; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the immersion condition of soybean seeds on the water permeability in aleurone layer was investigated to clarify the water permeability at the initial stage of water sorption. The amounts of water absorbed in seeds coated with only aleurone layer (embryos uncovered with seed coat) and untreated seeds (embryos covered with seed coat and aleurone layer; intact seeds) were compared under several conditions of temperature, pH, ion species, and salt concentration. The relative weight...

  14. Soy bean seed-coat, potential renewable raw-material for alcohol production

    OpenAIRE

    Kailash Chandra Srivastava

    1984-01-01

    The seed coat was shaken for different periods of time, from 12 hr to 96 hr in sterile distilled water pre-adjusted to pH 8. The contents of the flask filtered and pH adjusted to 4.6. Next the solution was heated for 20 min at 90° C in a water bath, filtered and media prepared from the filtrate. These media were inoculated with 10% volume of a strain of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. The suspension shaken on a rotary shaker at 250 rpm and 30°C ± 1°C for 48 hr after which the culture filtrate was d...

  15. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

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    Shigeaki Ueno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa.

  16. Preparation of bioactive peptides with high angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity from winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.] seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohtar, Wan Abd Al-Qadr Imad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Muhamad, Sharifah Kharidah Syed; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-12-01

    Winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.] seed is a potential underexploited source of vegetable protein due to its high protein content. In the present work, undefatted and defatted winged bean seed hydrolysates, designated as UWBSH and DWBSH, respectively were produced separately by four proteolytic enzymes namely Flavourzyme, Alcalase, Bromelain, and Papain using pH-stat method in a batch reactor. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out over a period of 0.5 to 5 h. UWBSH and DWBSH produced were tested for their ACE inhibitory activity in relation to the hydrolysis time and degree of hydrolysis (DH). Maximum ACE inhibitory activity, both for UWBSH and DWBSH, were observed during 3 to 5 h of hydrolysis. Both, UWBSH (DH 91.84 %), and DWSBH (DH 18.72 %), produced by Papain at 5 h hydrolysis, exhibited exceptionally high ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 value 0.064 and 0.249 mg mL(-1), respectively. Besides, papain-produced UWBSH and DWBSH were further fractionated into three fractions based on molecular weight (UWBSH-I, <10 kDa; UWBSH-II, <5 kDa; UWBSH-III, <2 kDa) and (DWBSH-I, <10 kDa; DWBSH-II, <5 kDa; DWBSH-III, <2 kDa). UWBSH-III revealed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 0.003 mg mL(-1)) compared with DWBSH-III (IC50 0.130 mg mL(-1)). The results of the present investigation revealed that winged bean seed hydrolysates can be explored as a potential source of ACE inhibitory peptides suggesting their uses for physiological benefits as well as for other functional food applications. PMID:25477632

  17. Seeds with high molybdenum concentration improved growth and nitrogen acquisition of rhizobium-inoculated and nitrogen-fertilized common bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fátima Delgado Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris with high molybdenum (Mo concentration can supply Mo plant demands, but to date no studies have concomitantly evaluated the effects of Mo-enriched seeds on plants inoculated with rhizobia or treated with N fertilizer. This work evaluated the effects of seed Mo on growth and N acquisition of bean plants fertilized either by symbiotic N or mineral N, by measuring the activities of nitrogenase and nitrate reductase and the contribution of biological N2 fixation at different growth stages. Seeds enriched or not with Mo were sown with two N sources (inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with N, in pots with 10 kg of soil. In experiment 1, an additional treatment consisted of Mo-enriched seeds with Mo applied to the soil. In experiment 2, the contribution of N2 fixation was estimated by 15N isotope dilution. Common bean plants grown from seeds with high Mo concentration flowered one day earlier. Seeds with high Mo concentration increased the leaf area, shoot mass and N accumulation, with both N sources. The absence of effects of Mo application to the soil indicated that Mo contents of Mo-enriched seeds were sufficient for plant growth. Seeds enriched with Mo increased nitrogenase activity at the vegetative stage of inoculated plants, and nitrate reductase activity at late growth stages with both N sources. The contribution of N2 fixation was 17 and 61 % in plants originating from low- or high-Mo seeds, respectively. The results demonstrate the benefits of sowing Mo-enriched seeds on growth and N nutrition of bean plants inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with mineral N fertilizer.

  18. Detailed analysis of seed coat and cotyledon reveals molecular understanding of the hard-to-cook defect of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jianyong; Njoroge, Daniel M; Sila, Daniel N; Kinyanjui, Peter K; Christiaens, Stefanie; Bi, Jinfeng; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2016-11-01

    The hard-to-cook (HTC) defect in legumes is characterized by the inability of cotyledons to soften during the cooking process. Changes in the non-starch polysaccharides of common bean seed coat and cotyledon were studied before and after development of the HTC defect induced by storage at 35°C and 75% humidity for 8months. Distinct differences in the yields of alcohol insoluble residues, degree of methoxylation (DM), sugar composition, and molar mass distribution of non-starch polysaccharides were found between the seeds coat and cotyledons. The non-starch polysaccharide profiles, both for seed coats and cotyledons, significantly differed when comparing HTC and easy-to-cook (ETC) beans. In conclusion, differences in the structure, composition and extractability of non-starch polysaccharides between the ETC and HTC beans confirmed the significant role of pectin polysaccharides in interaction with divalent ions in the HTC development, which consequently affect their cooking behaviors. PMID:27211674

  19. Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fiber in Cooked Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Joe S.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1989-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) requires cooking for extended periods of time prior to consumption. In this investigation both quantitative and microstructural changes in common bean dietary fiber as a result of cooking were examined. Cooking resulted in a slight decrease in soluble dietary fiber and a marked increase in insoluble dietary fiber. The increase in insoluble dietary fiber was responsible for a 15 -30 percent increase in total dietary fiber. Scanning electron microscopy wa...

  20. Physiological Effect of Aluminum Stress to Broad Bean Seeding%铝胁迫对蚕豆幼苗生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋桂芳

    2012-01-01

    利用水培方法,研究了不同质量浓度铝对蚕豆种子的萌发及幼苗生理特性的影响.结果表明,低质量浓度铝(< 50 mg/L)对蚕豆生长有促进作用,根系活力、株高、鲜质量有所增加;随着铝质量浓度的升高,蚕豆种子萌发率下降、生长受阻,根系活力及叶绿素含量下降,可溶性蛋白含量有所降低,丙二醛含量升高,过氧化物酶活性上升,表现出铝胁迫对蚕豆生长的抑制作用,尤其是高质量浓度( ≥500 mg/L)的抑制作用最为明显.%The effect of aluminum solution on germination of broad bean seed and physiological characteristics of seedling was studied under different treatments of aluminum with the water culture method. The result showed that the vigor of root systems and the weight of plant were promoted with lower mass concentration ( > 50 mg/L) of aluminum. The germination of broad bean, vigor of root, growth of plants and the chlorophyll were injured and decreased under the increase of aluminum concentration, however the MDA was increased. The young broad bean seedling was inhibited under the high aluminum concentration.

  1. Irrigation water demand of common bean on field and regional scale under varying climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wagner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation plays an important role in the world's food production and its role is expected to increase still further. For policy makers, the quantification of the irrigation water demand and the water availability on a regional scale is crucial. In the project ‘SAPHIR’, a new stochastic framework was developed to upscale crop yield and crop water demand from irrigation experiments with common bean to the regional scale using the one-dimensional mechanistic crop model Daisy. The crop model parameters – derived based on a comprehensive experimental data collection and a sound calibration of the crop model – were used to simulate potential bean yield, yield reduction due to drought stress, and crop water demand in mid and northern Saxony, Eastern Germany, using the dominant soil characteristics. The stochastic relationship between irrigated water and crop yield (stochastic crop water production function enabled the prediction of the crop productivity on a regional scale. Furthermore, the available water resources for irrigation on the catchment scale were compared to the predicted irrigation water requirements to estimate the degree of local water self sufficiency. The simulation results show that an irrigation of common bean has high yield effects especially in locations with low precipitation during the growing season or for soils with a low water storage capacity. Especially in the drier northern parts of Saxony with its lower soil water storage capability, a decrease in non-irrigated fresh matter bean yield up to 40 % is predicted for the future. Irrigation and the projected increasing temperature can enhance the bean yield in southern Saxony. However, the required amount of irrigation water in northern Saxony can only be delivered by down to 20 % and less from the local precipitation. The presented framework enables policy makers to compare water demand and available water which allows a precise estimation of relevant

  2. The Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside after 2-Week Administration of Black Bean Seed Coat Extract in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Lee, Jongtae; Hong, Taegon

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the pharmacokinetics of C3G on data from twelve subjects, after 2-week multiple dosing of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Cheongjakong-3-ho) seed coat extract, using the mixed effect analysis method (NONMEM, Ver. 6.2), as well as the conventional non-compartmental method. We also examined the safety and tolerability. The PK analysis used plasma concentrations of the C3G on day 1 and 14. There was no observed accumulation of C3G after 2-week multiple dosing of black bean seed coat extract. The typical point estimates of PK were CL (clearance)=3,420 l/h, V (volume)=7,280 L, Ka (absorption constant)=9.94 h-1, ALAG (lag time)=0.217 h. The black bean seed coat extract was well tolerated and there were no serious adverse events. In this study, we confirmed that a significant amount of C3G was absorbed in human after given the black bean seed coat extract. PMID:22915990

  3. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Tako

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 μg Fe/g and a biofortified (SMC; 106 μg Fe/g, were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively. In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05. In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05. Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05, indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore

  4. Effect of heat treatment on the proximate composition, energy values, and levels of some toxicants in African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seed varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeike, Eugene N; Omubo-Dede, Tina T

    2002-01-01

    The effects of heat treatments on the proximate composition, energy content, and levels of some antinutritional factors in brown and marble-colored African yam bean (AYB) seed flours were investigated. In raw brown and marble-colored AYB seed flours; moisture content, dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash, total carbohydrate and caloric value did not differ significantly at the 5% level. Autoclaving and cooking slightly increased the moisture level. Crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents were decreased by autoclaving and were further decreased by cooking. The decrease was not, however, considerable for the AYB that is not eaten raw and whose full nutritional potential as a legume can be derived only when heat treated, as previous reports have indicated for legume seeds. The levels of the toxicants were generally higher in the raw brown AYB compared to the marble-colored, and were generally reduced by both autoclaving and cooking. In the most commonly available and consumed marble-colored AYB, autoclaving at 121 degrees C, 15 psi for 20 min decreased cyanogenic glycosides by 46%, oxalate by 48.9%, tannin by 15.0%, saponin by 14.8% and trypsin inhibitors by 61.3% while cooking for 3.5 hours in tap water decreased these toxic factors by 66.5%, 70.3%, 72.2%, 48.7%, and 86.0%, respectively. The results indicate that for raw samples, varietal difference did not significantly affect nutrient composition though the toxicants were generally higher in the brown AYB than the marble-colored. Autoclaving decreased both nutrient value and the level of toxicants in the two seed types; values were further reduced by cooking. Of the toxicants, trypsin inhibitor was found to be the most heat-labile and of the heat treatment methods, cooking to tenderness is recommendable.

  5. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polania, Jose A.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  6. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polania, Jose A; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  7. Pré-condicionamento das sementes de mamoneira para o teste de tetrazólio = Preconditioning of castor bean seeds for the tetrazolium test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Gaspar-Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi padronizar a metodologia de pré-condicionamento das sementes de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. para a avaliação do potencial fisiológico pelo teste de tetrazólio. Testaram-se os seguintes métodos de pré-condicionamento: sementes com tegumento entre papel umedecido a 30, 35 e 40ºC por 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 e 18h; sementes sem tegumento entre papel umedecido e sementes com tegumento imersas em água a 25, 30, 35 e 40º C por 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 e 6h. Após o pré-condicionamento, removeu-se o tegumento das sementes, que foram cortadas no sentido do comprimento e imersas na solução de tetrazólio a 0,2%, por 120 min., a 35ºC. Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação das sementes, o teor de água, antes e após a embebição, e a uniformidade na coloração das sementes após o teste de tetrazólio. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, e a comparação de médias realizada pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Concluiu-se que o pré-condicionamento para o teste detetrazólio deve ser realizado nas sementes de mamoneira com tegumento, entre papel toalha umedecido, a 35ºC por 12h para que os resultados desse teste assemelhem-se aos obtidos no teste de germinação.This research had the objective of standardizing the methodology for preconditioning of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. seeds for the evaluation of their physiological potential by the tetrazolium test. The evaluated seed preconditioning methods were: seeds with coatbetween moist paper towel at 30, 35 and 40ºC for 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 hours; and seeds without coat between moist paper towel; and seeds with coat immersed in water, at 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours. After preconditioning, the seed coat was removed, the seeds were cut lengthwise, and immersed in tetrazolium solution at a concentration of 0.2% for 120 minutes at 35ºC. The seeds’ germination percentage, moisture content before and after

  8. Effect of fermentation period on the organic acid and amino acid contents of Ogiri from castor oil bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojinnaka, M-T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To monitor the changes in the concentration of organic acid and amino acid contents during the fermentation of castor oil bean seed into ogiri.Methodology and results: In this study, ogiri, a Nigerian fermented food condiment was prepared from castor oil bean using Bacillus subtilis as a monoculture starter for the production of three different fermented castor oil bean condiment samples: B1 (0% NaCl/lime, B2 (2% NaCl, B3 (3% lime. Variations in the composition of the castor oil bean with fermentation over 96 h periods were evaluated for organic acid and amino acid contents using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Organic acids were detected in the fermented castor oil bean samples as fermentation period increased to 96 h. Organic acids identified were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, succinic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The lactic acid contents in sample B1 (0% NaCl/lime decreased initially and then increased as the fermentation period progressed. The value at 96 h fermentation was 1.336 µg/mL as against 0.775 µg/mL at 0 h fermentation. Sample B3 (3% lime had lactic acid content that increased as fermentation period increased with lactic acid content of 1.298 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation. The acetic acid content of sample B1 increased as fermentation progressed and at 96 h fermentation, its value was 1.204 µg/mL while those of B2 and B3 were 0.677 µg/mL and 1.401 µg/mL respectively. The three fermented castor oil bean samples also contained sufficient amount of amino acids. Sample B1 had the highest values in isoleucine glycine and histidine with values 1.382 µg/mL, 0.814 µg/mL and 1.022 µg/mL respectively while sample B2 had the highest value in leucine content with 0.915 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation, closely followed by sample B3 and B1 with 0.798 µg/mL and 0.205 µg/mL respectively. The results of amino acid analysis indicated a high concentration of all amino acids at 96 h of fermentation

  9. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of vitamin C in immature seeds of five cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Słupski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Legumes are usually consumed when physiologically mature, as dry seeds, however, flageolet beans seeds are also consumed immature. They are harvested when dry matter content is about 40%, pods are filled, grown, seeds succulent, showing green or light green colour and do not require lengthy thermal processing when prepared for consumption. Material and methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin C content in immature seeds of five bean cultivars harvested when dry matter content was 40%. The analysis included raw, blanched and cooked fresh seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 0, 4, 8 and 12 months of storage: frozen products obtained using the traditional method (blanching–freezing–frozen storage–cooking, frozen products obtained using a modified method (cooking–freezing–frozen storage–thawing and heating in a microwave oven, a ready-to-eat product to consumption at ambient temperature, and canned products obtained by sterilization. Results. The application of technological processes, frozen and sterilized products storage, and the preparation for consumption had a cumulative effect in retention vitamin C content on final products. Conclusion. Comparing frozen seeds obtained by modified method with seeds treated by traditional method, generally, this one could retain more vitamin C. Canned seeds retained significantly less vitamin C than other frozen products.  

  10. Performance of Mashona doelings supplemented with different levels of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L. DC. var. utilis) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Mutema, Nyasha; Chimonyo, Michael; Bakare, Archibold Garikai; Mapiye, Cletos

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of feeding increasing levels of velvet bean seed meal (VBM; 0, 12, 24, and 36 %) on the performance of Mashona doelings. Dry matter intake was lower (P < 0.05) for the control diet compared to VBM diets, but linearly declined (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of VBM. Average daily weight gain was significantly different between experimental groups. Doelings' final live weights and average daily gains were slightly higher in control group than other three supplemented groups where they linearly declined (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of VBM. The cost per kilogram of feed, however, decreased with high inclusion level of VBM. Result suggested that high inclusion level of VBM negatively influenced the growth of young goats probably due to the presence of some anti-nutritional factors which needs further investigation. PMID:24756463

  11. Scientists Grow Therapeutic Protein in Engineered Soya Bean Seeds to Prevent AIDS | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified soya beans provide a scalable, low-cost method of producing microbicides that prevent AIDS, a technique sustainable for resource-poor countries where AIDS is spreading rapidly. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, more than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV. While the number of AIDS-related deaths are decreasing, infection rates are still increasing, specifically in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  12. Cultivation Techniques of Water-permeability Plastic Membrane Mulching on Mung Bean%绿豆渗水地膜覆盖栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂梅; 冯高; 邢宝龙; 郭新文; 张旭丽; 刘飞

    2013-01-01

    With wate-permeability plastic film mulching cultivation techniques,the mung bean yield increase obvi-ously.The details of mung bean water-permeability plastic film mulching cultivation technique measures were intro-duced from aspects of selection,soil preparation,seed selection,planting,field management and pest control for ref-erence.%采用渗水地膜覆盖栽培技术,可明显提高绿豆单产。从选地、整地、选种、播种、田间管理、病虫害防治等方面详细介绍了绿豆渗水地膜覆盖的栽培技术措施,以供参考。

  13. Soy bean seed-coat, potential renewable raw-material for alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Chandra Srivastava

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available The seed coat was shaken for different periods of time, from 12 hr to 96 hr in sterile distilled water pre-adjusted to pH 8. The contents of the flask filtered and pH adjusted to 4.6. Next the solution was heated for 20 min at 90° C in a water bath, filtered and media prepared from the filtrate. These media were inoculated with 10% volume of a strain of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. The suspension shaken on a rotary shaker at 250 rpm and 30°C ± 1°C for 48 hr after which the culture filtrate was distilled and the amount of alcohol measured according to the alcoholometry tables of the U.S. Pharmacopeias. Thus up to 1.3% of alcohol could be obtained.Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados sobre obtenção de álcool a partir de casca de soja. A casca foi agitada por diferentes períodos de tempo de 12h a 96h em água destilada esterilizada, pré-ajustada para pH 8. Os conteúdos do frasco foram filtrados, o pH ajustado para 4,6; os conteúdos cozidos, esfriados e filtrados. Os filtrados com ou sem suplementação com extrato de levedura, peptona e glicose em conjunto ou separadamente foram usados como mosto para fermentação por S. cerevisiae. As suspensões foram agitadas a 250 rpm e 30° C ± l°C48h, e após este período, a quantidade de álcool calcula­da de acordo com a tabela alcoolométrica da Farmacopia dos Estados Unidos, foi de até 1.3%.

  14. INFLUENCE OF PEROXYACETYL NITRATE (PAN) ON WATER STRESS IN BEAN PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to 395 micrograms/cu m (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant water potential of PAN-sensitive 'Provider' resulting in visible wilting and reduced ...

  15. Organic matter and soil water content influence on BRS 188 castor bean growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has been highlighted due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) were used regressions. The castor bean cultivar height was significantly influenced by the organic matter content only after 80 days. Castor bean height increased significantly with the soil water content after 40 days of growing. (author)

  16. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  17. Low gamma radiation dose effect on germination and initial growing of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds; Efeito de baixas doses de radiacao gama na germinacao de sementes de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Silva, Anderson de O. Melo [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.br; Marsico, Eliane T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos]. E-mail: elianee@vm.uff.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work we analyze the effect of low gamma irradiation doses and low concentrations of sodium alginate on the germination and growing of black beans seeds. The seeds were obtained from an organic farmer at Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State. The seeds were submitted to radiation doses between 0 and 150 Gy with a Cobalt 60 source in a Gammacell Excel 220 Nordion Irradiator with a dose rate of 70 Gy/min. After germination the seeds were left to grow three weeks on a hydroponics system. The system used was the water culture with nutritive solution that was supplemented with the nutritional needs for plant grows. We also tested the influence of the sodium alginate on the plant grows. A 4% solution of sodium alginate in distilled water was irradiated with 120 kGy gamma ray dose. Concentrations of sodium alginate irradiated and non-irradiated varying from 50 to 500 {mu}g/g were used in the hydroponics' solution. After three weeks the mass and the height of the plant were measured. Statistic analyses of he result with the SAS program show that there was no significant difference between the height and mass of seeds submitted different doses, but irradiated solution of sodium alginate with concentration of 400 and 500 {mu}g/g present a significant difference on plant grow. (author)

  18. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  19. Genetic Dissection of ICP-Detected Nutrient Accumulation in the Whole Seed of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Wu, Xingbo; Bhandari, Devendra; Astudillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P) is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S) concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for nine additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn, and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B) and calcium (Ca) had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed. PMID:27014282

  20. Genetic dissection of ICP-detected nutrient accumulation in the whole seed of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Blair

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K and magnesium (Mg are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu, iron (Fe, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for 9 additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B and calcium (Ca had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed.

  1. 莲子绿豆糕的制作工艺研究%Research on Production Technology of Lotus Seed Green Bean Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑妍

    2013-01-01

    以绿豆、莲子为主要原料,制作一种新型糕点莲子绿豆糕。以莲子粉与绿豆粉比例、加糖量、加油量、烤制时间、烤制温度为单因素,以正交试验确定最佳制作工艺条件。试验结果表明,莲子绿豆糕最佳工艺条件为:烤制温度为130℃、烤制时间为30 min、莲子粉与绿豆粉比例为1∶2、加油量11 mL。%Green beans,lotus seeds were used to produce a new type of cake as the main raw material.According to the orthogonal experiment , superior production conditions were obtained taking the proportion of green beans and lotus seeds ,the amount of sugar ,the amount of edible oil ,the baking time and the baking temperature as the single factor. The results of the experiments showed that optimum conditions were that baking temperature was 130℃,baking time was 30 min,the proportion of green beans and lotus seeds was 1∶2,the amount of edible oil was 11 mL.

  2. Effects of arsenic on seed germination of mung bean and black soybean%砷对绿豆和黑豆种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万梦雪; 王敏; 周馥荔; 杨兰芳

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element both to animals and plants ,and arsenic pollution may reduce the crop yields and threat to food safety .An experiment germinating mung bean and black soybean seeds by arsenic addition in sands was conducted to understand the effect of arsenic on seed germination ,in which the situation of seed germination was observed and the percentage of seed germination and germination weight was determined . The results showed that 1 mg kg-1 arsenic addition stimulated the mung bean and black soybean seed germination and increased about 12% of the germination weight ,but the seed germination was significantly suppressed when the arsenic addition was over 5 mg kg-1 , and thereafter the suppression to seed germination was increased with the increasing of arsenic concentrations .The highest decreasing rate of percentage of seed germination and the germination weight at 6 days after incubation was 88 .2% and 56 .2% for mung bean and 57 .9%and 43 .6% for black soybean ,respectively .The suppression of arsenic to seed germination of mung bean and black soybean in the same arsenic level decreased with incubation time .Under the same high arsenic concentration ,such as 15 and 20 mg kg -1 ,the seed germination percentage of black soybean was higher than that of mung bean ,while the suppression rate to the percentage of seed germination of black soybean was lower than that of mung bean .Both germination rate and germination weight , the half maximal inhibitory concentration of black soybean seeds was higher than that of mung bean seeds .It was concluded that the seed germination of mung bean and black soybean was promoted by low arsenic addition and suppressed by over 5 mg kg-1 arsenic addition and the arsenic toxicity to seed germination was the declination of percentage of seed germination and germination weight , germination retardation and the short buds , but the arsenic tolerance of black soybean seeds was stronger than that of mung bean seeds .%为了

  3. Tritiated water retention on maize and beans after an acute contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although tritium is released in large quantities into environment by nuclear industries and peaceful radioisotope utilization, its behavior is not well known. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring an international study group to obtain more information about tritiated water (HTO) behavior in different ecological systems. This paper presents the studies made on corn and beans after an acute application of tritiated water during their early stages of growth on an experimental field. Sampling and radiochemical analytical methods of tritium and its behaviour on that plants during their growth cycle are outlined. It is shown that the tritiated water retention plot has at least two components, with effective half lifes of about 10 and 100 days for corn, and 8 and 40 days for beans. (author)

  4. Proteomic profile of the nucellus of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Soares, Emanoella L;

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of nucellus from two developmental stages of Ricinus communis seeds by a GeLC-MS/MS approach, using of a high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer, which resulted in the identification of a total of 766 proteins that were grouped into 553 protein...

  5. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Ambachew; Firew; Mekbib; Asrat; Asfaw; Stephen; E.Beebe; Matthew; W.Blair

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot(BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly; iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress.In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  6. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ambachew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM. The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii unprotected against bean fly; iii irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  7. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ambachew; Firew Mekbib; Asrat Asfaw; Stephen E. Beebe; Matthew W. Blaird

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly;iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  8. Adaptation to High Temperature and Water Deficit in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. during the Reproductive Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hide Omae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the adaption to heat and drought stresses in Phaseolus vulgaris, a grain and vegetable crop widely grown in both the Old and New World. Substantial genotypic differences are found in morphophysiological characteristics such as phenology, partitioning, plant-water relations, photosynthetic parameters, and shoot growth, which are related to reproductive responses. The associations between (a days to podding and leaf water content and (b the number of pods per plant and seed yield are consistent across different environments and experiments. Leaf water content is maintained by reductions in leaf water potential and shoot extension in response to heat and drought stress. Heat-tolerant cultivars have higher biomass allocation to pods and higher pod set in branches. These traits can be used as a marker to screen germplasm for heat and drought tolerance. In this paper, we briefly review the results of our studies carried out on heat and drought tolerance in the common bean at the Tropical Agriculture Research Front, Ishigaki, Japan.

  9. Effect of Peptide Size on Antioxidant Properties of African Yam Bean Seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort F. Ajibola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysate of African yam bean seed protein isolate was prepared by treatment with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further fractionated into peptide sizes of < 1, 1–3, 3–5 and 5–10 kDa using membrane ultrafiltration. The protein hydrolysate (APH and its membrane ultrafiltration fractions were assayed for in vitro antioxidant activities. The < 1 kDa peptides exhibited significantly better (p < 0.05 ferric reducing power, diphenyl-1-picryhydradzyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities when compared to peptide fractions of higher molecular weights. The high activity of < 1 kDa peptides in these antioxidant assay systems may be related to the high levels of total hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids. In comparison to glutathione (GSH, the APH and its membrane fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05 ability to chelate metal ions. In contrast, GSH had significantly greater (p < 0.05 ferric reducing power and free radical scavenging activities than APH and its membrane fractions. The APH and its membrane fractions effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation, results that were concentration dependent. The activity of APH and its membrane fractions against linoleic acid oxidation was higher when compared to that of GSH but lower than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT. The results show potential use of APH and its membrane fractions as antioxidants in the management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders and in the prevention of lipid oxidation in food products.

  10. Ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production from field bean (Vicia faba var. equina) seeds in an integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Witold; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Król, Barbara; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    The use of field beans, a non-food leguminous crop, was studied for ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production. The seeds were hydrolyzed using enzymes or with combination of acid (H3PO4) and alkaline (Ca(OH)2) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with or without removal of suspended solids, yielded 38.3-42.5gL(-1) ethanol (71.3-79.2% efficiency). The filtration residues contained ca. 247-326gkg(-1) crude protein, 10.6-15.5% acid detergent fiber and 19.9-29.1% neutral detergent fiber. They were enriched in phenolics (by up to 93.4%) and depleted in condensed tannin (by up to 59.3%) in comparison to the raw material. The thin stillages were used for cultivation of edible fungus Neurospora intermedia which produced 8.5-15.9gL(-1) ethanol and 4.8-16.2gL(-1) biomass containing over 62% protein. The mass balances showed that fermentation of unfiltered mashes was more efficient yielding up to 195.9gkg(-1) ethanol and 84.4% of protein recovery. PMID:27233099

  11. HARVESTING POTABLE AND STORABLE WATER WITH MORINGA SEEDS AND SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    We propose to design and implement a point-of-use process for water purification and storage in developing nations. Our research innovates on an existing technique for purifying water with seeds from the Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree. Mixing water with crushed Moringa seed...

  12. Plasticiser Effect on Water Vapour Permeability Properties of Locust bean gum--Based Edible Films

    OpenAIRE

    BOZDEMİR, Özgür Altan; TUTAŞ, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    The barrier properties of edible films prepared from polysaccharide polymer (locust bean gum) and various plasticisers (glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 200) together with hydrophobic modifiers (stearopten and beeswax) were examined. It was determined that the films containing polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) and sorbitol have the lowest water vapour permeability values and the films containing glycerol have the highest WVP values. It was found that the ...

  13. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on water stress in bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, T.E.; Davis, D.D.; Pell, E.J.; Merrill, W.

    1981-08-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cvs. Provider and Stringless Black Valentine) were exposed to 395 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant potential of PAN-sensitive Provider resulting in visible wilting and reduced soil moisture content. There was no effect of PAN on the water relations of the PAN-tolerant Stringless Black Valentine.

  14. Comparative Study on Seed Storage Protein of Faba Bean%蚕豆种子贮藏蛋白质组分的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建斌; 侯万伟; 刘玉皎

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the difference of seed storage proteins in Faba bean, seed storage proteins extracted from ten species of Faba bean were analyzed with SDS-PAGE. The result showed that it is different among the seed storage proteins of faba bean, a total of 23 subunits of different Rf were detected, counting 13 polymorphic protein subunits. The similarity index of seed storage proteins subunits in Faba bean is 0. 619 ~0. 947, with an average of 0. 744. Cluster analysis divided the accessions into three major clusters in the level of 0. 8260 GS, the second cluster showed higher polymorphism, and 7 pair Faba bean were identified as the parents.%以10份蚕豆品种为材料,利用SDS-PAGE方法,对其种子贮藏蛋白亚基组成进行了分析,结果表明:不同品种间的种子贮藏蛋白具有一定的差异,表现出一定的多态性;共分离出23条迁移率不同的亚基条带,13条具有多态性;利用贮藏蛋白亚基条带的信息,分析了品种间的蛋白相似度,相似度指数0.619 ~0.947,平均0.744;并通过聚类分析,在遗传相似系数0.8260水平上,将供试材料分为了3类,其中第2类具有较丰富的多样性,多样性指数达3.9296;共筛选出7对亲缘关系较远的杂交组合,可为蚕豆品种选育提供一定的科学依据.

  15. Modification of water absorption capacity of a plastic based on bean protein using gamma irradiated starches as additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeber, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Grupo de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, M.E. [Comision Nacional Energia Atomica, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gavioli, N. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Grupo de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Salmoral, E.M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Grupo de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: esalmor@fi.uba.ar

    2007-01-15

    Some properties of a bean protein-starch plastic were modified by irradiation of the starch. Two kinds of starch from bean and cassava were irradiated with doses until 50 kGy before their inclusion in the composite. Water absorption of the resultant product was reduced by 36% and 60% in materials containing bean and cassava starch, respectively. A large decline in the elongation is observed till 10 kGy in both materials, while tensile strength diminished by 11% in the cassava composite.

  16. Effect of straw mulch residues of previous crop oats on the weed population in direct seeded faba bean in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massucati, Luiz Felipe Perrone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of Organic Farming, we investigated whether direct seeding of faba bean (Vicia faba L. into straw mulch from residues of precrop oats used for weed control enables at least occasional/opportunistic direct seeding in Organic Agriculture. Eight field trials were carried out at different study sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Direct seeding (DS was performed into mulch layers of 0,4 and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues applied to the remaining stubble, simulating different yield levels of the precrop oats. LBS was used as a reference treatment, where straw was harvested, stubble tillage performed and seedbed prepared in fall and oil radish (Raphanus sativus grown as winter cover crop. Mouldboard ploughing combined with conventional seedbed preparation was performed in early spring to V. faba. Compared with LBS, straw mulch with subsequent direct seeding suppressed especially dicotyledonous annuals significantly. DS treatments with straw reduced the abundance of this group by 81 and 85% compared with LBS. Straw mulch resulted in effective suppression of photosensitive weeds such as Matricaria spp. and late germinating Chenopodium album. Grasses and perennial species occurred independent of the amount of straw. Compared with DS, the abundance of these weeds was reduced by 64 and 82% in LBS treatment. The shoot dry matter production of faba bean was retarded by DS compared with LBS, but significant yield losses could be avoided with straw residues of at least 4 t ha-1. Sufficient amount of straw of from the previous crop is a key criterion to facilitate organic no-till farming of faba bean in a suitable crop sequence when pressure of perennials and grasses is low.

  17. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to

  18. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P., E-mail: pkrishnan@iari.res.in; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  19. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  20. Use of acid phosphatase as biomarker during the castor bean seeds germination (ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ferreira Veríssima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main oil crop of prominent social and economic importance is to mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.; with countless application in the industry and agricultural. Broadly it distributed in Brazil; his cultivation can be an alternative of sustainability in the Brazilian northeast. It know the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the germination they are important for the best utilization of the plant. The objective of this work was use acid phosphatase as biomarker during the germination. In the rough extract occurred the dosage of the activity for pNPP; Tyr-Pi and PPi; determination of protein and inorganic phosphatse. The peak of activity for pNPP was in the seventh day; for PPi and Tyr-Pi in the ninth and for PEP in the fifth. The concentration of protein increased according to the days of germination; with peak of activity in the eighth day; being coincidental with the peaks of the activities for the substrates. The content of inorganic phosphate diminished with the time of germination and after the third day occurred a fall accentuated of its concentration. We concluded that acid phosphatase is important for the germination of the seeds and his paper is related with the mobilization of inorganic phosphate; the main nutrients for the development.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous evergreen tree, with lesser quantities of seed coat and germ. (b)...

  2. Evaluation of aerated steam treatment of alfalfa and mung bean seeds to eliminate high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O178:H12, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Patrick; Heller, Werner E; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Drissner, David

    2013-08-01

    Sprouts contaminated with human pathogens are able to cause food-borne diseases due to the favorable growth conditions for bacteria during germination and because of minimal processing steps prior to consumption. We have investigated the potential of hot humid air, i.e., aerated steam, to treat alfalfa and mung bean seeds which have been artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. In addition, a recently collected E. coli O178:H12 isolate, characterized by a reduced heat sensitivity, was exposed to the treatment described. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica on alfalfa and mung bean seeds could be completely eliminated by a 300-s treatment with steam at 70 ± 1°C as revealed by enrichment studies. L. monocytogenes and E. coli O178:H12 could not be completely eliminated from artificially inoculated seeds. However, bacterial populations were reduced by more than 5 log CFU/g on alfalfa and by more than 4 log CFU/g on mung bean seeds. The germination rate of mung beans was not affected by the 300-s treatment compared to the germination rate of untreated seeds whereas that of alfalfa seeds was significantly lower by 11.9%. This chemical-free method is an effective alternative to the 20,000-ppm hypochlorite treatment presently recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  3. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Hamm; Srinivas Lanka; Michael Stout

    2014-01-01

    Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determ...

  4. Effect of the organic matter and soil water deficit on the castor bean inflorescences emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has become important due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean inflorescence emission. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under Greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. When flowering occurred it was measured the number, the time required for the emission and the height of the emissions. The results were analyzed statistically; for the qualitative factor (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) regressions were used. The time for the emission of the inflorescences was affected significantly by the organic matter and the available soil water content for plants. The number of inflorescences was affected positively by both treatments. (author)

  5. COMPATIBILIDADE DO INSETICIDA THIAMETHOXAM COM FUNGICIDAS UTILIZADOS NO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE FEIJOEIRO COMPATIBILITY OF THE INSECTICIDE THIAMETHOXAM WITH FUNGICIDES APPLIED TO COMMON BEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Barros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A mosca-branca (Bemisia argentifolli Bellows & Perring tem causado sérios prejuízos em muitas áreas produtoras de feijão no Brasil. O dano indireto através da transmissão do vírus do mosaico dourado é um dos fatores limitantes na produção do feijão, podendo causar perdas de até 100%. Uma das medidas recentemente desenvolvidas para o controle desta praga é o tratamento das sementes com inseticida. Neste trabalho foi testada a compatibilidade do inseticida thiamethoxam com alguns dos fungicidas utilizados para tratamento de sementes de feijão destinadas ao plantio (difenoconazole, fludioxonil e carboxin. As variáveis utilizadas na avaliação foram: porcentagens de germinação, de sanidade das sementes e de eficiência de controle da mosca-branca. Considerando todas as variáveis, constatou-se que não houve incompatibilidade do inseticida com os fungicidas utilizados. Os tratamentos thiamethoxam+carboxin e thiamethoxam+fludioxonil foram os que apresentaram maior eficiência no controle de fungos incidentes em sementes e da mosca-branca em plântulas até os onze dias após a emergência.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mosca-branca; Bemisia argentifolli; fungos de sementes; controle químico.

    The white fly (Bemisia argentifolli Bellows & Perring causes serious damage to the common bean crop in Brazil. The indirect damage through the transmission of bean gold mosaic virus can cause losses of up to 100%. One measure recently developed to control this pest is insecticide seed dressing. In this study, the compatibility of the insecticide thiamethoxam with the fungicides used for dry beans seed dressing was tested. These treatments included the fungicides difenoconazole, fludioxonil and carboxin. The variables evaluated were

  6. WATER CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF CASTOR BEAN PARAGUAÇÚ CULTIVAR SUBMITTED TO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Garófalo Chaves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the productivity of castor bean reduces under water deficit it is considered resistant to low precipitation conditions, thus constituting an alternative form of income for the semi-arid. The scarce information about the effect of nitrogen fertilization on water consumption and efficiency of use motivated this study. The study was conducted in a greenhouse located at the Federal University of Campina Grande – Campus I, with plants arranged in a factorial design with three replications and five treatments, totaling fifteen experimental units, which consisted of five nitrogen levels (40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1. Analyzing the phytomass, water consumption and water use efficiency it was observed that the cultivar phytomass increases, water consumption and water use efficiency with the levels of nitrogen, indicating an elevated efficiency on the conversion of water used into dry matter.

  7. Seed coat-associated invertases of fava bean control both unloading and storage functions: cloning of cDNAs and cell type-specific expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, H; Borisjuk, L; Heim, U; Buchner, P; Wobus, U

    1995-11-01

    We have studied the molecular physiology of photosynthate unloading and partitioning during seed development of fava bean (Vicia faba). During the prestorage phase, high levels of hexoses in the cotyledons and the apoplastic endospermal space are correlated with activity of cell wall-bound invertase in the seed coat. Three cDNAs were cloned. Sequence comparison revealed genes putatively encoding one soluble and two cell wall-bound isoforms of invertase. Expression was studied in different organs and tissues of developing seeds by RNA gel analysis, in situ hybridization, enzyme assay, and enzyme activity staining. One extracellular invertase gene is expressed during the prestorage phase in the thin-walled parenchyma of the seed coat, a region known to be the site of photoassimilate unloading. We propose a model for an invertase-mediated unloading process during early seed development and the regulation of cotyledonary sucrose metabolism. After unloading from the seed coat, sucrose is hydrolyzed by cell wall-bound invertases. Thus, invertase contributes to establish sink strength in young seeds. The resultant hexoses are loaded into the cotyledons and control carbohydrate partitioning via an influence on the sucrose synthase/sucrose-phosphate synthase pathway. The developmentally regulated degradation of the thin-walled parenchyma expressing the invertase apparently initiates the storage phase. This is characterized by a switch to a low sucrose/hexoses ratio. Feeding hexoses to storage-phase cotyledons in vitro increases the sucrose-phosphate synthase/sucrose synthase ratio and changes carbohydrate partitioning in favor of sucrose. Concomitantly, the transcript level of the major storage product legumin B is downregulated. PMID:8535137

  8. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  9. Effects of water blanching on polyphenol reaction kinetics and quality of cocoa beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, A. S.; Hii, C. L.; Law, C. L.; Suzannah, S.; Djaeni, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have been reported on the potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols. However, drying has an inhibitory effect on the substantial recovery of cocoa polyphenols. This is majorly because of the high degradation of polyphenol compounds as well as the enhanced activity of polyphenol oxidases; a pre-cursor for browning of polyphenols during drying. Pre-treatment technique such as water blanching (80° and 90°C for 5 min, 10 min and 15 min exposure times respectively) can inactivate the polyphenol oxidases enzyme and promote high percent of the polyphenol recovery in dried cocoa bean. The degradation kinetics of cocoa polyphenols during hot water blanching are analyzed; The rate constant for the polyphenol degradation after blanching was found to be ranging from 0.0208 to 0.0340 /min. The results for dried fresh cocoa beans showed an optimal level of polyphenol recovery (118 mg GAE/g) when blanched at 90°C for 5 minutes duration. The antioxidant activity is also analyzed using DPPH scavenging assay.

  10. 菜豆种子干燥动力学过程中种皮效应的研究%Effect of Seed Coat on Drying Kinetics of Kidney Bean Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊红; 郭锦棠; 段增宾; 刘冰; 褚治德; 吴树民

    2002-01-01

    研究了菜豆种子在红外固定床干燥过程中,种皮结构的变化及种皮对干燥动力学特性的影响.运用描述种子干燥过程特征的内部水分扩散模型,确定了种子的水分扩散系数,模型与实验数据相吻合.研究表明,无种皮时种子的水分扩散系数为有种皮时的1.67倍,种子子叶层的扩散系数是种皮层的3.2倍,种皮是种子干燥过程中主要的传质阻力之一,也是优化传热与传质的关键.%Kidney bean seed was dried in a laboratory scale fixed bed. The effect of seed coat on drying dynamiccharacteristics and the changes of seed coat structure were investigated. A mathematical model was establishedto simulate the drying process and determine the moisture diffusivity. Numerical results agree well with the ex-perimental data. The average moisture diffusivity of the seed with separated coat is 1.67 times largei than thatof the seed with coat, and the moisture diffusivity of seed cotyledon is 3.2 times larger than that of the seedcoat. It is proved that the seed coat is the most main resistance of mass transfer and is also one of the key pointsof the optimization of heat and mass transfer for seed drying.

  11. Comportamento de sementes de feijão sob diferentes potenciais osmóticos Bean seed performance under different osmotic potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Antonio Freitas de Moraes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A hidratação é o fator externo mais importante na germinação de sementes. Para simular as condições complexas do solo, soluções com diferentes potenciais osmóticos têm sido usadas para umedecer os substratos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estresse hídrico e salino sobre a germinação e o vigor de sementes de feijão. Sementes da cultivar IAPAR 44 foram colocadas a germinar em papel-toalha embebido em soluções de polietileno glicol (PEG 6000 e cloreto de sódio (NaCl nos potenciais osmóticos zero; -0,05; -0,10; -0,15; -0,20; -0,25 e -0,30 MPa. O desempenho das sementes foi avaliado por meio do teste de germinação, primeira contagem da germinação, comprimento e matéria seca de plântulas. Concluiu-se que a redução do potencial osmótico, induzido por PEG 6000 ou NaCl, reduz o vigor e, a partir de -0,20 MPa, reduz a germinação de sementes de feijão. O PEG 6000 produz efeitos adversos mais drásticos do que o NaCl na qualidade fisiológica das sementes.Hydration is the most important external factor for seed germination. To simulate the complex soil conditions solutions with different osmotic potentials have been used to soak substrata. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of hydric and saline stress to germination and strength of bean seeds. Seeds of the cultivar IAPAR were germinated in towel-paper soaked in PEG 6000 and NaCl solutions in the zero osmotic potentials; -0.05; -0.10; -0.15; -0.20; -0.25 and 0.30 MPa. Seed performance was evaluated through the germination test, first count of germination, length, and dry seedling weight. In conclusion, osmotic potential reduction, induced by Polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000 or Sodium chlorine (NaCl, reduces the strength and, from -0.20 to -0.30 MPa, the germination of bean seeds. The PEG 6000 produces more severe and adverse effects than the NaCl in the physiologic quality of been seeds.

