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Sample records for bean plant

  1. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

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    Władysław Błaszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing primary leaves and the age-dependent resistance to infection increased faster in plants of the cv. 'Złota Saxa'. Both cultivars of bean showed also age-dependent resistance to infection by BYMV. All these viruses restricted growth and yield of plants. The decreases were greater when younger plants were inoculated. These dependences appeared most distinctly in pea cv. 'Sześciotygodniowy' infected with CMV and in two cultivars of bean infected with BYMV.

  2. Relative planting times on the production components in sesame/cowpea bean intercropping in organic system

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    Afrânio César de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at better land use, small farmers usually plant sesame and cowpea bean intercropped with other crops. The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the influence of four relative planting times of the cowpea bean in intercropping with sesame from the standpoint of their production components, plant productivity and the index of land equivalent ratio (LER. The field experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the sesame and the cowpea bean in intercropping with the cowpea bean planted at the same time, 7, 14 and 21days after than the sesame. A greater part of the production components of both the sesame as well the cowpea bean was affected by the intercropping and significant differences were noted among the treatments in a larger part of the parameters. As the planting of the cowpea bean became more distant from that of the sesame, the yield of the Pedaliaceae increased and the yield of the Fabaceae decreased. The results for LER findings on the other hand suggest that in the sesame/cowpea bean intercropping, when the Fabaceae is planted seven days after the sesame, there is better use of the land and a largest possibility to the producer earning a profit.

  3. Reduction of viral load in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gen.) feeding on RNAi-mediated bean golden mosaic virus resistant transgenic bean plants.

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    de Paula, Nayhanne T; de Faria, Josias C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-12-02

    The RNAi concept was explored to silence the rep gene from the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) and a genetically modified (GM) bean immune to the virus was previously generated. We investigated if BGMV-viruliferous whiteflies would reduce viral amount after feeding on GM plants. BGMV DNA amount was significantly reduced in whiteflies feeding in GM-plants (compared with insects feeding on non-GM plants) for a period of 4 and 8 days in 52% and 84% respectively.

  4. Control of angular leaf spot on dry beans with fungicides and its effect on plant production

    OpenAIRE

    Deman, Luis Alfredo Raue; Maringoni, Antonio Carlos [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    The angular leaf spot of dry bean caused by the fungus Phaeoisairopsis griseola is a very important disease on dry bean crops in Brazil. In propitious weather conditions, susceptible cultivars have significant losses due to this disease. In these conditions, fungicide usage is an important step for angular leaf spot management. Since the effects of this method of control on plant physiology are not known, this study had the following objectives: a) Verify the action of fungicide in physiologi...

  5. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

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    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  6. Oviposition choice of Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis) depends on host plants cyanogenic capacity.

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    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Lieberei, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    The choice of insect females as to where to lay their eggs strongly affects progeny survival and, thus, fitness. We conducted choice experiments with female Mexican bean beetles, which were offered lima bean plants differing in their cyanogenic capacity (HCNc), i.e., in the intensity of hydrogen cyanide release per time unit from damaged plant tissue. Females preferred to lay their eggs on plants with low HCNc. In contrast, the mere concentration of cyanide-containing precursors (the cyanogenic potential, HCNp) did not affect oviposition choices. Plant cyanogenesis occurs after tissue damage, which brings specific beta-glucosidases in contact with their substrates, cyanogenic glycosides, from which they are separated by compartmentation in the intact plant tissue. Plants commonly store toxic compounds in an inactive form. Our results demonstrate that for cyanogenesis, which is widespread in plants, it is the toxic product itself rather than the precursor that affects oviposition choices of a specialized herbivore.

  7. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

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    Cortés, Andrés J; Monserrate, Fredy A; Ramírez-Villegas, Julián; Madriñán, Santiago; Blair, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  8. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Andrés J Cortés

    Full Text Available Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  9. Uniformity of liquid distribution in the canopy of the bean plant, using the spectrophotometric analysis

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    Murilo Mesquita Baesso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diseases are important factors limiting common bean yield. White mold is one of the main diseases caused by soil pathogens. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of a fungicide solution sprayed into the canopy of bean plants by spectrophotometry, using a boom sprayer with and without air assistance. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial (two types of nozzles, two application rates, and air assistance on and off randomized block design with four replications. Air assistance influenced the deposition of solution on the bean plant and yield increased significantly with the increased rate of application and air assistance in the boom sprayer.

  10. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon). The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass prov...

  11. Plant growth with new fluorescent lamps : II. Growth and reproduction of mature bean plants and dwarf marigold plants.

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    Thomas, A S; Dunn, S

    1966-06-01

    Bean and marigold plants were grown to maturity under several kinds of fluorescent lamps to evaluate the effects of spectral differences on development and reproduction. Six kinds of lamps were tested including five lamps that were used in closely related experiments on tomato seedling growth (THOMAS and DUNN, 1967). Evaluation was by fresh- and dry-weight yields of immature and mature pods, and of vegetative tops of plants for bean; and by flowering and fresh-and dry-weight yields for marigold.Bean plants grown under two experimental lamps, Com I and IR III produced significantly higher fresh- and dry-weight yields of both mature and total pods than under Warm-white lamps. This effect could be attributed largely to the considerable energy emitted by the experimental lamps in the red and far-red, as compared to a larger emission in the green and blue for the Warm-white lamps. The differences in the yields for immature pods and vegetative portions of the mature tops were not significant.In a comparison of the effects of three experimental lamps with those of three commercial lamps on growth response of bean plants, the yields were in general higher for the experimental lamps, except for immature pods. The yields of vegetative tops were significantly greater for the 78/22 lamp over the yields for all other lamps. The larger proportion of red and far-red light emitted by the experimental lamps is again the probable cause of the higher yields with these lamps.Two sets of experiments on growth and flowering of marigold under various experimental and commercial lamps were largely inconclusive although there was some indication of beneficial effects by the experimental lamps.In general, the results with bean agree with those for tomato (THOMAS and DUNN, 1967), in that best growth was obtained with a lamp high in red light emission, a moderate amount in the far-red, and very little in the blue part of the spectrum.

  12. BRSMG Uai: common bean cultivar with carioca grain type and upright plant architecture

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    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bean cultivar with carioca grain type, BRSMG Uai, is recommended for cultivation in Minas Gerais and stands out for its upright plant architecture, which facilitates cultivation and mechanical harvesting. This cultivar has high yield potential and is resistant to the major races of anthracnose that occur in region.

  13. Population Dynamics of Bean Leaf Beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on Edamame Soybean Plants In Nebraska

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    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Edamame soybeans are a speciality food item for fresh and processed markets and they are harvested at a physiologically immature (R6 stage. Bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, is a sporadic pest of soybean in Nebraska, however, its pest status and abundance has increased in the recent years due to an increase in soybean acreage. This was a field experiment aimed at determining the population growth rate of bean leaf beetle on two edamame soybean cultivars, ‘Butterbeans’ and ‘Envy,’ at two planting dates during 2004 and 2005 in Nebraska. The population growth of beetles was significantly higher on 'Butterbeans' than on 'Envy' for both the first and second planting periods in both 2004 and 2005 seasons. The beetle infestation differences were noticed on plants at the late reproductive growth stages, R5 and R6. Additionally, the beetle infestation on 'Butterbeans' growth stages in 2004 and 2005 was significantly different for the first and second planting dates. On average, the beetles were higher on plants at the late reproductive stages than the other stages for first and second planting periods. Similarly, ‘Envy’ growth stages showed significant difference in beetle infestation during the first and second planting dates. Significantly high beetle infestations were observed at the vegetative growth stages. The study revealed that population growth of bean leaf beetles on edamame soybeans is affected by the planting date, season and cultivar choice.

  14. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

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    Nozomi Satoh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  15. Apple latent spherical virus vector as vaccine for the prevention and treatment of mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants by bean yellow mosaic virus.

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    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-07

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  16. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on water stress in bean plants

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    Starkey, T.E.; Davis, D.D.; Pell, E.J.; Merrill, W.

    1981-08-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cvs. Provider and Stringless Black Valentine) were exposed to 395 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant potential of PAN-sensitive Provider resulting in visible wilting and reduced soil moisture content. There was no effect of PAN on the water relations of the PAN-tolerant Stringless Black Valentine.

  17. Fate of allelopathic substances in space--allelopathy of velvet bean plant and gravity.

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    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Teruko; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    Interactions between organisms and species have been long known. It has not been known that the interactive phenomena (allelopathy) may (or may not) differ in space from those on earth. We have studied the gravitational effects on allelopathy by exposing a plant-plant system to pseudo-microgravity, which was generated by a 3D-clinostat. We hypothesized that allelopathy would be modified under altered gravity. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is known to be the major substance in the allelopathy of velvet bean, released from its root. It has been found that there have been some differences of the allelopathic action of velvet bean plant under pseudo-microgravity. Biosynthesis, release, transport and sensing mechanism associated with allelopathy might be affected by gravity.

  18. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid

    2016-06-17

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  19. Green bean biofortification for Si through soilless cultivation: plant response and Si bioaccessibility in pods.

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    Montesano, Francesco Fabiano; D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Parente, Angelo; Cardinali, Angela; Renna, Massimiliano; Serio, Francesco

    2016-08-17

    Food plants biofortification for micronutrients is a tool for the nutritional value improvement of food. Soilless cultivation systems, with the optimal control of plant nutrition, represent a potential effective technique to increase the beneficial element content in plant tissues. Silicon (Si), which proper intake is recently recommended for its beneficial effects on bone health, presents good absorption in intestinal tract from green bean, a high-value vegetable crop. In this study we aimed to obtain Si biofortified green bean pods by using a Si-enriched nutrient solution in soilless system conditions, and to assess the influence of boiling and steaming cooking methods on Si content, color parameters and Si bioaccessibility (by using an in vitro digestion process) of pods. The Si concentration of pods was almost tripled as a result of the biofortification process, while the overall crop performance was not negatively influenced. The Si content of biofortified pods was higher than unbiofortified also after cooking, despite the cooking method used. Silicon bioaccessibility in cooked pods was more than tripled as a result of biofortification, while the process did not affect the visual quality of the product. Our results demonstrated that soilless cultivation can be successfully used for green bean Si biofortification.

  20. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha(-1)), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m(-1)). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha(-1) resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  1. NOTE - Minimum number of common bean plants per plot to assess field resistance to white mold

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    uliana Andrade Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the minimum number of plants per plot to assess the field resistance in common beanto white mold. Thirteen cultivars were inoculated with six isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and evaluated in a randomized blockdesign with three replications and plots consisting of 1-m rows with 15 plants. Plants were inoculated by the straw test as proposedby Petzoldt and Dickson (1996, to evaluate partial resistance in a greenhouse. Eight days after inoculation the disease severity wasevaluated on a 1-9 diagrammatic scale, where 1 = asymptomatic plants to 9 = plant death. To determine the minimum number ofplants per plot, the following methods were used: maximum curvature, segmented linear model, quadratic segmented model and therelative CV model. There were significant differences among cultivars and isolates and no significant cultivar - isolate interaction.It was observed that eight plants per plot is an adequate number to assess the reaction of common bean to white mold.

  2. Planting geometry to optimize growth and productivity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and soil fertility.

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    Singh, A K; Bhatt, B P; Sundaram, P K; Gupta, A K; Singh, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) responses to alteration of its ambient environment leads to certain modification in the crop phenology, yield attributes and economic yield. To know the extent and pattern of response by faba bean to alterations, a two year field experimentation was carried out with two crop establishment methods (i) flatbed planting (ii) raised bed planting, four planting geometry (i) 30 x 20 cm(ii) 30 x 30 cm (iii) 30 x 45 cm and (iv) 45X45cm and three seeding depth. All the treatment (two crop establishment methods, four planting geometry and three seeding depth) were combined together consisting twenty four treatments, were organized in factorial experiment in complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Data were recorded on growth and development; yield attributes and yield. Soil analysis was done and finally statistical tool were applied to come in to valid conclusion. Raised bed planting proves superior over flatbed in case of seed yield. Square planting architect with 30 cm apart prove better (3690.9 kg ha(-1)) than other tested planting geometry. Seeding at 10 cm depth showed, significant improvement in seed yield per plant and per ha over other two tested seeding depth. Phosphorus availability was significantly higher in raised bed planting (36.9 kg ha(-1)). However, available K (kg ha(-1)) was significantly influenced by planting geometry and seeding depth. It was maximum (155.2 kg ha(-1)) with 30 x 45 cm plant geometry, proved significantly higher than 30 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm and at par with 45 x 45 cm planting.

  3. Growth of castor bean plant under different types of wastewaters and soil water levels

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    Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of different levels of water into the soil and types of treated wastewaters from industries of Campina Grande city, Paraíba state, on the growth of castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the National Center of Research of Cotton. The experimental design was in entirely randomized blocks with 15 treatments in scheme of additional factorial analysis [(4 x 3 + 3] with three replications, having the following factors: three types of treated wastewaters and water of provisioning (A1 = IPELSA - Industry of Cellulose and Paper of Paraíba S/A; A2 = COTEMINAS - Industry of improvement of cotton fiber S/A; A3 = ILCASA - Industry of dairy products of Grande S/A (LEBOM; A4 = Water of the network of public provisioning of Campina Grande city, three levels of available soil water (AW (N1 = 100%, N2 = 80% and N3 = 70% and three controls, one for each AW with water of provisioning and with inorganic fertilizer in the foundation (A4C. In order to evaluate the growth of the castor bean plant during a period of 135 days, biweekly measures of the plant height, diameter of the stem and total foliar area variables were accomplished. For all growth variables there were significant interactions among the studied factors, denoting the interdependence among them, what was reflected on the growth of the plants. The castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina, responded well to irrigation with treated wastewater, especially from COTEMINAS industry mainly when associated to the level of 100% of the available soil water.

  4. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

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    Wipawadee Chamnan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon. The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass provided the highest effectiveness tocontrol aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch. Control of A. craccivora was not significantly different between the synthetic insecticide and plant crude extracts, except methamidophos. Pod damage caused by pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer and yields were also not significantly different among treatments. However, the highest yield of 1,224.7 kg/rai was recorded in plots treated with neem seed extracts and the synthetic insecticide, carbosulfan. In untreated plots, the lowest yield of 587.3 kg/rai was collected.

  5. Growth under UV-B radiation increases tolerance to high-light stress in pea and bean plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolink, EM; van Schalkwijk, [No Value; Posthumus, F; van Hasselt, PR

    2001-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were exposed to enhanced levels of UV-B radiation in a growth chamber. Leaf discs of UV-B treated and control plants were exposed to high-light (HL) stress (PAR: 1200 mu mol m(-2) s(-1)) to study whether pre-treatment with UV-B affected

  6. The Effect of Weeds Interference Time and Plant Density on Weeds Control and Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Yield

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    M Dabaghzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Broad bean (Vicia faba L. belongs to the Fabaceae family and is the most important protein plant in the world. Although broad bean used as cover crop is able to deal with weeds, but the evidence show that yield of the plant decreased 32-82% because of competition with weeds. Using crop density is one of the ecological approaches in weed management. Broad bean density can produce biomass, weed competition, seed yield and ultimately influence the economic yield. Many reports show that increasing crop density reduced negative effects of weeds. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of weeds interference and different densities of broad bean on density and biomass of weeds and broad bean seed yield. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out as split plot in randomized complete block, with four replications, during 2009-2010 in a field experiment at Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, Ahwaz. Weeds interference was investigated on 5 levels, including V5, V9, V13 broad-bean phonological stages, full season weeding and full season weeds interference selected as main plots, and broad-bean density on 3 levels: including 8, 11 and 14 plants m-2 as subplots. Density, dry weight and diversity of weeds and seed yield of broad bean were evaluated. Results and Discussion The results showed that the weeds including wild beet, field bindweed and mallow had the highest occurrence (26.35, 21.17 and 18.46 plants m-2 respectively in V9 broad-bean phonological stage, where the peak abundance of weeds was observed. The frequency of mallow, clover and yellow alfalfa were high until V5 broad-bean phonological stage, but in the next stages, they were replaced by other weeds and sorrel. It was also observed that the environmental factors can affect composition of weeds, for example, as the temperature increased in the early spring, an increase in the density of field bindweed was recorded. In the treatment of 8 plants

  7. Climate and host plant availability impact the future distribution of the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzitis, Emily A; Minigan, Jordan N; Hallett, Rebecca H; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-09-01

    The bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, has become a major pest of soybean throughout its North American range. With a changing climate, there is the potential for this pest to further expand its distribution and become an increasingly severe pest in certain regions. To examine this possibility, we developed bioclimatic envelope models for both the bean leaf beetle, and its most important agronomic host plant, soybean (Glycine max). These two models were combined to examine the potential future pest status of the beetle using climate change projections from multiple general circulation models (GCMs) and climate change scenarios. Despite the broad tolerances of soybean, incorporation of host plant availability substantially decreased the suitable and favourable areas for the bean leaf beetle as compared to an evaluation based solely on the climate envelope of the beetle, demonstrating the importance of incorporating biotic interactions in these predictions. The use of multiple GCM-scenario combinations also revealed differences in predictions depending on the choice of GCM, with scenario choice having less of an impact. While the Norwegian model predicted little northward expansion of the beetle from its current northern range limit of southern Ontario and overall decreases in suitable and favourable areas over time, the Canadian and Russian models predict that much of Ontario and Quebec will become suitable for the beetle in the future, as well as Manitoba under the Russian model. The Russian model also predicts expansion of the suitable and favourable areas for the beetle over time. Two predictions that do not depend on our choice of GCM include a decrease in suitability of the Mississippi Delta region and continued favourability of the southeastern United States.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-CHEMICAL METHODS OF PLANT PROTECTION ON THE PRESENCE OF HERBIVOROUS BEETLES IN BROAD BEANS GROWING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of accompanying plants: sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima L.) and white mustard (Synapis alba L.), on the incidence of pests of the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) variety Bartek, in the intercropping system. The observations of the number of the beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp were made. The broad bean was grown along with two other plants in varying spacing (the distances between rows were 50, 65 and 80 cm) and in homogeneous cult...

  9. Accumulation of arsenic and nutrients by castor bean plants grown on an As-enriched nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, E E C; Costa, E T S; Guilherme, L R G; Faquin, V; Nascimento, C W A

    2009-08-30

    Phytoextraction is a remediation technique that consists in using plants to remove contaminants from soils and water. This study evaluated arsenic (As) accumulation in Castor bean (Ricinus communis cv. Guarany) grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its phytoextraction ability. Castor bean plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution amended with increasing doses of As (0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 5000 microg L(-1)) in a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot and roots dry matter production as well as arsenic and nutrient tissue concentrations were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that increasing As concentration in nutrient solution caused a decrease in shoot and root biomass but did not result in severe toxicity symptoms in castor bean growing under a range of As concentration from 0 to 5000 microg L(-1). The As doses tested did not affect the accumulation of nutrients by castor bean. Although castor bean did not pose characteristics of a plant suitable for commercial phytoextraction, it could be useful for revegetation of As-contaminated areas while providing an additional income by oil production.

  10. COMBINED EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Gaurav Bhushan Jaspal Singh *, Sudhir K. Upadhyay and A.P. Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, screened PGPR and Fungi were influence the growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata plant in the pot. Two rhizobacteria viz. Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas putida and three fungi Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated and purified. The effect of inoculation of different strains of bacteria and fungus on growth responses of Vigna radiata under pot condition was enumerated. The result revealed that the single and dual inoculation of these microbial strains enhances the plant growth in terms of root and shoot length and dry-biomass. The maximum increase in root length (up to 86.57%, shoot length (up to 56.91%, root dry weight (up to 94.42%, and shoot dry weight (up to 56.09% was observed in response to dual inoculation of Pseudomonas putida with Trichoderma viride compared to uninoculated control.

  11. How does Phytoseiulus Persimilis find its prey when foraging within a bean plant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zemek, R.; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Ru°z¿ic¿kova´, S

    of laboratory experiments were carried out. In the first series we studied searching behavior of P. persimilis females on young bean plants in which a single leaf was infested with spider mites. The effect of spider mite colony location on the walking pattern of predatory mites while on a leaf was studied...... was on the leaf surface since it was attracted to the spider mite patch, at least over a distance of 1 cm. These results thus demonstrate that herbivore-induced volatiles can be utilized by P. persimilis during search for prey also under conditions that mimic natural situations better than an olfactometer does.......The role of herbivore-induced volatile substances in prey-finding by phytoseiid mites has been repeatedly documented using an olfactometer. The objective of the present paper is to test the hypothesis that movement by Phytoseiulus persimilis is affected by these volatiles even on plants. Two series...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-CHEMICAL METHODS OF PLANT PROTECTION ON THE PRESENCE OF HERBIVOROUS BEETLES IN BROAD BEANS GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the impact of accompanying plants: sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima L. and white mustard (Synapis alba L., on the incidence of pests of the broad bean (Vicia faba L. variety Bartek, in the intercropping system. The observations of the number of the beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp were made. The broad bean was grown along with two other plants in varying spacing (the distances between rows were 50, 65 and 80 cm and in homogeneous cultivation (the distances between rows were 50 cm. Broad bean in a homogeneous cultivation served as a control. In addition, the broad bean from homogeneous cultivation subjected to a standard protection by chemical insecticides was also analyzed. The measurements were carried out in field conditions, by using an entomological bucket, through the shedding of insects from randomly selected 30 plants per plot. The sweet alyssum as an accompanying plant showed no significant influence on the occurrence of herbivorous beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp., regardless of the spacing between the rows. The white mustard as a companion plant showed a significant impact on increasing the number of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. beetles in the middle row spacing (65 cm. The impact of white mustard on other beetles has not been detected.

  13. Response of French Bean Cultivars to Plant Spacing Under Agroclimatic Condition of Baffa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed Ahmed; Muhammad Razaq; Hasnain Alam; and Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out at Mansehra during cropping season of 2013. There were three French bean cultivars and four different plant spacings. The experiment was laid out on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different cultivars, plant spacings and their interactions significantly influenced all the parameters studied. Maximum days to flowering (59.33) and seed maturity (97.66) were recorded in cultivar Komal Green grown at 15 cm spacing, while, maximum 100-grain weight (42.20 g) was noted in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 60 cm spacing. However, maximum fresh pod yield• plant-1 (109.67 g), number of seed• pod-1 (7.99) and seed yield• hm-2 (1 437.3 kg) were recorded in cultivar Paulista grown at spacing of 45 cm. Whereas, maximum plant height (40.50 cm) was noticed in cultivar Paulista grown at 15 cm plant spacing. While, the least number of days to flowering (50.33) and to seed maturity (85.66) were taken by cultivar Paulista grown at 60 cm plant spacing. Likewise, minimum seed yield (311.9 kg• hm-2) was recorded in plants of cultivar Komal Green spaced at 60 cm plant spacing. While, minimum fresh pod weight• plant-1 (67.00 g) and number of seed• pod-1 (4.66) were attained in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 15 cm plant spacing. Whereas, minimum plant height (27.59 cm) and 100-grain weight (15.60 g) were recorded for cultivar Komal Green grown at 45 and 15 cm, respectively.

  14. Uromyces appendiculatus infection in BTH-treated bean plants: ultrastructural details of a lost fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffi, Dario; Iriti, Marcello; Pigni, Massimo; Vannini, Candida; Faoro, Franco

    2011-03-01

    The mechanisms of BTH [benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester]-induced resistance against bean rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus have been explored in Phaseolus vulgaris by light and transmission electron microscopy, following the infection progression in plants challenged 7 days after treatment. While BTH did not affect uredospore germination and fungal penetration in the substomatal cavity, a first impairment to the colonization appeared evident about 48-96 h after inoculation, with alterations of infection hypha structure and reduction in mycelium expansion. No differences were found in this phase regarding the formation and ultrastructure of haustoria in untreated and BTH-treated plants, except for the deposition of electron-opaque material in the extrahaustorial matrix of the latter. A second and decisive impairment in fungal progression was observed at 7-10 days after inoculation when host cell penetrated, or in close contact with the fungal hyphae, were impregnated by phenolic compounds. The same was observed in fungal walls, particularly around haustoria, thus hampering the biotrophic habitus of the fungus and further mycelium spreading. This, in turn, prevented the evasion of fungal reproductive structures, the uredinia, and the appearance of visible symptoms. No particular ultrastructural alterations were observed in most of the penetrated cells, even at late stages of infection, indicating that BTH treatment does not induce host cells to respond with a hypersensitive reaction (HR). A parallel time course of the expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene, the key enzyme for the synthesis of phenylpropanoidic phytoalexins and many other phenolics, has shown that PAL mRNA is strongly and persistently transcripted in BTH-treated plants since the 6th h after treatment, though no apparent ultrastructural alterations were detectable up to some days after pathogen challenging. This indicates that BTH, at the employed

  15. Effect of phytohormones on absorption and distribution of ions in salt-stressed bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Starck

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bean plant seedlings grown in water culture were treated for 5 days either with NaCl or with 7-times concentrated nutrient solution (diminished water potential by 3-103 hPa in both cases. Control and stressed plants were treated for 24 hrs with zeatin and GA,. NaCl-stress reduced distinctly ion absorption rate (K, Ca and P. Zeatin and GA3 promoted potassium uptake, but only in NaCI-treated plants. These hormones diminished Na accumulation in metabolically active organs but increased P- and Ca-content. In plants grown under both kind of stresses zeatin and GA3 partially reestablished the ratio of the main mono- to divalent cations, which increased in the leaves and apical part of the stressed plants. ABA introduced into the nutrient solution caused inhibition of the ion uptake (K, Ca, Mg and P. similar to that caused by NaCl-stress. The above reported results seem to confirm the supposition, that hormones act as an important factor contributing to regulation of both uptake and distribution of ions. In this way growth substances may also participate in the regulation of transport of various substances (among others - assimilates in the whole plant.

  16. Lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles attract herbivores in addition to carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horiuchi, J.I.; Arimura, G.I.; Ozawa, R.; Shimoda, T.; Dicke, M.; Takabayashi, J.; Nishioka, T.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the response of the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae to uninfested lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles by using a Y-tube olfactometer. First, we confirmed that exposed uninfested leaves next to infested leaves were more attractive to carnivorous mi

  17. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaraj Illakkiam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified.

  18. Exposure of cerium oxide nanoparticles to kidney bean shows disturbance in the plant defense mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Peralta-Videa, Jose R. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Susmita [Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Castillo-Michel, Hiram [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220-38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose-Angel [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States); Sahi, Shivendra [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN) (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Kidney bean roots uptake nCeO{sub 2} primarily without biotransformation. • Cerium reached the root vascular tissues through gaps in the Casparian strip. • On longer exposure to high concentration, roots demonstrate stress response. • In leaves, guaiacol peroxidase plays a major role in ROS scavenging. - Abstract: Overwhelming use of engineered nanoparticles demands rapid assessment of their environmental impacts. The transport of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO{sub 2}) in plants and their impact on cellular homeostasis as a function of exposure duration is not well understood. In this study, kidney bean plants were exposed to suspensions of ∼8 ± 1 nm nCeO{sub 2} (62.5 to 500 mg/L) for 15 days in hydroponic conditions. Plant parts were analyzed for cerium accumulation after one, seven, and 15 days of nCeO{sub 2} exposure. The primary indicators of stress like lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble protein and chlorophyll contents were studied. Cerium in tissues was localized using scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron μ-XRF mapping, and the chemical forms were identified using μ-XANES. In the root epidermis, cerium was primarily shown to exist as nCeO{sub 2}, although a small fraction (12%) was biotransformed to Ce(III) compound. Cerium was found to reach the root vascular tissues and translocate to aerial parts with time. Upon prolonged exposure to 500 mg nCeO{sub 2}/L, the root antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly reduced, simultaneously increasing the root soluble protein by 204%. In addition, leaf's guaiacol peroxidase activity was enhanced with nCeO{sub 2} exposure in order to maintain cellular homeostasis.

  19. The effect of plant defense elicitors on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. growth and yield in absence or presence of spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe common bean plants "Phaseolus vulgaris L." is frequently attacked by the two spotted spider mite (TSSM Tetranychus urticae, causing a substantial decrease in bean plant growth and yield as well as leaflet structure. Therefore, for commercial bean cultivation in the field controlling TSSM infection is necessary. ResultsFoliar application of salicylic acid (SA or methyl jasmonate (MeJA on common bean plants before or after two spotted spider mite infestation proved to be effective in reducing infestations. In most concentrations these elicitors significantly improved common bean plant growth i.e. had a positive effect on plant height, number of branches, shoot dry weight and leaf area per plant and bean yield. SA at 100 mg/l had the strongest positive effect. Moreover, application of elicitors significantly altered leaflet anatomical characters i.e. increased thickness of leaflet blade, thickness of palisade and spongy parenchyma as well as thickness of midrib region of the leaflet and changed the dimension of vascular bundles. Alternatively, TSSM infestation had the opposite effect on these leaflet anatomical characters.ConclusionWe conclude that SA or MeJA could be used for controlling TSSM infestation, to improve plant growth and to improve bean yield in the field.

  20. Response of different genotypes of faba bean plant to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M; Al-Wahibi, Mona S; Bukhari, Najat A

    2015-05-05

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant-1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant-1, area leaf-1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes "C5" and "Zafar 1" were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype "C5" and "Zafar 1" were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes "G853" and "C4" were sensitive to drought stress.

  1. Bean yellow disorder virus: Parameters of transmission by Bemisia tabaci and host plant range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    German Martín; Isabel Maria Cuadrado; Dirk Janssen

    2011-01-01

    Bean yellow disorder virus(BnYDV)was recently identified as the first crinivirus(family Closteroviridae)that infects members of the family Leguminosae.It was first observed during the autumn of 2003,causing heavy losses in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)grown commercially in Spain.The virus is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci(Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)Q-biotype,and disease symptoms resemble nutritional disorders consisting of interveinal mottling and yellowing in leaves,combined with stiffness or brittleness,and are typically produced on the middle to lower parts of the plant.Transmission experiments showed that 50% and 100% of B.tabaci adults acquired the virus after a feeding period of 3 and 7 h,respectively.Viruliferous whiteflies infected 66% and 100% of P.vulgaris plants after a feeding period of 12 and 24 h,respectively.The transmission efficiency of single whiteflies was 37% and persistence of BnYDV in the vector lasted up to 2 weeks with a half-life of 9 days.BnYDV was transmitted to P.vulgaris,Pisum sativum L.,Lens culinaris Medik.,and Vicia faba L.,but not to Vigna unguiculata L.,Glycine max(L.) Merr.,Cicer arietum L.,and to crop species belonging to families of the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae.No virus was detected in field samples collected from 30 different species from Boraginaceae,Asteraceae,Geraniaceae,Lamiaceae,Leguminosae,Malvaceae,Scrophulariaceae,Thymelaeaceae and Verbenaceae.The restricted host range and efficient management of crops regarding whitefly infestation may be key elements in the control of BnYDV.

  2. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS ON FABA BEAN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. Abdelhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A possible survival strategy of plants under saline conditions is to use some compounds that could alleviate salt stress effect. One of these compounds is nicotinamide. The effect of exogenously application of nicotinamide with different concentrations (0, 200 and 400 mg/l on Vicia faba L. plant against different NaCl treatments (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl was investigated at the wire house of the National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. Salinity stress reduced significantly plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot, seed yield, total carbohydrates & total crude protein of the yielded seeds compared with those of the control plants. In contrast, salinity induced marked increases in sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, proline, lipid peroxidation product (MDA and some oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Also, salinity stress increased Na+ contents with the decreases of other macro and micro elements contents (P, K+, Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ of shoots and the yielded seeds of faba bean. Foliar spraying of nicotinamide alleviated the adverse effects of salinity stress through increased plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot and seed yield as well as, sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids and proline, compared with those of the corresponding salinity levels, while decreased lipid peroxidation product as MDA and the oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Nicotinamide inhibited the uptake of Na+ and accelerated the accumulation of P, K+ , Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ contents in the shoots of salt stressed plants and enhanced total carbohydrate and total crude protein percentage and solutes concentrations in seeds of salinity treated plants

  3. EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF AMINOACIDS ON PLANT YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FABA BEAN PLANTS IRRIGATED WITH SEAWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. ABDELHAMID

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity decreases yield in arid and semi-arid areas. With increasing demand for irrigation water, alternative sources are being sought. Seawater salinity was previously considered unusable for irrigation. However, this water can be used successfully to grow crops under certain conditions. Amino acids is well known biostimulant which has positive effects on plant growth and yield, and significantly mitigates the injuries caused by abiotic stresses Therefore, in the present study, the effect of exogenously treatment amino acid on faba bean plant growing under sea water salt stress was investigated. Reduction of salinity damage in faba bean by using a mixture of amino acids to improve morphological and biochemical parameters, and thus raising the level of plant yield was tested. A pot experiment was conducted to alleviate the harmful effects of seawater salinity on faba bean cv. Giza 843 by foliar spraying of an amino acid mixture with different concentrations (0.0, 500, 1000 or 1500 mg L-1. Irrigation of faba bean plants with seawater levels of 3.13 and 6.25 dS m-1 led to significant reductions in plant height, number of leaves plant, fresh and dry weight of shoots, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates, polysaccharides, nucleic acid DNA and RNA contents of faba bean leaves. Seawater salinity induced higher contents of Na+ and Cl- and decreased contents of K+, K+:Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and P3+. Irrigation of faba bean plant with different levels of seawater decreased seed yield and total dry weight per plant compared with those irrigated with tap water. Also, total carbohydrates and total protein contents in seeds were reduced by increased seawater salinity levels. Amino acid application as foliar spray significantly improved all the reduced parameters due to seawater stress. However, the highest level of amino acid of 1500 mg L-1 exerted the strongest effect in alleviating the harmful effect of seawater salinity stress. Efecto de la aplicaci

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum-located PDAT1-2 from castor bean enhances hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Go, Young Sam; Jung, Jin Hee; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-06-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoic acid) is a major unusual fatty acid in castor oil. This hydroxy fatty acid is useful in industrial materials. This unusual fatty acid accumulates in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), even though it is synthesized in phospholipids, which indicates that the castor plant has an editing enzyme, which functions as a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that is specific to ricinoleic acid. Transgenic plants containing fatty acid Δ12-hydroxylase encoded by the castor bean FAH12 gene produce a limited amount of hydroxy fatty acid, a maximum of around 17% of TAGs present in Arabidopsis seeds, and this unusual fatty acid remains in phospholipids of cell membranes in seeds. Identification of ricinoleate-specific PDAT from castor bean and manipulation of the phospholipid editing system in transgenic plants will enhance accumulation of the hydroxy fatty acid in transgenic seeds. The castor plant has three PDAT genes; PDAT1-1 and PDAT2 are homologs of PDAT, which are commonly found in plants; however, PDAT1-2 is newly grouped as a castor bean-specific gene. PDAT1-2 is expressed in developing seeds and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to FAH12, indicating its involvement in conversion of ricinoleic acid into TAG. PDAT1-2 significantly enhances accumulation of total hydroxy fatty acid up to 25%, with a significant increase in castor-like oil, 2-OH TAG, in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which is an identification of the key gene for oilseed engineering in production of unusual fatty acids.

