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Sample records for bean rot disease

  1. Potential worldwide distribution of Fusarium dry root rot in common beans based on the optimal environment for disease occurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Macedo

    Full Text Available Root rots are a constraint for staple food crops and a long-lasting food security problem worldwide. In common beans, yield losses originating from root damage are frequently attributed to dry root rot, a disease caused by the Fusarium solani species complex. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of common bean dry root rot on a global scale and to project changes based on future expectations of climate change. Our approach used a spatial proxy of the field disease occurrence, instead of solely the pathogen distribution. We modeled the pathogen environmental requirements in locations where in-situ inoculum density seems ideal for disease manifestation. A dataset of 2,311 soil samples from commercial farms assessed from 2002 to 2015 allowed us to evaluate the environmental conditions associated with the pathogen's optimum inoculum density for disease occurrence, using a lower threshold as a spatial proxy. We encompassed not only the optimal conditions for disease occurrence but also the optimal pathogen's density required for host infection. An intermediate inoculum density of the pathogen was the best disease proxy, suggesting density-dependent mechanisms on host infection. We found a strong convergence on the environmental requirements of both the host and the disease development in tropical areas, mostly in Brazil, Central America, and African countries. Precipitation and temperature variables were important for explaining the disease occurrence (from 17.63% to 43.84%. Climate change will probably move the disease toward cooler regions, which in Brazil are more representative of small-scale farming, although an overall shrink in total area (from 48% to 49% in 2050 and 26% to 41% in 2070 was also predicted. Understanding pathogen distribution and disease risks in an evolutionary context will therefore support breeding for resistance programs and strategies for dry root rot management in common beans.

  2. Potential worldwide distribution of Fusarium dry root rot in common beans based on the optimal environment for disease occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Renan; Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Yoshida, Fernanda; Silva-Abud, Lidianne Lemes; Lobo, Murillo

    2017-01-01

    Root rots are a constraint for staple food crops and a long-lasting food security problem worldwide. In common beans, yield losses originating from root damage are frequently attributed to dry root rot, a disease caused by the Fusarium solani species complex. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of common bean dry root rot on a global scale and to project changes based on future expectations of climate change. Our approach used a spatial proxy of the field disease occurrence, instead of solely the pathogen distribution. We modeled the pathogen environmental requirements in locations where in-situ inoculum density seems ideal for disease manifestation. A dataset of 2,311 soil samples from commercial farms assessed from 2002 to 2015 allowed us to evaluate the environmental conditions associated with the pathogen's optimum inoculum density for disease occurrence, using a lower threshold as a spatial proxy. We encompassed not only the optimal conditions for disease occurrence but also the optimal pathogen's density required for host infection. An intermediate inoculum density of the pathogen was the best disease proxy, suggesting density-dependent mechanisms on host infection. We found a strong convergence on the environmental requirements of both the host and the disease development in tropical areas, mostly in Brazil, Central America, and African countries. Precipitation and temperature variables were important for explaining the disease occurrence (from 17.63% to 43.84%). Climate change will probably move the disease toward cooler regions, which in Brazil are more representative of small-scale farming, although an overall shrink in total area (from 48% to 49% in 2050 and 26% to 41% in 2070) was also predicted. Understanding pathogen distribution and disease risks in an evolutionary context will therefore support breeding for resistance programs and strategies for dry root rot management in common beans.

  3. Potential worldwide distribution of Fusarium dry root rot in common beans based on the optimal environment for disease occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Renan; Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Yoshida, Fernanda; Silva-Abud, Lidianne Lemes

    2017-01-01

    Root rots are a constraint for staple food crops and a long-lasting food security problem worldwide. In common beans, yield losses originating from root damage are frequently attributed to dry root rot, a disease caused by the Fusarium solani species complex. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of common bean dry root rot on a global scale and to project changes based on future expectations of climate change. Our approach used a spatial proxy of the field disease occurrence, instead of solely the pathogen distribution. We modeled the pathogen environmental requirements in locations where in-situ inoculum density seems ideal for disease manifestation. A dataset of 2,311 soil samples from commercial farms assessed from 2002 to 2015 allowed us to evaluate the environmental conditions associated with the pathogen’s optimum inoculum density for disease occurrence, using a lower threshold as a spatial proxy. We encompassed not only the optimal conditions for disease occurrence but also the optimal pathogen’s density required for host infection. An intermediate inoculum density of the pathogen was the best disease proxy, suggesting density-dependent mechanisms on host infection. We found a strong convergence on the environmental requirements of both the host and the disease development in tropical areas, mostly in Brazil, Central America, and African countries. Precipitation and temperature variables were important for explaining the disease occurrence (from 17.63% to 43.84%). Climate change will probably move the disease toward cooler regions, which in Brazil are more representative of small-scale farming, although an overall shrink in total area (from 48% to 49% in 2050 and 26% to 41% in 2070) was also predicted. Understanding pathogen distribution and disease risks in an evolutionary context will therefore support breeding for resistance programs and strategies for dry root rot management in common beans. PMID:29107985

  4. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  5. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  6. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  7. Thiamin and Salicylic Acid as Biological Alternatives for Controlling Broad Bean Rot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHakimi, A.M.A; Alghalibi, Saeed M.S

    2007-01-01

    The interactive effects of fungi (Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani) infection and thiamin or salicylic acid on growth rate, membrane stability, K+ efflux, UV-absorbing metabolites, photosynthetic pigments, cell wall components and lipid fractions of broad bean plants (30-day-old) were studied. Fungal infection induced a reduction in growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. Application of thiamin or salicylic acid increased growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. The K+ efflux and the leakage of UV-absorbing metabolites were stimulated with fungal infection. However, thiamin and salicylic acid treatment partially retarded the stimulatory effect on leakage of K+ and UV-absorbing metabolites of fungal infected plants. Fungal infection produced a reduction in the content of pectin and cellulose, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols fraction of shoots and roots and phospholipids of roots. On the other hand, the contents of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots and phospholipids of shoots were stimulated by fungal infection. Soaking seeds in thiamin or salicylic acid counteracts partially or completely the adverse effect of fungal infection on pectin and cellulose composition, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols of either shoots or roots. On the other side, thiamin or salicylic acid treatments retarded the phospholipids accumulation in shoots of infected plants, and in roots the phospholipids accumulation was partially or completely alleviated. The content of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots were antagonistically lowered by the application of thiamin or salicylic acid. (author)

  8. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  9. Control of Root-rot Diseases of Phaseolus vulgaris Using Gliotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the antifungal antibiotic gliotoxin on root-rot diseases caused by Fusarium solani and its influence on population of fungal flora in soil were investigated. Bean seeds were treated with different concentrations of gliotoxin before sowing. The results obtained from the green house application of bioagent indicated that soaking seeds in different concentrations of gliotoxin from 1µg/mL to 15µg/mL (for 60 minutes significantly reduced the percentage of damping off and root rot as compared with control (pathogen only. Also 10µg/mL of gliotoxin was significantly decreased the population of fungal flora as compared with control.

  10. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  11. Determination of the Effects of Nutrient sources on Enhancement of Crop Tolerance to Bean Root Rot and Bean Stem Maggot in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsyula, R.M.; Nderitu, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Field bean phaseolus vulgaris tolerance to root rot (BRR) and bean stem maggot (BSM) is enhanced by improvement of soil nutrients. Organic and inorganic sources of soil nutrients were evaluated in this study to determine their effects on crop tolerance to BRR and BSM. Three variety of GLP 585 susceptible to BRR and BSM; GLP X92 tolerant to BRR and BSM; and KK-8 resistant to BRR and BSM were used. The study was conducted in farmer's field with high level of BRR and BSM over three seasons in a split plot design. Nutrient sources were laid down in main plots while varieties were in subplots. KK-8 gave the highest plant survival and yield over the seasons. GLP 585 had the lowest mean yield and plant survival. Crop tolerance was greatly improved by application of DAP as applied as nutrient sources and varieties for crop tolerance were identified

  12. Root rots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  13. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm caused by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Date palm is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of several countries, including Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, North Africa etc. Inflorescence rot is a serious disease of date palm which limits its yield. The identification of the causal organism is a key step to tackling this disease, and such studies ...

  14. Identification and Pathogenicity of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot Disease of Girasole Tuber

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    Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2010-2011 growing seasons six bacterial isolates were separated from naturally infected girasole plants tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. Balady, showing soft rot, collected from experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, in El-Minia University, Egypt. Pathogenicity tests showed various virulence for the bacteria isolated from girasole tubers, found pathogenic. These organisms were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, ?-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances from sucrose, phos, phatase activity and deep cavities on pectate medium. Otherwise, diagnostic tests suggested that the pathogen was Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. The isolated bacteria caused soft rot of wounded tubers when inoculated into tissues. The bacterial isolates were compared for their degree of pathogenicity as well as for differences in specific symptoms, induced in different hosts. The tested isolates could infect several host ranges, such as fruits of apricot, apple, olive, lemon, squash, eggplant and potato tubers, bulbs and garlic and onion cloves, roots radish, carrot, sweet potato and rape. On the other hand, no symptoms were exhibited on pods of bean and cowpea, faba bean, fruits of pepper and tomato. The extracts of experimentally diseased girasole tubers were active in pectinase and also in caboxymethyl cellulose at pH 6 compared to enzyme activities in healthy tissues. Also, the isolated bacteria increased the total and reducing sugars in infected tissues.

  15. Identification and Pathogenicity of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot Disease of Girasole Tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2010-2011 growing seasons six bacterial isolates were separated from naturally infected girasole plants tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. �Balady�, showing soft rot, collected from experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, in El-Minia University, Egypt. Pathogenicity tests showed various virulence for the bacteria isolated from girasole tubers, found pathogenic. These organisms were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, ?-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances from sucrose, phos, phatase activity and deep cavities on pectate medium. Otherwise, diagnostic tests suggested that the pathogen was Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. The isolated bacteria caused soft rot of wounded tubers when inoculated into tissues. The bacterial isolates were compared for their degree of pathogenicity as well as for differences in specific symptoms, induced in different hosts. The tested isolates could infect several host ranges, such as fruits of apricot, apple, olive, lemon, squash, eggplant and potato tubers, bulbs and garlic and onion cloves, roots radish, carrot, sweet potato and rape. On the other hand, no symptoms were exhibited on pods of bean and cowpea, faba bean, fruits of pepper and tomato. The extracts of experimentally diseased girasole tubers were active in pectinase and also in caboxymethyl cellulose at pH 6 compared to enzyme activities in healthy tissues. Also, the isolated bacteria increased the total and reducing sugars in infected tissues.

  16. Improvement of resistance to Fusarium root rot through gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR), caused by Fusarium solani f.sp. , is one of the most serious root rot diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) throughout the world. Yield losses of up to 84% have been attributed to the disease. Development and deployment of resistant materials is the most feasible approach to managing ...

  17. Fungi associated with base rot disease of aloe vera (Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Fungi associated with base rot disease of Aloe vera (syn. Aloe barbadensis) were investigated in Niger. Delta Area of Nigeria. Fungi and their percentage frequency were Aspergillus verocosa 28.03%,. Fusarium oxysporium 24.24%, Plectosphaerella cucumerina 16.67%, Mammeria ehinobotryoides 15.91 ...

  18. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm is caused by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zulfiqar-Ali

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... inflorescence rot disease in southern part of Iraq is Fusarium proliferatum. Pathogenecity test confirmed the ... Key words: Fusarium proliferatum, ITS1, ITS4, pathogenecity, PCR, isolates, phylogeny. INTRODUCTION ..... ITS rRNA Region for Identification of Fusarium spp. from Ocular. Sources. Investigative ...

  19. Fungi associated with base rot disease of aloe vera ( Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi associated with base rot disease of Aloe vera (syn. Aloe barbadensis) were investigated in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Fungi and their percentage frequency were Aspergillus verocosa 28.03%, Fusarium oxysporium 24.24%, Plectosphaerella cucumerina 16.67%, Mammeria ehinobotryoides 15.91% and Torula ...

  20. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot

    OpenAIRE

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30??C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other impo...

  1. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  2. Susceptibility of South African dry bean cultivars to bacterial diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry beans are an important crop in South Africa with the annual bean consumption being approximately 120 000 t. The crop is annually subjected to a number of biotic constraints such as bacterial diseases that can cause serious yield losses especially when the climate is conducive to diseases. The use of resistant ...

  3. INFLUÊNCIA DO PREPARO DE SOLO E DA ROTAÇÃO DE CULTURAS NA SEVERIDADE DE PODRIDÕES RADICULARES NO FEIJOEIRO COMUM EFFECTS OF SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEM AND CROP ROTATION ON DRY BEAN ROOT ROT SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marques da Silveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As podridões radiculares do feijoeiro são causadas pelos fungos Rhizoctonia solani Kühn e Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans. Neste trabalho testou-se a combinação dos fatores preparo de solo e rotação de culturas, além de se avaliarem seus efeitos sobre as podridões radiculares do feijoeiro. Os tipos de preparo de solo consistiram em: arado+grade (P1, arado (P2, grade (P3 e plantio direto (P4. As rotações de culturas foram: arroz-feijão (R1, milho-feijão (R2, arroz/calopogônio (Calopogonium muconoides-feijão (R3 e milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão (R4. A severidade de F. solani f. sp. phaseoli, avaliada aos 25 dias após o plantio, apresentou interação significativa, sendo a maior severidade encontrada na combinação da rotação R3 com o preparo de solo P1, e a menor severidade, na combinação da rotação R2 com o preparo de solo P3. Diferenças estatísticas ocorreram na severidade da doença provocada por R. solani. O preparo de solo P3 apresentou maior severidade que P4, e, entre as rotações, R3 apresentou a maior severidade da doença.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Rhizoctonia solani; Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli; práticas culturais; fungos.

    Dry bean root rot is caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans.The effects of the interaction between soil tillage systems andcrop rotation on the severity of root rot was tested. The soiltillage systems consisted of plough+harrow (P1, plough (P2,harrow (P3 and no tillage (P4 and the crop rotation treatmentswere rice-bean (R1, corn-bean (R2, rice/Calopogonium muconoides-bean (R3 and corn-bean-corn-bean-rice-bean

  4. No Reported Species, Botrytis aclada Causing Gray Mold Neck Rot Disease on Onion Bulbs in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Sun–Kyoung; Lee, Seung–Yeol; Back, Chang–Gi; Kang, In–Kyu; Lee, Hyang–Burm; Jung, Hee-Young; Ohga, Shoji; Oga, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Gray mold neck rot was observed on onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) in low–temperature warehouses in Changnyeong–gun, Korea. The causative pathogen was isolated from rotted onion bulb lesions and identified as Botrytis aclada based on morphological and culture characteristics, the sequences of three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, and RPB2), and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) for Botrytis spp. identification. Although onion gray mold disease caused by B...

  5. Effect of (/sup 60/cobalt) gamma rays on growth and root rot diseases in mungbean (vigna radiata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, N.; Dawar, S.; Zaki, M.J.; Abass, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Present investigation showed that gamma rays influences suppressive effect on root rot fungi such as Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Fusarium spp., and inducive effect on growth parameters of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). Seeds of mung bean were treated with gamma rays (/sup 60/Cobalt) at time periods of 0 and 4 minutes and stored for 90 days at room temperature to determine its effect on growth parameters and infection of root infecting fungi. All treatments of gamma rays enhanced the growth parameters as compared to untreated plants. Infection of M. phaseolina, R. solani and Fusarium spp., were significantly decreased on mung bean seeds treated with gamma rays. Gamma rays significantly increased the growth parameters and controlled the root rot fungi up to 90 days of storage of seeds. (author)

  6. Multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export vegetable crop, produced mainly by small to medium scale farmers under various disease constraints. Disease resistant varieties can reduce reliance on fungicides, and enhance the capacities of smallholder farmers to meet the stringent European export ...

  7. in vitro technique for selecting onion for white rot disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    and Simmonds, D.H. 2003. Partial resistance to white mold in a transgenic soybean line. Crop Science 43: 92-95. Coventry, E., Noble, R., Mead, A. and Whipps,. J.M. 2005. Suppression of Allium white rot. (Sclerotium cepivorum) in different soils using vegetable wastes. European Journal of Plant Pathology 111: 101-112.

  8. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  9. Survey of root rot diseases of sugar bett in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive survey was conducted during the summer and autumn of 2004 in sugar beet fields in the area of Larissa, Thessaly region, with plants showing symptoms of root rot diseases. The aim of the monitoring was to identify the causal agents of root rot diseases. In total, 76 sugar beet fields were surveyed and 5-10 diseased roots were examined from each field. Isolations, carried out on PDA, showed that two main fungal pathogens causing root rot were Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora cryptogea. The former was isolated in 46% of the fields and the latter in 38% of the fields. In addition, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp., Scerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia violacea were isolated in 14%, 7%, 4% and 1% of the fields respectively. In most of the surveyed fields only one pathogen species was isolated and only in a few of them more than one fungal species was identified.

  10. FOOT ROT DISEASE IDENTIFICATION FOR VELLAIKODI VARIETY OF BETELVINE PLANTS USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vijayakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Betelvine plants are infected variety of diseases in the complete plantation without any premature warning of the diseases. The aim of this paper is to detection of foot rot disease in the vellaikodi variety of betelvine plants using digital image processing techniques. The digital images of the uninfected or normal betelvine leaves and the digital images of the infected in foot rot diseased betelvine leaves at different stages are collected from different Betelvine plants using a high resolution digital camera and collected betelvine images are stored with JPEG format. The digital images of the betelvine leaves analyses are done using the image processing toolbox in MATLAB which gives the normal patterns of the digital images. Using RGB encoding process, the RGB components of the betelvine leaves are separated. The mean and median values for all sample leaves are computed and calculated values are stored in the system. The mean and median values of test leaves are computed and compared with the stored values. As the result of this comparison, it is identified whether test leaves are affected by foot rot disease or not. Finally this analysis helps to recognize the foot rot disease can be identified before it spreads to entire crop.

  11. Root Rot Disease of Five Fruit Tree Seedlings in the Nursery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of root rot disease in the nursery of Chrysophyllum albidun Dacryodes edulis, persea Americana, Irvingia gabonensis and Annona muricala was assessed. Ten fungal pathogen were isolated using serial dilution and pathogenicity tests were carried out on the 5 fruit trees with the 10 isolated fungi. The 5 fruit ...

  12. Effects of bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) fungal diseases on wine aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on the primary quality parameter of wine, the aroma. The influence of these fungal diseases was studied by comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analyses (AEDA) and sensory tests. The effect of bunch rot was investigated on three grape varieties, namely White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer and that of powdery mildew on the hybrid Gm 8622-3; thereby, samples were selected that showed pronounced cases of infection to elaborate potential currently unknown effects. Both infections revealed aromatic differences induced by these fungi. The sensory changes were not associated with one specific compound only, but were due to quantitative variations of diverse substances. Bunch rot predominantly induced an increase in the intensities of peach-like/fruity, floral and liquor-like/toasty aroma notes. These effects were found to be related to variations in aroma substance composition as monitored via AEDA, mainly an increase in the FD factors of lactones and a general moderate increase of esters and alcohols. On the other hand, powdery mildew decreased the vanilla-like character of the wine while the remaining sensory attributes were rather unaffected. Correspondingly, FD factors of the main aroma constituents were either the same or only slightly modified by this disease. Moreover, bunch rot influenced the aroma profiles of the three varieties studied to a different degree. In hedonic evaluation, bunch rot-affected samples were rated as being more pleasant in comparison to their healthy controls in all three varieties while the powdery mildew-affected sample was rated as being less pleasant than its healthy control.

  13. Survey of Basal Stem Rot Disease on Oil Palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Kebun Bukit Kijang,North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisnawita; Hanum, H.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    Basal stem rot disease caused by Ganoderma sp. is a significant disease on oil palm plantations in Indonesia, especially in North Sumatera. Currently, the pathogen does not only attack the plants that have produced (old plants) but also attacks the plants that have not produced in the first generation yet. A survey of the distribution of the basal stem rot disease in the plantation of the community has been completed in order to illustrate the distribution and the incidence of the basal stem rot disease in 5 locations of the oil palm plantation of the community in Desa Bukit Kijang, Region of Asahan, North Sumatera, Indonesia. From the research, it is revealed that the basal stem rot disease has spread to all of the observed locations with the level of disease incidence between 0.71% in Kebun Bukit Kijang 3 to 50% in the 17 years old oil palm in Kebun Bukit Kijang 4 and Bukit Kijang 5. The observable symptoms of the basal stem rot disease are chlorotic leaves, the appearance of fruiting body, collapsed plants, and the existence of holes on the basal stem. The incidence of basal stem rot disease is higher on land due to a high sand content (>50%).

  14. Optimal fertilizer application for Panax notoginseng and effect of soil water on root rot disease and saponin contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Xia

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that the amount of nitrogen fertilizer used in these fields is excessive and that of potassium fertilizer is deficient. Higher soil moisture is an important factor that increases the severity of the root rot disease.

  15. Vibrio parahaemolyticus a causative bacterium for tail rot disease in ornamental fish, Amphiprion sebae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapandi Marudhupandi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to identify the tail rot disease causing bacterium in marine ornamental fish, Amphiprion sebae. Bacteria were isolated from the infected immune organs and tail region of A. sebae. Five different bacterial isolates (S1-S5 with different shape, size and colour were chosen for the infection study. The isolated strains were individually challenged with A. sebae at a constant dose of 1 × 107 CFU/fish. The virulent strain was found to be S-3, which showed maximum reproducing ability in A. sebae by causing typical tail rot disease and mortality. Furthermore, S-3 strain was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (KF738005, biochemical analysis and amplification of tox R gene. Subsequently, extracellular products (ECPs of V. parahaemolyticus were prepared by cellophane overlay method. The LD50 value of V. parahaemolyticus and its ECPS were found to be 1 × 105 CFU and 5 μg/fish. The histology results revealed that V. parahaemolyticus and its ECPS are the major cause of tail rot disease in A. sebae.

  16. Antibacterial Effect of Potassium Tetraborate Tetrahydrate against Soft Rot Disease Agent Pectobacterium carotovorum in Tomato

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    Firas A. Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum is one of most common bacterial diseases occurring in fruits and vegetables worldwide, yet consumer-acceptable options for post-harvest disease management are still insufficient. We evaluated the effect of potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate (B4K2O7.4H2O (PTB on the growth of P. carotovorum using strain BA17 as a representative of high virulence. Complete inhibition of bacterial growth was achieved by treatment with PTB at 100 mM both at pH 9.2 and after adjustment to pH 7.0. Bactericidal activity was quantified and validated by counting fluorescently labeled live and dead bacterial cells using flow cytometry, and reconfirmed using qPCR with high-affinity photoreactive DNA binding dye propidium monoazide (PMA. The results of flow cytometry, qPCR, and culturing confirmed that bacterial cells were killed following exposure to PTB at 100 mM. Bacterial cell membranes were damaged following a 5-min treatment and extrusion of cytoplasmic material from bacterial cells was observed using electronic transmission microscopy. Soft rot incidence on inoculated tomato fruit was significantly reduced by dipping infected fruits in PTB at 100 mM for 5 min and no lesions developed following a 10-min treatment. PTB does not pose a hazard to human health and is an effective alternative to other bactericides and antibiotics for controlling soft rot disease of tomato caused by P. carotovorum.

  17. Antibacterial Effect of Potassium Tetraborate Tetrahydrate against Soft Rot Disease Agent Pectobacterium carotovorum in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Firas A; Arif, Mohammad; Alvarez, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum is one of most common bacterial diseases occurring in fruits and vegetables worldwide, yet consumer-acceptable options for post-harvest disease management are still insufficient. We evaluated the effect of potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate (B 4 K 2 O 7 .4H 2 O) (PTB) on the growth of P. carotovorum using strain BA17 as a representative of high virulence. Complete inhibition of bacterial growth was achieved by treatment with PTB at 100 mM both at pH 9.2 and after adjustment to pH 7.0. Bactericidal activity was quantified and validated by counting fluorescently labeled live and dead bacterial cells using flow cytometry, and reconfirmed using qPCR with high-affinity photoreactive DNA binding dye propidium monoazide (PMA). The results of flow cytometry, qPCR, and culturing confirmed that bacterial cells were killed following exposure to PTB at 100 mM. Bacterial cell membranes were damaged following a 5-min treatment and extrusion of cytoplasmic material from bacterial cells was observed using electronic transmission microscopy. Soft rot incidence on inoculated tomato fruit was significantly reduced by dipping infected fruits in PTB at 100 mM for 5 min and no lesions developed following a 10-min treatment. PTB does not pose a hazard to human health and is an effective alternative to other bactericides and antibiotics for controlling soft rot disease of tomato caused by P. carotovorum.

  18. The Use of Antioxidants to Control Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of Fusarium spp were isolated from pepper plants collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Fusarium solani isolate FP2 and F. oxysporum isolate FP4 were highly pathogenic isolates but the other isolates moderate or less pathogenic to pepper plants (cv. Anaheim-M. The four antioxidant compounds (coumaric acid, citric acid, propylgalate and salicylic acid each at 100 and 200 ppm were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo agonist to Fusarium pathogenic isolates caused root rot and wilt diseases in pepper plants. All tested antioxidant compounds reduced damping-off, root rot/wilt and area under root rot/wilt progress curve when used as seed soaking, seedling soaking, and soil drench especially at 200 ppm under greenhouse and field conditions compared with untreated plants. All chemicals increased fresh and dry weight of seedling grown in soil drenching or seed treatment with any antioxidants. At the same time, all tested chemicals significantly increase plant growth parameters i.e plant length, plant branching, and total yield per plant in case of seedling soaking or soil drench. In general, propylgalate at 200 ppm was more efficient in reducing infection with damping-off, root rot and wilt diseases as well as increasing the seedling fresh weight, dry weight, plant length, plant branching, number of pod plant-1 and pod yield plant-1. On the other hand, all tested antioxidants had less or no effect on mycelial dry weight and mycelial leaner growth. On the contrary, all chemicals much reduced spore formation in both Fusarium species at 100 or 200 ppm and the inhibitory effect of antioxidants increased with increasing their concentrations.

  19. Occurrence of broad bean (Vicia faba L. diseases in Olsztyn-Elbąg and Bydgoszcz Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Sadowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1981-1985, there were conducted studies of the healthiness of broad bean,'Nadwiślański' variety, cultivated in different soil and climate conditions of the two regions: i.e. Bydgoszcz - comparatively warmer and drier, and Olsztyn-Elbląg - colder and moister. It was found that the main reason for a premature broad bean leaves dry in up in the Olsztyn-Elbląg Region was caused by the fungi Cercospora and Botrytis, and in the Bydgoszcz Region - the root rot which occurs here to a greater extent. Root gangrene was greater intensity in drier and lighter soils. Rotting broad bean roots were most frequently occupied by the fungi of the Fusarium family (ca. 70%. The prevailing species were Fusarium oxysporum, next F. solani and more rarely F. culmorum and F. avenaceum. Climate conditions and soil species affected considerably the species composition of the root fungi.

  20. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Sprouts Germinated under Red Light Irradiation Induce Disease Resistance against Bacterial Rotting Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650-660), far red (720-730) and blue (440-450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were co...

  1. Basal Root Rot, a new Disease of Teak (Tectona grandis in Malaysia caused by Phellinus noxius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farid, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal root rot of teak was first reported from Sabak Bernam, Selangor making this the first report of the disease on teak in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungus found associated with the disease was Phellinus noxious. The disease aggressively killed its host irrespective of the host health status. Bark depression at the root collar which was visible from a distance was the characteristic symptom and the main indicator in identifying the disease in the plantation since above ground symptoms of the canopy could not be differentiated from crowns of healthy trees. However, although above ground symptoms were not easily discernible, the disease was already advanced and the trees mostly beyond treatment; 3.4 % of the trees in the plantation were affected and the disease occurred both on solitary trees and in patches. Below ground, infected trees had rotted root systems, mainly below and around the collar region with brown discolored wood and irregular golden-brown honeycomb-like pockets of fungal hyphae in the wood. Pathogenicity tests showed that the fungus produced symptoms similar to those observed in the plantation and killed two year-old teak plants. The disease killed all the inoculated hosts within three months, irrespective of wounded or unwounded treatments.

  2. The Growth of Root Rot Disease on Pepper Seed Applied by Trichoderma Harzianum Inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sofian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Root rot disease on pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici is one of the most important diseases on pepper. The using of antagonistic fungus of Trichoderma harzianum as a biological control agent of the pathogen is one of the important alternatives in controlling P. capsici without causing negative effects on the environment. The objectives of the research were to study about the ability of T. harzianum inoculum application in inhibiting the development of root-rot disease, influenced the growth of pepper seed, to studythe effective length time application of T. harzianum inoculum in inhibiting the development of root rot disease, and increased the growth of pepper seedlings. This research was arranged in a completely randomized design, with five treatments of length time application of T. harzianum inoculum i.e. control treatment without applicationtime of T. harzianum inoculum (K, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 0 week (S0, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 1 week (S1, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for two weeks (S2, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for three weeks (S3, and application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 4 weeks (S4 before planting. Each treatment was repeated15 times. The observed parameterswere disease percentage, the inhibition of antagonistic fungus, disease infection rate, plant height, number of leaves, wet and dry weight of plant, stem and leaves on pepper seed, and P. capsici population density. The result showed that application time of T. harzianum inoculumfor 4 weeks (S4 before planting is the most effective time in inhibiting the development of root rot disease than the other treatment sand also had significant effect on increasing the growth of pepper seed. The antagonism test showed that T. harzianum could inhibit P. capsiciin vitro. This result proves that application time of T. harzianum inoculums

  3. Pathological and rhizospherical studies on root-rot disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abd El-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: lnawar@kau.edu.sa. Accepted ... 1983; Abdel-el-Rehim et al., 1987). Biological control of plant diseases especially soilborne ...... Studies on the rhizosphere microflora of a desert plant. Folia Microbiol. 9: 1.

  4. Pathological and rhizospherical studies on root-rot disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations from diseased squash roots revealed the presence of Alternaria tenuis, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Rhizoctonia solani. The last two fungi were more frequent than any of the other fungi. Pathogenicity tests proved that squash plants were highly vulnerable to attack by Fusarium solani and ...

  5. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat and field beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hak, T.M.; Kamel, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Wheat disease in Egypt is reviewed and results of mutation breeding by γ irradiation for disease resistance in wheat and field beans are described. Wheat mutants of the variety Giza 155 resistant to leaf rust, Giza 156 resistant to both leaf and yellow rusts, and Tosson with a reasonable level of combined resistance to the three rusts in addition to mutants of the tetraploid variety Dakar 52 with a good level of stem and yellow rust resistance are required. Their seeds were subjected to 10, 15 and 20 krad. Of 3000-3700 M 2 plants from each variety and dosage, 22 plants from both Giza 155 and Giza 156, although susceptible, showed a lower level of disease development. In 1975, M 3 families of these selected plants and 6000 plants from bulked material were grown from each variety and dosage at two locations. Simultaneously, an additional population consisting of 3000 mutagen-treated seeds was grown to have a reasonable chance of detecting mutants; 2 heads from each plant were harvested. These will be grown next season (1976) to make a population of 25,000-30,000 M 2 plants and screened to composite cultures of specific rusts. Vicia faba seeds of field bean varieties Giza 1, Giza 2 and Rebaya 40, equally susceptible to rust and chocolate spot, were subjected to 3, 5 and 7 krad of 60 Co gamma radiation and 800 M 1 plants were grown in 1972 per variety and dose. Up to this later growing season (M 3 ) no resistance was detected in M 3 plank

  6. Catecholamine biosynthesis pathway potentially involved in banana defense mechanisms to crown rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassois, L; De Clerck, C; Frettinger, P; De Lapeyre De Bellaire, L; Lepoivre, P; Haïssam Jijakli, M

    2011-01-01

    Variations in Cavendish bananas susceptibility to crown rot disease have been observed (Lassois et al., 2010a), but the molecular mechanisms underlying these quantitative host-pathogen relationships were still unknown. The present study was designed to compare gene expression between bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA, 'Grande-Naine') showing a high post-harvest susceptibility (S+) and bananas showing a low post-harvest susceptibility (S-) to crown rot disease. This comparison was performed between crowns (S+ and S-) collected one hour before standardized artificial inoculations with Colletotrichum musae. Fruit susceptibility was evaluated through lesion size on the crown 13 days later. Gene expression comparisons were performed with the cDNA-AFLP technique (Lassois et al., 2009). This revealed that a gene showing a strong homology with a dopamine-beta-monooxygenase (DoH) is differently expressed between S+ and S (Lassois et al., 2011). Furthermore, semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses between S+ and S- were applied to confirm the differential expression results for DoH obtained by cDNA-AFLP. Two biological replicates were tested. These semi-quantitative analyses were performed not only on tissues collected one hour before C. musae inoculation but also on crown tissues collected 13 days after inoculation. The real-time RT-PCR confirmed that DoH was upregulated in the S tissues collected at harvest, just before C. musae inoculation. This gene was also highly upregulated in the S- tissues collected 13 days after crown inoculation. Similar results were obtained for both biological replicates. Our results suggest that catecholamine's could play a role in banana defense mechanisms to crown rot disease.

  7. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in wheat and field beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hak, T.M.; Kamel, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Wheat and broad-bean diseases cause considerable losses under Egyptian conditions; therefore, an attempt was made to induce useful mutations in both crops resistant to diseases which may be of direct or indirect use in breeding programmes. The methodology of artificial inoculation, evaluation, selection, radiation levels used are reported, in addition to the economic importance of the varieties used. This work passed through two phases, the first started in the 1972/73 crop season with a small population, while the second in 1974/75 with a larger one to have a better chance of detecting resistant mutants. In the first phase, a total of 3563M 1 wheat plants was grown in addition to approximately 3600-44,000M 2 and 77,646M 3 plants. Twenty-two M 2 plants were selected as showing lower level of leaf rust development, but further tests showed these plants are not true mutants since they rusted at the same level of their parent varieties. Out of the M 3 plants none showed good resistance. In the second phase, 36,000, 277,080 and 289,492 plants of M 1 , M 2 and M 3 , respectively, were grown and 73M 2 plants were selected as showing complete resistance to leaf and stem rusts. In field beans out of the first phase, a total of 5760, 37,200 and 33,240M 1 , M 2 and M 3 plants, respectively, was grown and none showed a good level of disease resistance although some were less diseased. These were further tested and proved not true mutants for reduced disease development. In the second phase, 8747, 203,520 and 90,285 plants of M 1 , M 2 and M 3 , respectively, were grown and 27M 2 plants were selected as showing a lower level of chocolate spot and rust development. The paper also discusses the use of single versus composite cultures in mutation breeding for disease resistance. (author)

  8. RHIZOBACTERIA AS BIOCONTROL AGENTS OF ROOT ROT DISEASE ON SHALLOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunik Iriyanti Ramadhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallot is a high-economic value commodity, but so far the supply is still lower than the demand. One of the production problem is “moler” disease of shallot (MDS caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae (FOCe. The aim of this research was to study the potentiality of shallot rhizobacteria (SRB from various soil ordo to inhibit (MDS. This research was held in the Laboratory of Biology and Soil Health and Greenhouse at UNS. This research was carried out by exploring rhizobacteria of shallot planted on Entisols, Andisols, and Vertisols. Rhizobacteria exploration results were tested for their ability to control Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cepae (FOCe. Inhibitory ability test of SRB to FOCe was carried out in vitro and on shallot in the greenhouse. The green house research used a Completely Randomized Design (CDR with two factors. The first factor was rhizobacteria combination and the second factor was various soil ordo (Andisols, Entisols, and Vertisols. Each treatment was replicated three times. It was obtained three rhizobacteria isolates from Vertisols (B15: 70%, Andisols (B12:45,55%, and Entisols (B10:46,67% being the highest inhibition results to FOCe. The combination of rhizobacteria B12 and B10 provided the lowest intensity.

  9. Improvement of garlic resistance to white rot disease and its productivity and storability using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Mir Ali, N.; Arabi, M.I.D.

    1999-01-01

    A mutation program was conducted to improve garlic (Allium sativum) resistance to white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) and to improve its storability under natural conditions. Cloves of two local garlic cultivars (Kisswany and Yabroudy) were irradiated with gamma ray doses 4, 5, 6 and 7 gray. The cloves were then planted in the the field and plants were advanced for 4 generations in order to isolate mutations in stable form. The results indicated that the cultivar Yabroudy was more sensitive to gamma irradiation than Kisswany. Rate of morphological mutants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Selection pressure against white rot disease was applied starting in the second generation by adding infected garlic leaves to the soil. In the third and fourth generations, however, full selection pressure was applied by inoculating the cloves with the fungus sclerotic and planting them in a soil previously planted with infected garlic plants. Healthy garlic bulbs were harvested and stored under natural conditions and then planted to obtain the next generation. By the end of the fourth generation, we have been able to improve garlic resistance to white rot disease and its storability. Twenty four mutant lines from each garlic cultivar have been selected. Out of the selected lines, twelve lines from cultivar Kisswany had only 3% infection percentage as compared to 29% in the control, and twelve lines from cultivar Yabroudy had less than 5% infection percentage as compared to 20% in the control. Also, we have been able to improve storability under natural conditions. Weight loss during storage decreased from 8.25% in the control to only 4% in some Kisswany lines and from 10% to 3% in some Yabroudy lines. However, we have not been able to increase the bulb weight over the control but the weights of the selected lines were comparable to those of the control. (authors)

  10. Genetic diversity and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with fruit rot disease in banana across Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Murad, N B; Mohamed Nor, N M I; Shohaimi, S; Mohd Zainudin, N A I

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the Fusarium isolates based on translation elongation factor (tef) 1α sequence, to determine the genetic diversity among isolates and species using selected microsatellite markers and to examine the pathogenicity of Fusarium isolates causing fruit rot disease of banana. One-hundred and thirteen microfungi isolates were obtained from fruit rot infected banana in Peninsular Malaysia. However, this study was focused on the dominant number of the discovered microfungi that belongs to the genus Fusarium; 48 isolates of the microfungi have been identified belonging to 11 species of Fusarium, namely Fusarium incarnatum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium camptoceras, Fusarium solani, Fusarium concolor, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium sacchari, Fusarium concentricum and Fusarium fujikuroi. All Fusarium isolates were grouped into their respective clades indicating their similarities and differences in genetic diversity among isolates. Out of 48 Fusarium isolates tested, 42 isolates caused the fruit rot symptom at different levels of severity based on Disease Severity Index (DSI). The most virulent isolate was F. proliferatum B2433B with DSI of 100%. All the isolated Fusarium species were successfully identified and some of them were confirmed as the causal agents of pre- and postharvest fruit rot in banana across Peninsular Malaysia. Our results will provide additional information regarding new report of Fusarium species in causing banana fruit rot and in the search of potential biocontrol agent of the disease. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food bean and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses Onim, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is being reported on a project aiming at genetic improvement of cowpea and Phaseolus bean for better disease resistance using induced mutations. The diseases of concern are anthracnose, angular leaf spot, halo blight and bean rust. Selection was effective in M 3 and M 4 generations and provided some lines with different resistance and yield levels, which will have to be examined further. (author)

  12. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Haddoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51% and root DW (up to 60% for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110% and root DWs (29% and 67%, in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  13. Virulence of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, is an important disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the dry and warmer areas of Puerto Rico and in much of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. The virulence of three isolates from Isabela (Mph-ISA-TARS), Juana Diaz (Mph-JD) a...

  14. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food beans and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onim, J.F.M.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is being used in attempts to obtain more disease resistant variants of bean, cowpea and pigeon pea. In bean M 2 populations large genetic variation for morphological and physiological characters has been observed, but also differences in anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. Cowpea appears to be rather resistant to mutagen treatment and although some variation was induced, the number of mutants appears smaller than in Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  15. Mutation breeding against black pod (Phytophthora pod rot) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opeke, L.K.