  12. Effect of Aging and Priming on Physiological and Biochemical Traits of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman AMANPOUR-BALANEJI; Sedghi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Aging and deterioration (artificial aging) are the most effective factors on the seed vigour. In order to study the changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics of common bean under aging and priming treatments a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design conducted with three replications. Seed aging (control, 90 and 80% of control germination) and seed invigoration with priming including control, hydro (distilled water), osmo (PEG 6000), hormone (gibberellic acid)...

  13. Effects of Local Nitrogen Supply on Water Uptake of Bean Plants in a Split Root System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwei Guo; Qirong Shen; Holger Brueck

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of local nitrogen supply on water and nutrient absorption, French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)plants were grown in a split root system. Five treatments supplied with different nitrogen forms were compared:homogeneous nitrate (NN) and homogenous ammonium (AA) supply, spatially separated supply of nitrate and ammonium (NA), half of the root system supplied with N-free nutrient solution, the other half with either nitrate (NO) or ammonium (AO). The results showed that 10 d after onset of treatments, root dry matter (DM) in the nitratesupplied vessels treated with NA was more than two times higher than that in the ammonium-supplied vessels.Water uptake from the nitrate-supplied vessels treated with NA was 281% higher than under ammonium supply. In treatments NO and AO, the local supply of N resulted in clearly higher root DM, and water uptake from the nitratesupplied vessels was 82% higher than in the -N vessels. However, in AO plants, water uptake from the -N nutrient solution was 129% higher than from the ammonium-supplied vessels. This indicates a compensatory effect, which resulted in almost identical rates of total water uptake of treatments AA and AO, which had comparable shoot DM and leaf area. Ammonium supply reduced potassium and magnesium absorption. Water uptake was positively correlated with N, Mg and K uptake.

  14. Purification of a novel α-amylase inhibitor from local Himalayan bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds with activity towards bruchid pests and human salivary amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mridu; Sharma, Pratima; Nath, Amarjit K

    2014-07-01

    Six bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of Himalayan region were analysed for α- amylase inhibitor activity. The α-amylase inhibitor from seeds of screened bean cultivar KR-9, showing maximum inhibitory activity was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-100) and ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex). The inhibitor was purified to homogeneity as judged by native-PAGE with 14.22 fold purification and 71.66% recovery. Purified inhibitor consisted of three subunits of molecular weight 15,488, 18,620 and 26,302 daltons, respectively as determined by SDS-PAGE. It was found to be heat stable up to 30 °C-40 °C and had two pH optima of 5.0 and 6.9. Nature of inhibition was found to be of non-competitive type. The purified inhibitor was found to be effective against α-amylases extracted from larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis, Tribolium castaneum and gut enzyme of Spodoptera littoralis. Larvae of Tribolium castaneum fed on flour mixed with purified inhibitor for 5 days showed 100% larval mortality. Purified α-amylase inhibitor was also found to inhibit human salivary α-amylase, suggesting its potential in prevention and therapy of obesity and use as drug design targets for treatment of diabetes. The gene encoding the inhibitor may be used to develop transgenic plants resistant against insect pests. PMID:24966421

  15. Identification and functional expression of a type 2 acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT2) in developing castor bean seeds which has high homology to the major triglyceride biosynthetic enzyme of fungi and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Johan T M; Wei, Wenxue; Simon, William J; Slabas, Antoni R

    2006-12-01

    Seed oil from castor bean (Ricinus communis) contains high amounts of hydroxy fatty acid rich triacylglycerols (TAGs) that can serve as raw material for production of bio-based products such as nylon, cosmetics, lubricants, foams, and surfactants. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the terminal reaction in the acyl-CoA dependent Kennedy pathway of triglyceride biosynthesis. There is still some debate whether there are three or four enzymes in yeast that have DGAT activity and catalyse the synthesis of TAG but of these the DGAT2 homologue Dga1 contributes in a major way to TAG biosynthesis. Here we report on the cloning of a cDNA for DGAT2 from castor bean and prove its biological activity following expression in yeast and enzymatic assays using diricinolein as the acceptor and ricinoleoyl-CoA as the donor. Previous reports of DGAT in castor have focussed on DGAT1 which has little amino acid sequence homology to DGAT2. Expressional studies demonstrate that DGAT2 is 18-fold more highly expressed in seeds than in leaves and shows temporal specific expression during seed development. In contrast, DGAT1 shows little difference in expression in seeds versus leaves. We conclude that in castor bean DGAT2 is more likely to play a major role in seed TAG biosynthesis than DGAT1.

  16. Digestibility of amino acids in organically cultivated white-flowering faba bean and cake from cold-pressed rapeseed, linseed and hemp seed in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, Magdalena Høøk; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed at determining the ileal apparent (IAD) and standardised ileal (SID) digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in organically cultivated white-flowering faba beans (Vicia faba), and cakes from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). The experiment was designed as a four period cross-over trial with six castrated male Yorkshire pigs fitted with post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas. The IAD and SID of CP for the feed ingredients ranged from 79.2-85.9% and were affected by dietary treatment, with significantly lower values in rapeseed cake. The IAD and SID of most AA in the feed ingredients were also significantly affected by dietary treatment, but without any consistent trend. However, the overall digestibilities were in general comparable with conventional protein feed ingredients. Thus, these alternative protein feed ingredients have the potential to be used to a greater extent when formulating organic pig diets.

  17. The African yam bean seed lectin affects the development of the cowpea weevil but does not affect the development of larvae of the legume pod borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuka, J S; Okeola, O G; Chrispeels, M J; Jackai, L E

    2000-03-01

    Artificial feeding assays were used to study the effect of purified galactose-specific lectins from African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) on development of larvae of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) and the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera : Pyrialidae). Inhibition of development of C. maculatus was observed when larvae were fed on artificial cowpea seeds containing 0.2%, 2.0% and 5.0% (wt/wt) of dietary lectin. Larval mortality was between 30% and 88%, while delays in total developmental time ranged between 7 and 13 days. The lectin had no effect on development of larvae of M. vitrala, when tested through topical artificial diet incorporation assays, except at the extremely high dose of 35% dietary level.

  18. Meio semi-seletivo para detectar Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli em sementes de feijoeiro e sua erradicação através do tratamento de sementes com o fungicida tolylfluanid A semi-selective medium to detect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in bean seeds and its eradication through seed treatment with tolylfluanid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Paula Lopes

    2008-09-01

    and 112%, depending upon the isolate. Efficiency of tolylfluanid to eradicate Xap from the bean seed was also verified in laboratory and glasshouse experiments. The bacteria was recovered from the untreated seeds, but not from the seeds treated in a solution of tolylfluanid (1.20g/L water, and placed in plates containing semi-selective medium. In the glasshouse, seeds treated with tolylfluanid, did not produce any symptoms of the disease till 30 days after seeding, whereas untreated seeds yielded 9,75% plants with typical disease symptoms. In an another experiment, untreated seeds yielded 7,08% and 11,67% diseased plants, whereas treated seeds yielded 0,5% and 2,4% diseased plants, 26 and 46 days after planting, respectively.

  19. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Panzarini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm loss; (iii the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

  20. "Azufrasin": nueva variedad de frijol tipo Azufrado para el estado de Sinaloa "Azufrasin": a new yellow seeded dry bean cultivar for the state of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Atanasio Salinas Pérez

    2011-08-01

    with plants of 45 cm, 100 days to physiological maturity and a hundred seeds weight varies from 44 to 46 g. Azufrasin shows adaptation in bean-producing areas of northern Sinaloa under irrigated conditions, where it has shown high yield capability and high diseases tolerance during Autumn-Winter cycle, exceeding yield of Azufrado Higuera variety with an average of 339 kg ha-1.

  1. One-step detection of Bean pod mottle virus in soybean seeds by the reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qi-Wei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV is a wide-spread and destructive virus that causes huge economic losses in many countries every year. A sensitive, reliable and specific method for rapid surveillance is urgently needed to prevent further spread of BPMV. Methods A degenerate reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP primer set was designed on the conserved region of BPMV CP gene. The reaction conditions of RT-LAMP were optimized and the feasibility, specificity and sensitivity of this method to detect BPMV were evaluated using the crude RNA rapidly extracted from soybean seeds. Results The optimized RT-LAMP parameters including 6 mM MgCl2, 0.8 M betaine and temperature at 62.5-65°C could successfully amplify the ladder-like bands from BPMV infected soybean seeds. The amplification was very specific to BPMV that no cross-reaction was observed with other soybean viruses. Inclusion of a fluorescent dye makes it easily be detected in-tube by naked eye. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP assay is higher than the conventional RT-PCR under the conditions tested, and the conventional RT-PCR couldn’t be used for detection of BPMV using crude RNA extract from soybean seeds. Conclusion A highly efficient and practical method was developed for the detection of BPMV in soybean seeds by the combination of rapid RNA extraction and RT-LAMP. This RT-LAMP method has great potential for rapid BPMV surveillance and will assist in preventing further spread of this devastating virus.

  2. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum.

  3. Danos mecânicos em sementes de feijão Vigna, causados pelas operações na unidade de beneficiamento Mechanical damages in Vigna bean seeds caused by the operations in the seed processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Depois da colheita e debulha, as sementes de feijão são encaminhadas à usina de beneficiamento, de onde, por elevadores, são conduzidas às máquinas de pré-limpeza, limpeza, separação e classificação, tratamento e embalagem, para posterior armazenamento experimentando durante este percurso, impacto promovidos pela movimentação dos elevadores e das máquinas. Objetivando-se contribuir com o programa de controle de qualidade de sementes de feijão produzidas principalmente no estado da Paraíba, estudaram-se os impactos mecânicos sofrido pelas sementes de duas variedades de feijão Vigna com dois teores de umidade (13,5 e 7,3% depois da colheita, debulha e da passagem pelas diferentes etapas na Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba, localizada em Alagoinha, PB. Os danos decorrentes dos impactos foram analisados visualmente, empregando-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 5, submetendo-se as médias dos fatores quantitativos a regressão na análise da variância. As sementes com umidade de 7,3% da variedade Rabo de Tatu são mais susceptíveis à quebra pelos impactos no processo e, às injúrias, elevam-se com o aumento do número de passagem das sementes pelas diferentes etapas à qual estão sujeitas, demonstrando caráter cumulativo, indicando haver relação direta entre o número de choques e seus efeitos.After harvesting and threshing the seeds of beans are taken to a seed processing plant where from by elevator are taken to machines of pre-cleaning, cleaning, separation and classification, treatment and packing for posterior storage. During this course, impacts are promoted by the movement of elevators and machines. With the objective to contribute with quality control program of bean seeds mainly produced in the Paraíba State, the mechanical impacts undergone by seeds of two varieties of Vigna bean with two moisture contents (13.5 and 7.3% were studied after harvesting, threshing

  4. Effect of local tree seeds in the control of root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub chitwood and growth promotion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab M. Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of local trees, such Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Adenanthera pavonina L., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit and Eucalyptus spp., were used as aqueous extract at 25, 50 and 100 % concentration to control the activity of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Citwood. All seed extracts showed lethal effect on M. javanica eggs, and a gradual decrease in egg hatching and an increase in mortality of second-stage juveniles were observed with the increase in extract concentration. L. leucocephala was found to be most effective in reducing egg hatching, whereas 100 % mortality of juveniles was observed in the case of A. indica seed extract. Number of knots was significantly reduced at 100 % concentration when seeds of chick pea and mung bean were treated and soil was drenched with A. pavonina and Eucalyptus spp. seed extract.

  5. Testes de vigor para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis L. Vigor test for the evaluation of the physiology potencial of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mendes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade de sementes de mamona tem sido avaliada rotineiramente pelo teste de germinação, cujos resultados, muitas vezes, não são confirmados em campo. Nesse contexto, os testes de vigor são essenciais, pois retratam o comportamento das sementes sob maior amplitude de ambiente. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de métodos para determinar o potencial fisiológico de sementes de mamona. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete lotes de sementes de mamona, cultivar AL-Guarany, apresentando teor de água de aproximadamente 7% , que foram submetidos aos seguintes testes: germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, frio (a 10ºC/7 dias e a 25ºC/5 dias, porcentagem e velocidade de emergência de plântulas, envelhecimento acelerado a 41ºC e 45ºC e 100% UR, por 48, 72 e 96 horas e condutividade elétrica (25 sementes embebidas em 75 e 100mL de água destilada, a 25ºC, por 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 e 72 horas. Os testes de frio e de envelhecimento acelerado (41ºC/72 horas e 100% UR foram eficientes para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de mamona, permitindo classificação de lotes quanto ao vigor semelhante à emergência de plântulas em solo. O teste de condutividade elétrica não se mostrou adequado para avaliação do potencial fisiológico das sementes de mamona.This work had the objective to determine the efficiency of different tests for the evaluation of physiological potential of castor bean seeds. Seven seed lots of AL-Guarany cultivar were submitted to the following tests: seed moisture content, standard germination, first count, cold test (10ºC/7 days followed by germination at 25ºC/5 days, seedling emergence, speed emergence index, accelerated aging (at 41ºC and 45ºC and 100% RH, for 48, 72, and 96h and electrical conductivity (25 seeds soaked into 75 and 100mL of distilled water, at 25ºC, for 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h. The trial was conducted in randomized completely design, with four

  6. Accumulation of atmospheric deposition of As, Cd and Pb by bush bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was exposed to atmospheric deposition of As, Cd and Pb in a polluted and a reference area. The atmospheric deposition of these elements was significantly related to the concentrations in leaves, stems and pods at green harvest. Surprisingly there was also a clear relation for As and Pb in the seeds at dry harvest, even though these seeds were covered by the husks. Root uptake of accumulated atmospheric deposits was not likely in such a short term experiment, as confirmed by the fact that soil pore water analysis did not reveal significant differences in trace element concentrations in the different exposure areas. For biomonitoring purposes, the leaves of bush bean are the most suitable, but also washed or unwashed pods can be used. This means that the obtained relationships are suitable to estimate the transfer of airborne trace elements in the food chain via bush bean. - Highlights: • Atmospheric deposition of trace elements accumulates in bean leaves, stems and pods. • Also thoroughly washed green pods are suitable for biomonitoring. • Even the non-exposed bean seeds accumulate As and Pb deposits to some extend. • A migration of trace elements from the husks to the seeds is most likely. - In a polluted area, atmospheric deposition of trace elements on the above-ground plant parts is influencing their concentration, even in the seeds

  7. Seed germination of five Poa species at negative water potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under field conditions water is often inadequate for satisfactory seed germination. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of simulated dry conditions on germination and seedling growth of five bluegrass (Poa) species including: Texas, P. arachnifera Torr.; annual, P. annua L.; mutto...

  8. Modelling Soil Water Retention for Weed Seed Germination Sensitivity to Water Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. John Bullied

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water retention is important for the study of water availability to germinating weed seeds. Six soil water retention models (Campbell, Brooks-Corey, four- and five-parameter van Genuchten, Tani, and Russo with residual soil water parameter derivations were evaluated to describe water retention for weed seed germination at minimum threshold soil water potential for three hillslope positions. The Campbell, Brooks-Corey, and four-parameter van Genuchten model with modified or estimated forms of the residual parameter had superior but similar data fit. The Campbell model underestimated water retention at a potential less than −0.5 MPa for the upper hillslope that could result in underestimating seed germination. The Tani and Russo models overestimated water retention at a potential less than −0.1 MPa for all hillslope positions. Model selection and residual parameter specification are important for weed seed germination by representing water retention at the level of minimum threshold water potential for germination. Weed seed germination models driven by the hydrothermal soil environment rely on the best-fitting soil water retention model to produce dynamic predictions of seed germination.

  9. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) cultured in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yang; Mulpuri Sujatha; Liu Aizhong

    2015-01-01

    This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine) of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination), oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium). [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effe...

  10. Results of preliminary investigations at radio sensitivity of bean (Vicia faba L.) on fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of bean (Vicia faba L.) were irradiated with fast neutrons. The radiation doses applied ranged from 40 to 600 rads. Then irradiated seeds were sowed. During bean vegetation radiation effects were observed. (A.S.)

  11. Detecção de Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli em sementes de feijoeiro provenientes do estado do Paraná, Brasil Detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in common bean seeds from the state of Paraná (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pereira Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O crestamento bacteriano comum do feijoeiro causado por sobrevivência e disseminação da Xap, a semente representa o mais Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap é a principal doença eficiente. A qualidade sanitária de 34 amostras de sementes de feijoeiro do feijoeiro comum no Brasil. O patógeno encontra-se disseminado produzidas no estado do Paraná, nas safras 1998/99 e 1999, foram em todas as regiões produtoras do país, porém com maior importância avaliadas quanto à presença de Xap em macerados de sementes nos estados do Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo e na região do Brasil plaqueados em meio semi-seletivo. Cinqüenta por cento dos lotes de Central, sobretudo na safra das águas. Dentre os vários meios de sementes foram portadores de Xap com incidência de 0,1% a 1,7%.The common bacterial blight of bean, caused by Xanthomonas effective means of survival and dissemination of the Xap. The health axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap, is a major disease of common beans quality of 34 samples of seeds lots of common beans produced in the in Brazil. Even though this pathogen is disseminated in all production state of Paraná during 1998/99 and 1999 were evaluated to the presence regions of the country, it has caused major damages in the states of of Xap in seed macerates plated on a semi-selective culture medium. Paraná, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and in Central Region of Brazil, Fifty percent of the seed lots were carrying out by Xap with an particularly during the rainy season. Infected bean seeds are most incidence range of 0.1% to 1.7%.

  12. Effect of CO/sub 2/ enrichment on growth of faba beans at two levels of water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudriaan, J.; Bijlsma, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of growth enhancement by increased CO/sub 2/ levels is well established under optimal conditions. A growth analysis of faba beans, grown under two CO/sub 2/ levels (350 and 700 cm/sup 3/ m/sup /minus/3/) in combination with two levels of water supply, showed that the beneficial CO/sub 2/ effect is maintained when there is shortage of water. The effects of additional CO/sub 2/ and water were shown to be multiplicative.

  13. SEGMENTACIÓN DE FRUTOS DE CAFÉ MEDIANTE MÉTODOS DE CRECIMIENTO DE REGIONES SEGMENTATION OF COFFEE BEANS BY MEANS OF SEEDED REGION GROWING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés Betancur Acevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres diferentes sistemas de segmentación los cuales utilizan la técnica de crecimiento de regiones a partir de semillas SRG (Seeded Region Growing. El primero de ellos, llamado Sistema Euclídeo, hace uso de la distancia euclídea con el fin de encontrar la región de interés (grano de café. El Sistema ACB-PCB utiliza dos medidas de discontinuidad llamadas contraste promedio y contraste periférico, las cuales se derivan del promedio de las componentes de color de los pıxeles que conforman la región y aquellos que conforman dos de sus contornos. Luego de un proceso iterativo, se halla el contorno de contraste promedio ACB y el contorno de contraste periférico PCB, que se usan para segmentar el grano de café. Por último, el Sistema Híbrido utiliza la información de las principales componentes geométricas presentes en la escena (dadas por un Detector de Bordes de Color, y la medida de contraste promedio. Las herramientas de segmentación fueron aplicadas a imágenes de frutos de café, adquiridas bajo condiciones controladas. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un buen desempeño del detector de bordes de color implementado, así como de los sistemas de segmentación, en especial de los sistemas ACB-PCB e Híbrido.Three segmentation systems are presented which use the Seeded Region Growing Technique SRG. The first one, called the Euclidean System, uses a Euclidean distance measure in order to find the region of interest (coffee bean. The ACB-PCB System uses two discontinuity measures called average contrast and peripheral contrast, which are derived from the mean of the color components of the pixels that form the region and those that form two of its boundaries. Following an iterative process, the Average Contrast Boundary ACB and the Peripheral Contrast Boundary PCB are computed for use in performing the coffee bean segmentation. Finally, the Hybrid System uses both information from the principal geometrical components in

  14. Allelopathic effect of scarlet pimpernel (anagallis arvensis) on seed germination and radical elongation of mung bean and pearl millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The green house based experiments were conducted in the Department of Botany FUUAST, Karachi to study the allelopathic effects of root and shoot leachates of Anagallis arvensis on the two test species viz., bajra and mungbean. The percentage of seed germination, speed of germination and radical elongation of the test species were recorded after 10 days. Both leachates have no effect on seed germination and speed of germination of the test species. Radical elongation of two test species showed different response. Mung radical growth was significantly reduced while bajra radical growth was significantly enhanced by the root leachate of weed. (author)

  15. Influence of hydrothermal treatment on dietary fiber and phenolic compounds content as well as antioxidative activity of legumes seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dry legumes seeds are food of high nutrient density. Besides the biologically precious protein they contain essential unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins of group B, dietary fiber and antioxidants. The aim of the research was to assess the influence of different soaking and cooking methods on dietary fiber and phe- nolic compounds content, as well as antioxidative activity of selected legumes’seeds. Material and methods. The experimental material was dry kidney bean originating from collection of Krakow’s Plants and Seeds Horticulture POLAN LTD, and soya bean seeds bought at the market store. The technological treatment of seeds was performed in two stages: 1 soaking in cold and hot water, 2 cook- ing with three different kinds of equipment – electrical stove, induction stove and microwave oven. In the above described ways prepared material was examined for the dietary fiber and phenolic compounds content, as well as antioxidative activity. Results. The highest amount of dietary fiber was found in soya bean seeds cooked on an induction stove (27.4 g·100 g-1 d.m. and electric stove (27.3 g·100 g-1 d.m. after previous soaking in hot water. The dry soya bean and kidney bean seeds were characterised by a high content of phenolic compounds 163.2 mg GAE·100 g-1d.m. and 173.1 mg GAE·100 g-1d.m. respectively. The dry matter of cooked (on induction and electric stove kidney bean and soya seeds was characterised by a higher phenolic compounds level (232.7-311.6 mg GAE·100 g-1and 224.4-315.6 respectively than raw material. Antioxidative activity of untreated seeds of kidney bean and soya bean was 4.5 and 4.1 μmol Tx·g-1d.m. respectively. The high ability of free radicals scavenging was observed in kidney bean i.e. 8.7 μmol Tx·g-1  d.m. after traditional soaking and 9.5 μmol Tx·g-1d.m. after “hot” soaking. Conclusions. Soaking and cooking of seeds (despite the species influenced growth of phenolic compounds content in dry

  16. 苹果籽蛋白与大豆蛋白的营养分析比较%Nutritional Assessment of Apple Seed Protein and Soy Bean Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春燕; 迟翠翠; 翟二林; 庄桂东; 孟菡妍; 迟玉森

    2011-01-01

    In order to enriching protein resources and solving the present situation of protein resources deficient, the contents of main nutritional components and amino acids of apple seed were detected, and the international general nutritional value assessment method was applied for the overall nutritional assessment of its protein. The assessment result showed that apple seed which contained 51.23% protein, 26.2% fat and 5.05% carbohydrate had rich nutritional. The contents of protein were higher than soy beans which contain about 46.78%. The kind of amino acids were perfect. First, the total content of essential amino acids in apple seed was high, which occupied 34.32% of the total amino acids. Moreover, the IEAA is 80.82 by comparing with the ideal protein model recommended by FAO/WHO. The essential amino acid content of apple seed was accorded with adults.%为丰富蛋白质的种类,解决蛋白质资源匮乏的现状,本试验测定了苹果籽的营养成分和氨基酸组成,采用国际上通用的评价方法对其营养进行评价,并与大豆蛋白进行比较.结果表明,苹果籽的营养成分丰富,含有51.23%的粗蛋白质、26.2%的粗脂肪和5.05%的碳水化合物,其蛋白质的含量略高于大豆蛋白46.78%的含量.苹果籽种粗蛋白的氨基酸组成种类齐全,必需氨基酸占氨基酸总量的34.32%,各种人体必需氨基酸与FAO/WHO提出的理想蛋白质模式进行比较,苹果籽蛋白的IEAA为80.82.必需氨基酸均能满足成人的需要,是一种可以开发的蛋白资源.

  17. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  18. Integrating Low Water Potential Seed Hydration with Other Treatments to Improve Cold Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Anwar A.; Ilyas, Satriyas; Ptasznik, Wlodzimierz

    1995-01-01

    Matriconditioning improved the performance of pepper, tomato, sweet corn, snap bean, table beet, sugar beet and watermelon seeds in early field plantings at suboptimal temperatures (averaged over 10 d after planting) ranging from 12 to 18 °C. Reduction in the time to 50% (T50) emergence in conditioned seeds ranged from 0·6 d in watermelon to 3·3 d in pepper and improvement in emergence from 10% in sugar beet to 30% in table beet. Further improvement in emergence occurred by inclusion of pesti...

  19. Effect of the available soil water and organic matter on the castor bean foliar area growth; Influencia da agua disponivel e materia organica no crescimento da area foliar da mamoneira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio D. de; Almeida, Larissa C.; Guerra, Hugo O. Carvalho; Souza, Cristiana M. de; Batista, Faed R. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)], Emails: rogerio_dl@yahoo.com.br, laris_almeida@yahoo.com.br, hugo_carvallo@hotmail.com, crismsouza@hotmail.com, faedrideiro@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian potential for bio fuel production through the cultivation of oil seeds is immeasurable. On the Northeast is possible to cultivate the castor bean, peanuts, sesame, babassu and other species. Just for the castor bean there exist 3.0 millions of hectares able for cultivation. The experiment had as objective to study the effect of available soil water for plants and organic matter on the foliar area production. It was conducted on the field during the period of October 2008 to March 2009 using an experimental design 2 x 4 factorial on a randomized-complete block design, constituted of two soil organic matter contents (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} and 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}) and four soil water contents (100, 90, 80 and 70% of the soil available water for the plants) with 3 replicates. On each 100 m{sup 2} parcel 50 plants were cultivated until 180 days after the sowing, DAS. The analyses of variance allowed to observe that the addition of organic matter increased the foliar areas in 20,7% and the available water produced an increment of 51,5% when were elevated from 70 to 100%. (author)

  20. Molecular and biochemical identification of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase encoding mRNA variants in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jaeju; Saiardi, Adolfo; Greenwood, John S; Bewley, J Derek

    2014-05-01

    During seed development, phytic acid (PA) associated with mineral cations is stored as phytin and mobilized following germination in support of seedling growth. Two parallel biosynthetic pathways for PA have been proposed; yet the pathway is still poorly understood in terms of its regulation and the enzymes involved. Here, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) gene for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (RcIPK1) has been identified. This encodes the enzyme implicated in catalyzing the final reaction in PA biosynthesis, and its expression is enhanced in isolated germinated embryos by application of phosphate and myo-inositol (Ins). Even though only one copy of the RcIPK1 gene is present in the genome, numerous RNA variants are present, most likely due to alternative splicing. These are translated into six closely related protein isoforms according to in silico analysis. Functional analyses using yeast ipk1Δ revealed that only three of the mRNA variants can rescue a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of this strain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the synthesized inositol phosphates demonstrated that the ability to complement the missing yeast IPK1 enzyme is associated with the production of enzyme activity. The three active isoforms possess unique conserved motifs important for IPK1 catalytic activity.

  1. Controle de fungos presentes no ar e em sementes de feijão durante armazenamento Control of fungi present in the air and bean seeds during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio M. Borém

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar a eficácia de um equipamento redutor de inóculo (ERI na preservação da qualidade sanitária de sementes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. durante o armazenamento em estruturas herméticas com circulação de ar forçado. A presença de inóculo no ar foi monitorada a partir da exposição de placas de Petri com meio de cultura BDA salino, contando-se o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC dos fungos Aspergillus spp. e Penicillium spp. As análises sanitárias das sementes foram realizada pelo método do papel de filtro (Blotter test, calculando-se o índice de ocorrência de Aspergillus spp. e Penicillium spp. Durante o período de armazenamento, houve um aumento na incidência de fungos nas sementes, independente da presença dos ERI. Nas amostragens realizadas na entrada da caixa com a presença dos ERI, não foram encontradas unidades formadoras de colônias. Com o aumento do fluxo de ar utilizado no sistema, notou-se que este efeito foi transferido para a saída da caixa. Nas condições especificadas, os ERI foram incapazes de controlar os fungos de armazenamento, Aspergillus spp e Penicillium spp, nas sementes de feijão, porém foram eficazes no controle dos seus esporos presentes no ar.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of inoculum reducing equipment (IRE in the maintenance of quality of bean seeds during storage in hermetic structures with circulation of forced air. The inoculum's presence in the air was monitored by the exposition of Petri dishes with culture medium (saline BDA by counting the number of colonies units of Aspergillus and Penicillium. The quality analysis of seeds were performed by the blotter test. The occurrence index was calculated for Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp. The fungal occurrence increased during the storage period, in spite of the IRE presence. Fungal colonies were not found in the air samples collected at the box

  2. Emergence, growth, and flowering of castor beans as a function of the cationic composition of irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani Soares de Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of saline water in agriculture has contributed to the expansion of irrigated areas, especially in arid and semiarid regions, where water deficits occur during various months of the year. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the emergence, growth, and flowering of the castor bean cultivar “BRS Energia” as a function of the cationic composition of irrigation water, including water containing single and multiple types of cations. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the municipality of Campina Grande-PB, Brazil using drainage lysimeters filled with a sandy loam Ultisol. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, with four replicates each of six water salinity treatments: Control; Na+; Ca2+; Na+ + Ca2+; K+; and Na+ + Ca2+ + Mg2, totaling 24 experimental plots, each consisting of five plants. Plants in the control treatment were subjected to irrigation using water having low electrical conductivity (ECw = 0.6 dS m-1, while the plants receiving other treatments were irrigated using 4.5 dS m-1 water containing different ions. Emergence and growth were more affected by the ECw than by the cationic composition of the irrigation water. The order of the cations in the irrigation water, in terms of negative effects, was Na+ > Na+ + Ca+ > Ca2+ > Na+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+ > K+. The cationic composition of the irrigation water influenced the time interval for inflorescence development and the opening of flower buds of the castor bean cultivar “BRS Energia”, and the most pronounced effects were observed in plants irrigated with calcic water.

  3. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance. PMID:25049456

  4. Prophylactic effect of Mucuna pruriens Linn (velvet bean) seed extract against experimental Naja sputatrix envenomation: gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Kandiah; Jeyaseelan; Armugam, Arunmozhiarasi; Aguiyi, John Chinyere; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-09-01

    Mucuna pruriens is widely used in traditional medicine for treatments of various diseases. In certain region of Nigeria, the seed is used as oral prophylactics for snakebite. Rats pretreated with the aqueous extract from M. pruriens seed (MPE) were protected against the lethal effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom [Tan et al., J Ethnopharmacol, 123 (2009) 356]. The pretreatment also protected against venom-induced histopathological changes in rat heart. To contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of cardio-protective action, the present study examined the effects of MPE-pretreatment on gene expression profile of rat heart as well as effect of MPE-pretreatment on N. sputatrix venom-induced gene expression alterations in rat heart. The gene expression profiles were examined by microarray analysis and verified by real time PCR. The results showed that pretreatment with MPE caused 50 genes in the rat heart substantially up-regulated of which 19 were related to immune responses, 7 were related to energy production and metabolism. The up-regulation of genes related to energy metabolism probably plays a role in maintaining the viability of the heart. Four other genes that were up-regulated (alpha synuclein, natriuretic peptide precursor, calsequestrin and triadin) were involved in the maintenance of homeostasis of the heart or maintaining its viability, thereby contributing to the direct protective action. The results demonstrated that protective effect of MPE pretreatment against snake venom poisoning may involve a direct action on the heart. PMID:25241584

  5. 菜豆品种真实性及种子纯度鉴定研究进展%Research Progress on Authenticity and Seed Purity Identification of Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 韩玉珠

    2013-01-01

      对鉴定不同菜豆品种真实性和种子纯度的田间小区种植法、种子形态法、电泳谱带法和分子标记等鉴定方法进行了综述,并提出可行性建议,旨在为准确、快速地鉴定菜豆品种真实性及种子纯度提供参考。%In this paper, we summarized methods for identifying the authenticity and seed purity of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars, including plot planting identification, seed morphological identification, electrophoretic band identification and molecular marker identification, and we put forward feasible suggestions to provide reference for accurate and quick identification of authenticity and seed purity of P. vulgaris L..

  6. Water requirements of terrestrial and epiphytic orchid seeds and seedlings, and evidence for water uptake by means of mycotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder; Zettler; Stewart

    2000-07-28

    The use of endomycorrhizal fungi as an energy source (=mycotrophy) initiates seedling development and supplements or replaces photosynthesis in all orchids in nature. Fungus-infected and non-infected seeds of the monkey face orchid, Platanthera integrilabia, a US Federally-threatened terrestrial species, had a different set of water relations than seeds of the green fly orchid, Epidendrum conopseum, a subtropical epiphyte. Seeds of the terrestrial species had lower water loss rates, smaller activation energies for water loss and absorbed water from lower relative humidities. Thus, the epiphyte lacks the enhanced water retention capacity associated with the terrestrial species, implying that epiphytic orchids are capable of germinating quickly given an adequately moist substrate. After germination, water content of fungus-infected seeds was higher. These results provide first time fundamental information related to habitat preference by analyzing seed. Germination is considerably enhanced with mycorrhizal fungi that facilitate the absorption of free water by their orchid seed hosts.

  7. Fast induction of biosynthetic polysaccharide genes lpxA, lpxE, and rkpI of Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 by common bean seed exudates is indicative of a key role in symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luciana Ruano; Rodrigues, Elisete Pains; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-06-01

    Rhizobial surface polysaccharides (SPS) are, together with nodulation (Nod) factors, recognized as key molecules for establishment of rhizobia-legume symbiosis. In Rhizobium tropici, an important nitrogen-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), molecular structures and symbiotic roles of the SPS are poorly understood. In this study, Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 genes, belonging to the R. tropici group, were investigated: lpxA and lpxE, involved in biosynthesis and modification of the lipid-A anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rkpI, involved in synthesis of a lipid carrier required for production of capsular polysaccharides (KPS). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed, for the first time, that inducers released from common bean seeds strongly stimulated expression of all three SPS genes. When PRF 81 cells were grown for 48 h in the presence of seed exudates, twofold increases (p PRF81 and of the type strain of R. tropici CIAT899(T)clustered with orthologous Rhizobium radiobacter and were more related to R. etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum, while rkpI was closer to the Sinorhizobium sp. group. Upregulation of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes suggests that seed exudates can modulate production of SPS of Rhizobium sp. PRF81, leading to cell wall changes necessary for symbiosis establishment.

  8. THE USE OF MORINGA SEED EXTRACT IN WATER PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan Safiya Yahaya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of treated water makes most people in the rural communities to resort to readily available sources which are normally of low quality exposing them to waterborne diseases. It is in this light that this research was carried out to confirm the effectiveness of powder extracted from mature-dried Moringa oleifera seeds which is commonly available in most rural communities of Africa. This was done using Completely Randomised Design with loading doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 g/l of the powder processed from Moringa seeds, and potash aluminium sulphate (alum as coagulant. A control (water from the pond with only distilled water without alum and Moringa treatments was also included. The turbidity, pH, and conductivity and total coliform were determined for all the samples. The turbidity for the samples ranged from log100.37 to log101.00NTU while the conductivity ranged from log101.56 to log102.86µS/cm. The 6 g/l treatment of Moringa and 4 and 6 g/l potash alum treatments gave values that are acceptable according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for safe drinking water. The control sample gave the higher extremes values which are unacceptable. The pH values (7.29 to 7.89 obtained for the treatments were in the recommended range set by World Health Organization (WHO. Comparative studies with potash alum showed that the seed was effective in the sedimentation of inorganic and organic matter in raw water. It reduced the total microbial and coliform counts by 55% and 65%, respectively, after 24 hours whereas potash alum achieved 65% and 85% reduction under similar condition. The Most Probable Number per 100 ml for total coliform counts had values from 3 to 23 at 95% confidence limits. The Moringa treatment gave lower counts. Findings of this research lend support to earlier works recommending the use of Moringa for water treatment.

  9. Modificaçoes bioquímicas e físicas em grãos de feijão durante o armazenamento Biochemical and physical modifications of bean seeds during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se estudar parâmetros químicos e físicos que pudessem avaliar, em três épocas, a qualidade de grãos de feijão durante onze meses de armazenamento, utilizando os cultivares Carioca e Rico 23. Eletroforese das frações globulinas em gel de poliacrilamida com sulfato dodecil sódico (SDS, indicou um aumento no final do número de bandas, porém o fato poderia ser conseqüência de uma maior concentração protéica da amostra, sendo praticamente mantidos durante o estudo os pesos moleculares das subunidades polipeptídicas principais das proteínas G1 e G2, de cerca de 50.000-43.000 e 18.000 respectivamente. As porcentagens de proteína, umidade e açúcar solúvel não sofreram alterações sensíveis, enquanto a de lipídio diminuiu e a de fibra aumentou. O teor de amido também aumentou, provavelmente em vista da maior extratibilidade. O índice de peróxido e o teor de ácidos graxos livres aumentaram, sendo comprovada, por este último, a elevação do índice de acidez. A capacidade de hidratação aumentou inicialmente, permanecendo depois constante, e a porcentagem de sementes com tegumento duro não pareceu sofrer alteração. O comportamento dos dois cultivares foi semelhante.Seeds of dry beans cvs Rico 23 and Carioca, were chemical and physically characterized three times during eleven months of storage. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with SDS of the globulin fraction showed an increase in the number of bands at the third sampling, probably due to a more efficient protein extraction. However, molecular weight of the G1 and G2 subunits were constant, about 50,000 -43,000 and 18,000, respectively. Total protein, soluble sugars and water contents did not change during storage, while fiber increased and lipids decreased. Starch content, as in case of globulin fraction, also increased due to greater extractability. Both free fatty acids content and peroxide value increased, according to the increase of the acidity

  10. Crioconservação de sementes de mamona das variedades nordestina e pernambucana Cryoconservation of nordestina and pernambucana varieties of castor bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available É grande a importância da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. para a economia do semi-árido nordestino, que é responsável por 80% da produção nacional, no entanto durante 1970 e 2000, a produção líquida dessa oleaginosa foi reduzida na mesma percentagem. Registrou-se também a existência de aproximadamente 90 tipos diferentes de sementes empregadas no cultivo desta Euforbiaceae. Devido a este problema, o trabalho desenvolvido no Laboratório de Processamento e Armazenamento de Produtos Agrícolas do DEAg/UFPB, objetivou desenvolver técnicas de crioconservação para duas variedades de Ricinus communis, com vistas a uma armazenagem segura e por tempo indefinido. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com os dados obtidos nos 7º e 14º dias depois da semeadura, dispostos em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 3 x 2 x 2 (duas variedades, três períodos de crioconservação, duas temperaturas de crioconservação e dois tipos de acondicionamento com oito repetições de vinte e cinco sementes cada uma. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias dos fatores qualitativos comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Com os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que: o nível máximo de umidade para a crioconservação das sementes das duas variedades de Ricinus communis (nordestina e pernambucana encontra-se entre 4 e 10% base úmida; os melhores resultados de qualidade fisiológica foram obtidos aos 30 dias da crioconservação, podendo essas sementes serem crioconservadas tanto no vapor (-176 ºC como na imersão (-196 ºC em nitrogênio líquido; o canister de alumínio utilizado para acondicionar as sementes mostrou-se superior ao de PVC.The castor bean (Ricinus communis L. has great importance for the economy of the semi-arid region of the northeast of Brazil, responsible for 80% of the national production, but during 1970 and 2000, the net production of this oil crop was reduced

  11. Rate and duration of seed filling and yield of soybean affected by water and radiation deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed filling and yield of soybean under water and radiation deficits were investigated during 2011 and 2012. Treatments were irrigations (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively in main plots and light interceptions (L1: 100 %, L2: 65 % and L3: 25 % sunlight in sub-plots. Seeds per plant under I1 and I2 decreased, but under I3 and I4 increasedas a result of radiation deficit. Maximum seed weight and seed filling duration of plants under 25 % light interception (L3 were higher than those under full sunlight (L1 and 65 % light interception (L2. In contrast, plants under full sunlight had the highest seed filling rate, particularly under water stress. Seed filling duration under severe light deficit (L3 was about 9 days longer than that under full sunlight (L1, leading to 15.8 % enhancement in maximum seed weight. Decreasing seed yield of soybean under well watering and mild water stress and improving it under moderate and severe water deficit due to low solar radiation are directly related with changes in seed filling duration and consequently in seed weight and number of seeds per plant under these conditions.

  12. Effects of applying different pH values on mung bean seed germination and seedlings growth%pH值对绿豆种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于秋良; 杨志贤; 李忠芳; 卢伟琳; 何子龙; 岑美婷; 覃娟清; 梁丽清; 李稳

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of applying different pH values and determining the pH soaking time on mung bean seed germination and seedlings growth in order to provide basis for reducing soil acidity stress by scientifically raising seedlings in Southern China bean planting aren. [Method ]The experiment was designed with 5 different degrees of pH values and 2 soaking times. The seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean were observed. [ResultjThe results showed that the germination speed was the fastest out of all treatments when the pH level was 7.5; under this pH level, the most numerous seedling germination was also observed. Two days after the seeds were soaked in pH 7.5 solutions for 6 and 12 hrs, the germination rate was 87.5% and 92.5%, respectively. On the other hand, four days after seeding, the tallest seedling plant height were measured after the seeds were soaked for 6 and 12 hrs under the pH solution of 7.5 and 7.0, respectively. For all seeds soaked for 6 and 12 hrs under pH level 6.5 and pH level 7.0, respectively, their seedlings showed the highest fresh weight, while those soaked in pH level 8.0 showed the heaviest dry seedling weight. [Conclusion]The optimal pH value for soaking mung bean seeds should be between 7.0-7.5 to achieve the best mung bean germination and seedling growth in Hezhou districts of Cuangxi.%[目的]研究不同pH值溶液及其不同浸泡时间对绿豆种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响,为在南方地区通过科学育苗减少土壤酸胁迫提供科学依据.[方法]用pH值6.0~8.0溶液分别浸泡绿豆种子6、12 h,观察绿豆种子萌芽及幼苗生长状况.[结果]当溶液pH值为7.5时,绿豆种子萌发速度最快、数量最多,2d后浸种6、12h的发芽率分别为87.5%和92.5%;浸种6、12h,播种4d后分别以pH值7.5和7.0处理的幼苗株高最高.浸种6、12h时,分别以pH值6.5、7.0处理的绿豆幼苗鲜重最高,而均以pH 8.0处理的幼苗干重最高.[结论]在广

  13. Effects of water level on three wetlands soil seed banks on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaojun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the effect of water level on germination in soil seed banks has been documented in many ecosystems, the mechanism is not fully understood, and to date no empirical studies on this subject exist. Further, no work has been done on the effect of water level on seed banks of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands in alpine areas on the Tibetan Plateau. METHODOLOGY: We examined the effects of water level (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm on seed germination and seedling establishment from soil seed banks at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depths in typical, drying, and saline-alkaline wetlands. We also explore the potential role of soil seed bank in restoration of drying and saline-alkaline wetlands. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species richness decreased with increase in water level, but there almost no change in seed density. A huge difference exists in species composition of the seed bank among different water levels in all three wetlands, especially between 0 cm and 5 cm and 0 cm and 10 cm. Similarity of species composition between seed bank and plant community was higher in 0 cm water level in drying wetland than in the other two wetlands. The similarity was much higher in 0 cm water level than in 5 cm and 10 cm water levels in all three wetlands. Species composition of the alpine wetland plant community changed significantly after drying and salinization, however, species composition of the seed bank was unchanged regardless of the environment change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Water level greatly affects seed bank recruitment and plant community establishment. Further, different water levels in restored habitats are likely to determine its species composition of the plant community. The seed bank is important in restoration of degraded wetlands. Successful restoration of drying and salinization wetlands could depend on the seed bank.

  14. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  15. Seed quality and water use characteristics of maize landraces compared with selected commercial hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Farai Mazvimbakupa; Albert Thembinkosi Modi; Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding seed quality and water use characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) landraces will improve food security among subsistence farmers who still cultivate them. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed quality and water use characteristics of two maize landraces (GQ1 and GQ2) compared with two commercial hybrids (SC701 and PAN53). Seed quality was determined by the standard germination, electrical conductivity, and tetrazolium tests. A controlled environment study was conducte...