  5. Effects of Local Nitrogen Supply on Water Uptake of Bean Plants in a Split Root System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwei Guo; Qirong Shen; Holger Brueck

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of local nitrogen supply on water and nutrient absorption, French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)plants were grown in a split root system. Five treatments supplied with different nitrogen forms were compared:homogeneous nitrate (NN) and homogenous ammonium (AA) supply, spatially separated supply of nitrate and ammonium (NA), half of the root system supplied with N-free nutrient solution, the other half with either nitrate (NO) or ammonium (AO). The results showed that 10 d after onset of treatments, root dry matter (DM) in the nitratesupplied vessels treated with NA was more than two times higher than that in the ammonium-supplied vessels.Water uptake from the nitrate-supplied vessels treated with NA was 281% higher than under ammonium supply. In treatments NO and AO, the local supply of N resulted in clearly higher root DM, and water uptake from the nitratesupplied vessels was 82% higher than in the -N vessels. However, in AO plants, water uptake from the -N nutrient solution was 129% higher than from the ammonium-supplied vessels. This indicates a compensatory effect, which resulted in almost identical rates of total water uptake of treatments AA and AO, which had comparable shoot DM and leaf area. Ammonium supply reduced potassium and magnesium absorption. Water uptake was positively correlated with N, Mg and K uptake.

  6. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  7. Natural selection and family X location interaction in the common (dry bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Pirola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection takes place while advancing generations of segregant populations of self pollinating species by the population (bulk method. There is evidence that it maintains the individuals with greater grain yield. The question arises whether natural selection preserves the individuals which are more adapted only to the environment where the generation advance occurred, that is, if it contributes to increasing the genotype x environment interaction in the family assessment. This study was carried out to check this hypothesis in the common bean plant using families derived from a segregating population from a cross between the Carioca MG x ESAL 686 cultivars. The segregating populations increase in homozygosity was obtained by the population (bulk method until the F14 generation, in three distinct locations in Minas Gerais state: Lavras, Lambari and Patos de Minas. Forty-seven F14:15 families were randomly taken from the population in each location and later multiplied to obtain F14:16 families. These families were jointly assessed with three controls using a triple 12 x 12 lattice design in the three locations of generation advance in the wet season of 1998/1999. All the estimated parameters showed that while advancing segregant populations by the population (bulk method, natural selection acted to preserve the individuals which are more adapted to the environment in which they were advanced.

  8. Nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) seeds from plants chronically exposed to ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Di Maro, Antimo; Bernasconi, Silvana; Burlini, Nedda; Simonetti, Paolo; Picchi, Valentina; Panigada, Cinzia; Gerosa, Giacomo; Parente, Augusto; Faoro, Franco

    2009-01-14

    The effect of chronic exposure to ozone pollution on nutritional traits of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) seeds from plants grown in filtered and nonfiltered open-top chambers (OTCs) has been investigated. Results showed that, among seed macronutrients, ozone significantly raised total lipids, crude proteins, and dietary fiber and slightly decreased total free amino acid content, although with a significant reduction of asparagine, lysine, valine, methionine, and glycine, compensated by a conspicuous augmentation of ornithine and tryptophan. Phytosterol analysis showed a marked increase of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol in seeds collected from nonfiltered OTCs. With regard to secondary metabolites, ozone exposure induced a slight increase of total polyphenol content, although causing a significant reduction of some flavonols (aglycone kaempferol and its 3-glucoside derivative) and hydroxycinnamates (caffeic, p-coumaric, and sinapic acids). Total anthocyanins decreased significantly, too. Nevertheless, ozone-exposed seeds showed higher antioxidant activity, with higher Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values than those measured in seeds collected from filtered air.

  9. Co-inoculation Effect of Rhizobia and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Common Bean Growth in a Low Phosphorus Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Hezekiah; Mungai, Nancy W; Thuita, Moses; Hamba, Yosef; Masso, Cargele

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation through legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is important for enhancing agricultural productivity and is therefore of great economic interest. Growing evidence indicates that other soil beneficial bacteria can positively affect symbiotic performance of rhizobia. Nodule endophytic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were isolated from common bean nodules from Nakuru County in Kenya and characterized 16S rDNA partial gene sequencing. The effect of co-inoculation of rhizobium and PGPR, on nodulation and growth of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was also investigated using a low phosphorous soil under greenhouse conditions. Gram-positive nodule endophytic PGPR belonging to the genus Bacillus were successfully isolated and characterized. Two PGPR strains (Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus megaterium), two rhizobia strains (IITA-PAU 987 and IITA-PAU 983) and one reference rhizobia strain (CIAT 899) were used in the co-inoculation study. Two common bean varieties were inoculated with Rhizobium strains singly or in a combination with PGPR to evaluate the effect on nodulation and growth parameters. Co-inoculation of IITA-PAU 987 + B. megaterium recorded the highest nodule weight (405.2 mg) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (324.8 mg), while CIAT 899 + B. megaterium (401.2 mg) compared to CIAT 899 alone (337.2 mg). CIAT 899 + B. megaterium recorded a significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.23 g) compared to CIAT 899 alone (5.80 g). However, there was no significant difference between CIAT 899 + P. polymyxa and CIAT 899 alone. Combination of IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (6.84 g) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (5.32 g) but no significant difference was observed when co-inoculated with P. polymyxa. IITA-PAU 983 in combination with P. polymyxa led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.15 g) compared to IITA-PAU 983 alone (5.14 g). Plants inoculated with IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium received 24.0 % of

  10. Co-inoculation Effect of Rhizobia and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Common Bean Growth in a Low Phosphorus Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Hezekiah; Mungai, Nancy W.; Thuita, Moses; Hamba, Yosef; Masso, Cargele

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation through legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is important for enhancing agricultural productivity and is therefore of great economic interest. Growing evidence indicates that other soil beneficial bacteria can positively affect symbiotic performance of rhizobia. Nodule endophytic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were isolated from common bean nodules from Nakuru County in Kenya and characterized 16S rDNA partial gene sequencing. The effect of co-inoculation of rhizobium and PGPR, on nodulation and growth of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was also investigated using a low phosphorous soil under greenhouse conditions. Gram-positive nodule endophytic PGPR belonging to the genus Bacillus were successfully isolated and characterized. Two PGPR strains (Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus megaterium), two rhizobia strains (IITA-PAU 987 and IITA-PAU 983) and one reference rhizobia strain (CIAT 899) were used in the co-inoculation study. Two common bean varieties were inoculated with Rhizobium strains singly or in a combination with PGPR to evaluate the effect on nodulation and growth parameters. Co-inoculation of IITA-PAU 987 + B. megaterium recorded the highest nodule weight (405.2 mg) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (324.8 mg), while CIAT 899 + B. megaterium (401.2 mg) compared to CIAT 899 alone (337.2 mg). CIAT 899 + B. megaterium recorded a significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.23 g) compared to CIAT 899 alone (5.80 g). However, there was no significant difference between CIAT 899 + P. polymyxa and CIAT 899 alone. Combination of IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (6.84 g) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (5.32 g) but no significant difference was observed when co-inoculated with P. polymyxa. IITA-PAU 983 in combination with P. polymyxa led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.15 g) compared to IITA-PAU 983 alone (5.14 g). Plants inoculated with IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium received 24.0 % of

  11. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y.; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A.; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M.; Al-Wahibi, Mona S.; Bukhari, Najat A.

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant−1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress. PMID:25950766

  12. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzer H. Siddiqui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853 under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i normal irrigation (ii mild stress (iii moderate stress, and (iv severe stress on plant height (PH plant−1, fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC, proline (Pro content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl content, electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, and activities of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD, and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress.

  13. Influence of compost on the mobility of arsenic in soil and its uptake by bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) irrigated with arsenite-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Antonio G; Pigna, Massimo; Sommella, Alessia; Dynes, James J; Cozzolino, Vincenza; Violante, Antonio

    2013-10-15

    The influence of compost on the growth of bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and its influence on the mobility of As in the soils and the uptake of As (as NaAs(III)O2) by plant components was studied at various compost application rates (3·10(4) and 6·10(4) kg ha(-1)) and at three As concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mg kg(-1)). The biomass and As and P concentrations of the roots, shoots and beans were determined at harvest time, as well as the chlorophyll content of the leaves and nonspecific and specifically bound As in the soil. The bean plants exposed to As showed typical phytotoxicity symptoms; no plants however died over the study. The biomass of the bean plants increased with the increasing amounts of compost added to the soil, attributed to the phytonutritive capacity of compost. Biomass decreased with increasing As concentrations, however, the reduction in the biomass was significantly lower with the addition of compost, indicating that the As phytotoxicity was alleviated by the compost. For the same As concentration, the As content of the roots, shoots and beans decreased with increasing compost added compared to the Control. This is due to partial immobilization of the As by the organic functional groups on the compost, either directly or through cation bridging. Most of the As adsorbed by the bean plants accumulated in the roots, while a scant allocation of As occurred in the beans. Hence, the addition of compost to soils could be used as an effective means to limit As accumulation in crops from As-contaminated waters.

  14. A dynamic growth model of vegetative soya bean plants: model structure and behaviour under varying root temperature and nitrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. T.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.

  15. Cloning of Promoter of Chinese Bean GRP 1.8 Gene and Characterization of Its Function in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to learn the expression pattern of GRP1.8(glycine-rich-protein) gene promoter in transgenic plants and to explore its potential application in plant genetic engineering for vascular-specific expression of interested genes, GRP 1.8 promoter was amplified by PCR from Chinese bean genomic DNA. The intermediate vector was constructed by inserting vascular-specific expression promoter of GRP 1.8 gene in vector pBI 101. The regenerated tobacco plants obtained were analyzed by PCR to select the putative transgenic plants. The histochemical localization of GUS(β-D-glucosidase) activity indicates that as for that of GRP 1.8 promoter we can confer the vascular-specific expression of GUS gene.

  16. Principal Component Analysis of Chlorophyll Content in Tobacco, Bean and Petunia Plants Exposed to Different Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiak Klaudia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Three plant species were assessed in this study - ozone-sensitive and -resistant tobacco, ozone-sensitive petunia and bean. Plants were exposed to ambient air conditions for several weeks in two sites differing in tropospheric ozone concentrations in the growing season of 2009. Every week chlorophyll contents were analysed. Cumulative ozone effects on the chlorophyll content in relation to other meteorological parameters were evaluated using principal component analysis, while the relation between certain days of measurements of the plants were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed variability between plant species response. However, some similarities were noted. Positive relations of all chlorophyll forms to cumulative ozone concentration (AOT 40 were found for all the plant species that were examined. The chlorophyll b/a ratio revealed an opposite position to ozone concentration only in the ozone-resistant tobacco cultivar. In all the plant species the highest average chlorophyll content was noted after the 7th day of the experiment. Afterwards, the plants usually revealed various responses. Ozone-sensitive tobacco revealed decrease of chlorophyll content, and after few weeks of decline again an increase was observed. Probably, due to the accommodation for the stress factor. While during first three weeks relatively high levels of chlorophyll contents were noted in ozone-resistant tobacco. Petunia revealed a slow decrease of chlorophyll content and the lowest values at the end of the experiment. A comparison between the plant species revealed the highest level of chlorophyll contents in ozone-resistant tobacco.

  17. Can the critical temperature for photochemical damage in common bean plants be changed after a drought event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low water availability and high temperatures occur under field conditions and we hypothesize that the critical temperature for photochemical damage (TC in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants is increased by the occurrence of previous water deficit in a genotype-dependent manner. Five common bean cultivars A320, A222, Carioca, BAT477 and Ouro Negro were evaluated. Thirty days after seedlings emergence, one group of plants was exposed to water deficit for ten days and rehydrated and another one was maintained well hydrated during the experimental period. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (FO was monitored in leaf discs exposed to temperatures ranging from 25 to 45 oC and the TC values estimated. The previous water deficit did not affect TC, which varied between 38.8 and 43.8 oC when considering all cultivars and water regimes. Under well-watered conditions, BAT477 (41.9 oC and Carioca (43.8 oC presented higher TCthan Ouro Negro (38.8 oC. Our findings indicate a significant genotypic variation in thermal tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris, an important crop trait to be considered in breeding programs.

  18. A study of arsenic speciation in soil, irrigation water and plant tissue: A case study of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-11-01

    Samples of soil, the broad bean plant, Vicia faba and irrigation water were collected from the same agricultural site in Dokan, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined in all materials by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Available arsenic (11%) was also determined within the soil, together with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of total arsenic were: soil (5.32μgg(-1)), irrigation water (1.06μgL(-1)), roots (2.065μgg(-1)) and bean (0.133μgg(-1)). Stems, leaves and pods were also measured. Inorganic As(V) dominated soil (90%) and root (78%) samples. However, organo-arsenic (MMA, 48% and DMA, 19%) was the more dominant species in the edible bean. The study provides an insight into the uptake, preferred disposal route, speciation changes and loss mechanism involved for arsenic with this food source.

  19. Development of a qPCR Strategy to Select Bean Genes Involved in Plant Defense Response and Regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum - Rhizoctonia solani Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sara; Cominelli, Eleonora; Sparvoli, Francesca; González-López, Oscar; Rodríguez-González, Alvaro; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro A

    2016-01-01

    Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defense response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defense-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from the 48 bean genes initially analyzed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34) or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected. As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defense, which respond to the presence of a BCA or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defense genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani.

  20. Development of a qPCR Strategy to Select Bean Genes Involved in Plant Defense Response and Regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum – Rhizoctonia solani Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sara; Cominelli, Eleonora; Sparvoli, Francesca; González-López, Oscar; Rodríguez-González, Alvaro; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defense response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defense-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from the 48 bean genes initially analyzed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34) or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected. As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defense, which respond to the presence of a BCA or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defense genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani. PMID:27540382

  1. Development of a qPCR strategy to select bean genes involved in plant defence response and regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum - Rhizoctonia solani interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defence response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defence-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from From the 48 bean genes initially analysed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34 or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected.As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defence, which respond to the presence of a biocontrol agent or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defence genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani.

  2. Influence of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and salinity on leaf injury, stomatal resistance, growth, and chemical composition of bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Taylor, O.C.

    1983-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) growing in half-strength Hoagland solutions modified to provide three salinity levels of -40, -240, and -440 kPa, were exposed four times to 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/, 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/, and 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/ + 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ alone showed no injury. Primary leaves of O/sub 3/-treated plants were injured more than those of plants fumigated with the combination of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/. Pollutant injury to leaves decreased as salinity increased. Stomatal resistance on the abaxial surface of primary leaves of SO/sub 2/, and especially of (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants, increased sharply during fumigations, and returned to prefumigation levels the next day. Stomatal resistances of O/sub 3/-treated plants were similar to nonfumigated plants during the first phase of the experiment, but after the last fumigation, this resistance returned to essentially normal only in plants growing at the highest salinity level. Plant growth was suppressed by increased salinity. Root growth on O/sub 3/- and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants was reduced at all salinity levels. As salinity increased, plants accumulated Cl and Ca. Sodium increased in stems and roots, and decreased in leaves of plants grown in high Na-nutrient solutions. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) had higher S content in roots than nonfumigated and O/sub 3/-treated plants. The highest S content in leaves was found in SO/sub 2/-treated plants at the -40 kPa salinity level. Accumulation of Ca in leaves and of Mg in roots was lowest in plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/). Plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) accumulated more K in stems and leaves, and more Fe in roots and leaves, compared with nonfumigated and SO/sub 2/-treated plants. The O/sub 3/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) effects on mineral content of the plants

  3. Sources of nitrogenous fertilizers and their effects in the growth of the castor bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Sales dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to verify and quantify the effects of doses (equivalent to nitrogen of fertilizers, manure from corral, residential sewage sludge, castor oil cake and urea, in the early growth of castor beans, BRS Nordestina in a greenhouse. The experiment was conducted in the Embrapa, at county of Campina Grande, state of Paraiba, Brazil, and it was used an experimental design of randomized with three replicates and 13 treatments, with a factorial 4 x 3 + 1, which factors were: types of organic fertilizers (manure from corral and manure, biosolids and castor bean cake and urea at rates of (85,170 and 255 kg N ha-¹, plus an additional treatment, which was the absolute witness without the fertilization. All the treatments witness received a mineral supplement P and K, at doses of 80 kg of P2O2 and K2O, applied in the foundation, with triple superphosphate and potassium chloride. Among the fertilizers, which further promoted the initial growth of castor beans was the pie of Euphorbia that, in addition to nutrients, especially of nitrogen, have much fiber, more than 35%, constituting themselves, thus a factor in improving soil physical environment.

  4. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea; Gama radiossensitividade em feijoeiro comum e caupi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a {sup 60} Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  5. Difference planted season and creeper-pole on both growth and yield of the two cultivars of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRIYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to know the effect of different cultivars, planted seasons and creeper poles at velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. growth, yield and their interactions. This research was conducted on litosol soil in Tancep, Ngawen, Gunungkidul on 170 m up sea level and 9-10° elevation. The depth of soil tillage was 5-17 cm. Design utilization was Randomized Completed Block Design (RCBD with factorial 3 factors. The treatment was (i cultivars: rase and putih Gunungkidul (ii planted seasons: dry and rainy seasons and (iii creeper-poles: control, corn 0 weeks old, corn 2 weeks old, corn 4 weeks old and bambu. There is replicated 3 times. The result of this research was the 1st velvet bean growth on rainy season was rapidly but they have long time planted. The 2nd, by splited rase cultivars, rainy season and creeper-pole utilization was yield increased. The 3rd, on the rainy season, the high yield was come by rase cultivar and creeper-pole utilization. The 4th, with the 2 times velvet bean density and without calculated corn yield, rase cultivar planted on rainy season and bamboo creeper-pole coused the highest velvet bean yield but no significant different with 4 weeks corn creeper-pole.

  6. Lima bean lady beetle interactions: spider mite mediates sublethal effects of its host plant on growth and development of its predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated plants can have negative effects on natural enemies that attack spider mites. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that spider mites mediate effects of a lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., cultivar on the life history of a lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise. We provisioned laborato...

  7. Assessing effects of ambient ozone on injury and yield of bean with ethylenediurea (EDU): Three years of plant monitoring at four sites in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Dijk, van C.J.

    2002-01-01

    EDU (ethylenediurea) and non-EDU-treated bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) L. cv. Lit) were exposed to ambient air at four rural sites in the Netherlands during the growing seasonsof 1994 through 1996 to investigate the responses to ambient ozone. Ozone-induced foliar injury was observed each year an

  8. High quality permanent draft genome sequence of Phaseolibacter flectens ATCC 12775(T), a plant pathogen of French bean pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg-Gershtein, Yana; Izhaki, Ido; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Reddy, Tbk; Huntemann, Marcel; Pillay, Manoj; Markowitz, Victor; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Phaseolibacter flectens strain ATCC 12775(T) (Halpern et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:268-273, 2013) is a Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, aerobic, chemoorganotroph bacterium. Ph. flectens is as a plant-pathogenic bacterium on pods of French bean and was first identified by Johnson (1956) as Pseudomonas flectens. After its phylogenetic position was reexamined, Pseudomonas flectens was transferred to the family Enterobacteriaceae as Phaseolibacter flectens gen. nov., comb. nov. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The DNA GC content is 44.34 mol%. The chromosome length is 2,748,442 bp. It encodes 2,437 proteins and 89 RNA genes. Ph. flectens genome is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes study.

  9. Seeds with high molybdenum concentration improved growth and nitrogen acquisition of rhizobium-inoculated and nitrogen-fertilized common bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fátima Delgado Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris with high molybdenum (Mo concentration can supply Mo plant demands, but to date no studies have concomitantly evaluated the effects of Mo-enriched seeds on plants inoculated with rhizobia or treated with N fertilizer. This work evaluated the effects of seed Mo on growth and N acquisition of bean plants fertilized either by symbiotic N or mineral N, by measuring the activities of nitrogenase and nitrate reductase and the contribution of biological N2 fixation at different growth stages. Seeds enriched or not with Mo were sown with two N sources (inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with N, in pots with 10 kg of soil. In experiment 1, an additional treatment consisted of Mo-enriched seeds with Mo applied to the soil. In experiment 2, the contribution of N2 fixation was estimated by 15N isotope dilution. Common bean plants grown from seeds with high Mo concentration flowered one day earlier. Seeds with high Mo concentration increased the leaf area, shoot mass and N accumulation, with both N sources. The absence of effects of Mo application to the soil indicated that Mo contents of Mo-enriched seeds were sufficient for plant growth. Seeds enriched with Mo increased nitrogenase activity at the vegetative stage of inoculated plants, and nitrate reductase activity at late growth stages with both N sources. The contribution of N2 fixation was 17 and 61 % in plants originating from low- or high-Mo seeds, respectively. The results demonstrate the benefits of sowing Mo-enriched seeds on growth and N nutrition of bean plants inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with mineral N fertilizer.

  10. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    bean may prove to be a key component of future arable cropping systems where declining supplies and high prices of fossil energy are likely to constrain the affordability and use of fertilizers. This will help address the increasing demand by consumers and governments for agriculture to reduce its...... impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean...

  11. Cadmium resistance in transgenic tobacco plants enhanced by expressing bean heavy metal-responsive gene PvSR2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI; Tuanyao; (柴团耀); CHEN; Qiong; (陈琼); ZHANG; Yuxiu; (张玉秀); DONG; Juan; (董娟); AN; Chengcai; (安成才)

    2003-01-01

    PvSR2 (Phaseolus vulgaris stress-related gene) has been cloned from French bean and shown to be expressed specifically upon heavy metal treatment. In order to investigate the role of PvSR2 in plant, PvSR2 gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into tobacco mediated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. The regenerated plantlets were selected on medium with 100 mg/L kanamycin. PCR and Southern blot analysis showed PvSR2 gene was integrated in tobacco genome. Gus and Northern blot analysis indicated PvSR2 gene was expressed in transgenic seedling. The heavy metal resistance assay showed that the transgenic tobacco seedlings with the PvSR2 coding sequence exhibited higher tolerance to Cd compared with wild-type (WT) under Cd exposure. The Cd content accumulated in root between transgenic and WT seedlings had no obvious difference at lower Cd external concentration (0.05-0.075 mmol/L CdCl2), whereas transgenic plant showed a lower root Cd content than the control at higher external Cd concentration (0.1 mmol/L CdCl2). These results suggested that the expression of PvSR2 can enhance the Cd tolerance, and PvSR2 may be involved in Cd transportation and accumulation at the test concentration of 0.1 mmol/L Cd.

  12. Hydroponic growth of crops in presence of /sup 14/C-benzo(a)pyrene. [/sup 14/C tracer study in beans, cantaloupes, and cotton plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, S.C.; Swarbrick, R.E.

    1975-09-01

    An attempt was made to evaluate the fate of a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon in the food chain under severe and exaggerated experimental conditions. Green beans, cantaloupes, and cotton were grown hydroponically in nutrient-containing aqueous solutions saturated with carbon-14 labeled benzo(a)pyrene, a known carcinogen. The plants were selected because of different growing times involved: 6, 12, and 22 weeks for green beans, cantaloupes, and cotton, respectively, as well as the great differences in these plant types. Results indicate that the translocation or migration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons during the growth cycle of crops is not a reasonable expectation. Any such contamination found in crops would, therefore, require some other explanation.

  13. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR for inducing salinity tolerance in mung bean under field condition of semi arid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress severely affects the growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.. However, its growth can be improved under salinity stress by inoculation/co-inoculation with rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase enzyme. ACC-deaminase containing bacteria regulate the stress induced ethylene production by hydrolyzing the ACC (immediate precursor of ethylene into ammonia and ketobutyric acid, thus improve plant growth by lowering the ethylene level. A study was conducted under salt affected field conditions where pre-isolated strains of Rhizobium and PGPR were used alone as well as in combination for mitigating the salinity stress on growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean by following the randomized complete block design (RCBD. The data were recorded and analyzed statistically to see the difference among treatments.

  14. Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VC (20%, TC (20% and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata. Plants grown with VC (20% produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2, winged bean (1168.61 g m-2 and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2. In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20% treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1 grown with VC (20%. The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1, winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1 and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1 were also found in VC (20% treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g, followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g and winged bean (22.04 g/100g, under VC (20% treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20% produced the highest yield and yield attributes.

  15. Whiteflies interfere with indirect plant defense against spider mites in Lima bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, P.J.; Zheng, S.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Boland, W.; David, A.; Mumm, R.; Dicke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack are able to initiate indirect defense by synthesizing and releasing complex blends of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. However, little is known about how plants respond to infestation by multiple herbivores, particularly if these belong to differ

  16. Fate of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil and bioaccumulation in bush bean hydroponic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Bean, R.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Soils amended with [[sup 14]C]hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) were sampled over 60 d and subjected to exhaustive Soxhlet extraction followed by HPLC analysis. RDX was the only radiolabeled compound observed in soil extracts. Emission of volatile organics and [sup 14]CO[sub 2] from soil accounted for only 0.31 % of the amended radiolabel. Mass balance for RDX-amended soil was better than 84% throughout the two-month study. The analytical method developed for plants involved acid hydrolysis, solvent extraction, fractionation on Florisil adsorbent and separation by HPLC. The described methodology allowed for RDX recovery of 86 [+-] 3% from fortified bush bean leaf tissue. Further experiments were conducted with bush bean plants maintained on RDX-containing hydroponic solutions. Hydroponic plants did not emit detectable amounts of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] or radiolabeled volatile organics. Analysis of the plant tissue indicated bioaccumulation of RDX in the aerial tissues of hydroponic plants exposed for either 1 or 7 d. Metabolism of RDX to polar metabolites was observed in plants exposed for 7 d.

  17. Insecticidal effect of essential oils from mediterranean plants uponAcanthoscelides Obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault-Roger, C; Hamraoui, A; Holeman, M; Theron, E; Pinel, R

    1993-06-01

    The bioactivity of 22 essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants was tested uponAcanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The insecticidal effect was evaluated by determination of 24- and 48-hr LC50 and LC50 (from 1.50 mg/ dm(3) to more than 1000 mg/dm(3)). Isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were identified by gas chromatography. The most efficient essential oils were extracted from plants belonging to Labiatae.Origanum marjorana andThymus serpyllum essential oils were the most toxic.

  18. Development of a method for the analysis of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengzu; Zhao, Pengyue; Shan, Weili; Gong, Yong; Jian, Qiu; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts. The sample preparation procedure was based on a QuEChERS method. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9985) and precision (RSDs ≤ 13.0%). Average recoveries of four PGRs ranged between 74.9% and 106.3% at spiking levels 0.05, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1). The LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.27-9.3 μg kg(-1) and 0.90-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. The procedure was applied to 18 bean sprout samples, and benzyladenine was found in some of the analyzed samples.

  19. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  20. How does Phytoseiulus Persimilis find its prey when foraging within a bean plant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zemek, R.; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Ru°z¿ic¿kova´, S

    The role of herbivore-induced volatile substances in prey-finding by phytoseiid mites has been repeatedly documented using an olfactometer. The objective of the present paper is to test the hypothesis that movement by Phytoseiulus persimilis is affected by these volatiles even on plants. Two seri...

  1. Studies on luciferin-luciferase ATP assay in plants (etiolated wheat germs, and bean leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For ATP determination by the method of bioluminescence apparatus of home production was adapted from the equipment available in any isotope laboratory. The measurement error did not exceed 1.5 per cent. Methodical experiments concerned the choice of the extraction, fixation and storage methods of plant material for determination at the given moment of the amount of ATP in the tissues, unchanged by the analytical procedure. The highest ATP amounts were recovered by extraction with perchloric acid at high (25% concentrations of the tissue in the homogenate. The best way of fixation of the material for later analyses was found to be freezing of ready extracts. Lyophilization and freezing of the plant material caused a several-fold decrease of the ATP level in the tissues. These results suggest the necessity of working in conditions of low temperature during the entire analytical procedure and strict observation of time limitation.

  2. The potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum in alleviation the adverse effects of salinity in faba bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Baki, G K; Mostafa, Doaa

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between sodium chloride and Trichoderma harzianum (T24) on growth parameters, ion contents, MDA content, proline, soluble proteins as well as SDS page protein profile were studied in Vicia faba Giza 429. A sharp reduction was found in fresh and dry mass of shoots and roots with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments promoted the growth criteria as compared with corresponding salinized plants. The water content and leaf area exhibited a marked decrease with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments induced a progressive increase in both parameters. Both proline and MDA contents were increased progressively as the salinity rose in the soil. Trichoderma treatments considerably retarded the accumulation of both parameters in shoots and roots. Both Na+ and K+ concentration increased in both organs by enhancing salinity levels. The treatment with Trichoderma harzianum enhanced the accumulation of both ions. Exposure of plants to different concentrations of salinity, or others treated with Trichoderma harzianum produced marked changes in their protein pattern. Three types of alterations were observed: the synthesis of certain proteins declined significantly, specific synthesis of certain other proteins were markedly observed and synthesis of a set specific protein was induced de novo in plant treated with Trichoderma harzianum.

  3. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  4. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y.; Mohammed A. Al-Qutami; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.; Anil Grover; Ali, Hayssam M.; Al-Wahibi, Mona S.; Bukhari, Najat A.

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stres...

  5. Absorção de metais pesados do lodo de esgoto pelo feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Heavy Metal Uptake Of The Sewage Sludge By Bean Plants(Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Miyazawa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and uptake of heavy metals of sewage sludge by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. were evaluated in green house experiments. Treatments consisted of 1,0 ; 2,0 and 5,0% (m/m of dry sewage sludge, collected from Londrina (Bom Retiro and ETE-Sul and Curitiba (ETE-Belém and RALF. Bean ( variety IAPAR 57 was sown three times at 0, 120 and 240 days after the treatments have been applied. Contents of Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb in bean tissues cultivated with 5,0% (m/m of all sewage sludge were similar to the control and Ba contents were reduced by increasing the quantity of sewage sludge in the soil. The Zn content in tissue bean incresed from 86 mg kg-1 of control to 462 mg kg-1 by applying 5% (m/m of sewage sludge in soil, but plant beans did not show toxicity symptons. The addition of 5% (m/m of sewage sludge increased Mn content in plants, from 193 mg kg-1 of control to 1.960 mg kg-1, showing toxity in bean leaves when the contents were more than 500 mg kg-1. The addition of sewage sludges in soils increased only available Zn carbonate and Cu organic species.

  6. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  7. Cadmium, manganese, iron, zinc and magnesium content of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) in relation to the duration and the amount of cadmium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelo, J.; Poschenrieder, C.; Cabot, C.

    1985-01-01

    In a long term experiment on bean plants, the effect of different cadmium concentrations on the growth and the content of Cd, Fe, Mn, Zn and Mg was studied during the total growth period. Cd treated and non-treated plants clearly exhibit differences in their growth and their nutrient content. There are clear differences between early and late Cd effects. In spite of a decrease of the magnesium content in most of the Cd treated plants, the values almost always stay above 1% and do not seem to be deficient. The results are discussed with the final conclusion, that the negative effect of Cd on the chlorophyll content observed in former studies, seems due to Mn deficiency rather than to the decrease of the Mg content.

  8. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans.

  9. New bean seeds and the struggle for their dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Aguilar, E.; Herrera, R.