    1977-01-01

    Black pod rot disease, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, is an important disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Nigeria and other cacao producing countries of West Africa and Latin America. A naturally occurring source of genetic resistance to the disease has not been found. This paper completes the report, the first part of which was published in Induced Mutations in Vegetatively Propagated Plants, IAEA, Vienna (1973). The survivors of the irradiated seedlings reported on in this publication were transplanted to the field along with their controls. When the Phytophthora pod disease season began in 1973, all experimental plants along with the controls were sprayed with active and freshly prepared dense sporangial suspension of P. palmivora. Observations on Phytophthora infection were recorded at two-weekly intervals for three months. Results were pooled for each set of experimental plants, after having confirmed that no marked difference appeared among individual plants of each group. Contrary to the observations recorded at the nursery stage, all experimental plants that showed no infection indicated disease infection levels normally characteristic of the F 3 Amazon cultivar of Cacao in Nigeria. Although the nursery and the field data are difficult to reconcile and interpret, it is suggested that probably temporary disease tolerance/resistance, which some irradiated plants showed at the nursery (seedling) stage, was lost as the plants matured, thus suggesting different resistance factor systems for juvenile and mature cacao trees. (author)

  16. The preventive Control of White Root Rot Disease in Small Holder Rubber Plantation Using Botanical, Biological and Chemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The preventive control of white root rot disease in small holder plantation using botanical, biological, and chemical agents. A field and laboratory experiment were conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 in Panumangan, Tulang Bawang - Lampung. The  field experiment was intended to evaluate the effect of  botanical plants (Alpinia galanga, Sansiviera auranthii, and Marantha arundinacea, biological agents (organic matter and Trichoderma spp., and chemical agents (lime and natural sulphur on the incidence of white root rot disease and population of some soil microbes. The laboratory experiment was conducted  to observe the mechanism of botanical agents  in controlling white root rot disease. In the field experiment, the treatments were applied  in the experimental plot with cassava plant infection as the indicator. The variables  examined were the incidence of  white root rot and population of soil microbes. In the laboratory experiment, culture of R. microporus was grown in PDA containing root exudate of the antagonistic plant (botanical agent. The variable examined was colony diameter of R. microporus growing in the PDA plates. The results of the  field experiment  showed that planting of the botanical agents, and application of Trichoderma spp., as well as natural sulphur, decreased the incidence of white root rot disease. The effectiveness of M. arundinacea and Trichoderma spp. was comparable to natural  sulphur. The laboratory experiment showed only root exudate of  A. galanga and  S. auranthii that were significantly inhibit the growth of R. microporus.

  17. Transgenic Amorphophallus konjac expressing synthesized acyl-homoserine lactonase (aiiA) gene exhibit enhanced resistance to soft rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Huifang; Chai, Xinli; Lin, Yongjun; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Donghai; Zhou, Yi; Zou, Yulan; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2009-12-01

    Amorphophallus konjac is an important economic crop widely used in health products and biomaterials. However, this monocotyledonous plant's production is seriously restricted by soft rot disease. Some Bacillus thuringiensis strains generate an endocellular acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA), which has inhibitory effect on soft rot pathogen through disrupting the signal molecules (N-acylhomoserine lactones, AHL) of their Quorum Sensing system. The aim of our study is to obtain transgenic A. konjac expressing AiiA protein and exhibiting resistance to soft rot. But till now, there is not any report about exogenous gene transformation in A. konjac. In this research, an Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was constructed. An aiiA gene was synthesized according to the codon usage in A. konjac. Embryogenic callus was infected with the A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the plant transformation plasmid pU1301 plus synthesized aiiA gene. After antibiotics screening, 34 plants were obtained. PCR analysis showed that positive amplified fragments were present in 21 out of these 34 lines. Southern blot analysis indicated that aiiA gene had integrated into the genome of A. konjac. Western blotting demonstrated that the target protein of interest was reactive with the antibody against AiiA. Further disease resistance detection revealed that all of the tested transgenic A. konjac lines exhibited high resistance to soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora (Ecc) SCG1. The protocol is useful for the quality improvement of A. konjac through genetic transformation.

  18. Potassium and Phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  19. Evaluating the Ability of some Medicinal Plants for Controlling Rhizopus (Rhizopu snigricans and Black Spot Rot (Alternaria alternate as Postharvest Diseases in Tomato Produced under Conventional and Organic Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Seyyedi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction After crops harvesting, conditions and durations of storage are considered as the most crucial factors formaintaining the nutritional value and quality of agro-horticultural products such as tomato (Lycopersicom esculentum Mill. and its waste reduction. However, the rhizopus rot (Rhizopus stolonifer and black spot rot (Alternaria alternate are the most important postharvest diseases in tomato during storage. In other word, among the factors reducing quality of the postharvest tomato, Rhizopus nigricans Ehrenb. (Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria alternate (Fr.:Fr. Keissl. f. sp. lycopersici paly a special role in the contaminated tomato fruits that can affect its taste, firmness and stiffness. In recent years, due to the problems and threats arising from the use of chemical fungicides in agricultural systems, principled management of alternative biological approaches for reducing the postharvest contamination in tomato, especially during storage, is emphasized more than ever. Considering these conditions, the current study was aimed to investigate the effects of some medicinal plants including thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L., peppermint (Mentha piperita L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules L., caster bean (Ricinus communis L. and tomato in their ability to control the rhizopus (Rhizopus nigricans and black spot rot (Alternaria alternate in tomato production under conventional and organic cropping systems. Materials and methods The experiment was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during theyear of 2010. A completely randomized design was used based on factorial arrangement with three replications and 14 treatments. Two cropping production systems (conventional and organic and seven medicinal plants (thyme, pennyroyal, peppermint, eucalyptus, caster bean, tomato and control were the first and the second experimental factors, respectively. After collecting plant samples

  20. Quantifying the Severity of Phytophthora Root Rot Disease in Avocado Trees Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arachchige Surantha Ashan Salgadoe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root rot (PRR infects the roots of avocado trees, resulting in reduced uptake of water and nutrients, canopy decline, defoliation, and, eventually, tree mortality. Typically, the severity of PRR disease (proportion of canopy decline is assessed by visually comparing the canopy health of infected trees to a standardised set of photographs and a corresponding disease rating. Although this visual method provides some indication of the spatial variability of PRR disease across orchards, the accuracy and repeatability of the ranking is influenced by the experience of the assessor, the visibility of tree canopies, and the timing of the assessment. This study evaluates two image analysis methods that may serve as surrogates to the visual assessment of canopy decline in large avocado orchards. A smartphone camera was used to collect red, green, and blue (RGB colour images of individual trees with varying degrees of canopy decline, with the digital photographs then analysed to derive a canopy porosity percentage using a combination of ‘Canny edge detection’ and ‘Otsu’s’ methods. Coinciding with the on-ground measure of canopy porosity, the canopy reflectance characteristics of the sampled trees measured by high resolution Worldview-3 (WV-3 satellite imagery was also correlated against the observed disease severity rankings. Canopy porosity values (ranging from 20–70% derived from RGB images were found to be significantly different for most disease rankings (p < 0.05 and correlated well (R2 = 0.89 with the differentiation of three disease severity levels identified to be optimal. From the WV-3 imagery, a multivariate stepwise regression of 18 structural and pigment-based vegetation indices found the simplified ratio vegetation index (SRVI to be strongly correlated (R2 = 0.96 with the disease rankings of PRR disease severity, with the differentiation of four levels of severity found to be optimal.

  1. Severity of angular leaf spot and rust diseases on common beans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    plants has been shown to reduce pest and disease damage (Trenbath, 1993). Boudreau and Mundt (1992) and Fininsa. (1996) reported reduced rust severities for beans intercropped with maize. Fungal disease control in intercrops is believed to result from effects such as host dilution. (reduced numbers of susceptible ...

  2. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália.

  3. Efficacy of four plant extracts in the control of root rot disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garcinia cola) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts in the control of root rot of cowpea caused by Pythium aphanidermatum was carried out in vitro and in the field (in vivo). They were evaluated for their antifungal activity over P.

  4. Identification of Quorum Quenching Bacteria and Its Biocontrol Potential Against Soft Rot Disease Bacteria, Dickeya Dadantii

    OpenAIRE

    Khoiri, Syaiful; Damayanti, Tri Asmira; Giyanto, Giyanto

    2017-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii is one of newly found bacteria causing soft rot on orchids in Indonesia. Infected plants showed severe rot rapidly only in few days. An effort to control the bacteria was conducted by utilizing selected quorum quenching (QQ) inducer bacteria which produce AHL-lactonase by aiiA gene. The aims of this research were to screen and identify of quorum quenching bacteria, and also assayed their biocontrol potential ability against D. dadantii in laboratory. The screening of QQ bacte...

  5. Root rot diseases of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L as affected by defloliation intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of sugar beet re-growth after water stress defoliation on root rots of three cultivars (Europa, Rival Corsica, which were spring sown in Thessaly, central Greece, for two growing seasons (2003-04. At the beginning of July, sugar beets were subjected to water deficit with irrigation withholding. A month later, three defoliation levels (control - C, moderate - MD, severe - SD and irrigation were applied. Thus, sugar beets were forced to re-grow and three harvests (15, 30 and 40 days after defoliation - DAD were conducted. Rotted roots per hectare were counted and pathogens were identified. Data were analyzed as a four-factor randomized complete block design with years, defoliation levels, sampling times and cultivars as main factors. The number of rotted roots was increased with the defoliation level and was significantly higher for SD sugar beets (3748 roots ha–1. No significant differences were found between C and MD treatments (1543 and 2116 roots ha–1, respectively. Rival was the most susceptible cultivar to root rots. Sugar beets were more susceptible to rotting 15 and 40 DAD (2778 and 2998 roots ha–1. The causal agents of root rots were the fungi, Fusarium spp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani.

  6. Fengycin produced by Bacillus subtilis 9407 plays a major role in the biocontrol of apple ring rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haiyan; Ru, Jinjiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qi; Li, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Apple ring rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a serious apple disease in China. Bacillus subtilis 9407 was isolated from healthy apples and showed strong antifungal activity against B. dothidea. To identify the primary antifungal compound of B. subtilis 9407 and determine its role in controlling apple ring rot, a transposon mutant library was constructed using TnYLB-1, and a mutant completely defective in antifungal activity was obtained. The gene inactivated in the antifungal activity mutant had 98.5% similarity to ppsB in B. subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168, which encodes one of the five synthetases responsible for synthesizing fengycin. A markerless ppsB deletion mutant was constructed. Compared with the wild-type strain, lipopeptide crude extracts from ΔppsB showed almost no inhibition of B. dothidea mycelial growth. Furthermore, fengycin-like lipopeptides (retention factor 0.1-0.2) that exhibited antifungal activity against B. dothidea were observed in the wild-type strain by thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography analysis, but not in ΔppsB. Semipreparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) detection revealed that ΔppsB lost the ability to synthesize fengycin. These results suggest that ppsB is responsible for synthesizing fengycin and that fengycin is the major antifungal compound produced by B. subtilis 9407 against B. dothidea. Moreover, a biocontrol assay showed that the control efficacy of ΔppsB was reduced by half compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that fengycin plays a major role in controlling apple ring rot disease. This is the first report on the use of a B. subtilis strain as a potential biological control agent to control apple ring rot disease by the production of fengycin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant against Fusarium verticillioides to Control Stalk and Ear Rot Disease of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Narayan Borah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.. F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l-1 resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides.

  8. Biocontrol of the Potato Blackleg and Soft Rot Diseases Caused by Dickeya dianthicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoul des Essarts, Yannick; Cigna, Jérémy; Quêtu-Laurent, Angélique; Caron, Aline; Munier, Euphrasie; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Hélias, Valérie; Faure, Denis

    2015-10-23

    Development of protection tools targeting Dickeya species is an important issue in the potato production. Here, we present the identification and the characterization of novel biocontrol agents. Successive screenings of 10,000 bacterial isolates led us to retain 58 strains that exhibited growth inhibition properties against several Dickeya sp. and/or Pectobacterium sp. pathogens. Most of them belonged to the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. In vitro assays revealed a fitness decrease of the tested Dickeya sp. and Pectobacterium sp. pathogens in the presence of the biocontrol agents. In addition, four independent greenhouse assays performed to evaluate the biocontrol bacteria effect on potato plants artificially contaminated with Dickeya dianthicola revealed that a mix of three biocontrol agents, namely, Pseudomonas putida PA14H7 and Pseudomonas fluorescens PA3G8 and PA4C2, repeatedly decreased the severity of blackleg symptoms as well as the transmission of D. dianthicola to the tuber progeny. This work highlights the use of a combination of biocontrol strains as a potential strategy to limit the soft rot and blackleg diseases caused by D. dianthicola on potato plants and tubers. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Severe Outbreak of a Yellow Mosaic Disease on the Yard Long Bean in Bogor, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ASMIRA DAMAYANTI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During 2008 crop season, an outbreak of severe yellow mosaic disease on yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquipedalis occurred in several farmers’ fields in West Java. Yard long bean var. Parade inoculated manually with extracts from symptomatic leaves showed the symptoms indicating the presence of virus. Symptomatic leaf samples tested positive in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with antibodies to group specific Potyvirus and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Total RNA derived from symptomatic leaves was subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using primers specific to the cylindrical inclusion (CI protein of potyviruses and CMV coat protein (CP specific primers. Pair wise comparison of sequences obtained from cloned RT-PCR products with corresponding nucleotide sequences in the GenBank confirmed the presence of Bean common mosaic virus strain Blackeye (BCMV-BlC and CMV in the symptomatic beans. Sequences of BCMV and CMV isolates from the beans showed maximum nucleotide sequence identities (92-97% and (90%, respectively with BCMV-BIC and CMV isolates from Taiwan. Each virus isolate also clustered closely with corresponding isolates from Taiwan in a phylogenetic analyses. These results provide first evidence of the occurrence of multiple infection of BCMV-BIC and CMV in the yard long been from Bogor, West Java.

  10. Severidade da podridão-radicular de Rhizoctonia do feijoeiro influenciada pela calagem, e pelas fontes e doses de nitrogênio Severity of Rhizoctonia root rot in beans influenced by liming, nitrogen sources and rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Ávila Rodrigues

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da calagem e de doses e fontes de N na severidade da podridão-radicular de Rhizoctonia (PRR em feijoeiro em condições controladas. No primeiro ensaio, utilizaram-se as doses de 0, 1,75, 2,25, 2,75, 3,25 e 3,75 g de calcário dolomítico por quilograma de solo. No segundo ensaio, os tratamentos constituíram um fatorial 2x6, ou seja: duas fontes de N (sulfato de amônio e nitrato de sódio e seis doses de N (0, 11, 16, 21, 26 e 31 mg kg-1 de solo. A acidez do material de solo usado no segundo ensaio foi corrigida com 1,75 g de calcário por quilograma de solo. Foram colocados 16 g de grãos de arroz infestados por R. solani em cada vaso com 1 kg de material de solo. Utilizou-se, em ambos os ensaios, o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. A severidade da PRR foi avaliada 25 dias após a emergência das plantas, atribuindo-se nota para cada planta de acordo com o tamanho das lesões formadas no hipocótilo. Os dados obtidos foram usados para calcular o índice de doença (ID, %. Foram obtidas equações lineares significativas que permitiram descrever as relações entre a calagem e fontes de N com a severidade da PRR. Houve um acréscimo de 32% no ID, em virtude das doses crescentes de calcário. Após a calagem, a aplicação de sulfato de amônio reduziu em 22% o ID, enquanto o nitrato de sódio o aumentou em 18%, com relação ao controle.The objective of this study was to determine the effects of liming, nitrogen sources and rates on the severity of Rhizoctonia root rot (RRR in beans under controlled conditions. In the first experiment, the soil was amended with 0, 1.75, 2.25, 2.75, 3.25 and 3.75 g of dolomitic lime per kilogram of soil. In the second experiment, the soil was fertilized with 0, 11, 16, 21, 26 and 31 mg N kg-1 of soil, using ammonium sulfate and sodium nitrate as N sources. For the second experiment, soil acidity was adjusted by applying 1.75 g of dolomitic lime per kilogram of

  11. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) sprouts germinated under red light irradiation induce disease resistance against bacterial rotting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650-660), far red (720-730) and blue (440-450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes.

  12. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. sprouts germinated under red light irradiation induce disease resistance against bacterial rotting disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Dhakal

    Full Text Available Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs, including red (650-660, far red (720-730 and blue (440-450 nm or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes.

  13. Armillaria root rot of tea in Kenya : characterization of the pathogen and approaches to disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otieno, W.

    2002-01-01

    The rare occurrence of basidiomata and rhizomorphs constrains diagnosis of Armillaria root rot and identification of Armillaria species in Africa. This has had a negative impact on taxonomic research on the genus Armillaria in the continent, where the

  14. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Satoh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  15. Selection individual on mutant genotype of soybean (Glycine maxl.merrill) in m5 generation based on resistance of stem rot disease Athelia rolfsii (curzi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah, M.; Hanafiah, D. S.; Siregar, L. A. M.; Safni, I.

    2018-02-01

    This study was aimed to obtain selected individuals on soybean plant Glycine max L. (Merrill) in M5 generation based on high production character and tolerance of stem rot disease Athelia rolfsii (Curzi). This research was conducted in Plant Disease Laboratory and experimental field Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan, Indonesia. This research was conducted from December 2016 to June 2017. The treatments were 15 mutant lines genotypes and Anjasmoro variety. The results showed that some lines mutant genotypes can gave the good agronomic appearance character than Anjasmoro variety on inoculation treatment of stem rot disease. Selection performed on population M5 producesselected individuals with tolerance of stem rot disease from 100 and 200 Gy population.

  16. Bioagents and Commercial Algae Products as Integrated Biocide Treatments for Controlling Root Rot Diseases of Some Vegetables under Protected Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar M. Abdel-Kader

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated commercial blue-green algae extracts and bioagents treatments against vegetables root rot incidence when used as soil drench under greenhouse and plastic house conditions were evaluated. All applied treatments reduced significantly root rot incidence at both pre- and postemergence growth stages of cucumber, cantaloupe, tomato, and pepper plants compared with untreated check control. In pot experiment, the obtained results showed that treatments of Trichoderma harzianum or Bacillus subtilis either alone or combined with commercial algae extracts were significantly superior for reducing root rot disease for two tested vegetable plants compared with the other tested treatments as well as control. It is also observed that rising concentrations of either algae products, Oligo-X or Weed-Max, were reflected in more disease reduction. Promising treatments for controlling root rot disease incidence were applied under plastic houses conditions. As for field trails carried out under plastic houses conditions at different locations, the obtained results revealed that the applied combined treatments significantly reduced root rot incidence compared with fungicide and check control treatments. At all locations it was observed that Weed-Max (2 g/L + Bacillus subtilis significantly reduced disease incidence of grown vegetables compared with Oligo-X (2 mL/L + Trichoderma harzianum treatments. An obvious yield increase in all treatments was significantly higher than in the control. Also, the harvested yield in applied combined treatments at all locations was significantly higher than that in the fungicide and control treatments.

  17. Incidence of root rot diseases of soybean in Multan Pakistan and its management by the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.I.; Tahir, M.I.; Mahmood, S.

    2012-01-01

    Eight villages in Multan district were surveyed to record incidence of disease and losses of soybean (Glycine max L.) caused by root rot fungi. The root incidence ranged 10-17% and losses ranged 6.75-15.5%. The evaluation of four PGPR isolates was used in combination with organic amendment for the management of root-rot disease incidence and to reduce the population of root pathogenic fungi and to increase the yield in field. This study demonstrated effective biological control by the PGPR isolates tested, thereby indicating the possibility of application of rhizobacteria for control of soil bor ne diseases of soybean in Pakistan and other countries. (author)

  18. improvement of resistance to fusarium root rot through gene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    PhD. Thesis. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietmeritzburg,. South Africa. Navarro, F., Sass, M.E. and Nienhuis, J. 2003. Identification and mapping bean root rot resistance in an 'Eagle x Puebla 152' population. Annual Report of the Bean. Improvement Cooperative 47:83–84. Park, S.J. and Tu, J.C. 1994. Genetic segregation.

  19. Antagonistic Effect of Native Bacillus Isolates against Black Root Rot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in eastern Africa. Black root rot (Fusarium solani) is known to cause great yield losses in faba bean, especially in the highlands of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological control ability of native Bacillus species on the basis of ...

  20. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao, the source of chocolate and is one of the most destructive diseases of cacao in the Americas. This Basidiomycete only infects cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty ...

  1. Cloning and characterization of a laccase gene from Ganoderma spp. causing basal stem rot disease in coconut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingan Rajendran

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot disease in coconut is caused by the white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum, which is soilborne in nature. Its degree of virulence is governed by the activity of the laccase enzyme. Of twenty-five isolates belonging to the genus Ganoderma obtained from different host species, the isolate from Silent Valley (SV showed the greatest laccase activity in vitro, followed by the isolate from Veppankulam (CRS-1. These two isolates also reacted positively in the laccase assay in vitro. The laccase-positive SV and CRS-1 isolates were further amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using degenerate primers for the partial sequence, which showed the fragment size of 200 bp. The highly virulent SV isolate was cloned in a plasmid vector and sequenced. It was confirmed as a partial-length laccase gene and submitted to the GenBank database. The nucleotide sequence of the DNA of this isolate showed high homology with those of the laccase genes of other basidiomycetes.

  2. Improved Bean Varieties Make a difference in Western Kenya: An Impact Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odendo, M.

    2002-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Kakamega and Vihiga District of Western Kenya during 2001 cropping seasons to analyze impacts of root rot resistance bean varieties introduced in Kakamega and Vihiga Districts by KARI and CIAT between 1989 and 1998. The objective of the study were to: assess adoption of the introduced root rot resistance bush and climbing bean varieties, determine technological and socio-economic factors that enhances or lessen adoption and attainment of the impacts, and examine types and magnitude of the impacts of adoption of the improved bean varieties at farm-level. To form a composite picture on spread and impact of the varieties, a systematic approach was developed to collect and put together data from several sources mainly literature reviews and household surveys. Data were collected through interviews of 233 randomly selected households, using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Tobit model were used to analyse the data. The study showed that although several improved bean varieties were disseminated, most farmers did not adopt all the varieties; 35-80% of the farmers had mainly adopted three bush beans KK22, KK15 and KK8. A relatively small portion of farmers (8-19%) adopted climbers. Disease resistance (root rot) was only one of the criteria, but not the most important one, farmers used in selecting the varieties they adopted. Result of Tobit analysis showed that farmers perception of the trait of the bean varieties as well as farm-farmer characteristics were important determinants of decisions to adopt and intensity the adoption. The main impacts of the new beans were their contribution to equity by improving food self-sufficiency for about 97-99% of te farmers. Most farmers used their bean harvest mainly for subsistence, only a few farmers sold beans in any given season. The 63% of the households that sold beans to earn cash income to purchase other types of food as well as investing in capital assets, especially household

  3. Root interactions in a maize/soybean intercropping system control soybean soil-borne disease, red crown rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum. The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices.

  4. A bionanohybrid ZnAl-NADS ecological pesticide as a treatment for soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Irigoyen, Erika Elizabeth; de Las Mercedes Gómez-Y-Gómez, Yolanda; Flores-Moreno, Jorge Luis; Franco-Hernández, Marina Olivia

    2017-09-18

    Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc) is a phytopathogenic strain that causes soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), resulting in postharvest losses. Chemical control is effective for managing this disease, but overdoses cause adverse effects. Because farmers insist on using chemical agents for crop protection, it is necessary to develop more effective pesticides in which the active compound released can be regulated. In this context, we proposed the synthesis of ZnAl-NADS, in which nalidixic acid sodium salt (NADS) is linked to a ZnAl-NO 3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) host as a nanocarrier. XRD, FT-IR, and SEM analyses confirmed the successful intercalation of NADS into the interplanar LDH space. The drug release profile indicated that the maximum release was completed in 70 or 170 min for free NADS (alone) or for NADS released from ZnAl-NADS, respectively. This slow release was attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between the drug and the anion exchanger. A modulated release is preferable to the action of the bulk NADS, showing increased effectiveness and minimizing the amount of the chemical available to pollute the soil and the water. The fitting data from modified Freundlich and parabolic diffusion models explain the release behavior of the NADS, suggesting that the drug released from ZnAl-NADS bionanohybrid was carried out from the interlamellar sites, according to the ion exchange diffusion process also involving intraparticle diffusion (coeffect). ZnAl-NADS was tested in vitro against Escherichia coli (Ec) and Pc and exhibited bacteriostatic and biocidal effects at 0.025 and 0.075 mg mL -1 , respectively. ZnAl-NADS was also tested in vivo as an ecological pesticide for combating potato soft rot and was found to delay typical disease symptoms. In conclusion, ZnAl-NADS can potentially be used to control pests, infestation, and plant disease.

  5. The Effect of Potassium Nitrate on the Reduction of Phytophthora Stem Rot Disease of Soybeans, the Growth Rate and Zoospore Release of Phytophthora Sojae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of potassium nitrate (KNO3) application on Phytophthora stem rot disease reduction of Glycine max (L.) Merr. cvs. Chusei-Hikarikuro and Sachiyutaka, and fungal growth and zoospore release of a Phytophthora sojae isolate were investigated under laboratory conditions. The application of 4-...

  6. Characteristics and complete genome analysis of a novel jumbo phage infecting pathogenic Bacillus pumilus causing ginger rhizome rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-12-01

    Tailed phages with genomes larger than 200 kbp are classified as jumbo phage and exhibit extremely high diversity. In this study, a novel jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, infecting pathogenic Bacillus pumilus, the cause of ginger rhizome rot disease, was isolated. Notable features of phage vB_BpuM_BpSp are the large phage capsid of 137 nm and baseplate-attached curly tail fibers. The genome of the phage is 255,569 bp in size with G+C content of 25.9 %, and it shows low similarity to known biological entities. The phage genome contains 318 predicted coding sequences. Among these predicted coding sequences, 26 genes responsible for nucleotide metabolism were found, and seven structural genes could be identified. The findings of this study provide new understanding of the genetic diversity of phages.

  7. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivi, M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M. S.; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-01-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease. PMID:27721689

  8. Efficacy of Oryza sativa husk and Quercus phillyraeoides extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of fungal rot disease of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, Victor Ohileobo; Fadina, Olubunmi Omowunmi; Ayodele, Maria; Kumar, P Lava

    2014-01-01

    Tuber rot disease is a major constraint to white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) production, accounting for 50-60% of annual yield losses in Nigeria. The main method of control using synthetic fungicides is being discouraged due to human and environmental health hazards. The potential of Oryza sativa husk (OSH) and Quercus phillyraeoides (QP) extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of six virulent rot-causing fungal pathogens, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium oxalicum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated, using five different extract concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 3.5% w/v. These fungi were isolated from rotted tubers of D. rotundata, across three agroecological zones in Nigeria-the Humid rainforest, Derived savanna, and southern Guinea savanna. All treatments were subjected to three methods of inoculation 48 hours before the application of both extracts and stored at 28 ± 2°C for 6 months. Radial mycelial growth of the test pathogens was effectively inhibited at concentrations ≤ 3.5% w/v in vitro for both OSH and QP extracts. Rotting was significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) to between 0 to 18.8% and 0% to 20.9% for OSH and QP extracts respectively. The extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited percent rot of the test pathogens at 3.5% concentration w/v in vivo. Rot incidence was, however, lower in replicate tubers that were inoculated, treated with extracts and exposed than treatments that were covered. Phytochemical analysis of OSH and QP extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, ferulic acid, phlobatanins, Terpenoids, phenols, anthraquinone and pyroligneous acid. The efficacy of both extracts in reducing rot in this study recommends their development as prospective biopesticide formulation and use in the management of post-harvest rot of yam tubers.

  9. Current status and progress of research on the management of bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1. Incidence of root rot and bean stem maggot in four countries of Kisoro district in 1996 and 1997. BSM + root rot. Country. Total No. No of plants. No affected by. Sampled root rott (out of 40 plants). Mutanda. 360. 356. Kigezi. 480. 443. Bufumbira. 200. 196. Kigezi. 2000. 193. LSD (0.05). 21 .7. %age with root rot alone.

  10. Foot Rot of Ulluco Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke, TOMIOKA; Toyozo, SATO; Tateo, NAKANISHI; National Agricultural Research Center for Western Region; National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences; National Agricultural Research Center for Western Region

    2002-01-01

    Severe rot of stem bases caused by Pythium aphanidermatum was found on ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus) grown in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan, in September 1999. The name "foot rot of ulluco" is proposed for this new disease.

  11. Navy Bean and Rice Bran Intake Alters the Plasma Metabolome of Children at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal cholesterol in childhood predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in adulthood. Navy beans and rice bran have demonstrated efficacy in regulating blood lipids in adults and children; however, their effects on modulating the child plasma metabolome has not been investigated and warrants investigation. A pilot, randomized-controlled, clinical trial was conducted in 38 children (10 ± 0.8 years old with abnormal cholesterol. Participants consumed a snack for 4 weeks containing either: no navy bean or rice bran (control; 17.5 g/day cooked navy bean powder; 15 g/day heat-stabilized rice bran; or 9 g/day navy beans and 8 g/day rice bran. Plasma metabolites were extracted using 80% methanol for global, non-targeted metabolic profiling via ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Differences in plasma metabolite levels after 4 weeks of dietary intervention compared to control and baseline were analyzed using analysis of variance and Welch’s t-tests (p ≤ 0.05. Navy bean and/or rice bran consumption influenced 71 plasma compounds compared to control (p ≤ 0.05, with lipids representing 46% of the total plasma metabolome. Significant changes were determined for 18 plasma lipids in the navy bean group and 10 plasma lipids for the rice bran group compared to control, and 48 lipids in the navy bean group and 40 in the rice bran group compared to baseline. These results support the hypothesis that consumption of these foods impact blood lipid metabolism with implications for reducing CVD risk in children. Complementary and distinct lipid pathways were affected by the diet groups, including acylcarnitines and lysolipids (navy bean, sphingolipids (rice bran, and phospholipids (navy bean + rice bran. Navy bean consumption decreased free fatty acids associated with metabolic diseases (palmitate and arachidonate and increased the relative abundance of endogenous anti-inflammatory lipids

  12. Symptomology and etiology of a new disease, yellow stunt, and root rot of standing milkvetch caused by Embellisia sp. in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Zhong; Nan, Zhi Biao

    2007-06-01

    An Embellisia sp. has been established as the cause of a new disease of the herbaceous perennial forage legume, 'standing milkvetch' (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) in Northern China, which severely reduces plant density and degrades A. adsurgens stands. The disease was common at an experimental location in Gansu Province where it was recognized by the occurrence of stunted plants with reddish-brown stems and yellow and necrotic leaf blades. An Embellisia sp. was isolated from symptomatic stem, leaf blade, petiole, and root tissues at varying frequencies of up to 90%. Single-spore isolates grew very slowly on PCA, PDA, V-8 and, wheat hay decoction agar. Pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation of seeds, dipping 2-day-old pre-germinated seedlings in inoculum and spraying inoculum on 6-month-old plants. Symptoms on test plants included yellow leaf lesions, brown lesions on stems and petioles, stunted side-shoots with yellow, small, distorted and necrotic leaves, shoot blight, bud death, crown rot, root rot, and plant death. The disease is named as 'yellow stunt and root rot' of A. adsurgens to distinguish it from diseases caused by other known pathogens. Embellisia sp. is also pathogenic to A. sinicus but not to 11 other tested plant species.

  13. Effect of irradiation and insect pest control on rots and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus Degeer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is associated with rots in stored yam tubers. The current study was designed to assess the effect of irradiation and other insect pest control strategies on rots and sensory quality of stored yams. 450 tubers each of two varieties of white yam ...

  14. Co-segregation analysis and mapping of the anthracnose Co-10 and angular leaf spot Phg-ON disease resistance genes in common bean cultivar Ouro Negro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) are devastating diseases of common bean. Ouro Negro is a highly productive Mesoamerican black-seeded common bean cultivar possessing the dominant Co-10 and Phg-ON genes that confer resistance to ANT and ALS, respectively. In this study we elucidate the ...

  15. Response of the Andean diversity panel to root rot in a root rot nursery in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Andean Diversity Panel (ADP) was evaluated under low-fertility and root rot conditions in two trials conducted in 2013 and 2015 in Isabela, Puerto Rico. About 246 ADP lines were evaluated in the root rot nursery with root rot and stem diseases caused predominantly by Fusarium solani, which cause...

  16. Integrated Management of Damping-off, Root and/or Stem Rot Diseases of Chickpea and Efficacy of the Suggested Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eleven fungal isolates were isolated from naturally infected chickpea roots collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate (Egypt. The isolated fungi were purified and identified as Rhizoctonia solani (5 isolates, Fusarium solani (4 isolates and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (2 isolates. The isolated fungi proved their pathogenicity on cv. Giza 3. Response of chickpea cvs. Giza 1, Giza 2, Giza 3, Giza 4, Giza 88, Giza 195, Giza 531 to infection by the tested fungi was significantly varied. Giza 1 was the most resistant one followed by Giza 531, while the other tested cvs. were highly susceptible. Seven biocontrol agents, namely Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, B. cereus, Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. isolated from chickpea rhizosphere, were tested for their antagonistic action against the tested pathogens. B. subtilis isolate BSM1, B. megaterium isolate TVM5, T. viride isolate TVM2 and T. harzianum isolate THM4 were the most antagonistic ones to the tested fungi in vitro, while the other isolates were moderate or weak antagonists. The most antagonistic isolates as well as the commercial biocide Rhizo-N were applied as seed treatment for controlling damping-off, root and/or stem rot diseases caused by the tested fungi under greenhouse conditions. The obtained data showed that all tested antagonistic isolates were able to cause significant reduction of damping-off, root and/or stem rot diseases in chickpea plants. T. viride (isolate TVM2 and B. megaterium (isolate BMM5 proved to be the most effective isolates for controlling the diseases. Under field condition, the obtained data indicated that all the tested antagonistic isolates significantly reduced damping-off, root and/or stem rot. T. viride (isolate TVM2 and B. megaterium (isolate BMM5 recorded the highest reduction of damping-off, root and/or stem rot in all sowing dates. Sowing of treated seeds with bioagents in first of November gave the

  17. A review of the Phytophthora pod rot disease situation in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of Phytophthora megakarya, which until 1985 was unknown in Ghana, has changed the status of black pod disease of cocoa in the country. Hitherto, only Phytophthora palmivora was known to be present. This paper reviews the Phytophthora pod disease situation, the origin, distribution, incidence and ...

  18. Original Article. In vitro evaluation of potato genotypes for resistance against bacterial soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum – a new tool for studying disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadmanesh Sima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro screening techniques were used to evaluate 46 genotypes of Iranian potato collection for resistance to bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc. One month old in vitro rooted potato plantlets were inoculated by two inoculation techniques under in vitro conditions: 1 sterile toothpicks dipped into bacterial suspension and pressed into the crown of plantlets and 2 the freshly cut crown of plantlets were dipped into bacterial suspension of 108 cfu ∙ ml-1 for 10 min. Typical soft rot disease symptoms, including the percentage of wilted leaves were recorded on inoculated plantlets 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post-inoculation. The potato genotypes which were examined responded differently to Pcc and varying levels of resistance were observed. Potato genotype AG showed the highest level of resistance. Results obtained from in vitro screening were then verified by classical tuber slice assay. The verifications were conducted using five representative cultivars: Milva, Ramus, Picaso, Marfona and Agria which responded similarly to both in vitro and classical evaluation systems. Similar results obtained from these tests indicated that the in vitro screening technique developed in this study could provide a simple and rapid whole plant assay in selecting resistant potato genotypes against bacterial soft rot.

  19. The roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the intensity of the foot rot disease on pepper plant from the infected soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Fauziyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Piper nigrum L. is an important spice plant of  Indonesia. In Bangka Belitung Province, the main pepper producer, pepper has been the most commonly cultivated commodity. However, the production has declined from time to time. One of the causes of the decline is Pepper Fot Rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici. The rapid spread and development of the disease is mainly due to utilization of diseased plant materials for pepper cuttings and infested or diseased plantation soil. The materials used in this research included the infected soil taken from the infectedpepper plantation at Bangka Island with disease intensity of pepper foot rot 60%, inoculum of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi in the zeolite medium, compost, and pepper seedling from Natar variety. This research was done by planting pepper seedling on infected soil and observing plant height, disease intensity, and infection of AM fungi on the roots. The results showed that soil from diseased pepper plants harbored high population of plant pathogens inoculum and caused the death of 9 week-old cuttings and retarded growth of the survivors. Sterilization of the infected soil with hot water vapor for 3 hours still could not control the pathogen. Good growth was observed on one node cutting planted in sterile soil amended with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  20. BIOCONTROL FOR RHIZOCTONIA STEM ROT DISEASE BY USING COMBINATION OF SPECIFIC ENDOPHYTE IN PADDY TIDAL SWAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismed Setya Budi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of combination of specific endophytic in tidal swamps to control stem root disease as biological control agents has not been done. It is expected that this combination is able to continuously protect plants from pathogen interference. The research was carried out in type C tidal swamp in Banjar regency of South Kalimantan, from March to November 2011, temperature 29-32oC, and pH 4.0-5.5. The method used was Split Plot design. Biocontrol preparation for both types of endophytic was applied in seeds in 7 days after planting (DAP. Observation on high intensity and plant diseases of planting stage on tidal swamps (taradak, ampak and lacak was conducted. The results showed that there was a reduction of disease ranging from 58.70 to 87.29%. The application of combination of two biocontrol agents (T. viride PS-2.1 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8, (Fusarium non-pathogenic PS-1.5 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8 and (T. viride PS-2.1+ FNP PS-1.5 isolate gave the best inhibition result, reduced disease intensity, and increased plant height. The result of soil analysis before and after application of endophytic showed that there was an increase in soil fertility with the element addition of N, P, K and pH.

  1. Screening of chitinolytic actinomycetes for biological control of Sclerotium rolfsii stem rot disease of chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Pattanapipitpaisal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and eighty three strains were isolated from rhizoshere-associated soils, from Ubon Ratchathani andSrisaket province, using Enrichment Media for isolation of Chitinase-producing Actinomycetes agar (EMCA agar. All strainswere screened for chitinolytic activity and sixty eight strains gave significant clear zone on EMCA agar plates. The selectedchitinolytic strains were assayed for in vitro antagonism against Sclerotium rolfsii using cornmeal agar (CMA agar assayprocedure and the result showed that thirteen isolates have remarkable inhibiting the growth of the fungus and the top fiveantagonistic actinomycetes were PACCH 277, PACCH129, PACCH225, PACCH24 and PACCH246, respectively. The resultindicated that these actinomycetes produce chitinase which catalyze the degradation of chitin, resulting in inhibition of S.rolfsii growth. Their abilities to control the disease development were tested for in vivo biocontrol assay on chilli seedlings.Two out of thirteen candidate, PACCH24 and PACCH225, antagonists reduced the disease development at 90%. It wassuggested that the ability to inhibit the growth of pathogen in vitro was not related to the disease reduction in vivo. Thestrain PACCH24 was further identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus according to morphological characteristic, cell walland cellular sugar analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. The study implies a novel chitinolytic actinomycete which could bedeveloped to be a biological agent which would be included as a complement with organic fertilizers in order to control stemrot disease and promote growth of chilli.

  2. Induction of defense responses in common bean plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, G M; El-Haddad, S A; Hafez, E E; Rashad, Y M

    2011-05-20

    Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a bio-agent and Rhizoctonia root rot disease of common bean plant was investigated in this study under natural conditions in pot experiment. A mixture of Egyptian formulated AM (Multi-VAM) in suspension form (1 × 10(6) unit L(-1) in concentration) was used at dilution of 5 ml L(-1) water. The results demonstrated that colonization of bean plants with AM fungi significantly increased growth parameters, yield parameters and mineral nutrient concentrations and reduced the negative effects on these parameters as well as both disease severity and disease incidence. Different physical and biochemical mechanisms have been shown to play a role in enhancement of plant resistance against Rhizoctonia solani, namely, improved plant nutrition, improved plant growth, increase in cell wall thickening, cytoplasmic granulation, and accumulation of some antimicrobial substances (phenolic compounds and defense related enzymes). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  4. A Leaf-Inhabiting Endophytic Bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. KB6, Enhances Sweet Potato Resistance to Black Rot Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chi Eun; Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Kwon, Suk Yoon; An, Donghwan; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-03-01

    Rhodococcus species have become increasingly important owing to their ability to degrade a wide range of toxic chemicals and produce bioactive compounds. Here, we report isolation of the Rhodococcus sp. KB6, which is a new leaf-inhabiting endophytic bacterium that suppresses black rot disease in sweet potato leaves. We determined the 7.0 Mb draft genome sequence of KB6 and have predicted 19 biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites, including heterobactins, which are a new class of siderophores. Notably, we showed the first internal colonization of host plants with Rhodococcus sp. KB6 and discuss its potential as a biocontrol agent for sustainable agriculture.

  5. Green Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Inman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Green beans are thought to have originated in Peru and spread through South and Central America by Indian tribes. Spanish explorers introduced them into Europe in the 16th century. Surveys indicate that 60% of commercially grown green beans are produced in the United States. Particularly, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin produce the greatest amount of green beans in the United States.