  16. Effects of water stress on the photosynthetic assimilation and distribution of 14C-photosynthate in maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between photosynthesis and distribution of 14C-photosinthate as affected by water stress was evaluated. Corn (Zea mays L.) during the grain filling period and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during flowering, representing a C-4 and a C-3 photosynthetic type, respectively, were studied. (M.A.C.)

  17. Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants

  18. Effects of submergence in water on seed germination and vigor of the Copaifera lucens (Fabaceae) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniela Baldez Vidal; Isis Leite Andrade; Marcelo Schramm Mielke

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the tolerance of Copaifera lucens seeds to sub-mersion in water to assess the use of this species for direct seeding in riparian forest restoration programs. Seeds were submerged in water for 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days or not submerged (control = 0 days of submer-gence). For the control and at the end of each period of submersion, germination and seedling vigor tests were carried out. For germination tests, seeds were sown in plastic pots containing sand and kept in labora-tory conditions. The percentage of seed germination, the germination rate and the average germination time were analyzed. For seedlings, total biomass, leaf area, leaf mass per area and leaf area ratio were analyzed. Submersion time drastically affected the dissolved oxygen content and seed germination. Between 4 and 8 days of submersion there was a de-crease from 83.8% to 15.6% in the germination percentage. No seed germination occurred after 16 days of submersion. Although there was a significant decrease in the percentage of seed germination between 4 and 8 days of submersion, seedling vigor was not affected. Seeds of this species were partially tolerant to submersion in water, suggesting that C. lucens is a promising species for direct seeding in riparian forest restora-tion projects.

  19. Processing Technology of Functional Soybean Drinks Made from Kelp, Coix Seed, Red Beans and Soy%海带·薏米·红豆·黄豆复合保健豆浆饮料的新工艺配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐辉

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To study optimum formula and technique of compound functional drink made from kelp,coix seed,red beans and soy.[Method] The orthogonal experiment and fuzzy mathematic judgment were adopted to obtain the optimum formula.[Result] The optimum formula is A1B3C3D3,namely kelp 5 g,coix seed 20 g,red beans 50 g,soybean 80 g,adding water 1 200 ml.[Conclusion] The study provide reference basis for production of compound health soybean milk beverage.%[目的]对海带、薏米、红豆、黄豆复合保健豆浆的最佳配方及其工艺进行研究.[方法]应用正交试验设计方案和模糊数学评判确定出海带、薏米、红豆、黄豆复合保健豆浆的最佳工艺配方.[结果]试验表明,海带、薏米、红豆、黄豆复合保健豆浆的最佳工艺配方为A1B3C3D3,即海带5 g、薏米20 g、红豆50 g、黄豆80 g,加水1 200 ml磨出的豆浆口味最佳.[结论]研究为豆浆饮料增添了一个新的品种,同时可为该复合保健豆浆饮料的批量生产提供参考依据.

  20. Métodos para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão vigna Methods for evaluation of physiological quality of vigna bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonieta Laurinda Francisco Bias

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Visando comparar diferentes testes de vigor quanto à avaliação da qualidade fisiológica, quatro lotes de sementes de feijão vigna (Vigna unguiculata W. de duas cultivares ('EPACE-10' e 'IPA-206' foram armazenados por 180 dias (novembro/94 a maio/95, em condições normais de ambiente em Pelotas, RS. Bimestralmente, foram conduzidos testes de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, frio sem solo, emergência de plântulas em campo e peso de matéria seca da parte aérea das plântulas. A análise e a interpretação dos resultados indicaram que a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão vigna deve ser fundamentada no conjunto das informações fornecidas por diferentes testes de vigor. O teste de frio sem solo, dentre os testes estudados, é o que apresenta melhor relação com a emergência das plântulas em campo. O peso de matéria seca da parte aérea das plântulas não é eficiente na separação de lotes de sementes de feijão vigna em diferentes níveis de vigor.The aim of this research was to compare vigor tests for seed quality evaluation. Four seed lots of vigna bean (Vigna unguiculata W. of two cultivares (EPACE-10 and IPA-206, were stored for six months (november/94 to may/95 at natural environmen conditions of Pelotas, RS, Brazil and evaluated at two month intervals, throught the following tests: germination, accelerated aging, cold test without soil, electrical condutivity, seedling dry weight and field emergence tests. The analysis and interpretation of the results showed that the evaluation of the physiological quality of vigna bean seeds needs to be based on different vigor tests. Among the tests, the cold test without soil was the best related with seedling field emergence. The seedling dry weight was not effective to separate vigna bean seed lots in different vigor levels.

  1. Draft genome sequence of the ricin-producing oilseed castor bean

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Agnes P.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Kristine M Jones; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J.; Wortman, Jennifer R

    2010-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a highly toxic ribosome inactivating protein, making castor bean relevant for biosafety. We report here the 4.6X draft genome sequence of castor bean, representing the first reported Euphorbiaceae geno...

  2. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  3. Sensitivity to high temperature and water stress in recalcitrant Baccaurea ramiflora seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin; Liu, Minghang; Tan, Yunhong; Liu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Southeast Asia experiences one of the highest rates of deforestation in the tropics due to agricultural expansion, logging, habitat fragmentation and urbanization. As tropical rainforests harbour abundant recalcitrant-seeded species, it is important to understand how recalcitrant seeds respond to deforestation and fragmentation. Baccaurea ramiflora is a recalcitrant-seeded species, widely distributed in Southeast Asian tropical rainforest. In this study, B. ramiflora seeds were sown in three plots, one in a nature reserve and two in disturbed holy hill forests, to investigate seed germination and seedling establishment in the field, while laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of high temperature and water stress on germination. It was found that seed germination and seedling establishment in B. ramiflora were clearly reduced in holy hills compared to the nature reserve, although the seeds were only moderately to minimally recalcitrant. This was potentially caused by increased temperature and decreased moisture in holy hills, for laboratory experiments showed that seed germination was greatly inhibited by temperatures ≥35 °C or water potentials ≤-0.5 MPa, and depressed by heat treatment at 40 °C when the continuous heating period lasted for 240 h or daily periodic heating exceeded 10 h. Unlike orthodox seeds, which can endure much higher temperatures in the air-dried state than in the imbibed state, both blotted and immersed B. ramiflora seeds lost viability within a narrow temperature range between 50 and 60 °C. As recalcitrant seeds can be neither air-dried nor heated, species producing recalcitrant seeds will suffer more than those producing orthodox seeds in germination and seedling establishment from increased temperature and decreased moisture in fragmented rainforests, which results in sensitivity of recalcitrant-seeded species to rainforest fragmentation. PMID:26920843

  4. 铅对红小豆种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响%Effects of the Lead on the Budding of Red Adzuki Beans Seeds and Seedling Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平

    2013-01-01

    It studies the effects of the lead on the germination percentage and germination tendency of red adzuki beans seeds,seedling height and root length,fresh weight and dry weight;chlorophyll content of the blade in in-dex;At the same time it analyzes the size effects of the lead on various index. The results show:the germination percentage of red adzuki beans seeds,germination tendency and seedling height and root length,fresh weight and dry weight,chlorophyll content of the blade and Pb treatment concentration were all highly significant negative correlation;the effects of the lead on the germination tendency are greater than the seed germination percentage, the root length is greater than the seedling height,the dry weight is greater than fresh weight,the chlorophyll a is greater than the chlorophyll b.%研究了铅对红小豆种子的发芽率与发芽势、幼苗的株高与根长、鲜重和干重、叶片的叶绿素含量等指标的影响,并分析了铅对各项指标的影响大小。结果表明:红小豆种子的发芽率、发芽势及幼苗的株高与根长、鲜重与干重、叶片的叶绿素含量与铅处理的浓度变化均为显著的高度负相关关系;铅对发芽势的影响大于发芽率,对根长的影响大于株高,对干重的影响大于鲜重,对叶绿素a的影响大于叶绿素b。

  5. Water uptake mechanism and germination of Erythrina velutina seeds treated with atmospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Junior, Clodomiro; de Oliveira Vitoriano, Jussier; da Silva, Dinnara Layza Souza; de Lima Farias, Mikelly; de Lima Dantas, Nadjamara Bandeira

    2016-01-01

    The effect of plasma applied to mulungu (Erythrina velutina) seeds was studied to verify its influence on the germination, water absorption, wettability and structure of the seeds. The plasma jet used in this study was produced by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a helium gas flow of 0.03 L/s at a distance of 13 mm for 60 s. The plasma treatment significantly affected the seed germination rate, which was approximately 5% higher than that of the untreated group. Micropyle and hilum contributed a greater proportion to uptake. When sealed in the hilar or micropyle regions the amount of water absorbed into the seed decreased approximately 75% compared to the unsealed seed. This difference suggests that these two regions together act cooperatively in the water absorption. However, when plasma treated seed was blocked in the micropyle region, water absorption was higher higher than in seeds blocked hilum. This difference suggests that the plasma treatment changed the wettability of the hilum more effectively than it changed the micropyle. These results indicate that plasma can significantly change the hydrophilicity, water absorption and percentage of seed germination in E. velutina. PMID:27670654

  6. Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in low quality water using Moringa oleifera seed extract as coagulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Petersen, T. B.; Enemark, Heidi;

    2016-01-01

    The use of different types of low quality water for irrigation in agriculture is common practice in many countries due to limited freshwater resources. Pathogens may contaminate fruit and vegetables when feces contaminated water is used for irrigation or postharvest processing. A laboratory study...... demonstrate that MO seed extract may be used by farmers for treatment of different types of surface water prior to irrigation use. Yet, adding MO seed extract to the low quality water did not successfully remove all oocyst. However, treatment of wastewater with MO seed extract significantly improved the water...... was carried out to investigate the effect of a coagulant produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater and stream water. Glass jars (n = 60) containing 500 mL wastewater obtained from the inlet to the primary settling tanks from...

  7. The role of seed coat phenolics on water uptake and early protein synthesis during germination of dimorphic seeds of halopyrum mucronatum (L.) staph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Role of seed coat phenolics on water uptake and early protein synthesis of Halopyrum mucronatum dimorphic seeds during germination were tested. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed seed texture with differential deposition of secondary metabolites in both morphs. Ability of both seed morphs to retain secondary deposition was dependent on exposure to either saline or non-saline conditions. More phenols leached from the brown seed during the initial hours of soaking when compared to black seeds. Water uptake pattern was slightly different in both seed type particularly during initial hours when imbibition in black seeds showed little water uptake while in brown seeds absorption was quick in the first hour under both saline and non saline condition. Change in total protein was somewhat similar in both seeds morphs showing early increase (4 and 8 h), reaching to the maximum (12 h) and decreasing (24 and 48 h) afterward. The results are discussed in relation to seed coat phenolics, water uptake and early protein synthesis during germination. (author)

  8. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Maria Silvina; Ramirez, Maria Laura; Barros, Germán Gustavo; Chulze, Sofia Noemi

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) (0.99-0.90), temperature (15, 25 and 30°C) and their interactions on growth and alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans. Maximum growth rates were obtained at 0.980 a(w) and 25°C. Minimum a(w) level for growth was dependent on temperature. Both strains were able to grow at the lowest a(w) assayed (0.90). Maximum amount of AOH was produced at 0.98 a(w) but at different temperatures, 15 and 25°C, for the strains RC 21 and RC 39 respectively. Maximum AME production was obtained at 0.98 a(w) and 30°C for both strains. The concentration range of both toxins varied considerably depending on a(w) and temperature interactions. The two metabolites were produced over the temperature range 15 to 30°C and a(w) range 0.99 to 0.96. The limiting a(w) for detectable mycotoxin production is slightly greater than that for growth. Two-dimensional profiles of a(w)× temperature were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk from AOH and AME accumulation on soya bean. Knowledge of AOH and AME production under marginal or sub-optimal temperature and a(w) conditions for growth can be important since improper storage conditions accompanied by elevated temperature and moisture content in the grain can favour further mycotoxin production and lead to reduction in grain quality. This could present a hazard if the grain is used for human consumption or animal feedstuff.

  9. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão em plantio direto sobre diferentes coberturas de plantas em Diamantina, MG Physiological quality seeds of bean in no-tillage system over different coverings of plants in Diamantina, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Russi Nunes

    2007-12-01

    . Marandu, 3 Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, 4 Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, 5 Mucuna aterrina (black mucuna, 6 Calopogonio muconoides cv. Calopogonio, 7 Dolichos lab lab (lab lab, 8 Cajanus cajan (guandu, 9 Natural covering and 10 Conventional plantation where the bean plantation was made to cultivate Talisman. The physiological quality of the seeds was evaluated by the germination tests (first and final count; electric conductivity of the solute; weigh of 100 seeds; length and weight of the plants; index of germination speed and text of water of the bean seeds. The grass Panicum. maximum cv. Mombaça, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk and P. maximum cv. Tanzania produced dry matter in amount and uniformity for larger conservation of water and protection of the soil to make possible the no-tillage system. The quality of the seeds was not affected by the used soil handlings but had the influence of the climatic conditions in the maturation.

  10. Crescimento e acumulação de nitrogênio de plantas de feijoeiro originadas de sementes com alto teor de molibdênio Growth and nitrogen accumulation by common bean plants originating from seeds with high molybdenum concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Yuudi Kubota

    2008-08-01

    ção foliar, podem estimular a atividade da nitrogenase e aumentar a acumulação de biomassa e N do feijoeiro.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris seeds with high molybdenum concentration can adequately supply the crop demand of this nutrient. Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effect of Mo-enriched seeds, obtained from plants treated with foliar fertilization, on growth and N accumulation by common bean plants. The soil substrate was the A horizon of a Haplustult (3.5 kg pots, which were limed and fully fertilized with exception of Mo. The first experiment had a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design with five replications: three bean cultivars, two seed Mo concentrations, and two harvest dates. In plants of the three cultivars originating from seeds with high Mo concentration, the shoot biomass and N accumulation were higher at both harvests. Seeds with high Mo concentration increased the nodule mass of cultivars Manteigão and Rio Tibagi 30 days after emergence (DAE but reduced biomass and number of nodules in the cultivars Carioca and Manteigão 45 DAE. High seed Mo concentration increased the nitrogenase activity 30 DAE and the specific nitrogenase activity 45 DAE. The second experiment had a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design with five replications: two bean cultivars, two seed Mo concentrations, and four harvest dates. The shoot mass in plants originating from seeds with high Mo concentration was higher 47 and 59 DAE, and shoot N accumulation was higher 59 DAT. High seed Mo concentration did not affect nodulation until 45 DAE, but reduced nodule number 59 DAE. The reduced nodulation at the pod filling stage observed in both experiments, in plants grown from seeds with high Mo concentration, can be due to the improved growth of these plants, which may have anticipated the translocation of assimilates to pods. It can be concluded that Mo-enriched seeds, harvested from plants treated with foliar fertilizer, can stimulate nitrogenase activity and increase biomass and N

  11. 菜芸豆种子淋雨后生命力的变化研究%Study on Vitality Change Rules of Kidney Bean Seeds in Rain Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖贵; 韩靖玲; 刘海英; 杨秀军; 李孝

    2014-01-01

    Taking the kidney bean seeds dried naturally and then exposed to the rain by artificial simulation as material, we studied the change rules of seed vitality and measures to minimize the loss. After being exposed to the rain, the seeds were spread out indoor and was dried by sun in outdoor after two or three days. Then we measured the seed germinability and seed emergence rate in indoor and investigated the seedling emergence rate in outdoor. The results showed that, being exposed to the artificial rain, the seed germinability and emergence rate were decreased, moreover the seedling emergence rate was reduced, with the seed germinability declined more significant. In general, it brought little loss to seed processing enterprises and farmers, as long as the seeds were dried immediately after being exposed to rain.%为探索芸豆种子受到雨淋后活力的变化规律和将损失降到最低的措施,以自然风干种子为材料,人工模拟降雨条件,当经不同雨淋处理的种子含水量达到入库标准后,进行室内发芽势、发芽率检测,室外单粒点播、室外穴播试验,鉴定种子活力和田间出苗情况。试验结果表明,在收储晾晒过程中,种子遭受雨淋,其发芽势、发芽率均有降低,田间出苗数减少,发芽势下降尤为显著。种子淋雨后只要马上沥干水分并及时晾晒,不会造成田间的缺苗断垄,仍能达到国家二级种子质量标准,不会给种子加工企业和菜农带来损失。

  12. A RESEARCH ON SEPERATION OF FILLED SEEDS OF MELON AND WATERMELON SEEDS DIFFERENT FLOTATION TECHNIQUE AND TIME ON SEPARATING BY FLOTATION IN WATER

    OpenAIRE

    KABAŞ, Önder

    2006-01-01

    In this study, effects of flotation technique and time on separating filled seeds of watermelon and melon by flotation in water were investigated. Three different flotation techniques and times were used for each seeds. As a result of the tests, the flotation technique in which the seeds were mixed in vertical direction in water, for 1 minute flotation time gave better results than the other used techniques and times. When this technique and 1 minute time were applied, it was determined for w...

  13. Culinary and sensory traits diversity in the Spanish Core Collection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Casquero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish National Plant Genetic Resource Center’s core collection of bean germplasm includes 202 accessions selected from more than 3000 accessions in function of passport data, seed phenotype, genetic background, and agronomic traits. To acquire more useful information about these accessions, we cultivated and characterized them for sensory and culinary traits. We found considerable variation for culinary and sensory traits of the cooked beans (mean coefficients of variation: 41% for the sensory traits and 40% for the culinary traits. The large dataset enabled us to study correlations between sensory and culinary traits and among these traits and geographic origin, seed color, and growth habit. Greater proportion of white in the seed coat correlated positively with brightness and negatively with mealiness (r=0.60, r=-0.60, p<0.001, respectively. Mealiness correlated negatively with seed-coat roughness and rate of water absorption (r=-0.60, r=-0.53, p<0.001, respectively. Materials of Andean origin had lower seed-coat brightness (p<0.01 and seed-coat roughness, and greater seed-coat perceptibility, mealiness, flavor, and aroma (p<0.001 than materials of Mesoamerican origin. Growth habit failed to correlate with culinary or sensory traits. Breeders can benefit from the information about this core collection available at www.crf.inia.es/crfesp/paginaprincipaljudia.asp.

  14. EXOGENOUS APPLICATION OF GROWTH REGULATORS IN SNAP BEAN UNDER WATER AND SALINITY STRESS

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    Jesús R. Torres-García

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and moisture limiting crop productivity due an imbalance between concentrations of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinin, ABA and ethylene. applications of growth regulators to alleviate salinity stress can be an economic and safe alternative to environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of salinity (0, 1000 and 2000 ppm of NaCl, soil moisture (30 and 60% and exogenous application of growth regulators (control, 5 mL L-1 at the Beginning of flowering and 5 mL L-1 in vegetative stage + Beginning of flowering and the combinations of three factors in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Concentrations of 2000 ppm reduced biomass and pod production in 35.5 and 45%, respectively. The humidity had no effects in biomass production and pod number. With the application of growth regulators in the vegetative stage + beginning of flowering, the weight and number of pods were increased. The greater biomass and yield was observed with 0 ppm, 60% humidity and application of growth regulators in the beginning of flowering. However, with: 1000 ppm, 30% of humidity and application in B. flowering, the biomass production was statistically similar. Our conclusion suggests that the application of growth regulators can be economical and easily applicable for farmers.

  15. Effects of boron nutrition and water stress on nitrogen fixation, seed d15N and d13C daynamics, and seed composition in soybean cultivars differing in maturities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water stress is a major abiotic stress factor, resulting in a major yield loss and poor seed quality. Little information is available on the effects of B nutrition on seed composition under water stress. Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutr...

  16. Use of Moringa oleifera seeds for the removal of turbidity of water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lopes Muniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water used for human consumption may contain various impurities and solid particles in suspension that increase its turbidity level. Moringa oleifera Lam is a plant that has the potential to be used as coagulating agent in removing turbidity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Moringa oleifera seeds used in shells and without shells in the removal of turbidity from waters with different degrees of turbidity. Waters were used with 70, 250 and 400 initial NTU obtained synthetically. The extract of moringa seeds was prepared using unshelled and shelled seeds, seeking a simplified procedure and practice. The sedimentation times and dose of coagulant solution used were based on existing recommendations in the literature. All treatments were performed with three replicates and the averages depicted in graphs. The results showed that the use of extract of moringa seeds in shells was more efficient than with unshelled seeds in the removal of turbidity of all treatments and that the shelled seeds removed more than 99% of the initial turbidity of the water samples. Furthermore, there was a direct relationship between turbidity removal efficiency and the level of initial turbidity of the samples. The seeds were more efficient in removing turbidity of the water with a higher level of initial turbidity.

  17. Using composting for control seed germination of invasive plant (water hyacinth) in Extremadura (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Albano, Eva; Moreno, Marta M.

    2016-04-01

    The biotransformation of the invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by composting has been showed as a viable alternative to offset the economic cost of eliminating an invasive plant giving a value to the by-product; however, as result of the propagative plant capacity, it was necessary to check if the composting process could eliminate the germination seed rate. Despite the high temperatures and the biochemical biotransformation processes of the composting components, in the case of seed water hyacinth, with a recovery rate of 100%, damage was observed in some parts of the seed anatomy such as in the outer teguments; however, other parts of the seed coat and the endosperm maintained their integrity. A microscopic analysis revealed that the embryo was noticeable and this was supported by the rate of seed germination observed (3.5 ± 0.96%). The results indicate that the use of water hyacinth for compost production is not completely safe from an environmental perspective. Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, water hyacinth, invasive plant, seed anatomy, seed germination rate, compost. References: Ruiz T., Martín de Rodrigo E., Lorenzo G., Albano E., Morán R., Sánchez J.M. 2008. The Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions Volume 3, Issue 1:42-53.

  18. PHYSIOLOGIC AND SANITARY QUALITY OF CASTOR BEAN SEEDS UNDER DIFFERENT CHEMICAL TREATMENTS QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA E SANITÁRIA DE SEMENTES DE MAMONA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMENTOS QUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Murilo Macedo Barbosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of fungicides for treating seeds has become an essential measure in the control of pathogens. However, the effectiveness of many products is not well-known to some crops. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of carbendazin and carboxin + thiram fungicides for controlling pathogens and their interference on the physiologic quality of castor bean seeds. The test consisted of the following treatments (g i.a./100 kg of seeds: carbendazin (15, 30, and 60, carboxin + thiram (25 + 25, 50 + 50, and 100 + 100, formol 0.15% (v/v, and control (distilled water. The physiologic quality of the seeds was determined by germination, first counting, field emergence, speed emergence index, length, fresh and dry weight of the aerial part, and electrical conductivity. There were no statistical differences for germination and fresh and dry matter index. The treatment with formol provided lower values for first counting and field emergence. Seeds treated with fungicides presented higher values for electrical conductivity, but did not differ, statistically, among themselves. The fungi Cladosporium spp.; Bipolaris spp.; Curvularia spp.; Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus niger; Rhizopus sp.; Penicillium sp.; Rhizoctonia sp.; Verticillium sp.; Fusarium sp.; Arthrobotrys sp.; and Epicocum sp. were identified. All tested products, independently of the dose, provided efficient control for pathogens.

  19. The role of water channel proteins and nitric oxide signaling in rice seed germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yan Liu; Xin Yu; Da-Yong Cui; Mei-Hao Sun; Wei-Ning Sun; Zhang-Cheng Tang; Sang-Soo Kwak; Wei-Ai Su

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the possible role of several aquaporins in seed germination. But systematic investigation of the role of aquaporin family members in this process is lacking. Here, the developmental regulation of plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) expression throughout germination and post-germination processes in rice embryos was analyzed. The expression patterns of the PIPs suggest these aquaporins play different roles in seed germination and seedling growth. Partial silencing of the water channel genes, OsPIP1; 1 and OsPIP1;3, reduced seed germination while over-expression of OsPIPl;3 promoted seed germination under water-stress conditions. Moreover, spatial expression analysis indicates that OsPIP1;3 is expressed predominantly in embryo during seed germination. Our data also revealed that the nitric oxide (NO) donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), promoted seed germination; furthermore, the NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, inhibited germination and reduced the stimulative effects of SNP and GSNO on rice germination. Exogenous NO stimulated the transcription of OsPIP1;1, OsPIP1;2, OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;8 in germinating seeds. These results suggest that water channels play an important role in seed germination, acting, at least partly, in response to the NO signaling pathway.

  20. Effects of Hg2+ and Pb2+ on Seed Germination,Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes Activities of Wild Type Mung Bean%Hg2+、Pb2+对野生型绿豆种子萌发、幼苗生长及抗氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常云霞; 陈璨; 阮先乐; 吴苗苗; 陈龙

    2012-01-01

    为了解重金属污染对野生型绿豆和栽培型绿豆的不同影响,采用水培方法,以去离子水培养为对照(CK),研究了重金属离子Hg2+、Pb2+、(Hg2++Pb2+)污染对野生型绿豆E和栽培型绿豆P种子萌发、幼苗生长及抗氧化酶活性的影响.结果表明:Hg2+、Pb2+和(Hg2+Pb2+)污染均能抑制绿豆种子的萌发和幼苗的生长,伤害程度为(Hg2+Pb2+)>Hg2+ >Pb2+,其中(Hg2+Pb2+)质量浓度为(2.0+100) mg/L时,品种P的发芽率、幼苗苗高和根长分别比其CK降低25.8%、48.1%和79.7%,品种E分别比其CK降低22.4%、44.7%、70.0%;一定质量浓度的Hg2+、Pb2+、(Hg2+Pb2+)污染下,绿豆叶片内的抗氧化酶活性提高,其中(Hg2+Pb2+)质量浓度为(2.0+100) mg/L时,品种P叶片内SOD、POD、CAT的活性比其CK分别增加了113.7%、304%、254%,品种E叶片内SOD、POD、CAT的活性比其CK分别增加了131.0%、333%和278%.可见,Hg2+、Pb2+、(Hg2+Pb2+)胁迫下野生绿豆E品种的萌发能力、幼苗生长及其抗氧化能力均高于栽培绿豆P品种.%In order to investigate the different effects of heavy metal pollution on wild and cultivated-type mung bean,effects of pollution of single and combined heavy metal ions of Hg2+,Pb2+,Hg2+ and Pb2+ on the seed germination,growth and antioxidant enzymes activities of mung bean seedling were studied by hydroponics culture in pots, with the deionized water culture as control (CK). The results showed that the seed germination and seedling growth were inhibited under the pollution of single and combined ions of Hg2+ and Pb2+, followed by (Hg2++Pb2+) > Hg2+>Pb2+. The germination percentage, seedting length and root length of type P mung bean reduced by 25. 8% ,48. 1% and 79. 7% compared with the control under (2.0 + 100) mg/L of (Hg2++Pb2+) stress,and these indicators of wild type mung bean reduced by 22. 4% ,44. 7% and 70. 0% respectively. In addition,the antioxidant enzymes activities of leaf were increased

  1. Effects of High Temperature and Water Stress on Seed Germination of the Invasive Species Mexican Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Mexican sunflower is native to Mexico and Central America and was introduced into China early last century. Now it has widely naturalized and is exhibiting increasing invasiveness in South China. As this species often dominates bare ground, a habitat characterized by extreme fluctuation in temperature and water, it is reasonable to hypothesize that it has special adaptations to high temperature and water stress. Using laboratory experiments to simulate these stresses, this study investigated the response of Mexican sunflower seed germination to temperature and water stress, and compared these responses with those previously reported for another invasive, bamboo piper, which is confined to relatively cool and moist habitats in Xishuangbanna. As expected, Mexican sunflower seeds exhibited higher tolerance to these stresses than bamboo piper. Germination of Mexican sunflower seeds was highest at 15-30°C, but significant numbers of seeds germinated and formed seedlings at 10°C and 35°C, at which no bamboo piper seeds formed seedlings, indicating a wider temperature range for germination than the latter. Roughly half the seeds survived 240 h continuous heat treatment and up to 15 h daily periodical heat treatment at 40°C, while bamboo piper seeds were mostly killed by these treatments. About 20% of Mexican sunflower but no bamboo piper seeds germinated after heat treatment for 30 min at 80°C. Germination was completely inhibited in bamboo piper seeds at -0.6 mPa, while 20-60% of Mexican sunflower seeds germinated depending on PEG or NaCl as osmoticum. This higher tolerance in Mexican sunflower seeds accords with its stronger invasiveness in this area. This comparison between two plant invaders demonstrates that invasiveness is not an all-or-nothing situation, and that adaptation to local habitats is a critical determinant of successful invasiveness for an alien plant.

  2. Effect of Aging and Priming on Physiological and Biochemical Traits of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman AMANPOUR-BALANEJI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging and deterioration (artificial aging are the most effective factors on the seed vigour. In order to study the changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics of common bean under aging and priming treatments a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design conducted with three replications. Seed aging (control, 90 and 80% of control germination and seed invigoration with priming including control, hydro (distilled water, osmo (PEG 6000, hormone (gibberellic acid and halo (NaCl priming were considered as experimental factors. Results showed that osmo-priming had the ability to relatively ameliorate the aging effect and recover some of the seed aspects like germination rate, protein and phytin content for invigorate germination and seedling establishment. Priming indirectly increased seed vigour via germination rate and it can provide homogeny of emergence in the field and obtaining appropriate plant population.

  3. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF ACTIVITY OF SERINE PROTEASES ACCOMPANY THE EXPOSURE OF COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. TO WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Budič

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of proteolytic enzymes exist in plants. On their levels depends protein turnover, a fundamental component in plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Cysteine proteases have frequently been reported to be influenced by drought, but only a few serine proteases (SP, among them the trypsin-like enzyme and two aminopeptidases from bean leaves (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Hieng et al., 2004. Our starting point was to identify proteolytic activities assigned to SPs that change with drought and then to characterize the corresponding proteases. A quantitative, analytical one-step method was used to separate endopeptidases and aminopeptidases active against a range of substrates in leaf extracts of plants grown in the field (FC. The influence of drought was determined for those of these activities which were confirmed as SPs, based on their inhibition by specific inhibitors. Under water deficit in plants grown under controlled conditions (CC their levels changed in different ways. The levels of SP activities in FC plants, observed during a period of relative drought, were similar to those measured in mildly stressed CC plants. The partial characterisations of some of these SPs will be presented. Our results point to a number of roles for different SPs in the plant response to water stress, which could range from enhanced protein turnover to limited proteolysis at specific sites.

  4. Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravber, Matej; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 °C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ≥100 °C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation.

  5. Inductive effect of coconut water on germination of seeds and sprouting of corms of Dracontium grayumianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the promotional effect of coconut water, gibberellic acid, cold stratification and mechanical scarification on seed germination of Dracontium grayumianum, and the effect of gibberellic acid and coconut water on the sprouting of corms of the same species. The seeds without the inductive treatment were unable to germinate, but the immersion in coconut water had significant effects, producing a germination rate of 50%, higher than the effect achieved with other treatments. The liquid endosperm of coconut also had favorable effect on the sprouting of corms under nursery conditions, like the treatment with gibberellic acid solution. This is the first report of the use of coconut water as a promoter of seed germination with high latency, which places this resource as an additional alternative, highly efficient, and cost-effective, for use in plant propagation strategies of species with seeds of deep dormancy.

  6. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by the embryo during seed development or retained for use by the embryo during germination. Differences in timing of endosperm digestion can be illustrated with broad bean ( Vicia faba ) and Gasteria...

  7. Differential Inactivation of Fungal Spores in Water and on Seeds by Ozone and Arc Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Ho; Pengkit, Anchalee; Choi, Kihong; Jeon, Seong Sil; Choi, Hyo Won; Shin, Dong Bum; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon

    2015-01-01

    Seed sterilization is essential for preventing seed borne fungal diseases. Sterilization tools based on physical technologies have recently received much attention. However, available information is very limited in terms of efficiency, safety, and mode of action. In this study, we have examined antifungal activity of ozone and arc discharge plasma, potential tools for seed sterilization. In our results, ozone and arc discharge plasma have shown differential antifungal effects, depending on the environment associated with fungal spores (freely submerged in water or infected seeds). Ozone inactivates Fusarium fujikuroi (fungus causing rice bakanae disease) spores submerged in water more efficiently than arc discharge plasma. However, fungal spores associated with or infecting rice seeds are more effectively deactivated by arc discharge plasma. ROS generated in water by ozone may function as a powerful fungicidal factor. On the other hand, shockwave generated from arc discharge plasma may have greatly contributed to antifungal effects on fungus associated with rice seeds. In support of this notion, addition of ultrasonic wave in ozone generating water has greatly increased the efficiency of seed disinfection. PMID:26406468

  8. Differential Inactivation of Fungal Spores in Water and on Seeds by Ozone and Arc Discharge Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Kang

    Full Text Available Seed sterilization is essential for preventing seed borne fungal diseases. Sterilization tools based on physical technologies have recently received much attention. However, available information is very limited in terms of efficiency, safety, and mode of action. In this study, we have examined antifungal activity of ozone and arc discharge plasma, potential tools for seed sterilization. In our results, ozone and arc discharge plasma have shown differential antifungal effects, depending on the environment associated with fungal spores (freely submerged in water or infected seeds. Ozone inactivates Fusarium fujikuroi (fungus causing rice bakanae disease spores submerged in water more efficiently than arc discharge plasma. However, fungal spores associated with or infecting rice seeds are more effectively deactivated by arc discharge plasma. ROS generated in water by ozone may function as a powerful fungicidal factor. On the other hand, shockwave generated from arc discharge plasma may have greatly contributed to antifungal effects on fungus associated with rice seeds. In support of this notion, addition of ultrasonic wave in ozone generating water has greatly increased the efficiency of seed disinfection.

  9. Bio-reduction of graphene oxide using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) and its application as energy storage electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Milan [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovation Research (AcSIR), Anusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110001 (India); Saha, Sanjit [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Khanra, Partha [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Murmu, Naresh Chandra [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Srivastava, Suneel Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Kuila, Tapas, E-mail: tkuila@gmail.com [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Lee, Joong Hee, E-mail: jhl@jbnu.ac.kr [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green reduction of GO using mung bean soaked water has been demonstrated. • The isolation of reduced is very simple and precludes extra purification process. • The specific capacitance of rGO is 137 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1.3 A g{sup −1}. • The retention in specific capacitance is ∼98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. - Abstract: Green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) has been demonstrated. In comparison to the toxic and hazardous reducing chemicals, the drained water from soaked mung beans (P. aureus L.) is completely green reducing agent, the reduction process is very simple and cost effective. The removal of oxygen containing functional groups of GO has been confirmed by UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Morphological characterization of rGO has been performed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Electrochemical performances of rGO have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The specific capacitance (SC) of rGO has been found to be 137 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1.3 A g{sup −1}. The retention in SC is more than 98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles suggesting long-term electrochemical cyclic stability as supercapacitor electrode materials.

  10. Bio-reduction of graphene oxide using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) and its application as energy storage electrode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green reduction of GO using mung bean soaked water has been demonstrated. • The isolation of reduced is very simple and precludes extra purification process. • The specific capacitance of rGO is 137 F g−1 at a current density of 1.3 A g−1. • The retention in specific capacitance is ∼98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. - Abstract: Green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) has been demonstrated. In comparison to the toxic and hazardous reducing chemicals, the drained water from soaked mung beans (P. aureus L.) is completely green reducing agent, the reduction process is very simple and cost effective. The removal of oxygen containing functional groups of GO has been confirmed by UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Morphological characterization of rGO has been performed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Electrochemical performances of rGO have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The specific capacitance (SC) of rGO has been found to be 137 F g−1 at a current density of 1.3 A g−1. The retention in SC is more than 98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles suggesting long-term electrochemical cyclic stability as supercapacitor electrode materials

  11. Home About Us » Editorial Board Indexed in Current Issue Coming Issue Archives Submission » Contact Us Effects of Processing on Physicochemical and Antinutritional Properties of Black Turtle Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Seeds Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Audu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The black turtle bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is popular among the people of Bokkos in Plateau State, Nigeria where it is cultivated and locally known as “Kwakil”. The effects of different processing methods (boiling, cooking, roasting, sprouting and fermenting were investigated on fatty acid composition, physicochemical parameters and antinutritional factors of black turtle bean seeds. All the analyses were carried out using standard analytical techniques. The results showed that oleic acid and linoleic acid were the most concentrated fatty acids in the raw and processed samples with values ranging from 27.7 to 30.8% and 54.7 to 64.0%, respectively. Capric, lauric and myristic acids were present in small quantities with maximum value of 1.6% in roasted sample. Unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all the samples with an adequate amount of essential fatty acids. Significant differences were observed (p<0.05 in the fatty acid compositions between the raw and processed seed samples. The results of physicochemical properties of the seed oils for all the samples showed mean range values of the following parameters: Saponification value (190.5 – 198.05 mg KOH/g, peroxide value (3.20 – 3.42 meq O2/kg, iodine value (136.4 – 146.4 mg of I/100g, acid value (10.40 – 10.78 mg KOH/g, kinematic viscosity at 100oC (8.12 – 8.44 mm2/s, specific gravity at 25oC (0.96 – 0.97, unsaponifiable matter (3.37 – 3.62% and flash point (302 – 315oC. Generally, the values of the physicochemical parameters showed that the oils may be useful as edible oils due to their stability as frying oils. The results of antinutrients revealed that reductions were almost recorded in all the processed seed samples compared with the raw sample.

  12. Adaptation of the AOAC 2011.25 integrated total dietary fiber assay to determine the dietary fiber and oligosaccharide content of dry edible beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleintop, Adrienne E; Echeverria, Dimas; Brick, Leslie A; Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) has important health benefits in the human diet. Developing dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars with improved DF and reduced nondigestible oligosaccharide content is an important goal for dry bean breeders to increase consumer acceptance. To determine if genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars for DF, two populations of diverse dry bean cultivars/lines that represent two centers of dry bean domestication were evaluated for dietary fiber using the Integrated Total Dietary Fiber Assay (AOAC 2011.25). This assay was adapted to measure water insoluble dietary fiber, water soluble dietary fiber, oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose, and the calculated total dietary fiber (TDF) content of cooked dry bean seed. The AOAC 2011.25 protocol was modified by using a quick, simple, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method paired with an electrochemical detection method to separate and quantify specific oligosaccharides, and using duplicate samples as replicates to generate statistical information. The TDF of dry bean entries ranged from 20.0 to 27.0% in population I and from 20.6 to 25.7% in population II. Total oligosaccharides ranged from 2.56 to 4.65% in population I and from 2.36 to 3.84% in population II. The results suggest that significant genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars/lines to allow for genetic selection for improved DF content in dry beans and that the modifications to the AOAC 2011.25 method were suitable for estimating DF in cooked dry edible beans. PMID:24006936

  13. Adaptation of the AOAC 2011.25 integrated total dietary fiber assay to determine the dietary fiber and oligosaccharide content of dry edible beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleintop, Adrienne E; Echeverria, Dimas; Brick, Leslie A; Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) has important health benefits in the human diet. Developing dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars with improved DF and reduced nondigestible oligosaccharide content is an important goal for dry bean breeders to increase consumer acceptance. To determine if genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars for DF, two populations of diverse dry bean cultivars/lines that represent two centers of dry bean domestication were evaluated for dietary fiber using the Integrated Total Dietary Fiber Assay (AOAC 2011.25). This assay was adapted to measure water insoluble dietary fiber, water soluble dietary fiber, oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose, and the calculated total dietary fiber (TDF) content of cooked dry bean seed. The AOAC 2011.25 protocol was modified by using a quick, simple, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method paired with an electrochemical detection method to separate and quantify specific oligosaccharides, and using duplicate samples as replicates to generate statistical information. The TDF of dry bean entries ranged from 20.0 to 27.0% in population I and from 20.6 to 25.7% in population II. Total oligosaccharides ranged from 2.56 to 4.65% in population I and from 2.36 to 3.84% in population II. The results suggest that significant genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars/lines to allow for genetic selection for improved DF content in dry beans and that the modifications to the AOAC 2011.25 method were suitable for estimating DF in cooked dry edible beans.

  14. Semeadura do híbrido Lyra de mamona (Ricinus communis L. sob plantio direto Seeding of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. hybrid Lyra in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Patrícia Ramos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A semeadura mecanizada da mamona (Ricinus communis L. pode reduzir o tempo de operação e os custos associados à mão-de-obra, porém a escassez de informações nesta área tem prejudicado a adoção correta desta tecnologia. Assim, objetivou-se com esse trabalho verificar a regularidade da distribuição longitudinal de sementes do híbrido Lyra de mamona, em área de plantio direto e sua relação com rendimento de grãos; bem como a viabilidade da aplicação de cartas de controle para a avaliação do processo de semeadura, nesta cultura. O ensaio foi conduzido em área comercial de produção de grãos de mamona sob plantio direto, sendo avaliadas: distribuição longitudinal, porcentagens de espaçamentos normais, falhos e duplos na linha, número de planta por metro linear, altura de plantas, altura e comprimento do racemo primário e rendimento de grãos. Utilizou-se a estatística descritiva, a análise de correlações e as cartas de controle para a avaliação dos parâmetros propostos. Há necessidade de refinamento nas regulagens de semeadoras-adubadoras de precisão para a semeadura do híbrido Lyra de mamona, em áreas de plantio direto; a distribuição longitudinal de sementes de mamona influencia vários parâmetros fitotécnicos, incluindo o rendimento de grãos; a aplicação da carta de controle é uma ferramenta eficiente para a avaliação do processo de semeadura da mamona.The mechanized sowing of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. can reduce the operation time and the costs associated to labor, however the privation of information in this area have damaged the correct adoption of this technology. Thus, the research had as an aim to verify the regularity of longitudinal distribution of hybrid Lyra castor bean seeds, in a no-tillage system area, and its relationship with yield; and the viability of control charts for evaluation of sowing in this crop. The essay was carded out in a commercial area of grain production in no

  15. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and for...

  16. Aluyori, nueva variedad de frijol blanco (alubia para Sinaloa y el Bajío, México Aluyori, a new dry bean white seeded cultivar (alubia for Sinaloa and El Bajío, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Atanasio Salinas Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva variedad de frijol, 'Aluyori'. Esta es la primera variedad de tipo alubia grande desarrollada en México. Aluyori es una variedad de ciclo intermedio de hábito de crecimiento determinado tipo I, de grano grande adecuado para el mercado internacional, con más de 50 g en 100 semillas. Aluyori se adapta a condiciones de riego en los estados de Sinaloa y Sonora donde ha mostrado un potencial de rendimiento de 3 t ha-1 y resistencia a enfermedades. Bajo condiciones de riego Aluyori ha resultado superior en rendimiento a las variedades de tipo Azufrado que comandan el mercado en Sinaloa, a Azufrado Higuera en 18% y a Azufrado Regional 87 en 22%, equivalente a 363 y 430 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Las características culinarias de la variedad Aluyori son similares a las de la principal variedad de grano amarillo, Azufrado Higuera.A new white seeded dry bean cultivar is described, 'Aluyori'. This is the first white kidney type cultivar developed and released in Mexico. Aluyori is a type I growth habit intermediate cycle cultivar, large seeded, suited for the national and international market, its seed weight is above 50 g per 100 seeds. Aluyori is adapted to irrigation conditions in States of Sinaloa and Sonora, as well as El Bajío in Central Mexico where has shown high yield potential of 3 t ha-1 and disease resistance, mostly rust elicited by the fungus. Under irrigation at Sinaloa, Aluyori proved to be superior than leading cultivars in the yellow market class, Azufrado Higuera by 18% and Azufrado Regional 87 by 22%, equivalent to 363 kg ha-1 in relationship to the former and 430 kg ha-1 to the second. The culinary characteristics of Aluyori are similar to those in the leading yellow class cv. Azufrado Higuera.