    2007-01-01

    The northern region of Nicaragua has always been an important bean and maize producing area. But a widespread presence of the Golden Mosaic Virus made it impossible to grow beans in the last years. A Participatory Plant Breeding programme started in 1999, aiming to develop new bean varieties that wo

  10. Preparation of amino acid-based polymer functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbents for analysis of plant growth regulators in bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shilei; Qi, Li; Li, Nan; Wang, Minglin

    2016-09-01

    A novel magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent has been developed for enriching two plant growth regulators, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), in bean sprouts. For preparing the MSPE adsorbent, poly(N-methacryloyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)), amino acid-based polymer, was modified onto the magnetic nanoparticles via "grafting to" method by free radical polymerization. The resultant P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe)) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The adsorption amount of Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles to 2,4-D and 4-CPA were 39.82mgg(-1) and 29.02mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the prepared MSPE adsorbents showed good selectivity towards 2,4-D and 4-CPA due to the hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic forces between the target analytes and Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe). The results demonstrated that the proposed MSPE adsorbents have high affinity to the targets 2,4-D and 4-CPA. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed materials were successfully applied to enrich 2,4-D and 4-CPA in bean sprouts samples. The recovery values of the bean sprouts solution spiked the targets were from 90.9% to 96.4% with the relative standard deviations of 2.3-3.9%. Our work proved that the novel Fe3O4@P(MA-L-Phe-OMe) nanoparticles were the good adsorbents of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and have good potential for the analysis of trace compound in real samples.

  11. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaadawi,I.S; KHALIQ,A.; A.A Al-Temimi; Matloob,A

    2011-01-01

    Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba) fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin) at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was ...

  12. Promoção do crescimento do feijoeiro e controle da antracnose por Trichoderma spp Plant growth promotion of common bean and anthracnose control by Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Aparecida de Souza Pedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de Trichoderma spp. em promover o crescimento de plantas de feijão e reduzir a severidade da antracnose do feijoeiro (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, bem como identificar os isolados mais eficientes. Sessenta isolados de Trichoderma spp. foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de promoção do crescimento nas plantas. Os sete isolados que mais se destacaram foram adicionados ao substrato de cultivo e avaliados quanto à redução na severidade da antracnose em plantas de feijão tratadas com conídios de C. lindemuthianum. Os mais eficientes no controle da doença foram identificados por sequenciamento de DNA. O isolado IB 28/07 foi avaliado nas concentrações 0,5, 1, 1,5 e 2% (peso:volume, que reduziram a severidade da doença em 41,51, 55,15, 81,82 e 96,06%, respectivamente. Os isolados mais eficientes de Trichoderma spp. podem proporcionar aumentos superiores a 30% na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas e reduzir a severidade da doença entre 63 e 98%. Esses isolados foram identificados como pertencentes às espécies Trichoderma harzianum, T. strigosum e T. theobromicola.The objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of Trichoderma spp. to promote growth of common bean plants and to reduce severity of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, as well as to identify the best performing isolates. Sixty Trichoderma spp. isolates were evaluated as to their capacity to promote growth in common bean. The seven isolates that stood out were added to the culture substrate and assessed for reduction in severity of anthracnose in bean plants treated with C. lindemuthianum conidia. The most efficient isolates in controlling the disease were identified by DNA sequencing. The IB 28/07 isolate was evaluated in the concentrations 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% (weight:volume, which reduced disease severity in 41.51, 55.15, 81.82, and 96.06%, respectively. The most efficient Trichoderma spp

  13. Absorption and translocation of {sup 65} Zn applied to the leaves of bean plants; Absorcao e translocacao de {sup 65} Zn aplicado nas folhas do feijoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaretto, Antonio E.; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Mauro W. de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

    1997-12-01

    Isotope technique has been of great utility in plant nutrition studies. The objective of the research was to determine the fraction of Zn (as sulfate, chloride and EDTA) applied to the leaves which is taken up and undergo translocation in bean plants. The objective was also to verify the effect of addition, into the spray solution, of urea, potassium chloride and sucrose on the Zn uptake. Different solutions containing Zn (0.06%), urea (0.50%), potassium chloride (0.25%) and sucrose (0.50%) were prepared.When {sup 65} Zn was used, the activity applied in each trifoliate was 55.5 KBq. The plants were harvested 7 days after Zn application and the trifoliate which received the solution was sepereted from the rest of the plant tops and roots, for total Zn and {sup 65} Zn analysis. The Zn sulfate and chloride were more efficient than the Zn-EDTA to increase the foliar Zn content, but the amount of translocated Zn was 5% of that absorved for all the sources studied. There was no effect of the aditives to the Zn uptakes. (author). 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Effect of salt-stresses on the hormonal regulation of growth, photosynthesis and distribution of 14C-assimilates in bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out to study the effect of salt-stresses and ABA on the growth, photosynthesis and translocation of assimilates in bean plants. It was planed to reduce the content of GA3 and cytokinins and increase ABA content in salinized plants. The results show that salt-stress (NaCl and concentrated nutrient solution, reduce all the investigated processes in a different degree. NaCl-stress retarded most seriously growth of apical part and blades in contrast to 7-times concentrated nutrient solution decreasing mainly the rate of root and blade growth. Photosynthesis and 14C-translocation of 14C-assimilates were retarded more seriously by NaCl than by 7-times concentrated nutrient. solution. In the case of seriously stressed plants GA3 and cytokinins (more effectively reversed the ,negative effect of stress conditions both on the photosynthesis and on the 14C-tramslocation. On the basis of the obtained results, it seemes that changes in the rate of investigated processes in salinized plants are due to hormonal disturbances which cause directly or indirectly retardation of photosynthesis and trans-location of assimilates.

  15. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake.

  16. Nitrogênio em cobertura e molibdênio foliar no feijoeiro de inverno = Side dressing nitrogen and leaf molybdenum in the winter common bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Feliciani Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesmo sendo uma planta capaz de realizar a fixação de nitrogênio em simbiose com o Rhizobium, várias pesquisas mostram que a fixação não supre as necessidades do feijoeiro em relação a esse nutriente. A aplicação de molibdênio visa melhorar a simbiose Rhizobium-feijoeiro,pela importância no metabolismo desse nutriente, e pode, com isso, diminuir a aplicação de fertilizantes nitrogenados. Assim, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do feijão de inverno irrigado, em sistema plantio direto, a doses crescentes de nitrogênio em cobertura (zero, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 e sua interação com a adubação molíbdica foliar (zero e 80 g ha-1. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados dispostos em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, comquatro repetições. O trabalho foi conduzido em Selvíria, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, em área anteriormente ocupada com a cultura do milho. As doses crescentes de nitrogênio aplicadas em cobertura mostraram-se consistentes quanto aos seus efeitos sobre alguns dos componentes de produção, bem como sobre a massa seca de plantas, proporcionando melhor desenvolvimento do feijoeiro irrigado cultivado em sistema plantio direto. A aplicação de molibdênio foliar nãoinfluenciou significativamente a maioria dos parâmetros avaliados.The common bean has the capacity of nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with Rhizobium, but it is not enough to supply the necessities of the plant in relation to this nutrient. Molybdenum application aims to improve symbiosis in the Rhizobium-common bean plant, given its importance in the metabolism of this nutrient, thus being able toreduce the application of N fertilizer. Thus, the objective of the work was to evaluate the performance of irrigated winter beans, in a no-tillage system, with increasing levels of side dressing nitrogen application (zero, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 and its interaction with leaf application of Mo (zero and 80 g ha-1. The experimental

  17. Major Contribution of Flowering Time and Vegetative Growth to Plant Production in Common Bean As Deduced from a Comparative Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana M.; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J.; Saburido, Soledad; Bretones, Sandra; De Ron, Antonio M.; Lozano, Rafael; Santalla, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Determinacy growth habit and accelerated flowering traits were selected during or after domestication in common bean. Both processes affect several presumed adaptive traits such as the rate of plant production. There is a close association between flowering initiation and vegetative growth; however, interactions among these two crucial developmental processes and their genetic bases remain unexplored. In this study, with the aim to establish the genetic relationships between these complex processes, a multi-environment quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach was performed in two recombinant inbred line populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses between determinate and indeterminate genotypes. Additive and epistatic QTLs were found to regulate flowering time, vegetative growth, and rate of plant production. Moreover, the pleiotropic patterns of the identified QTLs evidenced that regions controlling time to flowering traits, directly or indirectly, are also involved in the regulation of plant production traits. Further QTL analysis highlighted one QTL, on the lower arm of the linkage group Pv01, harboring the Phvul.001G189200 gene, homologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) gene, which explained up to 32% of phenotypic variation for time to flowering, 66% for vegetative growth, and 19% for rate of plant production. This finding was consistent with previous results, which have also suggested Phvul.001G189200 (PvTFL1y) as a candidate gene for determinacy locus. The information here reported can also be applied in breeding programs seeking to optimize key agronomic traits, such as time to flowering, plant height and an improved reproductive biomass, pods, and seed size, as well as yield. PMID:28082996

  18. Sistemas de produção de feijão intercalado com cafeeiro adensado recém-plantado Production systems for bean associated with recently planted dense coffee shrub cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abner José de Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    cafeeiro recém-plantado quando se utiliza seis linhas intercalares de feijoeiro.A field experiment was carried out in a typical dystrophic Red Latosol at the campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, in order to study the effects of the row numbers and fertilization level of the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. upon the agronomic performance of the coffee shrub (Coffea arabica L. associated with bean plant. The experimental randomized block design was used with three replicates and factorial scheme 4 x 4 + 1, as involving four intercalary row numbers of the bean plant (one, three, four, and six lines by each inter row of coffee shrub and four fertilization doses (0, 50, 100, and 150% from the fertilization recommended for monocropping, consisting of 20 kg ha-1 N, 40 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 20 kg ha-1 K2O at planting timeplus 30 kg ha-1 N side-dressing, as well as one more additional treatment (monocropping of either coffee shrub or bean plant. The assay was conducted in a recently planted commercial Catucaí farming, whereas the cultivar of the bean plant was BRS-MG-Talismã. The following variables were evaluated for the bean plant: the initial and final stands; the plant heights; and the productivity of the beans with its primary components (pod number per plant, graim number per pod, and average100 graim weight. In coffee shrub, the characteristics under evaluation were the emission of leaf pairs and the increment in either plant height and stem diameter observed between sowing and harvesting the bean plant, as well as the mortality of the coffee shrubs. According to the results the increased number of the bean-plant intercalary rows rather rises the productivity of this leguminous, but reduces the increment of the stem diameter in the recently-planted coffee shrub. From four bean plant rows there is tendency to increased mortality of coffee shrubs, mainly in the absence of the leguminous fertilization. The fertilization up to 150% of the dose recommended to monocropping

  19. Effect of vermicast generated from an allelopathic weed lantana (Lantana camara) on seed germination, plant growth, and yield of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, M; Hussain, N; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2014-11-01

    In perhaps the first-ever study of its kind, the effect of vermicompost, derived solely from an allelopathic weed, on the germination, growth, and yield of a botanical species, has been carried out. In test plots, the soil was treated with the vermicompost of lantana (Lantana camara) at the rates of 5, 7.5, and 10 t ha(-1), and cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was grown on it. The performance of these systems was compared with the systems in which the soil was fortified with inorganic fertilizers (IFs) in concentrations equivalent to those present in the respective vermicompost (VC) treatments. Additionally, a set of control was studied in which the soil was used without fortification by either VC or IF. It was seen that up to 51.5 % greater germination success occurred in the VC treatments compared to controls. VC also supported better plant growth in terms of stem diameter, shoot length, shoot mass, number of leaves, and leaf pigments. The positive impact extended up to fruit yield. In addition, vermicast application enhanced root nodule formation, reduced disease incidence, and allowed for a smaller number of stunted plants. The results indicate that allelopathic ingredients of lantana seem to have been totally eliminated during the course of its vermicomposting and that lantana vermicompost has the potential to support germination, growth, and fruit yield better than equivalent quantities of IFs.

  20. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

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    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  1. Leaf senescence of common bean plants as affected by soil phosphorus supply Senescência foliar do feijoeiro afetada pelo suprimento de fósforo no solo

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    Adelson Paulo Araújo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Responses of leaf senescence to P supply could constitute adaptive mechanisms for plant growth under P-limiting conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil P supply on leaf senescence of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Eight P levels, ranging from 5 to 640 mg kg-1 P, were applied to pots containing four bean plants of cultivar Carioca in 10 kg of an Oxic Haplustult soil. Attached leaves were counted weekly, abscised leaves were collected every other day, and seeds were harvested at maturity. The number of live leaves increased until 48 days after emergence (DAE and decreased afterwards, irrespective of applied P levels. At lower applied P levels, the initial increase and the final decrease of leaf number was weak, whereas at higher applied P levels the leaf number increased intensively at the beginning of the growth cycle and decreased strongly after 48 DAE. Dry matter and P accumulated in senesced leaves increased as soil P levels increased until 61 DAE, but differences between P treatments narrowed thereafter. The greatest amounts of dry mass and P deposited by senesced leaves were observed at 48-54 DAE for high P levels, at 62-68 DAE for intermediate P levels and at 69-76 DAE for low P levels. These results indicate that soil P supply did not affect the stage of maximal leaf number and the beginning of leaf senescence of common bean plants, but the stage of greatest deposition of senesced leaves occurred earlier in the growth cycle as the soil P supply was raised.As respostas da senescência foliar ao suprimento de P podem constituir estratégias adaptativas para o crescimento vegetal sob condições limitantes do nutriente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do suprimento de P no solo na senescência foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Oito doses de P, variando entre 5 e 640 mg kg-1 de P, foram aplicadas em vasos com 10 kg de Argissolo óxico, onde foram crescidas quatro plantas da cultivar

  2. Peppery Hot Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Peppery Hot Bean Curd is a famous dish that originated in Chengdu,Sichuan Province.Dating back to the year under the reign of Emperor Tongzhi during the Qing Dynasty(1862-1875),a woman chef named Chen created this dish.In Chinese it is called Mapo Bean Curd. Ingredients:Three pieces of bean curd,100 grams lean pork,25 grams green soy beans or garlic

  3. Global genetic differentiation in a cosmopolitan pest of stored beans: effects of geography, host-plant usage and anthropogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  4. Global genetic differentiation in a cosmopolitan pest of stored beans: effects of geography, host-plant usage and anthropogenic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Tuda

    Full Text Available Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter

  5. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  6. Boron affects the growth and ultrastructure of castor bean plants Boro afeta o crescimento e a ultra-estrutura da mamoneira

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    Denis Herisson da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of oleaginous plants like the castor bean guarantees employment for agricultural families and can contribute in energy and chemical sectors, especially in the northeastern semi-arid regions of Brazil. Boron (B deficiency is a widespread nutritional disorder despite the fact that various anthropogenic sources with high B content may increase soil B to toxic levels for plants. The present study was designed to investigate the ultrastructural effects of boron deficiency and toxicity on castor bean plants which were grown under greenhouse condition using plastic containers with 10 L of nutrient solution. Boron treatments comprised: control (no B; 0.27 mg L-1, 5.40 mg L-1 B pots (one plant per pot, tested in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The dry matter of all plant parts and B concentration were determined. Cellular ultrastructure was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy on samples of leaves and petioles. Dry matter yield was affected by the B absence treatment but there was no difference for the 5.4 mg L-1 B (toxic conditions treatment. A marginal leaf burn at edge and tips of oldest leaves and absence of starch granules in chloroplasts were noted for the B toxicity treatment. The deformation of the youngest leaves, the death of the apical meristem as well as the swelling of the middle lamella, absence of starch granules in chloroplasts and petiole vessels untidily were observed in the B absent treatment. It is concluded that the production and development of castor bean plants is affected by boron deficiency, but not for boron toxicity conditions.A mamoneira é uma oleaginosa com grande potencial para a geração de renda na agricultura familiar e para produção de matéria prima para a indústria química e setor energético brasileiro, especialmente em regiões do semi-árido nordestino. A deficiência de boro (B ocorre de forma generalizada no Brasil e a aplicação excessiva deste

  7. Formas de fósforo em solos de várzea e biodisponibilidade para o feijoeiro Phosphorus forms in lowland soils and bioavailability to bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arnaldo Fernandes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras, com o objetivo de verificar a influência da aplicação de calcário e de P em algumas formas de P em quatro solos de várzea cultivados com feijoeiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 5 x 2, com quatro repetições, a saber: quatro solos [Glei Húmico (GH, Glei Pouco Húmico (GP, Aluvial (A e Orgânico (O], cinco doses de P (75, 150, 300, 500 e 800 mg dm-3 de P e dois níveis de calagem (sem e com. Os solos foram incubados em vasos, por 30 dias, com as respectivas doses de calcário, e por mais 150 dias, com as doses de P. No final desse período, foram coletadas amostras de solo para o fracionamento de P, e o restante foi cultivado com feijoeiro. Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso com 3 dm³, em que foram cultivadas duas plantas até o final do ciclo. A calagem e a adubação fosfatada influenciaram as formas de P de maneira distinta nos solos de várzea estudados; exceto no solo Glei Pouco Húmico, as formas de P lábil, tanto na ausência quanto na presença de calagem, tiveram pouca participação no P total dos solos. Na presença da calagem, o P lábil foi a forma de P preferencialmente absorvida pelas plantas de feijoeiro.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse of the Soil Science Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with the objective of verifying the influence of application of limestone and phosphorus on some forms of soil P in four lowland soils cultivated with bean plants. The experimental design utilized was a completely randomized in 4 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications, that means: four soils [Gley Humic (GH, Bog Soil (O, Alluvial (A and Low Humic Gley (GP], five doses of P (75, 150, 300, 500 and 800 mg dm-3 of P and two levels of liming (without and with. The soils were incubated

  8. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  9. USO DE REGULADOR DE CRESCIMENTO EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO DE INVERNO PLANT GROWTH STIMULANT APPLICATION ON WINTER COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatiér Buzetti

    2011-04-01

    contradictory. For that reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant growth stimulant application on components and grains yield of two winter common bean cultivars under Brazilian savannah conditions. The experiment was conducted during the 2007 fall-winter season, at the Unesp experimental farm, Ilha Solteira campus, in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a strips scheme, with four replications. The treatments consisted of a combination of five plant growth stimulant doses (0 L ha-1; 0.5 L ha-1; 1.0 L ha-1; 1.5 L ha-1; and 2.0 L ha-1, composed of three vegetable hormones (kinetin, gibberellic acid, and indolbutyric acid, in two application periods: at the vegetative stage (V4 and at the reproductive stage (R5. Vegetative characteristics such as plant height, first pod insertion height, number of grains per pod, and weight of 100 grains were not affected by the product application. However, its application at the reproductive stage (R5 increased the number of grains per plant and grain yield of the Carioca Precoce and IAC Apuã bean cultivars. For that increase, 2 L ha-1 was the best plant growth stimulant dose.

    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; yield components; application period.

  10. 不同种植密度对蓖麻生长发育及产量的影响%Effects of Different Planting Density on Growth and Development and Yield of Castor Beans(Ricinus communis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁萍; 陈宓; 陈显国; 王浒; 黄俊

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨责州省安顺市蓖麻(Ricinus communis L.)基地建设中适宜的蓖麻栽培密度,为驯化抚育中实现蓖麻的规范化栽培提供指导.[方法]2011年引种成都蓖麻,5个种植密度,即5130(CK)、6825、8530、10254、11955株/hm2,随机区组设计,3次重复.行距均为150 cm,株距分别为130、98、78、65、56 cm.试验区总面积588.6 m2.[结果]一定范围内,随着种植密度增大,蓖麻营养生长后期和生殖生长有提前的趋势;种植密度为6 825和8 530株/hm2时蓖麻生物学性状和经济性状表现较好,并且产量均超过对照10%以上.[结论]贵州安顺市区中下等土壤肥力条件下蓖麻栽培较适宜的种植密度为6 825和8 530株/hm2,行距为150 cm.%[Objective] The purpose was to discuss the suitable planting density of castor beans during its base construction in Anshun City, Guizhou Province, and provide a guidance for realizing its standardized cultivation during its domestication and breeding. [Method] Castor beans introduced from Chendu. Five planting density, 5 130(choosing as CK), 6 825, 8 530, 10 254, 11 955 plants/hm3, were designed to carried out by randomized block design with 3 repeated, line spacing 150 cm, plant spacing 130, 98, 78, 65 and 56 cm respectively in 2011. The test region area was 588.6 m2. [Result] The later period of vegetative growth and reproductive growth of castor beans had a trend in advance along with planting density in a certain range. Castor beans's biological characteristics and economic indices showed better when planting density was 6 825 and 8 530 plants/hm2, and its yield were all more than CK by 10% . [Conclusion] The suitable planting density and line spacing of castor beans under medium and lower grade soil fertility is 6 825 and 8 530 plant/hm2, and 150 cm in Anshun City, Cuizhou Province.

  11. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  12. Response of bean (Vicia faba L. plants to low sink demand by measuring the gas exchange rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Fang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs and net photosynthetic rate (Pn. These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand. On the 1(st day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca. From the 3(rd to 9(th day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5(th day. From the 11(th to 21(st day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21(st day. CONCLUSIONS: Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn

  13. Estudo da estabilidade fenotípica de feijoeiro com grãos especiais Study of the phenotypical stability of common bean plants with special grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Obejtivou-se no presente trabalho avaliar os parâmetros de adaptabilidade e de estabilidade de linhagens e cultivares de feijoeiro, com grãos especiais, por meio do uso do genótipo suplementar (GS em análise AMMI (Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction. Foram utilizados dados de produtividade de grãos de 14 genótipos de feijoeiro pertencentes ao ensaio de Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU, para o estado de São Paulo, referente às safras de 2005/2006/2007, semeados em 24 ambientes no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Pôde-se observar diferenças no comportamento dos genótipos em função do estímulo do ambiente, uma vez que a interação genótipo x ambiente foi significativa. Para tanto os genótipos Gen 99 TGR 34-16 (época das águas, Jalo Precoce e IAC - Centauro (época da seca, Gen 99 TG 28-68 e IAC-Centauro (época de inverno e IAC-Boreal (conjunto das três épocas apresentaram-se estáveis, pois seus valores de escores foram próximos de zero. Em relação ao conjunto das três épocas de semeadura não foi detectado nenhum genótipo próximo ao GS, no entanto os genótipos IAPAR-31 e IAC-Centauro (época da seca, Gen 99 TG 28-68 e IAC-Centauro (época de inverno aproximaram-se desse ponto tendo como característica o fato de interagirem com os ambientes de maneira mais favorável possível. Sendo assim, o método AMMI combinado com o uso do GS auxilia na identificação de genótipos superiores.The objective of the present study is to evaluate adaptability and stability parameters of lines and cultivars of common bean plants with special grains through the use of supplementary genotypes (GS and AMMI (Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction analysis. Productivity data of 14 lines and cultivars of common beans belonging to the Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU assay of the State of São Paulo, referent to the harvests of 2005/2006/2007, seeded in twenty-four environments following

  14. The induction of microsomal NADPH:cytochrome P450 and NADH:cytochrome b(5) reductases by long-term salt treatment of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankova, Liliana; Ivanov, Sergei; Alexieva, Vera

    2007-09-01

    We studied the effect of salinity on the activity of microsomal NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR, EC 1.6.2.4) and NADH:ferricytochrome b(5) oxidoreductase (B5R, EC 1.6.2.2) in two dicotyledonous plant species differing in their sensitivity to salt, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Ogosta) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Dobrujanski 7). A significant inhibition of fresh weight of salt-treated bean plants was observed, while cotton was affected to a much lesser degree. NaCl application resulted in a significant increase in the activity of both reductases, but was more pronounced in salt-tolerant cotton. We suppose that alterations in B5R and CPR activities may be targeted to the maintenance of membrane lipids. Most probably, plants use both enzymes (B5R and CPR) and their respective electron donors (NADH and NADPH) to reduce cytochrome b(5), which can donate reducing equivalents to a series of lipid-modification reactions such as desaturation and hydroxylation.

  15. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  16. Differences in the Responses to Iron Deficiency Stress between Bean and Maize

    OpenAIRE

    米谷, 力; 森次, 益三; 河﨑, 利夫

    1995-01-01

    The responses to iron deficiency stress in bean and maize were compared. The susceptibility to iron deficiency stress was smaller in bean than in maize;i.e., the tolerance to iron deficiency was greater in bean than in maize. The roots of the bean plants exposed to iron deficiency stress, developed iron reducing capacity and medium-pH lowering capacity,but not the roots of maize. The iron reducing capacity and medium-pH lowering capacity of the bean roots were inhibited by a shadowing, detopp...

  17. Occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting the bean in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the incidence and distribution of the most important bean viruses in Serbia: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV. The viral isolates were characterized serologically and biologically. BCMV was found in the largest number of plants (30.53%, followed by BCMNV (2.67%, CMV (5.34%, and AMV (3.41%, since BYMV was not determined. Mixed viral infections were found in several samples. The RT-PCR method was used to prove that the tested isolates belong to the BCMV, family Potyviridae and strains Russian and NL-3 D. Results obtained in this work will enable further studies of the genetic variability of bean virus isolates from Serbia. .

  18. Competitivity of the common-bean plant relative to the weed alexandergrass [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.] Competitividade do feijoeiro-comum com o capim-marmelada [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Passini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies of competitive interaction quantification between weeds and crops are not widely elucidated and compared in the literature. The competitive ability of common-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris relative to alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea was assessed and two approaches of replacement series experiment analysis were compared. The response of the species to the presence of each other at different densities and proportion was evaluated. Replacement series at total densities of 625, 816 and 1,111 plants m-2 were performed at the proportions of common-bean:alexandergrass of 100:0 (pure stand of common-bean, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100% (pure stand of alexandergrass, at four replicates in a randomized block design. Data analyses were performed by the qualitative compared to the quantitative approach. The quantitative approach provided larger number of information than did the qualitative approach, and indicated that there was intraspecific competition among common-bean plants, and a minimum of interspecific competition from alexandergrass. There was no intraspecific competition among alexandergrass plants, being the crop effect on the weed larger than the effect among alexandergrass plants. The ecological niche differentiation was partial, since the crop intraspecific competition was larger than the interspecific, and the last one was negligible, at the same time that the weed interspecific competition was larger than the intraspecific. Common-bean, as a competitor species, is superior to alexandergrass.As metodologias de quantificação das interações competitivas entre plantas cultivadas e daninhas não estão amplamente elucidadas e comparadas na literatura. A competitividade da cultura de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris em relação ao capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea foi avaliada pela comparação entre o método qualitativo e um método quantitativo de análise de resultados. A resposta de cada espécie à presença da

  19. Baked Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Two pieces of tender bean curd, shredded shrimp, minced fat and lean pork, minced ham, minced fresh mushrooms, fried dried shrimps, mashed scallion, ginger and garlic, cooking wine, salad oil, salt, MSG and pepper powder. Directions:

  20. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: IV. A Structural Comparison of the Wall Hemicellulose of Cell Suspension Cultures of Sycamore (Acer PseudoPlatAnus) and of Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, B M; Albersheim, P

    1973-05-01

    The molecular structure and chemical properties of the hemicellulose present in the isolated cell walls of suspension cultures of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells has recently been described by Bauer et al. (Plant Physiol. 51: 174-187). The hemicellulose of the sycamore primary cell wall is a xyloglucan. This polymer functions as an important cross-link in the structure of the cell wall; the xyloglucan is hydrogen-bonded to cellulose and covalently attached to the pectic polymers.The present paper describes the structure of a xyloglucan present in the walls and in the extracellular medium of suspension-cultured Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cells and compares the structure of the bean xyloglucan with the structure of the sycamore xyloglucan. Although some minor differences were found, the basic structure of the xyloglucans in the cell walls of these distantly related species is the same. The structure is based on a repeating heptasaccharide unit which consists of four residues of beta-1, 4-linked glucose and three residues of terminal xylose linked to the 6 position of three of the glucosyl residues.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza and kinetic parameters of phosphorus absorption by bean plants Micorriza arbuscular e os parâmetros cinéticos de absorção de fósforo pelo feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that determine greater P absorption by mycorrhizal plants are still not completely clear, and are attributed, in part, to an increase in the number of absorption sites promoted by the hyphae, and/or to a greater affinity of the colonized hypha or root carriers to P. The effect of mycorrhizae formed by Glomus etunicatum on the kinetic parameters of P absorption by the roots and on P influx in bean plants of the IAC-Carioca cultivar was evaluated, in two distinct plant development periods: at the onset of flowering and at the pod-filling stage (35 and 50 days after sowing, respectively. A mixture of sand and silica (9:1 was utilized as substrate and irrigated with nutrient solution. The kinetics assay was performed by the method of 32P depletion from the solution (depletion curve, using intact plants. Mycorrhization promoted greater growth and P absorption by bean plants, which was more conspicuously observed at the pod-filling stage. Mycorrhizal plants showed higher values of maximum ion uptake rate (Vmax and net P influx at the flowering stage. Lower minimum ion concentration (Cmin and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km values were verified in mycorrhizal plants at the pod-filling stage. Mycorrhizal plants also presented higher net P influx per plant, in both stages. Cmin was the kinetic parameter more intimately related to P absorption, and a significant correlation was obtained between this parameter and shoot P content and accumulation in bean plants.Os mecanismos envolvidos na maior absorção de P pela planta micorrizada ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos, atribuindo-se, em parte, ao aumento no número de sítios de absorção promovido pela hifa e/ou maior afinidade dos carregadores da hifa ou da raiz colonizada ao P. Avaliou-se o efeito da micorriza formada por Glomus etunicatum nos parâmetros cinéticos da absorção radicular de P e no influxo de P em feijoeiro, cultivar IAC-Carioca, em duas épocas do ciclo da planta

  2. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  3. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  4. 接种根瘤菌对不同品种绿豆生长及产量的影响%Impacts of rhizobial inoculation on plant growth and yield traits of green bean (Vigna radiata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓霞; 马晓彤; 曹艳华; 唐雪; 姜晓宇; 姜瑞波

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the impacts of rhizobial inoculation on plant growth and yield traits of three different varieties of green bean, the field experiments were settled in Fangshan, Beijing. The study found that the impacts of Rhizobial inoculation could significantly promote the grourth of the green bean varieties No. 2 and Jiliu 9. Both nodule numbers were significantly increased; and the yield increased by 41% and 29% ; Rhizobial inoculation in varieties Zhongliu 5, however, the yield decreased, but total nodule number was significantly higher than that of the control and the main nodule number was also higher than the other two treatments. Thus we recommended that the application of Rhizobial inoculum should match the variety of legume plants.%在田间试验条件下,调查了品种2号、中绿5号和冀绿9号3个绿豆品种接种根瘤菌菌剂对植株及产量等性状的影响.研究发现,接种根瘤菌可显著促进品种2号和冀绿9号两个绿豆品种的生长,根瘤数量明显增多,产量分别增加41%和29%;中绿5号接种根瘤菌后,产量不增反降,但总根瘤数要明显高于对照,且主根瘤数也高于其他两个品种.从而建议根瘤菌的应用应与品种相匹配.

  5. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eBeebe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  6. Crescimento e acumulação de nitrogênio de plantas de feijoeiro originadas de sementes com alto teor de molibdênio Growth and nitrogen accumulation by common bean plants originating from seeds with high molybdenum concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Yuudi Kubota

    2008-08-01

    ção foliar, podem estimular a atividade da nitrogenase e aumentar a acumulação de biomassa e N do feijoeiro.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris seeds with high molybdenum concentration can adequately supply the crop demand of this nutrient. Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effect of Mo-enriched seeds, obtained from plants treated with foliar fertilization, on growth and N accumulation by common bean plants. The soil substrate was the A horizon of a Haplustult (3.5 kg pots, which were limed and fully fertilized with exception of Mo. The first experiment had a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design with five replications: three bean cultivars, two seed Mo concentrations, and two harvest dates. In plants of the three cultivars originating from seeds with high Mo concentration, the shoot biomass and N accumulation were higher at both harvests. Seeds with high Mo concentration increased the nodule mass of cultivars Manteigão and Rio Tibagi 30 days after emergence (DAE but reduced biomass and number of nodules in the cultivars Carioca and Manteigão 45 DAE. High seed Mo concentration increased the nitrogenase activity 30 DAE and the specific nitrogenase activity 45 DAE. The second experiment had a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design with five replications: two bean cultivars, two seed Mo concentrations, and four harvest dates. The shoot mass in plants originating from seeds with high Mo concentration was higher 47 and 59 DAE, and shoot N accumulation was higher 59 DAT. High seed Mo concentration did not affect nodulation until 45 DAE, but reduced nodule number 59 DAE. The reduced nodulation at the pod filling stage observed in both experiments, in plants grown from seeds with high Mo concentration, can be due to the improved growth of these plants, which may have anticipated the translocation of assimilates to pods. It can be concluded that Mo-enriched seeds, harvested from plants treated with foliar fertilizer, can stimulate nitrogenase activity and increase biomass and N

  7. DARWIN Y LA DOMESTICACIÓN DE PLANTAS EN LAS AMÉRICAS: EL CASO DEL MAÍZ Y EL FRÍJOL Darwin and Plant Domestication in the Americas: The Case of Maize and Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ISABEL CHACÓN SÁNCHEZ

    Full Text Available En este artículo se revisan los aportes que diversos autores, contemporáneos y posteriores a Darwin, han realizado sobre el estudio del origen de las plantas domesticadas, en especial al tema del origen geográfico de los cultivos. Posteriormente se revisa cómo la evidencia arqueológica junto con la evidencia genética han ayudado a comprender el origen de tres de los cultivos americanos más antiguos e importantes en épocas precolombinas y actuales: el maíz, el fríjol común y el fríjol Lima. Estos cultivos presentan patrones contrastantes de domesticación, mientras el maíz es producto de un solo evento de domesticación, el fríjol común y el fríjol Lima son cada uno de ellos resultado de domesticaciones múltiples e independientes. Se discute la relevancia del fenómeno de las domesticaciones múltiples en nuestra comprensión del origen del síndrome de domesticación y los aportes que la disciplina conocida como evolución de cultivos, junto con otras disciplinas, puede realizar para un mejor entendimiento de los procesos de adaptación en las poblaciones naturales y para acelerar el mejoramiento y la adopción de nuevos cultivos al servicio de la humanidad.In the present article, the main contributions that Darwin and other scholars, contemporary and posterior to him, made on the subject of plant domestication, in special the geography of crop origins, are reviewed. The article also reviews recent studies where the archaeological and genetic evidence have complemented each other to give a better understanding of the origin of three of the oldest and most important pre-Columbian and current crops: maize, common bean and Lima bean. These crops are examples of contrasting domestication patterns: a single domestication event in the case of maize and multiple and independent domestication events in the case of the common and Lima bean. Finally, the relevance of the phenomenon of multiple domestication in the study of the origin of

  8. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  9. ATIVIDADE DA FOSFATASE ÁCIDA NO FEIJOEIRO E SUA CORRELAÇÃO COM PARÂMETROS DE CRESCIMENTO ACTIVITY OF ACID PHOSPHATASE IN COMMON BEAN AND ITS CORRELATION WITH SOME PARAMETERS OF PLANT GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato S. Mota dos Santos

    2007-09-01

    L. plant growth to be correlated with acid phosphatase activity. The importance of this phosphatase is related with its ability to improve phosphorus up fall under low concentration in acid soil. Five common bean cultivars were tested harvesting plants at weekly interval starting from 7 till 56 days after germination. The enzyme activity in decreasing order was observed in the LM 300030, Carioca, A-176, CNF-10 and Jalo cultivars at l4 day old plants. All the plant parameters analyzed correlated negatively with enzyme activity. Then, the phosphatase activity was considered as a complementary mechanism to the plant to supply its phosphorus needs. The curves of acid phosphatase activity, inorganic and total phosphorus were similar and expressed by second grade equations while both, inorganic and total phosphorus, decreased according to negatively exponential equation modelings.