  6. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE DE INÓCULO DE Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli NA SEVERIDADE DA PODRIDÃO RADICULAR SECA DO FEIJOEIRO EFFECT OF Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli INOCULUM DENSITY ON DRY ROOT ROT SEVERITY IN THE COMMON BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesimária Ribeiro Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram testadas quatro densidades de inóculo de Fusarium solani, em gramas por litro de solo (1,0; 2,0; 4,0 e 8,0 e um tratamento testemunha, em solo tipo Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, cultivado e não cultivado, com o objetivo de determinar a densidade mínima de inóculo no solo necessária para a ocorrência de podridão radicular seca do feijoeiro. Como variáveis respostas foram avaliadas: número de microorganismos totais do solo, número de propágulos de F. solani, atividade microbiológica total do solo e severidade da doença em plântulas. Os resultados indicaram que a densidade de inóculo do fungo variou com o tipo de solo. Para um solo não cultivado a densidade necessária para causar a doença esteve acima de 5.127 propágulos por grama de solo, enquanto para o solo cultivado a densidade de inóculo para causar doença foi de 3.701 propágulos por grama de solo. Os índices de doença em plântulas cultivadas sob o solo cultivado foram duas vezes superiores ao índice de doença de plântulas sob o solo não cultivado. A atividade microbiológica total nos solos, determinada pela desidrogenase de fluorescina diacetato, não se correlacionou com a população dos microorganismos, indicando que a simples presença desses não implica em que estejam ativos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Solo supressivo; solo conducivo; Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Four densities of Fusarium solani inoculum (1, 2, 4 and 8 g/L of soil were tested for determining the minimum inoculum density for the occurrence of bean dry root rot, in two soil types. The response variables evaluated were the total number of microorganisms in the soil, the number of F. solani f. sp. phaseoli propagules, total soil microbial activity and seedling disease severity

  7. Pseudomonads associated with midrib rot and soft rot of butterhead lettuce and endive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottyn, B; Vanhouteghem, K; Heyrman, J; Bleyaert, P; Van Vaerenbergh, J; De Vos, P; Höfte, M; Maes, M

    2005-01-01

    During the past ten years, bacterial soft rot and midrib rot of glasshouse-grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) and field-grown endive (Cichorium endivia L.) has become increasingly common in the region of Flanders, Belgium. Severe losses and reduced market quality caused by bacterial rot represent an important economical threat for the production sector. Symptoms of midrib rot are a brownish rot along the midrib of one or more inner leaves, often accompanied by soft rot of the leaf blade. Twenty-five symptomatic lettuce and endive samples were collected from commercial growers at different locations in Flanders. Isolations of dominant bacterial colony types on dilution plates from macerated diseased tissue extracts yielded 282 isolates. All isolates were characterized by colony morphology and fluorescence on pseudomonas agar F medium, oxidase reaction, and soft rot ability on detached chicory leaves. Whole-cell fatty acid methyl esters profile analyses identified the majority of isolates (85%) as belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, which included members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (14%) and of the genera Pseudomonas (73%), Stenotrophomonas (9%), and Acinetobacter (3%). Predominant bacteria were a diverse group of fluorescent Pseudomonas species. They were further differentiated based on the non-host hypersensitive reaction on tobacco and the ability to rot potato slices into 4 phenotypic groups: HR-/P- (57 isolates), HR-/P+ (54 isolates), HR+/P (16 isolates) and HR+/P+ (35 isolates). Artificial inoculation of suspensions of HR-, pectolytic fluorescent pseudomonads in the leaf midrib of lettuce plants produced various symptoms of soft rot, but they did not readily cause symptoms upon spray inoculation. Fluorescent pseudomonads with phenotype HR+ were consistently isolated from typical dark midrib rot symptoms, and selected isolates reproduced the typical midrib rot symptoms when spray-inoculated onto healthy lettuce plants.

  8. Involvement of Bacterial Quorum-Sensing Signals in Spoilage of Bean Sprouts

    OpenAIRE

    Rasch, Maria; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Flodgaard, Lars Ravn; Christensen, Henrik; Givskov, Michael; Gram, Lone

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial communication signals, acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), were extracted from samples of commercial bean sprouts undergoing soft-rot spoilage. Bean sprouts produced in the laboratory did not undergo soft-rot spoilage and did not contain AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria, although the bacterial population reached levels similar to those in the commercial sprouts, 108 to 109 CFU/g. AHL-producing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads) were isolated from commercial sprouts, and s...

  9. Marker-Assisted Molecular Profiling, Deletion Mutant Analysis, and RNA-Seq Reveal a Disease Resistance Cluster Associated with Uromyces appendiculatus Infection in Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Antonette R; Donofrio, Nicole; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; McClean, Phillip E; Lee, Rian K; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial; Kalavacharla, Venu Kal

    2017-05-23

    Common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of the common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance to virulent strains or races of the bean rust pathogen along with Crg , (Complements resistance gene), which is required for Ur-3 -mediated rust resistance. In this study, we inoculated two common bean genotypes (resistant "Sierra" and susceptible crg) with rust race 53 of U. appendiculatus , isolated leaf RNA at specific time points, and sequenced their transcriptomes. First, molecular markers were used to locate and identify a 250 kb deletion on chromosome 10 in mutant crg (which carries a deletion at the Crg locus). Next, we identified differential expression of several disease resistance genes between Mock Inoculated (MI) and Inoculated (I) samples of "Sierra" leaf RNA within the 250 kb delineated region. Both marker assisted molecular profiling and RNA-seq were used to identify possible transcriptomic locations of interest regarding the resistance in the common bean to race 53. Identification of differential expression among samples in disease resistance clusters in the bean genome may elucidate significant genes underlying rust resistance. Along with preserving favorable traits in the crop, the current research may also aid in global sustainability of food stocks necessary for many populations.

  10. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus

  11. Fate of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, in weeds and field crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Hukkanen, A.; Karjalainen, R.; Muller, P.

    2005-01-01

    Crops and weeds were tested for their ability to host Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato. Ten crops grown in rotation with potato in Europe, namely maize, wheat, barley, oat, bush bean, broad bean, rape, pea and onion and five cultivars

  12. Induced resistant mutations in alfalfa and broad bean against rust, leaf spot and wilh diseases by Gamma rays and ethylmethanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In alfalfa after gamma irradiation with 50,100, and 150 krads, 38 rust resistant plants have been selected throughout a screening programme. During four months, cuttings were obtained from these plants individually. Results revealed that 20 plants were remar-kably surpassed the origin in the total fresh weight and in the average weight of each cutting. In broad bean, following gamma irradiation and EMS in two cuitivars for induction of wilt resistance. Seeds of these plants were sown in artificially infested soil . During the growing season, all susceptible plants were removed and at epidemic form of wilt disease

  13. Some new and noteworthy diseases of poplars in India. [Botryodiplodia sett-rot; Alternaria tip blight; Cladosporium leaf spot; Fusarium pink incrustation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.

    1983-09-01

    Four new diseases of poplars namely Botryodiplodia sett-rott, Alternaria tip blight, Cladosporium leaf spot and Fusarium pink incrustation are described in this paper. Botryodiplodia palmarum causes sett-rott of poplars both at pre-sprouting and post-sprouting stage. The pathogen also causes mortality of poplar plants in the field within 4-6 weeks after planting. Alternaria stage of Pleuspora infectoria has been found as the cause of blackening and dying of growing tips and young leaves of a Populus sp. and P. deltoides in nurseries. Cladosporium humile has been recorded as the cause of brown spot followed by crumpling and premature shedding of leaves in P. ciliata, P. nigra and P. alba. The cause of Fusarium incrustation disease on P. cilata has been identified as Fusarium sp. of Gibbosum group. Pathogenicity of Botryodiplodia palmarum and Alternaria stage of Pleospora infectoria was confirmed by artificial inoculations. Brief descriptions of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Fusarium are also given. The paper also gives a short account of some noteworthy diseases recorded on poplars namely Ganoderma root rot, foliage ruts and stem cankers. Ganoderma root-rot is found to reach alarming proportions in closely spaced poplar plantations. Melampsora ciliata, an indigenous rust, is found to attack mainly clones of P. deltoides, P. yunnanensis, P. trichocarpa, P. alba and some cultivars of P. x euramericana in nurseries. A brief account of three types of stem cankers i.e. cankers due to pink disease fungus, Corticium salmonicolor, sun-scaled cankers and cankers associated with slime flux on various clones of P. deltoides is also given.

  14. Antifungal activity of fabricated mesoporous alumina nanoparticles against root rot disease of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenashen, Mohamed; Derbalah, Aly; Hamza, Amany; Mohamed, Ahmed; El Safty, Sherif

    2017-06-01

    The present work involved the synthesis and characterisation of mesoporous alumina sphere (MAS) nanoparticles to evaluate their biological activity against tomato root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporium, as compared with the recommended fungicide, tolclofos-methyl, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The effects of MAS nanoparticles on the growth of tomato plants were also evaluated and compared with those of tolclofos-methyl. The physical characteristics and structural features of MAS nanoparticles, such as their large surface-area-to-volume ratio, active surface sites and open channel pores, caused high antifungal efficacy against F. oxysporium. MAS nanoparticles presented an antifungal potential similar to that of tolclofos-methyl and much greater than that of the control under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The highest growth parameters were recorded in tomato plants treated with MAS nanoparticles, followed by those treated with tolclofos-methyl. Our study demonstrated the possible use of cylindrically cubic MAS nanoparticles as an effective alternative for the control of Fusarium root rot in tomato. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Evaluation of the biocontrol efficacy of a Serratia marcescens strain indigenous to tea rhizosphere for the management of root rot disease in tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar Purkayastha, Gargee; Mangar, Preeti; Saha, Aniruddha; Saha, Dipanwita

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate plant growth promoting and biocontrol efficacy of a Serratia marcescens strain ETR17 isolated from tea rhizosphere for the effective management of root rot disease in tea. Isolated bacterial culture ETR17 showed significant level of in vitro antagonism against nine different foliar and root pathogens of tea. The phenotypic and molecular characterization of ETR17 revealed the identity of the bacterium as Serratia marcescens. The bacterium was found to produce several hydrolytic enzymes like chitinase, protease, lipase, cellulase and plant growth promoting metabolites like IAA and siderophore. Scanning electron microscopic studies on the interaction zone between pathogen and antagonistic bacterial isolate revealed severe deformities in the fungal mycelia. Spectral analyses (LC-ESI-MS, UV-VIS spectrophotometry and HPLC) and TLC indicated the presence of the antibiotics pyrrolnitrin and prodigiosin in the extracellular bacterial culture extracts. Biofilm formation by ETR17 on polystyrene surface was also observed. In vivo application of talc-based formulations prepared with the isolate ETR17 in tea plantlets under green house conditions revealed effective reduction of root-rot disease as well as plant growth promotion to a considerable extent. Viability studies with the ETR17 talc formulation showed the survivability of the isolate up to six months at room temperature. The sustenance of ETR17 (concentration of 8-9x108 cfu g-1) in the soil after the application of talc formulation was recorded by ELISA. Safety studies revealed that ETR17 did not produce hemolysin as observed in pathogenic Serratia strains. The biocontrol strain reported in this study can be used for field application in order to minimize the use of chemical fungicides for disease control in tea gardens.

  16. Evaluation of the biocontrol efficacy of a Serratia marcescens strain indigenous to tea rhizosphere for the management of root rot disease in tea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargee Dhar Purkayastha

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate plant growth promoting and biocontrol efficacy of a Serratia marcescens strain ETR17 isolated from tea rhizosphere for the effective management of root rot disease in tea. Isolated bacterial culture ETR17 showed significant level of in vitro antagonism against nine different foliar and root pathogens of tea. The phenotypic and molecular characterization of ETR17 revealed the identity of the bacterium as Serratia marcescens. The bacterium was found to produce several hydrolytic enzymes like chitinase, protease, lipase, cellulase and plant growth promoting metabolites like IAA and siderophore. Scanning electron microscopic studies on the interaction zone between pathogen and antagonistic bacterial isolate revealed severe deformities in the fungal mycelia. Spectral analyses (LC-ESI-MS, UV-VIS spectrophotometry and HPLC and TLC indicated the presence of the antibiotics pyrrolnitrin and prodigiosin in the extracellular bacterial culture extracts. Biofilm formation by ETR17 on polystyrene surface was also observed. In vivo application of talc-based formulations prepared with the isolate ETR17 in tea plantlets under green house conditions revealed effective reduction of root-rot disease as well as plant growth promotion to a considerable extent. Viability studies with the ETR17 talc formulation showed the survivability of the isolate up to six months at room temperature. The sustenance of ETR17 (concentration of 8-9x108 cfu g-1 in the soil after the application of talc formulation was recorded by ELISA. Safety studies revealed that ETR17 did not produce hemolysin as observed in pathogenic Serratia strains. The biocontrol strain reported in this study can be used for field application in order to minimize the use of chemical fungicides for disease control in tea gardens.

  17. Evaluation of the biocontrol efficacy of a Serratia marcescens strain indigenous to tea rhizosphere for the management of root rot disease in tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangar, Preeti; Saha, Aniruddha

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate plant growth promoting and biocontrol efficacy of a Serratia marcescens strain ETR17 isolated from tea rhizosphere for the effective management of root rot disease in tea. Isolated bacterial culture ETR17 showed significant level of in vitro antagonism against nine different foliar and root pathogens of tea. The phenotypic and molecular characterization of ETR17 revealed the identity of the bacterium as Serratia marcescens. The bacterium was found to produce several hydrolytic enzymes like chitinase, protease, lipase, cellulase and plant growth promoting metabolites like IAA and siderophore. Scanning electron microscopic studies on the interaction zone between pathogen and antagonistic bacterial isolate revealed severe deformities in the fungal mycelia. Spectral analyses (LC-ESI-MS, UV-VIS spectrophotometry and HPLC) and TLC indicated the presence of the antibiotics pyrrolnitrin and prodigiosin in the extracellular bacterial culture extracts. Biofilm formation by ETR17 on polystyrene surface was also observed. In vivo application of talc-based formulations prepared with the isolate ETR17 in tea plantlets under green house conditions revealed effective reduction of root-rot disease as well as plant growth promotion to a considerable extent. Viability studies with the ETR17 talc formulation showed the survivability of the isolate up to six months at room temperature. The sustenance of ETR17 (concentration of 8-9x108 cfu g-1) in the soil after the application of talc formulation was recorded by ELISA. Safety studies revealed that ETR17 did not produce hemolysin as observed in pathogenic Serratia strains. The biocontrol strain reported in this study can be used for field application in order to minimize the use of chemical fungicides for disease control in tea gardens. PMID:29466418

  18. Adzuki bean ameliorates hepatic lipogenesis and proinflammatory mediator expression in mice fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet to induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sera; Hong, Jihye; Jeon, Raok; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a simple steatosis, in which fat accumulates more than 5% in the liver, and regarded as most common liver diseases worldwide. Because NAFLD can be developed to severe liver disease and correlated with metabolic disease, its importance is currently emphasized. Occurrence of NAFLD is strongly related to dietary patterns and lifestyles; therefore, the suggestion of physiologically beneficial food is essential. Based on these, adzuki beans containing anthocyanin, catechin, and adzukisaponin are suggested as a health-beneficial food. Moreover, the effects of adzuki beans on metabolic improvement are not well established through the in vivo studies. Therefore, this study hypothesized that adzuki beans can alleviate lipid accumulation and oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in high-cholesterol and high-fat diet-induced NALFD mice. To demonstrate its effects, 6-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were allocated into 4 groups and fed a normal diet (ND), a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet (HCD), and HCD with 10% and 20% adzuki bean for 10 weeks. The result shows that fasting blood glucose, serum and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and antioxidative enzyme activity ameliorated in the adzuki bean groups (P fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and apolipoprotein B, as well as proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α, nuclear factor κB, and caspase-3, improved in both experimental groups (P < .05). These results suggested that adzuki beans attenuate lipid accumulation and oxidative stress-induced inflammation by suppressing hepatic messenger RNA expression of lipogenic and inflammatory mediators in NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Resistance to charcoal rot identified in ancestral soybean germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina, is an economically important disease on soybean and other crops including maize, sorghum, and sunflowers. Without effective cultural or chemical options to control charcoal rot in soybean, finding sources of genetic resistance is o...

  20. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  1. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  2. Transgenic sweet potato expressing thionin from barley gives resistance to black rot disease caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata in leaves and storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Tomoko; Shimamura, Takashi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Hori, Etsuko; Koda, Katsunori; Otani, Motoyasu; Hirai, Masana; Nakamura, Kenzo; Imaeda, Takao

    2012-06-01

    Black rot of sweet potato caused by pathogenic fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata severely deteriorates both growth of plants and post-harvest storage. Antimicrobial peptides from various organisms have broad range activities of killing bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi. Plant thionin peptide exhibited anti-fungal activity against C. fimbriata. A gene for barley α-hordothionin (αHT) was placed downstream of a strong constitutive promoter of E12Ω or the promoter of a sweet potato gene for β-amylase of storage roots, and introduced into sweet potato commercial cultivar Kokei No. 14. Transgenic E12Ω:αHT plants showed high-level expression of αHT mRNA in both leaves and storage roots. Transgenic β-Amy:αHT plants showed sucrose-inducible expression of αHT mRNA in leaves, in addition to expression in storage roots. Leaves of E12Ω:αHT plants exhibited reduced yellowing upon infection by C. fimbriata compared to leaves of non-transgenic Kokei No. 14, although the level of resistance was weaker than resistance cultivar Tamayutaka. Storage roots of both E12Ω:αHT and β-Amy:αHT plants exhibited reduced lesion areas around the site inoculated with C. fimbriata spores compared to Kokei No. 14, and some of the transgenic lines showed resistance level similar to Tamayutaka. Growth of plants and production of storage roots of these transgenic plants were not significantly different from non-transgenic plants. These results highlight the usefulness of transgenic sweet potato expressing antimicrobial peptide to reduce damages of sweet potato from the black rot disease and to reduce the use of agricultural chemicals.

  3. Increases in snap bean and soybean seedling diseases associated with a chloride salt and changes in the micro-partitioning of tap root calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a series of field experiments from 1995 through 2010, the incidence of seedling diseases of snap bean and soybean caused by Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pythium spp., and Fusarium spp. was greater with an application of KCl than with K2SO4 applied at 93 kg K/ha. To determine if th...

  4. Control of Black Rot Disease in Tomato Fruits by Using Formulated Ginger Essential oil Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, I.M.; Abdeldaiem, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Ginger essential oil (Zingiber officinale) treated by gamma radiation at dose of 10 kGy was selected as an active ingredient for formulation of the biocide. Liquid formulations (emulsifiable concentrates) were prepared using different emulsifiers (Emulgator B.L.M. and tween 80 or tween 20) and additive oil (soybean oil). Physicochemical properties of the formulated oil (spontaneous emulsification, emulsion stability; cold stability and heat stability, viscosity, surface tension and ph) were measured. The formulated oil was tested in vivo to investigate its efficiency for controlling the growth of Alternaria alternata inoculated into tomato fruits. The results indicated that soaking inoculated tomato fruits in the formulated oil (ginger essential oil + soybean oil + emulgator B.L.M. + tween 80) treatment at concentration of 300 ppm for a period of 12 minute was the most effective for controlling the growth of the tested fungus. In addition, the formulated oil had efficiency for controlling the rot development on tomato fruits when applied as therapeutic and protective agents

  5. Agro-ecological variations of sheath rot disease of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae and DNA fingerprinting of the pathogen's population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajul Islam Chowdhury, M; Salim Mian, M; Taher Mia, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2015-12-28

    To examine the impact of regional and seasonal variations on the incidence and severity of sheath rot, a major seed-borne disease of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae, data on incidence and severity were collected from 27 selected fields in the Gazipur, Rangpur, Bogra, Chittagong, Comilla, Gopalgonj, Jessore, Manikgonj, and Bhola districts of Bangladesh in rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Cultural variability of 29 pathogen isolates obtained from 8 different locations was studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and genetic variability was determined by DNA fingerprinting using variable number tandem repeat-polymerase chain reaction markers. Overall, disease incidence and severity were higher in irrigated rice. Disease incidence and severity were highest in the Bhola district in rain-fed rice and lowest in irrigated rice. Mycelial growth of 29 representative isolates was found to vary on PDA and the isolates were divided into 6 groups. The range of the overall size of conidia of the selected isolates was 2.40-7.20 x 1.20-2.40 μm. Analysis of the DNA fingerprint types of the 29 isolates of S. oryzae, obtained from the amplification reactions, revealed 10 fingerprinting types (FPTs) that were 80% similar. FPT-1 was the largest group and included 13 isolates (44.8%), while FPT-2 was the third largest group and included 3 isolates. Each of FPT-3, 4, 5, and 6 included only 1 isolate. We observed no relationship between cultural and genetic groupings.

  6. Endophytic fungi harbored in Panax notoginseng: diversity and potential as biological control agents against host plant pathogens of root-rot disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Kun Zheng

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggested that P. notoginseng harbors diversified endophytic fungi that would provide a basis for the identification of new bioactive compounds, and for effective biocontrol of notoginseng root rot.

  7. Laminated Root Rot of Western Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.E. Nelson; N.E. Martin; R.E. Williams

    1981-01-01

    Laminated root rot is caused by the native fungus Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gilb. It occurs throughout the Northwestern United States and in southern British Columbia, Canada. The disease has also been reported in Japan and Manchuria. In the United States, the pathogen is most destructive in pure Douglas-fir stands west of the crest of the Cascade Range in Washington...

  8. Individual-based models in the analysis of disease transmission in plant production chains: An application to potato brown rot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukers, A.; Kettenis, D.L.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Werf, van der W.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Spread of plant disease in production chains of planting material is a process of great economic importance, but has received little attention from plant disease epidemiologists. Disease control in production chains is therefore often based on rules of thumb and expert judgement by regulatory

  9. Armillaria root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    First described on grapevines in California in the 1880s, Armillaria root rot occurs in all major grape-growing regions of the state. The causal fungus, Armillaria mellea, infects woody grapevine roots and the base of the trunk (the root collar), resulting in a slow decline and eventual death of the...

  10. Biological Control of White Rot in Garlic Using Burkholderia pyrrocinia CAB08106-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Seop Han

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available White rot caused by Sclerotium cepivorum was reported to be severe soil-born disease on garlic. Disease progress of white rot of garlic (Allium sativum L. was investigated during the growing season of 2009 to 2011 at Taean and Seosan areas. The white rot disease on bulb began to occur from late April and peaked in late May. The antifungal bacteria, Burkholderia pyrrocinia CAB08106-4 was tested in field bioassay for suppression of white rot disease. As a result of the nucleotide sequence of the gene 16S rRNA, CAB008106-4 strain used in this study has been identified as B. pyrrocinia. B. pyrrocinia CAB080106-4 isolate suppressed the white rot with 69.6% control efficacy in field test. These results suggested that B. pyrrocinia CAB08106-4 isolate could be an effective biological control agent against white rot of garlic.

  11. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Key words: Common bean, Pseudocercospora griseola, marker assisted selection, genotype, inheritance. INTRODUCTION. Common beans (Phaseolus ... and to determine the inheritance pattern of the diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... environmental effects. These results agree with what is.

  12. First report of in-vitro fludioxonil-resistant isolates of Fusarium spp. causing potato dry rot in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Measures for controlling dry rot in storage are limited. Dry rot has been managed primarily by reducing tuber bruising, providing conditions for rapid wound heal...

  13. Genetic Variability of Macrophomina phaseolina Isolates from Dry Beans in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Yeşil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal rot is a soil and seed borne, economically important fungal disease on dry bean in Turkey. Twenty bean isolates of M. phaseolina collected from different locations in Turkey during 2008 and 2012 years were studied for genetic variability using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD assay, chlorate sensitivity on medium supplemented with 120mM of potassium, phenotype of colony, and pathogenicity. Isolates were identified as M. phaseolina based on morhological features and PCR assays using species-specific primers (MPKF1and MPKR1. Isolates of M. phaseolina were analysed for their aggressiveness on the susceptible bean cv. Akman 98, by soil inoculation method. Isolates exhibiting a dense chlorate phenotype were chlorate-resistant, while those possessing feathery and restricted chlorate phenotypes were chlorate-sensitive. More than half of the isolates (55% were resistant to chlorate and produced dense phenotype, while 35% isolates showed feathery and two isolates (10% showed restricted growth. DNA from 20 isolates was subjected to genetic diversity analysis by the RAPD method using 14 randomly chosen 10-base random primers, and low genetic diversity (33.3% was observed among the tested isolates.

  14. Soft rot erwiniae: from genes to genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Ian K; Bell, Kenneth S; Holeva, Maria C; Birch, Paul R J

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY The soft rot erwiniae, Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca), E. carotovora ssp. carotovora (Ecc) and E. chrysanthemi (Ech) are major bacterial pathogens of potato and other crops world-wide. We currently understand much about how these bacteria attack plants and protect themselves against plant defences. However, the processes underlying the establishment of infection, differences in host range and their ability to survive when not causing disease, largely remain a mystery. This review will focus on our current knowledge of pathogenesis in these organisms and discuss how modern genomic approaches, including complete genome sequencing of Eca and Ech, may open the door to a new understanding of the potential subtlety and complexity of soft rot erwiniae and their interactions with plants. The soft rot erwiniae are members of the Enterobacteriaceae, along with other plant pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora and human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. Although the genus name Erwinia is most often used to describe the group, an alternative genus name Pectobacterium was recently proposed for the soft rot species. Ech mainly affects crops and other plants in tropical and subtropical regions and has a wide host range that includes potato and the important model host African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha). Ecc affects crops and other plants in subtropical and temperate regions and has probably the widest host range, which also includes potato. Eca, on the other hand, has a host range limited almost exclusively to potato in temperate regions only. Disease symptoms: Soft rot erwiniae cause general tissue maceration, termed soft rot disease, through the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Environmental factors such as temperature, low oxygen concentration and free water play an essential role in disease development. On potato, and possibly other plants, disease symptoms may differ, e.g. blackleg disease is associated

  15. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Thomazella, Daniela P T; Teixeira, Paulo José P L; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Schuster, Stephan C; Carlson, John E; Guiltinan, Mark J; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Farmer, Andrew; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Crozier, Jayne; Davis, Robert E; Shao, Jonathan; Melnick, Rachel L; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-02-27

    The basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the source of chocolate, and FPR is one of the most destructive diseases of this important perennial crop in the Americas. This hemibiotroph infects only cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty days, culminating in plant necrosis and sporulation of the fungus without the formation of a basidiocarp. We sequenced and assembled 52.3 Mb into 3,298 contigs that represent the M. roreri genome. Of the 17,920 predicted open reading frames (OFRs), 13,760 were validated by RNA-Seq. Using read count data from RNA sequencing of cacao pods at 30 and 60 days post infection, differential gene expression was estimated for the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of this plant-pathogen interaction. The sequencing data were used to develop a genome based secretome for the infected pods. Of the 1,535 genes encoding putative secreted proteins, 1,355 were expressed in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. Analysis of the data revealed secretome gene expression that correlated with infection and intercellular growth in the biotrophic phase and invasive growth and plant cellular death in the necrotrophic phase. Genome sequencing and RNA-Seq was used to determine and validate the Moniliophthora roreri genome and secretome. High sequence identity between Moniliophthora roreri genes and Moniliophthora perniciosa genes supports the taxonomic relationship with Moniliophthora perniciosa and the relatedness of this fungus to other basidiomycetes. Analysis of RNA-Seq data from infected plant tissues revealed differentially expressed genes in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. The secreted protein genes that were upregulated in the biotrophic phase are primarily associated with breakdown of the intercellular matrix and modification of the fungal mycelia, possibly to mask the fungus from plant defenses. Based on the transcriptome data, the

  16. Butt Rot of Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. I. McCracken

    1977-01-01

    Butt rot is the most serious cause of cull throughout the South, and affects all hardwood species. Defined as any decay at the base of a living tree, butt rot accounts for the loss of millions of board feet of southern hardwood timber annually. In one study of loess and alluvial hardwood sites in the Midsouth, butt rot was found in 40 percent of the trees being...

  17. Management of faba bean gall in faba bean producing area of Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogale Nigir Hailemariam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean new disease (faba bean gall (Olpidium viciae (Kusano is the most destructive disease of faba bean ((Vicia faba L. in Ethiopia, particularly in Amhara, Tigray and some part of Oromia region. This problem needs immediate sound management strategy to maximize faba bean productivity. A field study was carried out in Geregera and Jama during the 2013 and 2014 main crop season and Maybar watershed in 2014 to verify the fungicide to faba bean gall. The objective of this study was evaluating effective fungicides for the management of faba bean new disease. The treatments were baylaton in the form of seed dressing and foliar spray; mancozeb, redomil, chlorotalonin and cruzet in the form of foliar spray and apron star and theram used as a foliar spray and also untreated check used as a comparison. The result showed that significantly differ between treatments (p

  18. MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT IN AVOCADO TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE RODRIGUES DA SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Root rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is one of the most restrictive factors to avocado growing in main producing regions worldwide. In Brazil, scientific reports on the effectiveness of control methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of gypsum applications and dolomitic limestone to the soil and potassium phosphite sprays in controlling this disease in ‘Hass’ avocado, grown without irrigation. The application of dolomitic limestone or gypsum alone is not effective to recover plants affected by root rot. The application of potassium phosphite, combined or not with dolomitic lime or gypsum enables the partial recovery ‘Hass’ avocado plants affected by the disease.

  19. High-resolution mapping reveals linkage between genes in common bean cultivar Ouro Negro conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Giseli; Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; de Lima Castro, Sandra Aparecida; Cregan, Perry B; Song, Qijian; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A

    2017-08-01

    Co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping using SNP, SSR, and KASP markers demonstrated genetic linkage between Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 loci conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose and angular leaf spot diseases of common bean. Rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot are major diseases of common bean in the Americas and Africa. The cultivar Ouro Negro has the Ur-14 gene that confers broad spectrum resistance to rust and the gene cluster Co-3 4 /Phg-3 containing two tightly linked genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot, respectively. We used co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping of 179 F 2:3 families from the Rudá (susceptible) × Ouro Negro (resistant) cross-phenotyped separately with races of the rust and anthracnose pathogens. The results confirmed that Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster in Ouro Negro conferred resistance to rust and anthracnose, respectively, and that Ur-14 and the Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster were closely linked. Genotyping the F 2:3 families, first with 5398 SNPs on the Illumina BeadChip BARCBEAN6K_3 and with 15 SSR, and eight KASP markers, specifically designed for the candidate region containing Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3, permitted the creation of a high-resolution genetic linkage map which revealed that Ur-14 was positioned at 2.2 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3 on the short arm of chromosome Pv04 of the common bean genome. Five flanking SSR markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.2 cM from Ur-14, and two flanking KASP markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.3 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3. Many other SSR, SNP, and KASP markers were also linked to these genes. These markers will be useful for the development of common bean cultivars combining the important Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 genes conferring resistance to three of the most destructive diseases of common bean.

  20. The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajola, A O

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of Nigeria. During severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. Two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. The soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. Erwinia carotovora, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer, Fusarium equiseti, F. nivale and F. oxysporum were established as the soft rot pathogens; while Aspergillus aculeatus, A. flavus, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Corynespora cassiicola, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium expansum P. multicolor and Rhizoctonia solani were established as the dry rot pathogens of tomato fruits in Nigeria.

  1. MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT IN AVOCADO TREES

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, SIMONE RODRIGUES DA; CANTUARIAS-AVILÉS, TATIANA; BREMER NETO, HORST; MOURÃO FILHO, FRANCISCO DE ASSIS ALVES; MEDINA, RICARDO BORDIGNON

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Root rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands) is one of the most restrictive factors to avocado growing in main producing regions worldwide. In Brazil, scientific reports on the effectiveness of control methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of gypsum applications and dolomitic limestone to the soil and potassium phosphite sprays in controlling this disease in ‘Hass’ avocado, grown without irrigation. The application of dolomitic limestone or gypsum...

  2. Inheritance of halo blight resistance in common bean | Chataika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Halo blight caused by (Pseudomonas syringe pv. phaseolicola (Burkh) (Psp)) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) world-wide. Several races of the Psp exist and likewise some sources of resistance in common bean have been identified. CAL 143, is a CIAT-bred common bean line, which was ...

  3. First report of Colletotrichum fructicola and C. queenslandicum causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In rambutan production, fruit rot is the main pre- and post-harvest disease of concern. In a 2008-2013 fruit disease survey, fruit rot was observed in eight orchards in Puerto Rico. Infected fruit were collected and 1 mm2 tissue sections were surface disinfested with 70% ethanol followed by 0.5% sod...

  4. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot

  5. Potential of bulb-associated bacteria for biocontrol of hyacinth soft rot caused by Dickeya zeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafra, S.; Przysowa, J.; Gwizdek-Wisniewska, A.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were

  6. Sheath rot of rice in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, S; Okhovvat, S M; Hedjaroude, G A; Khosravi, V

    2003-01-01

    Sheath rot of rice occurs in most rice-growing regions of the world. It usually causes yield losses from 20 to 85%. Sheath rot was reported from Iran in 1993. Year after year, the number of diseased plants increased in the Northern Iran. In summer of 2001, these symptoms were observed in most fields: lesions occur on the upper leaf sheaths, especially the flag leaf sheath. As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath. Panicle may fail to completely or at all. Brown or partially brown not filled or partially filled grain is also associated with infection of the panicle. A whitish powdery growth may be found inside affected sheaths. Infected plants were collected and trasferred to laboratory. Small pieces of diseased tissues were washed under tap water for one hour. Then tissues were placed on WA and incubated at 25 degrees C. These isolates were purified and identified as: Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium udum, F. semitectum, F. avenaceum, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Paecilomyces sp., Nigrospora sp. and Trichoderma sp. This is the first report of F. udum in Iran. Also this is the first report that rice is the host for F. semitectum, F. avenaceum and F. flocciferum in Iran. Pathogenicity tests were conducted in glass house. Following species were found to be associated with sheath rot of rice: S. oryzae, F. graminearum, F. udum, F. avenaceum, B. oryzae, A. padwickii. This is the first report in the world that F. udum and A. padwickii are the causal agents of the sheath rot on rice plants.

  7. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  8. Construction of 2 intraspecific linkage maps and identification of resistance QTLs for Phytophthora capsici root-rot and foliar-blight diseases of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Berke, Terry F; Massoudi, Mark; Black, Lowell L; Huestis, Gordon; Choi, Doil; Lee, Sanghyeob; Prince, James P

    2005-08-01

    Two linkage maps of pepper were constructed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to Phytophthora capsici. Inoculations were done with 7 isolates: 3 from Taiwan, 3 from California, and 1 from New Mexico. The first map was constructed from a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the PSP-11 (susceptible) x PI201234 (resistant) cross; and the second map was from a set of F(2) lines of the Joe E. Parker' (susceptible) x 'Criollo de Morelos 334' (resistant) cross. The RIL map covered 1466.1 cM of the pepper genome, and it consisted of 144 markers -- 91 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), 15 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 1 sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and 3 morphological markers -- distributed over 17 linkage groups. The morphological markers mapped on this population were erect fruit habit (up), elongated fruit shape (fs(e)), and fasciculate fruit clusters (fa). The F(2) map consisted of 113 markers (51 AFLPs, 45 RAPDs, 14 SSRs, and 3 SCARs) distributed in 16 linkage groups, covering a total of 1089.2 cM of the pepper genome. Resistance to both root rot and foliar blight were evaluated in the RIL population using the 3 Taiwan isolates; the remaining isolates were used for the root-rot test only. Sixteen chromosomal regions of the RIL map contained single QTLs or clusters of resistance QTLs that had an effect on root rot and (or) foliar blight, revealing a complex set of genetics involved in resistance to P. capsici. Five QTLs were detected in the F(2) map that had an effect on resistance to root rot.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence for ICMP 5702, the Type Strain of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum That Causes Soft Rot Disease on Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Preetinanda; Lu, Ashley; Armstrong, Karen F; Pitman, Andrew R

    2015-08-06

    Pectobacterium species are economically important bacteria that cause soft rotting of potato tubers in the field and in storage. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain for P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, ICMP 5702 (ATCC 15713). The genome sequence of ICMP 5702 will provide an important reference for future phylogenomic and taxonomic studies of the phytopathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2015 Panda et al.

  10. Endophytic fungi harbored inPanax notoginseng: diversity and potential as biological control agents against host plant pathogens of root-rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Kun; Miao, Cui-Ping; Chen, Hua-Hong; Huang, Fang-Fang; Xia, Yu-Mei; Chen, You-Wei; Zhao, Li-Xing

    2017-07-01

    Endophytic fungi play an important role in balancing the ecosystem and boosting host growth. In the present study, we investigated the endophytic fungal diversity of healthy Panax notoginseng and evaluated its potential antimicrobial activity against five major phytopathogens causing root-rot of P. notoginseng . A culture-dependent technique, combining morphological and molecular methods, was used to analyze endophytic fungal diversity. A double-layer agar technique was used to challenge the phytopathogens of P. notoginseng . A total of 89 fungi were obtained from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of P. notoginseng , and 41 isolates representing different morphotypes were selected for taxonomic characterization. The fungal isolates belonged to Ascomycota (96.6%) and Zygomycota (3.4%). All isolates were classified to 23 genera and an unknown taxon belonging to Sordariomycetes. The number of isolates obtained from different tissues ranged from 12 to 42 for leaves and roots, respectively. The selected endophytic fungal isolates were challenged by the root-rot pathogens Alternaria panax , Fusarium oxysporum , Fusarium solani , Phoma herbarum , and Mycocentrospora acerina. Twenty-six of the 41 isolates (63.4%) exhibited activity against at least one of the pathogens tested. Our results suggested that P. notoginseng harbors diversified endophytic fungi that would provide a basis for the identification of new bioactive compounds, and for effective biocontrol of notoginseng root rot.

  11. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  12. The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...

  13. First report of Calonectria hongkongensis causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit rot is a major pre- and post-harvest disease problem in rambutan orchards. In 2011, fruit rot was observed at the USDA-TARS orchards in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Infected fruit were collected and tissue sections (1 mm2) were superficially sterilized with 70% ethanol and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. ...

  14. Biocontrol of charcoal-rot of sorghum by actinomycetes isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Streptomyces but with different species in BLAST analysis. This study indicates that the selected actinomycetes have the potential for PGP and control of charcoal-rot disease in sorghum. Key words: Antagonistic actinomycetes, biocontrol, charcoal-rot, Macrophomina phaseolina. INTRODUCTION.

  15. First report of Fusarium redolens causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium spp., is a yield-limiting disease of wheat world-wide, especially in dry Mediterranean climates. In order to identify Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat, a survey was conducted in summer 2013 in the major wheat growing regions of T...

  16. First Report of Calonectria hongkongensis Causing Fruit Rot of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Latoni-Brailowsky, E.I.; Rivera-Vargas, L.I.; Goenaga, R.J.; Crous, P.W.; French-Monar, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit rot of rambutan is a pre- and post-harvest disease problem of rambutan orchards. In 2011, fruit rot was observed at USDA-ARS orchards in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Infected fruit were collected and 1 mm2 tissue sections were surface disinfested with 70% ethanol followed by 0.5% sodium

  17. The effect of long term storage on bacterial soft rot resistance in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial soft rot is a serious disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), causing rapid tuber tissue maceration and, consequently, marketable yield loss. Soft rot bacteria, especially Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pbc), are favored by moist conditions, which are prevalent in large p...

  18. Resistance to post-harvest microbial rot in yam: Integration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-harvest microbial rot is an important disease that causes severe losses in yam (Dioscorea spp.) storage. Rot from microbial infection of healthy yam tubers reduces their table quality and renders them unappealing to consumers. A study was carried out at Bimbilla in the Nanumba North District of Ghana to evaluate ...

  19. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  20. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  1. Evaluation of antagonistic fungi against charcoal rot of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Results showed reduction in disease incidence of charcoal rot on sunflower cultivar G-66 with antagonist, A. flavus (100%) followed by A. niger (64.86%) P. capsulatum (63.79%) and T. viride (31.89%) over control. Decrease in disease incidence over control was 100% where seed was treated with combination of A. niger ...

  2. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Armillaria root rot -- rev. revised edition. Information leaflet No. LFC 14E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachance, D.

    1996-11-01

    Armillaria root rot is a disease of the roots of plants and is caused by a fungus belonging to the genus `Armillaria spp.`. Most tree species in both the temperate and tropical zones can be affected by this disease; however, the damage is most notable and probably greatest in plantations. Armillaria root rot can be controlled, albeit with difficulty. This document looks at armillaria root rot and looks at the following points: Hosts and extent of the disease; the pathogens; symptoms and signs; infection and development; control; prevention; compromise solution; and, bibliography.

  4. Diagnostic of dry rot in living trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaetzler, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The γ-desorption method has been used in the early diagnosis of dry rot in trees. The attenuation of a 60 keV γ-beam ( 241 Am) has been measured on eleven healthy spruce disks. It is seen that early diagnostic of rotten trees is limited by natural density variation of the wood itself, but for a 95% confidence level that the wood is diseased, a tree must have an average of less than 0.59 g./cm 3 . (Auth/C.F.)