  17. Radiation and water use efficiencies of rainfed castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) in relation to different weather parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments on rainfed castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) were conducted for 4 years (1990–1993) to explain the variability in radiation use efficiency (RUE) and water use efficiency (WUE) in relation to meteorological parameters. In these experiments castor c.v. Aruna was sown on three different dates (treatments) in each year. The results from this study indicate that both RUE and WUE vary from year to year and also were influenced by the planting dates. Variations in RUE and WUE ranged from 0.79–1.19 g MJ−1 and 0.72–1.25 g kg−1, respectively. The variability in RUE and WUE before and after flower initiation were quite contrasting. The variability in RUE and WUE was associated with saturation vapour pressure deficit (SVPD), drought index, temperature and wind velocity. RUE was related positively with SVPD and wind velocity and negatively with drought index and temperature. WUE showed inverse relationships with SVPD and temperature and a direct relation with wind velocity. The study emphasises the need for incorporation of the effect of weather on RUE and WUE in the algorithms for biomass estimation of crop simulation models. (author)

  18. Heat-resistant protein expression during germination of maize seeds under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, V M; Silva Neta, I C; Von Pinho, E V R; Naves, G M F; Guimarães, R M; Santos, H O; Von Pinho, R G

    2016-01-01

    Low water availability is one of the factors that limit agricultural crop development, and hence the development of genotypes with increased water stress tolerance is a challenge in plant breeding programs. Heat-resistant proteins have been widely studied, and are reported to participate in various developmental processes and to accumulate in response to stress. This study aimed to evaluate heat-resistant protein expression under water stress conditions during the germination of maize seed inbreed lines differing in their water stress tolerance. Maize seed lines 91 and 64 were soaked in 0, -0.3, -0.6, and -0.9 MPa water potential for 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h. Line 91 is considered more water stress-tolerant than line 64. The analysis of heat-resistant protein expression was made by gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometry. In general, higher expression of heat-resistant proteins was observed in seeds from line 64 subjected to shorter soaking periods and lower water potentials. However, in the water stress-tolerant line 91, a higher expression was observed in seeds that were subjected to -0.3 and -0.6 MPa water potentials. In the absence of water stress, heat-resistant protein expression was reduced with increasing soaking period. Thus, there was a difference in heat-resistant protein expression among the seed lines differing in water stress tolerance. Increased heat-resistant protein expression was observed in seeds from line 91 when subjected to water stress conditions for longer soaking periods. PMID:27525950

  19. Método do rolo de papel toalha modificado para a detecção de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum em sementes de feijão Modification of the paper towel seed health test for the detection of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José Dias Parisi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O mofo branco do feijoeiro, causado pelo fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, é uma das principais doenças da cultura. O patógeno pode ser disseminado por sementes infectadas, que têm um importante papel na infestação de novas áreas de plantio e no estabelecimento da doença no início do ciclo da cultura. Este trabalho apresenta uma adaptação do método do rolo de papel toalha, originalmente desenvolvido para a detecção de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, com o objetivo de detectar a presença de S. sclerotiorum em sementes de feijão. Neste método, as sementes foram incubadas por 7 dias a 20 ºC em rolos de papel toalha para germinação, sendo mantidas sob condições de 100% de umidade relativa. Após esse período, as plântulas infeccionadas e as sementes mortas, circundadas por micélio característico de S. sclerotiorum, foram transportadas para caixas tipo gerbox, sobre duas folhas de papel de filtro umedecido. Após 3 a 4 dias de incubação a 20 ºC e sob regime de 12 horas de luz por 12 horas de escuro, os escleródios foram observados nas sementes e plântulas. O método foi relativamente rápido, simples e barato, além de apresentar a vantagem de possibilitar a detecção simultânea de S. sclerotiorum e de outros importantes patógenos transmitidos por sementes de feijão, como C. lindemuthianum, Macrophomina phaseolina e Rhizoctonia solani.White mold, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. is one of the most damaging diseases of beans. Dissemination of the pathogen by infected seeds is important because it can infest new planting areas and the disease may establish in the beginning of the crop cycle. The present work describes an adaptation of the seed health test using the germination paper towel method, originally developed for the detection of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, for assessing the presence of S. sclerotiorum in bean seeds. The test consisted of placing bean seeds in germination paper

  20. A study of arsenic speciation in soil, irrigation water and plant tissue: A case study of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-11-01

    Samples of soil, the broad bean plant, Vicia faba and irrigation water were collected from the same agricultural site in Dokan, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined in all materials by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Available arsenic (11%) was also determined within the soil, together with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of total arsenic were: soil (5.32μgg(-1)), irrigation water (1.06μgL(-1)), roots (2.065μgg(-1)) and bean (0.133μgg(-1)). Stems, leaves and pods were also measured. Inorganic As(V) dominated soil (90%) and root (78%) samples. However, organo-arsenic (MMA, 48% and DMA, 19%) was the more dominant species in the edible bean. The study provides an insight into the uptake, preferred disposal route, speciation changes and loss mechanism involved for arsenic with this food source. PMID:27211659

  1. 基于干旱区的大豆高效节水灌溉制度制定%Formulation of High-efficiency Water Saving Irrigation System for Soya Bean in Dry Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由剑波; 陈志东; 高兴民

    2012-01-01

    Soya bean belongs to a dry crop requiring much water and has a strict demand for soil moisture.The soil moisture has a great impact on the growth of soya bean in different developmental stages and soya bean yields.The water-saving irrigation system of soya bean in dry area is formulated according to soil moisture in different developmental stages in the study.%大豆属于需水较多的旱作物,对土壤水分的要求比较严格,土壤水分充足与否,对大豆各生育阶段的发育及产量形成,都有较大的影响。文章对大豆不同生育期的土壤水分,制定出干旱区大豆的节水灌溉制度。

  2. Armazenamento de sementes de feijão revestidas com polímeros e tratadas com fungicidas Storage of dry bean seeds coated with polymers and treated with fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Leandro Pires

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available O revestimento com polímeros, associado ao tratamento químico de sementes, vem sendo utilizado em culturas com o propósito de fixar produtos químicos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do armazenamento na qualidade de sementes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. revestidas com polímeros e tratadas com diferentes fungicidas. As sementes foram inoculadas por imersão a vácuo, em suspensão de inóculo de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (5x10(5 conídios/mL, fungo-teste utilizado. Os fungicidas benomyl, carbendazin e captan, nas formulações pó molhável, suspensão concentrada e pó seco, respectivamente, foram aplicados prévia ou concomitantemente à aplicação de uma mistura de dois polímeros à base de tintas de polímeros vinílicos fosca e brilhante. Apesar de a velocidade de germinação das sementes de feijão revestidas e tratadas ter sido reduzida, a porcentagem de germinação não foi afetada negativamente pelo revestimento com os polímeros testados. O revestimento com polímeros não prejudicou a eficiência dos fungicidas testados no controle de fungos em geral, sob nenhuma das duas formas de aplicação, ao longo dos quatro meses de armazenamento. O revestimento com estes polímeros pode afetar a eficiência de controle de patógenos nestas sementes, positiva ou negativamente, dependendo do fungicida utilizado e de sua forma de aplicação e dependendo do patógeno presente nas sementes.Coating seeds with polymers associated with chemicals is used to promote a better fixation of seed treatment products, and therefore minimizing toxic hazards. The objective of this work was to verify the effect of four-month storage on quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed coated with polymers, and treated with fungicides. Bean seeds were inoculated by immersion in a suspension of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (5x10(5 conidia/mL, applied under vacuum. After the inoculation, seeds were treated with different types of

  3. Use of Water Extract of Moringa Oleifera Seeds (WEMOS in Raw Water Treatment in Makurdi, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho, I.M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Availability of clean water is a serious problem, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where conventional treatment methods are inappropriate due to high cost and low availability of chemical coagulants like alum. The paper presents the use of moringa seeds extract as alternative to alum in raw water treatment. Preliminary engineering properties such as jar test, speeds of flocculation; 98, 196 and 260rpm; detention and setting times were conducted to determine the integrity of moringa extract as a natural coagulant. The results shows that at the speed of 98rpm and settling time of 1 hour, 85 – 89% removal of solids was achieved, while 41 – 59%, 63 – 80% removal of solids were possible at 260rpm and 196rpm respectively. Similarly, after 2 hours of settling time, 93 – 96%, 64 – 75%, 65 – 80% removal of solids were obtained at 98rpm, 260rpm and 196rpm respectively. The treatment suggests optimum performance at low and medium speeds better than maximum speed of flocculation. It is suggested that further investigation be carried out on particle sizes of moringa oleifera seeds powder.

  4. Tylosema esculentum (Marama Tuber and Bean Extracts Are Strong Antiviral Agents against Rotavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Chingwaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tylosema esculentum (marama beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4, adult pig (CLAB and adult bovine (CIEB origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE and cotyledon water extract (MCW without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp. (≥0.1 mg/mL, seed coat extract (MSCE and seed coat water extract (MSCW (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL, especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm2 of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV.

  5. Study of variation in radiosensitivity of barley (Hardeum Vulgare) as a function of seed water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the sorption curve representing the development of water content versus relative humidity, in barley seeds (CV. Thibaut), shows that water is present in three different states: Constitutive water at less than 8.1%, absorption water between 8.1 and 10.9%, and free water at more than 10.9%. Along with these states, radiosensitivity is respectively high, low, and high. The seeds detached from the rachis have less radioresistance than the attached ones. However, this difference in behaviour is reduced when the water content is high (presence of free water). We also observed that growth was stimulated by weak doses of irradiation (20 Gy), whatever the water content was. (author). 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Seed quality and water use characteristics of maize landraces compared with selected commercial hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Mazvimbakupa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding seed quality and water use characteristics of maize (Zea mays L. landraces will improve food security among subsistence farmers who still cultivate them. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed quality and water use characteristics of two maize landraces (GQ1 and GQ2 compared with two commercial hybrids (SC701 and PAN53. Seed quality was determined by the standard germination, electrical conductivity, and tetrazolium tests. A controlled environment study was conducted in which the landraces were compared with hybrids across three water treatments (30% ETc; 50% ETc, and 80% ETc. Although landrace GQ2 performed at par with the hybrids, overall, seed quality tests showed that hybrids had superior seed quality than landraces. This was also confirmed by highly significant emergence results (P < 0.001 from pot trials where SC701 and PAN53 had higher emergence (100% and 94.44%, respectively compared with GQ2 (86.11% and GQ1 (61.11%. Subjecting landraces and hybrids to water stress (50% and 30% ETc resulted in shorter plants with fewer leaves and earlier tasselling compared with non-stressed plants (80% ETc. Plant height for the 30% ETc water treatment was 156.1 cm compared with 175.8 cm for the 80% ETc water treatment, while plants under the 30% ETc water treatment tasseled at 105.4 d compared with 129.5 d for the 80% ETc water treatment. The GQ2 landrace continued to perform similar to, and often better, than the hybrid varieties, especially under stress conditions. Yield was poor under controlled conditions. Performance of the GQ2 landrace for both seed quality tests and under controlled conditions shows that landraces remain an important germplasm resource.

  7. Determination of trace elements in various kinds of bean by X-ray spectrometric techniques (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various kinds of bean such as Peanut, Gram Whole, Black Eye Bean, Small Red Bean, Lab Lab Bean, Green Mung Bean, Filed Pea, Seasame Seed, Sultani, Maize, Butter Bean, Dolichos Lab Lab, Toor Whole, Small Yellow Bean, Cow Pea have been collected and analysed by EDXRF analysis for trace elements. The measurement system consists of a Cd-109 annual excitation source, a Si (Li) detector, H V power supply, a spectrometry amplifier, a multichannel analyser and a personal computer. The samples were prepared as pressed pellets and measured by Emission Transmission Technique. The accuracy was determined by analysing standard reference material, SOIL-7 form IAEA. (author)

  8. Effects of Boron Nutrition and Water Stress on Nitrogen Fixation, Seed δ15N and δ13C Dynamics, and Seed Composition in Soybean Cultivars Differing in Maturities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Bellaloui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W − B, well-watered with foliar B (W + B, water-stressed with no foliar B (WS − B, and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B. Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45 kg·ha−1 and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W − B, WS + B, and WS − B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS − B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed δ15N and δ13C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use 15N/14N and 13C/12C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean.

  9. Pressure Heads and Simulated Water Uptake Patterns for a Severely Stressed Bean Crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durigon, A.; Santos, dos M.A.; Lier, van Q.D.; Metselaar, K.

    2012-01-01

    In modeling, actual crop transpiration as a function of soil hydraulic conditions is usually estimated from a water content or pressure head dependent reduction function. We compared the performance of the empirical pressure head based reduction function of Feddes (FRF) and a more physically based r

  10. Viabilidade de sementes de feijão macassar tratadas com extrato vegetal e acondicionadas em dois tipos de embalagens = Viability of Vigna unguiculata bean seeds treated with vegetable extract and conditioned in two types of packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Cardoso Almeida

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estudar a perda de viabilidade das sementes de duas variedades de Vigna unguiculata, acondicionadas em embalagens de papel e recipiente metálico, armazenados em ambiente não controlado. Após a colheita das sementes, em campos preparados para esta finalidade, as mesmas foram beneficiadas manualmente, tratadas, acondicionadas e armazenadas, para que a cada dois meses fossem avaliadas quanto a sua qualidade fisiológica mediante teste de germinação, indicando a melhor capacidade armazenadora para a condição do estudo. A análise dos dados foi realizada no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2x 6 com 4 repetições, sendo os fatores quantitativos revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a viabilidade das sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata foi afetada pelos tratamentos e condição do armazenamento, tendo ao final de 360 dias a germinação passada de 99,37 para 41,68%; a variedade Emepa foi superior a Corujinha em 63,47% e o extrato de Piper nigrum revelou-se eficiente na manutenção da viabilidade dessas sementes.The objective of this work was to study the loss of seed viability of two varieties of Vigna unguiculata, conditioned in paper andmetallic packaging, and stored without temperature and relative air humidity control. After seed harvest, in fields prepared for this purpose, the seeds were manually processed, treated, conditioned and stored; every two months, their physiological quality was evaluated using a germination test. The data analysis was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 6 factorial scheme with four repetitions; the quantitative factors were disclosed by the regression in the analysis of variance. Based on the results, the viability of the Vigna unguiculata bean seeds was affected by the treatments and storage condition: after 360 days, the germination rate decreased

  11. Influence of the composition of common bean extracts on their coagulation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukić Dragana V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and flocculation are the most used methods for removal of turbidity of water. Recently, many studies have focused on the investigation of natural coagulants for this purpose. In view of the fact that extracts of common bean have coagulation activity, this study is concerned with the chemical composition of these extracts and their influence on the coagulation activity. Extraction was conducted with distilled water, 0.5M NaCl and 1M NaCl and total sugars content, proteins, phytic acid and total phenolics content and their coagulation activity were determined in the obtained extracts. These experiments confirmed that an extraction time of 10 minutes is sufficient for the extraction of active coagulant components from common bean seeds and that water is satisfactorily efficient and most economical solvent.

  12. Agronomic performance of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and faba bean intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.

  13. Application of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder For Iron (III Coagulation on Local Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadillah Utami Prasetyaningtyas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effect of the use of powder moringa seed to coagulant mass and coagulation process, and its effectiveness to increase the quality of pure water. This research uses factorial research design and statistic test MANOVA. To analyse water quality, the researcher uses Fe parameter.  A graphic of coagulant mass and time for each parameter is used to analyse the data. Based on the research result, the uses of moringa seed as coagulant in each 300 mL mineral water gives a possitives result to the river water sample using 100 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, well water sample using 500 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, tap water sample using 300 mg  coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 90 minutes. The effective coagulant that increase the water quality on well water is 98,32% of moringa seed powder, on river water is 96,64%  and for tap water is 25,62%.

  14. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata;

      that the distribution of iron is dependant on the genotype. Using immunolocalization, we visualized the localization of  ferritin in mature common bean seeds.   This knowledge can contribute to the discovery of factors that affect the bioavailability of micronutrients and  can contribute to breeding common beans....... A common nutritional base for poor populations is a staple such as maize, wheat, rice, potatoes, cassava, or beans, but many of these have low iron and zinc content as well as potent inhibitors of iron uptake. Nutritional supplements are often unavailable to such populations due to lacking infrastructure...... in common beans. We used micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and proton backscattering analysis to localize and quantify zinc and iron in mature bean seeds. In addition the iron distribution in different P. vulgaris genotypes was studied using Perl's Prussian blue staining. We show...

  15. Magnetically treated water irrigation effect on turnip seed germination, seedling growth and enzymatic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia ul Haq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pre-sowing magnetic field seed treatment effects on biological characteristics of vegetables and crops have been studied well. However, studies reporting irrigation with magnetically treated water are scanty. Therefore, the effect of irrigation with magnetically treated water on turnip seed germination, seedling growth and enzymatic activities was evaluated. The tap water was treated at 211 mT for 30, 45 and 60 min and used for irrigation of turnip seed and seedlings. Uniform and healthy turnip seed was sown under randomized complete block design (RCBD. The germination, emergence rate index, vigor index I and vigor index II increased up to 28.33%, 11.54%, 57.59% and 32.26%, respectively. The growth parameters such as seedling lengths, fresh & dry weights, chlorophyll content were also enhanced in response of irrigation with magnetically treated water. The seedlings irrigated with magnetically treated water showed 28.92%, 11.36% and 14.76% higher protein content, alpha amylase and protease activities, respectively vs control. Results revealed that irrigation with magnetically treated water has potential to improve turnip germination, seedling growth and enzymatic activities and this study is also extendable to other vegetables and crops for the improvement of germination and growth.

  16. Water entry for the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seeds observed by dedicated micro-magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Mika; Kano, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    Water entry at germination for black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seeds which are known as hard seeds with impermeable seed coat to water, was examined using micro-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI apparatus equipped with a low-field (1 T; Tesla) permanent magnet was used, which is open access, easy maintenance, operable and transportable. The excellent point of the apparatus is that T 1-enhancement of water signals absorbed in dry seeds against steeping free water is stronger than the apparatuses with high-field superconducting magnets, which enabled clear detection of water entry. Water hardly penetrated into the seeds for more than 8 h but approximately 60 % of seeds germinated by incubating on wet filter papers for several days. Hot water treatments above 75 °C for 3 min effectively induced water gap; scarification was 70 % at 100 °C and 75 °C, declined to 15 % at 50 °C and decreased further at room temperature. Water entered into the scarified seeds exclusively through the lens, spread along the dorsal side of the seeds and reached the hypocotyl, whereas water migrated slowly through hilum side to radicle within 3 h. PMID:27059756

  17. Removal of tetracycline from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Andréa F. S.; Matos, M.; Sousa, A M; Costa, Cátia; Nogueira, Regina; J. A. Teixeira; Paiva, Patrícia M. G.; Parpot, Pier; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Brito, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tetracycline antibiotic (TA) removal from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations. The composition of synthetic water approximate river natural contaminated water and TA simulated its presence as an emerging pollutant. Interactions between TA and protein preparations (extract; fraction and lectin) were also evaluated. TA was determined by solid phase extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry. Moring...

  18. Toxicity assessment and modelling of Moringa oleifera seeds in water purification by whole cell bioreporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anizi, Ali Adnan; Hellyer, Maria Theresa; Zhang, Dayi

    2014-06-01

    Moringa oleifera has been used as a coagulation reagent for drinking water purification, especially in developing countries such as Malawi. This research revealed the cytoxicity and genotoxicity of M. oleifera by Acinetobacter bioreporter. The results indicated that significant cytoxicity effects were observed when the powdered M. oleifera seeds concentration is from 1 to 50 mg/L. Through direct contact, ethanolic-water extraction and hexane extraction, the toxic effects of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components in M. oleifera seeds were distinguished. It suggested that the hydrophobic lipids contributed to the dominant cytoxicity, consequently resulting in the dominant genotoxicity in the water-soluble fraction due to limited dissolution when the M. oleifera seeds granule concentration was from 10 to 1000 mg/L. Based on cytoxicity and genotoxicity model, the LC50 and LC90 of M. oleifera seeds were 8.5 mg/L and 300 mg/L respectively and their genotoxicity was equivalent to 8.3 mg mitomycin C per 1.0 g dry M. oleifera seed. The toxicity of M. oleifera has also remarkable synergistic effects, suggesting whole cell bioreporter as an appropriate and complementary tool to chemical analysis for environmental toxicity assessment.

  19. Water deficit at different growth stages for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Imbabello) on yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify specific growth stages of the common bean crop at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress, in which irrigation could be omitted without significant decrease in biological nitrogen fixation and final yield, a field experiment was conducted at 'La Tola' University Experiment Station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, on a sandy loam soil (Typic Haplustoll). The climate is tempered and dry (mean air temperature 16 C and mean relative humidity 74%) during the cropping season, and 123 mm of rainfall were recorded during the cropping period. The treatments consisted of the combinations of 7 irrigation regimes (IR1=normal watering; IR2= full stress; IR3= traditional practice; IR4=single stress at vegetation; IR5= flowering; IR6=yield formation and IR7=ripening) and 2 levels of applied N (20 and 80 kg/ha). These 14 treatment combinations were arranged and analysed in a split-plot design with 4 replications. The plot size was 33.6 m sub 2 (8 rows, 7 m long) with a population of 120.000 plants/ha. Irrigation treatments were started after uniform germination and crop establishment. Soil moisture was monitored with neutron probe down to the 0.50 m depth, 24 hours before and after each irrigation. Yield data show that treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those with supplementary irrigation (1% prob). The yield formation stage was the most sensitive to moisture stress, in which crop water use efficiency (0.46 kg/m3) was the lowest and the yield response factor (Ky=2.2.) was higher. Nitrogen fixation was significantly affected by water stress at the flowering and yield formation stages. (author)

  20. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    OpenAIRE

    Moral , Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seed...

  1. Influence of pumpkin seed oil in continuous phase on droplet size and stability of water-in-oil emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolovski Branislava G.; Ilić Jelena D.; Sovilj Milan N.; Nikolić Milan P.; Milanović Jadranka L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to contribute to the optimized production of water-in-oil emulsions with pumpkin seed oil in the oil phase using a high-speed homogenizer. Pumpkin seed oil is a valuable natural source of essential fatty acids and biologically active micronutrients that contribute to its nutritive value and medical uses, and reduce interfacial tension between water and the oil phases. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil can be considered as a prosperous oil phase whose use can possibly ...

  2. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. PMID:24871476

  3. Effect of priming on the germination of Peltophorum dubium seeds under water stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGWan-li; LILe-ihong; ZUYuan-gangt; SoniaPerez

    2004-01-01

    Peltophorum dubium seeds provided by Anhembi, SP were scarified in 98% H2SO4 for 15 rain to overcome mechanical dormancy. Seeds were primed in solutions of 0.2% Captan at 10℃ and 27℃, PEG 6000 -1.0 MPa at 10℃ and 27℃, 0.5 mol KNO3, 0.75 Mol KNO3, 1.0 Mol KNO3. Eight treatments including the primed seeds and nonprimed seeds, five replicates with 100 seeds for each treatment, were set to 15-cm-Petri dish with double filter paper moistened with testing solution PEG in refrigerator at 27℃. For the experiments of all the groups, osmotic potential were 0.0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1.0, -1.2, and -1.4 MPa. P. dubium seeds were also set to water stress experiment in rolled paper with PEG solutions from 0.0 to -1.0 MPa.Germination percentage decreased with the increase of PEG concentration. Control group had a better germination percentage than other groups. Germination hardly occurred in PEG -1.4 MPa.

  4. Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Michael

    2014-01-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water.

  5. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF FLAVONOIDS FROM BITTER BEAN SEED'S DREGS AND ITS ANTIOXIDANTION%微波辅助提取苦豆籽粕总黄酮及抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺文英; 许辉; 丁鹤; 赵智宏

    2014-01-01

    采用微波辅助法探索苦豆籽粕中总黄酮提取条件,并考察提取物的抗氧化性.结果表明:苦豆籽粕中黄酮提取物最佳提取工艺为:料液比1:15,60%乙醇、55C微波2次,每次10min,总黄酮提取率为2.8%;总黄酮提取物对O2-自由基,·OH自由基和DPPH·自由基均有明显的清除作用.%The best processing conditions of extracting total flavonoids in Bitter bean seed' s dregs residues were optimized by the orthogonal experiment method.and its Antioxidation.The best optimum processing conditions is:adding 15-fold amount of 60% alcohol and refluxing at 55°C two times with 10 mins each time.the extraction rate is 2.8%.The flavonoids had better scavenging ability of O2-,OH,DPPH free radical.

  6. Solubilization of tea seed oil in a food-grade water-dilutable microemulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Deng

    Full Text Available Food-grade microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, Tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.. The effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. The solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with Tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol (1:3, w/w as the oil phase. The dispersed phase of the microemulsion (1.5% weight ratio of tea seed oil to the total amount of oil, surfactant, and tea seed oil could be fully diluted with water without phase separation. Differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements indicated that both the carrier and solubilized systems underwent a similar microstructure transition upon dilution. The dispersion phases gradually inverted from the water-in-oil phase ( 45% water along the dilution line.

  7. Windows of opportunity for germination of riparian species after restoring water level fluctuations: a field experiment with controlled seed banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, J.M.; Janssen, R.H.; Rip, W.J.; Bender, I.; Bakker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration activities aiming at increasing vegetation diversity often try to stimulate both dispersal and germination. In wetlands, dispersal and germination are coupled as water and water level fluctuations (WLF) simultaneously influence seed transport and germination conditions (soil moisture). W

  8. Windows of opportunity for germination of riparian species after restoring water level fluctuations : a field experiment with controlled seed banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, Judith M.; Janssen, Roel H.; Rip, Winnie J.; Bender, Irene M. A.; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    1. Restoration activities aiming at increasing vegetation diversity often try to stimulate both dispersal and germination. In wetlands, dispersal and germination are coupled as water and water level fluctuations (WLF) simultaneously influence seed transport and germination conditions (soil moisture)

  9. Managing phosphorus fertilizer to reduce algae, maintain water quality, and sustain yields in water-seeded rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    In water-seeded rice systems blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) hinder early-season crop growth by dislodging rice seedlings and reducing light. Since algae are often phosphorus (P) limited, we investigated whether changing the timing of P fertilizer application could reduce algae without reducing cro...

  10. Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) diversity panel for response to the NL 3 strain of Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and for biological nitrogen fixation with Bradyrhizobium strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyviruses that are seed transmitted in tepary bean. Developing resistance to these viruses will be critical for expanding production in areas where they are endemic. Biological nitrogen fixation (BN...

  11. Effect of vermicast generated from an allelopathic weed lantana (Lantana camara) on seed germination, plant growth, and yield of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, M; Hussain, N; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2014-11-01

    In perhaps the first-ever study of its kind, the effect of vermicompost, derived solely from an allelopathic weed, on the germination, growth, and yield of a botanical species, has been carried out. In test plots, the soil was treated with the vermicompost of lantana (Lantana camara) at the rates of 5, 7.5, and 10 t ha(-1), and cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was grown on it. The performance of these systems was compared with the systems in which the soil was fortified with inorganic fertilizers (IFs) in concentrations equivalent to those present in the respective vermicompost (VC) treatments. Additionally, a set of control was studied in which the soil was used without fortification by either VC or IF. It was seen that up to 51.5 % greater germination success occurred in the VC treatments compared to controls. VC also supported better plant growth in terms of stem diameter, shoot length, shoot mass, number of leaves, and leaf pigments. The positive impact extended up to fruit yield. In addition, vermicast application enhanced root nodule formation, reduced disease incidence, and allowed for a smaller number of stunted plants. The results indicate that allelopathic ingredients of lantana seem to have been totally eliminated during the course of its vermicomposting and that lantana vermicompost has the potential to support germination, growth, and fruit yield better than equivalent quantities of IFs. PMID:24946699

  12. Effect of vermicast generated from an allelopathic weed lantana (Lantana camara) on seed germination, plant growth, and yield of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, M; Hussain, N; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2014-11-01

    In perhaps the first-ever study of its kind, the effect of vermicompost, derived solely from an allelopathic weed, on the germination, growth, and yield of a botanical species, has been carried out. In test plots, the soil was treated with the vermicompost of lantana (Lantana camara) at the rates of 5, 7.5, and 10 t ha(-1), and cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was grown on it. The performance of these systems was compared with the systems in which the soil was fortified with inorganic fertilizers (IFs) in concentrations equivalent to those present in the respective vermicompost (VC) treatments. Additionally, a set of control was studied in which the soil was used without fortification by either VC or IF. It was seen that up to 51.5 % greater germination success occurred in the VC treatments compared to controls. VC also supported better plant growth in terms of stem diameter, shoot length, shoot mass, number of leaves, and leaf pigments. The positive impact extended up to fruit yield. In addition, vermicast application enhanced root nodule formation, reduced disease incidence, and allowed for a smaller number of stunted plants. The results indicate that allelopathic ingredients of lantana seem to have been totally eliminated during the course of its vermicomposting and that lantana vermicompost has the potential to support germination, growth, and fruit yield better than equivalent quantities of IFs.

  13. Virus diseases of peas, beans, and faba bean in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled; Pappu, Hanu; Kumari, Safaa G

    2012-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, pea, bean, and faba bean production is affected by around 17 major viruses. These viruses do not have the same ecology and consequently require a variety of different preventive measures to control them. Some of these viruses have a narrow host range, such as Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV), and others, such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), a very wide host range. Such features are important when identifying sources of virus inoculum in a region, and the vectors can transmit viruses from natural reservoirs to the crop plants. Some of these viruses are seed borne and, consequently, can be disseminated long distances through infected seeds. Crop losses caused by these viruses are variable, depending on the sensitivity and susceptibility of the crop to infection. Host resistance genes have been identified for some of these viruses, but in others, such as FBNYV, no resistance genes in faba bean have been identified yet. Significant progress was made in developing precise methods for the identification of these viruses, and new virus problems are being identified every year. This chapter is not intended to be a review for pea, bean, and faba bean viruses, but rather focuses on the major viruses which affect these crops in the Mediterranean basin with focus on the progress made over the past two decades. PMID:22682174

  14. Improvement of the flocculation process in water treatment by using moringa oleifera seeds extract

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sánchez-Martín; J. Beltrán-Heredia; J. A. Peres

    2012-01-01

    Water scarcity encourages researchers to keep working on natural coagulant agents such as Moringa oleifera seed extract, that could be used even in developing countries. With this scope, this investigation is focused on the optimization of certain parameters affecting the use of this coagulant product in the clarification of real surface water. Acidic pH levels seem to enhance the coagulation performance and the turbidity removal increases as the stirring period becomes longer (up to 95% with...

  15. Valuation of oil extraction residue from Moringa Oleifera seeds for water purification in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Amante García, Beatriz; López Grimau, Víctor; Smith, Tarik

    2015-01-01

    This study is on the reuse of the residue generated by a Moringa oleifera oil extraction plant. The residual oil cake produced during the process of oil extraction retains the positively charged protein of the M. oleifera seed, which is the active component in the process of attracting and capturing suspended particles in waters. Such coagulant flocculant properties give rise to the elimination of turbidity in the process of water purification. In the cases studied, it has been demonstrated t...

  16. Nutrientes (K, P, Ca, Na, Mg e Fe) em sedimentos (solos aluviais) e cultivares (feijão e milho) de praias e barrancos de rios de água branca: a bacia do purus no estado do Acre, Brasil Nutrients in sediment (alluvial soils) and cultivates (bean and corn) developed in beaches and cliffs found along loam water: the purus basin in state Acre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milta Mariane da Mata Martins; Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present research highlights the macronutrient abundance in the sediments of beaches and cliffs and cultivates in the river Purus and flowing, southwest of Amazon. The concentrations found in leaves and bean seeds and corn leaves reflect the mineralogical and chemical nature of those rich sediments in K2O and Na2O, which are formed by smectite, illite and K-feldspar. The factors of transfer of the elements in the corn leaves and bean (Ca>K>Na) and bean seeds (Na>K>Ca) demonstrate that the ...

  17. Efeito do espaçamento e da cultivar de feijoeiro sobre a intensidade do mofo-branco e a sanidade de sementes Effect of plant spacing and bean cultivar on white mold and seed sanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Napoleão

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dois ensaios de campo foram realizados para avaliar o efeito do espaçamento entre linhas (30, 45 e 60 cm e entre plantas de feijoeiro com hábitos de crescimento diferentes, sobre a intensidade do mofo-branco e a sanidade de sementes. No primeiro, foi mantida a mesma população de plantas por área, 27 plantas/m², reduzindo-se o espaçamento entre plantas. No segundo ensaio, manteve-se o mesmo espaçamento entre plantas, que resultou em populações de 40, 27 e 20 plantas/m². A porcentagem de plantas infectadas e a severidade da doença não diferiram estatisticamente quanto ao hábito de crescimento da cultivar, ao espaçamento ou à interação entre eles, mesmo a incidência tendo atingido valores de 98,4% em 1998 e de 2,7% em 1999. A porcentagem de sementes infectadas não foi afetada pelo espaçamento, mas diferiu erraticamente em relação às cultivares; em 1998, a cultivar Pérola não apresentou sementes infectadas, o mesmo acontecendo com a cultivar Diamante Negro em 1999.The effect of spacing among rows and among bean plants, as well as two plant growth habits were evaluated on the intensity of white mold and seed health in two field trials in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. In the first trial, the same population of 27 plants/m² was maintained in rows of 30, 45 and 60 cm apart. In the second trial, the spacing among rows was maintained, which resulted in different plant populations of 40, 27 and 20 plants/m², respectively. Disease incidence and severity did not differ statistically within plants of different growth habits or different spacing, even with divergent disease incidences of 98.4% and 2.7% observed in 1998 and 1999, respectively. The percentage of infected seeds was not affected by spacing either, however the cultivar effect was erratic; in 1998, 'Perola' had no infected seeds and the same occurred with 'Diamante Negro' in 1999.

  18. Impacts of Sulfate Seed Acidity and Water Content on Isoprene Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jenny P S; Lee, Alex K Y; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2015-11-17

    The effects of particle-phase water and the acidity of pre-existing sulfate seed particles on the formation of isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated. SOA was generated from the photo-oxidation of isoprene in a flow tube reactor at 70% relative humidity (RH) and room temperature in the presence of three different sulfate seeds (effloresced and deliquesced ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate) under low NOx conditions. High OH exposure conditions lead to little isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) SOA being generated. The primary result is that particle-phase water had the largest effect on the amount of SOA formed, with 60% more SOA formation occurring with deliquesced ammonium sulfate seeds as compared to that on effloresced ones. The additional organic material was highly oxidized. Although the amount of SOA formed did not exhibit a dependence on the range of seed particle acidity examined, perhaps because of the low amount of IEPOX SOA, the levels of high-molecular-weight material increased with acidity. While the uptake of organics was partially reversible under drying, the results nevertheless indicate that particle-phase water enhanced the amount of organic aerosol material formed and that the RH cycling of sulfate particles may mediate the extent of isoprene SOA formation in the atmosphere. PMID:26460477

  19. Screening of 30 advanced common bean (P. vulgaris, L lines for short cooking time using two different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryanna Maryange, Nchimbi – Msolla, S.L.Sawargaonkar , B.V.Hudge , and H.P.Thanki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at SUA to evaluate 30 bean lines along with 2 checks for cooking time. In this experiment,two different methods (Matson and Bags method were compared. After being harvested the lines were stored for threemonths followed by screening for cooking time and descriptive sensory evaluation. The data obtained were subjected toanalysis of variance (ANOVA and New Duncan Multiple Range Test (NDMRT using MSTAT-C software. Descriptivesensory evaluation data were subjected to K – means cluster analysis using SPSS software. Correlation coefficients (rbetween cooking time, seed characteristics and sensory evaluation determined. Results of this work showed significantdifferences among bean lines in seed size and hydration capacity. Bean lines EG10R51, EG10R25, EG21R35, EG21R31,EG10R11, EG10R28, EG21R34, EG21R5 and EG21K7 absorbed more than 1000g of water per kilogram of seed, thustermed as of good hydration capacity. There was a significant difference in cooking time among bean lines tested andbetween the two cooking methods. In Bags method, the range of cooking time was from 24 to 53 minutes while in Matsonmethod the cooking time ranged from 29 to 83 minutes. Among them, EG10R51, EG21R5, EG10K4, EG10R11, EG10R28,EG21R30, EG10R44, EG21R31 and EG21K5 had significantly longer cooking time in Bags method than in Matson cookerwhile lines EG21K5, EG21R36, and EG10K6 recoded significantly longer cooking time in Matson device compared to Bagsmethod. Bean lines EG10R43, EG10K4, EG21R30, EG10R44, EG21R17, EG10R49, EG21R52 and EG21R18 wereclassified as fast cooking under Matson method but clustered as moderate cooking time under bags method. Small seededseeds absorbed more water compared to large seeded seed. It was concluded that Bags method of screening for cooking timeis best over Matson method due to its low cost of materials and ability to cook many lines at a time. Therefore, Bags methodcan be adapted as a new efficient screening

  20. Relative importance of phytohemagglutinin (lectin) and trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) protein absorption and utilization by the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M R; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-10-01

    The main objective of this work was to perform a comparative study of the antinutritional and/or toxic properties of phytohemagglutinin and trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor extracted from the seed of a commercial cultivar of edible bean used in Brazil. Bean proteins were extracted in acidic salt solution and fractionated by dialysis and centrifugation, then freeze-dried. The total freeze-dried bean extract and the globulin or albumin protein fraction were resuspended in distilled water and heated (100 degrees C, 30 min) for inactivation of hemagglutinin. Diets were prepared with unheated bean protein fractions and heated ones (100% trypsin inhibitor activity, but 0% phytohemagglutinin activity). As a result, the inhibition of growth and poor dietary protein utilization were observed in rats fed diets containing unheated bean protein fractions, but not in rats fed diets containing heated fractions. It was thus assumed that phytohemagglutinin is the main antinutritional and toxic factor that in dry bean (Phaseolus) protein and that trypsin inhibitor (Bowman-Birk type) did not interfere with rat growth. PMID:9919488

  1. Peppery Hot Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Peppery Hot Bean Curd is a famous dish that originated in Chengdu,Sichuan Province.Dating back to the year under the reign of Emperor Tongzhi during the Qing Dynasty(1862-1875),a woman chef named Chen created this dish.In Chinese it is called Mapo Bean Curd. Ingredients:Three pieces of bean curd,100 grams lean pork,25 grams green soy beans or garlic

  2. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  3. EFFECT OF FOLIAR NUTRITION ON WATER POTENTIAL, PHOTOSYNTHETIC RATE, DRY MATTER PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF MUNG BEAN UNDER RECEDING SOIL MOISTURE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Siva Nageswara Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2012-13 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur, with an aim to find out the effect of foliar nutrition on water potent ial, photosynthetic rate, dry matter production and yield of mung bean under rece ding soil moisture conditions in split plot design with irrigation and no irrigation as main treatments and folia r sprays as sub treatments. Under receding soil moisture condition (moisture stress KNO 3 @ 1% proved superior over other foliar sprays by recording more plant height, leaf area, shoot dry weight, and photosyn thetic rate by maintaining high chloro phyll content, high proline and high leaf water potential. KNO 3 @ 1% gave higher yields under receding soil moisture condition compared to other foliar sprays. Under irrigated conditions urea @ 2% record ed higher yield. Among all treatments controlled (no spray under unirrigated conditions recorded lower yiel ds due to moisture stress and nutrient deficiency.

  4. Germination of Acacia harpophylla (Brigalow seeds in relation to soil water potential: implications for rehabilitation of a threatened ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Arnold

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Initial soil water conditions play a critical role when seeding is the primary approach to revegetate post-mining areas. In some semi-arid climates, such as the Brigalow Belt Bioregion in eastern Australia, extensive areas are affected by open-cut mining. Together with erratic rainfall patterns and clayey soils, the Brigalow Belt denotes a unique biome which is representative of other water-limited ecosystems worldwide. Apart from other environmental stressors, germination is governed by the water potential of the surrounding soil material. While previous studies have confirmed the high tolerance of Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla seeds to a broad range of temperature and salinity, the question of how soil water potential triggers seed germination remains. In this study, we used three replicates of 50 seeds of Brigalow to investigate germination in relation to water potential as an environmental stressor. Solutions of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG 6000 were applied to expose seeds to nine osmotic water potentials ranging from soil water saturation (0 MPa and field capacity (−.01 to −.03 MPa to the permanent wilting point (−1.5 MPa. We measured germinability (number of germinated seeds relative to total number of seeds per lot and mean germination time (mean time required for maximum germination of a seed lot to quantify germination. Based on the empirical data of the germination we estimated the parameters of the hydrotime model which simulates timing and success of seed emergence. Our findings indicate that Brigalow seeds are remarkably tolerant to water stress, with germination being observed at a water potential as low as −1.5 MPa. Likewise, the average base water potential of a seed population (hydrotime model was very low and ranged between −1.533 and −1.451 MPa. In general, Brigalow seeds germinate opportunistically over a broad range of abiotic conditions related to temperature, salinity, and water availability. Direct seeding and

  5. Germination of Acacia harpophylla (Brigalow) seeds in relation to soil water potential: implications for rehabilitation of a threatened ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Sven; Kailichova, Yolana; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Initial soil water conditions play a critical role when seeding is the primary approach to revegetate post-mining areas. In some semi-arid climates, such as the Brigalow Belt Bioregion in eastern Australia, extensive areas are affected by open-cut mining. Together with erratic rainfall patterns and clayey soils, the Brigalow Belt denotes a unique biome which is representative of other water-limited ecosystems worldwide. Apart from other environmental stressors, germination is governed by the water potential of the surrounding soil material. While previous studies have confirmed the high tolerance of Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) seeds to a broad range of temperature and salinity, the question of how soil water potential triggers seed germination remains. In this study, we used three replicates of 50 seeds of Brigalow to investigate germination in relation to water potential as an environmental stressor. Solutions of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG 6000) were applied to expose seeds to nine osmotic water potentials ranging from soil water saturation (0 MPa) and field capacity (-.01 to -.03 MPa) to the permanent wilting point (-1.5 MPa). We measured germinability (number of germinated seeds relative to total number of seeds per lot) and mean germination time (mean time required for maximum germination of a seed lot) to quantify germination. Based on the empirical data of the germination we estimated the parameters of the hydrotime model which simulates timing and success of seed emergence. Our findings indicate that Brigalow seeds are remarkably tolerant to water stress, with germination being observed at a water potential as low as -1.5 MPa. Likewise, the average base water potential of a seed population (hydrotime model) was very low and ranged between -1.533 and -1.451 MPa. In general, Brigalow seeds germinate opportunistically over a broad range of abiotic conditions related to temperature, salinity, and water availability. Direct seeding and germination of native

  6. Isolation and structural characterization of the water-extractable polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Xiaoman; Dong, Qun; Yao, Jian; Liu, Qin; Ding, Kan

    2012-10-01

    The seed of Cassia obtusifolia is a food or herbal medicine used for improving eyesight, treating constipation and other disorders, and polysaccharides have been implicated in these pharmacological activities. The endosperm of the seeds, Cassia gum, is a commercial thickening or gelling agent, composed mainly of galactomannans. However, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia, rather than the endosperm, are used in folk medicine or food, which might contain more complex constituents of polysaccharides. In this study, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia were extracted with boiling water, and from the water extract, three homogeneous fractions were isolated, designated CFAA-1, CFAA-3, and CFBB2, respectively, after treatment with Fehling solution followed by anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Using chemical and spectroscopic methods, CFAA-1, and CFAA-3 were elucidated to be both branched galactomannans with different molecular weights, consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-mannopyranosyl backbone with single-unit α-d-galactopyranosyl branches attached to O-6 of mannose, while CFBB2 was shown to be a linear (1→4)-α-polygalacturonic acid.