    KEY-WORDS: Phosphatase; acid soil; common bean; Phaseolus vulgaris; genotypes.

  10. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar Bavaresco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adulto para mamona e cebola (39,7 dias e 21,7% e 40,5 dias e 21,8%, respectivamente, do que para soja (46,0 dias e 3,9%. O peso pupal foi de 444,6 mg em cebola, 420,0 em feijão, 396,6 em mamona e 298,7 em soja. Constatou-se um predomínio de seis ínstares larvais em folhas de cebola e mamona, ocorrendo também sete para alguns indivíduos, enquanto que em soja predominou a ocorrência de sete, também verificando oito ínstares, indicando uma menor adequação nutricional deste hospedeiro. As fêmeas apresentaram duração da fase pupal significativamente menor do que os machos em todos hospedeiros, fazendo com que a emergência do adulto ocorresse antes dos machos. Em cebola, a longevidade de adultos foi significativamente superior aos demais hospedeiros. A fecundidade foi maior em cebola e mamona (3224 e 3206 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, enquanto que para soja observou-se 1353 ovos/fêmea. Em folhas de feijão, o desenvolvimento do inseto foi prejudicado por caracteres morfológicos - pilosidade, que promoveram elevada mortalidade na fase larval.The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. was studied on four natural hosts (onion leaves, castor oil plant, soy cv. Embrapa 48 and bean cv. Carioca. The duration and viability of immature phases and total cycle, instar number, pupals weight, sexual ratio, percentage of deformed adults and adults not released of pupal beg, adults' longevity, fecundity and eggs viability were evaluated. It was observed in

  11. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF MAIZE IN MIXTURE WITH CLIMBING BEAN IN ORGANIC FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Bavec, Franc; Živec, Urška; Grobelnik Mlakar, Silva; Bavec , Martina; Radics , Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    Intercropped crops represent an important production system in organic farming, especially maize/climbing bean mixture due to its high content of protein in bean seeds for human diet, and producing silage for ruminants. To test this hypothesis, the effects of maize (Zea mays L.) sown as a sole crop and maize/climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Cipro) mixtures on maize plant height, maize leaf area index, bean leaf area index and grain yield were investigated in field experiments on an o...

  12. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Ambachew; Firew; Mekbib; Asrat; Asfaw; Stephen; E.Beebe; Matthew; W.Blair

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot(BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly; iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress.In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  13. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ambachew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM. The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii unprotected against bean fly; iii irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  14. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ambachew; Firew Mekbib; Asrat Asfaw; Stephen E. Beebe; Matthew W. Blaird

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly;iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  15. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collection for agromorphological and seed mineral concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of common bean comprising totally 223 genotypes of which 176 genotypes from the USDA, 37 common bean landraces and 10 commercial cultivars from Turkey, evaluated for several agromorphological plant characters and mineral concentrations in seeds. There were wide range of variations for t...

  16. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  17. Response of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean genotypes to inoculation with rhizobium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production regions of Latin America, inoculants are rarely used by farmers in spite of several studies that demonstrate the importance of Rhizobium inoculation on commercial production of legume crops. This study investigated specific bean host plant-Rhizo...

  18. Study Interactions of Competition between Climbing Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Corn (Zea mays L. Plants Sowed Associate Relaciones de Competencia entre el Fríjol Trepador (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y el Maíz (Zea mays L. Sembrados en Asocio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Darío Vélez Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Associated corn and bean is one of several systems to produce climbing bean. The main characteristic of the associated is the greater yield by area than monoculture of two species, although the competence between them reduces the yield bean in 40% and 20% in corn. Research about physiological processes affected by competence between these species is still scarce. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of competence on the physiological behavior of bean. In a randomized block design with 4 replications were established the following treatments: bean without competition, competition between bean and maíze by light, competition between bean and maíze by soil resources and simultaneous competition between bean and maíze by both resources light and soil. The variables measured were accumulated dry matter and its accumulation rate, leaf area, stem longitude, and the yield components of bean. The variance analysis, comparison of means and simple correlations were used. The types of competition significantly reduced the accumulated dry matter, the rates of accumulation, the yield and the yield components. The types of competence did not show significant differences on seed weigh and accumulated total dry matter of plants. Although during the plants ontogeny there were significant differences between them, feedback processes were established within each type of competition. Therefore, the effects of competence in the final stage were not distinguished. It suggests that bean plant is an integrated unit through the physiological processes.Una forma de cultivar fríjol trepador es en asocio con maíz. Su principal característica es el mayor rendimiento por unidad de área con respecto a los unicultivos de cada especie, aunque la competencia que se presenta entre ellas reduce los rendimientos del fríjol en más del 40% y los de maíz en 20%. La investigación sobre los procesos fisiológicos afectados por la competencia y su din

  19. Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean and common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunquan; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

    2013-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are useful for transient gene expression as well as for downregulation of gene expression via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When used in reverse genetics approaches, VIGS offers a convenient way of transforming genomic information into knowledge of gene function. Efforts to develop and improve plant viral vectors have expanded their applications and have led to substantial advances needed to facilitate gene function studies in major row crops. Here, we describe a DNA-based Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vector system for both gene expression and VIGS in soybean and common bean.

  20. Eficiência da seleção recorrente para redução da estatura de plantas em mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. Recurrent selection efficiency for stature reduction of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inocencio Junior de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se, o presente trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da seleção recorrente para a redução da estatura de plantas de mamona da cultivar Guarani (Ricinus communis L., tornando-a com porte adequado para facilitar a colheita manual e/ou mecânica. Foram realizados quatro ciclos de seleção recorrente com a utilização de progênies autofecundadas na cultivar Guarani para redução da estatura das plantas, nas condições edafoclimáticas dos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP. As avaliações de estatura das plantas e de produtividade de grãos (kg.ha-1, dos quatro ciclos de seleção e do ciclo original foram realizadas nos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP na safra 2005/2006, sob um delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e parcela útil de 30 m². A análise de variância para as características avaliadas foi feita separadamente para cada local e conjuntamente para os três locais e, posteriormente, realizada a comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Foram estimados, para as três localidades, por análise de regressão, os ganhos genéticos dos quatros ciclos de seleção para estatura de plantas. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que a seleção recorrente foi eficiente para a redução da estatura de plantas e que a cultivar de mamona Guarani apresenta variabilidade genética para essa característica e que a produtividade não foi influenciada pela redução da estatura de plantas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the recurrent selection efficiency for reduction of stature of the castor bean plants of the Guarani cultivar (Ricinus communis L., turning it with appropriate strucuture to facilitate the manual and/or mechanic harvest. Four cycles of recurrent selection were accomplished through the utilization of self-pollinated progenies in the Guarani cultivar for reduction of plants stature, in

  1. Polyamine and nitric oxide crosstalk: Antagonistic effects on cadmium toxicity in mung bean plants through upregulating the metal detoxification, antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a serious agricultural and environmental hazard. The study investigates cross-protection roles of putrescine (Put, 0.2 mM) and nitric oxide (sodium nitroprusside; SNP, 1 mM) in conferring Cd (CdCl2, 1.5 mM) tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2) seedlings. Cadmium stress increased root and shoot Cd content, reduced growth, destroyed chlorophyll (chl), modulated proline (Pro) and reduced leaf relative water content (RWC), increased oxidative damage [lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2(∙-) generation rate, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity], methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity. Put and/or SNP reduced Cd uptake, increasd phytochelatin (PC) content, reduced oxidative damage enhancing non-enzymatic antioxidants (AsA and GSH) and activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)]. Exogenous Put and/or SNP modulated endogenous polyamines, PAs (putrescine, Put; spermidine, Spd; spermine, Spm), and NO; improved glyoxalase system in detoxifying MG and improved physiology and growth where combined application showed better effects which designates possible crosstalk between NO and PAs to confer Cd-toxicity tolerance.

  2. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Rivarola

    Full Text Available Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  3. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  4. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W.; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J.; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade. PMID:21750729

  5. Efeitos alelopáticos de extratos vegetais na germinação, colonização micorrízica e crescimento inicial de milho, soja e feijão Allelopathic effects of plant aqueous extracts on germination, mycorrhization and Initial growth of corn, soybean and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Mendes Faria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Restos vegetais e liteira podem interferir no desenvolvimento de plantas. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de Pinus sp., milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke e mucuna (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy sobre a germinação, colonização micorrízica e crescimento inicial de milho (Zea mays L., soja (Glycine max L. e feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Os extratos foram elaborados utilizando folhas trituradas. O experimento in vitro empregou papel Germitest umedecido com extratos ou água destilada por sete dias. O experimento em casa de vegetação teve esquema fatorial 3 x 3 x 4, com quatro repetições: três espécies vegetais (soja, milho e feijão, três extratos aquosos (Pinus, milheto e mucuna e quatro doses de extrato (0,0; 0,5; 1,0; e 2,0 kg L-1. O substrato foi Latossolo Vermelho coletado no município de Selvíria-MS, no bioma Cerrado. Após a semeadura, os vasos receberam, a cada cinco dias, por 45 dias, 50 mL dos extratos. Para a soja, extratos de mucuna e milheto diminuíram o comprimento do hipocótilo e da radícula e os de Pinus aumentaram esses comprimentos. Em feijão, o extrato de Pinus diminuiu o comprimento do hipocótilo e da radícula, mas os extratos de mucuna e milheto aumentaram-no. O extrato do milheto reduziu a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação em feijão. Todos os extratos reduziram a colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em soja, milho e feijão.Plant residues and litter may affect the plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of pine (Pinus sp., millet [Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke] and velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy on germination, mycorrhizal colonization and initial growth of corn (Zea mays L., soybean (Glycine max L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Extracts of ground leaves were prepared. For the in vitro seven day

  6. Concentrations of metals and potential metal-binding compounds and speciation of Cd, Zn and Cu in phloem and xylem saps from castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with four levels of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Kenji; Nagata, Shinji; Fujimori, Tamaki; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    2015-06-01

    We examined the concentrations of metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) and potential metal-binding compounds [nicotianamine (NA), thiol compounds and citrate] in xylem and phloem saps from 4-week-old castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with 0 (control), 0.1, 1.0, and 10 μM Cd for 3 weeks. Treatment with 0.1 and 1 μM Cd produced no visible damage, while 10 μM Cd retarded growth. Cadmium concentrations in both saps were higher than those in the culture solution at 0.1 μM, similar at 1.0 μM and lower at 10 μM. Cd at 10 μM reduced Cu and Fe concentrations in both saps. NA concentrations measured by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MS) in xylem sap (20 μM) were higher than the Cu concentrations, and those in phloem sap (150 μM) were higher than those of Zn, Fe and Cu combined. Reduced glutathione concentrations differed in xylem and phloem saps (1-2 and 30-150 μM, respectively), but oxidized glutathione concentrations were similar. Phloem sap phytochelatin 2 concentration increased from 0.8 μM in controls to 8 μM in 10 μM Cd. Free citrate was 2-4 μM in xylem sap and 70-100 μM in phloem sap. Total bound forms of Cd in phloem and xylem saps from 1 μM Cd-treated plants were 54 and 8%, respectively. Treatment of phloem sap with proteinaseK reduced high-molecular compounds while increasing fractions of low-molecular Cd-thiol complexes. Zinc-NA, Fe-NA and Cu-NA were identified in the phloem sap fraction of control plants by electrospray ionization time-of-flight MS, and the xylem sap contained Cu-NA.

  7. Exposure of Lima bean leaves to volatiles from herbivore-induced conspecific plants results in emission of carnivore attractants: active or passive process?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choh, Y.; Shimoda, T.; Ozawa, R.; Dicke, M.; Takabayashi, J.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that volatiles emitted by herbivore-damaged plants can cause responses in downwind undamaged neighboring plants, such as the attraction of carnivorous enemies of herbivores. One of the open questions is whether this involves an active (production of volatiles) or passive

  8. Efeito do espaçamento e da cultivar de feijoeiro sobre a intensidade do mofo-branco e a sanidade de sementes Effect of plant spacing and bean cultivar on white mold and seed sanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Napoleão

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dois ensaios de campo foram realizados para avaliar o efeito do espaçamento entre linhas (30, 45 e 60 cm e entre plantas de feijoeiro com hábitos de crescimento diferentes, sobre a intensidade do mofo-branco e a sanidade de sementes. No primeiro, foi mantida a mesma população de plantas por área, 27 plantas/m², reduzindo-se o espaçamento entre plantas. No segundo ensaio, manteve-se o mesmo espaçamento entre plantas, que resultou em populações de 40, 27 e 20 plantas/m². A porcentagem de plantas infectadas e a severidade da doença não diferiram estatisticamente quanto ao hábito de crescimento da cultivar, ao espaçamento ou à interação entre eles, mesmo a incidência tendo atingido valores de 98,4% em 1998 e de 2,7% em 1999. A porcentagem de sementes infectadas não foi afetada pelo espaçamento, mas diferiu erraticamente em relação às cultivares; em 1998, a cultivar Pérola não apresentou sementes infectadas, o mesmo acontecendo com a cultivar Diamante Negro em 1999.The effect of spacing among rows and among bean plants, as well as two plant growth habits were evaluated on the intensity of white mold and seed health in two field trials in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. In the first trial, the same population of 27 plants/m² was maintained in rows of 30, 45 and 60 cm apart. In the second trial, the spacing among rows was maintained, which resulted in different plant populations of 40, 27 and 20 plants/m², respectively. Disease incidence and severity did not differ statistically within plants of different growth habits or different spacing, even with divergent disease incidences of 98.4% and 2.7% observed in 1998 and 1999, respectively. The percentage of infected seeds was not affected by spacing either, however the cultivar effect was erratic; in 1998, 'Perola' had no infected seeds and the same occurred with 'Diamante Negro' in 1999.

  9. Effective microorganisms enhance the scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown in salty soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Neveen B

    2014-07-01

    No information is available regarding effective microorganisms (EM) influence on the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defence system involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle under saline conditions. Therefore, as a first approach, this article focuses on the contribution of EM to the scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in salt-stressed plants. It investigates some mechanisms underlying alleviation of salt toxicity by EM application. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Nebraska plants were grown under non-saline or saline conditions (2.5 and 5.0 dSm(-1)) with and without EM application. Lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content were significantly increased in response to salinity, while they decreased with EM application in both stressed and non-stressed plants. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) increased under saline conditions; these increases were more significant in salt-stressed plants treated by EM. Activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC 1.8.5.1) decreased in response to salinity; however, they were significantly increased in stressed plants treated with EM. Ascorbate and glutathione contents were increased with the increasing salt concentration; moreover they further increased in stressed plants treated with EM. Ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG decreased under saline conditions, whereas they were significantly increased with EM treatment in the presence or in the absence of soil salinization. The EM treatment detoxified the stress generated by salinity and significantly improved plant growth and productivity. Enhancing the H2O2-scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in EM-treated plants may be an efficient mechanism to attenuate the activation of plant defences.

  10. An effective virus-based gene silencing method for functional genomics studies in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachroo Aardra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a crop of economic and nutritious importance in many parts of the world. The lack of genomic resources have impeded the advancement of common bean genomics and thereby crop improvement. Although concerted efforts from the "Phaseomics" consortium have resulted in the development of several genomic resources, functional studies have continued to lag due to the recalcitrance of this crop for genetic transformation. Results Here we describe the use of a bean pod mottle virus (BPMV-based vector for silencing of endogenous genes in common bean as well as for protein expression. This BPMV-based vector was originally developed for use in soybean. It has been successfully employed for both protein expression and gene silencing in this species. We tested this vector for applications in common bean by targeting common bean genes encoding nodulin 22 and stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase for silencing. Our results indicate that the BPMV vector can indeed be employed for reverse genetics studies of diverse biological processes in common bean. We also used the BPMV-based vector for expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP in common bean and demonstrate stable GFP expression in all common bean tissues where BPMV was detected. Conclusions The availability of this vector is an important advance for the common bean research community not only because it provides a rapid means for functional studies in common bean, but also because it does so without generating genetically modified plants. Here we describe the detailed methodology and provide essential guidelines for the use of this vector for both gene silencing and protein expression in common bean. The entire VIGS procedure can be completed in 4-5 weeks.

  11. Influencia de las malezas sobre el cultivo de frijol en función de espaciamiento y de la densidad de plantas Weeds influence in common bean as a function of spacing and plant density

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    M.C Parreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis de investigación es que con la reducción de la densidad de siembra y del espaciamiento entre líneas, el período anterior a la interferencia de las malezas será reducido en el cultivo de frijol. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el período anterior a la interferencia de las malezas (PAI en función del espaciamiento entre líneas y de su densidad poblacional. Los tratamientos fueron constituidos de ocho períodos de convivencia del cultivo con las malezas: 0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, 0-50, 0-60, 0-70 y 0-80 días después de la emergencia y un control libre de interferencia. Los períodos de convivencia fueron aplicados en dos experimentos, utilizando dos distancias entre líneas, de 0,45 y 0,60 m y en dos densidades de plantas por línea de siembra, de 10 y 15 plantas por metro. El delineamiento experimental utilizado fue en bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Hubo reducción de 16, 40, 36 y 58% en la productividad de granos del cultivo de frijol cuando convivió durante todo el ciclo del cultivo con las malezas, para el espaciamiento de 0,45 m en las densidades de 10 y 15 plantas m-1; y espaciamiento de 0,60 m y densidades de 10 y 15 plantas m-1, respectivamente. La productividad de granos pasó a ser afectada negativamente a partir de 28, 26, 22 y 14 días después de la emergencia, constituyéndose en los períodos anteriores a la interferencia del cultivo, respectivamente.Hypothesis is that reducing the density and the spacing between the lines, the period prior to the interference of weeds will be reduced by the bean crop. The aim of this study was to determine the period prior to weed interference (PPI with the bean crop in terms of row spacing and population density. Treatments consisted of eight periods of weed coexistence with the crop: 0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, 0-50, 0-60, 0-70 and 0-80 days after crop emergence. The periods of coexistence were applied in two experiments, using two spacings, 0

  12. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris); Coeficientes de translocacao folha-fruto de {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr e {sup 137}Cs em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-15

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of {sup 90}Y was used for {sup 90}Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. For the {sup 90

  13. Analysis, method and techniques for the studying of Cesium-137 transfer from soil to plants (maize and beans) (continuation of the technical report GSR-91-20); Analisis, metodo y tecnicas para estudio de transferencia de Cesio-137 de suelo a plantas (maiz y frijol) (continuacion del informe tecnico GSR-91-20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes N, M.L

    1992-12-15

    In this report the complete results of transfer of corn and bean whose objective is to determine the transfer of Cs-137 via: soil {yields} root {yields} plant, which is determined by the transfer factors or concentration factors (FC), which indicates the incorporation from Cs-137 to soil and plant starting from two models of compartments which were already described in the technical report GSR-91-20-1 that precedes to this are presented. These results correspond to that carried out during the agricultural cycle of 1991, as well as the first results corresponding to 1992 in the radioactive wastes storage center (CADER) in Mexico. (Author)

  14. Effects of sulphur dioxide on southern bean mosaic and maize dwarf mosaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, J.A.; Aluisio, A.L.; Weinstein, L.H.; McCune, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Sub-acute doses of sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) (either 262 or 524 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) for 5-10 days caused small but consistent increases in the titre of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) in Bountiful bean and maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) in maize. Exposure to SO/sub 2/ also increased infection and intensified symptoms caused by MDMV. Sulphur uptake by the host plant was not affected by either virus; however, pre- and post-inoculation exposures of bean plants to SO/sub 2/ resulted in greater than additive effects on sulphur uptake.

  15. Studies on interference between newly defined bean-infecting potyviruses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV) belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the plant virus family Potyviridae (Barnett, 1991, 1992) are of great economic importance. A large number of strains of BCMV and BlCMV are found to occur in nature, either in single or in mix

  16. Avaliação do Lithothamnium como corretivo da acidez do solo e fonte de nutrientes para o feijoeiro Evaluation of lithothamnium as corrective of soil acidity and source of nutrients for bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Melo

    2003-06-01

    -se que as menores doses de Lithothamnium, nos três solos, foram as que apresentaram melhores resultados nas características avaliadas e que os melhores resultados foram encontrados no LVd.With the objective of evaluating the efficiency of lithothamnium in the correction of the soil acidity and as source of nutrients for bean plants, an experiment was conducted in vases, in greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a complete randomized one, with nine treatments: control, four doses of lithothamnium (1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2 times the dose for V at 70%, commercial dolomite limestone as reference pattern (dose for V at 70%, lithothamnium (V at 70% without micronutrients, lithothamnium (V at 70% with reduction of 20% of NPK and lithothamnium (V at 70% plus Mg. Three soil classes were evaluated, Quartzarenic (NQ, Yellow Red Latossol (LV and Red Argissol (AV, with four repetitions for each treatment. Four bean plants were cultivated in vases with three dm3. Two of these plants were harvested in the flowering period, with both the macro and micronutrients concentrations being evaluated. The other two plants were harvested at the end of the cycle, when the productions of grain and vegetable dry matter (aerial parts, root, grain and total were evaluated. Lithothamnium showed practically the same effect of the commercial dolomite limestone in the correction of the acidity and in the saturation for bases being used the dose to reach a V at 70%. Lithothamnium promoted in the three soils, the elevation of calcium and magnesium levels, increasing the pH values and saturation for bases, and consequently, reduction in the saturation for aluminum, accrediting the product to be used as corrective and fertilizer. Those effects promoted better nutrition conditions, growth and production of the bean plant. The doses to reach 90% of the maximum production of grains in the NQ and LV soils were 610 and 1.090 kg ha-1, respectively, these doses being lower than those required to reach a V at

  17. Common bean: a legume model on the rise for unraveling responses and adaptations to iron, zinc and phosphate deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma A Castro Guerrero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris was domesticated ~8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals.

  18. Eficácia de extratos de nim para o controle do oídio do feijoeiro Effectiveness of neem extracts in controlling the powdery mildew of bean plant

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    Solange Monteiro de Toledo Piza Gomes Carneiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O nim, Azadirachta indica, vem sendo estudado nos últimos anos para o controle de fitopatógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do óleo, do extrato de sementes e do extrato de folhas de nim no controle do oídio do feijoeiro, em casa de vegetação. Uma formulação comercial de óleo emulsionável de nim foi testada em concentrações entre 0,25 e 2,0%, em aplicações antes ou após o surgimento dos sintomas da doença. O extrato de sementes foi produzido em laboratório por meio da trituração das sementes em água destilada, sendo pulverizado 48 horas antes ou 24 horas após a inoculação do patógeno. Avaliou-se, após o surgimento dos sintomas, a eficiência de uma formulação comercial de extrato de folhas, nas concentrações de 0,25 e 0,5%. Verificou-se que o óleo de nim foi eficiente para o controle da doença quando aplicado antes ou depois do surgimento dos sintomas. O extrato de sementes controlou a doença nas três concentrações testadas. Por outro lado, o extrato de folhas não foi eficiente no controle do oídio do feijoeiro.The neem, Azadirachta indica, has been studied in the last years for the use in controlling plant pathogens. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the neem oil, seed kernel extract and leaf extract on the control of the powdery mildew of the bean plant under green house conditions. The emulsified neem oil was tested for concentrations between 0.25 and 2.0% and sprayed before or after the appearance of the symptoms of the disease. The seed kernel extract was produced under laboratory conditions by grinding the kernels in distilled water, which was sprayed 48 hours before or 24 hours after the inoculation of the pathogen. It was also evaluated the efficiency of a commercial leaf extract at the concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5% which was sprayed after the appearance of the symptoms. The results of this work showed that the neem oil was efficient in the control of the

  19. A novel Moringa oleifera leaf extract can mitigate the stress effects of salinity and cadmium in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howladar, Saad M

    2014-02-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris plants were grown in the presence of NaCl and/or CdCl2 beginning from the second week, sprayed twice with moringa leaf extract (MLE) at 21 and 28 days after sowing (DAS), and were sampled at 35 DAS for growth and chemical analyses and yielded at the end of experiment. Growth traits, level of photosynthetic pigments, green pod yield and pod protein were significantly reduced with exposing the plants to NaCl and/or CdCl2. However, the follow up foliar application with MLE detoxified the stress generated by NaCl and/or CdCl2 and significantly enhanced the aforementioned parameters. Either individual or combined used stresses increased the electrolyte leakage (EL), lipid peroxidation and plant Cd(2+) content, and decreased the membrane stability index (MSI) and relative water content (RWC). However, the foliar application of MLE in the absence of the stress improved the MSI and RWC and minimized plant Cd(2+) content but could not affect EL and lipid peroxidation. Proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant increase in response to MLE as well as to NaCl and/or CdCl2 stress.

  20. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) as a potential environmental bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, M G; Santos Junior, C D; Dias, A C C; Bonetti, A M

    2015-10-21

    Biomonitoring of air quality using living organisms is a very interesting approach to environmental impact assessment. Organisms with a vast distribution, such as plants, are widely used for these purposes. The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an oleaginous plant that can potentially be used as a bioindicator plant owing to its rapid growth and large leaves, which have a wide surface area of contact with the air and the pollutants therein. This study investigated the the bioindicator potential of the castor bean by performing several tests. We observed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves of plants in polluted areas compared to that in the control group plants, which were located in a pollution-free area. Leaves of plants in the former group had higher peroxidase activity and showed a greater buffering ability than those of plants in the control group. The pKa values obtained via buffering capacity tests, revealed the presence of aminoazobenzene (an industrial dye) in leaves of R. communis. Genotoxicity was evaluated through the comet assay technique and revealed that other than some differences in DNA fragmentation, there is no statistically significant difference in this parameter between places analyzed. Our data indicate that R. communis can be a highly useful biological indicator. Further, we hypothesized that the castor bean can be a potential candidate for phytoremediation owing its physiological buffering capacity when exposed to substantial pollution.

  1. Response- Surface Analysis for Evaluation of Competition in Different Densities of Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface models predict crop yield based on crop density and this is an important tool for evaluation competition at different density and hence selection of optimum density based on yield. In order to study intra and inter specific competition in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and sesame (Sesamum indicum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2010. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with 3 replications and 16 treatments based on different densities of sesame and bean intercropping was used. The model predicted the maximum yield of an isolated plant of bean and sesame approximately 33 and 17g per plant respectively. The area associated with the maximum yield per plant in bean and sesame were 0.6 and 0.1 m2, respectively. Bean was the dominant competitor with respect to both grain and biomass, and competition coefficient was 0.35 and 0.3 for bean grain yield and bean biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was more important than inter-specific competition for bean. Competition coefficient was 2.6 and 2.9 for sesame grain yield and biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was much less important than Interspecific competition in sesame. The highest grain yield in bean (300 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 20 plants, and the highest sesame grain yield (195 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 40 plants, the highest land equivalent ratio (1.14 was obtained in intercropping of 20 plants of bean and 10 plants of sesame.

  2. Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Frasconi, C.; Fontanelli, M.; Raffaelli, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control. (Author)

  3. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  4. Review: The Potential of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as a Vehicle for Iron Biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Petry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA and polyphenol(s (PP. We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g. PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%–7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%–50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID.

  5. Indução de resistência em feijoeiro a mancha angular por extratos de micélio de Pycnoporus sanguineus Resistance induction in bean plants against angular leaf spot by extracts from Pycnoporus sanguineus mycelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Aparecida Viecelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. está entre as principais culturas da agricultura nacional e pode ser afetada por várias doenças, como a mancha angular causada por Pseudocercospora griseola. Com o objetivo de desenvolver métodos alternativos ao químico para o controle desta doença, verificou-se o potencial de extratos de micélio de Pycnoporus sanguineus para atividade antimicrobiana in vitro contra P. griseola e para indução de resistência e ativação de enzimas de defesa em feijoeiro, como peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e β-1,3-glucanase, além de sua influência nos teores de proteínas e clorofilas. Os experimentos in vitro e em casa de vegetação foram constituídos pelos extratos de micélio de P. sanguineus e dos controles água, acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM: 75 mg i.a./L e fungicida azoxystrobin (40 mg i.a./L. In vitro o extrato de micélio apresentou efeito sobre o crescimento micelial, a esporulação e a germinação de esporos de P. griseola. In vivo a severidade foi reduzida em 93% e 50% em casa de vegetação e a campo respectivamente, em relação ao controle água. A atividade das enzimas peroxidase e polifenoloxidase e os teores de proteínas e clorofilas foram maiores nas plantas tratadas com o extrato. Estes resultados indicam a eficiência de P. sanguineus para o controle alternativo da mancha angular do feijoeiro.Angular leaf spot, caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola, is a major disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Brazil. The objective of this research was to develop an alternative method for controlling this disease based on an aqueous extract of Pycnoporus sanguineus mycelium. It was evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extract against P. griseola as well as its activity of resistance induction against angular leaf spot. The role of the plant defense enzymes peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and β-1,3-glucanase, and the proteins and chlorophyll content was investigated. The

  6. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  7. Effects of plant population and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and efficiency of maize-bean intercropping Efeito de população de plantas e adubação nitrogenada na produção e eficiência do consórcio milho-feijão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Balbino Morgado

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen supply and plant population are basic parameters for cereal-legume intercropping. In order to study plant population and nitrogen fertilizer effects on yield and yield efficiency of maize-bean intercropping, a field experiment was established. Three bean plant populations and three nitrogen levels were used. Maize dry matter accumulation decreased with increases in bean plant population. Competitive effect of intercrop beans on maize yields was high at higher plant populations, being decreased by nitrogen fertilizer; application of 50 kg ha-1 N was very efficient in increasing maize cob yield. Intercropping significantly decreased harvest index of beans in all plant population and nitrogen fertilizer situations. The efficiency of intercropping, compared to sole cropping, was evidenced by the values obtained for Land Equivalent Ratio (LER for biomass, cob and pod yields that increased with increases in bean plant populations and nitrogen fertilizer levels.A disponibilidade de nitrogênio e a população de plantas são parâmetros básicos para o consórcio de gramíneas e leguminosas. Os efeitos de diferentes populações de plantas de feijão e níveis de nitrogênio na produção e eficiência do consórcio milho-feijão foram estudados em um experimento de campo. Foram usadas três populações de plantas de feijão e três níveis de nitrogênio. O acúmulo de matéria seca do milho durante o ciclo vegetativo decresceu à proporção que a população de feijão aumentou. O efeito competitivo do feijão na produção do milho consorciado, que se mostrou maior nas maiores populações de plantas, foi atenuado pela aplicação da adubação nitrogenada; a aplicação de 50 kg ha-1 de N foi muito eficiente no aumento da produção de espiga do milho. O consórcio diminuiu significativamente o índice de colheita do feijão em todas as populações de plantas e em todos os níveis de nitrogênio aplicados. A eficiência do cons

  8. Cost benefit analysis of the introduction of heat tolerant bean varieties in Atlántida, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising ambient air temperatures, migration, and deforestation threaten the sustainability of hillside common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) farming in Atlántida, Honduras. Farmers avoid climatic constraints to common bean production by planting at different altitudes during different seasons. In this ...