  5. Morphoanatomy and histochemistry analyses of cassava roots do not discriminate resistant from susceptible genotypes to soft root rot

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Jonny Lucio Sousa; MOURA, Elisa Ferreira; ILKIU-BORGES, Fernanda; GALVÃO, Jessivaldo Rodrigues; FARIAS-NETO, João Tomé de; SILVA, Gisele Barata da; RÊGO, Marcela Cristiane Ferreira; CUNHA, Roberto Lisboa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cassava is an important culture in Brazil and in the North of the country, and soft root rot has affected root production. The aim of this work was to identify root morphoanatomic and histochemical characters associated with root rot resistance. In areas with no occurrence of the disease, nine cassava genotypes were tested, four of which were resistant, and five were susceptible to root rot. Root harvest was carried out twelve months after sowing, and thickness of suber, suber and co...

  6. Huanglongbing increases Diplodia Stem End Rot in Citrus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most devastating diseases of citrus is caused by the a-Proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter. Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans is a fungal pathogen which has been known to cause a postharvest stem-end rot of citrus, the pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx, an...

  7. Advancing our understanding of charcoal rot in soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid ) of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], is an important but commonly misidentified disease, and very few summary articles exist on this pathosystem. Research conducted over the last 10 years has improved our understanding of the environment conducive...

  8. Evaluating host resistance to Macrophomina crown rot in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrophomina crown rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, is an emerging pathogen in California strawberry production. When established, the pathogen can cause extensive plant decline and mortality. Host resistance will be a critical tool for managing this disease and guiding ...

  9. Molecular diagnosis of Phytophthora cinnamomi associated with root rot in avocado producing areas of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Elizabeth Toapanta-Gallegos; Luis Eduardo Morillo-Velastegui; William Fernando Viera-Arroyo

    2017-01-01

    One of the most damaging diseases in cultivation of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is root rot associated with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. This disease causes progressive wilt and even death of the tree. The objective of this study was to identify the presence of P. cinnamomi in two productive areas of avocado in Ecuador using the molecular technique PCR-RFLP. Tree root samples were obtained with root rot symptoms in the production areas,...

  10. Marker-assisted molecular profiling and RNA-Seq reveal a disease resistance cluster associated with Uromyces appendiculatus infection in common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance to fungal rust along wit...

  11. Cellular Tracking and Gene Profiling of Fusarium graminearum during Maize Stalk Rot Disease Development Elucidates Its Strategies in Confronting Phosphorus Limitation in the Host Apoplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum causes stalk rot in maize. We tracked this pathogen's growth in wound-inoculated maize stalks using a fluorescence-labeled fungal isolate and observed that invasive hyphae grew intercellularly up to 24 h post inoculation, grew intra- and inter-cellularly between 36-48 h, and fully occupied invaded cells after 72 h. Using laser microdissection and microarray analysis, we profiled changes in global gene expression during pathogen growth inside pith tissues of maize stalk from 12 h to six days after inoculation and documented transcriptomic patterns that provide further insights into the infection process. Expression changes in transcripts encoding various plant cell wall degrading enzymes appeared to correlate with inter- and intracellular hyphal growth. Genes associated with 36 secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters were expressed. Expression of several F. graminearum genes potentially involved in mobilization of the storage lipid triacylglycerol and phosphorus-free lipid biosynthesis were induced during early infection time points, and deletion of these genes caused reduction of virulence in maize stalk. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the F. graminearum betaine lipid synthase 1 (BTA1 gene was necessary and sufficient for production of phosphorus-free membrane lipids, and that deletion of BTA1 interfered with F. graminearum's ability to advance intercellularly. We conclude that F. graminearum produces phosphorus-free membrane lipids to adapt to a phosphate-limited extracellular microenvironment during early stages of its invasion of maize stalk.

  12. Management of Potato Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghany, H.; Moussa, Z.; Abd El-Rahman, A.F.; Salem, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation aims to apply a safe practice to minimize potato losses due to soft rot disease of tubers kept under ambient temperature. In this regard, gamma irradiation was used to extend keeping quality through its effect on soft rot bacteria. Eight bacterial isolates were recovered on Logan’s medium from kitchen kept tubers with symptoms of soft rot disease. Five isolates were found pathogenic and tentatively identified as Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense on the basis of the usual bacteriological methods. A molecular method using 16SrDNA sequence analysis for verification of the identity of two isolates was made. The two bacterial isolates, Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense, were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays. Complete inhibition occurred at doses 2.5 and 2.0 KGy for high densities (Approximately 4.0x10 9 CFU/ml) of P. atrosepticum and P. carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense, respectively. The D10 value of gamma irradiation was 0.24 KGy for P. atrosepticum and 0.20 KGy for P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. Irradiation of artificially infected tubers with soft rot bacteria using the two mentioned D10 doses for the two bacterial species increased the shelf life of tubers kept under ambient temperature. The internal chemical quality of tubers was shown to be improved by keeping the tubers under ambient temperature after irradiation by the two D10 doses 0.24 and 0.20 KGy

  13. Root rot of sugarbeet in the Vojvodina Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large changes introduced in the sugar beet production technology in the Vojvodina Province over last 40 years resulted in changes in the etiology and harmfulness of different agents of sugar beet root diseases. Improvements in cultivation practices reduced the harmfulness of some diseases while increased the harmfulness of others. Some disease agents became obsolete, but others gained importance. New agents of root diseases were found. The most frequent damages, persisting over long periods of time were caused by seedling damping-off, Fusarium root rot, charcoal root rot, parasitic (Rhizomania and non-parasitic root bearding. The parasitic damping-off caused by several fungal species but most frequently by Phoma betae occurred at the time when multigerm seeds were used in combination with extensive cultural practices. The agents of seedling diseases completely lost their significance as the consequence of switching to fungicide - treated monogerm seeds, earlier planting and improved soil tillage. In the period of intensive use of agricultural chemicals, seedling damping-off occurred frequently due to the phytotoxic action of chemicals (insecticides, herbicides and mineral fertilizers. In some years, frosts caused damping- off of sugar beet seedlings on a large scale in the Vojvodina Province. Poor sugar beet germination and emergence were frequently due to spring droughts. Sometimes they were due to strong winds. The occurrence of Fusarium root rot and charcoal root rot intensified on poor soils. Fusariosis symptoms were exhibited as plant wilting and different forms of root rot. In recent years root tip rot has occurred frequently in the first part of the growing season causing necrosis and dying of plants. Lateral roots tended to proliferate from the healthy tissue, giving the root a bearded appearance similar to Rhizomania. Fusarium oxysporum was the most frequent agent of this fusariosis. F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. solani have also been

  14. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Pérombelon, M.C.M.; Jafra, S.; Lojkowska, E.; Potrykus, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Sledz, W.

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in

  15. Control of Ralstonia Solanacearum The Causal Agent of Brown Rot in Potato Using Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Five essential oils, namely peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), caraway (Carium carvum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Staph.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), were used separately against Ralstonia solanacearum; the causal agent of brown rot in potato. The most two effective oils (peppermint and thyme) were used in vitro and in vivo after testing their effects on potato tubers buds germination. Peppermint inhibited buds germination but thyme have no effects on buds germination. In vivo, the control of brown rot using thyme oil in glass house experiment reduced the percentage of brown rot infection to 30.6% and reduced the severity of disease from 5 to 3.

  16. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L., cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham., chatim (Alstonia scholaris L., mander (Erythrina variegata, bael (Aegle marmelos L., marigold (Tagetes erecta, onion (Allium cepa, garlic (Allium sativum L., neem (Azadiracta indica, lime (Citrus aurantifolia, and turmeric (Curcuma longa L. were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments.

  17. Effect of Environment and Sugar Beet Genotype on Root Rot Development and Pathogen Profile During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Sebastian; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Storage rots represent an economically important factor impairing the storability of sugar beet by increasing sucrose losses and invert sugar content. Understanding the development of disease management strategies, knowledge about major storage pathogens, and factors influencing their occurrence is crucial. In comprehensive storage trials conducted under controlled conditions, the effects of environment and genotype on rot development and associated quality changes were investigated. Prevalent species involved in rot development were identified by a newly developed microarray. The strongest effect on rot development was assigned to environment factors followed by genotypic effects. Despite large variation in rot severity (sample range 0 to 84%), the spectrum of microorganisms colonizing sugar beet remained fairly constant across all treatments with dominant species belonging to the fungal genera Botrytis, Fusarium, and Penicillium. The intensity of microbial tissue necrotization was strongly correlated with sucrose losses (R² = 0.79 to 0.91) and invert sugar accumulation (R² = 0.91 to 0.95). A storage rot resistance bioassay was developed that could successfully reproduce the genotype ranking observed in storage trials. Quantification of fungal biomass indicates that genetic resistance is based on a quantitative mechanism. Further work is required to understand the large environmental influence on rot development in sugar beet.

  18. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes for ALS and ...

  19. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes ...

  20. Agronomic qualities of genetic pyramids of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple co-infections by different pathogens on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affect its productivity and cause complete crop loss in susceptible varieties. Therefore, gene pyramiding using marker assisted selection (MAS) and backcrossing, provide alternative cost-effective control measures to bean diseases.

  1. Inheritance of resistance to angular leaf spot in yellow beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angular leaf spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in most parts of Africa, causing yield losses of 40-80%. This study was carried out to determine the inheritance of resistance to angular leaf spot in yellow beans. Biparental crosses were done between ...

  2. Resistance and inheritance of common bacterial blight in yellow bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume among the pulses. It is a cheap source of protein, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, bean production is constrained by bacterial diseases, of which common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis p.v. phaseoli) is prevalent in Africa.

  3. Canker Rots in Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.I. McCracken

    1978-01-01

    Canker-rot fungi cause serious degrade and cull in southern hardwoods, especially the red oaks. Heartwood decay is the most serious form of damage, but the fungi also kill the cambium and decay the sapwood for as much as 3 feet (.91 m) above and below the entrance point into the tree. The ability of these fungi to kill the cambium and cause cankers distinguishes them...

  4. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W. Severity of crown rot disease was determined through visual assessment of the first internode of 20 tillers obtained from each field. Incidence of crown rot pathogens per field was determined by plating the 20 tillers on Petri plates with 20% potato dextrose agar amended with lactic acid (aPDA medium. Resulting fungal colonies from monoxenic culture were identified by morphological or molecular-assisted identification. Severity of crown rot varied between 11.3% and 80% for individual fields. Culture plate analysis showed 72.2% of stems were infected with some fungus. Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, and F. culmorum, pathogens associated with Fusarium crown rot disease were isolated from 13.5% of tillers. Gaeumannomyces graminis, causal agent of take-all disease in cereals, was isolated from 11.1% of culms. Phaeosphaeria sp., an endophyte and possibly a non-pathogenic fungus, was isolated from 13.9% of tillers. Pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia spp. and Microdochium nivale, other saprophyte, and several unidentified non-sporulating fungi were isolated at frequencies lower than 3% of the total. Fusarium crown rot and take-all were the most prevalent and distributed crown rot diseases present in wheat crops in southern Chile.

  5. Thermal control of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potato (solanum tuberosum l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Salami Olusola Abiodun; Popoola Omololu Olumide

    2007-01-01

    Thermal control effect on the incidence of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Solanum tuberosum (potato) was investigated in this study. Three cultivars of potato tuber whose local names are, Patiska, Mai Bawondoya and Nicola were used for the study. Five pathogenic fungi viz: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium redolens, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae associated with post harvest storage rot of root-tubers, were isolated from diseased potatoes. Among the three specie...

  6. Control of lettuce bottom rot by isolates of Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottom rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IB, is an important disease affecting lettuce in Brazil, where its biological control with Trichoderma was not developed yet. The present study was carried out with the aim of selecting Trichoderma isolates to be used in the control of lettuce bottom rot. Forty-six Trichoderma isolates, obtained with baits containing mycelia of the pathogen, were evaluated in experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo in a greenhouse in two steps. In the laboratory, the isolates were evaluated for their capabilities of parasitizing and producing toxic metabolic substances that could inhibit the pathogen mycelial growth. In the first step of the in vivo experiments, the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings of the cultivar White Boston were evaluated. In the second step, 12 isolates that were efficient in the first step and showed rapid growth and abundant sporulation in the laboratory were tested for their capability of controlling bottom rot in two repeated experiments, and had their species identified. The majority of the isolates of Trichoderma spp. (76% showed high capacity for parasitism and 50% of them produced toxic metabolites capable of inhibiting 60-100% of R. solani AG1-IB mycelial growth. Twenty-four isolates increased the number and 23 isolates increased the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with the pathogen in the first step of the in vivo experiments.In both experiments of the second step, two isolates of T. virens, IBLF 04 and IBLF 50, reduced the severity of bottom rot and increased the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with R. solani AG1-IB. These isolates had shown a high capacity for parasitism and production of toxic metabolic substances, indicating that the in vitro and in vivo steps employed in the present study were efficient in selecting antagonists to be used for the control of lettuce bottom rot.

  7. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  8. Fusarium basal rot in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.; Brink, van den L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium basal rot of onion, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, is a steadily increasing problem in The Netherlands. Financial losses for Dutch farmers confronted with Fusarium basal rot is substantial, due to yield reduction and high storage costs. This paper describes the development and

  9. Identification of loci Associated with Resistance to Root-Rot Diseases in Autotetraploid Alfalfa using Genome-Wide Sequencing and Association Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the world-wide forage crop. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases. Identification of genes/loci controlling disease resistance will facilitate breeding for i...

  10. A single dominant Ganoderma species is responsible for root rot of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ganoderma root rot is the most serious disease affecting commercially planted Acacia mangium in plantations in Indonesia. Numerous Ganoderma spp. have been recorded from diseased trees of this species and to a lesser extent Eucalyptus, causing confusion regarding the primary cause of the disease. In this study, a ...

  11. First report of anthracnose fruit rot of blueberry caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose fruit rot is the most important disease of blueberry in New Jersey. Most fungicide applications in New Jersey and other blueberry growing regions is for the control of this disease. The causal agent of this disease has been reported to be Colletotrichum acutatum and other species in the ...

  12. Armillaria root rot in the Canadian prairie provinces. Information report No. -X-329

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallet, K.I.

    1992-01-01

    Armillaria root rot is one of the most important diseases of forest trees in the prairie provinces of Canada. Information on symptoms, detection, and damage caused by the disease is given. The Armillaria species in the prairie provinces, their geographic distribution and host range is discussed. Means of spread and control of the disease are described.

  13. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  14. NODC Standard Format Pathology Data Sets (1973-1975): Fin Rot (F006) Data (NODC Accession 0014147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fin Rot (F006) dataset contains data from examinations of the biological condition of diseased fishes. For tow samples collected, data include: total number of...

  15. Effects of Fungicides, Essential Oils and Gamma Irradiated Bioagents on Chickpea Root Rot Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Batal, A.I.; Fathy, R.M.; Ismail, A.A.; Mubark, H.M.; Mahmoud, Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii (S. rolfsii) causes root rot disease in several crops including Cicer arietinum (chickpea) that results in low yield. In vitro experiments on fungicides, vitavax and monceren T, and essential oils, clove and mint oils, were conducted to control root rot disease of chickpea caused by S. rolfsii. The treatments resulted in 80 % suppression of root rot disease. Gliocladium virens (G. virens) and Gliocladium deliquescens (G. deliquescens) were effective as biocontrol agents against S. rolfsii. The results showed that these treatments greatly reduced the root rot disease in chickpea. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy on the pathogenecity of G. virens and G. deliquescens against S. rolfsii were investigated. The results revealed that gamma irradiation increased the pathogenecity of G. virens and G. deliquescens against S. rolfsii

  16. Grapevine bunch rots: impacts on wine composition, quality, and potential procedures for the removal of wine faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Christopher C; Blackman, John W; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2013-06-05

    Bunch rot of grape berries causes economic loss to grape and wine production worldwide. The organisms responsible are largely filamentous fungi, the most common of these being Botrytis cinerea (gray mold); however, there are a range of other fungi responsible for the rotting of grapes such as Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and fungi found in subtropical climates (e.g., Colletotrichum spp. (ripe rot) and Greeneria uvicola (bitter rot)). A further group more commonly associated with diseases of the vegetative tissues of the vine can also infect grape berries (e.g., Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola ). The impact these fungi have on wine quality is poorly understood as are remedial practices in the winery to minimize wine faults. Compounds found in bunch rot affected grapes and wine are typically described as having mushroom, earthy odors and include geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-octen-1-ol, fenchol, and fenchone. This review examines the current state of knowledge about bunch rot of grapes and how this plant disease complex affects wine chemistry. Current wine industry practices to minimize wine faults and gaps in our understanding of how grape bunch rot diseases affect wine production and quality are also identified.

  17. Faba Bean Can Adapt to Chocolate Spot Disease by Pretreatment with Shikimic and Salicylic Acids through Osmotic Adjustment, Solutes Allocation and Leaf Turgidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of shikimic and salicylic acids at the concentrations of 0.4 and 0.7 mM, respectively, or their combination as phenolic compounds and Ridomil MZ at the concentration of 250 g/100 L as a fungicide on osmotic pressure (OP, solutes allocation, organic acids, inorganic ions and relative water content were quantified in Vicia faba leaves infected by Botrytis fabae. Pathogen induced noticeable decrease in osmotic pressure, total soluble sugar (TSS and inorganic osmolytes (i.e. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- while caused obvious increase in proline, total soluble nitrogen (TSN and organic acids (i.e. Keto and citric acids in water extract of the leaf of faba bean plants. Furthermore, pathogen caused marked decrease in relative water content (RWC of infected leaves and as a consequence the saturation water deficit (SWD was increased. Exogenous application of shikimic acid, salicylic acid or their combination could counteract the adverse effects of B. fabae on osmotic adjustment by inducing additional increase in proline, total soluble sugars, total soluble nitrogen and organic acids which in turn increase the osmotic pressure as well as relative water content in leaves of infected plants. Recovery of osmotic adjustment as well as leaf turgidity of infected host by using these chemical inducers may encourage the using of them as protective control means. The results of the present study showed also that the application of chemical inducers such as shikimic and salicylic acids or their interaction increased the resistance of Vicia faba against the chocolate spot disease.

  18. Whole-Genome Re-Alignment Facilitates Development of Specific Molecular Markers for Races 1 and 4 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the Cause of Black Rot Disease in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehede Hassan Rubel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc, is a seed borne disease of Brassicaceae. Eleven pathogenic races have been identified based on the phenotype interaction pattern of differential brassica cultivars inoculated with different strains. Race 1 and 4 are the two most frequent races found in Brassica oleracea crops. In this study, a PCR molecular diagnostic tool was developed for the identification of Xcc races 1 and 4 of this pathogen. Whole genomic sequences of races 1, 3, 4 and 9 and sequences of three other Xanthomonas pathovars/species (X. campestris pv. incanae (Xci, X. campestris pv. raphani (Xcr and X. euvesicatoria (Xev were aligned to identify variable regions among races. To develop specific markers for races 1 and 4, primers were developed from a region where sequences were dissimilar in other races. Sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR and insertion or deletion of bases (InDel were used to develop each specific set of primers. The specificity of the selected primers was confirmed by PCR tests using genomic DNA of seven different Xcc races, two strains of X. campestris pathovars and other species of bacteria. Bacterial samples of the races 1 and 4 isolates were collected from artificially inoculated cabbage leaves to conduct bio-PCR. Bio-PCR successfully detected the two Xcc isolates. By using our race-specific markers, a potential race 1 strain from the existing Korean Xcc collection was identified. The Xcc race 1 and 4-specific markers developed in this study are novel and can potentially be used for rapid detection of Xcc races through PCR.

  19. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  20. Water relations in untreated and modified wood under brown-rot and white-rot decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybring, Emil Engelund

    2017-01-01

    from several literature sources, the water relations of untreated and modified wood decayed by brown-rot and white-rot fungi are examined. The aim is to investigate to what extent observations and assumptions regarding brown-rot and white-rot decay can explain changes in water relations observed during...... and after decay. Although the available experimental data for modified wood is scarce, it indicates that brown-rot and white-rot decay of non-resistant modified wood occurs by similar degradation mechanisms with similar effects on water relations as for untreated wood. From simplistic, mathematical...... modelling, it is shown that changes in water relations during decay can be partly explained by accompanying changes in chemical composition and void volume....

  1. Use of homeopathic drugs in combination with fertilizers for the control of root rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, A.; Dawar, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal effectiveness of homeopathic drugs in combination with fertilizers on the growth production and controlling of root rot fungi. Seeds treated with homeopathic drugs in addition of phosphorous and nitrogen fertilizers as soil amendment showed significant inhibitory effect on fungal growth as well as improved the plant growth. Remarkable control of root infecting fungi was shown by the seeds treated with Thuja occidentalis and Arnica montana at rate of 75 percentage v/v concentration and soil amended with urea at rate of 0.1 percentage w/w but greater increased in plant growth was observed by urea at rate of 0.01 percentage in the tested plants viz. mung bean, mash bean, sunflower and okra. Whereas, when A. montana and T. occidentalis at rate of 75 percentage v/v concentration along with the addition of DAP at rate of 0.01 and 0.1 percentage w/w respectively showed maximum suppression of Fusarium spp, R. solani and M. phaseolina and enhanced the plant height and weight followed by A. montana and T. occidentalis at rate of 50 percentage v/v concentration respectively showed a maximum control of root rot fungi and also strengthened the crop plant for better growth. (author)

  2. resistance in the common bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Two studies, one on performance of six common bean parental genotypes and another on inheritance of resistance to Phaeosariopsis griseola (Pg) in the common bean were carried out in Malawi. Common bean entries namely; Chimbamba, Nasaka, RC 15, CAL 143 and Mexico 54 were evaluated on ...

  3. Genetic analysis reveals efficient sexual spore dispersal at a fine spatial scale in Armillaria ostoyae, the causal agent of root-rot disease in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutech, Cyril; Labbé, Frédéric; Capdevielle, Xavier; Lung-Escarmant, Brigitte

    Armillaria ostoyae (sometimes named Armillaria solidipes) is a fungal species causing root diseases in numerous coniferous forests of the northern hemisphere. The importance of sexual spores for the establishment of new disease centres remains unclear, particularly in the large maritime pine plantations of southwestern France. An analysis of the genetic diversity of a local fungal population distributed over 500 ha in this French forest showed genetic recombination between genotypes to be frequent, consistent with regular sexual reproduction within the population. The estimated spatial genetic structure displayed a significant pattern of isolation by distance, consistent with the dispersal of sexual spores mostly at the spatial scale studied. Using these genetic data, we inferred an effective density of reproductive individuals of 0.1-0.3 individuals/ha, and a second moment of parent-progeny dispersal distance of 130-800 m, compatible with the main models of fungal spore dispersal. These results contrast with those obtained for studies of A. ostoyae over larger spatial scales, suggesting that inferences about mean spore dispersal may be best performed at fine spatial scales (i.e. a few kilometres) for most fungal species. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of calla Lily sot rot caused by Pectobacterium Carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum ZT0505 bacterial growth and pectate lyase activity under different conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, L.; Guo, L.; Custers, J.B.M.; Zhang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Soft rot is a major disease of calla lily (Zantedeschia spp.) and other important crops worldwide. In this report, the bacterial isolate ZT0505 proved to be a soft rot pathogen of calla lily growing around Kunming (subtropical China) and was identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp.

  5. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L; Thompson, Sharon V

    2016-01-01

    Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  6. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  7. Reduction of potassium content of green bean pods and chard by culinary processing. Tools for chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pineda, Montserrat; Yagüe-Ruiz, Cristina; Caverni-Muñoz, Alberto; Vercet-Tormo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In order to prevent a possible hyperkalemia, chronic renal patients, especially in advanced stages, must follow a low potassium diet. So dietary guidelines for chronic kidney disease recommend limiting the consumption of many vegetables, as well as to apply laborious culinary techniques to maximize the reduction of potassium. The aim of this work is to analyze potassium content from several vegetable, fresh products, frozen and preserved, as well as check and compare the effectiveness in potassium reduction of different culinary processes, some of them recommended in dietary guidelines such as soaking or double cooking. Sample potassium content was analyzed by triplicate using flamephotometry. The results showed significant reductions in potassium content in all culinary processes studied. The degree of loss varied depending on the type of vegetable and processing applied. Frozen products achieved greater reductions than the fresh ones, obtaining in some cases losses greater than 90%. In addition, it was observed how in many cases the single application of a normal cooking reached potassium reductions to acceptable levels for its inclusion in renal patient diet. The results shown in this study are very positive because they provide tools for professionals who deal with this kind of patients. They allow them to adapt more easily to the needs and preferences of their patients and increase dietary variety. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Resistência genética à podridão amarga em maçãs, determinada pela taxa de desenvolvimento da doença em frutos com e sem ferimentos Genetic resistance to bitter rot on apples determined by the development rate of the disease on fruits with and without wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Denardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A maçã é um dos mais importantes produtos agrícolas de Santa Catarina e a segunda mais importante fruteira de clima temperado do Brasil. No entanto, a produção brasileira está alicerçada em cultivares importadas suscetíveis a diversas doenças. A podridão amarga causada pelo fungo Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman Spaulding & Schrenk, (forma imperfeita Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc. é uma das mais importantes doenças de verão, podendo causar perdas muito elevadas. No presente trabalho, a inoculação artificial de C. gloesporioides em frutos com e sem ferimentos objetivou verificar a diferença de evolução da podridão amarga e identificar possíveis fontes de resistência nas seleções e novas cultivares de macieira desenvolvidas pela Epagri. Verificou-se ampla variação na reação de resistência entre as cultivares e seleções estudadas. O estabelecimento e o desenvolvimento da podridão amarga mostrou-se muito mais rápido através de ferimentos. As seleções M-6/00 e M-13/00 manifestaram resistência superior à das atuais cultivares Gala, Fuji e Golden Delicious. Essas seleções também apresentaram resistência superior à cv. Melrose, indicada como resistente em outros estudos.Apple is one of the most important agricultural product of Santa Catarina State and represents the second most important temperate-zone fruit in Brazil. However the production is based on imported cultivars susceptible to many fungal diseases. Bitter rot caused by the fungus Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman Spaulding & Schrenk, (amorphous = Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., is one of the most important summer diseases of apple in southern Brazil. Severe damages may occur every year. In the present study, artificial inoculation of C. gloeosporioides on fruits with and without wounding was carried out to verify differences in the evolution of bitter rot and to identify sources of resistance to the disease among the new apple

  9. Potato brown rot incidence and severity under different management and amendment regimes in different soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, N.N.A.; Janse, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causative agent of potato brown rot (bacterial wilt), is an economically important disease in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. In view of previous reports on suppression of the disease by organic amendments, and the expansion of

  10. Host resistance to Botrytis bunch rot in Vitis spp. and its correlation with Botrytis leaf spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of Botrytis bunch rot, is the number one postharvest disease of fresh grapes in the U.S. Fungicide applications are used to manage the disease, but resistant isolates are common and postharvest losses occur annually. Host resistance is needed for long-term manageme...

  11. Creating prescription maps from satellite imagery for site-specific management of cotton root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot is a century-old cotton disease that can now be controlled with Topguard Terra Fungicide. However, as this disease tends to occur in the same general areas within fields year after year, site-specific treatment can be more effective and economical. The objective of this study was to ...

  12. First report of frosty pod rot caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR) is a devastating cacao disease caused by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri (Aime and Phillips-Mora, 2005). The disease is confined to 13 countries in Central and South America and constitutes a permanent threat for cacao cultivation worldwide. In July 2012, FPR was detect...

  13. Evaluation of Gliocladium species for control of Botrytis corm rot of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botrytis corm rot (Botrytis gladiolorum) is one of the most important and destructive diseases of gladiolus and poses a major constraint in production of flowers and corms all over the world. An In vivo experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy, antagonistic potential and disease reduction capacity of four ...

  14. Combining fuzzy set theory and nonlinear stretching enhancement for unsupervised classification of cotton root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot is a destructive disease affecting cotton production. Accurate identification of infected areas within fields is useful for cost-effective control of the disease. The uncertainties caused by various infection stages and newly infected plants make it difficult to achieve accurate clas...

  15. Genetic Architecture of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) Resistance in Soybean Revealed Using a Diverse Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methodologies available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient ...

  16. Resistance mechanisms to toxin-mediated charcoal rot infection in maturity group III soybean: role of seed phenol lignin soflavones sugars and seed minerals in charcoal rot resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot is a disease caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, and thought to infect the plants through roots by a toxin-mediated mechanism, resulting in yield loss and poor seed quality, especially under drought conditions. The mechanism by which this infection occurs is not y...

  17. Moniliophthora roreri, causal agent of cacao frosty pod rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Bryan A; Evans, Harry C; Phillips-Mora, Wilbert; Ali, Shahin S; Meinhardt, Lyndel W

    2017-12-01

    Taxonomy: Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) H.C. Evans et al. ; Phylum Basidiomycota; Class Agaricomycetes; Order Agaricales; Family Marasmiaceae; Genus Moniliophthora. Biology: Moniliophthora roreri attacks Theobroma and Herrania species causing frosty pod rot. Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the host of major economic concern. Moniliophthora roreri is a hemibiotroph with a long biotrophic phase (45-90 days). Spore masses, of apparent asexual origin, are produced on the pod surface after initiation of the necrotrophic phase. Spores are spread by wind, rain and human activity. Symptoms of the biotrophic phase can include necrotic flecks and, in some cases, pod malformation, but pods otherwise remain asymptomatic. Relationship to Moniliophthora perniciosa: Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao, are closely related. Their genomes are similar, including many of the genes they carry which are considered to be important in the disease process. Moniliophthora perniciosa, also a hemibiotroph, has a typical basidiomycete lifestyle and morphology, forming clamp connections and producing mushrooms. Basidiospores infect meristematic tissues including flower cushions, stem tips and pods. Moniliophthora roreri does not form clamp connections or mushrooms and infects pods only. Both pathogens are limited to the Western Hemisphere and are a threat to cacao production around the world. Agronomic importance: Disease losses caused by frosty pod rot can reach 90% and result in field abandonment. Moniliophthora roreri remains in the invasive phase in the Western Hemisphere, not having reached Brazil, some islands within the Caribbean and a few specific regions within otherwise invaded countries. The disease can be managed by a combination of cultural (for example, maintenance of tree height and removal of infected pods) and chemical methods. These methods benefit from regional application, but can be cost prohibitive. Breeding for

  18. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean......The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...

  19. New record of Phytophthora root and stem rot of Lavandula angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek B. Orlikowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora cinnamomi was isolated from rotted root and stem parts of lavender as well as from soil taken from containers with diseased plants. Additionally Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium spp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were often isolated from diseased tissues. P. cinnamomi colonised leaves and stem parts of 4 lavender species in laboratory trials and caused stem rot of plants in greenhouse experiments. Cardinal temperature for in vitro growth were about 7,5 and 32°C with optimum 25-27,5°C. The species colonised stem tissues at temperature ranged from 10° to 32°C.

  20. Characterisation of Alternaria species-groups associated with core rot of apples in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serdani, M.; Kang, J.C.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    Alternaria core rot of red apple cultivars is a serious post-harvest disease in South Africa. Thirty isolates of Alternaria spp. previously isolated from apple, together with reference isolates of A. alternata and A. infectoria, were characterised and grouped according to their sporulation patterns...... the other species-groups, as all isolates had a distinction of 35 base pair insertions and 6 base pair deletions in the ITS regions. The results obtained in the present study showed that the major pathogens associated with core rot disease of Top Red apples in South Africa belong to the A. tenuissima...

  1. Sharing Beans with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  2. African yam bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Responses of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) to supplementary application of potassium. (K) on soil were examined. Effects of the varying levels of potassium on vegetative growth, flowering, pod maturation, yield and yield components were also evaluated. There seems to be no significant.

  3. PHOTOSYNTHETIC RESPONSES OF Eucalyptus nitens Maiden AT INITIAL STAGES OF ROOT-ROT INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciasih Agustini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Root-rots are known to be latent diseases that may be present in plants for an extended period without any noticeable expression of symptoms above ground. Photosynthetic responses of Eucalyptus nitens saplings artificially inoculated with the root-rot pathogen, Armillaria luteobubalina were examined to characterize the initial stages of root-rot infection. This paper studies three photosynthetic parameters, i.e. photosystem II yield (Fv/Fm, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity (Amax for two strains of A. luteobubalina over a seven-month period. Root systems were either wounded or left intact before inoculation. A significant difference was observed in the Fv/Fm ratio between the uninoculated control and inoculated saplings. Photosystem II yield was considered the most sensitive parameter for the early detection of root-rot disease. Chlorophyll content and Amax decreased for all trees, including controls, during the period of the experiment, and most likely reflected host responses to seasonal change rather than treatment effects. Fungal re-isolations from symptomatic roots of inoculated trees confirmed the presence of A. luteobubalina. Findings from this preliminary trial indicated that there were detectable physiological changes associated with early infection of root-rot. However, to detect more widespread physiological changes an experiment of longer duration is needed.

  4. Molecular diagnosis of Phytophthora cinnamomi associated with root rot in avocado producing areas of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elizabeth Toapanta-Gallegos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most damaging diseases in cultivation of avocado (Persea americana Mill. is root rot associated with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. This disease causes progressive wilt and even death of the tree. The objective of this study was to identify the presence of P. cinnamomi in two productive areas of avocado in Ecuador using the molecular technique PCR-RFLP. Tree root samples were obtained with root rot symptoms in the production areas, from which 10 isolates were morphologically identified with Phytophthora spp. infection. To distinguish among the various Phytophthora species, a molecular analysis was performed using molecular markers in the ITSregion of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA. The ITSdigestion fragment obtained by PCR with the Ta qI enzyme confirmed the presence of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the isolated samples, and its association with root rot in the sampled production areas.

  5. Well-known quorum sensing inhibitors do not affect bacterial quorum sensing-regulated bean sprout spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, M; Rasmussen, T B; Andersen, J B; Persson, T; Nielsen, J; Givskov, M; Gram, L

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the potential of quorum sensing inhibitors (QSI) as food preservative agents in a food product, where bacterial spoilage is controlled by quorum sensing (QS). The effects of well-known QSI were tested on spoilage phenotypes and on QS-regulated genes of a bean sprout spoiling bacterial isolate (Pectobacterium A2JM) in laboratory substrates and in a bean sprout model system. The acylated homoserine lactones (AHL) analogues PenS-AHL and HepS-AHL decreased the specific protease activity of Pectobacterium A2JM in broth but did not reduce the expression of a QS-regulated secretion protein, and were without effect on soft rot of bean sprouts. The QSI ProS-AHL, furanone C-30, patulin, penicillic acid and 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide did not have any effect on protease activity, on gene expression or bean sprout appearance at nongrowth inhibitory concentrations. Extracts from garlic and bean sprouts induced the QS system of Pectobacterium in bean sprouts and a broth system, respectively. Among the several well-known QSI compounds, only PenS-AHL and HepS-AHL, inhibited QS-regulated protease activity of Pectobacterium A2JM in broth cultures, but had no effect on bean sprout spoilage. The QSI compounds must be selected in the specific system in which they are to function and they cannot easily be transferred from one QS system to another.

  6. Changes in cation concentrations in red spruce wood decayed by brown rot and white rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Ostrofsky; J. Jellison; K.T. Smith; W.C. Shortle

    1997-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) wood blocks were incubated in modified soil block jars and inoculated with one of nine white rot or brown rot basidiomycetes. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, and aluminum were determined using inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy in wood incubated 0, 1.5, 4, and 8 months after...

  7. Co-segregation analysis and mapping of the anthracnose Co-10 and angular leaf spot Phg-ON disease-resistance genes in the common bean cultivar Ouro Negro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Vidigal, M C; Cruz, A S; Lacanallo, G F; Vidigal Filho, P S; Sousa, L L; Pacheco, C M N A; McClean, P; Gepts, P; Pastor-Corrales, M A

    2013-09-01

    Anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) are devastating diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ouro Negro is a highly productive common bean cultivar, which contains the Co-10 and Phg-ON genes for resistance to ANT and ALS, respectively. In this study, we performed a genetic co-segregation analysis of resistance to ANT and ALS using an F2 population from the Rudá × Ouro Negro cross and the F2:3 families from the AND 277 × Ouro Negro cross. Ouro Negro is resistant to races 7 and 73 of the ANT and race 63-39 of the ALS pathogens. Conversely, cultivars AND 277 and Rudá are susceptible to races 7 and 73 of ANT, respectively. Both cultivars are susceptible to race 63-39 of ALS. Co-segregation analysis revealed that Co-10 and Phg-ON were inherited together, conferring resistance to races 7 and 73 of ANT and race 63-39 of ALS. The Co-10 and Phg-ON genes were co-segregated and were tightly linked at a distance of 0.0 cM on chromosome Pv04. The molecular marker g2303 was linked to Co-10 and Phg-ON at a distance of 0.0 cM. Because of their physical linkage in a cis configuration, the Co-10 and Phg-ON resistance alleles are inherited together and can be monitored with great efficiency using g2303. The close linkage between the Co-10 and Phg-ON genes and prior evidence are consistent with the existence of a resistance gene cluster at one end of chromosome Pv04, which also contains the Co-3 locus and ANT resistance quantitative trait loci. These results will be very useful for breeding programs aimed at developing bean cultivars with ANT and ALS resistance using marker-assisted selection.

  8. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz eTadych

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase.

  9. Associations of planting date, drought stress, and insects with Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination in California maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M W; Munkvold, G P

    2010-05-01

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is one of the most common diseases of maize, causing yield and quality reductions and contamination of grain by fumonisins and other mycotoxins. Drought stress and various insects have been implicated as factors affecting disease severity. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the interactions and relative influences of drought stress, insect infestation, and planting date upon Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Three hybrids varying in partial resistance to Fusarium ear rot were sown on three planting dates and subjected to four irrigation regimes to induce differing levels of drought stress. A foliar-spray insecticide treatment was imposed to induce differing levels of insect injury. Populations of thrips (Frankliniella spp.), damage by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zeae), Fusarium ear rot symptoms, and fumonisin B1 levels were assessed. There were significant effects of hybrid, planting date, insecticide treatment, and drought stress on Fusarium ear rot symptoms and fumonisin B1 contamination, and these factors also had significant interacting effects. The most influential factors were hybrid and insecticide treatment, but their effects were influenced by planting date and drought stress. The more resistant hybrids and the insecticide-treated plots consistently had lower Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Later planting dates typically had higher thrips populations, more Fusarium ear rot, and higher levels of fumonisin B1. Insect activity was significantly correlated with disease severity and fumonisin contamination, and the correlations were strongest for thrips. The results of this study confirm the influence of thrips on Fusarium ear rot severity in California, USA, and also establish a strong association between thrips and fumonisin B1 levels.

  10. Application of in silico bulked segregant analysis for rapid development of markers linked to Bean common mosaic virus resistance in common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean was one of the first crops that benefited from the development and utilization of molecular markers in tagging major disease resistance genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Efficiency of MAS breeding in common bean is still hampered; however, due to the dominance, linkage phase, an...

  11. Forest diseases and rot fungi in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roll-Hansen, F.; Roll-Hansen, H.

    1973-01-01

    Fluoride damage near ISAL has been investigated. Armillariella mellea, Chondrostereum purpureum, Coriolus hirsutus, C. zonatus, Cystostereum murraii, Lophodermium pinastri, Phellinus igniarius f. nigricans, Ph. cfr. laevigatus, Polyporous brumalis, P. varius, Potebniamyces coniferarum, Scleroderris lagerbergii, Stereum hirsutum, S. rugosum, S. sanguinolentum, Tyromyces albellus, and the saprophytic Lachnellula willkommii var. hahniana have all been found. Important fungi as Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis annosa, Inonotus obliqus, Lachnellula willkommii var. willkommii, Phacidium infestans, and Piptoporus betulinus have not been found in Iceland.

  12. Involvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot of bananas, caused by a fungal parasitic complex, is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Major variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot have been observed in different production zones. The physiological state of the banana fruit at harvest is said to influence its response to pathogenic attack and thus to modulate its susceptibility to crown rot. The susceptibility of bananas to this disease, however, appears to be influenced by many pre-harvest factors, although the underlying defense mechanisms have not been clearly identified. A recent report based on molecular analyses suggests that phenolic compounds might be involved in the different variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. Results of other earlier studies point to an involvement of phenolic compounds in the defensive reactions of banana plants against various pathogens. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot and takes stock of what is known about phenolic compounds in relation to their potential involvement in the defense mechanisms of the banana plant.