  7. Removal of Nitrogen,Phosphorus,and Organic Pollutants From Water Using Seeding Type Immobilized Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN WANG; LI-JING HUANG; LUO-JIA YUN; FEI TANG; JING-HUI ZHAO; YAN-QUN LIU; XIN ZENG; QI-FANG LUO

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the possibility of removing nitrogen.phosphorus,and organic pollutants using seeding type immobilized microorganisms.Methods Lakes P and M in Wuhan were chosen as the objects to study the removal of nitrogen,phosphorus,and organic pollutants with the seeding type immobilized microorganisms.Correlations between the quantity ofheterotrophic bacteria and the total nitrogen(TN),total phosphorus(TP),and toml organic carbon(TOC)in the two lakes were studied.The dominant bacteria were detected.inoculated to the sludge and acclimated by increasing nitrogen,phosphorus and decreasing carbon source in an intermittent,time-controlled and fixed-quantity way.The bacteria were thenused to prepare the seeding type immobilized microorganisms,selecting diatomim as the adsorbent cairtier.The ability and influence factors of removing nitrogen,phosphorus,and organic pollutant from water samples by the seeding type immobilized microorganismswere studied.Results The coefficients of the heterotrophic bacterial quantity correlatedwith TOC,TP,and TN were 0.9143,0.8229,0.7954 in Lake P and 0.9168,0.7187,0.6022 in Lake M.Ton swains of dominant heterotrophic bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas,Coccus,Aeromonas,Bacillus,and Enterobateriaceae,separately,were isolated.The appropriate conditions for the seeding type immobilized microorgansims in purifying the water sample were exposure time=24h,pH=7.0-8.0.and quantity of the immobilized microorganisms=0.75-1g/50 mL.The removal rates of TOC,TP,and TN under the above conditions were 80.2%,81.6%,and 86.8%,respectively.Conclusion The amount of heterotrophic bacteria in the two lakes was correlatexl with TOC,TP, and TN.These bacteria could be acclimatized and prepared for the immobilizedmicroorganisms which could effectively remove nitrogen,phosphorus,and mixed organic pollutants in the water sample.

  8. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawadee Chamnan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon. The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass provided the highest effectiveness tocontrol aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch. Control of A. craccivora was not significantly different between the synthetic insecticide and plant crude extracts, except methamidophos. Pod damage caused by pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer and yields were also not significantly different among treatments. However, the highest yield of 1,224.7 kg/rai was recorded in plots treated with neem seed extracts and the synthetic insecticide, carbosulfan. In untreated plots, the lowest yield of 587.3 kg/rai was collected.

  9. Seed Priming and Smoke Water Effects on Germination and Seed Vigor of Selected Low-Vigor Forage Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    A commercial solid matric priming method and an osmotic priming method were used to measure seed priming responses of birdsfoot trefoil, kura clover, and sericea lespedeza. Differences were not observed using standard germination tests, but both priming methods show potential for increased germination rate (P>0.05). Conflicting results for matric and osmotic priming were found in terms of seed storage potential after priming, with matric primed seeds showing higher (P

  10. Conventional Treatment of Surface Water Using Moringa Oleifera Seeds Extract as a Primary Coagulant

    OpenAIRE

    Suleyman A. Muyibi, Ahmed Hissein M Birima, Thamer A. Mohammed; Megat Johari M. M. Noor

    2012-01-01

    The present study involved the use of a model pilot scale water treatment plant to treat turbid surface water from a stream using processed Moringa oleifera seed with 25 % w/w oil extracted as primary coagulant. The water treatment plant was made up of four unit operations: coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration (rapid sand filter). Test runs were carried out for three hours per run over a three-month period with turbidities ranging from 18 to 261 NTU. The turbidity, pH, and...

  11. REGULADOR DE CRESCIMENTO E Trichoderma harzianum APLICADOS EM SEMENTES DE FEIJOEIRO CULTIVADO EM SUCESSÃO A CULTURAS DE COBERTURA GROWTH REGULATOR AND Trichoderma harzianum APPLIED TO COMMON BEAN SEEDS CULTIVATED IN SUCCESSION TO COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Machado Mesquita

    2010-10-01

    ônios vegetais; controle biológico; Phaseolus vulgaris L.; sistema plantio direto; Cerrado.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth regulator and Trichoderma harzianum in common bean, in succession to different cover crops. The experimental design consisted of split-plots, in randomized complete blocks, with four replications. For plots, the leguminous Cajanus cajan, Stylosanthes guianensis, and Crotalaria spectabilis, and the grasses Pennisetum glaucum, Panicum maximum, Brachiaria brizantha, B. brizantha associated with Zea mays, and Sorghum bicolor were used as cover crops. The subplot treatments were: control; 500 mL of growth regulator (GR; 1,250 mL of biological fungicide (BF; and 500 mL of GR plus 1,250 mL of BF, in 100 kg of seeds. Eighty-four days after the cover crops cutting, the common bean cultivar BRS Valente was sown. The root rot severity caused by

  12. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  13. Effect of Extreme Temperatures on the Control of Azuki Bean Beetle,Callosobruchus chinensis L.(Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Quality of Mungbean Seed%极限温度对绿豆象及绿豆种子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲建锋; 万正煌; 李莉; 陈宏伟; 伍广洪

    2012-01-01

    对绿豆[Vigna radiata(L)Wilczek]储藏期间害虫绿豆象(Callosobruchus chinensis L.)各虫态对极限温度的耐受性进行了观察.结果表明,蛹和幼虫耐极限高、低温的能力均大于成虫和卵;蛹是绿豆象最耐低温的虫态,-5℃时完全杀灭蛹需要256 h,-10℃时完全杀灭卵、幼虫、蛹均需32 h,而杀灭成虫仅需8 h,-20℃防治所需时间较短,4h即可完全防治绿豆象;蛹也是绿豆象最耐高温的虫态;45℃处理下完全杀灭需要32h,而50℃防治见效较快,4h即可完全防治绿豆象;极限高温处理对绿豆种子生命力和萌发率均无显著影响.利用极限温度可有效防治绿豆象且对绿豆种子无影响,在保证食品安全、促进绿色储粮等方面有重要的应用价值.%Azuki bean beetle, Callosabruchw chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is the most serious pest in stored mung-bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. The application of chemical pesticides on grain storage over the years has led to a number of problems, including the development of insecticide resistance in pests and grain contamination. Extreme temperature may provide potential alternative for the control of this insect in storage. So the temperature tolerance of this pest at different stages was tested in stored mungbean. Both the cold tolerance and heat tolerance of pupa and larva were stronger than adult and egg. Pupa was the best low temperature tolerant stage. All stages revealed 100% mortality after 256 h of treatment at -5 X.. At -10 "Call eggs, larvae and pupae were 100% mortality within 32 h, and adults with in 8 h. All stages had 100% mortality within 4 h if treated at -20 X,. Pupa was the best high temperature tolerant stage. All stages showed 100% mortality after 32 h at 45 t. At 50 V,, 100% mortality was achieved, only in 4h. Moreover, extreme temperature had no significant effect on the vitality rate and germination rate of mungbean seeds. Controlling insects with extreme

  14. 绿豆多糖制备及抗氧化特性研究%Study on the Preparation of Polysaccharides from Mung Bean Seed and Anti-Oxidant Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟葵; 曾志红; 林伟静; 王强; 周素梅

    2013-01-01

    采用响应面法对绿豆仁中多糖碱液提取工艺进行优化,在此基础上进一步开展分离纯化及抗氧化特性研究.结果表明,碱法提取绿豆多糖(Alkali extraction mung bean polysaccharides,AEMP)最佳工艺参数为碱液浓度0.02 mol/L,液料比20∶1 mL/g,提取温度50℃,提取时间3h,最终AEMP得率9.70 mg GE/g DW.进一步采用DEAE-2纤维柱和SephadexG-100凝胶柱分离纯化绿豆多糖,得到一个中性组分AEMP-1和一个酸性组分AEMP-2.抗氧化特性结果表明AEMP及其纯化组分对羟自由基和DPPH自由基均有良好清除效果,AEMP-2抗氧化活性最强,对羟自由基和DPPH自由基半数抑制浓度IC50值分别为4.71 mg/mL和1.03×10-1 mg/mL.表明绿豆多糖具有良好的抗氧化特性.%Response surface methodology ( RSM) was used to optimize the effects of processing parameters of alkali extraction on the yield of polysaccharides, and on the basis of which, anti - oxidative activity was investigated. The optimal extraction condition of polysaccharides was determined as follows with Alkali extraction mung bean polysaccharides ( AEMP) concentration of alkali solution was0.02 mol/L,ratio of water to raw material was 20:1 mL/g, extraction temperature was 50℃ and treatment time was 3. 0 h. Under this condition, the experimental recovery of crude alkali extraction mung bean polysaccharides (AEMP) was 9.70 mg GE/g DW. AEMP was purified by sepha-dex G - 100 gel chromatogarph after anion - exchange DEAE - 52 cellulose chromatograph. A neutral fraction ( AEMP - 1) and one acid fraction ( AEMP -2) were gained. The result of anti - oxidative activity showed that AEMP and its purified components showed excellent scavenging activity on the hydroxyl radicals and a, a - diphenyl - 1 - picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. AEMP -2 had best radicals scavenging activity,and IC50 values was 4. 71 mg/mL (hydroxyl radicals) and 1.03×10-1 mg/mL (DPPH) ,respectively. Therefore,mung bean polysaccharides have a great

  15. Conventional Treatment of Surface Water Using Moringa Oleifera Seeds Extract as a Primary Coagulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman A. Muyibi, Ahmed Hissein M Birima, Thamer A. Mohammed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study involved the use of a model pilot scale water treatment plant to treat turbid surface water from a stream using processed Moringa oleifera seed with 25 % w/w oil extracted as primary coagulant. The water treatment plant was made up of four unit operations: coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration (rapid sand filter. Test runs were carried out for three hours per run over a three-month period with turbidities ranging from 18 to 261 NTU. The turbidity, pH, and alkalinity as well as the filter head loss were measured every 30 minutes during the experimental runs. Average turbidity removal of up to 96 % at an effective doses of 20 and 30 mg/l of oil extracted M. oleifera for low (< 50 NTU and moderate turbidity (< 100 NTU water respectively was observed doses 50 – 80 mg/l for high turbidity (> 100 NTU water. M. oleifera seed extract was found to have no significant effect on pH or alkalinity of the water. The residual turbidities measured during most of the test runs satisfied the Malaysian Guideline for Drinking Water Supplies. Key Words: Moringa oleifera, primary coagulant, coagulation, pilot plant, filtration.

  16. Efeito da compactação do solo sobre a semente no desenvolvimento da cultura do feijão = Effect of soil compaction upon the seed on the development of bean culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir José Modolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fatores da baixa produtividade está na dificuldade de se estabelecer a população ideal de plantas por ocasião da semeadura, pelos vários fatores que impedem a germinação normal de parte das sementes. Dentre os fatores primordiais para a germinação estão a umidade, a temperatura e a aeração do solo. É importante citar que estes fatores são diretamente influenciados pelo estado de compactação do solo ao redor da semente. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos da combinação entre profundidades desemeadura e cargas aplicadas pela roda compactadora da semeadora-adubadora sobre a emergência e o desenvolvimento da cultura do feijão, em sistema de plantio direto. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso composto por 12 tratamentos (três profundidades de semeadura e quatro níveis de cargas aplicadas pela roda compactadora e quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que a semeadura realizada a 5,0 cm de profundidade apresentou o melhor índice de velocidade-emergência, quando comparada às profundidades de 3,0 e 7,0 cm.One of the factors of low productivity is the difficulty of establishing the ideal population of plants at sowing time, due to the several factors that prevent the normal germination of part of the seeds. Among the primordial factors for germination are humidity,temperature, and airing of the soil. It is important to mention that these factors are directly influenced by the state of soil compaction around the seed. The present work aimed to study the effects of the combination between depths of sowing and loads applied by press wheel of the seeder on the emergence and development of bean culture, in no-tillage systems. The factorial scheme was applied, at the delineation in random blocks composed of twelve treatments (threedepths of sowing and four levels of loads applied by the press wheel and four replications. The results showed that the sowing performed at 5

  17. Rendimiento y reacción a enfermedades en frijol tipo Flor de Mayo en riego y temporal Seed yield and disease reaction in Flor de Mayo bean type grown under irrigation and rainfed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Acosta Gallegos

    Full Text Available El frijol tipo Flor de Mayo es de alta demanda entre los consumidores del centro de México, su producción se realiza en las regiones de la Mesa Central, El Bajío y Semiárida. El objetivo fue determinar el rendimiento, peso de la semilla y reacción a enfermedades de un grupo de 14 líneas y dos testigos a través de 14 ambientes, 10 de temporal y cuatro de riego. Los ensayos se condujeron durante los ciclos primavera-verano 2008 y otoño-invierno 2008-2009. Se realizaron análisis de conjunto y por ensayos de temporal y de riego en forma independiente. Diferentes enfermedades atacaron al cultivo a través de los sitios de prueba; bajo temporal, las de mayor distribución fueron la bacteriosis común (Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli y la mancha angular (Phaeoisariopsis griseola; mientras que la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum y el mildiú velloso (Phythohpthora phaseoli mostraron un fuerte ataque en Calera, Zacatecas y Celaya, Guanajuato, respectivamente. El ambiente de mayor rendimiento promedio fue Celaya bajo riego (4.15 t ha-1 y el menor se obtuvo en Texcoco bajo temporal (0.90 t ha-1. El análisis conjunto detecto diferencias significativas (pThe 'Flor de Mayo' bean type is highly demanded by consumers in Central Mexico, its production takes place at the semiarid, El Bajio and the central plateau regions. The aim was to test a set of 14 bred lines plus two checks across 10 rainfed locations and four irrigated sites on the basis of seed yield, 100-seeds weight and disease reaction. Trials were conducted in the spring-summer season 2008 and fall-winter season 2008-2009. Data analyses were conducted including all test sites, and independently rainfed and irrigated sites. Different diseases attacked the crop across test sites; those widely distributed were common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli and angular leaf spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola; whereas anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and downy

  18. Effects of xanthan-locust bean gum mixtures on the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of whey protein stabilised oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouryieh, Hanna; Puli, Goutham; Williams, Kevin; Aramouni, Fadi

    2015-01-15

    The effects of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG) mixtures (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5 wt%) on the physicochemical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilised oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing 20% v/v menhaden oil was investigated. At higher concentrations, the apparent viscosity of the emulsions containing XG/LBG mixtures was significantly higher (pbean gum showed the greatest phase separation, followed by XG. Microstructure images showed depletion flocculation at lower biopolymer concentrations, and thus led to an increase in creaming instability and apparent viscosity of the emulsions. Addition of 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5 wt% XG/LBG mixtures greatly decreased the creaming of the emulsions. The rate of lipid oxidation for 8-week storage was significantly lower (p<0.05) in emulsions containing XG/LBG mixtures than in emulsions containing either of the biopolymer alone.

  19. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large proport

  20. Produção e características físicas de sementes de mamoneira em função da posição do racemo e do fruto = Production and physical characteristics of castor bean seeds affected by raceme and fruit position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gomes Machado

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a produção e características físicas de sementes de mamoneira, em função da posição do racemo e do fruto, foi conduzido um trabalho, em condições de campo, em Nitossolo Vermelho Estruturado, no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo. Utilizou-se a cultivar AL Guarany 2002, a qual teve seus três primeiros racemos colhidos e subdividos em três terços, os quais constituíram os tratamentos. Para avaliação das características físicas dos racemos e frutos, foi determinado o comprimento dosracemos, o número de frutos por racemo, a dimensão dos frutos, o peso dos frutos e o número de sementes por fruto. Para avaliação das características físicas das sementes, foi determinado o teor de água, o tamanho e a massa de 1.000, além de avaliação da produçãode sementes. Constatou-se que os tratamentos avaliados exerceram influência sobre as características físicas dos racemos, frutos e sementes e a produção de sementes de mamona; o número de frutos e a produção de sementes diretamente proporcionais foram menores deacordo com a formação dos racemos.With the objective of evaluating production and physical characteristics of castor bean seeds affected by raceme and fruit position, a study was carried out under field conditions, in a Red Nitosol (Afisol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State. The cultivar AL Guarany 2002 was used. Its three first racemes were harvested and divided into three parts, which consisted of the treatments. Raceme length, number of leaves per raceme, fruit dimensions, fruit weight and number of seeds per fruit were determined to evaluate physical characteristics of the racemes and fruits; seed moisture content, size and weight of thousand seeds and seed production were determined to evaluate physical characteristics of the seeds. The treatments influenced physical characteristics of the racemes, fruits and seeds, besides the production of castor bean seeds; the number of fruitsand the seed

  1. Seed abortion of maize under water deficit is linked to a developmental process and not to carbon deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Oury, Vincent; Prodhomme, Duyên; Gibon, Yves; Tardieu, Francois; TURC, OLIVIER

    2013-01-01

    Seed abortion is a major cause of yield loss under water deficit in maize, thereby causing a high sensitivity of maize yield to droughts occurring at flowering time. It is usually believed that drough-tinduced seed abortion is linked to sugar deprivation because sugar feeding can relieve part of the effect of water deficit. However, the experiments that evidenced this effect involved very severe deficit, not compatible with those sensed by most plants in the field. In our experiments, a field...

  2. Removal of tetracycline from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andréa F S; Matos, Maria; Sousa, Ângela; Costa, Cátia; Nogueira, Regina; Teixeira, José A; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Parpot, Pier; Coelho, Luana C B B; Brito, António G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tetracycline antibiotic (TA) removal from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations. The composition of synthetic water approximate river natural contaminated water and TA simulated its presence as an emerging pollutant. Interactions between TA and protein preparations (extract; fraction and lectin) were also evaluated. TA was determined by solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moringa extract and flour removed TA from water. The extract removed TA in all concentrations, and better removal (40%) was obtained with 40 mg L(-1); seed flour (particles  5 mm (0.50 g L(-1)) removed 55% of antibiotic. Interactions between TA and seed preparations were assayed by haemagglutinating activity (HA). Specific HA (SHA) of extract (pH 7) was abolished with tetracycline (5 mg L(-1)); fraction (75%) and lectin HA (97%) were inhibited with TA. Extract SHA decreased by 75% at pH 8. Zeta potential (ZP) of extract 700 mg L(-1) and tetracycline 50 mg L(-1) , pH range 5-8, showed different results. Extract ZP was more negative (-10.73 to -16.00 mV) than tetracycline ZP (-0.27 to -20.15 mV); ZP difference was greater in pH 8. The focus of this study was achieved since Moringa preparations removed TA from water and compounds interacting with tetracycline involved at least lectin-binding sites. This is a natural process, which do not promote environmental damage. PMID:26264037

  3. Removal of tetracycline from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andréa F S; Matos, Maria; Sousa, Ângela; Costa, Cátia; Nogueira, Regina; Teixeira, José A; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Parpot, Pier; Coelho, Luana C B B; Brito, António G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tetracycline antibiotic (TA) removal from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations. The composition of synthetic water approximate river natural contaminated water and TA simulated its presence as an emerging pollutant. Interactions between TA and protein preparations (extract; fraction and lectin) were also evaluated. TA was determined by solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moringa extract and flour removed TA from water. The extract removed TA in all concentrations, and better removal (40%) was obtained with 40 mg L(-1); seed flour (particles  5 mm (0.50 g L(-1)) removed 55% of antibiotic. Interactions between TA and seed preparations were assayed by haemagglutinating activity (HA). Specific HA (SHA) of extract (pH 7) was abolished with tetracycline (5 mg L(-1)); fraction (75%) and lectin HA (97%) were inhibited with TA. Extract SHA decreased by 75% at pH 8. Zeta potential (ZP) of extract 700 mg L(-1) and tetracycline 50 mg L(-1) , pH range 5-8, showed different results. Extract ZP was more negative (-10.73 to -16.00 mV) than tetracycline ZP (-0.27 to -20.15 mV); ZP difference was greater in pH 8. The focus of this study was achieved since Moringa preparations removed TA from water and compounds interacting with tetracycline involved at least lectin-binding sites. This is a natural process, which do not promote environmental damage.

  4. Effect of saline water irrigation on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panuccio, M.R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Saleem Akhtar, Saqib;

    2014-01-01

    with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects...... of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germi- nated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which...... they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth...

  5. Development of a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. seeds=Desenvolvimento de um bioensaio para quantificar o teor da toxina ricina em sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Auld

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean seeds. Existing quantification methods do not always reflect actual toxicity of the seeds analyzed, which may present lower ricin content even though they are more toxic than seeds presenting a higher content of ricin. This is because these methods actually measure the addition of ricin RCA, which is a compound less toxic than pure ricin. We decided to use in this study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has been widely used by the pharmaceutical industry. We tested two strains of C. elegans using different methods in 8 experiments. We examined 4 methods of extracting the ricin complex and 3 methods of exposing the nematodes. Among the nematode strains and ricin extraction methods tested, we concluded that the best strain for testing ricin toxicity was the strain called N2 and that the best method for ricin extraction was a rotating bath followed by centrifugation and exposing the nematodes in 24 well plates with a solution of nematodes extracted from the media with destilated waterexposing the nematodes in 24-well plates This method is inexpensive, quick and adequate for the selection of offspring with lower RIP content.Foi desenvolvido um bioensaio para quantificar o teor de ricina nas sementes de mamona. Os métodos de quantificação existentes não refletem a toxidez real das sementes analizadas, que pode mostrar um resultado de menor teor de ricina e ainda assim ser mais toxico do que as sementes que apresentaram teores maiores. Isto ocorre por que estes métodos medem alem da ricina a RCA, que é um composto menos tóxico que a ricina pura. Foi decidido utilizar neste estudo o nematoide Caenorhabditis elegans, que tem sido amplamente utilizado na industria farmacêutica. Foram testadas duas estirpes de C.elegans usadas em diferentes métodos contando com 8 experimentos distintos. nós examinamos 4 métodos de extração de ricina e 3 m

  6. INTERACTION OF METHYL-TERT BUTYL ETHER AND WATER STRESS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN SOIL MICROCOSMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widespread contaminant in surface and ground water in the United States. Frequently irrigation is used to water fields to germinate planted seeds and sustain plant growth. A likely possibility exists that water used may have some MTBE. Our s...

  7. Induction of tolerance to water stress in the cowpea seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Agostini Colman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies in several species have been conducted under conditions of water stress. However, the germination and young seedlings, there are few studies aimed at developing techniques that seek a future tolerance and acclimation of plants to water stress. Given the above, the objective of this study was to simulate drought stress on seed germination of cowpea and evaluate the thermal shock applied during hydration can lead to culture to acquire stress tolerance. Seeds were subjected to the process of soaking and remained in BOD at 25ºC for 24 hours. After this part has been kept at this temperature part and transferred to the thermal shock to 7°C for 24 hours. Both plots that have gone through shock, as the others were transferred to the substrate moistened with mannitol at concentrations of 0, 22.29, 44.58, 66.87 and 89.17 g L-1, simulating the osmotic potential of 0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 MPa in BOD at 25ºC. Were evaluated: germination, speed of germination, abnormal seedlings, shoot length, primary root length, total length and relative seedling root/shoot. The best performance in germination was obtained by the seeds that passed hrough the thermal shock to 7ºC for 24 hours, which allows us to affirm that there was an induction of cross-tolerance and that this can be activated at the beginning of the imbibition in seeds of cowpea.

  8. Improvement of the flocculation process in water treatment by using moringa oleifera seeds extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez-Martín

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity encourages researchers to keep working on natural coagulant agents such as Moringa oleifera seed extract, that could be used even in developing countries. With this scope, this investigation is focused on the optimization of certain parameters affecting the use of this coagulant product in the clarification of real surface water. Acidic pH levels seem to enhance the coagulation performance and the turbidity removal increases as the stirring period becomes longer (up to 95% with 40 min. The optimum stirring rate is identified as 80 rpm. Water clarified with this optimum coagulation and flocculation process is turbidity-competitive with other well known coagulants and flocculants and its quality is inside standard ranges for clarified water. No microbial growth is observed within the first 72 hours after the coagulant trials.

  9. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Uk Kim; Su-Jin Jung; Kyeong-Ryeol Lee; Eun Ha Kim; Sang-Min Lee; Kyung Hee Roh; Jong-Bum Kim

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but dif...

  10. Quantifying Microstegium vimineum seed movement by non-riparian water dispersal using an ultraviolet-marking based recapture method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Tekiela

    Full Text Available Microstegium vimineum is a shade tolerant annual C4 invasive grass in the Eastern US, which has been shown to negatively impact species diversity and succession in hardwood forests. To date, empirical studies have shown that population expansion is limited to <1 m yr(-1, which is largely driven by gravity dispersal. However, this likely does not fully account for all mechanisms of population-scale dispersal as we observe greater rates of population expansion. Though water, both riparian and non-riparian water (i.e., ephemeral overland flow, have been speculated mechanisms for M. vimineum dispersal, few studies have empirically tested this hypothesis. We designed an experiment along the slopes of a Southwest Virginia hardwood forest to test the role of non-riparian water on local seed dispersal. We developed a seed marking technique by coating each seed with an ultraviolet (UV powder that did not affect buoyancy to aid in situ seed recapture. Additionally, a new image analysis protocol was developed to automate seed identification from UV photos. Total seed mobility (summation of individual seed movement within each transect was positively correlated with precipitation. Over a period of one month with 52.32 mm of precipitation, the maximum dispersal distance of any single recaptured seed was 2.4 m, and the average distance of dispersed seed was 0.21±0.04 m. This is the first quantitative evidence of non-riparian water dispersal in a forest understory, which accounts for an additional pathway of population expansion.

  11. The cotyledon cell wall of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) resists digestion in the upper intestine and thus may limit iron bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability from the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledon contains 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cell. The cotyledon cell wall is known to be resistan...

  12. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement.

  13. Seed Germination Characteristics of Rhus tripartitum (Ucria Grande and Ziziphus lotus (L.: Effects of Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouaoui Refka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae and Rhus tripartitum or Sumac (Anacardiaceae are two indigenous species from arid and semiarid regions of Tunisia, characterized by a severe climate where dry seasons are very long. The combined action of anthropogenic factors and climate in arid regions caused a gradual threat of plant assets. In this context, an experimental study of the effects of water stress (0 to −1 MPa on seeds has identified the water requirements germinal stage of both species. The results showed that both species were able to germinate at relatively low water potentials. However, beyond −0.6 MPa, germination was completely inhibited for R. tripartitum, when it reached for another 50% for Z. lotus. Increasing the concentration of PEG6000 progressively inhibited germination in both species. Only Z. lotus could be considered tolerant of water stress, because, to −1 MPa, seeds germinated with a rate of 17%. It resulted in that the species Z. lotus presented an adaptive capacity to aridity much greater than that observed for R. tripartitum.

  14. Viabilidade de sementes de feijão caupi após o tratamento com óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt Viability of Vigna unguiculata bean seeds treated with essential oil of Java grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.A. Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento de sementes com óleos essenciais é um método alternativo que auxilia o manejo integrado de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tratamento de sementes de feijão Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. com o óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt. Foi avaliado o efeito do óleo essencial de C. winterianus sobre V. unguiculata nas dosagens 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL e testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada pela porcentagem de emergência, velocidade de emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. A análise dos dados foi realizada no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com cinco repetições. As sementes fumigadas apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre os parâmetros avaliados em relação à testemunha. O óleo essencial de citronela revelou potencialidade alelopática sobre a germinação de sementes de feijão que variou de acordo com a concentração do óleo.Seed treatment with essential oils is an alternative method tool in integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bean seeds with essential oil of Java grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt. The effect of C. winterianus essential oil on P. vulgaris was evaluated at levels of 20 μL, 15 μL, 10 μL, 5 μL and control. The physiologic quality of the seeds was determined by percentage emergence, speed emergence and speed emergence index. The data analysis was carried out using an entirely randomized design, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme with five repetitions. The fumigated bean seeds showed the statistics differences among the analyzed parameters when was compared with the no treated check. The essential oil of Java grass revealed allelopathic potentiality on bean seed germination which varied according to the oil concentration.

  15. Resistance of stored bean varieties to Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edson L.L. Baldin; Fernando M. Lara

    2008-01-01

    During bean seed storage, yield can be lost due to infestations of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, the bean weevil. The use of resistant varieties has shown promising results in fighting these insects, reducing infestation levels and eliminating chemical residues from the beans. The expression of resistance to A. obtectus in bean varieties is frequently attributed to the presence of phytohemagglutinins, protease inhibitors and alpha-amylase, and espe-cially to variants of the protein arcelin, which reduce the larval viability of these insects. Toevaluate the effect of bean seed storage time on the resistance expression of bean varietiesto A. obtectus, tests with seeds of three ages (freshly-harvested, 4-month-old, and 8-month-old) were conducted in the laboratory, using four commercial varieties: Carioca Pitoco, Ipa 6, PorriUo 70, 0nix; four improved varieties containing arcelin protein: Arc. 1, Arc.2, Arc.3, Arc.4; and three wild varieties also containing arcelin protein: Arc.lS, Arc.3S, and Arc.5S. The Arc.5S, Arc. 1S, and Arc.2 varieties expressed high antibiosis levels against the weevil; Arc. 1 and Arc3S expressed the same mechanism, but at lower levels. The occurrence of oviposition non-preference was also observed in Arc.5S and Arc. IS. The Arc.3 and Arc.4 varieties expressed low feeding non-preference levels against A. obtectus. The expression of resistance in arcelin-bearing, wild or improved varieties was affected during the storage of seeds, and was high under some parameters but low in others. The results showed that addition of chemical resistance factors such as protein arcelin via genetic breeding may be beneficial in improving the performance of bean crops.

  16. Antioxidant Effect and Water-Holding Capacity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatoumata Tounkara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in-vitro pepsin and pancreatin digestion of proteins extracted from Roselle seed on the production of bioactive peptides. Defatted Roselle seed flour was used to extract different protein fractions namely globulin, albumin and glutelin. The proteins were digested using pepsin (1 h followed by pancreatin (1 h in order to produce hydrolysates with good antioxidant activity. The prepared hydrolysates were as effective as antioxidants in model systems, in scavenging of free radicals and acting as reducing agents. This effect was concentration-dependent and was also influenced by the type of protein fraction. The albumin fraction hydrolysates prepared showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by Glutelin and Globulin hydrolysates respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. All of the prepared hydrolysates were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a meat model system. Albumin hydrolysates showed the highest improved meat cooking ability followed by Glutelin and Globulin respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. The molecular weight distribution analysis of the hydrolysates was determined and most of the peptides were found between 1000 Da and below. The study findings suggest that Roselle seed protein hydrolysates can be applied as functional food ingredients and that their composition determines their functional properties thus their potential application in the food and feed industries.

  17. Relative importance of water, energy, and heterogeneity in determining regional pteridophyte and seed plant richness in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Bin CHEN; Gao-Ming JIANG; Zhi-Yun OUYANG; Wei-Hua XU; Yi XIAO

    2011-01-01

    Environmental variables, such as ambient energy, water availability, and environmental heterogeneity have been frequently proposed to account for species diversity gradients. How taxon-specific functional traits define large-scale richness gradients is a fundamental issue in understanding spatial patterns of species diversity, but has not been well documented. Using a large dataset on the regional flora from China, we examine the contrast spatial patterns and environmental determinants between pteridophytes and seed plants which differ in dispersal capacity and environmental requirements. Pteridophyte richness shows more pronounced spatial variation and stronger environmental associations than seed plant richness. Water availability generally accounts for more spatial variance in species richness of pteridophytes and seed plants than energy and heterogeneity do, especially for pteridophytes which have high dependence on moist and shady environments. Thus, pteridophyte richness is disproportionally affected by water-related variables; this in turn results in a higher proportion of pteridophytes in regional vascular plant floras (pteridophyte proportion) in wet regions. Most of the variance in seed plant richness, pteridophyte richness, and pteridophyte proportion explained by energy is included in variation that water and heterogeneity account for, indicating the redundancy of energy in the study extent. However, heterogeneity is more important for determining seed plant distributions. Pteridophyte and seed plant richness is strongly correlated, even after the environmental effects have been removed, implying functional linkages between them. Our study highlights the importance of incorporating biological traits of different taxonomic groups into the studies of macroecology and global change biology.

  18. Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, M R; Jacobsen, S E; Akhtar, S S; Muscolo, A

    2014-01-01

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development. PMID:25139769

  19. Allelopathic potential of a noxious weed on mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthapratim Maiti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eupatorium odoratum have invaded the waste lands of South West Bengal, India. A field study indicated a gradual and also significant increase in Eupatorium odoratum accompanied with significant decrease in other coexisting species. Considering the above in mind, a study was undertaken to evaluate the existence of inhibitory effect of leaf extracts and leaf leachates noxious weed Eupatorium odoratum using fully viable seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata as the bioassay material. The study showed the reduced the percentage germination and TTC stainability along with extended T50 values of mung bean seeds. The levels of protein, DNA and RNA, activities of dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes were significantly retarded in pretreated seed samples. Amino acid and sugar levels were increased in the leachates of seeds pretreated with leaf extracts and leaf leachates. Thus, from the overall results it can be concluded that various inhibitors present in E. odoratum can impart strong inhibitory effect on mung bean. The study suggests that the leaves of E. odoratum possess phytotoxic or allelopathic chemicals which potentially rendered the inhibitory action on mung bean seeds.

  20. Polyphenol Content and Antiradical Activity of “Sarconi” Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Ecotype

    OpenAIRE

    A. Romani; P. VIGNOLINI; M.A. Falvino; D. HEIMLER

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the distribution and content of polyphenols (anthocyans, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids) in hulls and seeds of Sarconi beans having different colours and shapes. Sarconi beans are protected by the indication of geographic provenance (IGP) denomination and include different ecotypes. The seeds sampled in the study area (Basilicata, val d’Agri) exhibited different colours from white (Riso bianco) to dark yellow (Tabacchino), to green (Verdolino) and t...

  1. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović Jelena M.; Šćiban Marina B.; Antov Mirjana G.; Kukić Dragana V.; Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with...

  2. THE RESPONSE STRATEGY OF MAIZE, PEA AND BROAD BEAN PLANTS TO DIFFERENT OSMOTIC POTENTIAL STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad; SHADADD M.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differen...

  3. Vacuolar status and water relations in embryonic axes of recalcitrant Aesculus hippocastanum seeds during stratification and early germination

    OpenAIRE

    Obroucheva, Natalie V.; Lityagina, Snezhana V.; Novikova, Galina V; Sin'kevich, Irina A.

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims In tropical recalcitrant seeds, their rapid transition from shedding to germination at high hydration level is of physiological interest but difficult to study because of the time constraint. In recalcitrant horse chestnut seeds produced in central Russia, this transition is much longer and extends through dormancy and dormancy release. This extended time period permits studies of the water relations in embryonic axes during the long recalcitrant period in terms of vacuol...

  4. Black bean coats: New source of anthocyanins stabilized by β-cyclodextrin copigmentation in a sport beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Mojica, Luis; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Berhow, Mark; de Mejía, Elvira González; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2016-12-01

    Anthocyanin-rich powders and aqueous extracts, with high antioxidant activities, were obtained from black bean seed coats and applied to colour a sport beverage. Idaho and Otomi bean coats were extracted in water-citric acid 2% (1/50, w/v), stirring for 4h at 40°C. Anthocyanins from Idaho and Otomi extracts (1.83mg and 1.02mg C3G/g, respectively) were applied to a commercially available sport beverage, with and without 2% β-cyclodextrin (βCD) under light and darkness conditions for 10days, and stored at 4°C and 25°C for 6weeks. At different light and storage conditions, anthocyanin degradation fitted a first-order reaction model. All bean coat anthocyanins combined with βCD showed extended half-life (up to 13months), higher D-values (up to 43months) and fewer differences in colourimetric properties (lightness, chroma and hue angle) under darkness and 4°C conditions. These black bean coat aqueous extracts and powders might represent natural alternatives to synthetic colorants, ecologically extracted, and with a high antioxidant potential. PMID:27374568

  5. Fósforo na produtividade e qualidade de sementes de feijão Carioca Precoce cultivado no período das águas Phosphorus on the productivity and seed quality of bean Carioca Precoce cultivated during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir Zucareli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O fósforo é o nutriente que mais limita a produtividade do feijoeiro em solos brasileiros, podendo influenciar na qualidade fisiológica de sementes. Objetivou-se com o trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade de sementes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. do cultivar Carioca Precoce cultivado no período das águas em resposta à adubação fosfatada. Foram avaliadas seis doses de P (0; 30; 60; 90; 120 e 150 kg de P2O5 ha-1, aplicados no sulco da semeadura na forma de superfosfato triplo, com cinco repetições. A produtividade de sementes foi determinada com base na massa das sementes produzidas na área útil da parcela experimental. A qualidade das sementes foi avaliada por meio das seguintes determinações: massa de 100 sementes, teor de água, germinação, primeira contagem, teor de água após o envelhecimento acelerado, germinação após o envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, emergência de plântulas no campo e massa de matéria seca de plântulas. A produtividade de sementes do feijão Carioca Precoce, cultivado no período das águas, aumentou linearmente em função do suprimento de P. A massa de 100 sementes e a qualidade fisiológica das sementes não foram alteradas pelo incremento das doses de P.Common bean is an important crop in Brazilian agriculture and phosphorus (P deficiency is one of the most yield limiting factors for this crop, thus plant P-deficiency can hamper the seed physiological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the productivity and quality of common bean seeds cv. Carioca Precoce cultivated during the rainy season in response to phosphate fertilizer. Six levels of P (0; 30; 60; 90; 120 and 150 kg of P2O5 ha-1, with five replications, were applied in the groove of sowing as triple superphosphate. The seeds yield, at the experimental plot, was determined by the dry weight. Seed quality was evaluated through the following determinations: 100-seed mass, seed moisture content

  6. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata. PMID:26089829

  7. Influence of pumpkin seed oil in continuous phase on droplet size and stability of water-in-oil emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolovski Branislava G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to contribute to the optimized production of water-in-oil emulsions with pumpkin seed oil in the oil phase using a high-speed homogenizer. Pumpkin seed oil is a valuable natural source of essential fatty acids and biologically active micronutrients that contribute to its nutritive value and medical uses, and reduce interfacial tension between water and the oil phases. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil can be considered as a prosperous oil phase whose use can possibly decrease the amount of some emulsifier that is normally involved in every emulsification process. A central composite rotatable experimental design was implemented to analyze the impact of the contents of polyglycerol polyricinoleate and pumpkin seed oil in the continuous phase, as well as water phase content in the emulsion on droplet size distribution and the response surface methodology was used to obtain optimal conditions for water-in-oil emulsion preparation. Mean size diameter of water droplets was in a range from 400 to 850 nm, with mean peak width of 100 to 220 nm, respectively. The influence of all three investigated factors on the emulsification was determined. Additionally, the emulsions prepared with pumpkin seed oil showed a higher stability during the storage time compared to the emulsions with sunflower oil.

  8. Effects of Different Mulching Methods on Water Use Efficiency of Mung Bean%不同覆盖方式对绿豆水分利用效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪晓玲; 岳鹏鹏; 张静; 刘建华; 雷锦银; 张雄

    2011-01-01

    绿豆是陕北旱区特色经济作物和主要农作物之一,探索适合地区特色的绿豆高产抗旱栽培技术对完善该区小杂粮栽培模式和提高区域农业水平意义重大。通过田间试验,设置垄膜覆盖、双沟覆膜、全膜覆盖、秸秆覆盖和露地5种处理,分析了不同覆盖方式对绿豆土壤温度、耗水量、水分利用效率、生长和经济性状以及产量的影响。结果表明,地膜覆盖对陕北地区绿豆增产效果极为显著,秸秆覆盖可提高水分利用效率,但同时降低地温,增产作用不明显。3种地膜覆盖方式中,又以垄膜覆盖方式提高水分利用效率和增加绿豆产量的效果最好,且操作简单,在陕北地区绿豆抗旱%Mung bean is one of the most important economic crops and traditional crops in Northern Shaanxi Province.Developing drought-resistant mung bean cultivation techniques suitable for regional characteristics is the essential part for optimizing the cultivation models for minor grain crops and improving the regional agriculture.Five treatments were set up,including plastic film mulching on ridge,plastic film mulching on "W" shape ridge,plastic film mulching on whole plot,straw mulching on whole plot and no mulching as control.Comparing soil temperature,water consumption,water use efficiency,plant characters and yield of mung bean in different treatments,the results show that plastic film mulching significantly increased the yield of mung bean and the straw mulching did not.In the three plastic film mulching treatments,plastic film mulching on ridge was the most effective treatment in improving both water use efficiency and yield of mung bean.Owing to its additional simplicity of its installation,the plastic film mulching on ridge should be considered as the first option as the drought resistant cultivation technique of mung bean in Northern Shaanxi Province.

  9. Otimização da técnica de PCR para a detecção de Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli em sementes de feijão Optimization of PCR technique for detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Cordeiro Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O crestamento bacteriano comum, causado por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap, é a principal bacteriose do feijoeiro no Brasil, sendo transmitida principalmente por sementes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo aperfeiçoar uma técnica, por meio de diferentes métodos de preparação do extrato, para a detecção de Xap, bem como sua detecção simultânea com Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (Cff nos extratos de sementes de feijão,via PCR. A partir de amostras de sementes de feijão inoculadas artificialmente com Xap e lotes comerciais, foram avaliados: extrato bruto obtido diretamente das sementes, extrato concentrado por filtração em membrana de 0,22µM de diâmetro, extrato concentrado por centrifugação e extrato plaqueado em meio semi-seletivo XCP1 com e sem antibióticos (BIO-PCR. Avaliou-se a presença simultânea de Xap e Cff em 10 lotes comerciais de sementes de feijão através da reação multiplex, utilizandos-se os primers X4c, X4e, CffFOR2 e CffREV4. A partir do extrato bruto, do extrato concentrado por centrifugação e por filtragem em membrana Millipore® não foi possível a detecção de Xap nas sementes de feijão artificialmente contaminadas nem nos 47 lotes comerciais de sementes/ grãos de feijão. A técnica de BIO-PCR permitiu a detecção de Xap a partir de extratos de sementes de feijão artificialmente contaminadas e em 18 dos 47 lotes comerciais. A técnica de detecção simultânea de Xap e Cff no mesmo gel é viável, por amplificar fragmentos de DNA típicos de cada fitobactéria. O uso do meio de cultura XCP1 sem adição de antibióticos permitiu detectar Xap com período de incubação menor em um dia em comparação à detecção utilizando-se o meio de cultura com antibióticosCommon bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap, is the major bacteriosis affecting bean plants in Brazil and is mainly transmitted by seeds. This study aimed to improve a

  10. Germination of Jacaranda mimosifolia (D. Don - Bignoniaceae seeds: effects of light, temperature and water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Socolowski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to study the effect of light, temperature and water stress on the germination of seeds of Jacaranda mimosifolia which showed the minimum and maximum germination temperature at 15 and 40º C, respectively. The optimum temperature was 25º C with high percentage and germination rate. Slight promotive effect of white light was observed. Under water stress conditions the effect of light was high but at optimum temperature no effect of light was observed. At -0.9MPa few seeds germinated.Sementes de Jacaranda mimosifolia apresentaram temperaturas mínima e máxima de germinação a 15 e a 40º C, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 25º C com alta porcentagem e velocidade de germinação. Uma pequena estimulação da germinação pela luz foi observada. Sob condições de estresse de água o efeito promotor da luz foi maior, mas na temperatura ótima este efeito da luz não foi observado. No potencial de água de -0,9MPa praticamente nenhuma semente germinou.

  11. Night drying of caupi bean using solar energy; Secagem noturna de feijao caupi com o uso de energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dyego da C.; Queiroz, Alexandre Jose de M.; Figueiredo, Rossana M.F. de; Oliveira, Emanuel N.A. de [Univerdiade Federal de Campina Grande (CTRN/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais], email: dyego.csantos@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The drying at low temperature preserves the best qualities of seeds. The older practice, a solar drying, has disadvantage the interruption of the process in the night period. In this work, was used a drying system constituted for a solar panels that heats up water and it is store in a thermal box. The heat water is used on a dryer, where it travels a copper coil, providing temperatures around 41 deg C. In this system drying of caupi bean (Vigna unguiculata L.) seeds were studied during the night period. The samples began with 67,2% of water content and reached at 14,9% in one night of drying and changed of 14,9 to 12,6% at the end in second drying night. The drying data were good fitted using Two-terms, Henderson and Pabis, Midilli, Page and Exponential Two-Terms models. (author)

  12. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  13. Studies on defluoridation of water by tamarind seed, an unconventional biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, M; Subramanian, E

    2006-12-01

    Tamarind seed, a household waste from the kitchen is used for the sorptive removal of fluoride from synthetic aqueous solution as well as from field water samples. Batch sorptive defluoridation was conducted under variable experimental conditions such as pH, agitation time, initial fluoride concentration, particle size and sorbent dose. Maximum defluoridation was achieved at pH 7.0. Defluoridation capacity decreases with increase in temperature and particle size. Further, defluoridation follows first order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Desorption was carried out with 0.1 N HCl and is 90 per cent. The surface and sorption characteristics were analysed using FTIR and SEM techniques. All these results indicate the involvement of energetic forces such as coulombic interaction in sorption. For domestic and industrial applications, defluoridation with 100% achievement and subsequent regeneration of adsorbent was performed with a household water filter and fixed bed column respectively.