  9. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  10. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  11. Bioprospecção de macroalgas marinhas e plantas aquáticas para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro Bioprospecting of marine seaweeds and aquatic plants for controlling the bean anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fernandes de Abreu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar o efeito local, residual e sistêmico, de extratos de 17 espécies de macroalgas marinhas e de duas plantas aquáticas, sobre a antracnose do feijoeiro. Para tanto, os espécimes foram coletados, identificados, secos em estufa (50ºC/ 48 h, moídos e seus compostos extraídos com etanol. Plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru foram cultivadas em vasos, em casa-de-vegetação. Os 19 extratos foram subdivididos e testados em duas etapas de seleção e comparação independentes, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições (vasos com três plantas. As plantas foram pulverizadas com extratos na concentração de 50 mg de peso seco/mL quando apresentavam o primeiro trifólio expandido. Para verificar o efeito local, as plantas foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de 1,2 x 10(6 conídios/mL 4 horas após o tratamento, enquanto que para o estudo do efeito residual e sistêmico, as plantas foram inoculadas 7 dias após o tratamento. A severidade da antracnose foi avaliada 7 dias após a inoculação (dai na planta inteira e no trifólio não tratado (efeito sistêmico, utilizando-se uma escala de 1 a 9. As algas e plantas que reduziram significativamente a severidade da doença foram comparadas em experimento avaliado aos 7 e aos 12 dai. O extrato de Bryothamnion seaforthii apresentou efeito local, reduzindo em 35% a severidade da antracnose, enquanto o extrato de Ulva fasciata demonstrou efeito residual com redução de 22% na doença aos 12 dai. Somente os extratos de Lemna sp. e U. fasciata reduziram sistemicamente a severidade de doença aos 7 dai na ordem de 55 e 44%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O possível modo de ação desses extratos é discutido.The goal of this work was to test the local, residual as well as systemic effect of extracts from 17 marine seaweeds and two aquatic plant species against the bean anthracnose. For that, specimens were

  12. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  13. Effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth of beans plants (phaseolus vulgaris L.); Efecto de la humedad del suelo, por encima de la capacidad de campo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de judia (phaseolus vulgaris L.) Durante un mes de desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, M.; Mazon, M. P.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth and photosynthesis of three moisture levels (20,30 and 40 %) was studied.The first moisture level was near field capacity while the others exceeded. Weekly dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll content, net CO{sub 2} exchange rate in light and darkness, 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilated rate and stomatal aperture were determined. Results show a positive effect of soil moisture over field capacity on growth, photosynthate and transpiration of beans during the first growing month. (Author) 76 refs.

  14. Weed Interference Affects Dry Bean Yield and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dry bean is one of the most important pulse crops in Iran. Field study was conducted in 2011 to evaluate effects of weed competition from a natural flora on growth and yield of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The treatments consisted of weed infestation and weed removal periods (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. Control plots kept weed-infested and weed-free throughout growing season. To assess the weed competition effect on crop characteristics, Richards, Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to the data. The most abundant weed species were Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Increase in duration of weed interference decreased the stem height of dry bean. At the end of the growing season, dry bean was 20 cm taller in season-long weed-free treatment compared to the season-long weed-infested treatment. As the number of days of weed interference increased, a declining trend of LAI and number of pods was observed. The minimum number of pods was obtained in season-long weed-infested treatment (5.01 pods/plant. Weed interference during the whole growing season, caused a 60% reduction in yield. Considering 5% and 10% acceptable yield lost, the critical period of weed competition was determined from 20 to 68 and 23 to 55 days after planting (DAE, respectively.

  15. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. “Lima Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Bacon in Sauce,”...

  16. Research on Development Strategy of Industry of Edible Beans in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The West China is main producing region and advantageous producing region of edible beans. Developing industry of edible beans in West China has prominent regional advantage, production advantage, quality advantage, market advantage, and price advantage. We analyze the problems existing in the process of development of industry of edible beans in West China as follows: the cognition is insufficient; fund for scientific research is short; the basic research is weak; the planting is sparse; the industrialization is not sound; the information is restricted. Corresponding suggestions are put forward in this paper as follows, in order to ensure the healthy development of industry of edible beans in China: formulate preferential policies; establish high-quality edible producing bases; promote the brand effect; pay attention to post-production development; develop the idea of new agricultural planting and cultivation.

  17. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B-vitamins, iron, folate, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and zinc. Most beans are also low in fat. Legumes ... pressure, heart rate, and other heart disease and diabetes risks. Beans and legumes contain antioxidants that help ...

  18. 基于植物电位波动的极低频脉冲电场对绿豆幼苗生长的影响%Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electric Field Based on Plant Potential Fluctuations on Growth of Mung Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习岗; 杨运经; 刘锴; 张晓辉

    2012-01-01

    为了解决电场生物学效应重复性不好的问题,研究了极低频脉冲电场的生物学效应。结果发现,强度为100kV/m、频率为0.2Hz的极低频脉冲电场处理明显促进了萌发绿豆的芽长和根长生长。对绿豆幼苗超弱光子辐射的研究表明,在绿豆幼苗生长过程中自发发光呈现阶跃式增长,延迟发光积分强度逐渐升高,脉冲电场作用使得自发发光和延迟发光积分强度都有明显的提高,表明极低频脉冲电场促进了绿豆幼苗生长过程中的DNA合成反应和代谢强度,脉冲电场与植物自身电位波动的耦合共振可能是上述极低频脉冲电场生物学效应的成因。%In order to solve the problem of poor reproducibility of electric field biological effects,we studied the biological effects of extremely low frequency pulsed electric field.The results showed the shoot and root growth of mung beans seedling were significantly enhanced by pulsed electric field of 100 kV / m and 0.2 Hz.Research of ultra-weak photon emission on mung beans showed that the step growth of spontaneous luminescence of mung beans appeared and the integrated intensity of delayed luminescence gradually increased in the course of seedling growth,and the pulsed electric field significantly increased spontaneous luminescence and the integrated intensity of delayed luminescence.The changes of ultra-weak photon emission on mung beans implied that the pulsed electric fields promoted the process of DNA synthesis and metabolic intensity in the growth of mung bean seedlings.The coupled resonance of the pulsed electric field and potential fluctuations in plant might be caused by the pulsed electric field biological effect.

  19. Desenvolvimento de feijão-macuco em área de várzea Development of yam bean or "Feijão-Macuco" plant in a floodplain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilvanda L. de Oliveira Melo

    2000-03-01

    , concluímos que o tutoramento das plantas, associado à remoção das inflorescências, favoreceu o desenvolvimento do feijão macuco.Pachyrrhizus tuberosus, popularly known as yam bean, ("feijão-macuco" or "jacatupé" in portuguese is one of the tropical food plant species bearing edible tuberous roots. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plant's growth, correlating the development of the plant parts in the vegetative, flowering, fruiting and tuberous root formation stages, as well as assessing the importance of staking the plants and pruning the inflorescence in the development of the plant and in the yield of tuberous roots. The study was carried out in a Rio Solimões' floodplain area from August 1993 to May 1994, with 1,925 mm of rainfall, 26ºC average temperature and 86.5% relative humidity. The behavior of three genotypes, identified as 1, 2 and 3, which were submitted to four kinds of plant management: with and without staking the plants and with and without pruning the inflorescences. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks in a factorial scheme of 3 x 2 x 2 (genotypes, staking, and inflorescences pruning, respectively with three replications. Plots measuring 15.5 x 25.0 m were used. The staking treatment increased the plant and stems dry matter weight. Usually there was a steady increase of the above and below ground parts with staking. Growth rates were similar to all genotypes. Staked plants showed a tendency to higher relative growth. The pruning of the inflorescences promoted up to 4.6 fold increase in the tuberous roots weight. In addition to raising the leaves dry matter weight, inflorescence pruning also furthered an increase in the a, b and total chlorophyl grades 160 days after sowing. According to results obtained, it was concluded that staking plants associated with the pruning of the inflorescences improved the development of the "feijão-macuco".

  20. A better bean. Reports from the field -- Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D

    1997-01-01

    Researchers from the Colegio de Postgraduados, in partnership with the University of Guelph in Canada, have used horizontal resistance breeding, without the aid of pesticides, to more than triple the yield of locally grown black beans. J.E. Vanderplank, a South African plant pathologist, coined the terms "vertical" and "horizontal" for the types of crop plant resistance in 1963. The former involves a single gene and breaks down when new pathogens appear; the latter involves several genes and is a more durable form of resistance to disease or to insects. Enhancing vertical resistance, which is based on classical Mendelian breeding techniques, requires crossing a wild plant that possesses the desired gene with a cultivar to create a hybrid; the hybrid offspring are then backcrossed with the cultivar parent for several generations until a hybrid is created that is identical to the cultivar, except for the wild parent's resistance gene. In horizontal resistance breeding, the best individuals from each generation are selected and bred with each other. According to Raoul Robinson, a Canadian crop scientist and member of the plant breeding team supported by IDRC, breeding to enhance vertical resistance, or under the protection of insecticides and fungicides, has caused the level of horizontal resistance to decline and plant susceptibility to parasites to increase. Dr. Robinson and Dr. Roberto Garcia Espinosa (the Mexican project manager) began their work using horizontal resistance breeding in black beans in 1991. Yields of 1500 kg/hectare were achieved in two breeding cycles (two years) without the use of pesticides. The average bean yield in the Mixteca region of Mexico is 400 kg/hectare with the use of pesticides. The 200,000 small farmers in the area cultivate over 300,000 hectares, 40,000 of which are beans. The breeding techniques used in this project can be applied to other crops and in other countries.

  1. Genetic Damage of Root Tip Cells in Broad Bean Plant (Vicia faba) Induced by Water in Liao River Valley%辽河流域水诱发蚕豆根尖细胞遗传损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利红; 徐成斌; 陈忠林; 苏丹; 王家懿

    2009-01-01

    以辽河流域12个不同断面的河水为诱变剂,运用蚕豆根尖微核检测技术和染色体畸变实验方法,测定蚕豆根尖细胞的有丝分裂指数、微核率和染色体畸变率.结果表明:不同断面的河水均能降低蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数,能诱发较高频率的微核和染色体畸变,产生染色体断片、核突起和核碎裂.所有样点微核率和染色体畸变率均高于对照组.根据采样点水质污染指数分析町知,福德店水质属重度污染,东辽河、条子河、红庙子水质属中度污染,招苏台河水质属轻度污染.%Water in 12 sections of Liao River Valley was sampled as mutagen and micronucleus test and chromosome aberration assay were used to detect mitotic index,micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio of root tip cells in broad bean plant(Viciafaba).Results showed that water in different sections can decrease the mitotic index in Vicia faba root tip ceHs,induce higher raftos of either micronucleus or chromosome aberration and produce chromosomal segments,nuclear protuberances and fragments.Micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio in different sections were higher than those of the control group.Analysis of pollution index in 12 sections showed that water quality Was graded as heavy pollution in Fudedian River,moderate pollution in Dongliao River,Tiaozi River and Hongmiaozi River and light pollution in Zhaosutai River.

  2. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  3. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  4. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  5. Condutância estomática em folhas de feijoeiro submetido a diferentes regimes de irrigação Stomatal conductance in leaves of bean plants submitted to different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auricleia S. Paiva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle estomático é importante propriedade fisiológica por meio da qual as plantas limitam a perda de água, ocasionando reduções na condutância estomática e, geralmente, reduzindo as trocas gasosas como forma de resposta das plantas a diversos fatores, incluindo o estresse hídrico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a condutância estomática em folhas de feijoeiro submetido a diferentes regimes de irrigação. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal - SP. As irrigações nos tratamentos foram determinadas em função do esgotamento de água no solo: T1 - irrigado quando esse atingiu 40% da capacidade de água disponível (CAD; T2 - quando atingiu 60% da CAD; T3 - quando atingiu 80% da CAD, e T4 - não irrigado (irrigado somente para favorecer a emergência das plântulas. As medições de condutância estomática foram realizadas diariamente no campo, nas duas faces da folha, utilizando-se de um porômetro. Em todos os tratamentos, em diversas medições, foi observada redução da condutância estomática em resposta a baixos valores de potencial mátrico e a altos valores de déficit de pressão de vapor e vice-versa. As folhas das plantas do tratamento T4, que foram submetidas a menor disponibilidade hídrica no solo, apresentaram os menores valores de condutância estomática durante os estádios do florescimento e enchimento de grãos.Stomatal control is an important physiological process for plants to reduce water loss. It causes reduction in stomatal conductance and generally in gas exchanges, as a response of several factors including water stress. The objective of this study was to determine the stomatal conductance of bean leaves submitted to different irrigation regimes. Field experiment was conducted at the São Paulo State University, in Jaboticabal, Brazil. Irrigation of the treatments occurred when available water

  6. Advances in faba bean genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Martin O'Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centres of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favoured plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea.However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fuelled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990’s and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are

  7. Estimation of phenotypic variability in symbiotic nitrogen fixation ability of common bean under drought stress using 15N natural abundance in grain

    OpenAIRE

    Polania, Jose; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rao, Idupulapati; Beebe, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume, cultivated by small farmers and is usually exposed to unfavorable conditions with minimum use of inputs. Drought and low soil fertility, especially phosphorus and nitrogen (N) deficiencies, are major limitations to bean yield in smallholder systems. Beans can derive part of their required N from the atmosphere through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). Drought stress severely limits SNF ability of plants. The main objectiv...

  8. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  9. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  10. Deposição e perdas da calda em feijoeiro em aplicação com assistência de ar na barra pulverizadora Spray deposition and spray loss using air-assistance boom on bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Raetano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da assistência de ar na deposição da calda de pulverização, em plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris aos 26 dias após a emergência (DAE, com pontas de pulverização de jato cônico vazio (JA-0,5 e JA-1 e jato plano (AXI-110015, e volumes de calda, foi realizado um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando como traçador o íon cobre. Alvos coletores (papel de filtro com 3 x 3 cm foram afixados nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de folíolos posicionados nas partes superior e inferior das plantas. Para aplicar a solução traçadora, utilizou-se pulverizador com barras de 14 metros, com e sem assistência de ar, volumes de 60 e 100 L.ha-1, e velocidade do ar correspondente a 50% da rotação máxima do ventilador. Após a aplicação, os coletores foram lavados individualmente em solução extratora de ácido nítrico a 1,0 mol.L-1, e a quantificação dos depósitos através de espectrofotometria. A assistência de ar não influenciou na deposição da calda tanto a 60 quanto a 100 L.ha-1. O maior volume proporcionou maiores depósitos, sendo constatadas elevadas perdas para o solo (mais de 60%.Aiming to evaluate the effect of air-assistance in spray deposition on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris with hollow nozzles (JA-0,5 and JA-1 and flat fan nozzle type (AXI-110015, and volume rates by air-assisted and non-assisted sprayers, a completely randomized experiment was carried out using copper ion as a tracer to the evaluation of the deposits. At 26 days after emergence, artificial targets were positioned on the upper and under-side of the leaflets, on the top and bottom parts of the same plants under spray boom. For the application of tracer solution it was used a fourteen meter boom sprayer with and without air-assistance at 60 and 100 L.ha-1 of volume rates. The air flow was 50% of the maximum fan rotation. After application, targets were individually washed with an

  11. Regulation of copper homeostasis and biotic interactions by microRNA 398b in common bean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Naya

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are recognized as important post-transcriptional regulators in plants. Information about the roles of miRNAs in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., an agronomically important legume, is yet scant. The objective of this work was to functionally characterize the conserved miRNA: miR398b and its target Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase 1 (CSD1 in common bean. We experimentally validated a novel miR398 target: the stress up-regulated Nodulin 19 (Nod19. Expression analysis of miR398b and target genes -CSD1 and Nod19- in bean roots, nodules and leaves, indicated their role in copper (Cu homeostasis. In bean plants under Cu toxicity miR398b was decreased and Nod19 and CSD1, that participates in reactive oxygen species (ROS detoxification, were up-regulated. The opposite regulation was observed in Cu deficient bean plants; lower levels of CSD1 would allow Cu delivery to essential Cu-containing proteins. Composite common bean plants with transgenic roots over-expressing miR398 showed ca. 20-fold higher mature miR398b and almost negligible target transcript levels as well as increased anthocyanin content and expression of Cu-stress responsive genes, when subjected to Cu deficiency. The down-regulation of miR398b with the consequent up-regulation of its targets was observed in common bean roots during the oxidative burst resulting from short-time exposure to high Cu. A similar response occurred at early stage of bean roots inoculated with Rhizobium tropici, where an increase in ROS was observed. In addition, the miR398b down-regulation and an increase in CSD1 and Nod19 were observed in bean leaves challenged with Sclerotinia scleortiorum fungal pathogen. Transient over-expression of miR398b in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infected with S. sclerotiorum resulted in enhanced fungal lesions. We conclude that the miR398b-mediated up-regulation of CSD and Nod19 is relevant for common bean plants to cope with oxidative stress generated in abiotic and biotic

  12. Identification of 14-3-3 Family in Common Bean and Their Response to Abiotic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihua Li

    Full Text Available 14-3-3s are a class of conserved regulatory proteins ubiquitously found in eukaryotes, which play important roles in a variety of cellular processes including response to diverse stresses. Although much has been learned about 14-3-3s in several plant species, it remains unknown in common bean. In this study, 9 common bean 14-3-3s (PvGF14s were identified by exhaustive data mining against the publicly available common bean genomic database. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that each predicted PvGF14 was clustered with two GmSGF14 paralogs from soybean. Both epsilon-like and non-epsilon classes of PvGF14s were found in common bean, and the PvGF14s belonging to each class exhibited similar gene structure. Among 9 PvGF14s, only 8 are transcribed in common bean. Expression patterns of PvGF14s varied depending on tissue type, developmental stage and exposure of plants to stress. A protein-protein interaction study revealed that PvGF14a forms dimer with itself and with other PvGF14 isoforms. This study provides a first comprehensive look at common bean 14-3-3 proteins, a family of proteins with diverse functions in many cellular processes, especially in response to stresses.

  13. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  14. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  15. Isolation and partial sequence of a Kunitz-type elastase specific inhibitor from marama bean (Tylosema esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaraja, Deepa; Weintraub, Susan T; Hakala, Kevin W; Sherman, Nicholas E; Starcher, Barry

    2010-06-01

    An isolation procedure utilizing ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity chromatography was used to purify an elastase inhibitor present in large amounts in marama beans (Tylosema esculentum). The protein appeared to be heterogeneous due to carbohydrate differences, demonstrating two bands on SDS gels with molecular weights of 17.8 kDa and 20 kDa. Partial sequence, derived from mass spectrometry, indicated that the protein is a Kunitz-type inhibitor distinct from other known plant serine protease inhibitors. The marama bean inhibitor is specific for elastase, with very low K(i) for both pancreatic and neutrophil elastase. The quantity of elastase inhibitor present in marama beans is many times greater than in soybean or any other bean or nut source reported to date. This raises the question of why a bean found in an arid corner of the Kalahari Desert would be so rich in a very potent elastase inhibitor.

  16. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  17. The toxicity and invasive effects of QDs on mung bean development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Ruhua; Huang, Xuan; Feng, Gang; Lin, Guimiao; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Gaixia; Chen, Danni

    2014-09-01

    Objective: Nowadays, the nanomaterials have been applied in every aspects of our life, including cosmetics, fresh-keeping, antisepsis and medicines. However, we know little about the toxic effects of nanoparticles towards plants. In this thesis, we synthesized quantum dots (QDs), and then toxicity and invasive effects of QDs for mung beans were investigated. Methods: We synthesised red CdTe QDs in water sphase with L-Cystein stabilizers, then prepared different concentration of QDs solution to cultivate mung bean plant, the radical length of mung beans was measured after four days every day, after 7 days, the distribution of QDs in mung bean plant was recorded under the microscopic. Results: The result showed the QDs inhibited the growth of mung beans, the higher the concentration of QDs was, the greater the inhibition effect was. After 7 days, the radicle average lengths of mung beans in different concentrations of QDs solution - blank 0.1μmol/L 0.2μmol/L 0.5 μmol/L 1 μmol/L - were 19.350+/- 0.427, 14.050+/- 0.879, 10.525+/- 0.554, 7.250+/- 0.522, 7.650+/- 0.229. The QDs mostly adhered onto the root surface and hairs. Conclusion: In conclusion, the QDs synthesized with L-cystein have effects on the growth of mung beans. However, it is necessary to do more experiments to confirm the mechanism of the toxicity effect of QDs on plants.

  18. Development of Selection Criteria on Bean Weight Character of Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL. through Path Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Path coefficient analysis is frequently used for development of selection criteria on various type of plants. Path analysis on this research was conducted to find the selection criteria of yield component which directly affect bean weight. In addition to the value of path analysis coefficient, genetic variation coefficient, heritability and the value of genetic progress were also studied. The study was conducted at the Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research used randomized complete block design consisting of 14 accession numbers and each consisting of three replications. Pod girth, pod length, pod weight, wet beans weight per pod, number of normal beans per pod, number of abnormal beans per pod, dry weight per normal bean, and shell content were observed. The results showed that the pod weight character had an important role in determining the dry weight of normal bean. The character had a positive genotype correlation coefficient values which was high and significantly different (r=0.46 for dry weight per normal bean, considerable direct influence (P=0.479, moderate of the genotype variation coefficient (9.6%, and high genetic progress (95.23. Character of wet bean weight per pod could also be used indirectly for the selection criteria for dry weight per normal bean based on genetic variation coefficient value (11.88%, genetic progress value (82.48, and direct effect on dry weight per normal bean had positive value (P=0.006. Key words: Selection criteria, dry weight per bean, path analysis,Theobroma cacaoL.

  19. Stress ethylene evolution of bean plants—a parameter indicating ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Hans-Jürgen; Schicker, Sieglinde; Kassner, Helmut

    Bean plants treated with varying ozone concentrations for varying exposure times showed increased rates of ethylene production compared with controls. A standard method was worked out in which primary leaves of bean plants were encapsulated in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks after exposure. The amount of ethylene produced was determined by gas chromatography after about 24 h. The 'no effect level' of the bean plant was found to be 100 ppb ozone because there was no significant stress ethylene production even after 12 h fumigation. A treatment with 150 ppb ozone induced the beginning of stress ethylene production after about 8 h. With higher ozone concentrations shorter exposure times are necessary to induce a first response. Stress ethylene production correlates better with ozone concentration than with exposure time comparing the same products of concentration and time.

  20. Infestation of Caliothrips phaseoli (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Bean Cultivars Grown in the Winter, Rainy, and Dry Seasons in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiça Júnior, Arlindo Leal; Costa, Eduardo Neves; De Souza, Bruno Henrique Sardinha; Da Silva, Anderson Gonçalves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars less susceptible to Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood) in different growing seasons, to evaluate whether climatic conditions influence plant resistance to C. phaseoli infestation, and to investigate the preferred plant part for insect feeding. Eighteen common bean cultivars were evaluated in the winter season, and 19 cultivars were assessed in the rainy and dry seasons, under field conditions in the municipality of Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Infestation of C. phaseoli nymphs in the upper and lower parts of the beans plants was recorded at weekly intervals from 25 days after plant emergence (DAE) to 60 DAE. In the winter season, the cultivars 'IAC Galante,' 'IAC Centauro,' 'IAC Carioca Eté,' and 'IAC Formoso' had significantly lower number of thrips than the cultivar 'IAC Diplomata.' In the rainy season, the cultivars 'IAC Harmonia' and 'IPR Siriri' had the lowest thrips infestation, differing from the cultivars 'BRS Pontal' and 'IAC Una.' The bean cultivars were equally susceptible to C. phaseoli in the dry season. The results suggest that C. phaseoli nymphs prefer to infest leaves of the lower part of bean plants, like most generalist herbivorous insects. In the winter and dry seasons, the highest thrips infestation was observed at 60 DAE, while in the rainy season, it was recorded from 32 to 46 DAE. Overall, C. phaseoli infestation on bean cultivars was not influenced by either temperature, relative humidity, or rainfall.

  1. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  2. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  3. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the gods": Quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Almeida, M.H.; Nout, M.J.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most

  4. Produtividade e nutrição de mamona cultivada em área de reforma de canavial tratada com lodo de esgoto Yield and plant nutrition of castor bean in crop rotation with sugarcane in a sewage sludge-treated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Jacob Chiaradia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de lodo de esgoto (LE em solos agrícolas é uma das maneiras mais viáveis de destinação desse resíduo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de LE na nutrição e na produtividade da mamona cultivada em área de reforma de canavial, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico textura argilosa. Os tratamentos testados constaram de quatro doses de lodo de esgoto: 0, 5, 10 e 20 t ha-1 (base seca, calculadas para fornecer N equivalente a 0, 37,5, 75 e 150 kg ha-1; um tratamento com fertilização mineral N-P2O5-K2O (75-40-80 kg ha-1respectivamente e um controle sem qualquer fertilização. Os tratamentos com LE também receberam 40 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 80 kg ha-1 de K2O. A mamoneira, cultivar IAC-Guarani, foi cultivada por cerca de 180 dias entre novembro de 2004 e maio de 2005. A aplicação de LE resultou em incremento estatisticamente significativo (p The use of sewage sludge (SS in agricultural soils is one of the most viable forms of recycling this residue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SS application on castor bean yield and nutrition in a clayey dystrophic Ultisol following a rotation of sugarcane. The treatments tested were four sewage-sludge rates (0, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1, dry matter calculated to supply plants with N at amounts of 0, 37.5 kg ha-1, 75 kg ha-1 and 150 kg ha-1; mineral fertilization with N-P2O5-K2O (75-40-80, respectively and a control without fertilization. Castor bean, cultivar IAC-Guarani, was grown for 180 days, from November 2004 to May 2005. There was a significant (p<0.05 increment of castor bean yield due to SS application. the application of 10 t ha-1 SS resulted in an agronomic efficiency index of 85 %, compared to mineral fertilization. Nitrogen was the most limiting nutrient concerning yield and plant growth and the nitrogen mineralization rate used underestimated the N supplied by SS under field conditions. Applying SS a the studied rates led to

  5. Evaluation of tolerance to water stress in beans

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    Mauricio Marini Köop

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the genotypes of beans, and to sort them into groups that are tolerant and sensitive to water stress, by assessing their morphological characteristics for use in blocks of crosses and the study of gene expression. We evaluated nine bean genotypes: IAPAR 14, IAPAR 81, Pérola, IPR Colibri, IPR Juriti, IPR Chopim, IPR Gralha, and IPR Tiziu IPR Uirapuru. The genotypes were subjected to two irrigation conditions: i irrigation water as needed throughout the culture cycle and ii irrigation water as needed until the appearance of the first bud, followed by no irrigation water for 15 days. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with three replications. The characteristics evaluated were: i plant height; ii stem diameter, iii number of pods per plant, iv number of grains per pod, v root length and vi root dry mass. Stem diameter should not be used to determine if bean genotypes are tolerant or susceptible to water shortages. The results for the Pérola genotype were the highest for most of the characteristics evaluated, and, for this reason, it was classified as tolerant to water stress during flowering. The genotypes IAPAR and 81 IPR Juriti had the lowest results for the most features and were classified as susceptible to water stress during flowering.

  6. Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1957-01-01

    mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento.Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger. The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did. Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone. Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase. Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M. Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for both

  7. Development of bean plants in soil contaminated with trifloxysulfuron-sodium after Stizolobium aterrimum and Canavalia ensiformis cultivation Desenvolvimento de plantas de feijão em solo contaminado com trifloxysulfuron-sodium, após o cultivo de Stizolobium aterrimum e Canavalia ensiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation, the use of plants to decontaminate soils and water resources from organic pollutants such as herbicides, is economically and environmentally a promising technique applied in many areas, including agriculture. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of bean plants cultivated in the field, in soil with different levels of trifloxysulfuron-sodium contamination, following cultivation of two green manure species, as well as to evaluate the possibility of recontamination of the area by such herbicide with the straw permanence on the soil. The experiment was carried out in Coimbra, MG, Brazil, on a sandy clayey Red - Yellow Argisol from March to November 2003. Four levels of soil contamination with trifloxysulfuron-sodium (0.00; 3.75; 7.50; and 15.00 g ha-1 were used as well as the following five types of cultivation prior to bean sowing in the area after herbicide application: black velvet beans (Stizolobium aterrimum followed by removal of straw; S. aterrimum, followed by permanence of straw; jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, followed by removal of straw; C. ensiformis followed by permanence of straw; and without prior cultivation, weed-free (weeded control. The leguminous plants were kept in the area for 65 days, cut close to the soil, and with its aerial part left or not on the surface of the experimental plot, depending on the treatment. Fifteen days after the species were cut, bean was sown in the area. At 45 days after emergence (DAE of the bean plants, plant height and dry mass of the aerial part were evaluated. Grain productivity was determined during harvest. Height, dry matter of the aerial part and grain productivity of the bean plants, cultivated in an area previously contaminated with trifloxysulfuron-sodium at any of the levels tested, were higher with prior cultivation of S. aterrimum or C. ensiformis. At the lowest level of herbicide contamination, prior cultivation of C. ensiformis was found to be

  8. Green manure and its influence on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in agroecological system

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    Marisol Rivero Herrada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green manures have been used as biomass producers and suppliers of nutrients and keep the soil productive potential in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of dry biomass and nutrient concentration and accumulation in plants of green manure in two cropping systems, without associating and associated with millet and its influence on the nutritional status of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in succession in agroecological production. Four legumes (Canavalia ensiformis Adans; Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.; Crotalaria juncea L.; Mucuna pruriens (L. DC and one grass (Pennisetum glaucum L. as association plant, were evaluated. A randomized block design was used, with eight treatments and four repetitions. The green manure plants were cut and left on the ground at 60 days after planting and bean was planted 20 days after cutting the manure plants. The evaluated variables were dried biomass production, nutrient content of green manure and nutrient content in leaves of beans in succession. The production of dry biomass of green manure was higher than 9.00 t ha-1. Mucuna stood out with the greatest tenors of N, Ca, Mg, pork beans with the highest tenors of K, Cu, Mn. The greatest accumulation of P, K and Ca nutrients was in pigeon pea. The highest values of N and Mg were obtained in mucuna. Higher C / N relation was obtained in rotalaria.

  9. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  10. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  11. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  12. Morphological characteristic of purple long yard bean cultivars and their tolerance to drought stress

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    M W Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of purple long yard bean which tolerance to drought stress and have high productivity can improve farming in arid area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of the tolerance purple long yard beans to drought stress based on morphologic characters, to get the hypothesis method of tolerance and to obtain tolerance cultivars to the drought stress. Eight cultivars of purple long yard beans, i.e. UBPHU1-41, UBPHU1-130, UBPU3-153, UBPU1-202, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, Brawijaya 4 and Bagong 2, were tested in two environmental conditions, 100% field capacity and 50% field capacity. The results showed that drought stress in purple long yard bean affected all morphological characters observed, except for root length and flowering time. Estimation of tolerance to drought stress using the Principles Component Analysis (PCA showed that the shoot fresh weight could be an indicator of purple pod bean tolerance to drought stress. However, the test using Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI was not able to classify the purple long yard bean tolerance to drought stress. The results of analysis using PCA followed by discriminant analysis and clustering dendrogram showed that the UBPU1-41, UBPU1-130, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, UB4 and Bagong 2 cultivars were medium cultivars that are tolerant to drought stress. Therefore, they can be planted in semiarid regions.

  13. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  14. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  15. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); He, Z.L., E-mail: zhe@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Stoffella, P.J. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Mylavarapu, R.S. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Soil and Water Science Department, Gainesville, FL 33611 (United States); Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL 33031 (United States); Moyano, B. [Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); Baligar, V.C. [United State Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg{sup −1}) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg{sup −1}. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg{sup −1}), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg{sup −1}, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil

  16. Composição química do feijoeiro e absorção de elementos nutritivos, do florescimento à maturação Chemical composition of garden bean plant and the uptake of nutrients from the stage of blooming to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedeu-se a um estudo das curvas de produção de matéria sêca, concentração e absorção de elementos minerais, no feijoeiro. Plantas da variedade Chumbinho opaco, crescendo nas condições de campo, com e sem adubação, foram colhidas em diferentes estádios do ciclo, a partir do florescimento. Dividiram-se as amostras em raiz, haste, fôlha e fruto, submetendo-as à análise quantitativa de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Na planta madura, as sementes foram colhidas e analisadas separadamente da vagem. São também discutidos os efeitos provocados pela adubação sôbre aquelas características e a extração de nutrientes do solo pelo feijoeiro, na colheita, levando-se em conta o retôrno ou não dos resíduos de cultura. Os dados oferecem, ainda, indicações quanto à aplicação tardia de nitrogênio no feijoeiro, com base no fato de que uma absorção ativa de nitrogênio pela planta ocorre durante o período critico de crescimento das sementes, quando se intensifica a produção de carbohidratos. Nesta fase, a demanda da planta poderia não ser satisfeita à custa exclusiva do N fixado pelo processo simbiótico.The purpose of this investigation was to gain information on the rate of dry matter production and nutrient absorption of bean plants. Samples of fertilized and unfertilized bean plants, grown on «terra-roxa-misturada» type of soil at Campinas and under field conditions, were taken at various stages of growth. They were divided in roots, stems, leaves and fruits and have been analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S. At maturity the seeds were separated from the pods and analyzed separately. With the exception of calcium in the leaves, the percentage of all mineral elements tended to reach a maximum in the various plant parts at about blooming and pod-forming stage. The total seeds and pods contained more nitrogen and phosphorus, and less calcium, magnesium and sulphur throughout the season. The percentages of potassium, calcium and

  17. Integrating and Processing XML Documents with JavaBeans Components

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    Yin-Wah Chiou

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The eXtensible Markup Language (XML and JavaBeans component model have gained wide popularity in the Object Web computing. This paper explores how JavaBeans components can be used to integrate and process the XML documents. It covers Bean Markup Language (BML, XML BeanMaker, XML Bean Suite, and Xbeans. The most powerful JavaBeans connection language is BML, which represents an integration of XML and JavaBeans components to provide a mechanism for implementing active content. XML BeanMaker is used to generate JavaBeans from XML DTD files. XML Bean Suite is a toolkit of JavaBeans components to provide a comprehensive set of functionality to manipulate XML content. The Xbean is a powerful paradigm to process XML-based distributed applications.