  13. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  14. Suppression of crown and root rot of wheat by the rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia LOUNACI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A seedling bioassay was developed for screening a wheat root-associated rhizobacterial strain of Paenibacillus polymyxa for ability to suppress crown and root rot pathogens of wheat. The primary aim was to evaluate the ability of P. polymyxa to suppress Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. verticillioides and Microdochium nivale, the fungal pathogens responsible for Fusarium crown and root rot and head blight of wheat in Algeria. Bioassays conducted under controlled conditions indicated that seed treatments with P. polymyxa strain SGK2 significantly reduced disease symptoms caused by all four fungal pathogens. Plant growth promotion (increased shoot and root dry weights, however, depended on the pathogen tested. Our results indicate that seed treatments with a biocontrol agent could be an additional strategy for management of wheat crown and root rot pathogens.

  15. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  16. First report of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, significant post-harvest disease losses of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) have been reported and several pathogens have been associated with fruit rot. Even though rambutan was introduced to Puerto Rico in 1927, it was not until 1998 that commercial farms were established in the wester...

  17. Cylindrocarpon root rot: multi-gene analysis reveals novel species within the Ilyonectria radicicola species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabral, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Rego, C.; Oliveira, H.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Ilyonectria radicicola and its Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph represent a species complex that is commonly associated with root rot disease symptoms on a range of hosts. During the course of this study, several species could be distinguished from I. radicicola sensu stricto based on morphological and

  18. Dry Rot of Raphia hookeri and its Effect on Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    for planting. Proximate analyses of the healthy and infected mesocarps of the fruit was carried out using the methods described by the Association of Official Analytical ... composition of R. hookeri fruits, there is therefore the need to study the effect of the dry rot disease ..... Trace heavy metal contents of some spices and.

  19. Effect of Charcoal Rot on Selected Putative Drought Resistant Soybean Genotypes and Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot (CR), caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is a pervasive disease of economic significance on soybeans ([(Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that is exacerbated when plants are under stress, especially under heat and drought condition. Thus, the objective of this research was...

  20. Mechanisms of qualitative and quantitative resistance to Aphanomyces root rot in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphanomyces root rot (ARR), caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, is one of the most important diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in the United States. Two races of the pathogen are currently recognized. Most modern alfalfa cultivars have high levels of resistance to race 1 but few cultivars have resi...

  1. Identification of markers associated with race-specific resistance to Aphanomyces root rot in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphanomyces root rot, caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, is one of the most important diseases of alfalfa in the United States. Two races of the pathogen are recognized and although most cultivars are resistant to race 1, fewer have resistance to race 2, the predominant race in North America. Molecula...

  2. Pectobacterium carotovorum. subsp. brasiliense is a causal agent of bacterial leaf rot of tobacco in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new leaf rot disease of tobacco was found in fields of the Shaowu region, Fujian Province of China in 2015. A typical symptom was necrosis along the main or lateral veins of tobacco leaves, eventually causing wilting and death of the leaves, while the necrosis spread no further than the epidermis ...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of a Virulent Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Isolate Causing Soft Rot of Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkendi, Edward M; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kwenda, Stanford; Naidoo, Sanushka; Moleleki, Lucy

    2016-01-07

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potatoes, ornamentals, and other crops of economic importance. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a highly virulent P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain, PcbHPI01, isolated from a cucumber in South Africa. Copyright © 2016 Onkendi et al.

  4. Site-specific management of cotton root rot using historical remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot can now be effectively controlled with Topguard Terra Fungicide, but site-specific application of the fungicide can greatly reduce treatment cost as only portions of the field are infested with the disease. The overall goal of this three-year project was to demonstrate how to use his...

  5. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Riley; Asaf A. Salamov; Daren W. Brown; Laszlo G. Nagy; Dimitrios Floudas; Benjamin W. Held; Anthony Levasseur; Vincent Lombard; Emmanuelle Morin; Robert Otillar; Erika A. Lindquist; Hui Sun; Kurt M. LaButti; Jeremy Schmutz; Dina Jabbour; Hong Luo; Scott E. Baker; Antonio G. Pisabarro; Jonathan D. Walton; Robert A. Blanchette; Bernard Henrissat; Francis Martin; Daniel Cullen; David S. Hibbett; Igor V. Grigoriev

    2014-01-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic...

  6. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade ...

  7. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  8. Changes in Molecular Size Distribution of Cellulose during Attack by White Rot and Brown Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kleman-Leyer, Karen; Agosin, Eduardo; Conner, Anthony H.; Kirk, T. Kent

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of cotton cellulose depolymerization by the brown rot fungus Postia placenta and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated with solid-state cultures. The degree of polymerization (DP; the average number of glucosyl residues per cellulose molecule) of cellulose removed from soil-block cultures during degradation by P. placenta was first determined viscosimetrically. Changes in molecular size distribution of cellulose attacked by either fungus were then det...

  9. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  10. Resistance of common bean breeding lines to Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) disease caused by Phaeoisariopsis griseola Sacc. Ferraris, is currently one of the most important factors limiting bean productivity in Central America. The development of breeding lines which combine resistance to ALS and Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV) and tolerance...

  11. Simultaneous Detection of Brown Rot- and Soft Rot-Causing Bacterial Pathogens from Potato Tubers Through Multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, R K; Singh, Dinesh; Baranwal, V K

    2016-11-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al. and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al. (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum) are the two major bacterial pathogens of potato causing brown rot (wilt) and soft rot diseases, respectively, in the field and during storage. Reliable and early detection of these pathogens are keys to avoid occurrence of these diseases in potato crops and reduce yield loss. In the present study, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed for simultaneous detection of R. solanacearum and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora from potato tubers. A set of oligos targeting the pectatelyase (pel) gene of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and the universal primers based on 16S r RNA gene of R. solanacearum were used. The standardized multiplex PCR protocol could detect R. solanacearum and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora up to 0.01 and 1.0 ng of genomic DNA, respectively. The protocol was further validated on 96 stored potato tuber samples, collected from different potato-growing states of India, viz. Uttarakhand, Odisha, Meghalaya and Delhi. 53.1 % tuber samples were positive for R. solanacearum, and 15.1 % of samples were positive for E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, and both the pathogens were positive in 26.0 % samples when BIO-PCR was used. This method offers sensitive, specific, reliable and fast detection of two major bacterial pathogens from potato tubers simultaneously, particularly pathogen-free seed certification in large scale.

  12. Studies on storage rot of cocoyam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uc network

    Department of Botany, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, were employed for this study. These were fungal organisms which had earlier been established as the major rot pathogens of cocoyam corms during storage. Pathogenicity assessment studies of fungal organisms: To assess the potency of the fungal organisms.

  13. Etiology of phomopsis root rot in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cecília Ghissi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of damages caused by soybean root rot to crops in the south of Brazil for several years, a root rot caused by Phomopsis sp has been found with increasing frequency. The primary symptoms are seen when the main root is cut longitudinally, including the death of the wood which shows white coloration and well-defined black lines that do not have a defined format. Thus, based on similarity, it has been called geographic root rot due to its aspect resembling irregular lines that separate regions on a map. In isolations, colonies and alpha spores of Phomopsis have prevailed. Pathogenicity test was done by means of inoculation in the crown of plants cultivated in a growth chamber. The geographic symptoms were reproduced in plants and the fungus Phomopsis sp. was reisolated. In soybean stems naturally infected with pod and stem blight, geographic symptoms caused by Phomopsis phaseoli are found. To the known symptoms on stems, pods and grains, that of root rot caused by P. phaseoli is now added.

  14. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  15. Occurrence, characterization and management of fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits under arid greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH M AL-SADI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to characterize and manage pathogens associated with fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits in greenhouses in Oman. A survey over 5 growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 in 99 different greenhouses in Oman showed that the disease is prevalent in 91 (92% greenhouses and results in losses of 10 to 60% (avg. 33% of immature fruits per plant. Incidence of the disease was not found to be affected by growing seasons, which could be attributed to the limited fluctuations in ambient temperatures in greenhouses. Isolations from diseased cucumber fruits yielded Alternaria alternata (isolation frequency = 52%, Fusarium equiseti (40%, Cladosporium tenuissium (27%, Botrytis cinerea (6%, Fusarium solani (6%, Corynespora cassiicola (3%, Aspergillus spp. (2%, Curvularia sp. (1% and Bipolaris sp. (1%. With the exception of Curvularia and Bipolaris species, all other fungi were pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium equiseti being the most aggressive, followed by Corynespora cassiicola, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Cladosporium and Aspergillus spp. were found to be weakly pathogenic. Comparing the efficacy of foliar and soil applications of carbendazim fungicide on fruit rot of cucumber showed that foliar applications significantly reduced fruit rot and increased cucumber yield when compared to soil application or to control (P < 0.01. This appears to be the first report of the association of Corynespora cassiicola and Fusarium equiseti with fruit rot of immature greenhouse cucumbers. This is also the first report in Oman for the association of Cladosporium tenuissimum with fruit rot of immature cucumbers. Findings are discussed in terms of factors affecting disease control in greenhouses using carbendazim.

  16. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa from fava bean, green peas and green beans by high performance liquid gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran S M, Mohseni; B, Golshani

    2013-06-01

    According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson's disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson's disease. We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects.

  17. Revised Phylogeny and Novel Horizontally Acquired Virulence Determinants of the Model Soft Rot Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E. Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot

  18. Revised phylogeny and novel horizontally acquired virulence determinants of the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Nykyri

    Full Text Available Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2, which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny

  19. Sclerotinia Rot on Basil Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Sang Hahm

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During growing season of 2011 to 2013, Sclerotinia rot symptoms consistently have been observed on basil in Yesan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do in Korea. The typical symptom formed initially brownish spot on leaf and stem, and then advancing margins, wilting the whole plant and blighting, eventually died. On the surface of diseased lesions was observed cottony, white, dense mat of mycelial growth, and sclerotia (30–100 µm diameter formed on stem and leaf. Morphological and cultural characteristic on potato dextrose agar, color of colony was white and colorless chocolate, sclerotium of irregular shape of the oval was black and 5–50 µm diameter in size. In pathogenicity test, necrosis and wilt of the inoculated stem were observed in all plants and the pathogen was reisolated from stems. On the basis of mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis, this fungus was identified as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This is the first report of Sclerotinia rot on basil caused by S. sclerotiorum in Korea.

  20. Fungi associated with fruit crown rot in organic banana (Musa spp. L. in Piura, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Aguilar Anccota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The department of Piura is the principal banana-producing zone in Peru, sharing 87% of exportations. In this zone, one of the most important postharvest diseases is crown rot. The economic loses attributed to this disease are estimated to be between 25 and 30% of organic bananas exported. The objective of this study was to identify the causal agents associated with this disease. Samples taken refrigerated fruit from the areas of Querecotillo, Salitral and Mallares were taken and selected after the fact. Thielaviopsis paradoxa, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum musae and Fusarium verticilloides. In order to demonstrate the pathogenicity of the isolated species, inoculations were given in the area of the crown of the fruit on healthy bananas. These fungi caused symptoms of infection in different proportions, concluding that crown rot is a disease with a complex etiology.

  1. Evaluation of economically feasible, natural plant extract-based microbiological media for producing biomass of the dry rot biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in liquid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Sadia; Ali, Tasneem Adam; Skory, Chris; Slininger, Patricia J; Schisler, David A

    2016-02-01

    The production of microbial biomass in liquid media often represents an indispensable step in the research and development of bacterial and fungal strains. Costs of commercially prepared nutrient media or purified media components, however, can represent a significant hurdle to conducting research in locations where obtaining these products is difficult. A less expensive option for providing components essential to microbial growth in liquid culture is the use of extracts of fresh or dried plant products obtained by using hot water extraction techniques. A total of 13 plant extract-based media were prepared from a variety of plant fruits, pods or seeds of plant species including Allium cepa (red onion bulb), Phaseolus vulgaris (green bean pods), and Lens culinaris (lentil seeds). In shake flask tests, cell production by potato dry rot antagonist Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in plant extract-based media was generally statistically indistinguishable from that in commercially produced tryptic soy broth and nutrient broth as measured by optical density and colony forming units/ml produced (P ≤ 0.05, Fisher's protected LSD). The efficacy of biomass produced in the best plant extract-based media or commercial media was equivalent in reducing Fusarium dry rot by 50-96% compared to controls. In studies using a high-throughput microbioreactor, logarithmic growth of P22Y05 in plant extract-based media initiated in 3-5 h in most cases but specific growth rate and the time of maximum OD varied as did the maximum pH obtained in media. Nutrient analysis of selected media before and after cell growth indicated that nitrogen in the form of NH4 accumulated in culture supernatants, possibly due to unbalanced growth conditions brought on by a scarcity of simple sugars in the media tested. The potential of plant extract-based media to economically produce biomass of microbes active in reducing plant disease is considerable and deserves further research.

  2. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  3. Genetic Architecture of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) Resistance in Soybean Revealed Using a Diverse Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Coser, Sara M.; Chowda Reddy, R. V.; Zhang, Jiaoping; Mueller, Daren S.; Mengistu, Alemu; Wise, Kiersten A.; Allen, Tom W.; Singh, Arti; Singh, Asheesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Charcoal rot (CR) disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methods available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient information available on the genetic mechanisms related to resistance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable unraveling the genetic architecture of resistance and identification of causal ge...

  4. Postharvest rot and mummification of strawberry fruits caused by Neofusicoccum parvum and N. kwambonambiense in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ueder P.; Zambolim, Laercio; Pinho, Danilo B.; Barros, Aline V.; Costa, Hélcio; Pereira, Olinto L.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the rots that are commonly found on strawberries, a new disease was found in 7% of stored fruits during a survey of strawberry diseases at the postharvest stage. Koch's postulates were satisfied, and the fungi were identified as Neofusicoccum kwambonambiense and N. parvum based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacers, β-tubulin, RNA polymerase subunit II and transcription elongation factor 1-α regions. This is the first report of Neofusicoccu...

  5. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control

    OpenAIRE

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-indus...

  6. Effect of maize density, bean cultivar and bean spatial arrangement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maize density, bean cultivar and bean spatial arrangement on intercrop performance. ... L'impact de plantes de maïs à 37000 et 24000 plantes ha-1 et des variétés de " Natal sugar" et "carioca" de haricots plantées dans et entre les lignes de maïs était évalué dans une disposition du type factoriel. La densité de ...

  7. Wilt, crown, and root rot of common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) caused by a novel Fusarium sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new crown and root rot disease of landscape plantings of the malvaceous ornamental common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) was first detected in Washington State in 2012. The main objectives of this study were to complete Koch's postulates, document the disease sypmtoms photographically, and iden...

  8. Control of blackleg and tuber soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya species: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Perombelon, M.C.M.; Veen, van J.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews research on the causative agents of blackleg and soft rot diseases of potato, namely Pectobacterium and Dickeya species, and the disease syndrome, including epidemiological and aetiological aspects. It critically evaluates control methods used in practice based on the

  9. Evaluation of host resistance to Botrytis bunch rot in Vitis spp. and its correlation with Botrytis leaf spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of Botrytis bunch rot and gray mold, is the number one postharvest disease of fresh grapes in the United States. Fungicide applications are used to manage the disease, but fungicide-resistant isolates are common and postharvest losses occur annually. Host resistanc...

  10. Development of Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici on resistant and susceptible watermelon fruit of different ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon is an important crop grown in 44 states in the United States. Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is a serious disease in the southeastern U.S., where over 50% of the watermelons are produced. The disease has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers, especially in...

  11. Effect of cultural practices and fungicide treatments on the severity of Phytophthora root rot of blueberries grown in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of blueberries, especially those grown in areas with poor drainage. Reliable cultural and chemical management strategies are needed for control of this disease. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of cultural practices and fungicide treat...

  12. Selection of maize inbred lines and gene expression for resistance to ear rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G S; Pinho, R G V; Pinho, E V R V; Pires, L P M; Bernardo Junior, L A Y; Pereira, J L A; Melo, M P

    2017-07-06

    In recent years, there has been a large incidence of fungi causing "ear rot" in maize in Brazil, the main fungus being Fusarium verticillioides. The most efficient and competitive alternative for control of this disease consists of using maize hybrids resistant to this pathogen. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyze the genetic variability of maize inbred lines in regard to resistance to ear rot to observe if there is a maternal effect to resistance to ear rot, to study genetic control of the traits evaluated in hybrids originating from inbred lines of the maize breeding program at the Agriculture Department of Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras, MG, Brazil), and characterize the gene expression pattern related to the plant defense mechanism against F. verticillioides. High genetic availability was observed for resistance to this disease among the inbred lines evaluated. Considering combined diallel analysis, it was observed that the mean square of general combining ability (GCA) was not significant for the characteristic under study. However, specific combining ability (SCA) was significant, which indicates the predominance of non-additive effects involved in control of the characteristic for the population evaluated. A maternal effect was not observed for the characteristic of ear rot resistance in this study. Inbred lines 22, 58, and 91 showed potential for use in breeding programs aiming at resistance to F. verticillioides. Only two genes, LOX8 and Hsp82, had a satisfactory result that was able to be related to a plant defense mechanism when there is ear rot infection, though expression of these genes was observed in only one susceptible genotype. Thus, the genes LOX8 and Hsp82 are potential molecular markers for selection of maize inbred lines resistant to F. verticillioides.

  13. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Control of potato soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum by Moroccan actinobacteria isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz, M; Lahbabi, D; Samri, S; Val, F; Hamelin, G; Madore, I; Bouarab, K; Beaulieu, C; Ennaji, M M; Barakate, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum are dreadful causal agents of potato soft rot. Actually, there are no efficient bactericides used to protect potato against Pectobacterium spp. Biological control using actinobacteria could be an interesting approach to manage this disease. Thus, two hundred actinobacteria isolated from Moroccan habitats were tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro 4 environmental Pectobacterium strains and the two reference strains (P. carotovorum CFBP 5890 and P. atrosepticum CFBP 5889). Eight percent of these isolates were active against at least one of the tested pathogens and only 2% exhibited an antimicrobial activity against all tested Pectobacterium strains. Four bioactive isolates having the greatest pathogen inhibitory capabilities and classified as belonging to the genus Streptomyces species through 16S rDNA analysis were subsequently tested for their ability to reduce in vivo soft rot symptoms on potato slices of Bintje, Yukon Gold, Russet and Norland cultivars caused by the two pathogens P. carotovorum and P. atrosepticum. This test was carried out by using biomass inoculums and culture filtrate of the isolates as treatment. Among these, strain Streptomyces sp. OE7, reduced by 65-94% symptom severity caused by the two pathogens on potato slices. Streptomyces OE7 showed a potential for controlling soft rot on potato slices and could be useful in an integrated control program against potato soft rot pathogens in the objective to reduce treatments with chemical compounds.

  15. Systems approach-based mitigation of postharvest diseases to overcome trade barriers for Washington apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by S. pyriputrescens were reported as new postharvest fruit rot diseases in Washington State in the mid-2000s. Both diseases can cause significant postharvest losses of fruit if left uncontrolled, and the two fungi have be...

  16. Stand tending and root rot in Norway spruce stands - economical effects caused by root rot at different thinning regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Mats

    1997-01-01

    This report is divided into three parts: 1) a literature study describing the most common fungi causing rot in wood and descriptions of various strategies to reduce economic loss from root rot, 2) a check of a model describing the development of butt rot in pure Norway spruce plantations in southern Sweden, and 3) simulated economic effects of root rot in stands with various stand tending. The rot model was used to estimate future rot frequencies in the economic calculations. In order to avoid overestimations of rot frequencies, the calculations were also executed when assuming slower growth of rot than shown in the model. When analysing the economical effects of rot, the following three thinning programmes were used: Program 1: thinning at the ages of 30- and 45 years. Final felling at the ages 50-, 55-, 60-, 65-, and 70 years. Program 2: thinning at the ages of 40- and 60- years. Final felling at the ages 65 and 75 years. Program 3: thinning at the ages of 30-, 40-, 55-, and 70 years. Final felling at the ages 80 and 90 years. With an interest rate of 3%, programme 2 (final felling at the age of 65 years) had the highest value at present. This result was valid when presuming butt rot in the stand as well as when presuming no butt rot in the stand. There was a small difference between the value at present in programme 1 (final felling at the age of 60 years) and in programme 3 (final felling at the age of 80 years). When presuming butt rot in the stand, the value at present in programme 3 decreased somewhat more in comparison to the value at present in programme 1. Compared to no butt rot in the stand, the optimal final felling time appeared five to ten years earlier when assuming butt rot in the stand. Stand tending programme 1 and an interest rate of 3% were used. Interest rates 2 and 4% did not indicate shorter rotation. The calculated optimal time of final felling appeared at the same stand age whether assuming rot preset or not. The results in this study

  17. Evaluation of rotational effect of bean in large-scale rice-bean rotation using satellite remote sensing experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-06-01

    A large-scale rice-bean rotation experiment was examined to analyze the rotational effect of bean by using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of bean on satellite remote sensing image. The experiment was undertaken at Rudong County of China from 2009 to 2010. The difference between the bean NDVIs of bean-bean monoculture and rice-bean rotation was used to evaluate the rotational effect of bean. The results show that the NDVI of rice-bean rotation is obviously larger than one of bean-bean monoculture in such large-scale experiment. Thus, we have also found the compelling evidence that the bean yield of rice-bean rotation is greater than the bean yield of bean-bean monoculture.

  18. Effects of dietary cooked navy bean on the fecal microbiome of healthy companion dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Kerr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooked bean powders are a promising novel protein and fiber source for dogs, which have demonstrated potential to alter microbial composition and function for chronic disease control and prevention. This study aimed to determine the impact of cooked navy bean powder fed as a staple food ingredient on the fecal microbiome of healthy adult pet dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy dogs prior to dietary control and after 4 wk of dietary treatment with macro- and micronutrient matched diets containing either 0 or 25% cooked navy beans (n = 11 and n = 10, respectively were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. There were few differences between dogs fed the control and navy bean diets after 4 wk of treatment. These data indicate that there were no major effects of navy bean inclusion on microbial populations. However, significant differences due to dietary intervention onto both research diets were observed (i.e., microbial populations at baseline versus 4 wk of intervention with 0 or 25% navy bean diets. After 4 wk of dietary intervention on either control or navy bean diet, the Phylum Firmicutes was increased and the Phyla Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria were decreased compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: No negative alterations of microbial populations occurred following cooked navy bean intake in dogs, indicating that bean powders may be a viable protein and fiber source for commercial pet foods. The highly variable microbial populations observed in these healthy adult pet dogs at baseline is one potential reason for the difficulty to detect alterations in microbial populations following dietary changes. Given the potential physiological benefits of bean intake in humans and dogs, further evaluation of the impacts of cooked navy bean intake on fecal microbial populations with higher power or more sensitive methods are warranted.

  19. Effects of dietary cooked navy bean on the fecal microbiome of healthy companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katherine R; Forster, Genevieve; Dowd, Scot E; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-01-01

    Cooked bean powders are a promising novel protein and fiber source for dogs, which have demonstrated potential to alter microbial composition and function for chronic disease control and prevention. This study aimed to determine the impact of cooked navy bean powder fed as a staple food ingredient on the fecal microbiome of healthy adult pet dogs. Fecal samples from healthy dogs prior to dietary control and after 4 wk of dietary treatment with macro- and micronutrient matched diets containing either 0 or 25% cooked navy beans (n = 11 and n = 10, respectively) were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. There were few differences between dogs fed the control and navy bean diets after 4 wk of treatment. These data indicate that there were no major effects of navy bean inclusion on microbial populations. However, significant differences due to dietary intervention onto both research diets were observed (i.e., microbial populations at baseline versus 4 wk of intervention with 0 or 25% navy bean diets). After 4 wk of dietary intervention on either control or navy bean diet, the Phylum Firmicutes was increased and the Phyla Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria were decreased compared to baseline. No negative alterations of microbial populations occurred following cooked navy bean intake in dogs, indicating that bean powders may be a viable protein and fiber source for commercial pet foods. The highly variable microbial populations observed in these healthy adult pet dogs at baseline is one potential reason for the difficulty to detect alterations in microbial populations following dietary changes. Given the potential physiological benefits of bean intake in humans and dogs, further evaluation of the impacts of cooked navy bean intake on fecal microbial populations with higher power or more sensitive methods are warranted.

  20. identification of common bean genotypes with dual leaf and pod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES WITH DUAL LEAF AND. POD RESISTANCE TO COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT DISEASE IN UGANDA. B.M.E. ALLADASSI, S.T. NKALUBO1, C. MUKANKUSI2, H.N. KAYAGA, P. GIBSON, R. EDEMA,. C.A. URREA3, J.D. KELLY4 and P.R. RUBAIHAYO.

  1. Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus ): A Limiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactions of twenty soybean varieties to infection with Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus) disease were studied for 2 consecutive years in the Department of Crop Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka Farm (Latitude 060 25N; Longitude 070 24N; attitude 447.26 m above sea level). Factorial arrangement ...

  2. Yield performance of dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... percentage of protein as compared to maize, rice and cassava. This protein is high in lysine, ... source of protein that is especially important in the diet of resource-poor people who live far from ..... Chiumia LC, Msuku WAB, Mloza Banda HR, Mkandawire ABC (2003). Status of seedborne diseases in beans ...

  3. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  4. Comparative and population genomic landscape of Phellinus noxius: A hypervariable fungus causing root rot in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chia-Lin; Lee, Tracy J; Akiba, Mitsuteru; Lee, Hsin-Han; Kuo, Tzu-Hao; Liu, Dang; Ke, Huei-Mien; Yokoi, Toshiro; Roa, Marylette B; Lu, Mei-Yeh J; Chang, Ya-Yun; Ann, Pao-Jen; Tsai, Jyh-Nong; Chen, Chien-Yu; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Ota, Yuko; Hattori, Tsutomu; Sahashi, Norio; Liou, Ruey-Fen; Kikuchi, Taisei; Tsai, Isheng J

    2017-11-01

    The order Hymenochaetales of white rot fungi contain some of the most aggressive wood decayers causing tree deaths around the world. Despite their ecological importance and the impact of diseases they cause, little is known about the evolution and transmission patterns of these pathogens. Here, we sequenced and undertook comparative genomic analyses of Hymenochaetales genomes using brown root rot fungus Phellinus noxius, wood-decomposing fungus Phellinus lamaensis, laminated root rot fungus Phellinus sulphurascens and trunk pathogen Porodaedalea pini. Many gene families of lignin-degrading enzymes were identified from these fungi, reflecting their ability as white rot fungi. Comparing against distant fungi highlighted the expansion of 1,3-beta-glucan synthases in P. noxius, which may account for its fast-growing attribute. We identified 13 linkage groups conserved within Agaricomycetes, suggesting the evolution of stable karyotypes. We determined that P. noxius has a bipolar heterothallic mating system, with unusual highly expanded ~60 kb A locus as a result of accumulating gene transposition. We investigated the population genomics of 60 P. noxius isolates across multiple islands of the Asia Pacific region. Whole-genome sequencing showed this multinucleate species contains abundant poly-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms with atypical allele frequencies. Different patterns of intra-isolate polymorphism reflect mono-/heterokaryotic states which are both prevalent in nature. We have shown two genetically separated lineages with one spanning across many islands despite the geographical barriers. Both populations possess extraordinary genetic diversity and show contrasting evolutionary scenarios. These results provide a framework to further investigate the genetic basis underlying the fitness and virulence of white rot fungi. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Carvacrol and eugenol effectively inhibit Rhizopus stolonifer and control postharvest soft rot decay in peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D; Wang, Z; Li, M; Xing, M; Xian, T; Tu, K

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antifungal mechanism of carvacrol and eugenol to inhibit Rhizopus stolonifer and the control of postharvest soft rot decay in peaches. To investigate the antifungal mechanism, the effects of carvacrol and eugenol on the mycelium growth, leakages of cytoplasmic contents, mycelium morphology, cell membrane and membrane composition of R. stolonifer were studied. Carvacrol and eugenol both exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against R. stolonifer, carvacrol at a concentration of 2 μl per plant and eugenol at a concentration of 4 μl per plant inhibited fungal growth completely. The two essential oils (EOs) increased cell membrane penetrability and caused the leakage of cytoplasm, nucleic acid and protein content. The observation using scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy showed modification of the hyphal morphology and breakage of the cell plasma membrane. Decreased ergosterol contents confirmed that the two EOs could destroy the membrane of R. stolonifer. For the in vivo test, the inhibition of soft rot disease and the induction of defence-related enzymes were investigated. Carvacrol and eugenol significantly reduced the incidence and severity of soft rot decay in inoculated peaches. The best treatments for controlling soft rot decay were obtained at 0·5 μl l -1 for carvacrol and 1 μl l -1 for eugenol. The activities of defence-related enzymes in peaches were also enhanced by fumigation with two EOs. This study showed that carvacrol and eugenol could effectively inhibit the growth of R. stolonifer in vitro and successfully control the incidence of soft rot decay in honey peaches. The above findings may be the main antifungal mechanism of carvacrol and eugenol on R. stolonifer. Furthermore, carvacrol and eugenol are helpful for their commercial application on the preservation of fresh fruit. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period.

  7. SWEET PEPPER: ASPECTS OF THE BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF FUSARIUM FRUIT ROT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, T; Mayne, S

    2015-01-01

    Internal fruit rot of sweet pepper grown in glasshouses has been an increasing problem worldwide since around 2000. In the UK, surveys in 2007 showed infected fruits were present in many crops at levels from 1 to 37%. The disease causes some losses on production nurseries but more importantly also causes rejection by packers and complaints by supermarkets. Losses vary greatly between crops and seasons, and growers are generally unaware a problem may be present until harvest or postharvest. The fruit rot arises through infection of flowers (Yang et al., 2010). Several Fusarium species have been associated with the disease in the UK, notably F. lactis and F. oxysporum. Observations in commercial crops indicate the disease is favoured by high humidity. At present there is no effective method of control. This experimental work aimed to reduce losses to Fusarium internal fruit rot through increased knowledge of factors associated with a high incidence of the disease and use of biofungicides and fungicides to control flower infection.

  8. Diseases of chaetognaths from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Three different diseases, provisionally assigned as spot disease, swell disease and tail rot disease, were observed in chaetognaths Sagitta enflata Grassi and S. bedoti Bernaneck. The first two diseases showed high percentage of occurrence. The spot...

  9. Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps in Knowledge of Bean Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon V.; Dougherty, Mariah K.

    2018-01-01

    Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health benefits. Some gaps in awareness were evident, including effect on cancer risk, intestinal health benefits, folate content, and application with celiac disease patients. RDs with greater personal bean consumption had significantly higher bean health benefit knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of the RDs did not know the meaning of ‘legume’, and over two-thirds could not define the term ‘pulse’. It is essential that RDs have up-to-date, evidence-based information regarding bean benefits to provide appropriate education to patients, clients, and the public. PMID:29316699

  10. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States while continuing to...

  11. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper.

  12. White mould of common bean incited by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, M A; Abou-el-Seoud, I; Rasmy, M R; Khater, Manar M

    2009-01-01

    White mould, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a destructive yield-limiting disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt. Forty eight isolate of S. sclerotiorum were isolated from diseased bean tissues taken from 9 geographical regions (Al-Behaira, Alexandria and Assiut governorates) during winter season in 2008. The pathogenicity studies showed that the tested bean cultivars (Bronco, Contender, Giza 6 and Nebraska) varied in disease incidence. Contender bean cultivar was more resistant than other cultivars. Whereas, the more virulent isolates were S5 and S6. Histology investigation of seedlings bean hypocotyls inoculated with S. sclerotiorum after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after inoculation indicated that penetration of bean seedlings occurred, during the first 48 hours after inoculation, through the epidermis and the outer layer of the cortex. 72 hours after inoculation, damage extended deeper into the cortical cells. Infection took place inter-and interacellularly after 96 hours more damage occurred. In addition, the invasion of the fungal hyphae through the cortical cells occurred both inter-, and intracellularly. Moreover, the observed of electron microscope both transmission and scanning investigations concluded that penetrating hyphae progressed through bean seedlings tissues leading to complete destruction of epidermis, fully colonization and death of cortical cells, partial invasion of vascular tissues. However, presence of the fungal structures in pith cells was observed.

  13. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes are large, fleshy, colorful plant seeds. Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy ...

  14. From the investigations on Armillaria root rot occurrence in young Scots pine stands in Zielonka Forest District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szewczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria root rot, one of the most dangerous diseases in our forests, is caused in Poland mainly by Armillaria ostoyae, especially severe in young Scots pine stands, established after broadleaved stands or with participation of broadleaved species. In Forest District Zielonka young stands are severly affected by Armillaria root rot. Only one species, A.ostoyae, was found in the young (8-14 yrs Scots pine stands, despite the presence of other Armillaria species in the district. The pathogen's frequent occurrence may be due, inter alia, to favouring environmental factors.

  15. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, R; Pérombelon, McM; Jafra, S; Lojkowska, E; Potrykus, M; van der Wolf, Jm; Sledz, W

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in storage thereby reducing yield and quality. Efficient and cost-effective detection and identification methods are essential to investigate the ecology and pathogenesis of the SRE as well as in seed certification programmes. The aim of this review was to collect all existing information on methods available for SRE detection. The review reports on the sampling and preparation of plant material for testing and on over thirty methods to detect, identify and differentiate the soft rot and blackleg causing bacteria to species and subspecies level. These include methods based on biochemical characters, serology, molecular techniques which rely on DNA sequence amplification as well as several less-investigated ones.

  16. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  17. Nutraceutical perspectives and utilization of common beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing interest in common beans and their products because of the health claims associated with their consumption. Common beans are rich in protein, carbohydrate, fiber, minerals and vitamins. Proteins have always been recognized as the most significant macronutrient in common beans and though the seed ...

  18. morphological diversity of tropical common bean germplasm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces and varieties grown by farmers in the tropics are a major source of genes and genetic diversity for bean improvement. These materials are, however, threatened by genetic erosion. In this study, we sought to understand the current state of genetic diversity of common bean in ...

  19. Phytohemagglutination Activity in Extruded Dry Bean Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans are a highly nutritious food. Besides making beans palatable, cooking is required to denature lectin, a protein found in beans. If consumed raw or undercooked, lectin poisoning can occur. Symptoms of lectin poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and occur within hours of...

  20. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  1. Potential of bulb-associated bacteria for biocontrol of hyacinth soft rot caused by Dickeya zeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafra, S; Przysowa, J; Gwizdek-Wiśniewska, A; van der Wolf, J M

    2009-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were selected on the basis of antibiosis against D. zeae, siderophore production, and the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)-inactivation. In in vitro assays, 35 out of 565 hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates produced antimicrobial substances against D. zeae, whereas 20 degraded AHLs, and 35 produced siderophores. Isolates of interest were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and reaction in BIOLOG tests. Twenty-six isolates that differed in characteristics were selected for pathogenicity testing on hyacinth cultivars, Pink Pearl and Carnegie. Two strains identified as Rahnella aquatilis and one as Erwinia persicinus significantly reduced tissue maceration caused by D. zeae 2019 on hyacinth bulbs, but not on leaves. Hyacinth bulbs harbour bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups that are antagonistic to D. zeae, and some can attenuate decay of bulb tissue. Selected hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates have potential for control of soft rot disease caused by D. zeae in hyacinth bulb production.

  2. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  3. RESISTANCE TO POST-HARVEST MICROBIAL ROT IN YAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Rot from microbial infection of healthy yam tubers reduces their table quality and renders them unappealing to consumers. A study was carried out at Bimbilla in the Nanumba North District of Ghana to evaluate possible interactions of yam genotypes and storage methods for controlling internal rot in yam. Four local varieties.

  4. First Report of Cadophora luteo-olivacea Causing Side Rot on ‘Conference’ Pears in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de Astrid; Leeuwen, van Paul; Hollinger, T.C.; Haas, de B.H.; Köhl, J.

    2016-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands. Symptoms of side rot disease of pear fruits were first observed in 2008 on cv. Conference in storage in the Netherlands. Typical round to oval, dark-brown, and slightly sunken spots (size 0.5 to 1.0 cm in diameter) appeared after

  5. Effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation and mustard seed meal for control of charcoal rot in California strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and mustard seed meal (MSM) appear to be promising non-fumigant alternatives for soilborne disease control. However studies of their effect on charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in California strawberry are limited. ASD with rice bran 20 t ha-1 (ASD-RB...

  6. Gene-for-gene relationships between strawberry and the causal agent of red stele root rot, Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weg, van de W.E.

    1997-01-01

    Red stele (red core) root rot is the major soil-borne disease of strawberries (Fragaria spp.) in many areas with cool, moist soil conditions. It is caused by the soil-borne fungus Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae. Red stele

  7. Postharvest jasmonic acid treatment of sugarbeet roots reduces rot due to Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium claviforme, and Phoma betae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although jasmonic acid (JA) and JA derivatives are known to activate plant defense mechanisms and provide protection against postharvest fungal diseases for several horticultural crops, JA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots against common causal organisms of storage rot is unkno...

  8. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm line HA-BSR1 highly tolerant to Sclerotinia basal stalk rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a devastating disease that causes a significant damage to worldwide sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production by reducing seed yield and quality. The objective of this research was to develop highly BSR tolerant sunflower g...

  9. Population genomic analyses of the brown root-rot pathogen, Phellinus noxius, examine potential invasive spread among Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane E. Stewart; Mee-Sook Kim; Louise Shuey; Norio Sahashi; Yuko Ota; Robert L. Schlub; Phil G. Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2016-01-01

    Phellinus noxius (Corner) G. H. Cunn is a vastly destructive, fast-growing fungal pathogen that affects a wide range of woody hosts in pan-tropical areas, including Asia, Australia, Africa, and Oceania (Ann et al. 2002; Figure 1) . This pathogen causes brown root-rot disease on cacao, coffee, and rubber, as well as diverse fruit, nut, ornamental, and other...

  10. Site-specific management of cotton root rot using airborne and satellite imagery and variable rate technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot is a serious cotton disease that can now be effectively controlled with Topguard Terra Fungicide. However, its recurrence in the same areas year after year makes fungicide application only to infested areas more effective and economical than uniform application. Base on 17 years of r...

  11. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group) through Embryo Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij B.; Kalia, Pritam; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R.

    2017-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1) were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC) primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC) interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC) × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC) was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s) for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides. PMID:28769959

  12. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group through Embryo Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij B. Sharma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome, therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1 were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides.

  13. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad SAADOUN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicotianae, while the cultivars Beldi and Baker were susceptible. Plant inoculations were performed with P. nicotianae zoospores, and severity of root rot was rated 30 days post- inoculation using a 0 (healthy plant to 5 (dead plant severity score. On SCM334 rootstock and with ‘Beldi’ or ‘Baker’ scions, the intensity of root rot was very low (mean score 0.1–0.2 and plants were healthy. However, with Baker or Beldi rootstocks and SCM334 scions, root rot was severe (mean score 3.1–4.6, leading to high numbers of wilting and dead plants. This severe root rot was similar to that observed on non-grafted plants of ‘Baker’ and ‘Beldi’ inoculated with the pathogen. Under greenhouse conditions, measurements of agronomic characters indicated non-consistent improvement of these features on the scion cultivar when SCM334 was the rootstock. Since plant foliage is not attacked by this pathogen, these results show that susceptible chili pepper scions grafted onto SCM334 rootstocks could be used for root rot management and improvement of pepper yields in P. nicotianae infested soils.

  14. Medical Council of India : the rot within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sunil K

    2009-01-01

    The Medical Council of India is a statutory national agency charged with several responsibilities. Sadly, it is plagued by inefficiency, arbitrariness and lack of transparency. It has been functioning for some years as the fiefdom of one person--Dr Ketan Desai. He has been re-elected president of the council despite strictures against him by the High Court of New Delhi. This essay provides data that may help the reader identify the rot within the Council. Permitted optimism, we may hope that this essay and similar observations by others will prompt a change for the better. At present such optimism is not justified.