  14. Submergence Tolerance and Germination Dynamics of Roegneria nutans Seeds in Water-Level Fluctuation Zones with Different Water Rhythms in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam features two water-level fluctuation zones (WLFZs: the preupland drawdown zone (PU-DZ and the preriparian drawdown zone (PR-DZ. To investigate the vegetation potential of Roegneria nutans in WLFZs, we compared the submergence tolerance and germination dynamics in the natural riparian zone (NRZ, PU-DZ and PR-DZ. We found that the NRZ seeds maintained an 81.3% intactness rate and >91% germination rate. The final seed germination rate and germination dynamics were consistent with those of the controls. Meanwhile, the PU-DZ seeds submerged at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 20 m exhibited intactness rates of 70.5%, 79.95%, 40.75%, and 39.87%, respectively, and >75% germination. Furthermore, the PR-DZ seeds exhibited intactness rates of 22.44%, 61.13%, 81.87%, and 15.36% at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 17 m, respectively, and 80% germination. The germination rates of the intact seeds submerged >10 m were >80%. Finally, the intact seeds germinated quickly in all WLFZs. The high proportion of intact seeds, rapid germination capacity, and high germination rate permit R. nutans seeds to adapt to the complicated water rhythms of the PU-DZ and PR-DZ and indicate the potential for their use in vegetation restoration and recovery. Thus, perennial seeds can be used for vegetation restoration in the WLFZs of large reservoirs and in other regions with water rhythms similar to the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  15. Submergence Tolerance and Germination Dynamics of Roegneria nutans Seeds in Water-Level Fluctuation Zones with Different Water Rhythms in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Liu, Jianhui; Zeng, Bo; Pan, Xiaojiao; Su, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam features two water-level fluctuation zones (WLFZs): the preupland drawdown zone (PU-DZ) and the preriparian drawdown zone (PR-DZ). To investigate the vegetation potential of Roegneria nutans in WLFZs, we compared the submergence tolerance and germination dynamics in the natural riparian zone (NRZ), PU-DZ and PR-DZ. We found that the NRZ seeds maintained an 81.3% intactness rate and >91% germination rate. The final seed germination rate and germination dynamics were consistent with those of the controls. Meanwhile, the PU-DZ seeds submerged at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 20 m exhibited intactness rates of 70.5%, 79.95%, 40.75%, and 39.87%, respectively, and >75% germination. Furthermore, the PR-DZ seeds exhibited intactness rates of 22.44%, 61.13%, 81.87%, and 15.36% at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 17 m, respectively, and 80% germination. The germination rates of the intact seeds submerged >10 m were >80%. Finally, the intact seeds germinated quickly in all WLFZs. The high proportion of intact seeds, rapid germination capacity, and high germination rate permit R. nutans seeds to adapt to the complicated water rhythms of the PU-DZ and PR-DZ and indicate the potential for their use in vegetation restoration and recovery. Thus, perennial seeds can be used for vegetation restoration in the WLFZs of large reservoirs and in other regions with water rhythms similar to the Three Gorges Reservoir. PMID:27031104

  16. Submergence Tolerance and Germination Dynamics of Roegneria nutans Seeds in Water-Level Fluctuation Zones with Different Water Rhythms in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Liu, Jianhui; Zeng, Bo; Pan, Xiaojiao; Su, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam features two water-level fluctuation zones (WLFZs): the preupland drawdown zone (PU-DZ) and the preriparian drawdown zone (PR-DZ). To investigate the vegetation potential of Roegneria nutans in WLFZs, we compared the submergence tolerance and germination dynamics in the natural riparian zone (NRZ), PU-DZ and PR-DZ. We found that the NRZ seeds maintained an 81.3% intactness rate and >91% germination rate. The final seed germination rate and germination dynamics were consistent with those of the controls. Meanwhile, the PU-DZ seeds submerged at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 20 m exhibited intactness rates of 70.5%, 79.95%, 40.75%, and 39.87%, respectively, and >75% germination. Furthermore, the PR-DZ seeds exhibited intactness rates of 22.44%, 61.13%, 81.87%, and 15.36% at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 17 m, respectively, and 80% germination. The germination rates of the intact seeds submerged >10 m were >80%. Finally, the intact seeds germinated quickly in all WLFZs. The high proportion of intact seeds, rapid germination capacity, and high germination rate permit R. nutans seeds to adapt to the complicated water rhythms of the PU-DZ and PR-DZ and indicate the potential for their use in vegetation restoration and recovery. Thus, perennial seeds can be used for vegetation restoration in the WLFZs of large reservoirs and in other regions with water rhythms similar to the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  17. Pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. Redondo Gigante with graphite for germination under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobel Penteado Freitas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water stress on germination of radish seeds is dependent on the presence of light. The effect of pelletization of radish seeds with powdered graphite on the tolerance to water stress under light was analysed. White light and far-red lights were filtered by graphite increasing slightly the tolerance of pelleted seeds to water stress of -0.77MPa. Although red light also inhibited seed germination the graphite had no effect. We propose the pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus, at least in cv redondo gigante with graphite as a pratice before planting to increase the tolerance to water stress.O efeito do estresse hídrico é dependente da presença de luz em sementes de rabanete. O efeito da peletização com grafite em pó foi analisado. Luz branca e vermelho-extremo são filtradas pelo grafite aumentando parcialmente a tolerância ao estresse hídrico de -0,77MPa em sementes peletizadas. Embora a luz vermelha também iniba a germinação em condições de estresse a peletização não teve efeito. Nós propomos a peletização de sementes de Raphanus saivus L. cv. redondo gigante como uma prática antes do plantio para aumentar a tolerância ao estresse hídrico.

  18. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  19. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Common Bean Genotypes Assessed by the 32P Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes on phosphorus (P) utilization, and verify if P from the seed affects the classification of common bean genotypes on P uptake efficiency when the 32P isotopic dilution technique is used. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, and plants were grown in pots with surface samples of a dystrophic Typic Haplustox. The treatments consisted of 50 common bean genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). Sangue de Boi, Rosinha, Thayu, Grafite, Horizonte, Pioneiro and Jalo Precoce common bean genotypes were the most efficient on P uptake, and Carioca 80, CNF 10, Perola, IAPAR 31, Roxao EEP, Apore, Pioneiro, Pontal, Timbo and Ruda were the most efficient in P utilization. The P derived from seed influences the identification of common bean genotypes for P uptake efficiency. (author)

  20. Microstructural Differences Among Adzuki Bean (Vigna Angularis) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Engquist, Anup; Swanson, Barry G.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study microstructural differences among five adzuki bean cultivars: Erimo, Express, Hatsune, Takara and VBSC. Seed coat surfaces showed different patterns of cracks, pits and deposits . Cross-sections of the seed coats revealed well organized layers of elongated palisade cells followed by many layers of amorphous parenchyma cells. Typical sub-epidermal layers of organized columnar, hour-glass cells were characteristica11y absent in the five culti...

  1. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  2. Stay below water! - a strategy to avoid seed predators : - seed survival and germination of Mauritia flexuosa in southeastern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Björn

    2009-01-01

    The tropical palm Mauritia flexuosa has highly nutritious fruits and is an important food resource for both humans and wildlife throughout its geographic range in South America. Unsustainable harvesting threatens wild populations. Mauritia f. occurs primarily in wetlands called Aguajales where it can become the dominating canopy species. Seed predation and dispersal can dramatically affect the survival and distribution of plant species in tropical rainforests (Janzen 1970, Connell 1971, Blehe...

  3. Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Salt Stress Response under Different Soil Organic Matter Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Matijević

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of saline water for crop irrigation leads to rhizosphere salinization, which affects plant element uptake, as well as trace elements (TEs accumulation in plant tissue. Moreover, imbalance in crop element uptake may reflect on crop productivity. Soil organic matter (SOM plays an important role in soil biogeochemical processes and especially affects trace element mobility and bioavailability. Therefore, it is an important factor for assessment of plant responses under varying ecological conditions, including salinity. A greenhouse pot experiment was set up to study the effects of saline irrigation and increased SOM on faba bean (Vicia faba L. salt stress response. Soil from arable land of Croatian coastal region was used for the trial. One half of the bulk of soil provided for the experiment was mixed with commercial peat (4:1 and two trial variants, unmodified and increased SOM content, were investigated. Two weeks after transplanting faba bean seedlings into pots, treatment with two levels of NaCl salinity (50 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively was applied in a nutrient solution. Control plants were included in the measurements as well. Saline irrigation as well as increased SOM affected certain element accumulation in bean plant (leaf, pod and/or seed, although no significant interaction between rhizosphere salinization and SOM was revealed.

  4. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid

    2016-06-17

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  5. Application of Combined Process of Ozone/Activated Carbon and UF in Bean Sprouts Spray Water Reuse Project%臭氧活性炭/超滤工艺用于豆芽喷淋水回用工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟芳; 陈国伟; 韩东梅; 郭浩

    2011-01-01

    The combined process of ozone/activated carbon, UF membrane and UV disinfection was used for treatment and reuse of bean sprouts spray water. The effluent quality can reach Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749 -2006 ). The quality of bean sprouts has no significant difference compared with the control group, and it can reach Hygienic Standard for Bean Sprouts (GB 22556 - 2008). This combined process is feasible in economy and reliable in technology, and it provides a new idea for high-quality miscellaneous wastewater reclamation and reuse.%采用臭氧活性岌/超滤/紫外消毒组合工艺对豆芽喷淋水进行处理后回用,出水水质可满足国家(GB 5749-2006),豆芽品质与对照试验相比没有显著性差异,达到国家(GB 22556-2008).该组合工艺技术可靠,经济可行,为优质杂排水再生回用提供了新思路.

  6. Balanço hídrico da cultura da mamona sob condições de sequeiro Water balance of castor bean under rainfed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo dos componentes do balanço de água no solo é essencial para se compreender sua dinâmica, fornecendo subsídios para o manejo agrícola e otimização do uso de água. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar os componentes do balanço de água em solo cultivado com mamona sob condições de sequeiro. Para tal foram instalados, numa área de 4 ha da Fazenda Experimental Chã do Jardim, do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da UFPB, Areia, PB (6o 58' S, 35o 41' W e 620 m três sítios tensio-neutrônicos cada um contendo um tubo de acesso para a sonda de nêutrons até a profundidade de 1,60 m e oito tensiômetros nas profundidades de 0,10; 0,20; 0,30; 0,40; 0,60; 0,80; 1,20 e 1,60 m, além de um pluviógrafo para medir a precipitação. Com vista à determinação da condutividade hidráulica saturada do solo, foram realizados ensaios de infiltração na superfície e nas profundidades de 0,20; 0,40; 0,60 e 0,80 m. A evapotranspiração da mamona seguiu as variações da precipitação e teve valor médio de 2,43 mm d-1, perfazendo o total de 342,52 mm. As variações do armazenamento de água no solo seguiram as variações da precipitação pluvial e o fluxo de água na base do solo (ascensão capilar ou drenagem tiveram valores muito pequenos.The study of water balance components is essential to understand the dynamics of soil water, providing subsidies to agricultural management and optimization of water use. The objective of this study was to determine the water balance components in a soil cultivated with castor bean under rainfed conditions. An experiment was installed in a 4 ha area in the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, UFPB, in the municipality of Areia, Paraiba state (6o 58' S, 35o 41' W e 620 m, a rain gauge and three plots contained an access tube for neutron probe measurements, up to the depth of 1.60 m, and a set of eight tensiometers at depths of 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80, 1.20 and 1.60 m. Infiltration tests were

  7. Effects of Water Stress on Germination in Six Provenances of Pinus brutia Seeds from Different Bioclimatic Zones in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Boydak, Melih; DİRİK, Hüseyin; TİLKİ, Fahrettin; ÇALIKOĞLU, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    The effects of water potential on germination were studied in six provenances of Pinus brutia from different bioclimatic zones in Turkey. Water potentials between 0 and -8 bars were obtained using polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000) solutions. Seeds were kept for 28 d in light (12 h photoperiod at 1000 lux) and at 20 ± 0.5 oC. A decrease in water potential produced a marked reduction in germination percentage, germination speed and germination value. Significant variations between the provena...

  8. Exogenous spermidine improves seed germination of white clover under water stress via involvement in starch metabolism, antioxidant defenses and relevant gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Lin-Kai; Yan, Yan-Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of exogenous spermidine (Spd) (30 μM) on white clover seed germination under water stress induced by polyethylene glycol 6000. Use of seed priming with Spd improved seed germination percentage, germination vigor, germination index, root viability and length, and shortened mean germination time under different water stress conditions. Seedling fresh weight and dry weight also increased significantly in Spd-treated seeds compared with control (seeds primed with distilled water). Improved starch metabolism was considered a possible reason for this seed invigoration, since seeds primed with Spd had significantly increased α-amylase/β-amylase activities, reducing sugar, fructose and glucose content and transcript level of β-amylase gene but not transcript level of α-amylase gene. In addition, the physiological effects of exogenous Spd on improving seeds' tolerance to water deficit during germination were reflected by lower lipid peroxidation levels, better cell membrane stability and significant higher seed vigour index in seedlings. Enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase), ascorbate-glutathione cycle (ASC-GSH cycle) and transcript level of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes induced by exogenous Spd may be one of the critical reasons behind acquired drought tolerance through scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in water-stressed white clover seeds. The results indicate that Spd plays an important function as a stress-protective compound or physiological activator.

  9. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of a novel water-soluble gum from Lallemantia royleana seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Cui, Steve W; Ding, Huihuang

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the structural information (monosaccharide compositions, molecular weight parameters & FTIR analysis), chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash, carbohydrate & uronic acids), rheological properties, and surface activity of Lallemantia royleana seeds mucilage (BSG) were determined. The results showed BSG contains 8.51% (w.b.) moisture, 8.24% (d.b.) ash, 2.71% (d.b.) protein, 75.87% (d.b.) carbohydrate and 20.33% (d.b.) uronic acids. Monosaccharide analysis revealed the presence of arabinose (37.88%), galactose (33.54%), rhamnose (18.44%), xylose (6.02%) and glucose (4.11%) in the BSG polysaccharide. Although BSG had similar molecular weight (1.294×10(6) Da) compared to most seed gums, the intrinsic viscosity (23.06 dL/g) and gyration radius (104.84 nm) were higher. The BSG exhibited a strong shear-thinning behavior (n<0.29) over the shear rate range of 0.01 to 1000 s(-1). Flow behavior data was correlated with different time-independent models, which provided a good description of BSG rheological properties. Dynamic mechanical spectra demonstrated BSG is a typical of weak gel, which its rheological parameters were superior to those of many commercial gums. The FTIR spectra of the BSG polymer showed the presence of carboxyl groups, which may serve as binding sites for ions. BSG exhibited the ability to reduce the surface tension of water at concentrations lower than 0.75%.

  10. A comparative study of water distribution, free radical production and activation of antioxidative metabolism in germinating pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtyla, Łukasz; Garnczarska, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Tomasz; Bednarski, Waldemar; Ratajczak, Lech; Jurga, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between hydration of the embryo axes and cotyledons and the resumption of the oxidative metabolism in both organs of germinating seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Piast). Nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy and imaging were used to study temporal and spatial water uptake and distribution in pea seeds. The observations revealed that water penetrates into the seed through the hilum, micropyle and embryo axes, and cotyledons hydrate to different extents. Thus, inhomogeneous water distribution may influence the resumption of oxidative metabolism. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements showed that seed germination was accompanied by the generation of free radicals with g(1) and g(2) values of 2.0032 and 2.0052, respectively. The values of spectroscopic splitting coefficients suggest that they are quinone radicals. The highest content of free radicals was observed in embryo axes immediately after emergence of the radicle. Glutathione content decreased during the entire germination period in both embryo axes and cotyledons. A different profile was observed for ascorbate, with significant increases in embryo axes, coinciding with radicle protrusion. Electrophoretic analysis showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) were present in dry seeds and were activated later during germination, especially in embryo axes. The presence of all antioxidative enzymes as well as low molecular antioxidants in dry seeds allowed the antioxidative machinery to be active as soon as the enzymes were reactivated by seed imbibition. The observed changes in free radical levels, antioxidant contents and enzymatic activities in embryo axes and cotyledons appear to be more closely related to metabolic and developmental processes

  11. Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschi, Federico; Franz, Chlodwig; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2007-10-17

    Horse chestnut extracts are widely used in pharmacy and cosmetic industries. The main active constituents are saponins of oleane type, but seeds of horse chestnut also contain flavonoids, being glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Their contribution to the overall activity of the extracts was not clear. In the present work, the main flavonoids from horse chestnut seeds were isolated and their structures established with spectral methods. Seven glycosides were isolated, out of which six ( 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13) were previously reported and one ( 9) was identified as a new tamarixetin 3- O- [beta- d-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]- O-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside. The structures of three additional compounds 1, 10, and 12, not previously reported, were deduced on the basis of their LC-ESI/MS/MS fragmentation characteristics. A new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for profiling and quantitation of horse chestnut flavonoids. The method allowed good separation over 4.5 min. Thirteen compounds could be identified in the profile, out of which di- and triglycoisdes of quercetin and kaempferol were the dominant forms and their acylated forms occurred in just trace amounts. The total concentration of flavonoids in the powdered horse chestnut seed was 0.88% of dry matter. The alcohol extract contained 3.46%, and after purification on C18 solid phase, this concentration increased to 9.40% of dry matter. The flavonoid profile and their content were also measured in the horse chestnut wastewater obtained as byproduct in industrial processing of horse chestnut seeds. The total flavonoid concentration in the powder obtained after evaporation of water was 2.58%, while after purification on solid phase, this increased to 11.23% dry matter. It was concluded that flavonoids are present in a horse chestnut extract in a relatively high amount and have the potential to contribute to the overall activity of these extracts

  12. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  13. Baked Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Two pieces of tender bean curd, shredded shrimp, minced fat and lean pork, minced ham, minced fresh mushrooms, fried dried shrimps, mashed scallion, ginger and garlic, cooking wine, salad oil, salt, MSG and pepper powder. Directions:

  14. The Effect of Water Stress on the Gas Exchange Parameters, Productivity and Seed Health of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment studied the effect of different soil moisture contents (60 - 70% CWC (capillary water capacity - control; 30 - 35% CWC - water stress on buckwheat productivity, the gas exchange parameters and health of buckwheat nuts. It was found that water deficit affected adversely certain biometric features investigated (plant height, number of nuts per cluster and caused a decrease in seed weight per plant. It was also shown that water stress reduced the values of the investigated gas exchange parameters (photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular-space CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance relative to the control treatment. Different soil moisture contents did not have a clear effect on fungal colonization of seeds. The multiplex PCR assays did not enable the detection of the genes responsible for mycotoxin synthesis. Under water deficit conditions, an increase was found in the content of albumin and globulin fractions as well as of glutelin fractions.

  15. FORMULATION AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF INFANT FORMULA PRODUCED FROM GERMINATED POPCORN, BAMBARA GROUNDNUT AND AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi; Oluremi Olufunke Keshinro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to produce and evaluate the nutritional quality of complementary foods from popcorn, African locust bean and Bambara groundnut. The popcorn, bambara groundnut and African locust beans were obtained locally in Akure, Nigeria. The seeds were germinated, oven dried, milled and sieved into flours. The flours were mixed as follows: GPA (70% popcorn, 30% African locust bean), GPB (70% popcorn, 30% bambara groundnut) and GPAB (70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, 10%...

  16. EFFECT OF WATER STRESS BY POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 6000 AND SODIUM CHLORIDE ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shitole et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of salt stress and water stress on seed germination, root and shoot length, fresh and dry biomass, vigour index was investigated in Senna (Cassia angustifolia at germination stage (7DAS. Salinity stress was induced by using NaCl and drought stress by using PEG-6000. Different concentration of NaCl (0.1 to 100 mM and PEG-6000(-0.1 bars to -2.0 bars were used for seed treatment. The objective of the present investigation was to study the comparatively impact of NaCl salinity stress and water stress on seed germination, seedling growth, fresh and dry weight in Senna.

  17. Biosorption and removal of chromium from water by using moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Meneghel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the adsorption capacity of chromium from contaminated aqueous solutions by using Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm calculated to be 3.191 mg g-1 for the biosorbent. Activated carbon was used for comparison purposes in addition to the biosorbent. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model for both adsorbents. The average desorption value indicated that both the biosorbent and activated carbon have a strong interaction with the metal. The results showed that the biosorbent has advantages owing to its low cost and efficiency in Cr3+ removal from contaminated waters.

  18. [Water-soluble galactomannan from the seeds of Lotus corniculatus L.: structure and properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A V; Mestechkina, N M; Plennik, R Ia; Shcherbukhin, V D

    2003-01-01

    Galactomannan, a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide, was isolated from the seed of Far-Eastern population of ground honeysuckle Lotus corniculatus L. (yield, 1.65%). Analysis of this galactomannan showed that is consists of D-mannose and D-galactose residues (molar ratio, 1.22:1). Its aqueous solutions were characterized by specific rotation [alpha]D = +84.10 and characteristic viscosity [eta] = 559 ml/g. Analysis of this heteropolysaccharide using chemical and enzymatic procedures, as well as IR- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, showed that its main chain comprises 1,4-beta-D-mannopyranose residues, 95.5% of which are substituted at C-6 with single residues of alpha-D-galactopyranose.

  19. 建瓯市豆-繁殖-玉米新高效轮作生产栽培技术%High-efficiency Rotation Production Cultivation Techniques for Common Bean-rice Seed Multiplication-autumn Corn at Jian,ou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀生

    2015-01-01

    Farming system of common bean-rice seed multiplication-autumn corn is an innovated high-efficiency rotation production mode for Shuiyuan town of Jian,ou city due to its unique microclimate and specific production requirement. The rotation cultivation techniques of this mode were briefly introduced according to productive practice.%四季豆—繁殖—玉米是依据建瓯市水源乡独特小气候和特殊的生产要求而创新的一种高效轮作生产方式。从生产实践方面简要介绍了这种栽培轮作技术。

  20. Water Quality of Urban Streams: The Allium cepa Seeds/Seedlings Test as a Tool for Surface Water Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gonçalves Athanásio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P<0.05. The sample from Pedras downstream site also caused a decrease in mitotic index (P<0.08 and increase in micronuclei (P<0.08 frequency, indicating potential cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The Pedras stream receives mixed industrial and urban wastewater, while the Lajeado and Preto streams receive wastewater predominantly domestic in nature, which may partially explain the difference in toxicity among the samples. Moreover, the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction.

  1. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, MORPHOLOGIC, PROTEINIC AND CULINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAIN OF BEAN CULTIVARS SOWED IN THE REGION OF TLATZALA, GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Solano Cervantes

    2009-08-01

    (0.25 %, Red beans (0.24 % and Whites beans (0.07 %. The Blanco Mediano-2 beans registered the minor amount of solids (0.06 %. The major water absorption capacity was founded in the Striped of guide bean (122.5 %, followed the Red beans (108.1 %, Blacks beans (99.3 % and the Whites beans (95.4 %.

  2. 蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术监测湛河水质状况%Monitoring the Water Qualitv of Zhanhe River bv Micronucleus Technique of Root Tip Cell of Broad Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘秋生; 郭端强; 田勋; 张亚杰; 郭文龙

    2011-01-01

    The water pollution of Zhanhe river was monitored by micronucleus technique of root tip cell of broad bean and the micronucleus permillage and pollution index of root tip cell of broad bean in water samples from various sampling sites were determined for F test. The results showed that the polluted degree of water body in Zhanhe river got some increment in Mar, ~ May ,the pollution state of water body in beach area was aggravated gradually and the control of water quality needed to be enhanced.%利用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术监测湛河水质污染状况,测定各样点水样中蚕豆根尖细胞的微核千分率及污染指数,并进行F检验.结果表明,3~5月湛河水体受污染程度有所增加,沿岸水体污染状况逐渐加重,需加强水质治理工作.

  3. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T.; Riskin, Shelby H.; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N.; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A.; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compar...

  4. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  5. Quantitative studies on the influence of the bean roasting parameters and hot water percolation on the concentrations of bitter compounds in coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Simone; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of roasting time and temperature on the degradation of the bitter precursors 3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (1), 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (2), and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (3) as well as the formation of bitter tastants during coffee roasting, we prepared coffee brews from beans roasted either at 260 degrees C for 60-600 s or for 240 s at 190-280 degrees C. By means of HPLC-UV/vis and HPLC-MS/MS, bitter-tasting monocaffeoyl quinides (4-8), dicaffeoyl quinides (9-11), and 4-vinylcatechol oligomers (12-20) as well as the parent bitter precursors 1-3 were quantitatively analyzed in these brews. Quinides 4-11, exhibiting a coffee-typical bitter taste profile, were found to be preferentially formed under slight to medium roasting degrees and were observed to be degraded again to generate harsh bitter-tasting 4-vinylcatechol oligomers under more severe roasting conditions, thus matching the change in bitter taste quality observed by means of sensory studies. In addition, quantitative studies of the release profile of bitter compounds from ground coffee upon water percolation revealed that compounds 1-8 were rapidly extracted, dicaffeoyl quinides 9-11 were released rather slowly, and, in particular, compounds 12-17 were found to show strong retention to the ground coffee material. These data imply that the knowledge-based control of the roasting and/or the extraction conditions might be helpful in tailoring the bitter taste signature of coffee beverages. PMID:20180507

  6. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  7. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Rivarola

    Full Text Available Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  8. Fixação biológica de N2 no feijoeiro submetido a dosagens de inoculante e tratamento químico na semente comparado à adubação nitrogenada = Biological fixation of N2 in bean plantation at doses of inoculants and chemical treatment to the seed compared with nitrogenous fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Fernando de Araújo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A inoculação do feijoeiro é uma técnica difundida pela pesquisa, mas pouco utilizada pelos agricultores. Entretanto, com o baixo poder aquisitivo da maioria dos agricultores, que cultivam o feijão, e com a baixa produtividade média, a utilização desta técnica de baixo custo pode ser uma excelente alternativa para aumento da produtividade. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, no cultivo do feijão, a inoculação com Rhizobium, na presença e ausência de fungicida na semente comparando-se com a adubação nitrogenada. O experimento foi conduzido, em 2004, no município de Colorado, Estado do Paraná. Foi demonstrado que a inoculação é uma técnica eficiente no fornecimento de nitrogênio para a cultura, quando comparado com o fornecimento de nitrogênio mineral. A cultivar de feijão carioca apresentou boa resposta à inoculação, demostrando bons índices denodulação e produtividade. O aumento da dosagem do inoculante não proporcionou ganhos de nodulação e produtividade, porém o uso do fungicida na semente afetou a produtividade.The inoculation of bean is a technique spread out by research, but it is not very much used by farmers. However, considering the low purchasing power of the majority of farmers who cultivate beans and the low average productivity, the use of this low cost technique can be an excellent alternative to increase productivity.The aim of this work was to evaluate the inoculation with Rhizobium and the nitrogenous feeding of beans. The experiment was conducted in 2004, in Colorado, state of Paraná. Results showed that inoculation was anefficient technique in supplying nitrogen to the culture, when compared with the addition of mineral nitrogen. The “carioca” bean variety showed positive response to the inoculation with good levels of nodulation and yield. The increase of inoculation level did not result in nodulation and productivity gains, though the use of fungicide in the seed affected the

  9. The effect of temperature and water stress on laboratory germination of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seeds of different sizes

    OpenAIRE

    López, Marian; Humara, Jaime; Casares, Abelardo; Majada, Juan

    2000-01-01

    International audience Germination rate and germination capacity of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. increased significantly with increasing temperature (13o to 33 oC) for all seed sizes to an optimum at 28 oC, then decreased. Biggest seeds generally germinated best at all temperatures. Germination was also very sensitive to water potential (0 to $-0.75$ MPa), with no germination occuring at potentials below $-0.25$ MPa. Effet de la température et du stress hydrique sur la germination en lab...

  10. 细胞外ATP对Cd胁迫下绿豆种子萌发保护机制的研究%Protective Role of Exogenous ATP against Cadmium Toxicity in Roots of Germinating Mung Bean Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新; 牟其芸; 林于凯

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of exogenous ATP on the roots of mung bean exposed to Cadmium (Cd) ,the cell death degree of mung bean and 02 - of roots of mung bean were determined. The results showed that ATP (400 μM) added to the hydroponics solution concunently with Cd(10 μM) alleviated roots growth inhibition and rescued mung bean roots from Cd-induced cell death. The supplement with ATP favored the elongation under Cd treatment and reduced Cd-induced cell death in roots. The Cd-mediated roots growth inhibition might at least in part be caused by the Cd inhibition of the apoplastic 02·- levels. ATP treatment exhibited a beneficial effects on the maintenance of normal amount of 02·- under cadmium stress. It indicated that the exogenous ATP-mediated responses actually played a role in reestablishing the original redox state under Cd stress.%为了评价外源ATP对Cd胁迫下绿豆根生长的保护作用,对绿豆细胞死亡程度、报中超氧阴离子(O2·-)及根中O2·-进行了测定.结果表明,ATP(400μM)缓解了Cd(10μM)对根生长的抑制作用,降低了Cd诱导的根尖的细胞死亡.Cd诱导的根的生长抑制部分原因是由于Cd抑制细胞间质O2·-的水平.ATP处理对于Cd胁迫下细胞间质O2·-的水平有提升效果.因此,外源ATP可能通过维持Cd胁迫下细胞内的氧化还原状态而表现出其保护作用.

  11. Seasonality of Leaf and Fig Production in Ficus squamosa, a Fig Tree with Seeds Dispersed by Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2016-01-01

    The phenology of plants reflects selection generated by seasonal climatic factors and interactions with other plants and animals, within constraints imposed by their phylogenetic history. Fig trees (Ficus) need to produce figs year-round to support their short-lived fig wasp pollinators, but this requirement is partially de-coupled in dioecious species, where female trees only develop seeds, not pollinator offspring. This allows female trees to concentrate seed production at more favorable times of the year. Ficus squamosa is a riparian species whose dispersal is mainly by water, rather than animals. Seeds can float and travel in long distances. We recorded the leaf and reproductive phenology of 174 individuals for three years in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. New leaves were produced throughout the year. Fig production occurred year-round, but with large seasonal variations that correlated with temperature and rainfall. Female and male trees initiated maximal fig crops at different times, with production in female trees confined mainly to the rainy season and male figs concentrating fig production in the preceding months, but also often bearing figs continually. Ficus squamosa concentrates seed production by female plants at times when water levels are high, favouring dispersal by water, and asynchronous flowering within male trees allow fig wasps to cycle there, providing them with potential benefits by maintaining pollinators for times when female figs become available to pollinate. PMID:27010540

  12. [Effect of smoke water and distillation liquid on the seed germination and seedling growth of Trichosathes kirilowii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Bian, Li-hua; Zou, Lin; Zhou, Bin-qian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Smoke water and distillation liquid were used to treat the seeds of Trichosathes kirilowii and to study the effects of smoke water and distillation liquid on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii. The results showed that germination rate, germination index and germination vigor of T. kirilowii all were significantly improved with the treatment of SW and DL treatment. The activity of α-amylase were significantly increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000. SW and DL treatment showed no significant effects on the activity of SOD. The activity of POD were markedly enhanced under the treatment of SW (1:000) and DL (1:2,000). CAT activity were increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000 while were inhibited by SW and DL at 1:500. Seedling height and root length were increased with the treatment of SW and DL (1:1,000, 1:2,000). SW and DL treaments improved the content of chlorophyll, and moreover with the concentration of SW and DL, the stimulatory were also increased. This work demonstrated that smoke water and diatillation liquid at 1:2,000 could stimulate the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii, and it provided the references for the study of seed germination technology.

  13. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  14. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  15. Inoculação das sementes e adubações nitrogenada e molíbdica do feijoeiro-comum, em Rolim de Moura, RO Seeds inoculation and nitrogen and molybdenum fertilization of common bean in Rolim de Moura, RO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Caroline de Assis Valadão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho do feijoeiro-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L em função da inoculação de sementes com Rhizobium tropici e das adubações nitrogenada e molibdica. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial 2x2x2, constituindo-se das combinações de ausência e presença de inoculação de sementes, da adubação molíbdica e da adubação nitrogenada. A inoculação das sementes foi imediatamente antes da semeadura com inoculante turfoso composto da estirpe CIAT 899 (SEMIA 4077; a adubação nitrogenada foi na semeadura (10 kg.ha-1 e em cobertura (50 kg.ha-1, quando as plantas apresentaram a terceira folha trifoliolada expandida e o molibdênio (Mo foi aplicado em pulverização foliar na dose de 60 g.ha-1. Não foram observados efeitos dos tratamentos para a massa seca de raízes e o número de vagens por planta. A adubação nitrogenada reduziu a nodulação nos feijoeiros. Todavia, com a adubação nitrogenada foi verificado incremento na altura e na massa seca da parte aérea dos feijoeiros. Grãos de feijão mais pesados foram observados em feijoeiros adubados com N na ausência de Mo. As interações entre adubação nitrogenada e molibdica com inoculação de sementes afetaram, também, o teor de N foliar e o número de grãos por vagem A inoculação de sementes proporcionou nos feijoeiros rendimentos de grãos semelhantes aos fertilizados com N.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of seed inoculation with Rhizobium tropici and nitrogen and molybdenum fertilization on the performance of the common-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. A complete randomized block design with four replicates was used, in a factorial arrangement 2x2x2, with the combinations of absence and presence of seed inoculation and nitrogen (N and molybdenum (Mo fertilization. Seeds inoculation was just before sowing with a peat inoculante composed by the strain CIAT 899 (SEMIA

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  17. Pulvinus activity, leaf movement and leaf water-use efficiency of bush bean ( Phaseplus vulgaris L.) in a hot environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2008-11-01

    Pulvinus activity of Phaseolus species in response to environmental stimuli plays an essential role in heliotropic leaf movement. The aims of this study were to monitor the continuous daily pulvinus movement and pulvinus temperature, and to evaluate the effects of leaf movements, on a hot day, on instantaneous leaf water-use efficiency (WUEi), leaf gas exchange, and leaf temperature. Potted plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Provider were grown in Chicot sandy loam soil under well-watered conditions in a greenhouse. When the second trifoliate leaf was completely extended, one plant was selected to measure pulvinus movement using a beta-ray gauging (BRG) meter with a point source of thallium-204 (204Tl). Leaf gas exchange measurements took place on similar leaflets of three plants at an air temperature interval of 33-42°C by a steady-state LI-6200 photosynthesis system. A copper-constantan thermocouple was used to monitor pulvinus temperature. Pulvinus bending followed the daily diurnal rhythm. Significant correlations were found between the leaf-incident angle and the stomatal conductance ( R 2 = 0.54; P < 0.01), and photosynthesis rate ( R 2 = 0.84; P < 0.01). With a reduction in leaf-incidence angle and increase in air temperature, WUEi was reduced. During the measurements, leaf temperature remained below air temperature and was a significant function of air temperature ( r = 0.92; P < 0.01). In conclusion, pulvinus bending followed both light intensity and air temperature and influenced leaf gas exchange.

  18. Effects of plant oils on oviposition preference and larval survivorship of Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) on azuki bean

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Kazi Shahanara; Itino, Takao; Ichikawa, Toshihide

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of four kinds of oils, neem, castor, sunflower and sesame, was evaluated for the control of infestation of stored azuki bean with Callosobruchus chinensis. Neem and sesame oil-treated beans were less preferred and oviposition of adults on these beans decreased. After three days of release, 100% adults were found dead on neem oil-treated beans and very few eggs were laid. Effects on the survival rate of immature beetles and percentage of seed weight loss were also recorded, Neem a...

  19. ROS Accumulation and TTC Reduction in Growing Embryo of Crithmum maritimum L. Isolated from Water or Salt Imbibed Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah ATIA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The salinity induced inhibition of seeds germination remains not clear at physiological levels. The aims of this study is to investigate the effect of salt on germination, embryo growth, superoxide anion radical (O2·- and the respiratory activity (TTC reduction in Crithmum maritimum L. seeds. Thus the embryo growth, in situ localization of respiratory activity and superoxide anion radical (O2·- localization, were investigated. Chlorure 2, 3, 5-triphényltétrazolium (TTC reduction test and superoxide anion radical (O2·- localization with Nitroblue Tetrazolium Chloride (NBT were performed in embryo isolated from seeds of the halophyte Crithmum maritimum L either sown in distilled water or in 200 mM NaCl. The key results show that germination was maximal (90 % in distilled water, but was fully inhibited following seed exposure to NaCl. The completion of the embryo growth (ca. 2 mm length leading to the radicle emergence took 6 d in H2O, but was markedly delayed by salt. NaCl reduced the elongation zone in the embryo axis, hence indicating that the cell division and/or cell elongation were disturbed by salinity. The respiratory activity (TTC reduction and O2·- production in the cotyledon were significantly lowered by salinity.

  20. EFFECT OF THE TREATMENT OF SEEDS WITH FUNGICIDES IN CONTROLLING DAMPING OFF OF THE BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES COM FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DO TOMBAMENTO EM FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CAUSADO POR Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Vera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Some fungicides were tested in control of Rhizoctonia solani in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris planted in soil inoculated with this fungus. The evaluations were made at 10, 20 and 30 days after sowing, observing germination and damping-off. The results showed that the fungicides thiram (280g. a.i./ 100kg seeds have no increased plant stand in Phaseolus vulgaris, in relation to the non treated control. Seed treatments with PCNB (450g a.i./ 100kg seeds, iprodione + thiram (200g a.i/l00kg seeds and iprodione + thirarn (240g a.i./100kg seeds, increased plant stand in percentages varying from 65 to 73%, respectively in relation to non treated control, but the best treatment was with iprodione + thiram (320g a.i./l00kg seeds, presenting an increase around 83%.

    Foram testados alguns fungicidas no controle de Rhizoctonia solani em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., semeado em vasos com solo previamente inoculado por este fungo. As avaliações foram feitas aos 10, 20 e 30 dias após o plantio, levando-se em consideração ausência de germinação e plântulas tombadas. Os resultados mostraram que o fungicida thiram (280g i.a./100kg de sementes, não aumentou o stand de plantas em relação à testemunha. Sementes tratadas com PCNB (450g i.a./l00kg de sementes, com iprodione + thiram (200g i.a./l00kg de sementes e com iprodione + thiram (240g i.a./l00kg de sementes aumentaram o stand em percentagens que variaram de 65 a 73%, em relação à testemunha, mas o melhor resultado foi obtido com iprodione + thiram na concentração de 320g i.a./ 100kg de sementes, que promoveu aumento do stand em cerca de 83%.

  1. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zou

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae, an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs, 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs, 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  2. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization. PMID:26509832

  3. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  4. Analysis of Determinants of Productivity and Technical Efficiency among Smallholder Common Bean Farmers in Eastern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Sibiko, K.W.; G Owuor; Birachi, E.; Gido, E.O.; O.I. Ayuya; Mwangi, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated factors influencing bean productivity and technical efficiency among smallholder farmers in Eastern Uganda, using a stochastic frontier model and a Tobit model. Findings showed that bean productivity was significantly influenced by plot-size, seeds and planting fertilizer; mean technical efficiency for sampled farms was 48.2%. The Tobit model estimation revealed that technical efficiency was positively influenced by value of assets (at 1% level), extension service and grou...

  5. Localization of β‐d‐Glucosidase Activity and Glucovanillin in Vanilla Bean (Vanilla planifolia Andrews)

    OpenAIRE

    ODOUX, E.; ESCOUTE, J.; VERDEIL, J. ‐L.; BRILLOUET, J. ‐M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphology, anatomy and histology of mature green vanilla beans were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Beans have a triangular cross‐section with a central cavity containing seeds. Each angle is lined with tubular cells, or papillae, while the cavity sides consist of placental laminae. The epicarp and endocarp are formed by one or two layers of very small cells, while the mesocarp contains large, highly vacuolarized cells, the cytoplasm being restricted to a thin lay...

  6. Water extracts of Brazilian leguminous seeds as rich sources of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi F. Farias

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the toxicity of seed water extracts of 15 leguminous species upon Aedes aegypti larvae. A partial chemical and biochemical characterization of water extracts, as well as the assessment of their acute toxicity in mice, were performed. The extracts of Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Piptadenia moniliformis caused 100% of mortalit y after 1 to 3 h of exposure. They showed LC50 and LC90 values ranging from 0.43 ± 0.01 to 9.06 ± 0.12 mg/mL and from 0.71 ± 0.02 to 13.03 ± 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Among the secondary metabolite constituents, the seed water extracts showed tannins, phenols, flavones, favonols, xanthones, saponins and alkaloids. The extracts also showed high soluble proteins content (0.98 to 7.71 mg/mL, lectin (32 to 256 HU/mL and trypsin inhibitory activity (3.64 = 0.43 to 26.19 = 0.05 gIT/kg of flour The electrophoretic profiles showed a great diversity of protein bands, many of which already described as insecticide proteins. The extracts showed low toxicity to mice (LD50 > 0.15 = 0.01 g/kg body weight, but despite these promising results, further studies are necessary to understand the toxicity of these extracts and their constituentsfrom primary and secondary metabolism upon Ae. aegypti.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a toxicidade dos extratos aquosos de sementes de 15 espécies de leguminosas contra larvas de Aedes aegypti. Foi realizada uma caracterização química e bioquímica parcial dos extratos aquosos e a avaliação da toxicidade aguda em camundongos. Os extratos de Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum e Piptadenia moniliformis causaram 100% de mortalidade depois de 1 a 3 h de exposição e mostraram valores de CL50 e CL90 entre 0,43 = 0,01 e 9,06 ± 0,12 e entre 0,71 = 0,02 e 13,03 = 0,15 mg/mL, respectivamente. Dentre os constituintes do metabolismo secundário, os extratos

  7. Effects of tallowtree seed coat on seed germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xian; GU Hong-biao; MAO Yan; YIN Tong-ming; GAO Han-dong

    2012-01-01

    We measured physiological parameters including water uptake,in-vitro embryo germination ratio,and seed coat structure observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to explore the influence of seed coat on the germination of seeds of tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (Linn) Roxb.).Tallow tree seeds had good water permeability.We found that germination of cabbage seeds was inhibited when cabbage seeds were soaked in extracted solutions from tallow tree seed coat.Seed coat structure at the side of the radicle appeared to be a barrier to seed germination.We tested methods to break tallow tree seed dormancy.Dormancy of tallow tree seeds was overcome by soaking the seeds in 500 mg·L-1 or 1000 mg·L-1 GA3,followed by 100 days of cold stratification.

  8. Steroidogenic enzyme histochemistry in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats following the administration the water extracts from Carica papaya seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche-Nwachi, E O; Mitchell, C V; McEwen, C

    2011-01-01

    Water extracts from pawpaw seed have been reported to reversibly decrease the testicular weight and to suppress spermatogenesis, and fertility of Wistar rats. The reversible changes become evident, 30 - 45 days after the withdrawal of the extract. The possible effect of this extract on the activities of steroidogenic enzymes of the testis has not been investigated. Water extract of papaya seeds was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats ad libitum for 84 days. Following the discontinuation of the extracts, ten rats each were sacrificed on days 0, 10, 20 and 30 after the withdrawal. Their testes were quickly dissected out and frozen. Cryostat sections, 10µm thick were cut. These sections were used for immunohistochemical stains for side chain cleavage enzyme and aromatase, and for histochemical stains for 17-β Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3-β Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We conclude that the water extract of papaya seed suppresses the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats, and that this may contribute to reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, a property that gives a possible male contraceptive potential.