  18. Development and field evaluation of an intercropping machine for corn and bean

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    A Mondani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maximum efficiency of natural resources, reduced risk of production, improved fertility of soil, and increased production per area enjoyment have made intercropping a preferential practice compared with cropping. One of the fundamental problems in this kind of cropping is non-existence of suitable machines. In this research, a new intercropping machine has been designed and built for intercropping of corn and bean with precise ratios and different planting patterns. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted at the Badjgah Research Station, Shiraz University, located in NW Shiraz, Iran. The soil texture was clay loam (16% sand, 48% silt, and 35% clay. The plot size was 9 m wide and 12 m long. The total number of the plots were 9. The basic components of intercropping machine were an adjustable frame to adjust row spacing for each unit planter about 550 mm horizontally independently (the row spacing between corn and bean planting lines was considered 375 mm, a hinged frame for adjustment of seeding depth and possible poor emergence of plants due to very deep or shallow planting, metering case frames for installing the vacuum metering disk units around which the seed drums have a row of 36 holes of 4.5 and 5.5 mm diameter for corn and bean, respectively, seed delivery tubes, a suction fan, shovel openers used for bedder planting for corn and lister planting for bean, a knife covering attachment, seed-firming wheels, interchangeable gears which are mechanical chain drives for 43 varying seeding rates driven by carrying wheel drives, two metal seed hoppers whose lower side walls’ slope can be adjust at a maximum level of 45 . A front wheel assist, Massey Ferguson tractor (MF-399 (ITM, Tabriz, Iran with a maximum engine power of 81 kW was used for field test of intercropping machine. Moldboard plow was used for primary tillage and the depth of plowing was 25 cm. Next, by an offset disk harrow, the field was disked twice for

  19. Identification of Discriminant Factors after Exposure of Maize and Common Bean Plantlets to Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro HERNÁNDEZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental conditions limit crop yield and better understanding of plant response to stress will assist the development of more tolerant cultivars. Maize and common bean plantlets were evaluated under salinity, high temperature, drought and waterlogged conditions to identify biochemical markers which could be useful for rapid identification of putative stress tolerant plants. The levels of phenolics (free, cell wall-linked, total, aldehydes including malondialdehyde and chlorophylls (a, b, total were measured on stressed plantlets.  Only two indicators were statistically non-significant:  chlorophyll b in maize plantlets stressed with sodium chloride and malondialdehyde content in drought stressed maize. The most remarkable effects of abiotic stresses can be summarized as follows: (i salinity increased levels of free phenolics in maize plantlets and chlorophylls (a, b, total in common bean; (ii high temperature (40 °C elevated levels of chlorophylls (a, b, total in maize but decreased chlorophylls (a, b, total and free phenolics in common bean; (iii drought increased phenolics and decreased chlorophylls (a, b, total in maize and increased chlorophyll pigments (a, b, total in common bean; (iv waterlogging increased free phenolics and decreased chlorophylls (a, b, total in maize and increased chlorophyll (a, total in common bean. Free phenolics and chlorophylls, especially a, were the most responsive indicators to stress and can, therefore, be considered putative biochemical markers for abiotic stress tolerance in maize and common bean. The use of Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis to differentiate non-stressed and stressed plants in breeding programs is also a novel aspect of this report. Fisher’s linear discriminant functions classified correctly 100% of non-stressed or stressed originally grouped plants.

  20. The water budget of rainfed maize and bean intercrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S.; Ogindo, H. O.

    Food production in the South African Development Community (SADC) region is predominantly under rainfed conditions and therefore experiences annual fluctuations due to the rainfall variability. Although the staple food of maize ( Zea mays) is commonly grown in the same field as dry beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris) little work has been done to characterize the soil water budget of this intercropping system. The evapotranspiration can theoretically be divided into transpiration from the leaves and evaporation from the soil surface. However, it is difficult to separate the components in field studies. In this paper the Ritchie model is used to estimate the soil surface evaporation using the fractional radiation interception which depends on the crop leaf area. The intercropping system has higher leaf area than the sole crops of both maize and beans in all seasons. Therefore, the soil surface is shaded and the canopy is more dense resulting in a lower soil surface evaporation. The water budget thus gives a higher value of transpiration for the intercrop during each of the four growing seasons. This appears to be due to the complimentary use of the water resources by the maize and bean plants in the intercropping system. This illustrates the ability of the intercrop to use the available soil water in a semi-arid environment more productively. Thus the experience of the small-holder farmers in the SADC region is based on sound physical principles of water use by the two crops.

  1. Infrared thermometry to schedule irrigation of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Francisco de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the critical irrigation time for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca using infrared thermometry. Five treatments were analyzed. Canopy temperature differences between plants and a well-watered control about 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5±0.5ºC were tested. Physiological variables and plant growth were analyzed to establish the best time to irrigate. There was a significant linear correlation between the index and stomatal resistance, transpiration rate, and leaf water potential. Although significant linear correlation between the index and mean values of total dry matter, absolute growth rate, and leaf area index was found, no correlation was found with other growth index like relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, and leaf area ratio. Plants irrigated when their canopy temperature was 3±0.5ºC above the control had their relative growth rate mean value increased up to 59.7%, yielding 2,260.2 kg ha-1, with a reduction of 38.0% in the amount of water used. Plants irrigated when their canopy temperature was 4±0.5ºC yielded 1,907.6 kg ha-1, although their relative growth rate mean value was 4.0% below the control. These results show that the best moment to irrigate common bean is when their canopy temperature is between 3ºC and 4±0.5ºC above the control.

  2. Mung Bean: Technological and Nutritional Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Khetarpaul, N.; Grewal, R.B.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop’s potential as food and to s

  3. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  4. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  5. Performance of the Bean-protein Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光亭; 杜宁; 孙亚宁

    2003-01-01

    The methods in testing the bean-protein fiber and the standards used were simply introduced. The fiber's mechanical and chemical performances were further analyzed. And the correlative performance of the bean-protein fibers and other natural fibers have been compared, then full knowledge of the fiber's performance was concluded.

  6. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Koch

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster, will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated.

  7. Removal of Anthracene and Fluoranthene by Waxy Corn, Long Bean and Okra in Lead-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somtrakoon, Khanitta; Chouychai, Waraporn; Lee, Hung

    2015-09-01

    The ability of waxy corn, long bean and okra to remove two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil containing 0.63 mg Pb kg(-1) dry soil was assessed. The presence of Pb did not reduce the ability of these plants to remove the PAHs from soil. About 49 % of anthracene and 77 % of fluoranthene were removed from Pb-spiked or non-spiked soil, respectively, after 30 days. Among the plants, okra was the most efficient at removing anthracene and fluoranthene in the presence or absence of Pb in soil after 30 days. Pb did not affect fluoranthene removal, but stimulated the removal of anthracene, by long bean, waxy corn and okra. However, growth of long bean and waxy corn was poor in Pb-spiked soil and waxy corn plants died around 22 days after transplantation. The results show some promise in using plants to remove PAHs from soil which is also co-contaminated with Pb.

  8. Nutrição fosfatada e rendimento do feijoeiro sob influência da calagem e adubação orgânica Phosphated nutrition and yield of the bean plant under the influence of liming and organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira de Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sendo um nutriente essencial em diversas funções celulares, o fósforo freqüentemente limita o desenvolvimento do feijoeiro devido sua alta capacidade de adsorção aos componentes mineralógicos do solo e sua baixa disponibilidade à absorção vegetal. Práticas de manejo do solo, como aumento do teor de matéria orgânica e a calagem, são bastante eficazes na redução do fenômeno de adsorção de P no solo e aumento de sua disponibilidade para a absorção vegetal. Objetivando avaliar o efeito de doses de esterco bovino e calcário sobre a nutrição fosfatada e produção do feijoeiro, foram conduzidos, em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras, quatro experimentos utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 5x4 e quatro repetições, em vasos contendo 3 dm³ de amostras dos solos Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico, textura arenosa (RQo, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, textura média (LVAd-1, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, textura argilosa (LVAd-2 e Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, textura muito argilosa (LVd, onde foram cultivadas três plantas de feijoeiro. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela aplicação de cinco doses de esterco bovino (0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10% do volume do solo e quatro níveis de calagem (0,0; 0,5; 1 e 2 vezes a dose recomendada para atingir V=60%. Foram avaliados a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e grãos e o acúmulo de P na matéria seca da parte aérea total. A calagem e a adubação orgânica promoveram aumentos na absorção, acúmulo de P e produção de grãos pelo feijoeiro, o qual apresentou as melhores respostas com a dose 10 % de esterco bovino combinada com o nível 1,0 de calagem.Being an essential nutrient in several cellular functions, the phosphorus frequently limits the development of the bean plant due its high capacity of adsorption to mineralogical components of the soil and low

  9. The effect of various sapropel concentrations on content and fluorescence of photosynthetic pigments of bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Januškaitienė

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarosiškio lake sapropel impact on beans (Vicia faba L. photosynthesis parameters (content of chlorophylls and chlorophyll a fluorescence was investigated in this study. Plants were sown in 1 L volume pots by 5 seeds with light loamy soil and grown in growth chambers. Considering sapropel composition, 2.2; 3.1 and 4 t/ha dry sapropel concentrations were chosen for investigation. Sapropel affected plants were compared with plants grown in unfertilised and with synthetic fertiliser fertilised soils. On 14th day of experiment, when the plants reached two leaves growths stage (BBCH 12, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of investigated plants were measured. Then plants were grown for 4 weeks more and at stem elongation stage (BBCH 31 chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were measured repeatedly and also the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids were investigated. The efficiency II photosystem of bean increased by increasing sapropel concentration in soil, but insignificantly (p>0.05. Photosynthesis performance index was increasing (r=0.91; p<0.05 up to 3.1 t/ha sapropel concentration increase at BBCH 12 growth stage. The same tendency was detected for electron transfer rate of bean (r=0.9; p<0.05 at this growth stage, but at later stage (BBCH 31 it slightly lowered (r=-0.02; p>0.05. At BBCH 12 stage the highest non photochemical quenching (NPQ value was measured in control beans, while at BBCH 31 stage, opposite trend was noticed (r=0.86; p <0.05. At BBCH 31 growth stage sapropel concentration increase made bean chlorophyll content to decrease, but insignificantly (r=-0.18, p>0.05, and the changes in carotenoid contents were similar to chlorophyll a+b.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.72.4.16585

  10. Uptake studies of environmentally hazardous {sup 51}Cr in Mung beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Anupam [Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700019 (India); Nayak, Dalia [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chakrabortty, Dipanwita [Sikkim Manipal University, A 15, Paryavaran Complex, New Delhi 110030 (India); Lahiri, Susanta [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)], E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.in

    2008-01-15

    Attempt has been made to study the accumulation behaviour of a common plant, Mung bean (Vigna radiata) towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI) to have an insight on the migration and bio-magnification of Cr. For this purpose healthy germinated Mung bean seeds were sown in the sand in the presence of Hoagland's nutrient solution containing measured amount of K{sub 2}{sup 51}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and {sup 51}Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.9H{sub 2}O. Growth rate was also studied in the presence and absence of phosphate salts in the medium. It has been found that the transfer of chromium from soil to plant is significantly low (maximum 5% for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI)). Maximum accumulation of Cr occurs in the root with respect to the total chromium accumulation by the plant. Other parts of the Mung bean plant, e.g. cotyledons, shoot and leaves, show negligible accumulation. Therefore, the chance of direct intake of Cr through food as well as through the grazing animals to human body is less. - The chance of bio-magnification of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) to human body via direct or indirect intake of Mung bean is negligible.

  11. Cadmium accumulation by jack-bean and sorghum in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francato Zancheta, Ariana Carramaschi; De Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Zambrosi, Fernando César Bachiega; de Magalhães Erismann, Norma; Andrade Lagôa, Ana Maria Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Among the technologies used to recuperate cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils, phytoextraction are particularly important, where the selection of suitable plants is critical to the success of the soil remediation. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the responses of jack-bean and sorghum to Cd supply and to quantify Cd accumulation by these species grown in hydroponic culture. The plants were subjected to 0, 15, 30, or 60 μmol Cd L(-1) in the nutrient solution, and gas exchange, plant growth and Cd accumulation were measured at 25 days after starting Cd treatments. The Cd supply severely reduced growth of shoots and roots in both species. In jack-bean, Cd decreased photosynthesis by 56-86%, stomatal conductance by 59-85% and transpiration by 48-80%. The concentrations and amounts of Cd accumulated in the plant tissues were proportional to the metal supply in the nutrient solution. Sorghum was more tolerant than jack-bean to Cd toxicity, but the latter showed a greater metal concentration and accumulation in the shoot. Therefore, jack-bean would be more suitable than sorghum for use in Cd phytoremediation programs based on phytoextraction.

  12. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  13. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  14. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  15. Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshekari, B; Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A; Biroonara, A

    2006-01-01

    Several species of Amaranthus are known to reduce crop yields and interference with harvest throughout the Iran. In the past few years, the occurrence of some Amaranthus species including of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) increased throughout the East Azerbaijan province in Iran, supplanting all the other Amaranthus species in large areas of the region and causing concern among farmers and researchers. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the tropical pulse crops, that C4 weeds such as redroot pigweed can cause yield loss in this crop production. In order to determine the critical period of redroot pigweed control in green bean, two experiments were conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran, at 2004 and 2005. The experimental designs in both year was a randomized complete blocks with three replications. The treatments were weed-infested and weed-free in the same periods. Both year, in weed-infested experiment, redroot pigweed was seeded immediately after green bean planting and removed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 weeks after green bean emergence (WAE). In weed-free experiment, redroot pigweed seeds were transplanted to green bean plots at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 WAE. Data were analyzed using the MSTATC software and means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Ranges Test. Regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between green bean yield and duration of redroot pigweed interference using the REG PROCEDURE of SAS. Results indicated that the difference between years with a view to influence on all traits except stem height at the harvesting stage and pod yield at the first and second harvesting time were significant. Also, differences between treatments with a view to influence on all traits were significant. Contemporary growing of pigweed and green bean for early first month and weed interference 10 WAE had not significant effect on green bean above ground biomass. In both years, the highest green bean yield

  16. Native Plants and Seeds, Oh My! Fifth Graders Explore an Unfamiliar Subject While Learning Plant Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauley, Lauren; Weege, Kendra; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2016-01-01

    Native plants are not typically the kinds of plants that are used in elementary classroom studies of plant biology. More commonly, students sprout beans or investigate with fast plants. At the time the authors started their plant unit (November), the school-yard garden had an abundance of native plants that had just started seeding, including…

  17. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  18. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  19. Evaluation of aminoacids in irradiated beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Souza, Luciana B.; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Hernandes, Nilber K. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    Fradinho-bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is originated from Africa and is known in Brazil as 'caupi', 'corda' or 'macassar'. It is grown in the interior of Northeast Brazil (semi-arid region) and can be found in parts of the North, being one of the most important components of people's diet in those regions. The Northeast area produces around 429,375 ton of fradinho-bean per year. Leguminous plants are very important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. This kind of bean is an excellent source of proteins (around 23- 25% of its nutritional content), being superior to regular beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The irradiation process is an alternative to avoid post-harvesting losses, without changing the nutritional value of food. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 kGy) on aminoacid content of fradinho-bean by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the accompanying of the grains during storage time of 6 months. After irradiation, the bean grains went through a milling process in order to make flour for posterior extraction. A liquid chromatographer Waters, model Alliance 2695, with fluorescent detector Waters 2475, having a mobile phase with gradient elution of sodium acetate. acetonitrile and Milli-Q water, was employed. The flux used was 1 mL/min and the injection volume of 10 {mu}L. The column (C 18 150.0 x 3.9 mm) was kept at 36 deg C. The results show that gamma irradiation is a promise process for fradinho bean during conservation storage time of 6 months, until the dose of 10.0 kGy. Even the most radio-sensitive aminoacids like aromatics and basic lateral chains were preserved. (author)

  20. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content.

  1. Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansa Jan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis.

  2. Implications of mitotic and meiotic irregularities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, D C; Braz, G T; Dos Reis, G B; Techio, V H; Davide, L C; de F B Abreu, A

    2016-05-23

    The common bean has great social and economic importance in Brazil and is the subject of a high number of publications, especially in the fields of genetics and breeding. Breeding programs aim to increase grain yield; however, mitosis and meiosis represent under explored research areas that have a direct impact on grain yield. Therefore, the study of cell division could be another tool available to bean geneticists and breeders. The aim of this study was to investigate irregularities occurring during the cell cycle and meiosis in common bean. The common bean cultivar used was BRSMG Talismã, which owing to its high yield and grain quality is recommended for cultivation in Brazil. We classified the interphase nuclei, estimated the mitotic and meiotic index, grain pollen viability, and percentage of abnormalities in both processes. The mitotic index was 4.1%, the interphase nucleus was non-reticulated, and 19% of dividing somatic cells showed abnormal behavior. Meiosis also presented irregularities resulting in a meiotic index of 44.6%. Viability of pollen grains was 94.3%. These results indicate that the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã possesses repair mechanisms that compensate for changes by producing a large number of pollen grains. Another important strategy adopted by bean plants to ensure stability is the elimination of abnormal cells by apoptosis. As the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã is recommended for cultivation because of its good agronomic performance, it can be concluded that mitotic and meiotic irregularities have no negative influence on its grain quality and yield.

  3. RESPONSE OF THE JAMAICA-BEAN-CORN POLYCULTURE CROPPING SYSTEM TO THREE TREATMENTS OF FERTILIZATION IN VILLAFLORES, CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosey Obet Ruiz-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The corn (Zeamays Linneo and bean (Phaseolusvulgaris Linneo are the economic basis to meet the basic needs of rural families, but these crops are no longer economically viable for various reasons and jeopardize the family livelihood and productive alternatives are needed to improve the rural economy. The research was conducted during the spring-summer cycle from 1999 to 2000 in Villaflores , Chiapas, in order to evaluate the response of polyculturejamaica-bean-corn three fertilization treatments ( 00-00-00 , 60-60-60 and 120-60-60 . The experimental design was random blocks with three fertilization treatments, seven patterns of crops, and three replications and performance in the three plant species and vegetative variables were evaluated. With the data an ANOVA was performed and the treatment means were compared with the test of Tukey (p ≤ 0.05. The best vegetative response of the jamaica was to associate it with beans and corn with 60-60 fertilization treatment - 60, getting as much of: foliage (170 hojasplanta-1, branches (31 ramasplanta-1, acorns (54 bellotasplanta-1 and increased performance of dried calyxes (698 kgha-1.The beans associated with maize without fertilizations showed increase in foliage (62 hojasplanta-1 and in monoculture with fertilization 60-60 - 60 had the best performance (1,565 kgha-1of beans. Corn had the best vegetative response (18 hojasplanta-1 associated with beans and fertilization 120 - 60-60, and the best performance was when teamed with the beans and the jamaica (7,667 kgha-1. The best equivalent land-use was 3.31 in jamaica-bean-corn crop pattern. The analysis of the results indicates that the jamaica by associating it with corn and beans represents a biological and economic production alternative to improve the economy of rural families in Mexican soils which are acidified.

  4. Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) seedlings are hyperaccumulators of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, Marian N; Ellzey, Joanne T; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Due to health reasons, toxic metals must be removed from soils contaminated by mine tailings and smelter activities. The phytoremediation potential of Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) was examined by use of inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes of parenchymal cells of leaves in the presence of copper. Elemental analysis was used to localize copper within leaves. A 600-ppm copper sulfate exposure to seedlings for 24 days resulted in 31,000 ppm copper in roots, 17,000 ppm in stems, 11,000 in cotyledons and 20 ppm in the true leaves. For a plant to be considered a hyperaccumulator, the plant must accumulate a leaf-to-root ratio <1. Screw bean mesquite exposed to copper had a leaf-to-root ratio of 0.355 when cotyledons were included. We showed that P. pubescens grown in soil is a hyperaccumulator of copper. We recommend that this plant should be field tested.

  5. Nutrição do feijoeiro e intensidade da antracnose em função da aplicação de silício e cobre = Nutrition in bean plants and anthracnose intensity in function of silicon and copper application

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    Sylvia Raquel Gomes Moraes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do silicato de cálcio e do sulfato de cobre na intensidade da antracnose e no teor nutricional do feijoeiro. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 (quatro doses de silicato decálcio, com quatro doses de sulfato de cobre e dois tratamentos adicionais (plantas nãoinoculadas e plantas pulverizadas com Benomyl. Foram feitas quatro avaliações da incidência e da severidade da doença, além de se mensurar a área foliar total. Ao término das avaliações, os dados de incidência e de severidade foram integrados ao longo do tempo, obtendo-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da incidência (AACPI e da severidade (AACPS. Os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Si e lignina foram avaliados naparte aérea. Observou-se decréscimo linear da AACPI com o aumento das doses de silicato de cálcio. Com o aumento das doses de cobre, houve redução de 35% na AACPS. O suprimento de silicato e de cobre alterou o teor de K, Mg, S, Zn, Ca e Si da parte aérea do feijoeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of calcium silicate and copper sulfate on anthracnose intensity and nutrition of bean plants. The experiment was conducted using an experimental design in randomized blocks following a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, (four levels of calcium silicate and four levels of copper sulfate and two additional treatments (plants without inoculation and plantssprinkled with Benomyl. Four evaluations of the incidence and severity of anthracnose were done, in addition to measuring total leaf area. At the end of the evaluations, incidence and severity data were integrated over time, obtaining the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. Contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Si and lignin were determined in the aerial part. A linear decrease of the intensity AUDPC was observed with the increase of the doses of calcium silicate. The severity AUDPC

  6. ARTICLE - Inbreeding depression in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. progenies

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    Milton Krieger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate inbreeding depression (DE in castor bean. From a population derived from the Guarani cultivar, 60 mother plants were sampled. Three types of progenies were obtained from each one: from self-pollination (AU, from crosses (CR and from open pollination (PL. Grain yield of the progenies was evaluated in two locations. There was a strong interaction of progenies x locations, which led to obtaining estimates within each location. Broad variation was observed in inbreeding depression, with mean values of 6.7% and 13.4%, comparing AU progenies with PL progenies. It was observed that the population has high potential for selecting promising inbred lines. The frequency of mother plants generating progenies with simultaneous high general combination capacity and low inbreeding depression was low. Recurrent selection will increase the occurrence of parent plants associating these two properties, which is necessary for obtaining superior synthetic varieties.

  7. Growth of castor bean BRS-149 nordestina fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Lima de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out in a greenhouse located at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, with castor bean plants (Ricinus communis L., cv BRS Nordestina, in order to evaluate the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the growth. A completely randomized design with three replications and 15 treatments originated from a baconian matrix was adopted. Reference doses were 40:90:60 kg ha-1 of N:P2O5:K2O, respectively. Plant height, stem diameter, number and length of leaves were measured at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 days after planting (DAP. The unbalanced fertilization affected the development and seed production of castor bean, and the best response of the plants was observed at levels of 200 kg ha-1 de N; 150 kg ha-1 de P2O5 and 150 kg ha-1 de K2O.

  8. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxing Shi; Yang Yao; Yingying Zhu; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) as a functional food is growing;however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1%–22.3%of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4%and 36.1%of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids) were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70%ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS+free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 28.13 ± 2.24 to 35.68 ± 0.71μmol g−1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to 13.44 ± 1.76μmol g−1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS+free-radical-scavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  9. Biocontrol of seed pathogens and growth promotion of common bean seedlings by Trichoderma harzianum

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    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate isolates of Trichoderma harzianum regarding biocontrol of common bean seed-borne pathogens, plant growth promotion, and rhizosphere competence. Five isolates of T. harzianum were evaluated and compared with commercial isolate (Ecotrich, Carboxin+Thiram, and an absolute control. Bean seeds of the cultivar Jalo Precoce, contaminated with Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were microbiolized with antagonists, and seed health tests were carried out. Isolates were evaluated on autoclaved substrate and in field conditions. Ten days after sowing (DAS, plant length was measured. To test rhizosphere competence, isolates were applied in boxes containing autoclaved washed sand, and root colonization was evaluated at 10 DAS, using five plants per box. The most effective isolates in the seed health tests were: CEN287 and CEN289 to control Aspergillus; the commercial isolate to control Cladosporium; and CEN287 and CEN316 to control S. sclerotiorum. Isolates CEN289 and CEN290 promoted bean growth in greenhouse and field. Seed treatment with T. harzianum reduces the incidence of Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and S. sclerotiorum in 'Jalo Precoce' common bean seeds.

  10. Effect of N and K doses in nutritive solution on growth, production and coffee bean size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Maria Clemente

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An adequate supply of nutrients is essential for obtaining high yields of coffee. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N, K and the N:K ratio on vegetative and reproductive growth of coffee. For this purpose, coffee plants were grown in nutrient solution containing K in the concentrations of 1.08; 2.15; 3.23 and 5.38 mmol L-1 combined with a dose of 6 mmol L-1 N, resulting in the N:K ratios (w/w: 1:0.5; 1:1; 1:1.5 and 1:2.5. The control treatment consisted of the doses 3 and 1.61 mmol L-1 of N and K respectively, resulting in the N:K ratio (w/w 1.0:1.5. The following variables were evaluated: height, stem diameter, number of nodes of the eighth plagiotrofic branch (index branch, pairs of plagiotrofic branches and number of nodes in the orthotropic branch every three weeks from the beginning of the experiment. Additionally, it was evaluated the chemical composition of processed beans and leaves between the flowering and the rapid expansion stage of the cherry beans, production of cherry beans per plant and classification of beans according to the size. N influenced mainly the characteristics of vegetative growth and K influenced mainly the reproductive growth evaluated by the production. The lowest production resulted in the highest percentages of beans retained on sieves with holes larger than 16/64", while the highest production promoted an increase in the percentage of beans retained on sieves with holes smaller than 16/64".

  11. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

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    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replicates. Treatments consisted of five N sources (urea, urea + NBPT, urea + polymer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium nitrate and a control (without N being applied 20 kg ha-1 of N at sowing and 80 kg ha-1 onf N in topdressing. We evaluated the chlorophyll content in leaves of common beans, the leaf N content and dry mass weight (MSPA in the flowering of common beans, the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, grain yield and final stand of the common beans. The sources of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence, leaf N content, the mass of MSPA and the relative chlorophyll index of common beans. The use of polymerized urea and urea with urease inhibitor, did not produce increases in the number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, mass of 100 grains and common beans yield compared to traditional sources of N, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

  12. Growth and yield of broccoli fertilized with doses of velvet bean in greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Rúbia Diniz; Thiago de Oliveira Vargas; Ricardo Henrique Silva Santos; Alysson Roberto de Almeida; Urias Batista Martins de Mattos

    2015-01-01

    The dose effects of green manure in vegetable crops production are still poorly understood. There are few scientific studies indicate that increasing the dose may influence plants characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of doses of velvet bean green manure on growth and yield, the partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen (N) in plants of broccoli, as well as determine the apparent recovery and physiological efficiency of use N. We established four treatments plus a control....

  13. Altura de planta e acúmulo de matéria seca do feijoeiro cvs. BRS MG Talismã e Ouro Negro em plantio direto e convencional Plant height and dry matter acumulation by common bean cvs. BRS MG Talismã and Ouro Negro under no-tillage and conventional crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Maria Batista Vieira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a curva de crescimento em altura de planta, taxa e acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea ao longo do ciclo cultural do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. foram conduzidos quatro experimentos de campo, com as cvs. Ouro Negro e BRS MG Talismã, em plantio direto e convencional, sendo um em Lavras (Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, inverno primavera 2002 e os demais em Madre de Deus de Minas (Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo ácrico, seca 2005. O delineamento experimental foi feito com blocos casualizados com três repetições e 11 ou 12 tratamentos (épocas de coleta. De 7 em 7 dias foram amostradas 10 ou 20 plantas para determinação da altura, através do comprimento da haste principal, e outras 20 plantas para determinação do peso da matéria seca da parte aérea após secagem em estufa com circulação de ar a 65-70ºC até peso constante. Os dados foram submetidos a análises de variância e regressão, com ajuste de curvas representativas do comportamento das características avaliadas. Em plantio direto, a altura máxima foi alcançada aos 50 DAE, enquanto no plantio convencional o feijoeiro continuou crescendo até os 72-73 DAE, ocorrendo fechamento mais tardio da lavoura. As cvs. Ouro Negro e BRS MG Talismã mostraram padrões de acúmulo de matéria seca muito próximos, com pouco incremento até os 81 DAE, na BRS MG Talismã, e ambas alcançaram maiores acúmulos em plantio direto. Em geral, as maiores taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram verificadas entre 45-48 DAE.The aim of this research was to study the plant growth in height and the dry matter accumulation pattern along the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. crop cycle. Four field experiments were carried out in Lavras (winter-spring 2002 and other were performed in Madre de Deus de Minas, MG (dry crop season 2005 with common bean, cvs. Ouro Negro and BRS MG Talismã, under no-tillage and conventional crop systems. Every seven days 10 or 20 plants

  14. Transmissão do Cowpea mild mottle virus pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B para plantas de feijão e soja Transmission of the Cowpea mild mottle virus by whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B for plants of beans and soy

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    Julio Massaharu Marubayashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A necrose da haste da soja é causada por um vírus do gênero Carlavirus transmitido pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci, também infectante de feijão e identificado como Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. Neste trabalho foram realizados testes para determinação do número de moscas-brancas B. tabaci biótipo B necessários para transmissão do vírus em feijoeiro e soja. Na sequência foram realizados dois outros testes, com 10 insetos por planta. Avaliaram-se períodos de acesso à aquisição (PAA de 'Jalo' para 'Jalo', e o efeito de períodos de acesso à inoculação (PAI. Foram visualmente constatados sintomas típicos do carlavírus como mosaico, clareamento de nervuras, necrose sistêmica e redução de crescimento. Houve transmissão do vírus para 'BT-2' de feijão e 'BRS-132' de soja com apenas um inseto por planta, sendo mais eficaz nesta última espécie. A taxa de transmissão do vírus foi maior com o aumento do número de insetos por planta. E o PAA foi determinado após 15' de tempo para aquisição, e o PAI com 5 min e aumentando os períodos de acesso a aquisição e inoculação aumentou-se a taxa de transmissão.The stem necrosis of soybean is caused by a virus of the Carlavirus and transmitted for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, also infectad of beans and identified as Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. In this work biotype B for transmission of the virus in beans and soy had been carried through tests for determination of the number of necessary whiteflys B. tabaci. In the sequence two other tests had been carried through, with 10 insects for plant. Periods of access to the acquisition (PAA of 'Jalo' for 'Jalo', and the effect of periods of access to the inoculation (PAI had been evaluated increase. Visually typical symptoms of carlavirus had been evidenced as mosaic, veinclearing, sistemic necrosis and reduction of growth. It had transmission of the virus for 'BT-2' of beans and 'BRS-132' of soy with only one insect for plant

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jibao Chen; Jing Wu; Yunfeng Lu; Yuannan Cao; Hui Zeng; Zhaoyuan Zhang; Lanfen Wang; Shumin Wang

    2016-01-01

    As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT) plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w) PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L. VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  17. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

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    Sara Ocaña

    Full Text Available Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136 subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H and susceptible genotype (Vf136, respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection.

  18. Deficiency symptoms and uptake of micronutrients by castor bean grown in nutrient solution

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    José Lavres Junior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean is a nutrient-demanding species, but there is still little information on its micronutrient requirements. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of levels of B (2.5, 12.5 and 25.0 µmol L-1, Cu (0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 µmol L-1, Mn (0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol L-1 and Zn (0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol L-1 in a nutrient solution on plant B, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations and uptake, vegetative growth and fruit yield of castor bean "Iris", grown in greenhouse. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. The first deficiency symptoms were observed for B, followed by Zn, Cu and Mn. The main changes in the cell ultrastructure due to lack of B were thickening of the cell walls and middle lamellae, distorted chloroplasts and tightly stacked thylakoids, besides the absence of starch grains. The Mn, Zn and Cu deficiencies led to disruption of chloroplasts, disintegration of thylakoids and absence of amyloplasts. The concentration and uptake of B, Cu, Mn, and Zn in castor bean plants increased with micronutrient supply in the solution. Fruit yield was drastically reduced by B and Mn deficiencies. On the other hand, the dry matter yield of the shoot and root of castor bean plants was not. In the treatment with full nutrient solution, the leaves accumulated 56 and 48 % of the total B and Mn taken up by the plants, respectively, and the seeds and roots 85 and 61 % of the total Cu and Zn taken up, respectively. This shows the high demand of castor bean Iris for B and Mn for fruit yield.

  19. Market strategies for Central American dry beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertínez, Lourdes; Bernsten, Richard; Zamora, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, the dry bean sub-sector in CentralAmerica has witnessed many dynamic changes. Unless wefind ways to increase the competitiveness of the regionalbean sub-sector, Central American countries will likelyexperience significant negative social and economic impacts,especially since these countries are facing the challenge ofadjusting to new open markets, such as the Central AmericanFree Trade Agreement (CAFTA). Bean traders, retailers, andknowledgeable government official in C...