  15. Diets enriched with cranberry beans alter the microbiota and mitigate colitis severity and associated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Pauls, K Peter; Tsao, Rong; Wood, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2016-02-01

    Common beans are rich in phenolic compounds and nondigestible fermentable components, which may help alleviate intestinal diseases. We assessed the gut health priming effect of a 20% cranberry bean flour diet from two bean varieties with differing profiles of phenolic compounds [darkening (DC) and nondarkening (NDC) cranberry beans vs. basal diet control (BD)] on critical aspects of gut health in unchallenged mice, and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis (2% DSS wt/vol, 7 days). In unchallenged mice, NDC and DC increased (i) cecal short-chain fatty acids, (ii) colon crypt height, (iii) crypt goblet cell number and mucus content and (iv) Muc1, Klf4, Relmβ and Reg3γ gene expression vs. BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity and gut barrier function. Fecal 16S rRNA sequencing determined that beans reduced abundance of the Lactobacillaceae (Ruminococcus gnavus), Clostridiaceae (Clostridium perfringens), Peptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Rikenellaceae and Pophyromonadaceae families, and increased abundance of S24-7 and Prevotellaceae. During colitis, beans reduced (i) disease severity and colonic histological damage, (ii) increased gene expression of barrier function promoting genes (Muc1-3, Relmβ, and Reg3γ) and (iii) reduced colonic and circulating inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and TNFα). Therefore, prior to disease induction, bean supplementation enhanced multiple concurrent gut health promoting parameters that translated into reduced colitis severity. Moreover, both bean diets exerted similar effects, indicating that differing phenolic content did not influence the endpoints assessed. These data demonstrate a proof-of-concept regarding the gut-priming potential of beans in colitis, which could be extended to mitigate the severity of other gut barrier-associated pathologies. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the rhizosphere of oil palm and evaluation of their ability to suppress basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings when applied as powder formulations in a glasshouse trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariffah-Muzaimah, S A; Idris, A S; Madihah, A Z; Dzolkhifli, O; Kamaruzzaman, S; Maizatul-Suriza, M

    2017-12-18

    Ganoderma boninense, the main causal agent of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) basal stem rot (BSR), severely reduces oil palm yields around the world. To reduce reliance on fungicide applications to control BSR, we are investigating the efficacy of alternative control methods, such as the application of biological control agents. In this study, we used four Streptomyces-like actinomycetes (isolates AGA43, AGA48, AGA347 and AGA506) that had been isolated from the oil palm rhizosphere and screened for antagonism towards G. boninense in a previous study. The aim of this study was to characterize these four isolates and then to assess their ability to suppress BSR in oil palm seedlings when applied individually to the soil in a vermiculite powder formulation. Analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (512 bp) revealed that the isolates exhibited a very high level of sequence similarity (> 98%) with GenBank reference sequences. Isolates AGA347 and AGA506 showed 99% similarity with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus and Streptomyces ahygroscopicus, respectively. Isolates AGA43 and AGA48 also belonged to the Streptomyces genus. The most effective formulation, AGA347, reduced BSR in seedlings by 73.1%. Formulations using the known antifungal producer Streptomyces noursei, AGA043, AGA048 or AGA506 reduced BSR by 47.4, 30.1, 54.8 and 44.1%, respectively. This glasshouse trial indicates that these Streptomyces spp. show promise as potential biological control agents against Ganoderma in oil palm. Further investigations are needed to determine the mechanism of antagonism and to increase the shelf life of Streptomyces formulations.

  17. Comparative analysis of nutritional compositions of transgenic RNAi-mediated virus-resistant bean (event EMB-PV051-1) with its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, José L V; de Oliveira Santos, Juliana; Conte, Carmine; Pacheco, Sidney; Nogueira, Elsa O P L; Souza, Thiago L P O; Faria, Josias C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-10-01

    Golden mosaic is among the most economically important diseases that severely reduce bean production in Latin America. In 2011, a transgenic bean event named Embrapa 5.1 (EMB-PV051-1), resistant to bean golden mosaic virus, was approved for commercial release in Brazil. The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the nutritional components of the beans, as well as the anti-nutrient levels in the primary transgenic line and its derived near-isogenic lines after crosses and backcrosses with two commercial cultivars. Nutritional assessment of transgenic crops used for human consumption is an important aspect of safety evaluations. Results demonstrated that the transgenic bean event, cultivated under field conditions, was substantially equivalent to that of the non-transgenic bean plants. In addition, the amounts of the nutritional components are within the range of values observed for several bean commercial varieties grown across a range of environments and seasons.

  18. Differential interactions between Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens and common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdo, S C D; Wendland, A; Araújo, L G; Melo, L C; Pereira, H S; Melo, P G; Faria, L C

    2016-11-21

    Bacterial wilt of common bean caused by Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens is an important disease in terms of economic importance. It reduces grain yield by colonizing xylem vessels, subsequently impeding the translocation of water and nutrients to the superior plant parts. The existence of physiological races in C. flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens has not so far been reported. The objective of the present investigation was to identify physiological races, evaluate differential interaction, and select resistant genotypes of common bean. Initially, 30 genotypes of common bean were inoculated with eight isolates exhibiting different levels of aggressiveness, under controlled greenhouse conditions. Disease was assessed 15 days after inoculation. The existence of differential interactions between C. flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens isolates and common bean genotypes were identified by utilizing partial diallel analysis. The most aggressive isolates were BRM 14939 and BRM 14942 and the least aggressive isolates were BRM 14941 and BRM 14946. The genotypes IPA 9, Ouro Branco, and Michelite were selected as more resistant among the test isolates. The genotypes IAC Carioca Akytã, BRS Notável, Pérola, IAC Carioca Aruã, and Coquinho contributed more to the isolate x genotype interaction according to the ecovalence method of estimation, and were, therefore, indicated as differentials. Based on these results, it was possible to conclude that physiological races of the pathogen exist, to select resistant genotypes, and to propose a set of differentials.

  19. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodiversity of Fusarium species in Mexico associated with ear rot in maize, and their identification using a phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rodríguez, Irma; Yañez-Morales, María de J; Silva-Rojas, Hilda V; García-de-Los-Santos, Gabino; Guzmán-de-Peña, Doralinda A

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum, F. subglutinans, and F. verticillioides are known causes of ear and kernel rot in maize worldwide. In Mexico, only F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans, have been reported previously as causal agents of this disease. However, Fusarium isolates with different morphological characteristics to the species that are known to cause this disease were obtained in the Highland-Valley region of this country from symptomatic and symptomless ears of native and commercial maize genotypes. Moreover, while the morphological studies were not sufficient to identify the correct taxonomic position at the species level, analyses based in the Internal Transcribed Spacer region and the Nuclear Large Subunit Ribosomal partial sequences allowed for the identification of F. subglutinans, F. solani, and F. verticillioides, as well as four species (F. chlamydosporum, F. napiforme, F. poae, and F. pseudonygamai) that had not previously been reported to be associated with ear rot. In addition, F. napiforme and F. solani were absent from symptomless kernels. Phylogenetic analysis showed genetic changes in F. napiforme, and F. pseudonygamai isolates because they were not true clones, and probably constitute separate sibling species. The results of this study suggest that the biodiversity of Fusarium species involved in ear rot in Mexico is greater than that reported previously in other places in the world. This new knowledge will permit a better understanding of the relationship between all the species involved in ear rot disease and their relationship with maize.

  1. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum – the Causal Agent of Calla Soft Rot in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ivanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial strains were isolated from above- and underground parts of diseased calla plants originating from different localities in Serbia and one locality in Montenegro. They were characterized by studying their pathogenic, cultural, biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics. All investigated strains caused soft rot of calla leaf stalks, potato slices and aloe leaves, and induced hypersensitive reaction on tobacco. Bacteriological properties of the strains indicated that symptoms on calla plants were caused by Gram-negative, nonfluorescent, oxidase negative, catalase positive and facultatively anaerobic bacterium belonging to the genus Pectobacterium. The investigated strains grew at 37ºC and in 5% NaCl, utilised lactose and trechalose, and produced neither indol nor lecitinase. These results, as well as the characteristic growth on Logan’s differential medium indicated that soft rot of tuber and stem base of calla plants was caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This is the first report of this pathogen affecting calla plants in Serbia.

  2. EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDES OF POTATO RING ROT PATHOGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafikova Т.N.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria, including phytopathogenic ones produce extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides which are universal molecules. Causal agent of potato ring rot, Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus, secretes exopolysaccharides which role in pathogenesis is poorly investigated. The aim of our research is to ascertain the composition and structure of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus exopolysaccharides. Exopolysaccharides of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus are determined to consist of 4-6 anionic and neutral components which have molecular weights from 700 kDa. Glucose is a major monomer of polysaccharides and arabinose, rhamnose and mannose are minor monomers. Glucose is present in α-Dglucopyranose and β-D-glucopyranose configurations. Calcium is determined to be a component of exopolysaccharides. Components of exopolysaccharides of potato ring rot pathogen are probably capableto associate via calcium ions and other ionic interactions that may result in a change of their physiological activity. Further studies of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus exopolysaccharides composition and structure can serve a base for the synthesis of their chemical analogues with elicitor action.

  3. Identification of sources of resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nicoli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Adoption of resistant cultivars is the primary measure used to control anthracnose stalk rot. The goal of this study was to identify maize-resistant genotypes to anthracnose stalk rot, which are similar to the hybrid 2B710. Experiments were performed at Embrapa Maize and Sorghum experimental fields in Brazil. The first experimental trial evaluated 234 maize lines as well as two commercials hybrids, BRS1010 (susceptible and 2B710 (resistant. Artificial inoculations were performed with a strain at the blister (R2 phase, and evaluation of disease severity was performed after 30 days. The second experimental trial evaluated 48 maize lines and hybrids, inoculated with two Colletotrichum graminicola strains. In the first trial, eight resistance groups were formed, and the last lines were more resistant, as was the hybrid 2B710, with values between 11.50% and 23.0% of severity. In the second trial, there was an interaction between the two factors, lines and isolates, and the lines often showed the same reaction features as those obtained in the first trial. However, the disease severity was higher for most lines, even when using other isolates. These lines with effective levels of resistance could be used in future studies of inheritance, in programs to develop hybrids, and to identify molecular markers associated with resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in maize.

  4. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  5. Chemical and biological studies on sweet biscuits produced from irradiated phaseolus beans flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of beans such as minerals, amino acids, total carbohydrates and fiber to produce high quality sweet biscuits for treating some special diseases. In this study, the Phaseolus beans flour was used as a new source of very important composition. Beans flour was irradiated at two doses (0.5 and 1.0 KGy) for preservation. Sweet biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10, 15% beans flour. All samples of sweet biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics. Biological assay was carried out in rats maintained on 15% either irradiated or non-irradiated beans flour sweet biscuits through determining the weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides and investigating the internal organs. The results obtained showed that sweet biscuits containing 15% Phaseolus beans flour had highest content of protein, minerals and fiber and scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were reduced comparable to control and there was no effect of irradiated beans flour on the internal organs

  6. CULTIVAR RELEASE - `IAC IMPERADOR´: early maturity “carioca” bean cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Luis Finoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state of São Paulo, common bean is an important crop and the Agronomic Institute (Instituto Agronômico – IAC registered the “carioca” (beige with brown stripes bean cultivar IAC Imperador in the MAPA/RNC, exhibiting mean yield of 2,266 kg/ha in the 17 environments evaluated, a 75-day cycle, resistance to soil diseases and high quality seeds

  7. Root disease management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Forest tree root pathogens are widespread throughout all forested ecosystems in British Columbia. This guidebook provides a background to forest root disease management (including why, where, and how to manage root disease) and describes the necessary tools for managing root disease. It includes a review of the distribution of major root diseases in the province, host susceptibility and symptomology, and root disease and stand dynamics. The tools described include disease hazard and risk assessment, stratification surveys, and treatment methods. The major root diseases covered in the guide are Armillaria root disease, laminated root rot, Tomentosus root rot, blackstain root disease, and Annosus root disease.

  8. Shade tree spatial structure and pod production explain frosty pod rot intensity in cacao agroforests, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Avelino, Jacques; Deheuvels, Olivier; Cilas, Christian; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-03-01

    Vegetation composition and plant spatial structure affect disease intensity through resource and microclimatic variation effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent effect and relative importance of host composition and plant spatial structure variables in explaining disease intensity at the plot scale. For that purpose, frosty pod rot intensity, a disease caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao pods, was monitored in 36 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica in order to assess the vegetation composition and spatial structure variables conducive to the disease. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the most causal factors. Firstly, pod production, cacao tree density and shade tree spatial structure had significant independent effects on disease intensity. In our case study, the amount of susceptible tissue was the most relevant host composition variable for explaining disease intensity by resource dilution. Indeed, cacao tree density probably affected disease intensity more by the creation of self-shading rather than by host dilution. Lastly, only regularly distributed forest trees, and not aggregated or randomly distributed forest trees, reduced disease intensity in comparison to plots with a low forest tree density. A regular spatial structure is probably crucial to the creation of moderate and uniform shade as recommended for frosty pod rot management. As pod production is an important service expected from these agroforests, shade tree spatial structure may be a lever for integrated management of frosty pod rot in cacao agroforests.

  9. Toxic leukoencephalopathy due to yam bean seeds poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pin-Kuei; Wang, Pao-Yu

    2012-07-01

    Toxic leukoencephalopathy is attributed to exposure to a wide variety of agents, including systemic chemotherapy, cranial irradiation, illicit drug abuse, and toxins from the environment. Diagnosis of this disease requires documented exposure to a toxin, neurobehavioral deficits, and typical neuroimaging abnormalities. Intoxication by compounds extracted from yam bean seeds may mimic cyanide poisoning but fail to respond to antidotal therapy. We report a 54-year-old Chinese woman who developed disturbed consciousness after eating 40 pieces of yam bean seeds. Head computed tomography obtained 24 hours after the episode was normal. However, magnetic resonance imaging obtained 20 days after the episode revealed symmetrical faint high signal over the bilateral periventricular white matter on T1-weighted image, which turned into diffuse and symmetrical bright high signal on FLAIR. The diagnosis of this patient was toxic leukoencephalopathy by yam bean seeds intoxication. The changes in brain images after yam bean seeds intoxication have not ever been reported. Physicians in Asia and the Pacific islands should have a high index of suspicion when they care for patients with acute confusion and a high anion gap metabolic acidosis but normal serum cyanide level.

  10. Biological characteristics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AK-0 and suppression of ginseng root rot caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Balaraju, K; Jeon, Y H

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AK-0 (AK-0) on ginseng root rot disease caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans was investigated. From 190 ginseng rhizosphere bacteria, AK-0 was selected for further analysis; its morphological characteristics were investigated by microscopy. AK-0 was identified as B. amyloliquefaciens using the Biolog system, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and examination of morphological and biochemical characteristics. Bacterial population and media optimization were estimated by the bacterial growth curve. The number of AK-0 cells was relatively higher in brain-heart infusion (BHI) medium than in other media. The potential antifungal effect of AK-0 culture filtrate on the in vitro conidial germination of C. destructans and root rot development on root discs and 4-year-old ginseng roots were assessed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of antibiotic biosynthesis gene expression suggested that the release of antibiotic compounds is involved in the antifungal effect of AK-0 and the suppression of ginseng root rot. These results indicate that the CF of AK-0 has antifungal effects on fungal pathogens of ginseng, resulting in the suppression of root rot disease caused by C. destructans. AK-0 is a potential source of novel bioactive metabolites. AK-0 CF exhibited antifungal effects against C. destructans on ginseng roots. PCR analysis indicated that the AK-0 harbours genes involved in the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  12. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (∼10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein

  13. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  14. Soybean rust resistance sources and inheritance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T L P O; Dessaune, S N; Moreira, M A; Barros, E G

    2014-07-25

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and elite lines that were infected under controlled and natural field conditions in South Africa, the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. Although SBR is currently not a top priority problem for the common bean crop, many bean breeders are concerned about this disease because of the high severity and virulence diversity of P. pachyrhizi and its broad host range. In this study, a set of 44 P. vulgaris genotypes were tested for resistance to P. pachyrhizi; these genotypes included resistance sources to several fungal common bean diseases, carioca-, black- and red-seeded Brazilian cultivars, and elite lines that were developed by the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Twenty-four SBR resistance sources were identified. They presented the reddish-brown (RB) lesion type, characterizing resistance reactions. In addition to the RB lesion type, the PI181996 line presented the lowest disease severity mean score, considering its associated standard error value. For this reason, it was crossed with susceptible lines to study the inheritance of resistance. The results support the hypothesis that resistance to SBR in PI181996 is monogenic and dominant. We propose that this SBR resistance gene, the first to be identified and characterized in common bean, might be designated as Pkp-1.

  15. Potential of popcorn germplasm as a source of resistance to ear rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railan do Nascimento Ferreira Kurosawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because of its multi-purpose nature, popcorn has sparked the interest of the World Trade Organization as regards fungal contamination by mycotoxins. However, no investigations have been conducted on popcorn for resistance of genotypes to ear rot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of popcorn genotypes as to resistance to ear rot and rotten kernels, as an initial step for the implementation of a breeding program with the popcorn crop in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Thirty-seven accessions from different ecogeographic regions of Latin America were evaluated in 2 cultivation periods, in a randomized block design with 4 replications. We evaluated the incidence of rotten ears, incidence of rotten ears caused by Fusarium spp., severity of ears with Fusarium spp. rot, and incidence of rotten kernels. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott clustering test (p < 0.05. A significant effect was observed for all evaluated variables, characterizing them as efficient in the discrimination of genotypic variability for reaction to fungal injuries in popcorn. The gene pool of the tropical and temperate Germplasm Collection evaluated here has the potential to generate superior segregants and provide hybrid combinations with alleles of resistance to diseases affecting ears and stored kernels. Based on the different variables and times, the experiment was conducted, and genotypes L65, L80, and IAC 125 showed the highest levels of resistance.

  16. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum – the causal agent of broccoli soft rot in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Gašić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot symptoms were observed on broccoli plants in several commercial fields in the western part of Serbia. Six strains of bacteria were isolated from diseased tissues and identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using conventional bacteriological and molecular methods. All strains were non-fluorescent, gram-negative, facultative anaerobes, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive, causing soft rot on potato and carrot slices and did not induce hypersensitive reaction on tobacco leaves. They grew in 5% NaCl and at 37°C, did not produce acid from α-methyl glucoside, sorbitol and maltose, nor reducing substances from sucrose, but utilized lactose and trehalose, and did not produce indole or lecithinase. The investigated strains showed characteristic growth on Logan’s medium and did not produce blue pigmented indigoidine on GYCA medium nor “fried egg” colonies on PDA. The identity of strains was confirmed by ITS-PCR and ITS-RFLP analyses and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. In a pathogenicity assay, all strains caused tissue discoloration and soft rot development on inoculated broccoli head tissue fragments.

  17. Lettuce genotype resistance to "soft rot" caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cilene da Silva Felix

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot, caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc, is the main bacterial disease affecting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. crops in Brazil and leads to significant yield losses. This study aimed to assess the reaction of lettuce genotypes to soft rot induced by a virulent isolate and the stability of the resistance to three isolates varying in virulence. Using a descriptive ordinal scale ranging from 1 to 9 a classification system was defined: class 1 = resistant (R: severity (Sev 3.5. Of the 41 tested genotypes, 14 were classified as MR and 27 as S when inoculated with a Pcc isolate of intermediate virulence. Eleven of these genotypes (four S and seven MR were selected to test their resistance stability against three other isolates with an increasing degree of virulence (Pcc36 < Pcc-A1.1 < Pcc-23. Out of the 11 genotypes eight retained the original classification and three moved from S to MR resistant class when challenged with the least virulent isolate. Vitória de Santo Antão was the only genotype classified as MR for all tested isolates and is a promising candidate for durable soft rot resistance breeding.

  18. Energy balance associated with the degradation of lignocellulosic material by white-rot and brown-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien, Delphine; Bédu, Hélène; Buée, Marc; Kohler, Annegret; Goodell, Barry; Gelhaye, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Forest soils cover about 30% of terrestrial area and comprise between 50 and 80% of the global stock of soil organic carbon (SOC). The major precursor for this forest SOC is lignocellulosic material, which is made of polysaccharides and lignin. Lignin has traditionally been considered as a recalcitrant polymer that hinders access to the much more labile structural polysaccharides. This view appears to be partly incorrect from a microbiology perspective yet, as substrate alteration depends on the metabolic potential of decomposers. In forest ecosystems the wood-rotting Basidiomycota fungi have developed two different strategies to attack the structure of lignin and gain access to structural polysaccharides. White-rot fungi degrade all components of plant cell walls, including lignin, using enzymatic systems. Brown-rot fungi do not remove lignin. They generate oxygen-derived free radicals, such as the hydroxyl radical produced by the Fenton reaction, that disrupt the lignin polymer and depolymerize polysaccharides which then diffuse out to where the enzymes are located The objective of this study was to develop a model to investigate whether the lignin relative persistence could be related to the energetic advantage of brown-rot degradative pathway in comparison to white-rot degradative pathway. The model simulates the changes in substrate composition over time, and determines the energy gained from the conversion of the lost substrate into CO2. The energy cost for the production of enzymes involved in substrate alteration is assessed using information derived from genome and secretome analysis. For brown-rot fungus specifically, the energy cost related to the production of OH radicals is also included. The model was run, using data from the literature on populous wood degradation by Trametes versicolor, a white-rot fungus, and Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown-rot fungus. It demonstrates that the brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) was more efficient than the white-rot

  19. Comparative Assessment of Pathogenicity of Storage Rot Causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L)Schott) corms were assessed for their potency in causing rot of the corms during storage. The isolates were Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Fusarium solanii (Mart) Sac., Fusarium SP. and Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehren ...

  20. Detection and identification of six Monilinia spp. causing brown rot using TaqMan real-time PCR from pure cultures and infected apple fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rot is a severe disease affecting stone and pome fruits. This disease was recently confirmed to be caused by the following six closely related species: Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructigena, Monilia polystroma, Monilia mumecola and Monilia yunnanensis. Because of differenc...

  1. Control of bull’s-eye rot of apple caused by Neofabraea perennans and Neofabraea kienholzii using pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull’s-eye rot is a major postharvest disease of apple caused by several fungi belonging to the Neofabraea and Phlyctema genera. Chemical control of these fungi is a crucial component of disease management for apples that are conventionally grown. The efficacy of several pre-harvest and postharvest ...

  2. Molecular Characterization of Resistant Accessions of Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) to Phytophthora Pod Rot Selected on-Farm in Côte-d’Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa is (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in Côted’Ivoire which ranks 1st in the world cocoa export. Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr)also call Black pod is the most widespread disease of cocoa. Lost due to this disease depends on the species of the pathogen and vary globally fr...

  3. Development and application of qPCR and RPA genus and species-specific detection of Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora sansomeana root rot pathogens of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important diseases in the Midwest US, causing losses of up to 44 million bushels per year. Disease may also be caused by P. sansomeana, however the prevalence and damage caused by this species is not well known, partl...

  4. Erwinia carotovora extracellular proteases : characterization and role in soft rot

    OpenAIRE

    Kyöstiö, Sirkka R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) strain EC14, a Gram-negative bacterium, causes soft rot on several crops, including potato. Maceration of potato tuber tissue is caused by secreted pectolytic enzymes. Other cell-degrading enzymes may also have roles in pathogenesis, including cellulases, phospholipases, and protease(s). The objectives of this research were to (1) characterize Ecc extracellular protease (Prt) and (2) elucidate its role in potato soft rot. A gene enc...

  5. Association of Pectolytic Fluorescent PSeudomonas with Postharvest Rots of Onion

    OpenAIRE

    H.H. El-Hendawy

    2004-01-01

    Five isolates of pectolytic fluorescent pseudomonads were obtained from a rotted onion bulb and identified as Pseudomonas marginalis. At both 4 and 25oC, all isolates caused soft rot to detached plant parts of onion and to carrot, celery, cucumber, pepper, spinach, tomato and turnip (but not garlic). They did not however cause any symptoms in living plants of these same species. These results suggest that the onion isolates are a postharvest pathogen which is not destructive in th...

  6. Weed Azuki Bean, an Overlooked Representative

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGUCHI, Hirofumi

    1989-01-01

    Two forms of prostrated and slightly branching Azuki bean (Phaseolus angularis W.F. Wight) grow naturally in the ruderal and cultivated fields in central Japan. These have larger leaves and thick stem, like the cultigen, and have easily dehiscent black pods similar to the wild Azuki bean (P. angularis var. nipponensis Ohwi). Two forms have seeds intermediate in size between the cultigen and wild Azuki beans. The black-seed form shows relatively larger plant stature and is seen in ruderal site...

  7. BEAN CULTURE IN CHERNOZEM ZONE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Balashova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Vicia faba L. is the one of the ancient crops which have been cultivated and used for food. The historical note about bean utilization in ancient world and in Russia, and the information aboutcenters of origin, food value of seeds are presented in this review. Botanical characteristics of three bean varieties of VNIISSOK breeding are described.

  8. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  9. IN BEANS TO COMMON BLIGHT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-05-12

    May 12, 1993 ... RxR bean lines to common bacterial blight. Thé F, were advanced to F; and in each cross over 250 F2 plants were used to evaluate for the number of genes controÜing résistance using Mendelian genetics and. Stanifield 's formula. The plants were inoculated by razor blade method on the leaves and by ...

  10. Comparative studies on thermochemical characterization of corn stover pretreated by white-rot and brown-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yelin; Yang, Xuewei; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Fuying

    2011-09-28

    The effects of white-rot and brown-rot fungal pretreatment on the chemical composition and thermochemical conversion of corn stover were investigated. Fungus-pretreated corn stover was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis to characterize the changes in chemical composition. Differences in thermochemical conversion of corn stover after fungal pretreatment were investigated using thermogravimetric and pyrolysis analysis. The results indicated that the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2 has great lignin-degrading ability, whereas the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis sp. IMER2 preferentially degrades the amorphous regions of the cellulose. The biopretreatment favors thermal decomposition of corn stover. The weight loss of IMER2-treated acid detergent fiber became greater, and the oil yield increased from 32.7 to 50.8%. After CD2 biopretreatment, 58% weight loss of acid detergent lignin was achieved and the oil yield increased from 16.8 to 26.8%.

  11. Studies on black stain root disease in ponderosa pine. pp. 236-240. M. Garbelotto & P. Gonthier (Editors). Proceedings 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Otrosina; J. T. Kliejunas; S. S. Sung; S. Smith; D. R. Cluck

    2008-01-01

    Black stain root disease of ponderosa pine, caused by Lepfographium wageneri var. ponderosum (Harrington & Cobb) Harrington & Cobb, is increasing on many eastside pine stands in northeastern California. The disease is spread from tree to tree via root contacts and grafts but new infections are likely vectored by root...

  12. Environmental Factors on the Development of Root Rot on Ginseng Caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sup Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans is the cause of root rot in many ginseng production areas in Korea. A total of 57 isolates of C. destructans were recovered from diseased roots in a survey of ginseng–growing fields from 2011-2012. Among these isolates, 37% were classified as highly virulent (causing lesions on unwounded mature roots and 61% were weakly virulent(causing lesions only on previously wounded roots. Radial growth of highly and weakly virulent isolates on potato dextrose agar was highest at 20°C and there was no growth at 35°C. Mycelial mass production was significantly (P = 0.05 lower at pH 7.0 compared with pH 5.0. To study the effects of pH (5.0 and 7.0 and wounding on disease development, ginseng roots were grown hydroponically in nutrient solution. Lesions were significantly larger (P < 0.01 at pH 5.0 compared with pH 7.0 and wounding enhanced disease by a highly virulent isolate at both pHs. In artificially infested soil, 2-yearold ginseng roots were most susceptible to Cylindrocarpon root rot among all root ages tested (1 to 4 years when evaluated using a combined scale of disease incidence and severity. Root rot severity was significantly (P<0.05 enhanced by increasing the inoculum density from 3.5 × 102 cfu/g of soil to 2.0×103 cfu/g of soil.

  13. Association mapping in sunflower for sclerotinia head rot resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusari Corina M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sclerotinia Head Rot (SHR is one of the most damaging diseases of sunflower in Europe, Argentina, and USA, causing average yield reductions of 10 to 20 %, but leading to total production loss under favorable environmental conditions for the pathogen. Association Mapping (AM is a promising choice for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL mapping, as it detects relationships between phenotypic variation and gene polymorphisms in existing germplasm without development of mapping populations. This article reports the identification of QTL for resistance to SHR based on candidate gene AM. Results A collection of 94 sunflower inbred lines were tested for SHR under field conditions using assisted inoculation with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Given that no biological mechanisms or biochemical pathways have been clearly identified for SHR, 43 candidate genes were selected based on previous transcript profiling studies in sunflower and Brassica napus infected with S. sclerotiorum. Associations among SHR incidence and haplotype polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes were tested using Mixed Linear Models (MLM that account for population structure and kinship relationships. This approach allowed detection of a significant association between the candidate gene HaRIC_B and SHR incidence (P  Conclusions These results suggest that AM will be useful in dissecting other complex traits in sunflower, thus providing a valuable tool to assist in crop breeding.

  14. Incidence, progression and intensity of Bud Rot in Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in San Lorenzo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rivas Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BUD rot (BR is the most serious disease of oil palm in Latin America; in Equator has caused more than 150 million USD of losses. The aim of this work was to determine the incidence, progression and disease intensity of BR in E. guineensis. Incidence and disease progression was determined from data of oil palm enterprises: Palesema, PDA, Palpailón, Energy & Palma y Alespalma during 2006-2013. Disease intensity was determined at 2013. Incidence was 66.75 % and disease intensity was 46 %. Based on projections of accumulative incidence a polynomial equation was built that predicted 78.30 % of cumulative incidence for 2014, indicating exponential growth of BR from 2009 to 2013. Magnitude of damages based on incidence, disease progression and infection index indicated the occurrence of a lethal form of BR in San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas, Equator.

  15. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winham Donna M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Methods Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17 in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29 for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI, and bean type. Results Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11% reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. Conclusions People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists

  16. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Hutchins, Andrea M

    2011-11-21

    Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17) in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29) for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and bean type. Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11%) reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists should address the potential for gastrointestinal discomfort when

  17. Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean rescues motor, olfactory, mitochondrial and synaptic impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster genetic model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Poddighe

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9 gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD. Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe, a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3-6 (I, 10-15 (II and 20-25 (III days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1% ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment.

  18. Mung Bean: Technological and Nutritional Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Khetarpaul, N.; Grewal, R.B.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop’s potential as food and to

  19. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BEAN WEEVIL (Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    arthropoda, class; insecta and family; celeoptera. (Akinsanmi, 1980). This species is light olive coloured and mottled with dark brown or grey reddish legs. The bean weevils are stored products granivores and typically infest various kinds of bean species particularly the species Phaseolus vulgaris where they live for most.

  20. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  1. the pan- africa bean research alliance (pabra)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    increased access to high value bean products. (varieties) targeted to niche markets. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) present a unique partnership model developed and used by PABRA to breed and deliver improved bean varieties to millions of beneficiaries in Africa; (2) review PABRA's strategy and achievements in.

  2. Common Beans and Their Non-Digestible Fraction: Cancer Inhibitory Activity-An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Vega, Rocio; Oomah, B Dave; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Vergara-Castañeda, Haydé Azeneth

    2013-08-02

    The US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables including dry beans-an important food staple in many traditional diets that can improve public health and nutrition. Populations with high legume (peas, beans, lentils) consumption have a low risk of cancer and chronic degenerative diseases. Common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are known as a rich, reliable source of non-digested compounds like fiber, phenolics, peptides and phytochemicals that are associated with health benefits. Emerging evidence indicates that common bean consumption is associated with reduced cancer risk in human populations, inhibiting carcinogenesis in animal models and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cell cultures. Fiber may reduce the risk of premature death from all causes, whereas the whole non-digestible fraction from common beans exhibits anti-proliferative activity and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo colon cancer. The mechanisms responsible for this apparently protective role may include gene-nutrient interactions and modulation of proteins' expression. This review investigates the potential health benefits and bioactivity of beans on tumor inhibition, highlighting studies involving functional compounds, mainly non-digestible fractions that modulate genes and proteins, thereby, unraveling their preventive role against the development of cancer.

  3. Bioactive Compounds from Mexican Varieties of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: Implications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As Mexico is located within Mesoamerica, it is considered the site where the bean plant originated and where it was domesticated. Beans have been an integral part of the Mexican diet for thousands of years. Within the country, there are a number of genotypes possessing highly diverse physical and chemical properties. This review describes the major bioactive compounds contained on the Mexican varieties of the common bean. A brief analysis is carried out regarding the benefits they have on health. The effect of seed coat color on the nutraceutical compounds content is distinguished, where black bean stands out because it is high content of anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids such as quercetin. This confers black bean with an elevated antioxidant capacity. The most prominent genotypes within this group are the “Negro San Luis”, “Negro 8025” and “Negro Jamapa” varieties. Conversely, the analyzed evidence shows that more studies are needed in order to expand our knowledge on the nutraceutical quality of the Mexican bean genotypes, either grown or wild-type, as well as their impact on health in order to be used in genetic improvement programs or as a strategy to encourage their consumption. The latter is based on the high potential it has for health preservation and disease prevention.

  4. Putative Rust Fungal Effector Proteins in Infected Bean and Soybean Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; Beard, Hunter S; Garrett, Wesley M; Islam, Nazrul

    2016-05-01

    The plant-pathogenic fungi Uromyces appendiculatus and Phakopsora pachyrhizi cause debilitating rust diseases on common bean and soybean. These rust fungi secrete effector proteins that allow them to infect plants, but their effector repertoires are not understood. The discovery of rust fungus effectors may eventually help guide decisions and actions that mitigate crop production loss. Therefore, we used mass spectrometry to identify thousands of proteins in infected beans and soybeans and in germinated fungal spores. The comparative analysis between the two helped differentiate a set of 24 U. appendiculatus proteins targeted for secretion that were specifically found in infected beans and a set of 34 U. appendiculatus proteins targeted for secretion that were found in germinated spores and infected beans. The proteins specific to infected beans included family 26 and family 76 glycoside hydrolases that may contribute to degrading plant cell walls. There were also several types of proteins with structural motifs that may aid in stabilizing the specialized fungal haustorium cell that interfaces the plant cell membrane during infection. There were 16 P. pachyrhizi proteins targeted for secretion that were found in infected soybeans, and many of these proteins resembled the U. appendiculatus proteins found in infected beans, which implies that these proteins are important to rust fungal pathology in general. This data set provides insight to the biochemical mechanisms that rust fungi use to overcome plant immune systems and to parasitize cells.

  5. Combined Effects of Soil Biotic and Abiotic Factors, Influenced by Sewage Sludge Incorporation, on the Incidence of Corn Stalk Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghini, Raquel; Fortes, Nara Lúcia Perondi; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Silva, Carlos Alberto; Bettiol, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the combined effects of soil biotic and abiotic factors on the incidence of Fusarium corn stalk rot, during four annual incorporations of two types of sewage sludge into soil in a 5-years field assay under tropical conditions and to predict the effects of these variables on the disease. For each type of sewage sludge, the following treatments were included: control with mineral fertilization recommended for corn; control without fertilization; sewage sludge based on the nitrogen concentration that provided the same amount of nitrogen as in the mineral fertilizer treatment; and sewage sludge that provided two, four and eight times the nitrogen concentration recommended for corn. Increasing dosages of both types of sewage sludge incorporated into soil resulted in increased corn stalk rot incidence, being negatively correlated with corn yield. A global analysis highlighted the effect of the year of the experiment, followed by the sewage sludge dosages. The type of sewage sludge did not affect the disease incidence. A multiple logistic model using a stepwise procedure was fitted based on the selection of a model that included the three explanatory parameters for disease incidence: electrical conductivity, magnesium and Fusarium population. In the selected model, the probability of higher disease incidence increased with an increase of these three explanatory parameters. When the explanatory parameters were compared, electrical conductivity presented a dominant effect and was the main variable to predict the probability distribution curves of Fusarium corn stalk rot, after sewage sludge application into the soil.

  6. Combined Effects of Soil Biotic and Abiotic Factors, Influenced by Sewage Sludge Incorporation, on the Incidence of Corn Stalk Rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ghini

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the combined effects of soil biotic and abiotic factors on the incidence of Fusarium corn stalk rot, during four annual incorporations of two types of sewage sludge into soil in a 5-years field assay under tropical conditions and to predict the effects of these variables on the disease. For each type of sewage sludge, the following treatments were included: control with mineral fertilization recommended for corn; control without fertilization; sewage sludge based on the nitrogen concentration that provided the same amount of nitrogen as in the mineral fertilizer treatment; and sewage sludge that provided two, four and eight times the nitrogen concentration recommended for corn. Increasing dosages of both types of sewage sludge incorporated into soil resulted in increased corn stalk rot incidence, being negatively correlated with corn yield. A global analysis highlighted the effect of the year of the experiment, followed by the sewage sludge dosages. The type of sewage sludge did not affect the disease incidence. A multiple logistic model using a stepwise procedure was fitted based on the selection of a model that included the three explanatory parameters for disease incidence: electrical conductivity, magnesium and Fusarium population. In the selected model, the probability of higher disease incidence increased with an increase of these three explanatory parameters. When the explanatory parameters were compared, electrical conductivity presented a dominant effect and was the main variable to predict the probability distribution curves of Fusarium corn stalk rot, after sewage sludge application into the soil.

  7. Salmonella enterica suppresses Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum population and soft rot progression by acidifying the microaerophilic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Grace; Charkowski, Amy O; Barak, Jeri D

    2013-02-12

    Although enteric human pathogens are usually studied in the context of their animal hosts, a significant portion of their life cycle occurs on plants. Plant disease alters the phyllosphere, leading to enhanced growth of human pathogens; however, the impact of human pathogens on phytopathogen biology and plant health is largely unknown. To characterize the interaction between human pathogens and phytobacterial pathogens in the phyllosphere, we examined the interactions between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 with regard to bacterial populations, soft rot progression, and changes in local pH. The presence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum enhanced the growth of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on leaves. However, in a microaerophilic environment, S. enterica reduced P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum populations and soft rot progression by moderating local environmental pH. Reduced soft rot was not due to S. enterica proteolytic activity. Limitations on P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum growth, disease progression, and pH elevation were not observed on leaves coinoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or when leaves were coinoculated with S. enterica in an aerobic environment. S. enterica also severely undermined the relationship between the phytobacterial population and disease progression of a P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum budB mutant defective in the 2,3-butanediol pathway for acid neutralization. Our results show that S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 interact differently with the enteric phytobacterial pathogen P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. S. enterica inhibition of soft rot progression may conceal a rapidly growing human pathogen population. Whereas soft rotted produce can alert consumers to the possibility of food-borne pathogens, healthy-looking produce may entice consumption of contaminated vegetables. Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 may use plants to move between animal

  8. Characterisation of Alternaria species-groups associated with core rot of apples in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serdani, M.; Kang, J.C.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    Alternaria core rot of red apple cultivars is a serious post-harvest disease in South Africa. Thirty isolates of Alternaria spp. previously isolated from apple, together with reference isolates of A. alternata and A. infectoria, were characterised and grouped according to their sporulation patterns...... artificially inoculated with the thirty-two Alternaria isolates and the resulting lesion types were recorded. A data matrix was constructed using all these characters and subjected to cluster analysis to show the similarity between different isolates. Isolates classified as A. infectoria species-group based...

  9. GammaScorpion: mobile gamma-ray tomography system for early detection of basal stem rot in oil palm plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Jaafar; Hassan, Hearie; Shari, Mohamad Rabaie; Mohd, Salzali; Mustapha, Mahadi; Mahmood, Airwan Affendi; Jamaludin, Shahrizan; Ngah, Mohd Rosdi; Hamid, Noor Hisham

    2013-03-01

    Detection of the oil palm stem rot disease Ganoderma is a major issue in estate management and production in Malaysia. Conventional diagnostic techniques are difficult and time consuming when using visual inspection, and destructive and expensive when based on the chemical analysis of root or stem tissue. As an alternative, a transportable gamma-ray computed tomography system for the early detection of basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palms due to Ganoderma was developed locally at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang, Malaysia. This system produces high quality tomographic images that clearly differentiate between healthy and Ganoderma infected oil palm stems. It has been successfully tested and used to detect the extent of BSR damage in oil palm plantations in Malaysia without the need to cut down the trees. This method offers promise for in situ inspection of oil palm stem diseases compared to the more conventional methods.

  10. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  11. Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikemo, Håvard; Klemsdal, Sonja S; Riisberg, Ingvild; Bonants, Peter; Stensvand, Arne; Tronsmo, Anne M

    2004-03-01

    Analysis of 44 isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, isolated from strawberry and other hosts, by AFLP showed that the crown rot pathotype is different from leather rot isolates and from P. cactorum isolated from other hosts. 16 of 23 crown rot isolates, including isolates from Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, were identical in an analysis based on 96 polymorphic bands from seven primer combinations. Leather rot isolates of strawberry could not be distinguished from isolates from other hosts. The pathogenicity test of all 44 isolates on strawberry plants mostly gave unambiguous results, except for three American isolates, which seemed to have reduced aggressiveness compared to the crown rot isolates. These isolates also differed in the AFLP analysis. Comparing information on the origin of the isolates with results from the pathogenicity test, showed that isolates from strawberry fruits or petioles could be either leather rot or crown rot pathotypes. None of the isolates from hosts other than strawberry caused crown rot symptoms in strawberry.