  9. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  10. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. PMID:23610178

  11. Germination season and watering regime, but not seed morph, affect life history traits in a cold desert diaspore-heteromorphic annual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J Lu

    Full Text Available Seed morph, abiotic conditions and time of germination can affect plant fitness, but few studies have tested their combined effects on plasticity of plant life history traits. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that seed morph, germination season and watering regime influence phenotypic expression of post-germination life history traits in the diaspore-heteromorphic cold desert winter annual/spring ephemeral Diptychocarpus strictus. The two seed morphs were sown in watered and non-watered plots in late summer, and plants derived from them were watered or not-watered throughout the study. Seed morph did not affect phenology, growth and morphology, survival, dry mass accumulation and allocation or silique and seed production. Seeds in watered plots germinated in autumn (AW and spring (SW but only in spring for non-watered plots (SNW. A high percentage of AW, SW and SNW plants survived and reproduced, but flowering date and flowering period of autumn- vs. spring-germinated plants differed. Dry mass also differed with germination season/watering regime (AW > SW > SNW. Number of siliques and seeds increased with plant size (AW > SW > SNW, whereas percent dry mass allocated to reproduction was higher in small plants: SNW > SW > AW. Thus, although seed morph did not affect the expression of life history traits, germination season and watering regime significantly affected phenology, plant size and accumulation and allocation of biomass to reproduction. Flexibility throughout the life cycle of D. strictus is an adaptation to the variation in timing and amount of rainfall in its cold desert habitat.

  12. Effect of Wood Vinegar on Seed Germination and Water Implantation of Com

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ling; JIANG Enchen; LI Bosong

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the effect of wood vinegar on seed germination and seedling growth, the seeds of corn are dipped in wood vinegar of different densities. The results showed that significant effects were found through all the treatments on the seed germination rate, the seed germinating energy and the germinating index. The regress CUBICS curves were developed to describe the relation. The reasonable parameters range was obtained. At the same time, the com was cultivated by wood vinegar of different densities, aiming to study the effect of wood vinegar on biomass. It showed that all treatments had obvious effects on the seedling length and dry weight aboveground, the chlorophyll and dry weight underground were not included. The research results could be used to direct the wood vinegar deeply refining process and product development.

  13. Morphological and genetic characterisation of some lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) cultivars and their nodulating rhizobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major investigations were carried out to assess the morphological traits and nodulation potential of thirteen lima bean cultivars as well as the genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating these lima bean cultivars. Thirteen lima bean cultivars obtained from the CSIR-PGGRI and various market centres in Ghana were used. The experiment was conducted in pots filled with natural topsoil and arranged in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates at the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The study aimed at obtaining some relevant information on the morphological traits of the lima bean to be improved upon, to evaluate their nodulation tendencies and determine similarities and differences of their nodulating rhizobia. Significant differences were obtained in quantitative characters (leaflet length, leaflet width, pod length, pod width, seed length, seed width, seed weight per 10 seeds and days to 50% emergence), contributing to divergence among the lima bean cultivars. Qualitative traits, however, were mostly similar, with few exceptions such as the flower wing colour, growth habit, leaf shape, main stem pigmentation, pod beak shape, seed secondary colour and seed pattern colour showing divergence among the lima bean cultivars. Two major clusters were joined at the similarity distance of 0.69. Majority of the lima bean cultivars were identified to be of the same morphotype with exception in cultivars M4 and A2. There were no significant differences in mean nodule number, mean effective and non-effective nodule counts. The lima bean cultivar GH 17I4 showed superior performance with respect to nodule number counts, effective nodules, fresh shoot weight and fresh root weight. Additionally lima bean cultivars, M5 and A2 indicated superior radiation use efficiency with total shoot dry matter of 731kg/ha and 704kg/ha respectively. A positive and high correlation existed between

  14. Removal of Erythrosine B dye from water effluents using crop waste pumpkin seed hulls as adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, Laura Carmen; Ghinea, Cristina; Alves, M. M.; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Erythrosine B is widely used for coloring in various applications, especially in the food industry, despite its already proved toxicity and carcinogenicity. The agrowaste pumpkin seed hulls were applied as potential adsorbent for the removal of Erythrosine from aqueous solutions. Adsorption mechanism and kinetics were analyzed for design purposes. The seed hulls were characterized by specific techniques before and after dye retention. It was found that the attachment of Erythrosine B molecule...

  15. The use of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder as Coagulant to Improve the Quality of Wastewater and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawati; Rani Yuliastri, Indra; Nurhasni; Rohaeti, Eti; Effendi, Hefni; Darusman, Latifah K.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater and ground water treatment are mostly using Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC), a synthetic coagulant, which possess health risk and require expensive cost. This research was carried out to observe the effect of Moringa oleifera seed as natural coagulant to replace synthetic coagulant. M. oleifera reduced 98.6% turbidity of wastewater, 10.8% of its conductivity, 11.7% of its BOD and removed its metal contents (Cd, Cr, Mn). When applied to ground water, M. oleifera removed the turbidity of ground water as much as 97.5%, while reduced the conductivity and BOD of ground water 53.4% and 18%, respectively. The use of M. oleifera also reduced total number of coliform. The advantage of using M. oleifera is that it does not reduce pH as PAC, hence does not require further treatment to adjust pH of the treated water.

  16. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Guvenc; Haluk C. Kaymak; Sibel Duman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D') from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG), 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka') seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test...

  17. Produção de sementes de feijão-vagem em função de fontes e doses de matéria orgânica Snap-bean seeds production accordingly to levels and sources of organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna U. Alves

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar fontes e doses de matéria orgânica sobre a produção de sementes de feijão-vagem, cultivar Macarrão Trepador, instalou-se um ensaio na Universidade Federal da Paraíba no período de abril a setembro de 1998. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial de 4 x 5, compreendendo quatro fontes (esterco de bovino, de caprino, de galinha e húmus de minhoca e cinco doses (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 t/ha de esterco bovino e caprino e 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t/ha de esterco de galinha e húmus de minhoca, em quatro repetições. A produção máxima de sementes foi obtida com as doses de 27,66 t/ha de esterco bovino (3.555,10 kg, 20,85 t/ha de esterco caprino (3.259,56 kg e 9,87 t/ha de esterco de galinha (2.919,00 kg/ha e de húmus de minhoca (3.270 kg/ha. A dose mais econômica de esterco bovino foi de 25,57 t/ha, com uma receita de 1.442,55 kg de sementes/ha (R$ 4.616,16, de esterco caprino foi de 19,11 t/ha, com uma receita de 1.164,00 kg de sementes/ha (R$ 3.724,80 e de esterco de galinha foi de 5,17 t/ha, com uma receita de 177,86 kg de sementes/ha (R$ 569,15. Sob o ponto de vista da produção de sementes, a aplicação de húmus de minhoca propiciou produções acima da média nacional, mas seu emprego na produção de sementes em feijão-vagem, não é economicamente viável. A análise econômica indicou o esterco bovino como a fonte de matéria orgânica mais viável economicamente para adubação orgânica em feijão-vagem para produção de sementes.With the objective of evaluating sources and levels of organic matter on the production of snap-bean seeds, cv. Macarrão Trepador, there was set up an experiment in the Federal University of Paraíba, Brasil, from April to September/1998. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, in the factorial scheme 4 x 5, testing four sources of organic matter (cattle, goat and chicken manure and earthworm humus in five levels (0, 10, 20, 30

  18. Studies on seed morphology, anatomy, dormancy and germination in Desmodium gangeticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010 Desmodium gangeticum (L. DC. commonly known as Shalparni is a sub-tropical perennial spreading herb that grows in dry hilly areas, belongs to the family Fabaceae. This plant has unique medicinal value in Ayurveda. Information on various aspects of seed is lacking, as this information is vitally important for re-generation of plants as well as for ex-situ conservation of seeds in seed banks. Therefore, studies were conducted on seed morphology, anatomy, dormancy, germination and seed storage behaviour of the taxa with the aim to understand the above parameters for examining the feasibility of its ex-situ conservation in seed banks. Freshly harvested seed samples of D. gangeticum were procured from Zhandu Foundation, Gujrat. The seeds were examined for morphological and anatomical parameters. The seeds are bean shaped, smooth, creamish white in colour and measures 2.5 x 1.5 x 3.4 mm (length x width x thickness. Thousand seed weight is 1.5 gm. Seeds are non endospermic with small bent axile type embryo. Germination studies were conducted on top of the paper method by incubating the seeds in different temperatures. Preliminary germination studies revealed that most of the seeds remain ungerminated, due to physical dormancy as the seeds did not imbibe water. Therefore, several pre-treatments like hot water, dry heat, H2SO4 scarification for different duration were given prior to germination. Perusal of the data reveals that all the seed pre-treatments showed increase in percent germination compared to the control (with no treatment and scarification by H2SO4 for 20 minutes was proved to be the best among all the treatments giving 92% of germination. Optimum temperature for germination was 250C; time taken for germination was 8 days. Physical

  19. Effect of low doses of radiation on the germination of plant seeds, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to examine the effect of low doses of radiation on germination of plant seeds. The seeds were irradiated by γ rays ranging from 0 to 30 Gy. After irradiation, the seeds were sown in petri dishes and held in incubators regulated at 20degC for spinach and pea, and at 25degC for bush bean. The results were as follows: 1. When germination bed was very moist, germination rates and germination percent-ages of irradiated spinach and bush bean seeds were higher than those of non-irradiated seeds. 2. When spinach seeds were storaged for one year at 20∼25degC, germination rate and germination percentage of irradiated seeds were higher than those of non-irradiated seeds. 3. When moisture contents of pea and bush bean seeds before irradiation were about 11 % in dry seeds and about 45 % in moist seeds, germination rate of dry irradiated pea seeds, and germination rate and germination percentage of irradiated moist bush bean seeds were higher than those of non-irradiated seeds. (author)

  20. Water, Nitrogen and Plant Density Affect the Response of Leaf Appearance of Direct Seeded Rice to Thermal Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maite MART(I)NEZ-EIXARCH; ZHU De-feng; Maria del Mar CATAL(A)-FORNER; Eva PLA-MAYOR; Nuria TOM(A)S-NAVARRO

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in the Ebro Delta area (Spain),from 2007 to 2009 with two rice varieties:Gleva and Tebre.The experimental treatments included a series of seed rates,two different water management systems and two different nitrogen fertilization times.The number of leaves on the main stems and their emergence time were periodically tagged.The results indicated that the final leaf number on the main stems in the two rice varieties was quite stable over a three-year period despite of the differences in their respective growth cycles.Interaction between nitrogen fertilization and water management influenced the final leaf number on the main stems.Plant density also had a significant influence on the rate of leaf appearance by extending the phyllochron and postponing the onset of intraspecific competition after the emergence of the 7th leaf on the main stems.Final leaf number on the main stems was negatively related to plant density.A relationship between leaf appearance and thermal time was established with a strong nonlinear function.In direct-seeded rice,the length of the phyllochron increases exponentially in line with the advance of plant development.A general model,derived from 2-year experimental data,was developed and satisfactorily validated; it had a root mean square error of 0.3 leaf.An exponential model can be used to predict leaf emergence in direct-seeded rice.

  1. EFFECT OF WATER STRESS SIMULATED WITH NaCl, MANNITOL AND PEG (6000 ON THE GERMINATION Erythrina falcata Benth SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989295Erythrina falcata Benth. (Fabaceae species is used in agroforestry, restoration of riparian vegetation in flooded areas, and in the recovery of degraded ecosystems. This work aimed to evaluate the possible effects of water stresses on germination of Erythrina falcata seeds. The study was carried out in The Forestry Seeds Laboratory, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR, in Parana state, Brazil. The experimental units consisted in boxes gerbox (25 seeds on 2 filter papers with 10 ml of osmotic solution. Gerbox was sealed with PVC plastic film and led to germinate in Mangelsdorf type chamber (under light continues at 25±2ºC. Six osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.2; -0.4; -0.6; -0.8; and -1.0 MPa were induced with NaCl, manitol and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000.The lowest tolerance limit to water stress was observed in PEG solutions. The germination limit was -0.2 to -0.4 MPa of PEG, whereas the osmotic potentials tested with NaCl and mannitol did not affect the germination process.

  2. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  3. Development and field evaluation of an intercropping machine for corn and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mondani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maximum efficiency of natural resources, reduced risk of production, improved fertility of soil, and increased production per area enjoyment have made intercropping a preferential practice compared with cropping. One of the fundamental problems in this kind of cropping is non-existence of suitable machines. In this research, a new intercropping machine has been designed and built for intercropping of corn and bean with precise ratios and different planting patterns. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted at the Badjgah Research Station, Shiraz University, located in NW Shiraz, Iran. The soil texture was clay loam (16% sand, 48% silt, and 35% clay. The plot size was 9 m wide and 12 m long. The total number of the plots were 9. The basic components of intercropping machine were an adjustable frame to adjust row spacing for each unit planter about 550 mm horizontally independently (the row spacing between corn and bean planting lines was considered 375 mm, a hinged frame for adjustment of seeding depth and possible poor emergence of plants due to very deep or shallow planting, metering case frames for installing the vacuum metering disk units around which the seed drums have a row of 36 holes of 4.5 and 5.5 mm diameter for corn and bean, respectively, seed delivery tubes, a suction fan, shovel openers used for bedder planting for corn and lister planting for bean, a knife covering attachment, seed-firming wheels, interchangeable gears which are mechanical chain drives for 43 varying seeding rates driven by carrying wheel drives, two metal seed hoppers whose lower side walls’ slope can be adjust at a maximum level of 45 . A front wheel assist, Massey Ferguson tractor (MF-399 (ITM, Tabriz, Iran with a maximum engine power of 81 kW was used for field test of intercropping machine. Moldboard plow was used for primary tillage and the depth of plowing was 25 cm. Next, by an offset disk harrow, the field was disked twice for

  4. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. PMID:25525107

  5. Co-segregation analysis and mapping of the anthracnose Co-10 and angular leaf spot Phg-ON disease resistance genes in common bean cultivar Ouro Negro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) are devastating diseases of common bean. Ouro Negro is a highly productive Mesoamerican black-seeded common bean cultivar possessing the dominant Co-10 and Phg-ON genes that confer resistance to ANT and ALS, respectively. In this study we elucidate the ...

  6. Efficacy of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf, Lippia multiflora Moldenke and hot water in the control of seed-borne fungi Phoma sorghina and their effects on Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench seed germination and plants development in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schémaeza BONZI1

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus and Lippia multiflora and varying durations of hot water at 50°C on seed-borne fungi Phoma sorghina on five varieties of sorghum were evaluated using morphological traits. The varieties were ICSV 1001, Sariaso 03, ICSV 1049, Kapelga and the local variety, 1341So07. The results indicate that hot water treatment and essential oil of C. citratus significantly reduced the infection level of P. sorghina compared to untreated seeds, seeds treated with sterile water and fungicide Calthio C. Essential oil of L. multiflora, significantly lowered the infection level of P. sorghina, compared to untreated seeds and seeds treated with water in varieties of white grain such as Sariaso 03 and ICSV 1049. Hot water treatment did not have a repressive effect against sorghum seed germination for all the varieties tested. On the contrary, essential oil of C. citratus had an inhibitory effect on the germination of seeds of varieties Kapelga and ICSV 1049 compared to untreated seed. On the other varieties tested, it reduced the number of germinated seeds in comparison to untreated seed. According to tested varieties, essential oil of L. multiflora had an inhibitory effect (on ICSV 1049 or improved seed germination (on Kapelga. In general, the treatments applied have improved the development of sorghum plants grown from treated seed.

  7. Sunning as a technique for disinfecting stored beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of sunning (solar heating) as a small farm technique for controlling the bean bruchids Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) was investigated. Bean seeds infested with mixed-stage larvae were placed on clear or black polyethylene sheets or inside polyethylene pouches with clear upper and black lower surfaces and exposed to the sun for five hours each day for 0, 3 and 5 successive days. No live insects emerged from seeds heated in the pouches while the few that emerged from seeds on the black sheets resulted in damage to less than 1% of the seeds. Of the three polyethylene systems used, the clear sheet was the least useful, while the pouches even for only 3 days, were the most effective in eliminating infestations. These studies demonstrated that effective bruchid control can be achieved with daily 5-h exposure periods of seeds for a successive 5-day duration. However, the success of the method of control may be influenced by the time of the year and prevailing environmental conditions

  8. Breeding for culinary and nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in intercropping systems with maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is widely intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in the North of Spain. Breeding beans for multiple cropping systems is important for the development of a productive and sustainable agriculture, and is mainly oriented to minimize intercrop competition and to stabilize complementarity with maize. Most agricultural research on intercropping to date has focused on the agronomic and overall yield effects of the different species, but characters related with socio-economic and food quality aspects are also important. The effect of intercropping beans with maize on food seed quality traits was studied for thirty-five bush bean varieties under different environments in Galicia (Northwestern Spain. Parameters determining Asturian (Northern Spain white bean commercial and culinary quality have also been evaluated in fifteen accessions. There are significant differences between varieties in the selected cropping systems (sole crop, intercrop with field maize and intercrop with sweet maize for dry and soaked seed weight, coat proportion, crude protein, crude fat and moisture. Different white bean accessions have been chosen according to their culinary quality. Under these environmental conditions it appears that intercropping systems with sweet maize give higher returns than sole cropping system. It is also suggested that the culinary and nutritional quality potential of some white bean accessions could be the base material in a breeding programme the objectives of which are to develop varieties giving seeds with high food quality.

  9. Antioxidant properties of the mung bean flavonoids on alleviating heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is a widespread belief in Asian countries that mung bean soup (MBS may afford a protective effect against heat stress. Lack of evidence supports MBS conferring a benefit in addition to water. RESULTS: Here we show that vitexin and isovitexin are the major antioxidant components in mungbean (more than 96% of them existing in the bean seed coat, and both of them could be absorbed via gavage into rat plasma. In the plasma of rats fed with mungbean coat extract before or after exposure to heat stress, the levels of malonaldehyde and activities of lactate dehydrogenase and nitric oxide synthase were remarkably reduced; the levels of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione (a quantitative assessment of oxidative stress were significantly enhanced. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that MBS can play additional roles to prevent heat stress injury. Characterization of the mechanisms underlying mungbean beneficial effects should help in the design of diet therapy strategies to alleviate heat stress, as well as provide reference for searching natural medicines against oxidative stress induced diseases.

  10. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H.; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry. PMID:27379151

  11. Effects of granular cold water soluble starch on pasting and textural properties of bean starches%颗粒状冷水可溶淀粉对豆类淀粉糊化及凝胶特性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旻; 熊柳; 孙庆杰

    2013-01-01

    The effects of granular cold water soluble starch on pasting properties and textural properties of mung bean starch and pea starch were studied. Through the RVA and TPA data analysis,the results showed that when the granular cold water soluble starch was added,the pasting temperature of two kinds of starch increased with the increasing of the amount added,and the peak viscosity,trough viscosity,final viscosity also showed a great upward trend with the increasing of the amount added. After added the granular cold water soluble starch,the hardness of two bean starches appeared a clear downward trend while the springiness had no significant change.%  研究颗粒状冷水可溶淀粉对绿豆淀粉和豌豆淀粉糊化特性及凝胶特性影响。通过对RVA和TPA数据分析,表明添加颗粒状冷水可溶淀粉后,二种豆类淀粉糊化温度随颗粒状冷水可溶淀粉添加量增加而升高,其峰值粘度、谷值粘度、终值粘度也随添加量增加而呈显著增大趋势;且添加颗粒状冷水可溶淀粉后,二种豆类淀粉凝胶硬度均呈显著下降趋势,而弹性则并未发生明显变化。

  12. Estimates of genetic parameters of late seed-coat darkening of carioca type dry beans Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos do caráter escurecimento tardio dos grãos de feijão carioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina Andrade de Araújo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate commercialization of cultivars of carioca type dry beans, the grains must have the lightest possible cream color and this phenotype must be persistent (late seed-coat darkening. There are reports of genetic variability for this trait. The objectives of this study were to obtain information regarding genetic control of the trait, with emphasis on the estimate of heritability and if it varies according to days after harvest, to verify the effect of locations and/or crop season on seed-coat darkening of the grains and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic correlations of the trait with cooking time, tannin content and grain yield. F2:3 and F2:4 progenies derived from crossing of the cultivar BRSMG Madrepérola (late seed-coat darkening and the line RP-2 (early seed-coat darkening were used. It is concluded that seed-coat darkening is influenced by the environment, crop season or locations; nevertheless, the interaction progenies x environments and progenies x locations is predominantly simple, not expressively changing classification of the progenies. Although the heritability of the darkening scores tends to increase with the storage time of the grain, the interaction progenies x time periods of assessment was not observed. Grains with late seed-coat darkening present a lower tannin content and require less cooking time. The genetic correlation between a dark seed-coat and grain yield was practically null.Para facilitar a comercialização das cultivares de feijão carioca, estas devem possuir cor creme dos grãos o mais claro possível e esse fenótipo deve ser persistente (escurecimento tardio. Há relatos de variabilidade genética para esse caráter. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram obter informações sobre o controle genético do caráter, com ênfase na estimativa da herdabilidade e se ela varia com os dias após a colheita, verificar o efeito de locais e/ou safras sobre o escurecimento dos grãos e estimar as

  13. Design of a boiling water reactor core based on an integrated blanket-seed thorium-uranium concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Carrera, Alejandro [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Mor. (Mexico); Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Francois, Juan Luis [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Mor. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jlfl@fi-b.unam.mx; Martin-del-Campo, Cecilia [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Mor. (Mexico); Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Avenida San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-04-15

    This paper is concerned with the design of a boiling water reactor (BWR) equilibrium core using thorium as a nuclear material in an integrated blanket-seed (BS) assembly. The integrated BS concept comes from the fact that the blanket and the seed rods are located in the same assembly, and are burned out in a once-through cycle. The idea behind the lattice design is to use the thorium conversion capability in a BWR spectrum, taking advantage of the {sup 233}U build-up. A core design was developed to achieve an equilibrium cycle of 365 effective full power days in a standard BWR with a reload of 104 fuel assemblies designed with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 7.5 w/o in the seed sub-lattice. The main operating parameters, like power, linear heat generation rate and void distributions were obtained as well as the shutdown margin. It was observed that the analyzed parameters behave like those obtained in a standard BWR. The shutdown margin design criterion was fulfilled by addition of a burnable poison region in the fuel assembly.

  14. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities. PMID:27283689

  15. Effects of foliar boron application on seed composition, cell wall boron, and seed delta 15N and delta 13C isotopes in soybean are influenced by water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the effect of foliar boron (B) application on yield and quality is well established for crops, limited information and controversial results still exist on the effects of foliar B application on soybean seed composition (seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars). The objective of this res...

  16. Phytomass production of the castor bean under different soil water reposition levels and organic matter content; Producao de fitomassa da mamoneira Paraguacu sob diferentes niveis de reposicao de agua e materia organica do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Larissa C.; Lacerda, Rogerio D. de; Guerra, Hugo Orlando C.; Almeida, Flavio R. dos S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)], Emails: laris_almeida@yahoo.com.br, rogerio_dl@yahoo.com.br, hugo_carvallo@hotmail.com, flavio_rangel@yahoo.com.br; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Serra Talhada, PE (Brazil)], E-mail: barrosjnior@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The Castor bean crop has obtained notoriety in Brazil due to its insertion on the biodiesel production. Exigent in fertility, shows growth reduction under negative conditions, obtaining, otherwise, increase of production with the use of organic fertilization. Besides the increase on soil water retention, the organic matter improves the physical properties of the soil increasing its aeration allowing thus a better penetration and distribution of the roots. The experiment had as objective to study the effect of available soil water for plants and organic matter on the phytomass production. It was conducted on the field during the period of October 2008 to March 2009 using an experimental design 2 x 4 factorial on a randomized-complete block design, constituted of two soil organic matter contents (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} and 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}) and four soil water contents (100, 90, 80 and 70% of the soil available water for the plants) with 3 replicates. On each 100 m{sup 2} parcel 50 plants were cultivated until 180 days after the sowing, DAS. The analyses of variance allowed to observe that the addition of organic matter increased the phytomass production on a 14,51% and that the available water produced an increment of 50% when the water levels were elevated from 70 to 100%. (author)

  17. Germination response of Apocynum venetum seeds to temperature and water potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apocynum venetum (commonly known as luobuma or rafuma) is a shrub that is native to Eurasia. It is economically important for sand fixation, forage production, honey production, medicine, fiber and fuel. Rapid and uniform seed germination is critical for successful crop establishment and vegetation ...

  18. Implications of Partial Conjugation of Whey Protein Isolate to Durian Seed Gum through Maillard Reactions: Foaming Properties, Water Holding Capacity and Interfacial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Tabatabaee Amid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the conjugation of durian seed gum (DSG with whey protein isolate (WPI through Maillard reactions. Subsequently, the functional properties of durian seed gum in the non-conjugated (control sample and conjugated forms were compared with several commercial gums (i.e., Arabic gum, sodium alginate, kappa carrageenan, guar gum, and pectin. The current study revealed that the conjugation of durian seed gum with whey protein isolate significantly (p < 0.05 improved its foaming properties. In this study, the conjugated durian seed gum produced the most stable foam among all samples. On the other hand, the emulsion stabilized with the conjugated durian seed gum also showed more uniform particles with a larger specific surface area than the emulsion containing the non-conjugated durian seed gum. The conjugated durian seed gum showed significant different foaming properties, specific surface area, particle uniformity and water holding capacity (WHC as compared to the target polysaccharide gums. The conjugated durian seed gum showed more similar functional properties to Arabic gum rather than other studied gums.

  19. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jun-Bo; Tian Bo; Yang Chun; Qiu Lijun; Liu Aizhong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20), is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85%) in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular...

  20. Gamma Radiosensitivity Study on Long Bean (Vigna sesquipedalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellyfa Kon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the LD50 and effect of gamma ray on germination percentage, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight of seedlings derived from seeds of long bean (Vigna sesquipedalis. Seeds of this crop were treated with 300, 400, 500, 600 and 800 Gy gamma rays at Malaysian Institute of Nuclear Technology (MINT. The treated seeds including control were sown in sand beds in size 4.6 x 0.7 m2 in a greenhouse at Horticulture Unit, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus (UPMKB. After germination, plants were transferred into polybags. Each polybag contained 1.2 kg blended growth medium with top soil, sand, and processed chicken dung ratio of 3:2:1. Standard procedures were used to observe and record the variables studied in this research. The experiment was designed as a 4 x 6 factorial Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications. Lethal dose 50 % of population (LD50 was assayed. The study revealed that germination percentage, plant height, survival percentage, root length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight decreased with increasing dose of gamma ray. The 800 Gy gamma ray dose in particular had a pronounced effect on these morphological characteristics probably because of injury it might have caused to the seeds of the long bean. As a result, poor growth and development was noticed. The LD50 for survival and height ranged between 600-800 Gy and 400-500 Gy, respectively. Generally, higher gamma ray doses particularly 800 Gy significantly affected the morphological characteristics of long bean seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds.

  1. Effect of lupine (Lupinus termis seeds or their water extract on alloxan diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hassan and M. M. El-Komy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus represents a major public health problem. Much of the increased mortality and morbidity seen in diabetic patients is the result of various complications. Free radicals play an important role in the cause of complications of diabetes mellitus such as retinopathy, nephropathy, hypertension, arteriosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. Many secondary plant metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress in diabetic patient. Thus the present study tries to evaluate the role of different preparations from Lupinus termis as a hypoglycemic agent. Alloxan diabetic rats were orally treated with either 5 ml/Kg b.wt/day aqueous lupine seeds extract or 20% w/w in diet edible boiled lupine seeds powder or 20% w/w dry lupine seeds powder for 30 days. The results recorded high levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol as well as low levels of total protein, HDL-cholesterol, liver glycogen and serum insulin in diabetic rats. Phospholipids content was increased in the serum but decreased in the liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. In addition, the results confirmed that the alloxan diabetic rats were subjected to oxidative stress as indicated by the extent of lipid peroxidation (high malondialdehide levels present in the liver and pancreas and significantly alter activities of some scavenging enzymes (low glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. On the other hand, after administration of any one of the used preparations of lupine seeds, the diabetic rats revealed an improvement on various metabolic abnormalities as well as oxidative stress recorded with diabetes but the best improvement occurred in the animal group treated with dry seeds powder. These results give a good evidence for the amelioration effect of lupine against the alloxan diabetic effects.

  2. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  3. 班豆在浸泡加工过程中吸水特性的模拟%Modeling of Water Absorption of Pinto Beans During Blanching and Soaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘忠礼

    2002-01-01

    在生产速食干豆过程中,主要包括浸泡、蒸煮和干燥等工序.浸泡的温度和时间直接影响到在浸泡过程中固性物的损失和最终产品的质量.该研究测定了班豆在浸泡过程中在不同温度和时间下的吸水和固性物的损失特性,同时利用数学模型预测了在变温情况下班豆的吸水特性.该研究结果将对生产高质量的速食班豆有一定的指导作用.%Blanching and soaking are essential thermal processing steps in the process of precooked pinto beans. Appropriate blanching and soaking conditions could reduce antinutritional factors, such as trypsin inhibitors, improve the quality of finished products, and reduce processing time and solid losses. The characteristics of water absorption (hydration ratio and moisture content) and solid losses of pinto beans were measured at various temperatures (30 to 100℃) and time periods (5 min to 24 h). It was found that the hydration ratio, moisture content, and solid loss increased with the increased temperature and time. But the rate of water absorption decreased with the increase of time. To obtain high quality product with minimum processing time and solid loss, variable temperature for blanching and soaking is normally used. Models for predicting the hydration ratio and moisture content were developed and validated under variable blanching and soaking temperatures and time periods.

  4. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Boiled Prosopis africana Seed Endosperm Macerated in Various Ethanol-water Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Obiegbuna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The processing of boiled Prosopis africana endosperm for better utilization using ethanol-water mixtures was explored. Prosopis africana seeds were boiled for 5 h to softness and the endosperm fraction separated from the kernel (cotyledon and the hull. The endosperm was divided into five equal parts which were individually macerated in absolute (Abs ethanol, 80, 60 and 40% ethanol in water prior to sun-drying (32±2°C, 3 days. The fifth sample, which served as control, was left untreated with ethanol. The samples were ground using a hand milling machine and analyzed for the proximate composition, water and oil absorption capacities, foaming capacity and foam stability, bulk density, emulsion activity and stability, colour preference, texture preference and overall acceptability. The results revealed that treatment of the endosperm significantly affected the moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents; water and oil absorption capacities, foaming capacity and foam stability; and the sensory properties. The moisture and protein contents, oil absorption capacity, foam stability, appearance, texture and overall acceptability of endosperm treated with 40% ethanol in water differed significantly (p<0.05 from that treated with absolute ethanol. There was also significant (p<0.05 differences in moisture, protein and carbohydrate contents, oil absorption capacity and foam stability of the 40% ethanol in water treated endosperm and the control. Slightly above 40% ethanol in water (50-60% should be used to macerate Prosopis africana endosperm to reduce the cost of using absolute ethanol.

  5. OLIGOSACCHARIDE LEVELS IN IMMATURE AND NATURE SEEDS FROM SEVERAL VARIETIES OF PIGEON PEAS (Cajanus cajan)

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Osvaldo CAZETTA; Hugo Candido SILVA; Gilberto Leite BRAGA; Roberto de CARVALHO

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Oligosaccharide level were evaluated in immature and nature seeds from different varieties of pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan) and compared to those of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum): The effect of seed processing by soaking and cooking was also determined. Immature pigeon peas seeds presented low oligosaccharide levels when compared to mature pigeon pea seeds or to pea seeds, thus representing a good alternative for human consumption....

  6. Qualidade de sementes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris após aplicação do carfentrazone-ethyl em pré-colheita Seed quality of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris after application of carfentrazone-ethyl in pre-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos da dessecação de plantas de feijão (cultivar Talismã com carfentrazone-ethyl sobre a qualidade das sementes. Realizou-se a dessecação das plantas utilizando cinco doses (0, 10, 30, 60 e 120 g ha-1 de carfentrazone associadas a três épocas de aplicação: 25, 30 e 35 dias após o florescimento (DAF. Em intervalos de dois dias após cada aplicação, quantificou-se a evolução da perda de umidade das sementes. Oito dias após cada aplicação, realizou-se a colheita, sendo determinados o peso de 100 sementes e a proporção de sementes classificadas como "pequenas" (que passaram por peneira de crivo 14/64", "médias" (retidas entre as peneiras de crivo 14/64" e 16/64" e "maiores" (que ficaram retidas na peneira de crivo 16/64". A viabilidade das sementes foi avaliada pelo teste de germinação (TG. A aplicação de carfentrazone-ethyl em doses superiores a 60 g ha-1 aos 25 DAF acelerou a perda de umidade das sementes, afetando, o tamanho e o peso de 100 sementes. Melhores resultados foram obtidos com aplicação do dessecante nas doses entre 10 e 30 g ha-1, aos 30 DAF, proporcionando melhor rendimento e qualidade das sementes, sem efeito negativo sobre a germinação.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of bean desiccation (Talismã cultivar with carfentrazone-ethyl on seed quality. Desiccation was performed by applying 5 rates (0, 10, 30, 60 and 120 g ha-1 of carfentrazone-ethyl associated to three application times, 25, 30 and 35 days after flowering (DAF. Humidity loss was quantified two days after each application. Harvest was performed eight days after each application, followed by determination of the weight of 100 seeds, and the proportion of seeds was classified as "small" (passed through sieve 14/64", "medium" (retained in sieves 14/64" and 16/64" and "larger" (retained in sieves 16/64" and the germination test (GT. Carfentrazone-ethyl application, at doses superior to 60 g ha-1

  7. The effect of pre-harvest desiccation on the yield and physiological quality of landrace bean seedsAção de dessecante na pré-colheita sobre a produtividade e a qualidade fisiológica de sementes crioulas de feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An early harvest reduces the time that the seeds stay in the field under the effect of biotic and abiotic factors, which are responsible for their deterioration. So, the objective of this work was to determine the effect of pre-harvest desiccant application on the yield and physiological quality of common bean seeds. The experimental layout was completely random, the desiccant used was paraquat (400 g ha-1 a.i., on a combination of three genotypes: ‘BAF55’, ‘BAF84’ and ‘BAF112’ (commercial black cv. IPR88- Uirapurú with three plant desiccation periods (26, 30, 34 days after flowering (DAF, and a control (plants not des iccated. Post-harvest, productivity was estimated and, soon after, germination tests were carried out with and without accelerated ageing; main root radical length and hypocotyls length were measured as well as electrical conductivity. The desiccation maintenance the cell membrane integrity in the ‘BAF112’ and ‘BAF55’ genotypes when the paraquat was sprayed at 26 DAF. The results showed that the two landrace beans genotypes outperformed the commercial one in terms of seed yield and that the seeds produced were of higher physiological quality in terms of membrane integrity. The landraces ‘BAF55’ and ‘BAF84’ showed yield higher than commercial (‘BAF112’. The early of the harvest through desiccant sprayed on plants 26 DAF did not adversely affect the yield or physiological quality of harvest bean seeds. A antecipação da colheita pode diminuir o tempo em que as sementes permanecem no campo sob o risco de fatores bióticos e abióticos que podem promover sua deterioração. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a antecipação da colheita e a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de feijão crioulo após a aplicação do herbicida paraquat em diferentes épocas de pré-colheita. O experimento foi realizado sob delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3x4, com

  8. INSETICIDAS APLICADOS VIA TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES VISANDO AO CONTROLE DAS MOSCAS BRANCAS (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. E MINADORA (Liriomyza sp. NA CULTURA DO FEIJOEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE WHITE FLY Bemisia tabaci GENN. AND LEAFMINER Liriomyza sp. IN BEAN CROPS BY SEED TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lopes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Realizou-se o presente experimento no campo experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, de março a maio de 1993, para avaliar o controle das moscas brancas (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. e minadora (Liriomyza sp. na fase inicial da cultura do feijoeiro, com produtos aplicados via tratamento de sementes. Os tratamentos constaram de: imidacloprid 700 PM nas dosagens de 140, 210, 280 e 350 gramas de ingrediente ativo (i.a/l00 kg de sementes; carbosulfan + zinco 250 TS nas dosagens de 375 e 500g i.a./100kg de sementes, comparados com o carbofuran 350 TS na dosagem de 525 g i.a./100kg de sementes (padrão. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que todos os tratamentos foram eficientes no controle da mosca minadora, com porcentagens de eficiência que variaram de 93 a 99%. Imidacloprid, a partir de 280g i.a./100kg de sementes, foi igual aos outros produtos em eficiência no controle da mosca branca, com porcentagens de controle variando entre 83 a 89%.

    A trial to control the white fly Bemisia tabaci, GENN. and leafminer Liriomyza sp. was carried out in Goiânia, state of Goiás. The treatments and dosages of the insecticides per 100kg of seed were: imidacloprid (140, 210, 280 and 350g a.i., carbofuran (525 g a.i., carbosulfan (375 and 500g a.i, plus an untreated check. The application of the treatments were made on the seeds. The results of the experiment showed that all insecticides were efficient in controlling the leafminer at all dosages tested and imidacloprid at the dosages of 280 and 350g a.i. per 100kg seed was similar in controlling the white fly in bean crops.

  9. Analysis of Determinants of Productivity and Technical Efficiency among Smallholder Common Bean Farmers in Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.W. Sibiko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated factors influencing bean productivity and technical efficiency among smallholder farmers in Eastern Uganda, using a stochastic frontier model and a Tobit model. Findings showed that bean productivity was significantly influenced by plot-size, seeds and planting fertilizer; mean technical efficiency for sampled farms was 48.2%. The Tobit model estimation revealed that technical efficiency was positively influenced by value of assets (at 1% level, extension service and group membership (at 5% level; while age and distance to the factor market negatively influenced technical efficiency at 10 and 5% levels respectively. Hence the study recommended the need for increased provision of extension service and training on correct input application and improved farming technologies to increase bean productivity. It also suggested the need for policy to discourage land fragmentation, develop road and market infrastructure in rural areas and encourage further formation of well managed farmer groups to improve production efficiency of bean farms.

  10. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMILI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Jamili, Yanti NA, Susilowati PE. 2016. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 90-95. Yeast is one of the microbial group which is role in the process of cocoa spontaneously fermentation. The objective of this study was to determinate and to know the diversity of yeast that role on cocoa bean fermentation. Yeast was isolated by pour plate method from cocoa bean that was naturally fermented by a cocoa farmer in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi using yeast mannitol agar (YMA media. Yeast was characterized and identified using phenotypic characters based on numeric-phenetic analysis. Yeast isolates applied to cocoa bean to determine its role in cocoa bean fermentation. The result was obtained seven isolates the dominant yeast during cocoa bean fermentation in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi. The result of numerical-phenetic analysis based on phenotypic characters to seven yeast isolates showed that 1 isolates (Klk1 identical with Candida krusei. Three isolates (Klk4, Klk5 and Klk7 identical with Candida tropicalis, one isolate (Klk2 identical with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, one isolate (Klk3 identical with Kloeckera sp. and one isolate (Klk6 identical with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The result also showed that fermentation of cocoa with seeding of yeast inoculums served to increase the quality of cocoa beans than spontaneous fermentation. Therefore, the seven yeast isolates potentially be used as an inoculum to improve the cocoa quality.

  11. Toxicity of Abutilon glacum Seeds' Extracts (Water and Methanol on Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Y. Adam Shama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Current study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of Abutilon glacum seeds extracts on experimental rats. The rats were allotted at random to five groups, each of six rats. One group served as control. Two groups were given aqueous extract of the seeds part of the plant and other two groups were given methanolic extract at 75 and 300 mg/kg/day orally for the tow extracts. All rats were dosed their designated experimental doses for 2 weeks. The mortality and weight gain, serobiochemical and hematological parameters were recorded in addition to pathological changes. The study showed that, the administration of aqueous and methanol extracts of A. glacum seeds has a toxic effects that resulted in alterations in Aspartate Transaminase (AST, Alanine Transaminase (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activities, changes in the concentration of urea, cholesterol and other serobichemical parameters, also pathological changes in fatal organs demonstrated as lesions in liver‚ kidney and intestine, fatty cytoplasmic vaculation and necrosis of the hepatocytes and necrosis of the centrilobular hepatocytes, glomerular alteration and degeneration of the epithelial cells of renal tubules with acidophilic homogeneous substance in affected renal tubules, catarrhal enteritis and lymphocytic infiltration in intestinal lamina. We concluded that toxicity from oral administration of 300 mg/kg/day of A. glacum seeds extracts for 2 weeks was sever as evidenced by consistent extensive damage to liver and kidney. The damage to these organs caused by daily oral doses of plant extract at 75 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks was less marked.

  12. Tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectin cytotoxicity in tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Del Carmen Valadez-Vega, Maria; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Loarca-Pina, Guadalupe

    2005-09-01

    This study compared the levels of antinutritional components and cytotoxic effect of extracts, from tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans. Antinutritional factors were evaluated by determining their effect on the viability of epithelial cells isolated from rat small intestine. The protein and carbohydrates content were similar in all the genotypes studied (20 and 60%, respectively). Common beans presented higher content of trypsin inhibitors, tannins and lectins than tepary beans. There was not a significant correlation between tannins and cooking time. However, water absorption and cooking time correlated significantly (p lectin activity (1302-18161 Ul/mg) of extracts from different beans. Tannins, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and fat content differed between bean varieties whereas protein content was similar. The percent cellularity on rat epithelial cells was significantly different among protein extracts from different bean cultivars and ranged between 53.5% and 87.4% (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the incorporation of tepary beans in the diet would not alter the current nutritional contribution of common beans or introduce adverse toxic effects. The agronomic characteristics of tepary beans make them attractive for cultivation. However, the harder to cook phenomenon may be a limiting factor that needs further consideration. PMID:16187017

  13. PHYSIOLOGIC AND SANITARY QUALITY OF CASTOR BEAN SEEDS UNDER DIFFERENT CHEMICAL TREATMENTS QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA E SANITÁRIA DE SEMENTES DE MAMONA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMENTOS QUÍMICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Manoel Murilo Macedo Barbosa; Cristina Gonçalves de Mendonça; Stela Maris Kulczynski; Ronny Clayton Smarsi; Jaine Aparecida de Camargo; Leandro Tropaldi

    2009-01-01

    The use of fungicides for treating seeds has become an essential measure in the control of pathogens. However, the effectiveness of many products is not...

  14. A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramavandi, Bahman; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Kafaei, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1-3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na(+) and K(+)), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: •According to the Hardy-Schulze rule, we applied the Fe(3+) ions instead of Na(+) and K(+) for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds.•The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction).•Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes. PMID:26150999

  15. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops, wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. horani) and broad beans (Vicia Faba L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author). 17 Tabs. 36 Refs

  16. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Delincee, Henry [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition - BFE, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a {sup 60} Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  17. Effects of water treatments on the activation of soil seed banks - A case study on the lower reaches of the Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengru Wang; Hailiang Xu; Linke Yin; Jimei Li; Zhanjiang Zhang; Yuan Li

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of seedling emergence is a common method used to investigate the vegetation restoration potential of soil seed banks. Previous studies have primarily been conducted in the laboratory using a single water treatment. However, when this method is used, it is difficult to optimize the water conditions for the needs of the individual species of seeds. Additionally, the germination conditions for seedlings in the laboratory are different from those in nature. To avoid these issues, we conducted experiments to activate soil seed banks in the field using different water treatments. The results revealed that: (1) generally, the number of species and quantity of seedlings decrease gradually as the water supply decreases, but that for several species most seedlings did not appear when they were provided with the greatest amount of water, and (2) different species present different germination characteristics. According to the rate of seedling emergence, the species were classified into two germination types: fast and slow. In addition, each species also had a unique climax period of emergence, which was delayed with a decrease in water supply. Therefore, the amount of water provided is vital to seedling emergence, and various water treatments should be evaluated when studying the characteristics of different species in soil seed banks. For the lower reaches of the Tarim River, the optimal soil moisture for seedling emergence ranged from 23% to 28%, and seedling conservation should be strengthened during the climax period of emergence (9-15 days from the day when water became available). These results highlight the importance of the use of an optimal water treatment and demonstrate the danger of using a single treatment method. Our results also emphasize the need for a preliminary study prior to conducting studies to evaluate seed banks.