  20. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M.; Sillero, Josefina C.

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri, or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited in faba

  1. Characterization resistance mechanisms in faba bean (Vicia faba against broomrape species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rubiales

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegytiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further

  2. Breeding common bean populations for traits using selection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A common bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL. cultivar must combine desirable genotypes for several traits in order to be accepted by producers and consumers. This study aimed to evaluate selection efficiency when segregating bean populations for traits, by means of a selection index, in order to obtain superior progenies for traits considered. A total of 16 populations from the F4 and F5generations were evaluated in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, plant disease, grain type and yield. Using standard scores (Z, the sum of the four traits (∑Z was obtained and, based on this information, the best populations were identified. The evaluation of selection effectiveness was performed on 31 progenies from each population. The 496 progenies plus eight controls were evaluated in the F5:6and F5:7 generations for the same traits in July and November 2012, respectively. The selection, using the index based on the sum of standardized variables (∑Z, was efficient for identifying populations with superior progenies for all the traits considered.

  3. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture.

  4. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Chen, Zexi; Ahmed, Naeem; Han, Bing; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis) are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture. PMID:27347937

  5. Rendimento endimento de grãos e componentes de rendimento do feijoeiro em função da aplicação foliar de doses crescentes de molibdênio = Grain yield and production components of the bean plant as a result of the application of increasing doses of molybdenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Assis Pires

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência de doses elevadas de molibdênio aplicadas via foliar sobre componentes de produção e rendimento de grãos dos feijoeiros Novo Jalo e Meia Noite. Conduziu-se o experimento entre março e junho de 2002 em Coimbra, Estado de Minas Gerais, utilizando delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições,arranjados no esquema fatorial 7 x 2, (sete doses de Mo combinadas com os cultivares Novo Jalo e Meia Noite. As doses 80 e 160 g ha-1 foram aplicadas 20 dias após a emergência (DAE das plântulas em dose única. As doses (320 e 640 g ha-1 foram ministradas em trêsaplicações (15, 20 e 25 DAE, e as doses (1.280 e 2.560 g ha-1 em quatro aplicações (15, 20, 25 e 30 DAE. Os componentes de produção, exceto o número de sementes por vagem e o rendimento de grãos foram influenciados pela adubação molíbdica. A dose ótima estimada de Mo para o feijoeiro, em ambos os cultivares, foi de 255 g ha-1. Doses de molibdênio até 2.560 g ha-1 não promoveram decréscimos em nenhum dos componentes da produção nem no rendimento de grãos.The influence of high doses of molybdenum through foliar application was evaluated on production components and grain yield of the bean plants Novo Jalo and Meia Noite. The experiment was carried out fromMarch to June, 2002, on Coimbra, Minas Gerais State. A randomized block design, with four repetitions, arranged in the factorial outline 7 x 2 (seven doses of molybdenum combined with Novo Jalo and Meia Noite cultivars was used. The doses 80 and 160 g ha-1 were applied 20 days after the plantules emergence (DAE in only dose. The doses (320 and 640 g ha-1 were applied in three applications (15, 20 and 25 DAE, and the doses (1,280 and 2,560 g ha-1 in four applications (15, 20, 25 and 30 DAE. The production components,except the number of seeds for green bean and the income of grains, were influenced by the molybdenum fertilization. The expected optimum rate of molybdenum for the bean

  6. Reaction of common bean lines and aggressiveness of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P H; Santos, J B; Lima, I A; Lara, L A C; Alves, F C

    2014-11-07

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the reaction of common bean lines to white mold, the aggressiveness of different Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from various common bean production areas in Brazil, and comparison of the diallel and GGE (genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction) biplot analysis procedures via study of the line-by-isolate interaction. Eleven common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lines derived from 3 backcross populations were used. Field experiments were performed in the experimental area of the Departamento de Biologia of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2011 and 2012 dry crop season and 2011 winter crop season through a randomized block design with 3 replications. This study was also set up in a greenhouse. Inoculations were performed 28 days after sowing by means of the straw test method. The reaction of the bean lines to white mold was assessed according to a diagrammatic scale from 1 (plant without symptoms) to 9 (dead plant). Estimations of general reaction capacity (lines) and general aggressiveness capacity (isolates) indicated different horizontal levels of resistance in the lines and levels of aggressiveness in the isolates. Therefore, it was possible to select more resistant lines and foresee those crosses that are the most promising for increasing the level of resistance. It was also possible to identify the most aggressive isolates that were more efficient in distinguishing the lines. Both diallel and GGE biplot analyses were useful in identifying the genotypic values of lines and isolates.

  7. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  8. Organic matter and soil water content influence on BRS 188 castor bean growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has been highlighted due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) were used regressions. The castor bean cultivar height was significantly influenced by the organic matter content only after 80 days. Castor bean height increased significantly with the soil water content after 40 days of growing. (author)

  9. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  10. Alterações químicas em solos e crescimento de milho e feijoeiro após aplicação de lodo de esgoto Soil chemical alterations and growth of maize and bean plants after sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. A. Nascimento

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O lodo de esgoto obtido do tratamento das águas servidas contém considerável percentual de matéria orgânica e de elementos essenciais para as plantas, podendo desempenhar importante papel na produção agrícola e na manutenção da fertilidade do solo. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito da aplicação de doses crescentes de lodo produzido pela Companhia Pernambucana de Saneamento (COMPESA sobre as características químicas de dois solos, quantidades de metais pesados absorvidas e crescimento de plantas de milho e de feijoeiro cultivadas em casa de vegetação, visando à futura utilização do lodo em ensaios de campo. Foram utilizados dois tipos de solos com diferentes teores de argila aos quais foram adicionadas seis doses de lodo de esgoto (equivalentes a 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 60 Mg ha-1. As aplicações promoveram diminuição do pH e aumento dos teores de matéria orgânica, nitrogênio total, fósforo, potássio, sódio, cálcio e magnésio em ambos os solos, exceção feita aos teores de sódio e potássio de um deles. As doses de lodo de esgoto aumentaram a produção de matéria seca do milho e do feijoeiro. Os teores dos metais Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe e Pb no lodo, no solo e nas plantas estiveram abaixo dos limites estabelecidos para utilização agrícola, o que permite sua aplicação sem maiores riscos ao ambiente.Sewage sludge from wastewater treatments contains organic matter and plant nutrients that may play an important role in agricultural production and maintenance of soil fertility. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing sewage sludge rates on soil chemical properties, heavy metal concentration in soils and plants, and the growth of maize and bean plants cultivated in pots under greenhouse conditions. Two soil types with different clay contents were used for application of six sewage sludge rates (equivalent to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 Mg ha-1. Sludge application led to a decrease of pH and

  11. Desempenho de sementes e plantas de feijoeiro sob efeito do condicionamento osmótico e da aplicação de zinco Performance of plants and seeds of beans under effect of the osmotic conditioning and of the aplication of zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Carlos Ilgenfritz Sperotto

    1999-06-01

    the performance of seeds and bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Essays with the varieties Carioca, Macanudo, FT-120 were set up at the Seed Production Analysis Laboratory, of the Crop Production Department of UFSM, and at the experimental area of the Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária, in Júlio de Castilhos/RS. The three varieties were submitted to the following treatments: control (without pregerminative treatment; PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol, -15 bars during 16 hours; PEG 6000 + ZnSO4 (polyethylene glycol 6000, -15 bars during 16 hours + 5.5g of ZnSO4/kg of seeds and ZnSO4 (5.5g of ZnSO4/kg of seeds. After the application of treatments, seeds of the three varieties were evaluated concerning the germination and dash, at the laboratory. In the field, the number of growing plants was evaluated, also their performance and yield. It was concluded that it’s possible the association of PEG 6000 (- 15 bars, 16 hours under 25°C plus Zinc (5.5g/kg of seed for the osmotic conditioning and the application of this micronutrient on the bean seeds. The osmotic conditioning with PEG 6000 isolated or associated with zinc increases the insertion height of the first pod, the number of pods per plant and the number of seeds per pod in bean plants.

  12. Melhoramento do feijoeiro Breeding of dry beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Abrahão

    1960-01-01

    been considered of prime importance, in order to increase the annual harvest, which is of the order of 150,000 metric tons, grown in an area of approximately 360,000 ha. A project was initiated in 1930 in the Genetics Department of the Instituto Agronômico, Campinos, in order to find out which of the numerous cultivated commercial varieties were most suitable. Several strains were developed from these varieties, resistant to the physiological races of the rust occurring in Campinas, which have been tested in several ecological regions, in order to evaluate their yielding performance. From these varietal and strain trials, undertaken in the period 1948-1956, it was concluded that the beans belonging to the "Mulatinho" and "Chumbinho" types were the most promising ones. These and the new strains here developed or imported from other bean research centers, were object of a new series of eight trials, which is being discussed in this present paper. These strains were assembled in eight groups according mainly to their growth habits and seed characteristics. The seed weight wos compared with the whole plant weight at the harvesting time, for the eight groups of varieties. The obtained indexes showed to be variable according to the groups of varieties and so can be useful in their identification. They also indicate the yielding capacity of the analysed groups. An analysis of these groups of varieties indicated that the highest yields were observed among the varieties of the "Prêto" group, with black seed coat and Rosinha, with light rose seed color. The I-43-C variety received from Venezuela also showed to be of value far our ecological condition. According to the results here presented special attention should be given to the varieties of the "Prêto" and "Rosinha" groups for further development of better dry bean strains.

  13. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  14. Comportamento da cultivar BR-IPAGRO 44-guapo brilhante de feijoeiro em quatro populaçções de plantas na safrinha em Santa Maria-RS Behavior of cultivar BR-IPAGRO 44-guapo brilhante of common bean in four plant populations in the latter season in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Jauer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar Guapo Brilhante de feijoeiro comum, tipo II, foi cultivada durante a safrinha de 2001 em Santa Maria-RS, com quatro populações de plantas (200, 300, 400 e 500 mil plantas ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados o rendimento de grãos, os componentes do rendimento e algumas características morfológicas. A produtividade máxima estimada foi de 2684kg ha-1 com a população de plantas de 337 mil plantas ha-1, demonstrando que, com práticas culturais adequadas, na safrinha, é possível produzir quase três vezes acima da média de produtividade do feijoeiro comum do Rio Grande do Sul da década de 90. O aumento da população de planta aumentou a altura de inserção do primeiro legume, a altura de inserção da base do primeiro legume e reduziu o número de entrenós. A partir de 400 mil plantas ha-1, as alturas de inserção do primeiro legume e da base do primeiro legume ajustam-se ao necessário para a colheita mecanizada, ainda que com perdas potenciais.The common bean cultivar Guapo Brilhante, type II, was grown during the latter season of 2001 in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil, in four plant populations (200, 300, 400, and 500 thousand plants ha-1. The experiment design was randomized blocks with four replications. The grain yield, yield components and some morphological traits were evaluated. The highest estimated yield was 2684kg ha-1 with 337 thousand plants ha-1, demonstrating that, with proper cultural practices, in the latter season, it is possible to produce almost three times more than the best production average of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil in the 90 decade. The increase in plant population increases the first pod height, first pod base height, and the number of internodes. With 400 thousand plants ha-1 the first pod height and the first pod base height are enough to mechanic harvesting, but with potential losses.

  15. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  16. Characterization and genetic relatedness among 37 yardlong bean and cowpea accessions based on morphological characters and RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinich Saereeprasert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four yardlong bean and 13 cowpea accessions were planted in the field to characterize their morphology and genetic relatedness. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with two replicationswas used. Growth habit, days to flowering, pod color, pod length, number of pods/plant, yield/plant and consumption quality were recorded. The results showed that pod length, number of pods/plant and podyield/plant among 37 accessions were highly significant differerence. Mean pod yield and pod length of 24 yardlong bean accessions were 212.1 g/plant and 48.7 cm, respectively, while mean pod yield and pod lengthof 13 cowpea accessions were 117.4 g/plant and 21.3 cm, respectively. Twenty two yardlong bean accessions exhibited indeterminate growth habit while 10 of 13 cowpea had determinate growth habit and the restsexhibited semi-determinate growth. Genetic variation and relationships among accessions were investigated based on RAPD technique. Total DNA was extracted from young leaf samples of all accessions using CTAB buffer. One hundred and twenty decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened and 5 primers (OPC-06,OPR-12, OPZ-03, OPZ-08, OPZ-13 were chosen for further evaluation. A dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed based on 23 polymorphic bands obtained from 5 primers using UPGMA in SPSS program,which revealed separate groups between yardlong bean and cowpea. The similarity coefficient among yardlong bean and cowpea accessions ranged from 0.515 to 1.000 and 0.548 to 1.000, respectively.

  17. Blanching of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaack, K

    1994-12-01

    Experiments with one and two steps blanching of green beans have been carried out. Inactivation of the peroxydase requires more heating than inactivation of the enzymes which gives rise to off flavour from aldehydes. When blanching for about one minute to inactivate lipoxygenase, aldehyde formation of flavour ceases. The content of vitamin C decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction. Since considerable loss of vitamin C occurs during blanching, the treatment time should be reduced to a minimum. During preblanching at 65-75 degrees C and final blanching, chlorophyll is degraded to pheophytin and the surface colour expressed by the Hunter-values (-a/b) increases with time which means that the colour of the beans changes from green to yellow. The firmness of beans, which was measured by use of a tenderometer, decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction with 40 kcal/mole activation energy. Preblanching at 65-75 degrees C increases the firmness of the beans linearly with treatment time. This increase in firmness is stable after final blanching at 95 degrees C and even after thawing of frozen beans.

  18. Enhancement of faba bean competitive ability by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is highly correlated with dynamic nutrient acquisition by competing wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xu; Bei, Shuikuan; Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Zhang, Junling

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic understanding of the dynamic processes linking nutrient acquisition and biomass production of competing individuals can be instructive in optimizing intercropping systems. Here, we examine the effect of inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae on competitive dynamics between wheat and faba bean. Wheat is less responsive to mycorrhizal inoculation. Both inoculated and uninoculated wheat attained the maximum instantaneous N and P capture approximately five days before it attained the maximum instantaneous biomass production, indicating that wheat detected the competitor and responded physiologically to resource limitation prior to the biomass response. By contrast, the instantaneous N and P capture by uninoculated faba bean remained low throughout the growth period, and plant growth was not significantly affected by competing wheat. However, inoculation substantially enhanced biomass production and N and P acquisition of faba bean. The exudation of citrate and malate acids and acid phosphatase activity were greater in mycorrhizal than in uninoculated faba bean, and rhizosphere pH tended to decrease. We conclude that under N and P limiting conditions, temporal separation of N and P acquisition by competing plant species and enhancement of complementary resource use in the presence of AMF might be attributable to the competitive co-existence of faba bean and wheat.

  19. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  20. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  1. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describ

  2. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  3. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (f) Earthquake; (g) Volcanic eruption; or (h) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if caused by an..., or that could be received, for contract seed beans under a seed bean processor contract if the... total production under contract with the seed company. Beans—Dry beans and contract seed...

  4. Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of microRNAs from castor bean (Ricinus communis L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes. Currently, little information on the transcriptome and tissue-specific expression of miRNAs is available in the model non-edible oilseed crop castor bean (Ricinus communis L., one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing technologies to identify and characterize the miRNAs in castor bean. RESULTS: Five small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from root tips, leaves, developing seeds (at the initial stage, seed1; and at the fast oil accumulation stage, seed2 and endosperms in castor bean. High-throughput sequencing generated a large number of sequence reads of small RNAs in this study. In total, 86 conserved miRNAs were identified, including 63 known and 23 newly identified. Sixteen miRNA isoform variants in length were found from the conserved miRNAs of castor bean. MiRNAs displayed diverse organ-specific expression levels among five libraries. Combined with criteria for miRNA annotation and a RT-PCR approach, 72 novel miRNAs and their potential precursors were annotated and 20 miRNAs newly identified were validated. In addition, new target candidates for miRNAs newly identified in this study were proposed. CONCLUSIONS: The current study presents the first high-throughput small RNA sequencing study performed in castor bean to identify its miRNA population. It characterizes and increases the number of miRNAs and their isoforms identified in castor bean. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding castor bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of miRNAs for castor

  5. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  6. Some physiological responses of wheat and bean to soil salinity at low matric suctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatar, Mahnaz; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Shekari, Farid

    2017-01-01

    The effect of soil matric suction (2-33 kPa) and salinity (soil solution electrical conductivity 0.7-8 dS m-1 for bean and 2-20 dS m-1 for wheat) on some physiological characteristics of bean and wheat in a clay loam soil under greenhouse condition was investigated. The results showed that the leaf chlorophyll content index and potassium concentration decrease under salinity stress and increase with matric suction from 2 to 33 kPa suction for both plants. The wheat chlorophyll content index declines during the stress spell but bean chlorophyll content index remains nearly constant. The lowest values of the content of soluble sugars and the highest values of leaf proline content are observed at2 kPa matric suction (highest aeration stress) for bean and wheat. As matric suction increases from 2 to 6 kPa, the soluble sugars increases and proline content decreases significantly and then soluble sugars decreases and proline content increases until 10 kPa suction, and the soluble sugars remains nearly constant at the higher matric suctions for both plants. While the electrical conductivity effect on the soluble sugars is not significant, the values of proline content for both crop increase significantly with electrical conductivity. It was shown that the aeration stress can result in more considerable and rapid physiological responses, in comparison with salinity stress. There is a strong correlation between wheat and bean chlorophyll content index and potassium concentration under salinity and aeration stresses.

  7. Morpho-chemical characterization of dry and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. landraces collected on Fruška Gora Mt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disappearance of old cultivars, including dry and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has been accelerated in last five to six decades, which mainly led to great genetic impoverishment. For all the humanity and its future, particularly is important the maintenance and evaluation of old cultivar’s seeds. The research presented in this paper has been conducted on the territory of southwestern Fruška gora Mt. Of the collected samples of field and vegetables crops, as well as wild plants on the mountain, 13 accessions of snap bean and 21 accessions of dry bean have been analyzed in this paper. Seed color, seed shape, 1000-seed mass and phaseolin type was determined for all the accessions. Seeds of collected bean and snap bean accessions were predominantly white and cylindrical in shape. Mass of 1000 seeds ranged between 104,90 g and 634,96 g. T phaseolin type dominated, while S type of phaseolin was present in six bean and in two snap bean accessions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31030: Development of vegetable varieties and hybrids for field and indoor production and Project Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development, Autonomous Province Vojvodina, Republic Serbia, number 114-451-3139/2011-01

  8. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  9. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... individual beans. We would require the beans to be inspected by the Kenyan NPPO and found to be free of..., primarily to the European Union (EU). The EU provides a well-established market and it is unlikely that there would be a large diversion of French bean exports by Kenya from this market to the United...

  10. Yield response of red kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris to incremental ozone concentrations in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohut, R.; Laurence, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Field-grown red kidney beans were exposed to incremental levels of ozone in open-top chambers for 21 days during pod filling. Treatments consisted of ambient plots without chambers, chambers receiving charcoal-filtered air and chambers receiving non-filtered air to which either 0.00, 0.03, 0.06 or 0.09 ppm O/sub 3/ was added for 7 h each day. The addition of 0.06 or 0.09 ppm O/sub 3/ produced foliar injury, extensive defoliation and reductions in per plant bean yield of 24 and 27%, respectively. Regression analysis indicated a significant linear relationship between the 7-h mean O/sub 3/ concentration and yield per plant. This relationship was expressed as: Yield = 17.44 - 35.51 (CONC).

  11. Title A de novo synthesis citrate transporter VuMATE confers aluminum resistance in rice bean (vigna umbellata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-activated organic acid anion efflux from roots is an important Al resistance mechanism in plants. We have conducted the homologous cloning and isolation of VuMATE (Vigna umbellata multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), a gene encoding a de novo citrate transporter from rice bean. Al treatment u...

  12. Development of navy bean-soybean milk substitute beverages and evaluation of its nutritional and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    As health-conscious consumers are increasingly looking for plant-based milk substitute beverages for weight management, cancer prevention, and overall cardiovascular health, we are exploring pulse based healthful beverages with soybean-navy bean blends of 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 20:80, and 0:100 ratios...

  13. Identifying resistance gene analogs associated with resistances to different pathogens in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Camilo E; Acosta, Iván F; Jara, Carlos; Pedraza, Fabio; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Gallego, Gerardo; Beebe, Steve; Tohme, Joe

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT A polymerase chain reaction approach using degenerate primers that targeted the conserved domains of cloned plant disease resistance genes (R genes) was used to isolate a set of 15 resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Eight different classes of RGAs were obtained from nucleotide binding site (NBS)-based primers and seven from not previously described Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor-like (TIR)-based primers. Putative amino acid sequences of RGAs were significantly similar to R genes and contained additional conserved motifs. The NBS-type RGAs were classified in two subgroups according to the expected final residue in the kinase-2 motif. Eleven RGAs were mapped at 19 loci on eight linkage groups of the common bean genetic map constructed at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical. Genetic linkage was shown for eight RGAs with partial resistance to anthracnose, angular leaf spot (ALS) and Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). RGA1 and RGA2 were associated with resistance loci to anthracnose and BGYMV and were part of two clusters of R genes previously described. A new major cluster was detected by RGA7 and explained up to 63.9% of resistance to ALS and has a putative contribution to anthracnose resistance. These results show the usefulness of RGAs as candidate genes to detect and eventually isolate numerous R genes in common bean.

  14. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dongying; Zhao, Dongyan; Abernathy, Brian; Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Jiang, Ning; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-07-07

    Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T). Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome.

  15. Early Identification of Determinate Growth Habit in Lablab Bean (Lablab purpureus (L..) Sweet)

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Nasreen; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    Rapid and reliable information for early identification of determinate growth habit is highly desired in the high yielding determinate variety development program. This experiment was conducted to find out some effective morphological markers for the early identification of determinate growth habit of lablab bean. Both determinate and indeterminate plants were grown in 20℃ and 25℃ of phytotron in the summer and winter seasons of two consecutive years. The results of this experiment suggest th...

  16. Complete genome sequence of bean leaf crumple virus, a novel begomovirus infecting common bean in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Yepes, Monica; Zambrano, Leidy; Bueno, Juan M; Raatz, Bodo; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2017-02-10

    A copy of the complete genome of a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia was obtained by rolling-circle amplification (RCA), cloned, and sequenced. The virus is associated with leaf crumple symptoms and significant yield losses in Andean and Mesoamerican beans. Such symptoms have been reported increasingly in Colombia since at least 2002, and we detected the virus in leaf material collected since 2008. Sequence analysis showed that the virus is a member of a distinct species, sharing 81% and 76% nucleotide (nt) sequence identity (in DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively) to other begomoviruses infecting common bean in the Americas. The data obtained support the taxonomic status of this virus (putatively named 'bean leaf crumple virus', BLCrV) as a member of a novel species in the genus Begomovirus.

  17. Efeito residual de herbicidas em pré-plantio do feijoeiro, em dois sistemas de aplicação em plantio direto e sua viabilidade econômica Economic viability of residual herbicides in dry bean pre-planting under two aplication methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cobucci

    2004-12-01

    pre-planting of common beans. The study was conducted in Santo Antônio de Goiás, Brazil, in 1999/2000 on three t ha-1 of dry biomass. The 60 treatments were applied on the top of the weed plants (Commelina benghalensis and Bidens pilosa disposed as a 2x10x3 factorial, with split-plots in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The first factor consisted of the desiccation systems in the area (Integrated Control System (ICS and Apply and Sow. ICS consisted of sulfosate (720 g ha-1 applied 20 days before planting and paraquat 200 g ha-1 added to the residual herbicides and applied immediately after sowing. Apply and Sow consisted of (sulfosate 720 g ha-1 added to the residual herbicides, applied five days before sowing. The second factor consisted of the residual herbicides applied in g ha-1, sulfentrazone (200 and 300, dimethenamid (900 and 1.125; clomazone (360; pendimethalin (2.500, s-metolachlor (768 and 1152, diclosulan (12,45 and check; and the third factor consisted of the doses of the post-emergence herbicides: imazamox (15 + bentazon (240, imazamox (30 + bentazon (480 and the check. The results showed that the residual herbicides applied in the ICS and Apply and Plant systems reduced the initial growth of Bidens pilosa, but only the herbicides diclosulan and sulfentrazone showed the same effect on Euphorbia heterophylla. The use of residual herbicides in pre-planting was economically viable reducing the amount of herbicides applied in pre-emergence, except for dimethenamid and s-metolachlor.

  18. Genetic Improvement of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Common Bean Genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Golparvar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty common bean genotypes were cultivated in two separately field trials at the research station of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch during 2008-2009. The experimental design was randomized complete block. Bean seeds were inoculated by Rhizobium legominosarum biovar Phaseoli isolate L-109 in one of the experiments before sowing. The dose of Rhizobium for seed inoculation was 7 miligrams of bacteria for 1 kilogram of seed. The second experiment was control. The second experiment was analyzed in the same way as the first except for biological nitrogen fixation. The results showed definite positive and significant correlation in percentage of nitrogen fixation with some other been characters. Step-wise regression designated that total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield accounted for 93.8% of variation expect for nitrogen fixation percent. Path analysis indicated that total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield have direct and positive effect on nitrogen fixation index. Hence, total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield are promising indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation capability in common bean genotypes.

  19. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Common Bean Histone Deacetylase 6 during Development and Cold Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaba-Osena, Ayalew; Subramani, Mayavan; Brown, Adrianne; Melmaiee, Kalpalatha; Hossain, Khwaja

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important regulators of gene transcription thus controlling multiple cellular processes. Despite its essential role in plants, HDA6 is yet to be validated in common bean. In this study, we show that HDA6 is involved in plant development and stress response. Differential expression of HDA6 was determined in various tissues and the expression was seen to be upregulated with plant age (seedling < flowering < maturity). Higher expression was observed in flowers and pods than in stem, leaf, and root. Upregulation of HDA6 gene during cold stress implies its prominent role in abiotic stress. Furthermore, the HDA6 gene was isolated from three common bean genotypes and sequence analyses revealed homology with functionally characterized homologs in model species. The 53 kDa translated product was detected using an HDA6 specific antibody and recombinant protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli showed HDAC activity in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the agriculturally important crop common bean describing the functional characterization and biological role of HDA6. PMID:28127547

  20. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  1. Management of the broad bean weevil (Bruchus rufimanus Boh.) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Roubinet, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bruchus rufimanus Boh. is a common pest on faba beans (Vicia faba L.) all over Europe and worldwide. The area of faba bean production is increasing in Sweden and in Europe, partly encouraged by the CAP subsidies for legume crops and diversified crop rotations. At the same time, number of the insecticides commonly used against B. rufimanus have been removed from the market as pollinators risk to be harmed as the treatment timing corresponds to crop flowering. In Sweden, only one ins...

  2. Isolation and characterization of a proteinase inhibitor from marama beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfant, M; Bryant, L; Starcher, B

    1985-11-01

    A protease inhibitor was purified from the African marama bean (Tylosema esculenturm). The inhibitor is present in large amounts, representing about 10.5% of the total protein. The molecular weight is slightly larger than soybean trypsin inhibitor and was estimated at 23,000 by SDS-gel electrophoresis or 24,500 by amino acid analysis. The amino acid composition was atypical of most other plant inhibitors with a cysteine content of only one or possibly two residues/mole and a blocked amino terminus. Inhibition studies indicated virtually no inhibition of chymotrypsin activity. Elastase, however, was inhibited to the same extent as trypsin, requiring about 2 moles of inhibitor for complete inhibition of the enzyme.

  3. Copper excess impairs mobilization of storage proteins in bean cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmous, Inès; El Ferjani, Ezzedine; Chaoui, Abdelilah

    2011-12-01

    Germination represents a limiting stage of plant life cycle. One of the underlying metabolic activities following imbibition of seed is the reserve mobilization. Seeds of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. soisson nain hatif) were germinated by soaking in distilled water or 200 μM CuCl(2). Storage proteins breakdown and amino acids freeing from reserve tissues were investigated. Compared to the control, Cu caused a reduction in germination rate, embryo growth, and in mobilization of cotyledonary biomass. The failure in albumin and globulin hydrolysis after the exposure to the pollutant was argued by (1) higher contents of remaining proteins than control ones, (2) persistence of some polypeptide bands resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of albumin and globulin-rich fractions, and (3) decrease in the availability of amino acids. Nitrogen starvation in embryonic axis should be associated with the Cu-imposed delay in growth.

  4. Action of xyloglucan hydrolase within the native cell wall architecture and its effect on cell wall extensibility in azuki bean epicotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Tomomi; Tabuchi, Akira; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    Xyloglucan hydrolase (XGH) has recently been purified from the cell wall of azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi) epicotyls as a new type of xyloglucan-degrading enzyme [Tabuchi et al. (2001) Plant Cell Physiol. 42: 154]. In the present study, the effects of XGH on the mechanical properties of the cell wall and on the level and the molecular size of xyloglucans within the native wall architecture were examined in azuki bean epicotyls. When the epidermal tissue strips from the growing regions of azuki bean epicotyls were incubated with XGH, the mechanical extensibility of the cell wall dramatically increased. XGH exogenously applied to cell wall materials (homogenates) or epidermal tissue strips decreased the amount of xyloglucans via the solubilization of the polysaccharides. Also, XGH substantially decreased the molecular mass of xyloglucans in both materials. These results indicate that XGH is capable of hydrolyzing xyloglucans within the native cell wall architecture and thereby increasing the cell wall extensibility in azuki bean epicotyls.

  5. Determination of the capability of common bean “amachamiento” (Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie of being seed-transmitted.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Felipe Chaves-Barrantes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the capability of Aphelenchoides besseyi of being seed-transmitted in common bean. During 2007 and 2008, seeds were collected from nematode-infested common bean plants (cv. Cabécar previously showing characteristic symptoms, in commercial plantations of the Brunca region of Costa Rica (southeastern area of the country. Between September 2008 and September 2009 the seeds were sowed in plastic pots in a greenhouse located in Veracruz, Pérez Zeledón, Costa Rica. Once seeds germinated, plants were observed weekly to determine the appearance of “amachamiento” symptoms and detect the cases of disease transmission by seed. To support the previous work, seeds from “amachamiento” diseased plants (cv. Cabécar were collected in commercial common bean plantations in five localities of the Brunca region of Costa Rica in 2014. The seeds were carried to Estación Experimental Agrícola Fabio Baudrit Moreno of Universidad de Costa Rica located in Alajuela, where they were examined in a laboratory to determine the presence of A. besseyi specimens. Contrary to indicated for A. besseyi in rice and pastures, crops in which this pathogen is seed-transmitted, in common bean it was not possible find specimens of this nematode nor diseased plants from seeds of infested plants. The results obtained indicate that, under these experimental conditions, seeds are not an effective way for the transmission and dissemination of the “amachamiento” disease in common bean.

  6. Alterações metabólicas em plantas de feijão originadas de sementes microbiolizadas por Pseudomonas sp. e inoculadas com Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli Metabolic alterations on bean plants originated from microbiolization of seeds with Pseudomonas sp. and inoculated with Xanthomnas axonopodis pv. phaseoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-06-01

    . Em relação à atividade de PO houve redução da mesma nas plantas tratadas com o isolado de Pseudomonas (DFs842. Esses resultados evidenciaram que a microbiolização das sementes provocou alterações metabólicas nas plantas delas originadas, pelo aumento do teor de PST e atividade de PPO, indicando uma provável participação destas enzimas na indução de resistência ativada pela microbiolização com o isolado de Pseudomonas (DFs842.Many enzymes are involved in plant defense against pathogens. The purpose of this study was to verify alterations in activity of some enzymes in bean plants originated from microbiolization of seeds with a fluorescent isolate (DFs842 of Pseudomonas. Bean seeds (cv. "BRS Valente" were immersed in a bacterial suspension of a 24 hours old Pseudomonas culture (OD540=0,5 known as a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli biocontroler. Check treatment consisted of seeds immersed in a saline solution (NaCl 0,85%. After microbiolization for 5 hours at 10ºC, seeds were sowed in a non sterilized substrate composed of soil, sand and bovine manure mixture (3:1:1 ratio disposed in pots in a greenhouse. The pathogen was inoculated by cutting the third true leaves with scissors previously immersed in the bacterial suspension (X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli prepared from a 24 hours old culture (OD540=0,4. Plants were kept in moister chambers for 24 hours before and after the inoculation. For protein extraction preparation, the three true leaves were collected individually at five different times: immediately before inoculation and 6, 24, 72 hours and 15 days after inoculation. The leaf extract was used for determination of total soluble proteins (TSP, and the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (PO by spectrophometry. The results showed a significant increase in TSP content and PPO activity in plants treated with the isolated DFs842, when TSP content was the double of the non-treated plants. It was also observed that, even before

  7. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  8. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  9. Influence of compost application on arsenic uptake by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), irrigated with arsenic-contaminated waters at four different concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, A. G.; Pigna, M.; Sommella, A.; Cozzolino, V.; Violante, A.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in soils and/or groundwaters, used for agricultural purposes, causes a strong abiotic stress to the cultivated plants, which results in the reduction of biomasses and yields, and the abundance of non-tradable products. It is therefore desirable to identify and develop production techniques capable of limiting the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, through the stabilization of the metalloid on the more recalcitrant soil fractions. Incorporation of compost into soil for As immobilization offers various potential advantages over other methods such as low-cost, simple methodology and low environmental impact. We studied the influence of compost application on the mobility and phyto-availability of As in soil, the growth of the bean plants irrigated with As-contaminated waters and their own As uptake. Bean was selected as test plant, because this crop is grown in several As-contaminated areas and suffers As toxicity. Bean plants growth was significantly affected by As and compost treatments. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water decreased markedly the dry biomass, as a consequence of As phytotoxicity. The influence of compost application on plants growth was also significant, indicating the ability of the compost to alleviate the As phytotoxicity. Arsenic caused a reduction of the photosynthesis rate. By increasing As concentration in irrigation water, in fact, bean leaves showed a decrease in both chlorophyll A and B concentrations in their own mesophylls. However, by increasing level of compost application there was an increase of both chlorophylls concentrations in bean leaves. Arsenic concentration in roots was higher than that in shoots and bean yield. Bean plants showed a typical behavior of the plants sensitive to As toxicity, which usually tend to limit the As translocation from roots to shoots and yield. A low As allocation in bean yield is desirable, because a high As content in edible part of the plants

  10. Identification and characterization of three putative genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, J R; Schlagnhaufer, C D; Arteca, R N; Phillips, A T

    1992-02-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to produce 3 putative clones for ACC synthase from etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata Rwilcz cv. Berken) hypocotyls. This was accomplished by utilizing genomic DNA from mung bean and degenerate primers made from information derived from highly conserved regions of ACC synthase from different plant tissues. The total length of pMAC-1, pMAC-2 and pMAC-3 are 308, 321, and 326 bp, respectively, all of which code for 68 amino acids. The introns for pMAC-1, pMAC-2 and pMAC-3 are 92, 105, and 110 bp, respectively. The degrees of homology at the DNA level for each of these clones is ca. 80% in their coding region and ca. 50% in their respective introns. This is the first report providing evidence that there are at least 3 genes for ACC synthase in etiolated mung bean.