  12. ROTS: An R package for reproducibility-optimized statistical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Tomi; Seyednasrollah, Fatemeh; Jaakkola, Maria K; Faux, Thomas; Elo, Laura L

    2017-05-01

    Differential expression analysis is one of the most common types of analyses performed on various biological data (e.g. RNA-seq or mass spectrometry proteomics). It is the process that detects features, such as genes or proteins, showing statistically significant differences between the sample groups under comparison. A major challenge in the analysis is the choice of an appropriate test statistic, as different statistics have been shown to perform well in different datasets. To this end, the reproducibility-optimized test statistic (ROTS) adjusts a modified t-statistic according to the inherent properties of the data and provides a ranking of the features based on their statistical evidence for differential expression between two groups. ROTS has already been successfully applied in a range of different studies from transcriptomics to proteomics, showing competitive performance against other state-of-the-art methods. To promote its widespread use, we introduce here a Bioconductor R package for performing ROTS analysis conveniently on different types of omics data. To illustrate the benefits of ROTS in various applications, we present three case studies, involving proteomics and RNA-seq data from public repositories, including both bulk and single cell data. The package is freely available from Bioconductor (https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/ROTS).

  13. Molecular Basis of Resistance to Fusarium Ear Rot in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lanubile

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change has been identified as an emerging issue for food security and safety, and the increased incidence of mycotoxin contamination in maize over the last two decades is considered a potential emerging hazard. Disease control by chemical and agronomic approaches is often ineffective and increases the cost of production; for this reason the exploitation of genetic resistance is the most sustainable method for reducing contamination. The review focuses on the significant advances that have been made in the development of transcriptomic, genetic and genomic information for maize, Fusarium verticillioides molds, and their interactions, over recent years. Findings from transcriptomic studies have been used to outline a specific model for the intracellular signaling cascade occurring in maize cells against F. verticillioides infection. Several recognition receptors, such as receptor-like kinases and R genes, are involved in pathogen perception, and trigger down-stream signaling networks mediated by mitogen-associated protein kinases. These signals could be orchestrated primarily by hormones, including salicylic acid, auxin, abscisic acid, ethylene, and jasmonic acid, in association with calcium signaling, targeting multiple transcription factors that in turn promote the down-stream activation of defensive response genes, such as those related to detoxification processes, phenylpropanoid, and oxylipin metabolic pathways. At the genetic and genomic levels, several quantitative trait loci (QTL and single-nucleotide polymorphism markers for resistance to Fusarium ear rot deriving from QTL mapping and genome-wide association studies are described, indicating the complexity of this polygenic trait. All these findings will contribute to identifying candidate genes for resistance and to applying genomic technologies for selecting resistant maize genotypes and speeding up a strategy of breeding to contrast disease, through plants

  14. Clustering common bean mutants based on heterotic groupings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to cluster bean mutants from a bean mutation breeding programme, based on heterotic groupings. This was achieved by genotyping 16 bean genotypes, using 21 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) bean markers. From the results, three different clusters A, B and C, were obtained suggesting ...

  15. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Intercropping of Faba bean (Vicia fabae) and field pea (Pisum sativum) is an important cropping system in the. Horro highlands of ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a .... as per the available research recommendation for. Faba bean and field pea ...

  16. Table 5 Mineral content of ashed bean samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mamiro

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... vegetables; dry bean grains are used in various food preparations, and both are used as relish or side dishes together ... Eastern Africa and Latin America. Zinc content of beans is one of the ... Kidney bean leaves and fresh bean grains, which are prepared as relish and consumed by a number of families in ...

  17. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  18. Integrated management of foot rot of lentil using biocontrol agents under field condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Hasan, M M; Hossain, I; Rahman, S M E; Ismail, Alhazmi Mohammed; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2012-07-01

    The efficacy of cowdung, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)-biofertilizer, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU)-biofungicide, alone or in combination, was evaluated for controlling foot rot disease of lentil. The results exhibited that BINA-biofertilizer and BAUbiofungicide (peat soil-based Rhizobium leguminosarum and black gram bran-based Trichoderma harzianum) are compatible and have combined effects in controlling the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, which cause the root rot of lentil. Cowdung mixing with soil (at 5 t/ha) during final land preparation and seed coating with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide (at 2.5% of seed weight) before sowing recorded 81.50% field emergence of lentil, which showed up to 19.85% higher field emergence over the control. Post-emergence deaths of plants due to foot rot disease were significantly reduced after combined seed treatment with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide. Among the treatments used, only BAU-biofungicide as the seed treating agent resulted in higher plant stand (84.82%). Use of BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide as seed treating biocontrol agents and application of cowdung in the soil as an organic source of nutrient resulted in higher shoot and root lengths, and dry shoot and root weights of lentil. BINA-biofertilizer significantly increased the number of nodules per plant and nodules weight of lentil. Seeds treating with BAUbiofungicide and BINA-biofertilizer and soil amendment with cowdung increased the biomass production of lentil up to 75.56% over the control.

  19. Specificity of monoclonal antibodies to strains of Dickeya sp. that cause bacterial heart rot of pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Gabriel D; Kaneshiro, Wendy S; Luu, Van; Berestecky, John M; Alvarez, Anne M

    2010-10-01

    During a severe outbreak of bacterial heart rot that occurred in pineapple plantations on Oahu, Hawaii, in 2003 and years following, 43 bacterial strains were isolated from diseased plants or irrigation water and identified as Erwinia chrysanthemi (now Dickeya sp.) by phenotypic, molecular, and pathogenicity assays. Rep-PCR fingerprint patterns grouped strains from pineapple plants and irrigation water into five genotypes (A-E) that differed from representatives of other Dickeya species, Pectobacterium carotovorum and other enteric saprophytes isolated from pineapple. Monoclonal antibodies produced following immunization of mice with virulent type C Dickeya sp. showed only two specificities. MAb Pine-1 (2D11G1, IgG1 with kappa light chain) reacted to all 43 pineapple/water strains and some reference strains (D. dianthicola, D. chrysanthemi, D. paradisiaca, some D. dadantii, and uncharacterized Dickeya sp.) but did not react to reference strains of D. dieffenbachiae, D. zeae, or one of the two Malaysian pineapple strains. MAb Pine-2 (2A7F2, IgG3 with kappa light chain) reacted to all type B, C, and D strains but not to any A or E strains or any reference strains except Dickeya sp. isolated from Malaysian pineapple. Pathogenicity tests showed that type C strains were more aggressive than type A strains when inoculated during cool months. Therefore, MAb Pine-2 distinguishes the more virulent type C strains from less virulent type A pineapple strains and type E water strains. MAbs with these two specificities enable development of rapid diagnostic tests that will distinguish the systemic heart rot pathogen from opportunistic bacteria associated with rotted tissues. Use of the two MAbs in field assays also permits the monitoring of a known subpopulation and provides additional decision tools for disease containment and management practices.

  20. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Eikemo, H.; Klemsdal, S.S.; Riisberg, I.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Stensvand, A.; Tronsmo, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of 44 isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, isolated from strawberry and other hosts, by AFLP showed that the crown rot pathotype is different from leather rot isolates and from P. cactorum isolated from other hosts. 16 of 23 crown rot isolates, including isolates from Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, were identical in an analysis based on 96 polymorphic bands from seven primer combinations. Leather rot isolates of strawberry could not be distinguished from isolates from other...

  2. Etiology and Population Genetics of Colletotrichum spp. Causing Crown and Fruit Rot of Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña-Padilla, A R; Mackenzie, S J; Bowen, B W; Legard, D E

    2002-11-01

    ABSTRACT Isolates of Colletotrichum spp. from diseased strawberry fruit and crowns were evaluated to determine their genetic diversity and the etiology of the diseases. Isolates were identified to species using polymerase chain reaction primers for a ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and their pathogenicity was evaluated in bioassays. Isolates were scored for variation at 40 putative genetic loci with random amplified polymorphic DNA and microsatellite markers. Only C. acutatum was recovered from diseased fruit. Nearly all isolates from crowns were C. gloeosporioides. In crown bioassays, only isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry caused collapse and death of plants. A dendrogram generated from the genetic analysis identified several primary lineages. One lineage included isolates of C. acutatum from fruit and was characterized by low diversity. Another lineage included isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns and was highly polymorphic. The isolates from strawberry formed distinctive clusters separate from citrus isolates. Evaluation of linkage disequilibrium among polymorphic loci in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns revealed a low level of disequilibrium as would be expected in sexually recombining populations. These results suggest that epidemics of crown rot are caused by Glomerella cingulata (anamorph C. gloeosporioides) and that epidemics of fruit rot are caused by C. acutatum.

  3. Apple ring rot-responsive putative microRNAs revealed by high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Yi; Du, Bei-Bei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tu, Xu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which silence target mRNA via cleavage or translational inhibition to function in regulating gene expression. MiRNAs act as important regulators of plant development and stress response. For understanding the role of miRNAs responsive to apple ring rot stress, we identified disease-responsive miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.. Four small RNA libraries were constructed from two control strains in M. domestica, crabapple (CKHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (CKFu), and two disease stress strains, crabapple (DSHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (DSFu). A total of 59 miRNA families were identified and five miRNAs might be responsive to apple ring rot infection and validated via qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we predicted 76 target genes which were regulated by conserved miRNAs potentially. Our study demonstrated that miRNAs was responsive to apple ring rot infection and may have important implications on apple disease resistance.

  4. Potential of Epicoccum purpurascens Strain 5615 AUMC as a Biocontrol Agent of Pythium irregulare Root Rot in Three Leguminous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutb, Mostafa; Ali, Esam H

    2010-12-01

    Epicoccum purpurascens stain 5615 AUMC was investigated for its biocontrol activity against root rot disease caused by Pythium irregulare. E. purpurascens greenhouse pathogenicity tests using three leguminous plants indicated that the fungus was nonpathogenic under the test conditions. The germination rate of the three species of legume seeds treated with a E. purpurascens homogenate increased significantly compared with the seeds infested with P. irregulare. No root rot symptoms were observed on seeds treated with E. purpurascens, and seedlings appeared more vigorous when compared with the non-treated control. A significant increase in seedling growth parameters (seedling length and fresh and dry weights) was observed in seedlings treated with E. purpurascens compared to pathogen-treated seedlings. Pre-treating the seeds with the bioagent fungus was more efficient for protecting seeds against the root rot disease caused by P. irregulare than waiting for disease dispersal before intervention. To determine whether E. purpurascens produced known anti-fungal compounds, an acetone extract of the fungus was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The extract revealed a high percentage of the cinnamic acid derivative (trimethylsiloxy) cinnamic acid methyl ester. The E. purpurascens isolate grew more rapidly than the P. irregulare pathogen in a dual culture on potato dextrose agar nutrient medium, although the two fungi grew similarly when cultured separately. This result may indicate antagonism via antibiosis or competition.

  5. Genotyping-by-sequencing uncovers the introgression alien segments associated with Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance from wild species—I. Helianthus argophyllus and H. petiolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR), caused by Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease in sunflower worldwide. The progress of breeding for Sclerotinia BSR resistance has been hampered due to the lack of effective sources of resistance for cultivated sunflower. Our objective was to transfer BSR resista...

  6. Phylogenetic and population analyses of the invasive brown root-rot pathogen (Phellinus noxius) highlight the existence of at least two distinct populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; N. Sahashi; T. Hattori; M. Akiba; Y. Ota; L. Shuey; R. L. Schlub; N. Atibalentia; F. Brooks; A. M. C. Tang; R. Y. C. Lam; M. W. K. Leung; L. M. Chu; H. S. Kwan; A. Mohd Farid; S. S. Lee; C. -L. Chung; H. -H. Lee; Y.- C. Huang; R. -F. Liou; J. -N. Tsai; P. G. Cannon; J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2017-01-01

    Phellinus noxius (Corner) G. H. Cunn is a vastly destructive, fast-growing pathogen that affects a wide range of woody hosts in pan-tropical areas, including Asia, Australia, Africa, and Oceania (Ann et al. 2002). This invasive pathogen causes brown root-rot disease on cacao, coffee, and rubber, as well as diverse fruit, nut, ornamental, and other native/exotic trees,...

  7. The Oil of Matico (Piper aduncum L.) an Alternative for the Control of Cacao Frosty Pod Rot (Moniliophthora roreri) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cacao production in many Latin American countries is significantly reduced by frosty pod rot disease (Moniliophthora roreri) and yield reductions are to the extent of over 90% in many cases. The strategies of control includes: phytosanitation, genetic resistance, chemical and biological control....

  8. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Zahirul I; Hulke, Brent S; Qi, Lili; Scheffler, Brian E; Pegadaraju, Venkatramana; McPhee, Kevin; Gulya, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Functional markers for Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower were obtained using gene-level information from the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Sclerotinia stalk rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers for genes controlling resistance to S. sclerotiorum will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana defense genes known to be associated with Sclerotinia disease resistance in a sunflower association mapping population evaluated for Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance. The total candidate gene sequence regions covered a concatenated length of 3,791 bp per individual. A total of 187 polymorphic sites were detected for all candidate gene sequences, 149 of which were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 38 were insertions/deletions. Eight SNPs in the coding regions led to changes in amino acid codons. Linkage disequilibrium decay throughout the candidate gene regions declined on average to an r (2) = 0.2 for genetic intervals of 120 bp, but extended up to 350 bp with r (2) = 0.1. A general linear model with modification to account for population structure was found the best fitting model for this population and was used for association mapping. Both HaCOI1-1 and HaCOI1-2 were found to be strongly associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance and explained 7.4 % of phenotypic variation in this population. These SNP markers associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance can potentially be applied to the selection of favorable genotypes, which will significantly improve the efficiency of MAS during the development of stalk rot resistant cultivars.

  9. Persistence of Gliocephalotrichum spp. causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, fruit rot of rambutan is an important problem that limits the storage, marketing and long-distance transportation of the fruit. A complex of pathogens has been reported to cause fruit rot of rambutan and significant post-harvest economic losses. During 2009 and 2011 rambutan fruit rot was...

  10. Occurrence of wood-and root- rot basidiomycetes on trees in Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several death and decays or rots of tropical trees are as result of infection caused by wood and root rot 'parasitic basidiomycetes. In the present study, survey of parasitic homobasidiomycetes causing wood and root rot on woody trees in Bayero University, Kano (two campuses) was carried out between April – September ...

  11. Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikemo, H.; Klemsdal, S.S.; Riisberg, I.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Stensvand, A.; Tronsmo, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of 44 isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, isolated from strawberry and other hosts, by AFLP showed that the crown rot pathotype is different from leather rot isolates and from P. cactorum isolated from other hosts. 16 of 23 crown rot isolates, including isolates from Europe, Japan,

  12. Evaluation of three pinto bean varieties under drought and irrigation in Durango, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Pedroza-Sandoval

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the behavioral response in growth and physiology on three bean varieties under irrigation and drought. The study was conducted in 2014 at the experimental campus from the Autonomous University of Chapingo, Regional University Unit of the Arid Zones, Durango, Mexico. A randomized block design with three replications in a split plot arrangement was used. The plots were the soil moisture contents: favorable, near to Field Capacity (FC: 22-26% and unfavorable, near to Permanent Wilting Point (PWP: 16-20%; subplots were varieties of beans: Pinto Centauro, Pinto Americano, and Pinto Saltillo. The variety Pinto Centauro had the greatest plant height (10.2 cm, vegetation cover (155.1 cm2, and dry matter production per plant (5.2 g and, physiologically, it showed an outstanding water use efficiency (15.8 μmol CO2: μmol H20. The variety Pinto Americano was the most stable in growth and development when changing from the favorable moisture condition (CC to the hydric stress condition (PWP, which makes it more viable under restrictive water availability conditions, but also more susceptible to root rot, associated to soil pathogens.

  13. Isolation and Purification of Thiamine Binding Protein from Mung Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWIRINI RETNO GUNARTI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thiamine has fundamental role in energy metabolism. The organs mostly sensitive to the lack of thiamine levels in the body are the nervous system and the heart. Thiamine deficiency causes symptoms of polyneuritis and cardiovascular diseases. Because of its importance in the metabolism of carbohydrates, we need to measure the levels of thiamine in the body fluids by using an easy and inexpensive way without compromising the sensitivity and selectivity. An option to it is thiamine measurement based on the principle of which is analogous to ELISA, in which a thiamine binding protein (TBP act by replacing antibodies. The presence of TBP in several seeds have been reported by previous researchers, but the presence of TBP in mung beans has not been studied. This study was aimed to isolate and purify TBP from mung bean. The protein was isolated from mung bean through salting out by ammonium sulphate of 40, 70, and 90% (w/v. TBP has a negative charge as shown by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The result obtained after salting out by ammonium sulphate was further purified bymeans of DEAE-cellulose chromatography and affinity chromatography. In precipitation of 90% of salting out method, one peak protein was obtained by using affinity chromatography. The protein was analyzed by SDS PAGE electrophoresis. The result of SDS PAGE electrophoresis showed that TBP has a molecular weight of 72.63 kDa.

  14. Radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah, V.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed by Ghanaian scientists from 1977 to 1987 to evaluate the seriousness of infestation and to establish effective doses for radiation disinfestation against insects and fungi which cause deterioration in grains and cocoa beans. Supporting investigations have been done on the effect of radiation disinfestation on some quality parameters and wholesomeness of grains (with maize as the test grain) and cocoa beans. A minimum dose of 0.8 kGy was established for effective control of insects present in stored grains and cocoa beans. For the decontamination against fungi and yeasts, a combination of moist heat (85% RH) applied to 60 deg. C for 30 min followed by a dose of 4 kGy was effective for maize and moist heat (85% RH) applied 80 deg. C and a dose of 4 kGy was recommended for cocoa beans. No significant difference was found between the organoleptic qualities of the products from maize and cocoa that had been treated with moist heat and radiation and the untreated samples. The cooling (solidifying) curves of cocoa butter prepared from untreated and treated cocoa beans were very similar. Irradiated cocoa beans were found to be wholesome. The prospects of radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans have also been discussed. (author). 27 refs, 4 tabs

  15. Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, both on International and European level a series of treaties and laws have been devised in order to save local varieties of crop plants. The most important methods of traditional seed conservation are on farm and ex situ (Maxim et al., 2010; Kontoleonet al., 2009. The identification of local Romanian varieties of bean, their morphological and agronomic description, seed production and its spreading in the purpose of genetic erosion reduction. Their have been taken into study 13 local varieties of bean. For the morphological description descriptors have been used accordingly to the IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. For the evaluation of the diseases attack, frequency (F%, intensity (I% and degree of attack (GA% have been calculated.The exchanges of seed between farmers were facilitated through the online catalog edited by the Eco Ruralis Association that promotes traditional seeds. Of the 13 local varieties of beean taken into study, two are with determined growth(15.3%, and 11 are with undetermined growth(84.7%. The most significant production of pods on the plant was documented on local variety MM 1039 (2.736kg, and the most significant production of beans on plant was documented on local variety HD 904 (1.156kg. The most resistant varieties against bacterian attack, anthracnose, aphids and rust were: SJ 890, CJ 909, CV 917 şi HD 1159. The growing phenomenon of genetic erosion implies the indentification and the conservation of crop plants. In the year 2015, 13 local varieties of bean have been taken into study that were used for conservation in seeds’ genbank and for the exchange of seeds between farmers.

  16. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Uniformity of liquid distribution in the canopy of the bean plant, using the spectrophotometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Mesquita Baesso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diseases are important factors limiting common bean yield. White mold is one of the main diseases caused by soil pathogens. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of a fungicide solution sprayed into the canopy of bean plants by spectrophotometry, using a boom sprayer with and without air assistance. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial (two types of nozzles, two application rates, and air assistance on and off randomized block design with four replications. Air assistance influenced the deposition of solution on the bean plant and yield increased significantly with the increased rate of application and air assistance in the boom sprayer.

  18. Feeding toasted field beans to dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, K.F.; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Askegaard, M.

    2013-01-01

    Toasting field beans can improve the protein quality of field beans markedly. In the feed demonstrations carried out in Project EcoProtein testing a new method of toasting with a drum dryer, showed, however, only reduced effect on the protein quality due to a lower than optimal temperature. The toasted field beans were fed in two organic dairy herds, replacing a part of the concentrates in the ration in a cross-over design. Preliminary results showed no milk yield difference in herd 1, but a ...

  19. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Investigating the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot in peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Zheng, Yonghua

    2013-06-17

    The efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit and the possible mechanisms were investigated. The results indicated B. subtilis SM21 treatment reduced lesion diameter and disease incidence by 37.2% and 26.7% on the 2nd day of inoculation compared with the control. The in vitro test showed significant inhibitory effect of B. subtilis SM21 on mycelial growth of R. stolonifer with an inhibition rate of 48.9%. B. subtilis SM21 treatment significantly enhanced activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity were also increased by this treatment. Transcription of seven defense related genes was much stronger in fruit treated with B. subtilis SM21 or those both treated with B. subtilis SM21 and inoculated with R. stolonifer compared with fruit inoculated with R. stolonifer alone. These results suggest that B. subtilis SM21 can effectively inhibit Rhizopus rot caused by R. stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit, possibly by directly inhibiting growth of the pathogen, and indirectly inducing disease resistance in the fruit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma harzianum against soybean charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaledi Nima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, charcoal rot, caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, is one of the most destructive and widespread diseases of crop plants such as soybean. In this study, the biological control capability of 11 Trichoderma spp. isolates against M. phaseolina was investigated using screening tests. Among all the tested Trichoderma spp. isolates, inhibition varied from 20.22 to 58.67% in dual culture tests. Dual culture, volatile and non-volatile tests revealed that two isolates of Trichoderma harzianum (including the isolates T7 and T14 best inhibited the growth of M. phaseolina in vitro. Therefore, these isolates were selected for biocontrol of M. phaseolina in vivo. The results of greenhouse experiments revealed that disease severity in the seed treatment with T. harzianum isolates was significantly lower than that of the soil treatment. In most of the cases, though, soil treatment with T. harzianum resulted in higher plant growth parameters, such as root and shoot weight. The effects of T. harzianum isolates on the activity of peroxidase enzyme and phenolic contents of the soybean root in the presence and absence of M. phaseolina were determined in greenhouse conditions. Our results suggested that a part of the inhibitory effect of T. harzianum isolates on soybean charcoal rot might be related to the indirect influence on M. phaseolina. Plant defense responses were activated as an elicitor in addition to the direct effect on the pathogen growth.

  2. Screening bactericidal effect of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strains against causal agent of potato soft rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Zaromi, Samaneh; Baghaee-Ravari, Sareh; Khodaygan, Pejman; Falahati-Rastegar, Mahrokh

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the potential of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) strains producing bacteriocin as a tool to control potato soft rot disease. Thirty out of 48 purified bacterial strains were characterized as Pcc using specific PCR and phenotypic tests. The pathogenicity and pectate degrading assays were recorded positive for 13 strains. Bacteriocin typing clustered producers into three groups according to their antimicrobial spectra. Majority of the producers except strains of group II showed antibacterial activity toward relative genus and the role of UV or mitomycin C was inductive. In addition, none of the distant genus was sensitive to Pcc bacteriocins except Rhizobium vitis. Molecular detection of four bacteriocins including carotovoricin, carosin S1, S2 and carosin D was performed. Overall, 54.5% of group I, 47.3 and 70% of groups II and III strains carried carotovoricin and four strains harbored gene corresponding to carosin S1. According to our data divers antimicrobial patterns obtained by Pcc strains and existence of new bateriocines could be possible. Moreover, our findings recommended that direct application of P29 or expression of corresponding genes of Pog22 or P21 in a nonpathogenic strain as a biocontrol agent may improve soft rot disease control. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Fusarium oxysporum as Causal Agent of Tomato Wilt and Fruit Rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ignjatov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are parasitized by a number of pathogens, including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, causal agent of fusarium wilt. Fresh vegetable fruits can be contaminated with variousfungi that produce mycotoxins, which is an important issue for human health. The objective of this paper was to isolate, determine, and identify causal organisms of tomato wilt and fruit rot, based on the pathogens morphological and molecular characteristics. Samples ofdiseased plants showing symptoms of tomato wilt were collected from different localities in the production region of Vojvodina. Fruits with symptoms of fusarium rot were collected from storage and warehouses. The isolation and morphological determination of the fungus were performed on PDA and Czapek’s nutrient media. Isolates from diseased plants growing in field,designated as TFW1-TFW12 and seven isolates from diseased tomato fruits (TFM1-TFM7 were chosen for further investigation. For identification of the fungal solates, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also used. The EF1/EF2 primer pair was used for molecular identification of Fusarium sp. Nine analyzed samples were found to contain DNA fragments 700 bp in size.

  4. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Bosio, Pietro; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2018-01-05

    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v / v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola , but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea . In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea . Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  5. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Santoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO, was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  6. Studies on in vitro induction mutation for wheat mutant of resistance to root rot and its resistance mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guangzu

    1992-06-01

    The screening wheat mutant which has the resistance to root rot was completed in 37 varieties by in vitro induction mutation method. The effect of irradiation on in vitro culture of different wheat explants and the effectiveness of screening rude toxin were studied. Two wheat mutants, RB500 and RB501, which have the resistance to root rot, were obtained. Changes of the ultrastructure and defensive enzymes (SOD, ROD and PAL) were investigated by using mutants and parent under the action of rude toxin. The results showed that the rude toxin could induce changes of enzyme activity, isoenzyme pattern and ultrastructure of the mitochondria and chloroplast. These change correspond to their ability of resistance to disease. The mutant under the action of toxin has the ability to increase the defensive enzyme activity and to reduce the damage of cell membrane system that would result in resistance increasing

  7. A Simple Method for Assessing Severity of Common Root Rot on Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common root rot caused by Cochliobolus sativus is a serious disease of barley. A simple and reliable method for assessing this disease would enhance our capacity in identifying resistance sources and developing resistant barley cultivars. In searching for such a method, a conidial suspension of C. sativus was dropped onto sterilized elongated subcrown internodes and incubated in sandwich filter paper using polyethylene transparent envelopes. Initial disease symptoms were easily detected after 48h of inoculation. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found in each experiment (A, B and C between sandwich filter paper and seedling assays, indicating that this testing procedure was reliable. The method presented facilitates a rapid pre-selection under uniform conditions which is of importance from a breeder’s point of view.

  8. Creation of initial breeding material of potato with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Гордієнко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To select the initial breeding material with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight among the created potato of secondary interspecific hyb­rids. Methods. Interspecific hybridization, laboratory test, analytical approach. Results. Based on the interspecific hybridization, the initial breeding material was created and the degree of its resistance to the above pathogens was determined by way of artificial infection of tubers with the inoculum of such fungi as Fusarium sambucinum Fuck and Phytophthora infestans (Mont. De Bary. During interspecific hybridization based on schemes of saturating and enriching crosses, using forms of various species with a high phenotypic expression of resistance to Fusarium dry rot, the result of the cumulative effect of genes that control resistance to the pathogen was observed. Crossing combinations differed significantly for the degree of population average manifestation of resistance to the diseases. Conclusions. Combinations В54, В53, В61 with a mean resistance (above 7 grades to Fusarium dry rot have been selected. Such combinations as B52, B50 and B54 had increased resistance to tuber late blight. It was found that the combination В54 is characterized by complex resistance to both diseases. For further work, the following samples with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight (7 grades or more were selected: В59с42, В59с43, В50с16, В50с19, В50с44, В51с1, В51с26, В51с28, В52с11, В52с23, В52с24, В52с29, В53с1, В53с11, В53с17 , В53с23, В54с13, В54с14.

  9. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  10. Synthesis of epoxidised soya bean oil acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin bin Mohd Nor; Mohamad Hilmi bin Mahmood; Dahlan bin Haji Mohd.

    1988-10-01

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from Asahi's epoxy resin AER 331 which is an epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO). Triethylamine (TEA) and Hydroquinone (HQ) were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. Observations of the experiment are described. (author)

  11. MedlinePlus: Quinoa Black Bean Salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/quinoablackbeansalad.html Quinoa Black Bean Salad To use the sharing features ... a side dish. Ingredients 1/2 cup dry quinoa 1 and 1/2 cups water 1 and ...

  12. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  13. Carboxypeptidase of Castor Bean Endosperm during Germination

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 知子; 下田, 忠久; 船津, 軍喜; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Shimoda, Tadahisa; Funatsu, Gunki

    1982-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase (CPase) in the endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) showed high activity at day 4 and 7 on germination. From the behavior of CPases on CM-cellulose column chromatography, the early stage CPases, which appeared before 4 day germination, were different from the later stage CPases which appeared after 6 day. Probably the former arised from ungerminated seeds and the latter was synthesized during the germination. The early stage endosperm of small grain castor bean cont...

  14. beans grown in an intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-02-10

    Feb 10, 2005 ... Sole crops were planted at the recommended PPD of 44 444 and 11 1 1 11 plants ha'l for maize and climbing beans, respectively. Maize in ... within-row spacing from 0.25 to 0.40 m for maize and 0.30 to 0.50 m for beans. Maize PPD .... mays) and/0r cassava(Manih0t esculentum) plants acting as live ...

  15. Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... degradation was peculiar with each fungus. Wood decay varied along the tree bole but was not related to height above the ground. The results indicated that biodegradation by rot fungi differs in intensity according to the fungus species and this suggested that preservative impregnation and retention may.

  16. Physiological studies of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing collar rot of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro studies were conducted on the effect of temperature, pH levels, carbon, nitrogen and amino acids on the mycelial growth and biomass production of Sclerotium rofsii Sacc. causing collar rot of mint. The results reveal that the growth of S. rolfsii was maximum at 30°C which was reduced significantly below 20°C and ...

  17. Production and optimization of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with production of ligninolytic enzymes from an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 by using banana stalk as substrate through the process of solid state fermentation. The production process was further improved by optimizing a number of physical parameters such as ...

  18. Factors contributing to bacterial bulb rots of onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of bacterial rots of onion bulbs is increasing and has become a serious problem for growers. This increase is likely due to a combination of factors, such as high bacterial populations in soils and irrigation water, heavy rains flooding production fields, higher temperatures, etc. It m...

  19. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  20. Corm Rot and Yellows of Gladiolus and Its Biomanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A corm dressing containing Trichoderma harzianum (T014 and Pseudomonas fluorescens (PS07 cultured on a bagasse-soil-molasses mixture was tested for its efficacy against corm rot and yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli on the gladiolus (Gladiolus psittacinus L. cv. White Prosperity (WP, King Lear (KL, Friendship (FR, Her Majesty (HM and American Beauty (AB in a pot culture experiment. The effectiveness of the biocontrol agents was compared with that of the fungicide carbendazim (200 ppm. All cultivars were susceptible to the pathogenic fungus and developed the characteristic symptoms of corm rot and yellows. Cultivars HM and AB were highly susceptible, scoring 2.9–3.2 on a corm rot and yellows scale (0–5 scale; compared with 1.5–2.9 for the other cultivars. Fungal infection reduced plant growth and flowering significantly, with a 15–28% decrease in the number of florets/spike. Application of carbendazim, T. harzianum (P=0.001 and P. fluorescens (P=0.05 decreased the corm rot and yellows scores and the soil population of the pathogen, and increased plant growth and flowering. The greatest improvement in the flower variables of infected plants was recorded with P. fluorescens (+18–31% over control. The soil population of the bioagents increased significantly over time, both in the presence and in the absence of the pathogenic fungus, but more in its absence.

  1. Calonectria species associated with cutting rot of Eucalyptus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Zhou, X.D.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Decline in the productivity of Eucalyptus hybrid cutting production in the Guangdong Province of China is linked to cutting rot associated with several Calonectria spp. The aim of this study was to identify these fungi using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. Two previously undescribed

  2. Autochthonous white rot fungi from the tropical forest: Potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autochthonous white rot fungi from the tropical forest: Potential of Cuban strains for dyes and textile industrial effluents decolourisation. MI Sánchez-López, SF Vanhulle, V Mertens, G Guerra, SH Figueroa, C Decock, A Corbisier, MJ Penninckx ...

  3. The influence of root rot incidence on cassava genotype on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28 panelists were asked to indicate their degree of preference for the colour, odour and taste of each gari sample by choosing the appropriate category in the hedonic scale. The results were compared with the tuberous root rot incidence and severity of genotypes in the field. All experiments were repeated and the data ...

  4. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  5. Conifer root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiegbu, Fred O; Adomas, Aleksandra; Stenlid, Jan

    2005-07-01

    SUMMARY The root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidon annosum is one of the most destructive diseases of conifers in the northern temperate regions of the world, particularly in Europe. Economic losses attributable to Heterobasidion infection in Europe are estimated at 800 million euros annually. The fungus has been classified into three separate European intersterile species P (H. annosum), S (H. parviporum) and F (H. abietinum) based on their main host preferences: pine, spruce and fir, respectively. In North America, two intersterile groups are present, P and S/F, but these have not been given scientific names. The ecology of the disease spread has been intensively studied but the genetics, biochemistry and molecular aspects of pathogen virulence have been relatively little examined. Recent advances in transcript profiling, molecular characterization of pathogenicity factors and establishment of DNA-transformation systems have paved the way for future advances in our understanding of this pathosystem. Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref., H. parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen and H. abietinum Niemelä & Korhonen; kingdom Fungi; class Basidiomycotina; order Aphyllophorales; family Bondarzewiaceae; genus Heterobasidion. presence of the fungus fruit bodies, basidiocarps whitish in the margins, upper surface is tan to dark brown, usually irregular shaped, 3.5 (-7) cm thick and up to 40 cm in diameter; pores 5-19, 7-22 and 13-26 mm(2) for the P, F and S groups, respectively. Small brownish non-sporulating postules develop on the outside of infected roots. Asexual spores (conidiospores) are 3.8-6.6 x 2.8-5.0 microm in size. Mating tests are necessary for identification of intersterility groups. The fungus attacks many coniferous tree species. In Europe, particularly trees of the genera Pinus and Juniperus (P), Picea (S), Abies (F) and in North America Pinus (P) and Picea, Tsuga and Abies (S/F). To a lesser extent it causes root rot on some decidous trees (Betula and Quercus

  6. Cacao diseases: a global perspective from an industry point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Prakash K

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Diseases of cacao, Theobroma cacao, account for losses of more than 30% of the potential crop. These losses have caused a steady decline in production and a reduction in bean quality in almost all the cacao-producing areas in the world, especially in small-holder farms in Latin America and West Africa. The most significant diseases are witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa, which occurs mainly in South America; frosty pod rot, caused by M. roreri, which occurs mainly in Central and northern South America; and black pod disease, caused by several species of Phytophthora, which are distributed throughout the tropics. In view of the threat that these diseases pose to the sustainability of the cacao crop, Mars Inc. and their industry partners have funded collaborative research involving cacao research institutes and governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The objective of this global initiative is to develop short- to medium-term, low-cost, environmentally friendly disease-management strategies until disease tolerant varieties are widely available. These include good farming practices, biological control and the rational or minimal use of chemicals that could be used for integrated pest management (IPM). Farmer field schools are used to get these technologies to growers. This paper describes some of the key collaborative partners and projects that are underway in South America and West Africa.

  7. Effect of trypsin inhibitor activity in soya bean on growth performance, protein digestibility and incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyeguru, M W C D; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2011-06-01

    1. The effect of three different levels of dietary trypsin inhibitor activity (achieved by varying the amount of non-toasted full fat soya bean in replacement for toasted full fat soya bean) on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring sub-clinical necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens was compared. A fourth dietary treatment compared the effect of a diet that used potato protein concentrate as the major protein source. The determined trypsin inhibitor activity increased with the increasing content of non-toasted soya bean: 1·90, 6·21, 8·46 and 3·72 mg/g for the three soya bean diets (0, 100 and 200 g of non-toasted soya bean/kg) and the potato protein diet respectively. 2. Although increasing amounts of the non-toasted full-fat soya bean increased the feed intakes of the birds, there was a marked reduction in protein digestibility, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. 3. There was a linear increase in sub-clinical NE lesions in the duodenum, jejunum, mid small intestine and ileum with increasing non-toasted soya bean. Caecal Clostridium perfringens counts increased with the increasing dietary content of non-toasted soya bean. Serum α-toxin antibodies were higher in the birds fed the 200 g non-toasted soya bean/kg diet compared with the other diets. 4. The results demonstrated that variation in the amount of non-toasted dietary soya bean not only affects growth performance of broilers but also affects the incidence of sub-clinical necrotic enteritis in the flock. Ensuring the lowest possible trypsin-inhibitor activity in soya bean samples is a valuable tool to improve the health and welfare of birds and in reducing the financial losses from this disease.

  8. Attempts to induce mutants resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic virus in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.; Costa, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The golden mosaic of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that is present in the tropical parts of the American continent has become a major hindrance for the cultivation of this food legume of great importance to many Latin America countries. Good control measures are not known and bean germ plasm resistant or tolerant to this virus disease is not yet available. Attempts to induce bean mutants with this desirable characteristic were made using gamma radiation and chemical mutagen. Some M 2 plants from one progeny of the cultivar Carioca treated with 0.48% ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), 6 hours of treatment at 20 0 C, showed milder symptoms than the control progenies, and at the same time they showed a tendency to recover. This mutant is being tested under field conditions and used in crosses with other bean types that show a certain degree of tolerance, aiming at adding the favourable characters of both parents. Seeds of the hybrids, as well as those of the parent types, are also being further submitted to mutagenic treatments in order to obtain still better mutants that will be satisfactory for direct or indirect control of bean golden mosaic. (author)

  9. Fermented soya bean (tempe) extracts reduce adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Nout, M J R; Beumer, R R; van der Meulen, J; Zwietering, M H

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of processed soya bean, during the successive stages of tempe fermentation and different fermentation times, on adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal brush border cells as well as Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; and to clarify the mechanism of action. Tempe was prepared at controlled laboratory scale using Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus as the inoculum. Extracts of raw, soaked and cooked soya beans reduced ETEC adhesion to brush border cells by 40%. Tempe extracts reduced adhesion by 80% or more. ETEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells reduced by 50% in the presence of tempe extracts. ETEC K88 bacteria were found to interact with soya bean extracts, and this may contribute to the observed decrease of ETEC adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. Fermented soya beans (tempe) reduce the adhesion of ETEC to intestinal epithelial cells of pig and human origin. This reduced adhesion is caused by an interaction between ETEC K88 bacteria and soya bean compounds. The results strengthen previous observations on the anti-diarrhoeal effect of tempe. This effect indicates that soya-derived compounds may reduce adhesion of ETEC to intestinal cells in pigs as well as in humans and prevent against diarrhoeal diseases.

  10. Common Beans and Their Non-Digestible Fraction: Cancer Inhibitory Activity—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Campos-Vega

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US Department of Agriculture’s MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables including dry beans—an important food staple in many traditional diets that can improve public health and nutrition. Populations with high legume (peas, beans, lentils consumption have a low risk of cancer and chronic degenerative diseases. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. are known as a rich, reliable source of non-digested compounds like fiber, phenolics, peptides and phytochemicals that are associated with health benefits. Emerging evidence indicates that common bean consumption is associated with reduced cancer risk in human populations, inhibiting carcinogenesis in animal models and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cell cultures. Fiber may reduce the risk of premature death from all causes, whereas the whole non-digestible fraction from common beans exhibits anti-proliferative activity and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo colon cancer. The mechanisms responsible for this apparently protective role may include gene-nutrient interactions and modulation of proteins’ expression. This review investigates the potential health benefits and bioactivity of beans on tumor inhibition, highlighting studies involving functional compounds, mainly non-digestible fractions that modulate genes and proteins, thereby, unraveling their preventive role against the development of cancer.

  11. Studies on the weed host range of bean pod mottle virus (BPMV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the weed host range of bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) (Genus: comovirus) Disease of Soybean In Nsukka Agro-Ecological Zone, South Eastern Nigeria. ... with three replications, while ten plant species used in Screen house experiments were laid out in Completely Randomized Design with three replications.

  12. Response of different common bean lines to Phaeoisariopsis griseola in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS), caused by Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc.) Ferraris sin. Pseudocercospora griseola (Sacc.) Crous & U. Braun., is an important disease in common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. in the Caribbean and Central America. The wide pathogen variability makes it necessary to continuously m...

  13. The Effect and Action Mechanisms of Oligochitosan on Control of Stem Dry Rot of Zanthoxylum bungeanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiqin; Cao, Zhimin; Wu, Zhou; Wang, Xing; Li, Xiuhong

    2016-06-30

    In this report, the effects of two oligochitosans, i.e., oligochitosan A (OCHA) and oligochitosan B (OCHB), on control of dry rot of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Z. bungeanum) caused by Fusarium sambucinum (F. sambucinum) were evaluated. First, both oligochitosans show desirable ability to decrease the infection of F. sambucinum. Second, the oligochitosans strongly inhibit the radial colony and submerged biomass growth of F. sambucinum. Lastly, these oligochitosans are capable of increasing the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) significantly, as well as enhancing the content of total phenolics in Z. bungeanum stems. These findings indicate that the protective effects of OCHA and OCHB on Z. bungeanum stems against dry rot may be associated with the direct fungitoxic function against pathogen and the elicitation of biochemical defensive responses in Z. bungeanum stems. The outcome of this report suggests that oligochitosans may serve as a promising natural fungicide to substitute, at least partially, for synthetic fungicides in the disease management of Z. bungeanum.