  18. Seed and Embryo Germination in Ardisia crenata

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Oda; Shuji Shiozaki; Hideyuki Tanaka; Hisa Yokoyama; Takahiro Tezuka

    2012-01-01

    Ardisia crenata is an evergreen shrub with attractive bright red berries. Although this species is usually propagated by seed, the seeds take a long time to germinate with conventional sowing methods. We investigated the germination capacity of seeds and embryos collected in different months and the effects of seed storage conditions, germination temperature, water permeability of the seed coat, and the endosperm on seed germination. Seeds and embryos collected in late September or later show...

  19. Relationship among electrical conductivity, pH of soaked-water, seed germination and seedling growth of corn (Zea mays L. under two experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmig Viloria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mayz L. seeds of twelve lots of different acquisition years were used to study the relation among the measurements of electrical conductivity (EC and pH of the soaking water and the germination in laboratory, under normal conditions (NC and accelerated aging (AA of seeds. A randomized complete block design was used with four replications, an analysis of variance was applied and differences among seed lots were detected by Least Significant Difference Test. Seed lots showed high percentage of germination at eight days of evaluation in (NC and the unfavorable effect of AA was demonstrated. Dry shoot and radicle weights showed significant differences among the lots. Values of EC were related to percentage of germination in laboratory under AA. Seed lots that showed high percentage of germination in laboratory, previous AA, presented low values of electrical conductivity, therefore, this test could be good indicative of the behavior of corn seeds under extreme or unfavorable conditions of germination. The test of pH did not show direct relation with the seed emergency in laboratory.

  20. Adsorption Study on Moringa Oleifera Seeds and Musa Cavendish as Natural Water Purification Agents for Removal of Lead, Nickel and Cadmium from Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N. A. A.; Jayasuriya, N.; Fan, L.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of plant based materials Moringa oleifera (Moringa) seeds and Musa cavendish (banana peel) for removing heavy metals namely lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from contaminated groundwater was studied. Tests were carried out with individual and combined biomass at neutral pH condition on synthetic groundwater samples. The optimum biomass doses were determined as 200 mg/L for single biomass and 400 mg/L (in the ratio of 200 mg/L: 200 mg/L) for combined biomasses and used for adsorption isotherm studies with contact time of 30 minutes. Results showed that combined biomasses was able to met the Pb, Ni and Cd WHO standards from higher Pb, Ni and Cd initial concentrations which were up to 40 µg/L, 50 µg/L 9 µg/L, respectively compared to individual biomass of Moringa seed and banana peel. Moringa seeds exhibited the highest removal of Pb (81%) while the combined biomasses was most effective in removing Ni (74%) and Cd (97%) over wider their initial concentration ranges. The experimental data were linearized with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Freundlich model described the Pb adsorption better than the Langmuir model for all the tested biomasses. However, the Langmuir model fit better with the experimental data of Ni adsorption by Moringa seeds. Both models showed negligible differences in the coefficient of determination (R2) when applied for Ni and Cd adsorption on banana peel and combined biomasses, suggesting that there were multiple layers on the biomass interacting with the metals. Chemisorption is suggested to be involved in Pb adsorption for all tested biomasses as the value of nF calculated was lower than one. This type of adsorption could explain the phenomenon of different behavior of Pb removal and the higher Pb adsorption capacity (represented by KF values) compared to Ni and Cd. The study demonstrates that Moringa seeds, banana peel and their combination have the potential to be used as a natural alternative

  1. A survey of the nutritional and haemagglutination properties of legume seeds generally available in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G; More, L J; McKenzie, N H; Stewart, J C; Pusztai, A

    1983-09-01

    Eighty-five samples from fifteen different legume seed lines generally available in the UK were examined by measurements of their net protein utilization by rats and by haemagglutination tests with erythrocytes from a number of different animal species. From these results the seeds were classified into four broad groups. Group a seeds from most varieties of kidney (Phaseolus vulgaris), runner (Phaseolus coccineus) and tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) beans showed high reactivity with all cell types and were also highly toxic. Group b, which contained seeds from lima or butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), agglutinated only human and pronase-treated rat erythrocytes. These seeds did not support proper growth of the rats although the animals survived the 10 d experimental period. Group c consisted of seeds from lentils (Lens culinaris), peas (Pisum sativum), chick-peas (Cicer arietinum), blackeyed peas (Vigna sinensis), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), field or broad beans (Vicia faba) and aduki beans (Phaseolus angularis). These generally had low reactivity with all cells and were non-toxic. Group d, represented by soya (Glycine max) and pinto (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans, generally had low reactivity with all cells but caused growth depression at certain dietary concentrations. This growth depression was probably mainly due to antinutritional factors other than lectins. Lectins from group a seeds showed many structural and immunological similarities. However the subunit composition of the lectin from the tepary bean samples was different from that of the other bean lectins in this or any other groups. PMID:6615758

  2. Detection of Tannery Effluents Induced DNA Damage in Mung Bean by Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Abhay Raj; Sharad Kumar; Izharul Haq; Mahadeo Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is employed for treatment of tannery effluent. However, the performance of CETP for reducing the genotoxic substances from the raw effluent is not known. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluents were investigated in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). For this purpose, untreated and treated tannery effluents were collected from CETP Unnao (UP), India. Seeds of mung bean were grown in soil irrigated with various concentrati...

  3. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  4. Pathogenicity of some Rhizoctonia solaniz isolates associated with root/collar rots on the cultivars of bean in greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlooli, A; Okhovvat, S M; Javan-Nikkhah, M

    2006-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were gathered from infected roots and hypocotyls of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in the fields of Tehran Province, Iran. Two isolates of the collected samples belonged to binucleate and 81 isolates to multinucleate of R. solani. The multinucleate isolates showed different anastomosis groups as AG-4 (subg. AG-4 HGI, AG-4HGII), AG-6 and AG-2. In greenhouse, pathogenicity tests carried out on bean cv. Naz in randomized design with 4 replications and each replication (pots) with 5 seeds of bean. Infection was done with seeds of wheat which were infected to the fungus with pasteurized soil. Results showed that the highest disease severity was caused by AG-4 (Rs21) isolates, whereas AG-4 (Rs74) isolates were weakly pathogenic with 90% and 21% infection, respectively. In this test the major pathogenic isolates belonged to AG-4 and they caused seed rot and damping-off of bean and AG-6 isolates were non-pathogenic. Five isolates of the fungus with major pathogenicity (Rs7, Rs18, Rs21, Rs62 and Rs71) selected and used for the reaction with different cultivars of bean. In this test, the cultivars and lines of bean (Pinto, red, white, green) studied in factorial experiment as randomized block design with 4 replications (pots). Results showed that none of the cultivars was completely resistant, however green bean cv. Sanry and pinto cv. Shad with number 4.8 disease severities had the highest susceptibility to seed rot and damping-off and red bean cv. Goli with 2.58 had the lowest susceptibility to the infection. Reaction of the cultivars and lines to the isolates of R. solani was significantly different at 1% level. Isolates of the fungus, Rs7, Rs21 with 84%, 90% pathogenicity was more virulent than the others. PMID:17390878

  5. Reasoned opinion on the setting of MRLs for imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean and other oilseeds and in lentils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an import tolerance application from Exponent International Ltd., on behalf of BASF Corporation, to set MRLs for the use of the active substance imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean grown in Brazil, imidazolinone-tolerant lentils, rape and mustard plants grown in Canada and sunflowers in Argentina. The United Kingdom proposed to set MRLs of 5 mg/kg in soya bean, 0.08 mg/kg in sunflower seed, 0.05 mg/kg in rape seed and mustard seed and 0.2 mg/kg in lentils. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 5 mg/kg on soya bean, 0.08 mg/kg on sunflower seed, the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.05 mg/kg on rape and mustard seed and 0.3 mg/kg on lentils. In the countries of origin the MRLs are set at 3 mg/kg on soya bean, 0.05 mg/kg on sunflower, rape and mustard seed and 0.2 mg/kg on lentils. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of imazapyr in the crops under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of imazapyr in soya bean, sunflower seed, rape seed, mustard seed and lentils will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  6. Influence of Crop Nutrition on Grain Yield, Seed Quality and Water Productivity under Two Rice Cultivation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.V.SINGH; K.K.SINGH; S.K.SHARMA

    2013-01-01

    The system of rice intensification (SRI) is reported to have advantages like lower seed requirement,less pest attack,shorter crop duration,higher water use efficiency and the ability to withstand higher degree of moisture stress than traditional method of rice cultivation.With this background,SRI was compared with traditional transplanting technique at Indian Agricultural Research Institute,New Delhi,India during two wet seasons (2009-2011).In the experiment laid out in a factorial randomized block design,two methods of rice cultivation [conventional transplanting (CT) and SRI] and two rice varieties (Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa 44) were used under seven crop nutrition treatments,viz.T1,120 kg/hm2 N,26.2 kg/hm2 P and 33 kg/hm2 K; T2,20 t/hm2 farmyard manure (FYM); T3,10 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N; T4,5 t/hm2 FYM + 90 kg/hm2 N; T5,5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.5 kg/hm2 blue green algae (BGA); T6,5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.0 t/hm2 Azolla,and T7,N0P0K0 (control,no NPK application) to study the effect on seed quality,yield and water use.In SRI,soil was kept at saturated moisture condition throughout vegetative phase and thin layer of water (2-3 cm) was maintained during the reproductive phase of rice,however,in CT,standing water was maintained in crop growing season.Results revealed that CT and SRI gave statistically at par grain yield but straw yield was significantly higher in CT as compared to SRI.Seed quality was superior in SRI as compared to CT.Integrated nutrient management (INM) resulted in higher plant height with longer leaves than chemical fertilizer alone in both the rice varieties.Grain yield attributes such as number of effective tillers per hill,panicle length and panicle weight of rice in both the varieties were significantly higher in INM as compared to chemical fertilizer alone.Grain yields of both the varieties were the highest in INM followed by the recommended doses of chemical fertilizer.The grain yield and its attributes of Pusa 44 were significantly

  7. EVALUATION OF SOYASAPONIN, ISOFLAVONE, PROTEIN, LIPID, AND FREE SUGAR ACCUMULATION IN DEVELOPING SOYBEAN SEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A combination of analytical techniques were used to examine and quantify seed compositional components (protein content, lipid content, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and saponins) during bean development and maturation in two Korean soy cultivars. Protein accumulation was rapid during reproductive st...

  8. Influence of Roasting on the Antioxidant Activity and HMF Formation of a Cocoa Bean Model Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Capuano, E.; Cämmerer, B.; Fogliano, V.

    2009-01-01

    During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich fo

  9. Seeds with high molybdenum concentration improved growth and nitrogen acquisition of rhizobium-inoculated and nitrogen-fertilized common bean plants Sementes com alta concentração de molibdênio aumentaram o crescimento e a aquisição de nitrogênio de plantas de feijoeiro inoculadas com rizóbio ou sob fertilização nitrogenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fátima Delgado Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris with high molybdenum (Mo concentration can supply Mo plant demands, but to date no studies have concomitantly evaluated the effects of Mo-enriched seeds on plants inoculated with rhizobia or treated with N fertilizer. This work evaluated the effects of seed Mo on growth and N acquisition of bean plants fertilized either by symbiotic N or mineral N, by measuring the activities of nitrogenase and nitrate reductase and the contribution of biological N2 fixation at different growth stages. Seeds enriched or not with Mo were sown with two N sources (inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with N, in pots with 10 kg of soil. In experiment 1, an additional treatment consisted of Mo-enriched seeds with Mo applied to the soil. In experiment 2, the contribution of N2 fixation was estimated by 15N isotope dilution. Common bean plants grown from seeds with high Mo concentration flowered one day earlier. Seeds with high Mo concentration increased the leaf area, shoot mass and N accumulation, with both N sources. The absence of effects of Mo application to the soil indicated that Mo contents of Mo-enriched seeds were sufficient for plant growth. Seeds enriched with Mo increased nitrogenase activity at the vegetative stage of inoculated plants, and nitrate reductase activity at late growth stages with both N sources. The contribution of N2 fixation was 17 and 61 % in plants originating from low- or high-Mo seeds, respectively. The results demonstrate the benefits of sowing Mo-enriched seeds on growth and N nutrition of bean plants inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with mineral N fertilizer.Sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris com alto teor de molibdênio (Mo podem suprir as demandas vegetais; entretanto, estudos prévios não avaliaram concomitantemente os efeitos do Mo da semente em plantas inoculadas com rizóbio ou sob fertilização nitrogenada. Este trabalho avaliou os efeitos do Mo da semente, no

  10. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  11. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas.

  12. Alterações metabólicas em plantas de feijão originadas de sementes microbiolizadas por Pseudomonas sp. e inoculadas com Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli Metabolic alterations on bean plants originated from microbiolization of seeds with Pseudomonas sp. and inoculated with Xanthomnas axonopodis pv. phaseoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-06-01

    . Em relação à atividade de PO houve redução da mesma nas plantas tratadas com o isolado de Pseudomonas (DFs842. Esses resultados evidenciaram que a microbiolização das sementes provocou alterações metabólicas nas plantas delas originadas, pelo aumento do teor de PST e atividade de PPO, indicando uma provável participação destas enzimas na indução de resistência ativada pela microbiolização com o isolado de Pseudomonas (DFs842.Many enzymes are involved in plant defense against pathogens. The purpose of this study was to verify alterations in activity of some enzymes in bean plants originated from microbiolization of seeds with a fluorescent isolate (DFs842 of Pseudomonas. Bean seeds (cv. "BRS Valente" were immersed in a bacterial suspension of a 24 hours old Pseudomonas culture (OD540=0,5 known as a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli biocontroler. Check treatment consisted of seeds immersed in a saline solution (NaCl 0,85%. After microbiolization for 5 hours at 10ºC, seeds were sowed in a non sterilized substrate composed of soil, sand and bovine manure mixture (3:1:1 ratio disposed in pots in a greenhouse. The pathogen was inoculated by cutting the third true leaves with scissors previously immersed in the bacterial suspension (X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli prepared from a 24 hours old culture (OD540=0,4. Plants were kept in moister chambers for 24 hours before and after the inoculation. For protein extraction preparation, the three true leaves were collected individually at five different times: immediately before inoculation and 6, 24, 72 hours and 15 days after inoculation. The leaf extract was used for determination of total soluble proteins (TSP, and the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (PO by spectrophometry. The results showed a significant increase in TSP content and PPO activity in plants treated with the isolated DFs842, when TSP content was the double of the non-treated plants. It was also observed that, even before

  13. 磁化水对豆类芽菜生长过程中VC含量影响%Effects of Magnetized Water on Vitamin Contents of Bean Sprouts during Growth Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱磊; 王颖; 张桂芳; 王世鹏; 王欣卉; 陈纯琦

    2015-01-01

    为了探明磁化水对两种豆类芽菜(小明绿和大红袍)VC含量的影响,利用2,6-二氯靛酚(DIP)滴定法测定自来水和磁化水培养芽菜的VC含量。结果表明:芽菜中VC含量总体上随培养时间的延长呈现先增加后下降的趋势;磁化水使芽菜在生长过程中的VC含量上升速度加快;在适合食用的培养阶段显著提高了VC含量;对大红袍芽菜VC含量的影响比小明绿芽菜的影响显著。说明利用磁化水可较快培养得到高VC含量的食用豆类芽菜,并可增加人们日常VC的摄入量。%In order to investigate the effects of magnetized water on VC contents in two bean sprouts,Xiaominglv and DahongpaoVC contents during the process of sprout culture were measured by using 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DIP)titrimetric method. As the culture time extended,and the VC contents in sprouts presented first increased and then decreased trend on the whole. The results indicated that the magnetized water could expedite the pace of VC increasing as sprouts growing,and the significantly increased VC contents at the suitable eating time. During the growth processes of sprouts,the magnetized water had more significant effects on VC contents of Xiaominglv sprouts than those of Dahongpao sprouts. The results showed that the magnetized water could culture the edible bean sprouts faster with more VC content,and increase the daily VC intake.

  14. Corn seed response to gamma radiation as a function of water content; Resposta de sementes de milho a radiacao gama em funcao do teor de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viccini, Lyderson Facio [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Saraiva, Luiz Sergio; Cruz, Cosme Damiao [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral

    1997-07-01

    The study of the factors that affect the radiation efficiency is important, because it makes easier to get mutants that may be used as source of variability on improvement programs or as structural chromosomic aberrations for cytogenetics studies. The main of this research was to investigate the influence of corn seed water content on gamma radiation response. As a rule, the damage caused by irradiation was more evident on seeds with higher water content. Also, increased damages were observed with higher radiation doses. (author)

  15. Bean responds to Endospor 33® at reduced dose of Nitrogen and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Sanchez-Yañez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bean is a legume its production requires nitrogen (N combined as ammonium (NH4 or nitrate (NO3 and phosphates (NPF, its indiscriminate application causes soil lost productivity. An alternative solution for reducing and optimizing NPF is applying mixed inoculant which could be improved by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB and mycohrrizae. The objective of this research was to analyze the response of beans to mixed inoculant Endospor 33® at 50% reduced dose of NPF. In that sense a red ferralitic soil poor in N and organic matter was used. By experimental design: 5 treatments and 6 replications. Results showed a positive bean responds achieving 100% germination at 20mg/seed with Endospor 33® at 50% NPF dose. At seedling level bean was 6.63g of total fresh weight (TFW and 0.66g total dry weight (TDW with the same Endospor 33® dose compared to 0.28g of TDW of bean used as relative control (RC at 100% NPF dose. At flowering with 30 mg/plant got 1.5 g of TDW compared to 1.0g TDW of bean as CR. At physiological maturity bean with 30mg/plant had 34.83g/100 grains compared to 20.39g/grains of bean as CR. Those data supporting that Endopre 33® is an excellent choice in bean’s production at NPF 50% dose but not adverse effect on bean growth and yield in protected agriculture.

  16. Growth of fresh-water prawn Macrobrachium tenellum (Smith, 1871 juveniles fed isoproteic diets substituting fish meal by soya bean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Ulloa Gomez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth parameters (standard length, weight, specific growth rate and daily weight gain of prawn Macrobrachium tenellum juveniles fed 40% crude protein isoproteic diets substituting fish meal with soya bean meal at various levels (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% were evaluated for 45 days under laboratory conditions. Experimental diets were compared with a 100% fish meal based diet. Total survival was recorded for all the treatments at the end of the experiment. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 for all the growth parameters among the dietary treatments. The initial mean weight (0.36 ± 0.10 g increased almost three times (1.00 ± 0.13 g after 45 days. The final specific growth fluctuated from 1.82% BW/d for the 60% soya bean meal inclusion diet, to 2.62% for the 100% fish meal diet. The mean final survival was 91.66%. Growth performance of M. tenellum juveniles was not affected by the dietary soya bean meal levels tested.Os parâmetros do crescimento (comprimento padrão, peso, taxa de crescimento específica e ganho diário do peso de juveniles do Macrobrachium tenellum alimentaram a 40% a proteína crua as dietas isoproteic que substituem a refeição de peixes com feijão de soya a refeição nos vários níveis (20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% foi avaliada por 45 dias sob condições do laboratório. As dietas experimentais foram comparadas com uma dieta baseada da refeição de peixes de 100%. A sobrevivência total foi gravada para todos os tratamentos no fim da experiência. Não havia nenhuma diferença significativa (p > 0.05 para todos os parâmetros do crescimento entre os tratamentos dietéticos. O peso médio inicial (0.36 ± 0.10 g aumentado quase três vezes (1.00 ± 0.13 g após 45 dias da cultura. O crescimento específico final flutuou de 1.82% BW/d para a dieta do inclusion da refeição do feijão de soya de 60%, a 2.62% obtidos para a dieta da refeição de peixes de 100%. A sobrevivência final média foi de 91.66%. O

  17. Growth and production of castor bean under different levels of irrigation water salinity and nitrogen dosesCrescimento e produção da mamoneira cultivada sob diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação e doses de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gomes Nobre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is a plant belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, and stands for the rusticity and adaptation to adverse conditions of climate and soil, for the fast growth, high production and considerable oil content in its seeds. In this context, this study we conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of irrigation water of salinity and nitrogen on the growth and yield of castor bean cv. BRS Energia. The experiment was conducted in lysimeters under field conditions, at the Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia Agroalimentar, of Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. A complete randomized block design in a 5 x 5 factorial design with three replications. Treatments included a combination of five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4 and 4.4 dS m-1 and five doses of nitrogen (50, 75; 100, 125 and 150% of the recommended dose. The number of leaves, stem diameter, plant height, dry mass of stems and leaves, and fruit number in primary raceme of castor bean cv. BRS Energia were linearly and negatively affected by irrigation water salinity from 0.4 dS m-1, the dry mass of leaves and production of primary cluster are variables more sensitive to salt stress, increasing doses of nitrogen fertilization promoted at harvest, increase in dry weight of stem and leaves and number of fruit in primary cluster; applying increasing doses of nitrogen reduced the effect of salinity on stem diameter of castor bean cv. BRS Energia.A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. é uma planta pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae que se destaca pela rusticidade e boa adaptação a condições adversas de clima e solo, apresentando rápido crescimento, elevada produção e considerável teor de óleo em suas sementes. Neste contexto, conduziuse esta pesquisa objetivando avaliar a influência da irrigação com água de diferentes concentrações salinas e doses de nitrogênio sobre o crescimento e a produção de

  18. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Dionísio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua. This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  19. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Guvenc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D' from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG, 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka' seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test (BWT, standard germination test (SGT and field emergence (FE. The percentage of field emergence was evaluated at three sowing times: 20 May (FE-I, 10 June (FE-II and 20 July (FE-III. The mean germination of leek seeds varied from 77.5% to 100.0% and from 36.0% to 61.0% in SGT and BWT, respectively. While the range of results obtained in the boiling water test was from 38.5% to 60.0%, the range of results of the standard germination test was from 81.0% to 100.0% in onion seeds. The range of field emergence was between 18.5% ('Kisagün', FE-III and 72.0% (İnegöl-C', FE-II. Besides, the boiling water test was correlated highly significantly with SGT (r = 0.670**, FE-I (r = 0.923**, FE-II (r = 0.906** and FE-III (r = 0.939** in leek seeds. Similarly, BWT showed positive correlation with SGT (r = 0.568**, FE-I (r = 0.844**, FE-II (r = 0.933** and FE-III (r = 0.858** in onion seeds. In conclusion, the boiling water test is a new and reliable technique to test seed viability and it has a great potential to test rapidly germination and field emergence of leek and onion seeds at different sowing times.

  20. The cotyledon cell wall and intracellular matrix are factors that limit iron bioavailability of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glahn, Raymond P; Tako, Elad; Cichy, Karen; Wiesinger, Jason

    2016-07-13

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability of the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledons contain 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cells. The cotyledon cell walls are known to be resistant to digestion in the stomach and the upper small intestine. Therefore, given the above and the general belief that the primary site for human Fe absorption is the upper small intestine, the present study was designed to determine if the cotyledon cell walls represent a barrier to Fe absorption from the bean. To do so, we utilized high pressure to rupture bean cotyledon cells. The iron bioavailability of cooked bean samples was assessed using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. Microscopy analyses confirmed that the cotyledon cell walls are highly resistant to pepsin, the low pH of the stomach, and the pancreatic enzymes, indicating that the walls are a barrier to Fe absorption from the bean. Relatively high intracellular pressure (>4000 psi) was required to initiate cell wall rupture. Surprisingly, the lysis of cotyledon cells did not result in a consistent or strong enhancement of bioavailable Fe, suggesting that the liberated intracellular starch and protein influenced the Fe bioavailability by creating a matrix that inhibited the exchange of Fe with the cell transport mechanism. Such observations warrant further pursuit in vivo as the confirmation of these effects would reshape strategies to enhance Fe absorption from beans. PMID:27326892

  1. Control of seed-borne pathogens on legumes by microbial and other alternative seed treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinivella, F.; Hirata, L.M.; Celan, M.A.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Schmitt, A.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Koch, E.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse trials were carried out in order to test the efficacy of different seed treatments as alternatives to chemicals against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum cause of anthracnose on bean and Ascochyta spp. cause of Ascochyta blights on pea, respectively. Resistance inducers, commercially formulat

  2. Effects of salinity and soil-drying on radiation use efficiency, water productivity, seed set and final yield of field-grown quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, S. H.; Jacobsen, S.-E.;

    2012-01-01

    Drought and salinity reduce crop productivity especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and finding a crop which produces yield under these adverse conditions is therefore very important. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is such a crop. Hence, a study was conducted in field lysimeters...... to investigate the effect of salinity and soil–drying on radiation use efficiency, yield and water productivity of quinoa. Quinoa was exposed to five salinity levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m)1) of irrigation water from flower initiation onwards. During the seed-filling phase the five salinity levels were...... matter. Increasing salinity from 20 to 40 dS m)1 did not further decrease the seed number per m2 and seed yield, which shows that quinoa (cv. Titicaca) acclimated to saline conditions when exposed to salinity levels between 20 and 40 dS m)1....

  3. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  4. Acetohydroxamate inhibition of the activity of urease from dehusked seeds of water melon (Citrullus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan

    2004-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) was purified to apparent homogeneity, using two acetone fractionation steps, heat treatment at 48 degrees C and gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. Effect of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) on the activity of the homogeneous enzyme preparation (sp. act. 3000 +/- 550U/mg protein) was investigated. AHA exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition both in the presence and absence of the substrate. The inhibition was uncompetitive and the Ki was 2.5 mM. Binding of AHA with the enzyme was reversible, as 63% activity could be restored by dialysis. Time-dependent inhibition revealed a monophasic inhibition of the activity. Addition of beta-mercaptoethanol (ME) gradually abolished the inhibition. Pre-treatment of native enzyme with 8.0 mM ME for 5 min at 30 degrees C exhibited protection against AHA-induced inhibition. The significance of these observations is discussed. PMID:15558957

  5. Soybean seed phenol, lignin, and isoflavones and sugars composition are altered by Foliar Boron application in soybean under water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research showed that foliar boron (B) fertilizer at flowering or seed-fill growth stages altered seed protein, oil, and fatty acids. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B fertilizer on seed phenolics (phenol, lignin, and isoflavones) and sugars concentrat...

  6. Stable isotope composition of cocoa beans of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Barbero, Alice; Caligiani, Augusta; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic profile (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(2) H, δ(34) S) was used to characterise a wide selection of cocoa beans from different renowned production areas (Africa, Asia, Central and South America). The factors most influencing the isotopic signatures of cocoa beans were climate and altitude for δ(13) C and the isotopic composition of precipitation water for δ(18) O and δ(2) H, whereas δ(15) N and δ(34) S were primarily affected by geology and fertilisation practises. Multi-isotopic analysis was shown to be sufficiently effective in determining the geographical origin of cocoa beans, and combining it with Canonical Discriminant Analysis led to more than 80% of samples being correctly reclassified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27484307

  7. Temperatura, umidade relativa e disponibilidade de água no acumulo de prolina em cultivares de feijoeiro Temperature, relative humidity and water availability on proline accumulation of dry beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. submetidas à deficiência hídrica e temperaturas de 35-40º C umidade relativa (UR 40-100%; 5-10ºC, UR 20-30%; 2-5ºC, UR 10-20%, realizado em casa de vegetação e câmara de crescimento, no Instituto Agronômico, em 1982, mostrou haver correlação negativa entre o acúmulo de prolina e o potencial de pressão de água nas folhas (psip. Os cultivares Curitibano e P-511, este último considerado resistente à seca e baixa temperatura, apresentaram o menor acumulo de prolina e o maior psip, confirmando a hipótese de que é possível o reconhecimento de material geneticamente resistente à escassez de água através da seleção de plantas que acumulam menor quantidade de prolina.Four experiments were performed in growth chamber and greenhouse at Campinas, in 1982, to study the relations of dry bean cultivars submmited to period of water and temperatura stress. Adaptation of planta to stress conditions was measured through prolina accumulation and water potential (psip in leaves. In all tested cultivars prolina content showed a straight negative correlation with water potential in leaves. Cultivars P-511 and Curitibano showed lower prolina content and higher water potential than the other under study, this confirming the hypothesis that it is possible to identify materiais genetically resistant to water stress by selection of plants or lines with low prolina content.

  8. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W.I.; Allen, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  9. Study of the effects of Cobalt 60 gamma radiations on the seeds of two textile hibiscus species. Influence of seed water content on their radiosensitivity. Mutagenic effects on two plantlet generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work on textile hibiscus was undertaken for two reasons: to contribute by physical mutagenesis methods to the genetic improvement of these species and especially to obtain the genetic diversity which is seriously lacking in the species sabdariffa var. altissima; to add to research on the effects of mutagenic seed treatments and thus to help towards a better definition of optimum seed irradiation conditions. These two purposes have been fulfilled. The main results may be summed up as follows. - Concerning the improvement of textile hibiscus. Many strains with various new features were selected at the second generation and may lead either to new varieties or at least to interesting precursors for selection programmes. In the second generation derived from Hibiscus saddariffa var. THS 22 some plants were observed with one or more of the following characteristics specific to the edible form: ramified bearing - fleshy calix - smooth leaf. - Concerning the study of mutagenic seed treatment effects. Our experiments showed up the importance of the seed water content and its effect on the response of first-generation plantlets to cobalt 60 γ-ray treatments

  10. Correlação entre absorção de água e tempo de cozimento de cultivares de feijão Correlation among water soaking and cooking time of bean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josana de Abreu Rodrigues

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o comportamento de cultivares de feijão quanto aos testes da capacidade de absorção da água pelos grãos e do tempo de cozimento, bem como avaliar correlações entre essas características visando à identificação precoce de linhagens de fácil cozimento. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, arranjado em fatorial 2 x 9, com três repetições. As cultivares utilizadas foram TPS Nobre e Pérola e os grãos foram imersos em água destilada durante 2 a 18 horas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a capacidade de absorção da água pelos grãos aumentou com o tempo em que permaneceram embebidos, até atingir o máximo de hidratação: 13h7min e 13h12min para as cultivares TPS Nobre e Pérola, respectivamente. O tempo de cozimento diminuiu à medida que os grãos permaneceram imersos até 12h49min, para as duas cultivares. A capacidade de absorção da água pelos grãos e o tempo de cozimento apresentaram correlação negativa e significativa.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the behavior of bean cultivars regarding water soaking test and cooking time as well as the possible correlation of these variables to identify bean lines with high cooking capacity. A factorial of two cultivars (TPS Nobre and Pérola and different times (2 to 18 hours of soaking in a completely randomized design, with three replications, was conducted. Soaking capacity was increased over time up to 13h07min for TPS Nobre and 13h12min for Pérola cultivar. Cooking time was reduced after 12h49min of soaking for both cultivars. There was a high and negative correlation between water soaking and cooking time.

  11. Biological seed priming mitigates the effects of water stress in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narsingh Bahadur; Singh, Deepmala; Singh, Amit

    2015-04-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. PAC 36) seedlings were inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), viz. Azotobacter chroococcum (A+), Bacillus polymyxa (B+), separately and in combination of the two (AB+). Relative water content and seedling growth were maximum in AB+ seedlings under control. Water stress significantly decreased the RWC, growth and dry mass of non-inoculated seedlings. However, inoculated seedlings maintained higher growth even under water stress. Pigments and protein contents decreased under water stress, but higher amount of the same was observed in stressed AB+ seedlings. Enhanced activity of nitrate reductase was recorded in AB+ seedlings with maximum in control. Water stress significantly decreased the nitrate reductase activity. A significant increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in leaves was recorded under water stress except in B+ with maximum increase in non-inoculated seedlings. Catalase (CAT) activity decreased in stressed non-inoculated seedlings while increased in the leaves of A+ and AB+ seedlings. Almost similar trends were recorded for both leaves and cotyledons. PGPR improved the water status in stressed seedlings and thereby physiological and biochemical parameters and thus ameliorated the severe effects of water stress. PMID:25964714

  12. 供水及丁香酚对间作小麦蚕豆生长速率及籽粒产量的影响%Effect of Eugenol and Water Application on Crop Growth Rate and Grain Yield of Wheat Fava Bean Intercropping Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静; 柴强; 赵财; 刘辉娟; 周海燕

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for the manual control regulation of intercropping system that existed allelochemicals, pot experiment was carried out to research the effect of eugenol on crop growth rate and grain yield of wheat faba/bean intercropping system at water application of 75%, 60% and 45% field capacity. The results showed that eugenol could inhibite the crop growth rate (CGR)of fava bean in the seedling-beginning flower and pod setting-mature period of faba bean, except sole faba bean with 75% water supply level and the intercropped faba bean with 60% water supply level, increased water supply can alleviate the inhitory action of eugenol on the sole faba bean, but the inhitory action of eugenol on the intercropped fava bean exacerbate, intercropping planting pattern can alleviate the inhitory action; eugenol could inhibite the wheat CGR after seedling period, increasing water supply can not alleviate the inhitory action of eugenol, intercropping planting pattern can alleviate the inhitory action of eugenol on the wheat CGR at the stage of flowering to maturity. Compared to weighted average sole grain yield, intercropped grain yield was increased by 24.92%~52.74% under the same water supply. Other treatments showed mat allelopathy has inhibitory effect on the grain yield of two crops except 45%water supply level. Intercropping planting pattern can alleviate the allelopathy of eugeno on the wheat, fava bean grain yield.%为了寻求人工调控存在化感物质间作群体的理论依据,通过盆栽试验,探讨不同供水水平下(田问持水量的75%、60%和45%),小麦根系分泌物丁香酚对单作和间作蚕豆、小麦生长速率(Crop Growth Rate,CGR)及籽粒产量的影响.结果表明:在蚕豆苗期-始花期、结荚-成熟期2个生育阶段,丁香酚对蚕豆生长速率整体表现为抑制作用,但结荚-成熟期75%供水水平下的单作、60%供水水平下的问作除外,增加供水缓解了单作蚕豆的

  13. [Comparative study of the composition and nutritional value of the seeds and protein concentrations in legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral, R; Fernández-Quintela, A; Martínez, J A; Macarulla, M T

    1995-09-01

    The nutritional properties of three legumes: pea (Pisum sativum), faba bean (Vicia faba) and soya (Glycine max) have been characterized. From these seeds, protein concentrates were elaborated by wet processing and two different procedures of drying were followed (freeze-drying and alcohol washing). The composition and content of several antinutritional factors (phytates, tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins) were assessed in all of them. Also some functional properties regarding their potential use in food technology were evaluated, such as protein solubility at different pH, as well as water and oil absorption capacities. All the obtained concentrates showed high protein contents, nevertheless protein extraction efficiency was smaller in alcohol-washed concentrates than in the lyophilized ones. In the other hand, the concentrates obtained from pea and faba bean showed higher yields than those obtained from soya. The content of antinutritional factors were markedly reduced after the concentration process. Furthermore, the functional properties of pea and faba bean protein concentrates point out their suitability for food preparation as previously reported for soya. PMID:9382685

  14. Desenvolvimento da cultura do feijoeiro submetida a dois sistemas de manejo de irrigação e de cultivo = Growth of dry bean crop submitted to two water management and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Pavani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do feijoeiro apresenta elevada importância no contexto agrícola nacional. Além de ser uma cultura que atende às características da agricultura familiar, também é cultivada em áreas extensivas com alta tecnologia. Pesquisas relacionadas ao desenvolvimento do feijoeiro frente às variantes edafoclimáticas regionais vêm assumindo papel de destaque, principalmentepor se tratar de uma planta sensível tanto ao déficit quanto ao excesso hídrico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a cultura do feijoeiro de ‘inverno’ submetida a dois métodos de manejo deirrigação, em pivô central, um via solo por meio de tensiômetros, outro via clima por meio do tanque Classe ‘A’, em dois sistemas de plantio, convencional e direto, no primeiro ano. Foram avaliados o índice de área foliar (IAF, massa seca total (MS de plantas e a variação do potencial mátrico de água no solo. Concluiu-se que os manejos de irrigação e os sistemas de plantio não resultaram em diferenças no IAF e nem no acúmulo de matéria seca total ao longo do ciclo da cultura; o manejo da irrigação por tensiometria acarretou maior variação no potencial mátrico de água no solo do que o método via clima por meio do tanque Classe ‘A’.The dry bean has great importance to Brazilian agriculture. In addition to being a crop that meets the characteristics of family agriculture, it is also cultivated in extensive areas using high technology. Research related to the behavior and development ofthe bean crop in relation to regional soil and climatic variants have assumed a prominent role, especially because it is a plant that is sensitive both to the lack and excess of water in the soil. The objective of this research was to compare two methods of management ofcenter pivot irrigation: a soil sensor (tensiometry and b simplified climatological water balance – Class A pan; in conventional and no-tillage systems of soil cultivate (first year, onthe irrigated

  15. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy diets and have many benefits. Beans, lentils, and ...

  16. Epidemiology of bean rust in Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habtu Assefa,

    1994-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the epidemiology of rust ( Uromyces appendiculatus ) on beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Ethiopia. The experiments were conducted under low input conditions reflecting the traditional bean production practices. Surveys identified five major

  17. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardo, Rômulo A G; Milfont, Marcelo O; Silva, Eva M S da; Freitas, Breno M

    2012-12-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.

  18. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The obtained raw extract was used as a coagulant. The coagulation efficiency was measured by jar test at different pH values of wastewater, and a decrease in organic matter content was determined. The experiments confirmed that natural coagulant from common bean could be successfully used for the treatment of extraction juice distillery wastewater. The highest coagulation efficiencies were achieved at the pH 5.2 with a coagulant dose of 30 mL/L, and at the pH 8.5 with a coagulant dose of 5 mL/L, and they were 64.71% and 68.75% respectively. These encouraging results indicate that natural coagulant from common bean seeds is a potential alternative to conventional chemical coagulant/flocculant agents for treatment of wastewaters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005

  19. Effect on microorganisms of volatile compounds released from germinating seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, S; Stotzky, G

    1975-10-01

    Volatile compounds evolved from germinating seeds of slash pine, bean, cabbage, corn, cucumber, and pea were evaluated for their ability to support growth of microorganisms in liquid mineral salts media lacking a carbon source. Growth of eight bacteria was measured turbidimetrically and of six fungi as dry weight of mycelium. Volatiles caused increased growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus cereus, Erwinia carotovora, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. radiobacter, Rhizobium japonicum, Mucor mucedo, Fusarium oxysporum f. conglutinans, Trichoderma viride, and Penicillium vermiculatum but not of Sarcina lutea, Serratia marcescens, Chaetomium globosum, or Schizophyllum commune. Spores of Trichoderma viride showed higher germination in the presence of volatiles. Effects on growth were apparent only during the first 3 or 4 days after planting the seeds. Killed or dried seeds had no effect. The volatiles did not support microbial growth in the absence of nitrogen nor did they supply growth factors. Passing volatiles through KMnO4 or hydrazone reduced growth of the bacteria, indicating that oxidizable organic compounds, primarily aldehydes, were the active components. The volatiles were not absorbed by sterile soil, clay minerals, or water, but they were absorbed by non-steril soil and activated charcoal.

  20. Evaluation of using aluminum sulfate and water-soluble Moringa oleifera seed lectin to reduce turbidity and toxicity of polluted stream water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, José Henrique Edmilson Souza; de Santana, Keissy Vanderley; do Nascimento, Ana Cláudia Claudina; de Paiva, Sérgio Carvalho; de Moura, Maiara Celine; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; de Oliveira, Maria Betânia Melo; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Aluminum salts are used as coagulants in water treatment; however, the exposure to residual aluminum has been associated with human brain lesions. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL), which is extracted with distilled water and isolated by chitin chromatography, has coagulant activity and is able to reduce the concentration of metal ions in aqueous solutions. This study evaluated the potential of using aluminum sulfate and WSMoL to reduce the turbidity and toxicity of water from the Cavouco stream located in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The water sample used (called P1) was collected from the stream source, which was found to be strongly polluted based on physicochemical and water quality analyses, as well as ecotoxicity assays with Artemia salina and seeds of Eruca sativa and Lactuca sativa. The assays combining WSMoL and aluminum sulfate were more efficient than those that used these agents separately. Furthermore, the greatest reduction in turbidity (96.8%) was obtained with the treatment using aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL, compared to when they were applied simultaneously (91.3%). In addition, aluminum sulfate followed by WSMoL treatment resulted in residual aluminum concentration (0.3 mg/L) that was much lower than that recorded after the treatment using only the salt (35.5 mg/L). The ecotoxicity of P1 was also strongly reduced after the treatments. In summary, the combined use of aluminum sulfate and WSMoL was efficient in promoting a strong reduction of turbidity and ecotoxicity of a polluted water sample, without resulting in a high residual aluminum concentration at the conclusion of the treatment.

  1. Induced mutations for a determinate habit in rice bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation techniques were used to create polygenic variability in rice bean (Vigna umbellata). Dry seeds of the genotype (sel. I) were irradiated with 40-80 kR of gamma rays at 10 kR intervals. A wide variation in quantitative characters was induced in both the M2 and M3 generations. Some mutants were isolated that showed a determinate growth habit, earliness, a high yield and photoinsensitivity. These mutants were found to be breeding true. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  2. Laboratory invesitgations of variability of Ascochyta fabae Speg. isolates obtained from horse bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Józef Filipowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty five isolates of Ascochyta fabae Speg. were investigated. They were selected from 1650 isolates of this fungus obtained from horse bean seeds in 1974-1976. All the isolates grew and sporulated on Potato Dextrose Agar, Malt Agar and Horse Bean Agar. The rate of their growth amounted to 1-4 mm per 24 hours. The variability of isolates in size of pycnidia and conidia and number of sepia was noticed. A few spores with untypical shapes were observed as well.

  3. 菜豆种子薄层干燥物料内部水分扩散系数的确定%DETERMINATION OF THE MOISTURE DIFFUSIVITY FOR KIDNEY BEAN SEED THIN LAYER DRYING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊红; 焦士龙; 郭锦棠; 江菊元; 褚治德

    2001-01-01

    This paper has applied the numerical method to the determination of physical property. Through the building of the internal moisture diffusion model and the simplification of the connective boundary condition, the moisture diffusionin side the material has been organically combined with the drying experiment alcurves, which describes the material drying process dynamic characteristics todetermine the internal moisture diffusivity during the unsteady dehydrated process and analyze the distribution of internal moisture and its dynamic characteristics. Comparison between the numerical calculating result and the drying experimental curves shows that this ways used in this paper is feasible.The research on the internal moisture diffusion has the significant meaning tothe further study the effect of the drying factors on the mechanism of seed degraded and the determine of the optimized drying technology at the aim ofdrying control.%本文将数值方法应用于物性测试,用反问题的研究方法,通过建立物料的内部水分扩散模型及边界条件的处理,把反映物料干燥过程动态特性的实验含水率曲线与物料颗粒内部的水分扩散结合起来,确定物料颗粒在非稳态脱水过程中的内部水分扩散系数,并分析内部水分分布及其动态特性。计算结果与实验曲线拟合的分析表明,本文的方法是可行的,对于进一步分析干燥过程参数对种子劣变的影响及确定优化的干燥工艺从而达到干燥控制的目的有重要的意义。

  4. Lectin release by soybean seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, D.W.; Foard, D.E.; Replogle, W.D.; Yang, W.K.

    1977-09-16

    Lectin is released from soybean seeds during water uptake. Hemagglutination activity data show that the lectin is a preferential release product within the first 8 hours of hydration. A qualitative filter-paper assay for detection of lectin released by single seeds is used to show that the release phenomenon is independent of seed viability and insensitive to azide.

  5. Rescue of photoperiod/freeze-sensitive and low seed producing accessions of Lablab purpureus using hydroponic cloning and aeroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus is a legume used as a vegetable and the USDA, ARS, PGRCU conserves 137 hyacinth bean accessions from countries worldwide. Many accessions in this collection are photoperiod and freeze-sensitive due to their flower and seed production during November through March in t...

  6. Qualidade nutricional e microbiológica de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cozido com ou sem água de maceração Nutritional and microbiological quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cooked with or without the use of soaking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani Ruffo de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

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