  14. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-06-21

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B₁, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  15. The Effect and Action Mechanisms of Oligochitosan on Control of Stem Dry Rot of Zanthoxylum bungeanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqin Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the effects of two oligochitosans, i.e., oligochitosan A (OCHA and oligochitosan B (OCHB, on control of dry rot of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Z. bungeanum caused by Fusarium sambucinum (F. sambucinum were evaluated. First, both oligochitosans show desirable ability to decrease the infection of F. sambucinum. Second, the oligochitosans strongly inhibit the radial colony and submerged biomass growth of F. sambucinum. Lastly, these oligochitosans are capable of increasing the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD significantly, as well as enhancing the content of total phenolics in Z. bungeanum stems. These findings indicate that the protective effects of OCHA and OCHB on Z. bungeanum stems against dry rot may be associated with the direct fungitoxic function against pathogen and the elicitation of biochemical defensive responses in Z. bungeanum stems. The outcome of this report suggests that oligochitosans may serve as a promising natural fungicide to substitute, at least partially, for synthetic fungicides in the disease management of Z. bungeanum.

  16. Dispersion of the soybean root rot by Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Neto, Geraldo; Vaz, Marcos André Braz; Guedes, Jerson Vanderlei Carús; Muniz, Marlove Fátima Brião; Blume, Elena; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro E; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2018-02-05

    The dispersion of pathogenic microorganisms consists of the transport of pathogens from their source to inoculate a new host. Agricultural and economic importance of the Soybean root rot justifies studying this disease, especially the role of insects as dispersers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the ladybird beetle, Cycloneda sanguinea Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the dispersion of pathogens that cause Soybean root rot. Three pathogen species, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) (Sphaeropsidales: Botryosphaeriaceae), Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), and F. commune (Skovgaard) O'Donnell & Nirenberg were isolated from the midgut of ladybird beetles and cultured. Macrophomina phaseolina was identified by morphology while for the other two species, DNA was sequenced. The DNA extracted was amplified in the Internal Transcriber Spacer (ITS) region, sequenced and compared to voucher sequences deposited in the GenBank. Sequences of nucleotide ITS1-5.8 S were identified in the regions of rDNA-ITS4 ribosomal DNA. This is the first report of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) (Sphaeropsidales: Botryosphaeriaceae), Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), and F. commune (Skovgaard) O'Donnell & Nirenberg, being dispersed by C. sanguinea in Brazilian soybean fields.

  17. Quantification of the changes in potent wine odorants as induced by bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Fungal infections are detrimental for viticulture since they may reduce harvest yield and wine quality. This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on wine aroma by quantification of representative aroma compounds using Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis (SIDA). For this purpose, samples affected to a high degree by each fungus were compared with a healthy sample in each case; to this aim, the respective samples were collected and processed applying identical conditions. Thereby, the effects of bunch rot were studied in three different grape varieties: White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer whereas the influence of powdery mildew was studied on the hybrid Gm 8622-3. Analyses revealed that both fungal diseases caused significant changes in the concentration of most target compounds. Thereby, the greatest effects were increases in the concentration of phenylacetic acid, acetic acid and γ-decalactone for both fungi and all grape varieties. Regarding other compounds, however, inconsistent effects of bunch rot were observed for the three varieties studied.

  18. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  19. Effects of infection of common root rot on protein content, cooking quality and other characters in pea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engqvist, L G

    2001-10-01

    Pea varieties are known to show a considerable variability in seed yield, protein content, cooking quality and other characters over years and locations. Common root rot, a wide spread soil borne disease of peas in Europe and elsewhere, is a contributing factor in the observed variation in pea yields and pea quality characteristics such as protein content and cooking quality. It interacts with the weather and these factors together constitute important reasons for the variations observed within a single variety in the mentioned characters. The common root rot is, however, in seasons with more moderate deviations from the mean in terms of temperature and precipitation, itself able to constitute the most important source of variation in characteristics of the harvested crop. During the 1980ies and the 1990ies investigations were carried out to study the interactions between common root rot (Aphanomyces euteiches) and peas (Pisum sativum). Seed yield, protein content, cooking quality, hectolitre weight, thousand kernel weight, growing time, duration of flowering time and stem length were all significantly influenced by the fungus.

  20. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Lorenzo Quibod

    Full Text Available Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  1. The 'Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde fungus': noble rot versus gray mold symptoms of Botrytis cinerea on grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Elisabeth; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

    2013-09-01

    Many cryptic species have recently been discovered in fungi, especially in fungal plant pathogens. Cryptic fungal species co-occurring in sympatry may occupy slightly different ecological niches, for example infecting the same crop plant but specialized on different organs or having different phenologies. Identifying cryptic species in fungal pathogens of crops and determining their ecological specialization are therefore crucial for disease management. Here, we addressed this question in the ascomycete Botrytis cinerea, the agent of gray mold on a wide range of plants. On grape, B. cinerea causes severe damage but is also responsible for noble rot used for processing sweet wines. We used microsatellite genotyping and clustering methods to elucidate whether isolates sampled on gray mold versus noble rot symptoms in three French regions belong to genetically differentiated populations. The inferred population structure matched geography rather than the type of symptom. Noble rot symptoms therefore do not seem to be caused by a specific B. cinerea population but instead seem to depend essentially on microclimatic conditions, which has applied consequences for the production of sweet wines.

  2. Co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF inhibited soybean red crown rot: from field study to plant defense-related gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases.We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF.Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils.

  3. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae) by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad SAADOUN; Mohamed Bechir ALLAGUI

    2013-01-01

    Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicoti...

  4. Conjunctively screening of biocontrol agents (BCAs) against fusarium root rot and fusarium head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Yao; Xie, Yue-Shen; Cui, Yuan-Yu; Xu, Jianjun; He, Wei; Chen, Huai-Gu; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Fusarium root-rot and fusarium head blight are plant diseases caused by Fusarium sp. in different growth periods of wheat, bring heavy losses to crop production in China. This research is aiming to screen biocontrol agents conjunctively for controlling these two diseases at the same time, as well as evaluate our previous BCAs (Biological Control Agents) screening strategies in more complex situation, considering biocontrol is well concerned as an environmental-friendly plant disease controlling method. Totally 966 bacterial isolates were screened from different parts of wheat tissues, of which potential biocontrol values were detected according to their abilities in antagonism inhibition and secreting extracellular hydrolytic enzyme. Biocontrol tests against fusarium root rot and fusarium head blight were carried out on 37 bacterial isolates with potential biocontrol capacity after pre-selection through ARDRA- and BOX-PCR analysis on strains with high assessment points. We acquired 10 BCAs with obvious biocontrol efficacy (more than 40%) in greenhouse and field tests. Pseudomonas fluorescens LY1-8 performed well in both two tests (biocontrol efficacy: 44.62% and 58.31%), respectively. Overall, correlation coefficient is 0.720 between assessment values of 37 tested BCA strains and their biocontrol efficacy in trails against fusarium root rot; correlation coefficient is 0.806 between their assessment values and biocontrol efficacy in trails against fusarium head blight. We acquired 10 well-performed potential BCAs, especially P. fluorescens LY1-8 displayed good biocontrol capacity against two different diseases on wheat. Biocontrol efficacies results in both greenhouse and field tests showed high positive correlation with assessment values (0.720 and 0.806), suggesting that the BCAs screening and assessing strategy previously developed in our lab is also adaptable for conjunctively screening BCAs for controlling both root and shoot diseases on wheat caused by same

  5. Cacao diseases: A history of old enemies and new encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book reviews the current knowledge of cacao pathogens and their management methods. Topics discussed include the history, biology, and genetic diversity of Moniliophthora (causing witches’ broom and frosty pod rot) and Phytophthora species (causing black pod rot) that cause diseases resulting i...

  6. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  7. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  8. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  9. Yam bean seed poisoning mimicking cyanide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Y-M; Hung, S-Y; Olson, K R; Chou, K-J; Lin, S-L; Chung, H-M; Tung, C-N; Chang, J-C

    2007-02-01

    Yam bean is a common food in southern Taiwan. However, its seeds are rarely consumed. We describe five patients of yam bean seed poisoning in Taiwan, one of them life-threatening. The five patients presented with perioral numbness, nausea and vomiting after eating a same soup made from yam bean seeds. One of them, a 54-year-old woman, had difficulty breathing and lost consciousness. Physical examination showed dilated pupils and coma with no focal neurological signs. The initial blood pressure was normal. Laboratory data showed a severe anion gap metabolic acidosis, with a serum lactate level of 185 mg/dL. An initial diagnosis of cyanide intoxication was considered and she was given sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate i.v. Hypotension ensued shortly afterwards and pulmonary artery catheterization showed a decreased cardiac index. Aggressive fluid and inotropic therapy were given and the patient eventually recovered. The other four patients suffered only minor gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms and received supportive treatment. Cyanide levels were negative in all five patients. Yam bean seed poisoning can cause acute metabolic acidosis and altered mental status, which could be confused with acute cyanide intoxication from a cyanogenic glycoside-containing plant. To our knowledge, this is the first outbreak of yam bean seed poisoning reported in the English published work.

  10. Melhoramento do feijoeiro Breeding of dry beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Abrahão

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Os ensaios de variedades e linhagens de feijão, realizados no período de 1948 a 1957 pelo Seção de Genética e resumidamente aqui apresentados, vieram indicar que as variedades e linhagens do grupo Mulatinho e Chumbinho eram as mais produtivas. A partir dêste ano agrícola, novos ensaios comparativos de produção foram realizados, a fim de verificar o comportamento das variedades e linhagens existentes com as variedades recém-introduzidas e as novas linhagens selecionadas. As variedades comerciais e suas linhagens, estudadas neste trabalho, foram classificadas em oito grupos, com base nas observações realizadas principalmente sôbre o tipo de planta e característicos dos sementes, o saber: Mulatinho, Chumbinho, Rosinha, Roxinho, Manteiga, Prêto, Bico-de-Ouro e diversos. Dos oito ensaios analisados em detalhes e realizados em Campinas, chegou-se à conclusão de que as variedades dos grupos Prêta e Rosinha são as de maior capacidade produtiva, devendo ser intensificado o aproveitamento dêsses grupos no plano de melhoramento em execução. As do grupo Roxinho apresentam-se menos produtivas. A comparação das análises dos ensaios como látice e blocos ao acaso revelou uma eficiência média de ordem de 30% para o tipo látice nos oito ensaios analisados. A fim de observar se o pêso total de plantas por ocasião da colheita mostra correlação com a produção de grãos, determinou-se, para cada grupo, o índice entre essas duas variáveis. Observou-se que êstes índices são proporcionais à produção, servindo, assim, para melhor caracterizar os diversos grupos de variedades e linhagens de feijão.In spite of the fact that dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris are one of the main sources of protein in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, they are considered a secondary crop and grown only in small patches or intercropped with coffee, sugar cane, or corn. The development of high yielding strains resistant to the most prevailing diseases, has

  11. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better

  12. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duennas Graciela; Munniz, Olegario; Sanchez, Tamara; Gomez, Luis

    1999-01-01

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  13. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  14. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Fusarium are causal agents of onion rot in field and storage. Most prevalent are F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae and F. solani, and recently F. proliferatum, a toxigenic species. Most frequently isolated fungi in our field experiments were F. solani and F. proliferatum with different pathogenicity. Certain differences in antagonistic activity of Trichoderma asperellum on different isolates of F. proliferatum and F. solani have been found in in vitro study in dual culture, expressed as a slower inhibition of growth of the former, and faster of the latter pathogen. Antagonistic abilities of species from genus Trichoderma (T. asperellum are important, and have already been exploited in formulated biocontrol products in organic and conventional production, in order to prevent soil borne pathogens inducing fusarium wilt and rot. The importance of preventing onion infection by Fusarium spp., possible mycotoxin producers, has been underlined.

  15. Association of Pectolytic Fluorescent PSeudomonas with Postharvest Rots of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. El-Hendawy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of pectolytic fluorescent pseudomonads were obtained from a rotted onion bulb and identified as Pseudomonas marginalis. At both 4 and 25oC, all isolates caused soft rot to detached plant parts of onion and to carrot, celery, cucumber, pepper, spinach, tomato and turnip (but not garlic. They did not however cause any symptoms in living plants of these same species. These results suggest that the onion isolates are a postharvest pathogen which is not destructive in the field but becomes a threat to fresh vegetables stored at low-temperature. Analysis of cellulosolytic and pectic enzymes revealed that pectic lyases, but not polygalacturonases, pectin methyl esterases and cellulases were produced in culture by each isolate.

  16. Increased delignification by white rot fungi after pressure refining Miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul W; Charlton, Adam; Hale, Mike D C

    2015-01-01

    Pressure refining, a pulp making process to separate fibres of lignocellulosic materials, deposits lignin granules on the surface of the fibres that could enable increased access to lignin degrading enzymes. Three different white rot fungi were grown on pressure refined (at 6 bar and 8 bar) and milled Miscanthus. Growth after 28 days showed highest biomass losses on milled Miscanthus compared to pressure refined Miscanthus. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora caused a significantly higher proportion of lignin removal when grown on 6 bar pressure refined Miscanthus compared to growth on 8 bar pressure refined Miscanthus and milled Miscanthus. RM22b followed a similar trend but Phlebiopsis gigantea SPLog6 did not. Conversely, C. subvermispora growing on pressure refined Miscanthus revealed that the proportion of cellulose increased. These results show that two of the three white rot fungi used in this study showed higher delignification on pressure refined Miscanthus than milled Miscanthus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Registration of Gabisa Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabisa is a common name for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety with pedigree name of VAX-2. It is a bush food bean variety selected out of common bean lines introduced to Ethiopia through CIAT program and released in 2007 by the Bako Agricultural Research Center for production in western Ethiopia and ...

  18. Bacteriological Contamination of Soya Bean Flour Sold in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soya bean (Glycine max) is a leguminous crop that is used as a staple food worldwide. The raw harvest is processed into various food forms like soya bean flour and processing methods increase the chances of bacterial contamination. This research work assessed the bacteria contamination of soya bean flour sold in and ...

  19. Agronomic description of new improved climbing bean varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 21. David, S and Hoogendijk,M. 1997. Bean production systems in MbaJe district, Uganda with emphasis on varietal diversity and the adoption of new climbing beans. Network on bean research in Africa. CIA T. CIA T, occasional publication ...

  20. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  1. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... white kidney bean grains decreased as the moisture content increased from 105.18 to 71.44 N. Key words: Engineering (physical and mechanical) properties, white kidney beans, moisture content, thousand grain mass, static coefficient of friction. INTRODUCTION. White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

  2. New bean seeds and the struggle for their dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Aguilar, E.; Herrera, R.

    2007-01-01

    The northern region of Nicaragua has always been an important bean and maize producing area. But a widespread presence of the Golden Mosaic Virus made it impossible to grow beans in the last years. A Participatory Plant Breeding programme started in 1999, aiming to develop new bean varieties that

  3. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This

  4. Economic performance of community based bean seed production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    seed multiplication and marketing enterprises (CBSME) model, as an alternative to the formal seed systems, in order to ... opportunities for small scale growers to ...... Producing bean seed: handbooks for small-scale bean producers. Handbook 1. Network on Bean Research in Africa, Occasional Publications Series,. No. 29.

  5. Controlling bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Controlling bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus of soybean with spatial arrangement of maize-soybean in southeastern Nigeria. ... plant produced the lowest grain yield.of 0..82 t / ha. Keywords: Spatial arrangement, Bean leaf beetle, Bean pod Mottl virus, Maize, Soybean. Agro-Science Vol. 3 (2) 2006: pp.

  6. New bean products to improve food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... This is the first time a full nutritional profile of bean varieties has been available in Kenya and Uganda. Two types of products — precooked beans and bean snacks — have been developed, and the latter tested with consumers in major supermarkets in Kenya and Uganda. To increase production of ...

  7. Removal of phenanthrene in contaminated soil by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Zeng, Defang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of phenanthrene by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms in soil. A 60-day experiment was conducted. Inoculation with earthworms and/or white-rot fungus increased alfalfa biomass and phenanthrene accumulation in alfalfa. However, inoculations of alfalfa and white-rot fungus can significantly decrease the accumulation of phenanthrene in earthworms. The removal rates for phenanthrene in soil were 33, 48, 66, 74, 85, and 93% under treatments control, only earthworms, only alfalfa, earthworms + alfalfa, alfalfa + white-rot fungus, and alfalfa + earthworms + white-rot fungus, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the combination of alfalfa, earthworms, and white-rot fungus is an effective way to remove phenanthrene in the soil. The removal is mainly via stimulating both microbial development and soil enzyme activity.

  8. Biological Control of Fusarium Stalk Rot of Maize Using Bacillus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is an economically important crop in worldwide. While the consumption of the maize is steadily increasing, the yield is decreasing due to continuous mono-cultivation and infection of soil-borne fungal pathogens such as Fusarium species. Recently, stalk rot disease in maize, caused by F. subglutinans and F. temperatum has been reported in Korea. In this study, we isolated bacterial isolates in rhizosphere soil of maize and subsequently tested for antagonistic activities against F. subglutinans and F. temperatum. A total of 1,357 bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere. Among them three bacterial isolates (GC02, GC07, GC08 were selected, based on antagonistic effects against Fusarium species. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were most efficient in inhibiting the mycelium growth of the pathogens. The three isolates GC02, GC07 and GC08 were identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. thuringiensis using 16S rRNA sequence analysis, respectively. GC02 and GC07 bacterial suspensions were able to suppress over 80% conidial germination of the pathogens. GC02, GC07 and GC08 were capable of producing large quantities of protease enzymes, whereas the isolates GC07 and GC08 produced cellulase enzymes. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were more efficient in phosphate solubilization and siderophore production than GC08. Analysis of disease suppression revealed that GC07 was most effective in suppressing the disease development of stalk rot. It was also found that B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 have an ability to inhibit the growth of other plant pathogenic fungi. This study indicated B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 has potential for being used for the development of a biological control agent.

  9. Aktivitas Antivirus Beberapa Ekstrak Tanaman terhadap Bean Common Mosaic Virus strain Black Eye Cowpea (BCMV-BIC pada Kacang Panjang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Asmira Damayanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Antivirus actitivity of several plant extracts against Bean common mosaic virus strain Black eye cowpea (BCMV-BlC on Yard long beanBean common mosaic virus (BCMV is an important virus on yard long bean and it is difficult to control. One of control effort way by utilizing antiviral substances of plant origin. The research was done to select and test the effectiveness of plant extracts in suppressing BCMV infection on yard long bean. Twenty two plant extracts were selected by (1 spraying the crude extract to Chenopodium amaranticolor leaves, then plant inoculated by BCMV 1 hour after spraying, and (2 mixturing the crude extract with sap containing BCMV, then inoculated mechanically to C. amaranticolor.  Local necrotic lesion  number and inhibition percentage are measured. All plant extract treatments were able to reduce Necrotic lokal lesion  formation significantly  compared to untreatment control. Further, fifteen plant extracts were selected to test their effectiveness in controlling BCMV on yard long bean in green house trial. The results showed that except geranium and red ginger treatment, other extract treatments were able to reduce significantly the disease incidence and severity, symptoms, and  BCMV titer, respectively. Among tested extracts, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Mirabilis jalapa, and Celosia cristata are the most effective crude extracts in suppressing BCMV infection.

  10. Genetic Architecture of Dietary Fiber and Oligosaccharide Content in a Middle American Panel of Edible Dry Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Brick, Mark A; Echeverria, Dimas; Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Leslie A; Lee, Rian; Mamidi, Sujan; McClean, Phillip E

    2018-03-01

    Common bean ( L.) is the most consumed edible grain legume worldwide and contains a wide range of nutrients for human health including dietary fiber. Diets high in beans are associated with lower rates of chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, and the content of dietary fibers varies among different market classes of dry bean. In this study, we evaluated the dietary fiber content in a Middle American diversity panel (MDP) of common bean and evaluated the genetic architecture of the various dietary fiber components. The dietary fiber components included insoluble and soluble dietary fibers as well as the antinutritional raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs; raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose). All variables measured differed among market classes and entries. Colored bean seeds had higher levels of insoluble dietary fibers with the black market class showing also the highest raffinose and stachyose content. Cultivars and lines released since 1997 had higher insoluble dietary fibers and RFO content in race Durango. Higher levels of RFOs were also observed in cultivars with type II growth habit that was a recent breeding target in Durango race germplasm. Candidate genes for dietary fiber traits, especially homologs to two main genes in the RFO biosynthesis pathway, were identified. The knowledge of diversity of dietary fibers in the MDP accompanied with the identification of candidate genes could effectively improve dietary fiber components in common bean. Copyright © 2018 Crop Science Society of America.

  11. Accumulation of solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble antioxidant phenolics in edible bean sprouts: implication of germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-You Gan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edible bean sprouts are popular fresh vegetables widely recognized for their nutritional quality. However, while their antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble extracts has not been systematically evaluated. Methods: The antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble fractions of 12 cultivars of edible bean sprouts were evaluated, and relationships of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were also analyzed. Results: Sprouts demonstrated a wide range of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, with lower but substantial antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in the solvent-insoluble fractions. Highest levels were found in the green mung bean sprout. Phenolic compounds, such as catechin, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were widely detected in these sprouts. Additionally, a positive correlation was discovered between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in these edible bean sprouts. Conclusions: Germination generally resulted in the accumulation of antioxidant phenolics in the most edible bean sprouts. Edible bean sprouts with high antioxidant phenolics can be valuable natural sources of dietary antioxidants for the prevention of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases.

  12. Fungal hydroquinones contribute to brown rot of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa R. Suzuki; Christopher G. Hunt; Carl J. Houtman; Zachary D. Dalebroux; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2006-01-01

    The fungi that cause brown rot of wood initiate lignocellulose breakdown with an extracellular Fenton system in which Fe2+ and H2O2 react to produce hydroxyl radicals (•OH), which then oxidize and cleave the wood holocellulose. One such fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, drives Fenton chemistry on defined media by reducing Fe3+ and O2 with two extracellular hydroquinones,...

  13. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  14. The presence and survival of soft rot (Erwinia) in flower bulb production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, van, J.; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; Leeuwen, van, P.J.; Dees, R.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot is causing increasing damage in the flower bulb industry. Bulbous ornamentals such as Hyacinthus, Dahlia, Iris, Muscari, Freesia and Zantedeschia can be infected. Soft rot in flower bulbs is mainly caused by Dickeya spp. (Dickeya spp.) and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Pectobacterium carotovorum spp. carotovorum).To identify and detect these soft rot bacterial species in several bulbous ornamentals, standard PCR methods were used. During the last four years, research was dire...

  15. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  16. Navy and black bean supplementation attenuates colitis-associated inflammation and colonic epithelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; Hutchinson, Amber L; Pauls, Peter; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2018-02-27

    The enriched levels of nondigestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds found in common beans can exert immunomodulatory effects within the colon that improve gut health and mitigate the severity of colitis-associated inflammatory pathology. Prior to acute colitis onset, C57Bl/6 mice were prefed isocaloric 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) diets for 3 weeks and switched to control basal diet (BD) 24 h prior to colitis induction via 5-day exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (2% w/v in drinking water)+3 days of fresh water. The severity of the acute colitis phenotype was attenuated by bean prefeeding, evidenced by reduced colon tissue inflammatory transcription factor activation (NFκB, STAT3) and inflammatory mediator levels in the colon (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and MCP-1) and serum (TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β, MCP-1) versus BD (P≤.05). Additionally, biomarkers of enhanced wound repair responses were increased by bean prefeeding including colon tissue protein levels of IL-22, IL-27 and activated (i.e., GTP-bound) Cdc42 and Rac1 versus BD (P≤.05). mRNA expressions of genes involved in normal colonic epithelial function and the promotion of epithelial barrier integrity, defense and/or restitution and wound closure including MUC1, RELMβ, IgA and REG3γ were all increased in NB and BB prefed mice versus BD (P≤.05). Collectively, bean supplementation prior to colitis induction (i.e., mimicking disease relapse) primes the colonic microenvironment to attenuate the severity of the colitis inflammatory phenotype and maintain aspects of epithelial barrier function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya.... SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of French beans... was inspected and found free of quarantine pests. This action will allow for the importation of French...

  18. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  19. Fungi associated with storage rots of cocoyams (Colocasia spp.) in Nsukka, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwuanyi, J O; Obeta, J A

    1996-04-01

    Cocoyam (Colocasia spp.) corms and cormels showing spoilage symptoms were collected from many stores in Nsukka locality and examined for rot and associated fungal pathogens. Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Corticium rolfsii, Geotrichum candidum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. solani were recovered from rotten cocoyams. The representative isolates of these species caused cocoyam rot in pathogenicity tests. The rot due to A. niger, B. theobromae and C. rolfsii was extensive resulting in complete maceration of cocoyam tissue. Potassium sorbate (0.1 mg/ml) protected cocoyams from fungal rot with the exception of C. rolfsii.

  20. Foliar absorption of phosphorus by common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, A.E.; Rosa, J.P.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effet of urea and/or sucrose on P uptake from H 3 PO 4 and monoammonium phosphate by bean leaves. A solution containing 0.145% P and specific activity 10μ Ci/ml is sprayed early in the morning or late afternoon. Besides the treatment without urea and sucrose, these substances are added in two concentrations 0.66% N + sucrose, and 1.32% N + sucrose. Twenty four hous after application, 52% of the applied P is absorved by the bean trifoliate leaf. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. Development of biocontrol agents from food microbial isolates for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Schneider, Karin E; Li, Xiu-Zhen

    2008-08-15

    An unconventional strategy of screening food microbes for biocontrol activity was used to develop biocontrol agents for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Forty-four microbial isolates were first screened for their biocontrol activity on apple fruit. Compared with the pathogen-only check, seven of the 44 isolates reduced brown rot incidence by >50%, including four bacteria: Bacillus sp. C06, Lactobacillus sp. C03-b and Bacillus sp. T03-c, Lactobacillus sp. P02 and three yeasts: Saccharomyces delbrueckii A50, S. cerevisiae YE-5 and S. cerevisiae A41. Eight microbial isolates were selected for testing on peaches by wound co-inoculation with mixtures of individual microbial cultures and conidial suspension of M. fructicola. Only two of them showed significant biocontrol activity after five days of incubation at 22 degrees C. Bacillus sp. C06 suppressed brown rot incidence by 92% and reduced lesion diameter by 88% compared to the pathogen-only check. Bacillus sp.T03-c reduced incidence and lesion diameter by 40% and 62%, respectively. The two isolates were compared with Pseudomonas syringae MA-4, a biocontrol agent for post-harvest peach diseases, by immersing peaches in an aliquot containing individual microbial isolates and the pathogen conidia. Treatments with isolates MA-4, C06 and T03-c significantly controlled brown rot by 91, 100, and 100% respectively. However, only isolates MA-4 and C06 significantly reduced brown rot by 80% and 15%, respectively when bacterial cells alone were applied. On naturally infected peaches, both the bacterial culture and its cell-free filtrate of the isolate C06 significantly controlled peach decay resulting in 77 and 90% reduction, respectively, whereas the treatment using only the bacterial cells generally had no effect. Isolate C06 is a single colony isolate obtained from a mesophilic cheese starter, and has been identified belonging to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results have clearly

  2. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are plant metabolites with potent anti-oxidant properties, which help to reduce the effects of oxidative stress-induced dreaded diseases. The evidence demonstrated that dietary polyphenols are of emerging increasing scientific interest due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a greater source of polyphenolic compounds with numerous health promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich dry common beans have potential effects on human health, and possess anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Based on the studies, the current comprehensive review aims to provide up-to-date information on the nutritional compositions and health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich common beans, which help to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. Investigation of common beans and their impacts on human health were obtained from various library databases and electronic searches (Science Direct PubMed, and Google Scholar). PMID:29113066

  3. Diallel analysis to choose parents for black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, L M; Carneiro, P C S; Vale, N M; Barili, L D; Silva, L C; Carneiro, J E S; Cruz, C D

    2016-08-29

    In this study, conducted in two different seasons, we aimed to choose parents to obtain promising segregating populations for the extraction of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines that are superior in terms of disease resistance, plant architecture, and grain yield. Twelve parents were arranged in two groups to compose a partial diallel in a 5 x 7 scheme. Group 1 was composed of parents with black grains and erect plant architecture, while group 2 was composed of parents that had carioca grains and were resistant to the main fungal diseases that occur in the common bean. The following traits were evaluated: severity of angular leaf spot (ALS), plant architecture (PAG), and grain yield (YIELD). The data were analyzed according to a partial diallel model using parents and F 1 hybrids. In the genetic control of ALS and PAG, additive effects were predominant, while for YIELD, additive effects were predominant in one season and dominance effects were in another season, because it is a more complex trait than ALS and PAG. For YIELD, we observed an interaction between general combining ability and specific combining ability between seasons. The genes that control ALS, PAG, and YIELD were in eight of the 12 parents evaluated in the diallel. The cultivar 'BRS Estilo' is suitable to use as a parent in common bean breeding in terms of ALS, PAG and YIELD. Recurrent selection is the most recommended option for simultaneously breeding for PAG, YIELD, and resistance to angular leaf spot in bean culture.

  4. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar; Xu, Baojun

    2017-11-04

    Polyphenols are plant metabolites with potent anti-oxidant properties, which help to reduce the effects of oxidative stress-induced dreaded diseases. The evidence demonstrated that dietary polyphenols are of emerging increasing scientific interest due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a greater source of polyphenolic compounds with numerous health promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich dry common beans have potential effects on human health, and possess anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Based on the studies, the current comprehensive review aims to provide up-to-date information on the nutritional compositions and health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich common beans, which help to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. Investigation of common beans and their impacts on human health were obtained from various library databases and electronic searches (Science Direct PubMed, and Google Scholar).

  5. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease.

  6. Integrated Management of Causal Agents of Postharvest Fruit Rot of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Grahovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of poor quality and fruit loss (during storage and transportare diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Economic losses which are the consequenceof the phytopathogenic fungus activity after harvest exceed the losses in the field.Themost important postharvest fungal pathogens of apple fruits are: Botrytis cinerea Pers. exFr., Penicillium expansum (Lk. Thom., Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck. Grem., Colletotrichumgloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., Monilinia sp., Gloeosporium album Osterw, Alternaria alternata(Fr. Keissler, Cladosporium herbarium Link., Cylindrocarpon mali (Alles. Wollenw., Stemphyliumbotryosum Wallr. The use of available protection technologies can significantly reducelosses caused by pathogens in storage. The concept of integrated pest management (IPMin apple fruits i.e. sustainable approach in control of causal agents of postharvest fruit rot,using cultural, physical, biological and chemical measures, to minimize economic, healthand risks to consumers and environment, is presented in the paper.

  7. Control of Fusarium verticillioides, cause of ear rot of maize, by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Shankar, Akarere C. Udaya; Reddy, Munagala S.

    2009-01-01

    and the formulations, in comparison with the control, increased plant growth and vigour as measured by seed germination, seedling vigour, plant height, 1000 seed weight and yield. P. fluorescens pure culture used as seed treatment and as spray treatment enhanced the growth parameters and reduced the incidence of F...... elicited considerable attention over the past decade owing to their association with animal disease syndromes. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate ecofriendly approaches by using a maize rhizosphere isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Trev.) Mig. and its formulation to control ear rot....... The field trials included both seed treatment and foliar spray. For all the experiments, P. fluorescens was formulated using corn starch, wheat bran and talc powder. In each case there were three different treatments of P. fluorescens, a non-treated control and chemical control. RESULTS: Pure culture...

  8. Sunflower inbred lines screening for tolerance to white rot on stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedić Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy sunflower (Helianthus annuus L inbred lines were screened for tolerance to white rot on stalk. Plants were inoculated at the budding stage with 4-day old Sclerotinia mycelium grown on PDA medium. Mycelium was placed on the leaf top and covered with tin foil, and the leaf was put into transparent nylon bag in order to maintain high humidity. Spot length on leaf was measured and plant tolerance was determined at the full flowering stage. Obtained results were analyzed by analysis of variance. Tested lines showed significant variability in response to disease. Eleven lines had lesion length less than 50% compared to susceptible control, so they could be considered tolerant and potentially interesting for breeding program.

  9. The history of research on oil palm bud rot (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Benítez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the main results obtained from research on oil palm bud rot. Aetiologic studies with biotic and abiotic approaches were explored, aiming for a model that would help in the understanding of the ethology of this disease. It also discusses how the results of the studies are contradictory and how the arguments for biological causes have not shown progress. Furthermore, the results of measuring the influence of abiotic factors, where there is greater consensus, are discussed; however, there is controversy due to the fact that different researchers placed different weight on the final model of this disease. This situation has led to controls being directed toward potential pathogens associated with the disease, as determined by circumstantial evidence, wherein the positive or negative response to the control may be confused with extrinsic factors such as disease escape or foci formation. Even the role played by the insect Rhynchophorus palmarum (L. in the death of palms affected by this disease is in doubt. Finally, this paper shows how the process of general disease research has important biases arising from the risk aversion of palm producers or the lack of continuity in results obtained by different research groups.

  10. Host Resistance and Chemical Control for Management of Sclerotinia Stem Rot of Soybean in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzar-Novakowiski, Jaqueline; Paul, Pierce A; Dorrance, Anne E

    2017-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) of soybean in Ohio, along with new fungicides and cultivars with resistance to this disease, have led to a renewed interest in studies to update disease management guidelines. The effect of host resistance (in moderately resistant [MR] and moderately susceptible [MS] cultivars) and chemical control on SSR and yield was evaluated in 12 environments from 2014 to 2016. The chemical treatments evaluated were an untreated check, four fungicides (boscalid, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and thiophanate-methyl), and one herbicide (lactofen) applied at soybean growth stage R1 (early flowering) alone or at R1 followed by a second application at R2 (full flowering). SSR developed in 6 of 12 environments, with mean disease incidence in the untreated check of 2.5 to 41%. The three environments with high levels of SSR (disease incidence in the untreated check >20%) were used for further statistical analysis. There were significant effects (P soybean cultivar and chemical treatment on SSR levels. Significantly lower levels of SSR were observed in MR cultivars. Both boscalid and lactofen reduced SSR but did not increase yield. Pyraclostrobin increased SSR compared with the untreated check in the three environments with high levels of disease. In the six fields where SSR did not develop, chemical treatment did not increase yield, nor was the yield from the MR cultivar significantly different from the MS cultivar. For Ohio, MR cultivars alone were effective for management of SSR in soybean fields where this disease has historically occurred.

  11. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosano Edmilson José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (15N released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea, velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground parts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean, and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experiment al period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox.

  12. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose [Estacao Experimental de Agronomia de Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Centro de Acao Regional; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Cantarella, Heitor [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil). Centro de Solos e Recursos Agroambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social e Bioestatistica

    2003-03-01

    Nitrogen ({sup 15}N) released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea), velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha{sup -1} of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground arts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha{sup -1} of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf) and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean), and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with {sup 15}N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experimental period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox. (author)

  13. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Laras Cempaka; Lienda Aliwarga; Susanto Purwo

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fer...

  14. Gene/QTL discovery for Anthracnose in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from North-western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neeraj; Bawa, Vanya; Paliwal, Rajneesh; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Mohd Ashraf; Mir, Javid Iqbal; Gupta, Moni; Sofi, Parvaze A; Thudi, Mahendar; Varshney, Rajeev K; Mir, Reyazul Rouf

    2018-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important grain legume crops in the world. The beans grown in north-western Himalayas possess huge diversity for seed color, shape and size but are mostly susceptible to Anthracnose disease caused by seed born fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Dozens of QTLs/genes have been already identified for this disease in common bean world-wide. However, this is the first report of gene/QTL discovery for Anthracnose using bean germplasm from north-western Himalayas of state Jammu & Kashmir, India. A core set of 96 bean lines comprising 54 indigenous local landraces from 11 hot-spots and 42 exotic lines from 10 different countries were phenotyped at two locations (SKUAST-Jammu and Bhaderwah, Jammu) for Anthracnose resistance. The core set was also genotyped with genome-wide (91) random and trait linked SSR markers. The study of marker-trait associations (MTAs) led to the identification of 10 QTLs/genes for Anthracnose resistance. Among the 10 QTLs/genes identified, two MTAs are stable (BM45 & BM211), two MTAs (PVctt1 & BM211) are major explaining more than 20% phenotypic variation for Anthracnose and one MTA (BM211) is both stable and major. Six (06) genomic regions are reported for the first time, while as four (04) genomic regions validated the already known QTL/gene regions/clusters for Anthracnose. The major, stable and validated markers reported during the present study associated with Anthracnose resistance will prove useful in common bean molecular breeding programs aimed at enhancing Anthracnose resistance of local bean landraces grown in north-western Himalayas of state Jammu and Kashmir.

  15. The Crop Load Affects Brown Rot Progression in Fruit Orchards: High Fruit Densities Facilitate Fruit Exposure to Spores but Reduce the Infection Rate by Decreasing Fruit Growth and Cuticle Cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bellingeri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot, triggered by Monilinia spp., causes significant economic losses in fruit crop and it is mainly controlled by chemicals with inherent environmental costs. Controlling brown rot spreading by diminishing fruit susceptibility to the disease, via sustainable cultural practices, is a promising approach. In a 2 years experiment (2014–2015 on a peach (Prunus persica orchard, we controlled fruit growth rates by varying the fruit load. Fruit thinning practices enhanced the fruit growth and laboratory analyses showed that, in both 2014 and 2015 samples, fast growing fruits were more susceptible to infection when in contact with conidia suspension of Monilinia laxa. In the field, brown rot infection took place in 2014 and not in 2015. In 2014, trees subject to moderate thinning intensities had the highest brown rot incidence. We argue that this is due to the fact that, for null thinning, slow growing fruits are less susceptible to the infection while, for intense thinning, even if faster growing fruits are more susceptible to infection, the lower fruits density reduces per-contact probability of infection. We compared meteorological data of 2014 and 2015 and we argue that brown rot did not spread in 2015 due to an absence of favorable conditions, summarized as the number of rainy days with mean temperature between 22 and 26°C, in the period of fruit susceptibility.

  16. Breeding common bean populations for traits using selection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A common bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL. cultivar must combine desirable genotypes for several traits in order to be accepted by producers and consumers. This study aimed to evaluate selection efficiency when segregating bean populations for traits, by means of a selection index, in order to obtain superior progenies for traits considered. A total of 16 populations from the F4 and F5generations were evaluated in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, plant disease, grain type and yield. Using standard scores (Z, the sum of the four traits (∑Z was obtained and, based on this information, the best populations were identified. The evaluation of selection effectiveness was performed on 31 progenies from each population. The 496 progenies plus eight controls were evaluated in the F5:6and F5:7 generations for the same traits in July and November 2012, respectively. The selection, using the index based on the sum of standardized variables (∑Z, was efficient for identifying populations with superior progenies for all the traits considered.

  17. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the beans, peas and broad beans from domestic market, 1999-2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałdyga, Barbara; Zbigniew, Borejszo; Wieczorek, Jolanta; Dymkowska-Malesa, Maria; Smoczyńtski, Stefan S

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of bean, peas and broad bean, purchased from local seed production plants in the provinces of Mazowieckie and Kujawsko-Pomorskie in the years 1999-2002, were determined for the contents of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons were extracted from the seeds with a hexane-acetone mixture by means of sonification. The obtained extracts were then purified in a silica gel column. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were identified and determined quantitatively with liquid chromatography using a fluorescent detector. The presence (in different concentrations) of PAH was reported in the majority of seeds of the bean, peas and broad bean varieties examined, which indicates that they may be ingested with food and bioaccumulated in the human organism. A considerably higher content of SPAH was observed in the seeds of broad bean, compared to those of bean and peas. The highest SPAH determined reached 2 x 10(2) microg/kg of product. The obtained results were comparable with those reported by other authors for vegetables originating from non-industrial areas. It is worth emphasising that all the seeds examined revealed the presence of PAH with carcinogenic properties.

  18. COMPARATCVE CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LOCUST BEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    11g. J. B io1cchn. 15 ( 1) 42- 4 7. 42. COMPARATCVE CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LOCUST BEAN. (Parkia biglobosa) FRUIT PULP HARVESTED DURING THE DRY. AND WET SEA ON . *M. . Nadro and H. A. Umaru. Department of Biochemistry. Federal University of Technology. P. M. B. 2076, Yola. Adamawa State.

  19. Epidemiology of bean rust in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habtu, A.

    1994-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the epidemiology of rust ( Uromyces appendiculatus ) on beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Ethiopia. The experiments were conducted under low input conditions reflecting

  20. Wild beans (Phaseolus L.) of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild relatives of the five domesticated species of bean (Phaseolus L.) are widely distributed across the tropics and subtropics of the New World, with taxa extending to the Canadian border, the Caribbean islands and Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands, and south to Argentina. Mesoamerica holds the la...