  11. Study on Prevention Technology of Beans Botrytis cinerea%豆角灰霉病防治技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯健; 冯敏; 方新; 于淼

    2012-01-01

    灰霉病是造成豆角烂荚的主要病害,灰霉病多从残花开始侵染,然后逐渐侵染豆荚,造成烂荚,植株死棵。该研究结果表明:木霉孢子稀释液进行喷施也可以有效防治灰霉病的发生。%Botrytis cinerea is primary diseases which causes rotten bean-pod,Botrytis cinerea infection starts from the flowers,and then gradually infects bean-pod,causes rotten bean-pod and plant trees to die.This study′s results showed that the trichoderma spore diluted solution spraying could effectively control the occurrence of Botrytis cinerea.

  12. Effects of biochar on enhanced nutrient use efficiency of green bean, Vigna radiata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapagdee, Songkrit; Tawinteung, Nukoon

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is the carbonized material produced from biomass and is used in several environmental applications. The biochar characteristics depend on the carbonization conditions and feedstock. The suitability of a given biochar for soil improvement depends on the biochar characteristics, soil properties, and target plants. Biochar has been applied at 1-20% (w/w) in the soil, but currently there is a lack of information on what type and concentration of biochar are most suitable for a specific plant and soil quality. Too much biochar will reduce plant growth because of the high alkalinity of biochar, which will cause long-term soil alkalinity. In contrast, too little biochar might be insufficient to enhance plant productivity. In this study, a suitable concentration of cassava stem (an abundant agricultural waste in Thailand) biochar produced at 350 °C was evaluated for green bean (Vigna radiata L.) growth from germination to seed production in pots over 8 weeks. The soil fertility was increased with increasing biochar concentration. At 5% (w/w) biochar, the soil fertility and plant growth were significantly enhanced, while 10% (w/w) biochar significantly enhanced bean growth and bean pod production. The increased biochar concentration in the soil significantly increased the soil total nitrogen and extractable potassium (K) levels but did not affect the amount of available phosphorous. Biochar at 10% (w/w) significantly induced the accumulation of K in the stems, leaves, nut shells, and roots but not in nut seeds. Moreover, biochar not only increased the K concentration in soil but also increased the plant nutrient use efficiency of K, which is important for plant growth. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  13. Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Bo-han; Liu, Hong-yu; Zeng, Qing-ru; Yu, Ping-zhong; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2005-08-01

    Complex toxic effects of Cd2+, Zn2+, and acid rain on growth of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) were studied in a pot experiment by measurement of fresh weights of the plants, determination of surperoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the plant organs, and observation of injury symptoms. The experimental results demonstrated that all treatments of Cd2+, Zn2+, and/or acid rain significantly decreased fresh weights of kidney bean and caused toxic effects on growth of the plants, especially higher amounts of Cd2+ and Zn2+ and higher acidity of acid rain. Combination of these three pollutant factors resulted in more serious toxic effects than any single pollutant and than combinations of any two pollutants. SOD, POD, and MDA in the plant organs changed with different pollution levels, but MDA content in the leaves showed the best relationship between the pollution levels and toxic effects.

  14. Effects of temperature on the cell wall and osmotic properties in dark-grown rice and azuki bean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-12-01

    The mechanism inducing the difference in growth rate under various temperature (10-50 degrees C) conditions was analyzed using rice and azuki bean seedlings. The growth rate of rice coleoptiles and azuki bean epicotyls increased as temperature increased up to 40 and 30 degrees C, respectively, and the elongation was retarded at a higher temperature. The cell wall extensibility of rice coleoptiles and azuki bean epicotyls also showed the highest value at 40 and 30 degrees C, respectively, and became smaller as the temperature rose or dropped from the optimum. The opposite tendency was observed in the minimum stress-relaxation time of the cell wall. On the other hand, the cellular osmotic concentration of rice coleoptiles and azuki bean epicotyls was lower at the temperature optimum for growth at 40 and 30 degrees C, respectively. When rice and azuki bean seedlings grown at 10, 20, 40, or 50 degrees C were transferred to the initial temperature (30 degrees C), the growth rate of coleoptiles and epicotyls was mostly elevated, concomitant with an increase in the cell wall extensibility. The growth rate was correlated with the cell wall mechanical parameters in both materials. These results suggest that the environmental temperature modulates the growth rate of plant shoots by affecting mainly the mechanical properties of the cell wall.

  15. Photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange in castor bean under conditions of above the optimal temperature and high CO2

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    Fabiola França Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean plant, a Euphorbiaceae oil seed C3-metabolism rustic and drought-resistant plant, is cultivated in a wide range of environments due to its good adaptive capacity. However, given the current environmental changes, many biochemical and physiological impacts may affect the productivity of important crops, such as castor bean. This work aimed to evaluate the impacts of the castor bean gas exchange in response to high temperature and increased CO2concentration.Our experiment was conducted in a phytotron located at Embrapa Algodão in 2010. We adopted a completely randomized design, with four treatments in a factorial combination of two temperatures (30/20 and 37/30°C and two CO2 levels (400 and 800 mmol L-1; four replications were performed, obtained in five surveys over the growth cycle, for a total of 80 sample units. An infrared gas analyzer (IRGA - Infra Red Gas Analyzer was used for the quantification of the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration. An increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature negatively affected the physiology of the castor bean plants, decreasing the net rate of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

  16. Low strigolactone root exudation: a novel mechanism of broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) resistance available for faba bean breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Rubiales, Diego; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2014-07-23

    Faba bean yield is severely constrained in the Mediterranean region and Middle East by the parasitic weeds Orobanche crenata, O. foetida, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Seed germination of these weeds is triggered upon recognition of host root exudates. Only recently faba bean accessions have been identified with resistance based in low induction of parasitic seed germination, but the underlying mechanism was not identified. Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones involved in the host recognition by parasitic plants. Our LC-MS/MS analysis of root exudates of the susceptible accession Prothabon detected orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and a novel germination stimulant. A time course analysis indicated that their concentration increased with plant age. However, low or undetectable amounts of these germination stimulants were detected in root exudates of the resistant lines Quijote and Navio at all plant ages. A time course analysis of seed germination induced by root exudates of each faba bean accession indicated important differences in the ability to stimulate parasitic germination. Results presented here show that resistance to parasitic weeds based on low strigolactone exudation does exist within faba bean germplasm. Therefore, selection for this trait is feasible in a breeding program. The remarkable fact that low induction of germination is similarly operative against O. crenata, O. foetida, and P. aegyptiaca reinforces the value of this resistance.

  17. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis germinated in abiotic stress conditions

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    Urszula Złotek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adzuki sprouts are one of more valuable but still underappreciated dietary supplements which may be considered as functional food. Sprouting reduces anti-nutritional factors and increases the bioavailability of macro and micronutrients and also affects phytochemical levels. Exposure of plants to abiotic stresses results in change in production of phytochemical compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the content and antioxidant properties of phenolic in adzuki bean seeds germinated in selected abiotic stress conditions. Material and methods. Adzuki bean seeds were germinated in different abiotic stress conditions: thermal, osmotic and oxidative. The content of phenolics in adzuki bean seeds coat extracts and antioxidant activity Fe2+ chelating ability and neutralization of the free radicals generated from DPPH and ABTS were determined. Results. All applied stress conditions (except for thermal stress have caused decrease the content of the analysed phenolic fractions. The lowest amounts of polyphenols in extracts of sprouts obtained in oxidative stress conditions were observed. The highest ability to neutralize free radicals generated with ABTS and DPPH have extracts from sprouts germinated under thermal stress 39.94 and 13.20 μmol TEAC/g d.w., respectively. The lowest – sprouts obtained in oxidative stress conditions (18.2 and 9.72 μmol TEAC/g d.w.. The highest ability to chelate Fe2+ has been shown by the extract from adzuki bean seeds coat subjected to thermal stress (7.06 % and the lowest control extract (3.08%. Conclusions. It can be concluded that only thermal stress contributes to the improvement of antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from adzuki bean seeds coat.

  18. Faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

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    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (12% soybean meal, no faba beans was compared with a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% soybean meal and 10% flaked faba beans. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 1, hay only in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality and the characteristics of grab faecal samples as empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was slightly lower in the “Faba” group, particularly in experiment 2 (“Control” vs “Faba”: 34.6 vs 32.9 mg/dL in experiment 1, P<0.1; 27.4 vs 23.4 mg/dL in experiment 2, P<0.01; the plasma urea content in experiment 2 confirmed the trend observed in milk (3.9 vs 3.0 mmol/L, P<0.01. The inclusion of faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  19. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  20. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China

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    Zhenxing Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. as a functional food is growing; however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1%–22.3% of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4% and 36.1% of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70% ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 28.13 ± 2.24 to 35.68 ± 0.71 μmol g−1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to 13.44 ± 1.76 μmol g−1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  1. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Harminder Pal, E-mail: hpsingh_01@yahoo.com [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 {mu}W cm{sup -2}; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at {>=}2 h), and radicle and plumule growths ({>=}1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  2. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

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    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  3. New Native Rhizobia Strains for Inoculation of Common Bean in the Brazilian Savanna

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    Fábio Martins Mercante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Maximization of biological nitrogen fixation in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. crop depends on the genetic characteristics related to the plant, the symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of rhizobia selected beforehand from Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna soils in Mato Grosso do Sul. The experiments were conducted in 2007 in the municipalities of Aquidauana, Anaurilândia, Campo Grande, and Dourados, all located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. All procedures established followed the current recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (Ministério de Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento – MAPA, in accordance with the “official protocol for assessing the feasibility and agronomic efficiency of strains, and inoculant technologies linked to the process of biological nitrogen fixation in legumes”. The program for selection of rhizobia for inoculation in bean plants resulted in identification of different strains with high symbiotic efficiency, competitiveness, and genetic stability, based on the Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste collection of multifunctional microorganism cultures. In previous studies, 630 isolates of Rhizobium were evaluated. They were obtained from nodules of leucaena (380 or dry beans (250 from 87 locations, including 34 municipalities in Mato Grosso do Sul. Three of them stood out from the others: CPAO 12.5 L2, CPAO 17.5 L2, and CPAO 56.4 L2. Inoculation of these strains in bean plants demonstrated economic viability and high potential for obtaining a more effective inoculant suitable for trading purposes.

  4. Custo adaptativo da indução de resistência em feijoeiro mediada pela rizobactéria Bacillus cereus ou acibenzolar-S-metil: atividade de enzimas, síntese de fenóis e lignina e biomassa Fitness cost of induced resistance in bean plants by the rhizobacteria Bacillus cereus or acibenzolar-S-methyl: enzymes activities, phenol and lignin synthesis, and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair José Kuhn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas que utilizam recursos para defesa na ausência de pragas ou patógenos, arcarão com custos energéticos que podem refletir na sua produtividade. Assim, teve-se por objetivo avaliar os custos adaptativos da indução de resistência, antes da chegada do patógeno, em feijoeiro induzido por um indutor biótico (Bacillus cereus e um abiótico (acibenzolar-S-metil, ASM, em 2, 3 ou 4 aplicações distribuídas ao longo do ciclo da cultura. Avaliou-se o efeito protetor contra a bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, além da atividade de peroxidase, quitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, síntese de lignina, fenóis e crescimento com base na matéria seca. Observou-se que os indutores protegeram a cultura contra X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli com base na redução da severidade. O ASM aumentou a atividade de peroxidase, quitinase e β-1,3-glucanase, enquanto que o B. cereus aumentou apenas a peroxidase. O ASM aumentou a síntese de lignina e B. cereus não, enquanto que ASM diminuiu teor de fenóis e B. cereus não. O ASM reduziu a biomassa da planta, o que não ocorreu em plantas induzidas por B. cereus. Portanto, a resistência induzida por ASM apresenta elevado custo associado, enquanto que por B. cereus apresenta baixo custo, necessitando a indução de resistência ser melhor explorada e estudada para potencializar seu uso em feijoeiro.Plants that use resources to defend themselves in the absence of pests or pathogens will pay off with energy costs that can reflect in the productivity. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the fitness costs of the resistance induced in bean plants, before the presence of the pathogen, by using biotic (Bacillus cereus and abiotic (acibenzolar-S-methyl, ASM inducers, applied 2, 3 or 4 times during the cycle of the culture. The protecting effect was evaluated against the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. The activities of peroxidase, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, lignin and phenol

  5. Ação do enxofre em chuva ácida simulada sobre parâmetros morfofisiológicos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae = Sulfur effect by simulated acid rain on morphophysiological parameters of the bean plant

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    Bruna Borba Dias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do enxofre e da chuva ácida simulada sobre a estrutura foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L, nos aspectos morfoanatômicos, teores de clorofila a, b, total e feofitina. As plantas-controle sofreram simulações de chuva com pH 6,0 e as plantas-teste sofreram simulação de chuva ácida com pH 3,0. As concentrações de clorofila a, b e total diminuíram no estádio de floração (R6. Já, no estádio R7, onde surgem as primeiras vagens, os teores aumentaram, indicando possível resistência e/ou adaptação dos espécimes às simulações ácidas. O tratamento ácido afetou a concentração de clorofila que foi degradada por processos oxidativos sem a sua conversão em feofitina. Também se observou diminuição na frequência de tricomas tectores e glandulares, assim como de estômatos. As injúrias visualizadas foram classificadas como de caráter leve, provavelmente pela existência de anexos epidérmicos para proteção foliar e peciolar.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of sulfur and simulated acid rain on the leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain (pH 3.0 and an aqueous solution (Ph 6.0 were performed on test and control plants, respectively. A decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations was observed in theflowering stage (R6. However, increased rates were determined in the maturation stage (R7, which can suggest a resistance and/or adjustment of the plants to the acid simulation conditions. The acid treatment achieved chlorophyll degradation by oxidative processes without conversion to pheophytin. A reduction was also seen in the number of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and stomata on the test plants. Moreover, only small injuries were verified on the blade and peciolar areas of the tested individuals of P. vulgaris, probablydue to the presence of the reported epidermal structures.

  6. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

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    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  7. Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni

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    Rezende Viviane Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni was studied using segregating populations from the bean variety crosses Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686. F2 plants, together with the parents, were inoculated and evaluated using a scale of values from one (plant without symptoms to nine (completely infected plant. F2 plants were harvested individually, and F2:3 families were obtained. These families were evaluated in an 11 x 11 and 12 x 12 simple lattice statistical design for the Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 crosses, respectively, using the same value scale as the F2 generation. The segregation observed in F2 plants and F2:3 families indicated that two genes are involved in genetic control, due to a double recessive epistasis. The high linear regression coefficient (b between F2 plants and their F2:3 family, 0.66 for ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 cross, and 0.71 for Jalo x ESAL 686 cross, showed that the trait is highly heritable.

  8. Isolation and characterization of culturable seed-associated bacterial endophytes from gnotobiotically grown Marama bean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimwamurombe, Percy Maruwa; Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) is an indigenous non-nodulating legume to the arid agro-ecological parts of Southern Africa. It is a staple food for the Khoisan and Bantu people from these areas. It is intriguing how it is able to synthesize the high-protein content in the seeds since its natural habitat is nitrogen deficient. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of seed transmittable bacterial endophytes that may have growth promoting effects, which may be particularly important for the harsh conditions. Marama bean seeds were surface sterilized and gnotobiotically grown to 2 weeks old seedlings. From surface-sterilized shoots and roots, 123 distinct bacterial isolates were cultured using three media, and identified by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. Phylogenetic analyses of 73 putative endophytes assigned them to bacterial species from 14 genera including Proteobacteria (Rhizobium, Massilia, Kosakonia, Pseudorhodoferax, Caulobacter, Pantoea, Sphingomonas, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium), Firmicutes (Bacillus), Actinobacteria (Curtobacterium, Microbacterium) and Bacteroidetes (Mucilaginibacter, Chitinophaga). Screening for plant growth-promoting activities revealed that the isolates showed production of IAA, ACC deaminase, siderophores, endoglucanase, protease, AHLs and capacities to solubilize phosphate and fix nitrogen. This is the first report that marama bean seeds may harbor endophytes that can be cultivated from seedlings; in this community of bacteria, physiological characteristics that are potentially plant growth promoting are widespread.

  9. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwabena Darkwa; Daniel Ambachewa; Hussein Mohammed; Asrat Asfaw; Matthew W. Blairc

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress linked with climate change is one of the major constraints faced by common bean farmers in Africa and elsewhere. Mitigating this constraint requires the selection of resilient varieties that withstand drought threats to common bean production. This study assessed the drought response of 64 small red-seeded genotypes of common bean grown in a lattice design replicated twice under contrasting moisture regimes, terminal drought stress and non-stress, in Ethiopia during the dry season from November 2014 to March 2015. Multiple plant traits associated with drought were assessed for their contribution to drought adaptation of the genotypes. Drought stress determined by a drought intensity index was moderate (0.3). All the assessed traits showed significantly different genotypic responses under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Eleven genotypes significantly (P ≤0.05) outperformed the drought check cultivar under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in seed yielding potential. Seed yield showed positive and significant correlations with chlorophyll meter reading, vertical root pulling resistance force, number of pods per plant, and seeds per pod under both soil moisture regimes, indicating their potential use in selection of genotypes yielding well under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Clustering analysis using Mahalanobis distance grouped the genotypes into four groups showing high and significant inter-cluster distance, suggesting that hybridization between drought-adapted parents from the groups will provide the maximum genetic recombination for drought tolerance in subsequent generations.

  10. Presence of Aspergillus and other fungal symbionts in coffee beans from Colombia

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    Gamboa-Gaitán Miguel Ángel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are common inhabitants of plants and plant-derived products. Some of these fungal species are potentially dangerous to human health since they are able to produce chemical substances that alter normal physiological activity. There are no studies about natural mycoflora associated with coffee beans in Colombia, and nothing is known about the presence and abundance of toxigenic fungal species in Colombian coffee. In this study 5,000 coffee beans were studied by plating them on potato-based artificial culture medium and it was shown that potentially toxigenic fungal taxa (mostly from genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, are currently found in Colombian coffee beans. This is true for all steps of coffee processing, from berries in trees to toasted grains, including packed coffee ready for retail in supermarkets. Results show that the distribution of these fungi is not random among different steps of coffee processing, which means that some steps are more vulnerable to infection with some fungi that others. The convenience of establishing a program devoted to detect fungi and/or mycotoxins in Colombian commodities, specially coffee, is discussed here.

  11. Effect of extrusion, espansion and toasting on the nutritional value of peas, faba beans and lupins

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    Filippo Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment was made of the effect that different treatments (toasting, expansion, extrusion have on the nutritionalvalue of protein plants (pea, faba bean, lupin. In a randomized block design, feeds were screened for enzymaticdigestibility of starch and protein, N solubility and in vitro protein degradability. Expansion and extrusion cause increasedstarch enzymatic degradability while toasting produced virtually no effects. In peas this value increased from 11.80% inmeal to 39.70% in the extruded product; 85.37% is the percentage for the expanded product, while 10.90% is the starchdigestibility value for toasted peas. In faba beans the extrusion process increased starch digestibility from 11.39% to85.05%, while in extruded lupins a complete starch hydrolysis was obtained, while in the meal the polysaccharide digestionwas 54.48%.The expansion and extrusion processes significantly decreased rumen degradability during the first 8 hours of incubation.Toasted peas had lower degradability if compared with controls but not with the other treatments. The onlypotentially alternative source to soybean is the extruded faba bean. In spite of its lower protein content, this feed ischaracterized by a considerably lower in vitro protein degradability than soybean. This implies that the digestible foodprotein content is comparable (124.90 g/kg DM to that of soybean (109.78 g/kg DM and definitely higher than thatof all other protein plants.

  12. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Darkwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress linked with climate change is one of the major constraints faced by common bean farmers in Africa and elsewhere. Mitigating this constraint requires the selection of resilient varieties that withstand drought threats to common bean production. This study assessed the drought response of 64 small red-seeded genotypes of common bean grown in a lattice design replicated twice under contrasting moisture regimes, terminal drought stress and non-stress, in Ethiopia during the dry season from November 2014 to March 2015. Multiple plant traits associated with drought were assessed for their contribution to drought adaptation of the genotypes. Drought stress determined by a drought intensity index was moderate (0.3. All the assessed traits showed significantly different genotypic responses under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Eleven genotypes significantly (P ≤ 0.05 outperformed the drought check cultivar under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in seed yielding potential. Seed yield showed positive and significant correlations with chlorophyll meter reading, vertical root pulling resistance force, number of pods per plant, and seeds per pod under both soil moisture regimes, indicating their potential use in selection of genotypes yielding well under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Clustering analysis using Mahalanobis distance grouped the genotypes into four groups showing high and significant inter-cluster distance, suggesting that hybridization between drought-adapted parents from the groups will provide the maximum genetic recombination for drought tolerance in subsequent generations.

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Tan

    Full Text Available Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp. is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18% had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  15. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; Pcacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils.

  16. Rendimento de feijão e alterações no pH e na matéria orgânica do solo em função de doses de composto de resíduo de algodão Yield of bean plant and changes in pH and soil organic matter as a function of doses of compost cotton waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Júnio Ramos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de feijão e as alterações no pH e na matéria orgânica do solo após a aplicação do composto de resíduo de algodão. Para tanto, instalou-se o experimento em condições de campo, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos constituídos por doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 80t ha-1 de resíduo de algodão compostado oriundo da indústria têxtil, com cinco repetições. Verificou-se que a aplicação do resíduo de algodão compostado promoveu melhoria nas características produtivas do feijoeiro submetido ao manejo orgânico e elevou os valores de pH e matéria orgânica do solo. Desse modo, o composto utilizado mostrou-se como uma alternativa para a adubação da cultura.The objective of this research was to evaluate the yield of bean plants and changes in pH and soil organic matter after compost cotton waste application. An experiment was carried out in an Acrisol. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five levels of cotton waste compost (0, 20, 40, 60, 80t ha-1 from the textile factory, in five replications. The application of the cotton waste compost promoted increase in the growth and productive characteristics in bean crop, and increased the pH values and soil organic matter. Thus, the compost showed as an alternative for fertilization of the culture.

  17. Alleviation Effect of Lanthanum on Cadmium Stress in Seedling Hydroponic Culture of Kidney Bean and Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaohua; Zhou Qing

    2006-01-01

    The seedling hydroponic culture experiment of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and corn (Zea mays) was conducted to investigate the alleviation effect of lanthanum on Cd stress.It is found that growth is seriously inhibited and metabolism is maladjusted in the two crops under 30 and 300 μmol·L-1 Cd2+ stress.Plant height, taproot length, leaf area, and fresh or dry weight of root, stem, and leaf are all obviously decreased.Further, chlorophyll content decreases, membrane permeability, malonydialdehyde (MDA) content, activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) increases under Cd stress, as compared with the control.The damage to these two crops becomes more conspicuous with the prolongation of Cd stress.It is suggested that lanthanum might help kidney bean and corn seedlings alleviate Cd stress by improving the photosynthetic capacity, reducing membrane permeability and MDA content, and maintaining the activities of CAT and POD of these two crops.

  18. Space distribution of a weed seedbank in a bean cultivation area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Meirelles Coimbra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to elucidate the characteristics of space distribution of a weed seedbank in order to assist in decision-making for the adoption of management techniques applied to an area under bean monoculture. Agricultural precision tools, as well as techniques of geostatistic analysis, were utilized. The samples were composed of 24 soil samples from georeferenced points, within a quadratic mesh consisting of 20x20 meter cells. The samples of soil were conditioned in plastic trays to provide ideal conditions for seed germination. Some samples presented a potential weed infestation of about 8000 plants m-2 constituting a problem for bean cultivation, disfavoring its development and grain yield.

  19. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A; Johnson, David

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling.

  20. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Pickett, John A.; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. PMID:25200735

  1. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  2. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  3. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  4. Responses of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing common bean to aluminum toxicity and delineation of nodule responsive microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Mendoza-Soto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is widespread in acidic soils where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, the most important legume for human consumption, is produced and it is a limiting factor for crop production and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. We characterized the nodule responses of common bean plants inoculated with Rhizobioum tropici CIAT899 and the root responses of nitrate-fertilized plants exposed to excess Al in low pH, for long or short periods. A 43 - 50% reduction in nitrogenase activity indicates that Al toxicity highly affected nitrogen fixation in common bean. Bean roots and nodules showed characteristic symptoms for Al toxicity. In mature nodules Al accumulation and lipoperoxidation were observed in the infected zone, while callose deposition and cell death occurred mainly in the nodule cortex. Regulatory mechanisms of plant responses to metal toxicity involve microRNAs (miRNAs along other regulators. Using a miRNA-macroarray hybridization approach we identified 28 (14 up-regulated Al toxicity nodule-responsive miRNAs. We validated (qRT-PCR the expression of eight nodule responsive miRNAs in roots and in nodules exposed to high Al for long or short periods. The inverse correlation between the target and miRNA expression ratio (stress:control was observed in every case. Generally, miRNAs showed a higher earlier response in roots than in nodules. Some of the common bean Alt responsive miRNAs identified have also been reported as differentially expressed in other plant species subjected to similar stress condition. miRNA/target nodes analyzed in this work are known to be involved in relevant signaling pathways, thus we propose that the participation of miR164/NAC1 and miR393/TIR1 in auxin and of miR170/SCL in gibberellin signaling is relevant for common bean response/adaptation to Al stress. Our data provide a foundation for evaluating the individual roles of miRNAs in the response of common bean nodules to Al toxicity.

  5. Responses of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing common bean to aluminum toxicity and delineation of nodule responsive microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Soto, Ana B; Naya, Loreto; Leija, Alfonso; Hernández, Georgina

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is widespread in acidic soils where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), the most important legume for human consumption, is produced and it is a limiting factor for crop production and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. We characterized the nodule responses of common bean plants inoculated with Rhizobioum tropici CIAT899 and the root responses of nitrate-fertilized plants exposed to excess Al in low pH, for long or short periods. A 43-50% reduction in nitrogenase activity indicates that Al toxicity (Alt) highly affected nitrogen fixation in common bean. Bean roots and nodules showed characteristic symptoms for Alt. In mature nodules Al accumulation and lipoperoxidation were observed in the infected zone, while callose deposition and cell death occurred mainly in the nodule cortex. Regulatory mechanisms of plant responses to metal toxicity involve microRNAs (miRNAs) along other regulators. Using a miRNA-macroarray hybridization approach we identified 28 (14 up-regulated) Alt nodule-responsive miRNAs. We validated (quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR) the expression of eight nodule responsive miRNAs in roots and in nodules exposed to high Al for long or short periods. The inverse correlation between the target and miRNA expression ratio (stress:control) was observed in every case. Generally, miRNAs showed a higher earlier response in roots than in nodules. Some of the common bean Alt-responsive miRNAs identified has also been reported as differentially expressed in other plant species subjected to similar stress condition. miRNA/target nodes analyzed in this work are known to be involved in relevant signaling pathways, thus we propose that the participation of miR164/NAC1 (NAM/ATAF/CUC transcription factor) and miR393/TIR1 (TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1-like protein) in auxin and of miR170/SCL (SCARECROW-like protein transcription factor) in gibberellin signaling is relevant for common bean response/adaptation to Al stress. Our data provide a

  6. Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ana; Correia, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial...

  7. Response of faba bean to phosphate fertilizer and weed control on nitisols of ethiopian highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Agegnehu

    Full Text Available The effects of phosphorus fertilizer and weed control on yield and major yield components of faba bean (Vicia faba L. were studied on Nitisols of Ethiopian highlands. Factorial combinations of four levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg P ha-1 as triple super phosphate (TSP and two levels of weeding (W1 = no weeding and W2 = hand weeding once six weeks after crop emergence were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that highly significant positive responses of number of pods per plant, total biomass and seed yields of faba bean to phosphorus fertilizer and weeding treatments were noted. Phosphorus level × weed control interaction over three years significantly (P ≤ 0.05 affected faba bean seed yield at Rob Gebeya but not at Welmera. Phosphorus application at the rates of 10, 20 and 30 kg P ha-1 resulted in mean seed yield increases compared to the control of 20, 41 and 53%, respectively on the average of locations; 13, 33 and 51%, respectively at Welmera, and 26, 48 and 55%, respectively at Rob Gebeya.Weeding once increased mean seed yields of faba bean by 25% on the average (35 and 17% at Welmera and Rob Gebeya, respectively compared to unweeded check. Seed yield was positively correlated with total biomass and number of pods per plant (r = 0.95*** and 0.75***, respectively at Welmera, and (r = 0.94*** and 0.55**, respectively at Rob Gebeya. The results of economic analysis indicated that the highest marginal rate of return was obtained from weeding once six weeks after crop emergence and application of 20 kg P ha-1, which is economically the most feasible alternative on Nitisols of central Ethiopian highlands.

  8. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  9. Adaptations to soil drying in woody seedlings of African locust bean, (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonubi, O; Fasehun, F E

    1987-12-01

    Stomatal conductance, transpiration and xylem pressure potential of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.) seedlings subjected from the sixth week after emergence to four weeks of continuous soil drought did not differ from those of well-watered, control plants until two-thirds of the available soil water had been used. In both well-watered and drought-treated plants, stomatal conductance was highest early in the day when vapor pressure deficits were low, but decreased sharply by midday when evaporative demand reached its highest value. There was no increase in stomatal conductance later in the day as vapor pressure deficit declined. The relationship between transpiration rate and xylem pressure potential showed non-linearity and hysteresis in both control and drought-treated plants, which seems to indicate that the plants had a substantial capacity to store water. The rate of leaf extension in African locust bean seedlings subjected to six consecutive 2-week cycles of soil drought declined relative to that of well-watered, control plants, whereas relative root extension increased. It appears that African locust bean seedlings minimized the impact of drought by: (1) restricting transpiration to the early part of the day when a high ratio of carbon gain to water loss can be achieved; (2) utilizing internally stored water during periods of rapid transpiration; (3) reducing the rate of leaf expansion and final leaf size in response to soil drought without reducing the rate of root extension, thereby reducing the ratio of transpiring leaf surface area to absorbing root surface area.

  10. Introgression of resistance to pathogens in common bean lines with the aid of molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Campos Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to incorporate resistance to the anthracnose and angular leaf spot pathogens in the common bean lines BRSMG Talismã, VC8 and VC9, crosses were made between these lines and the line Rudá-R, donor of the alleles Phg1, Co-4, Co-10, which confer resistance to Pseudocercospora griseola and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. After the crosses, the backcross populations were obtained, and the RC1F1 plants were inoculated with race 65 of C. lindemuthianum. The resistant plants were genotyped with the markers SCARH13, SCARY20 and SCARF10, linked to the alleles Phg1, Co-4 and Co-10, respectively. Based on the molecular data, 44 plants were selected. The progenies originating from multiplication of these plants were evaluated over three seasons for grain yield, plant architecture and grain aspects. Based on these considerations and molecular data, 13 promising progenies were selected for developing inbreds.

  11. Inheritance of resistance to the bean-pod weevil (Apion godmani Wagner) in common beans from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, R; Cardona, C; Singh, S P

    1996-03-01

    The bean-pod weevil (BPW), Apion godmani Wagner, often causes heavy losses in crops of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Farmers need resistant bean cultivars to minimize losses, cut production costs, stabilize seed yield, and reduce pesticide use and consequent health hazards. To design effective breeding methods, breeders need new and better sources of resistance and increased knowledge of their modes of inheritance. We therefore: (1) compared sources of resistance to BPW, (2) studied the inheritance of resistance, and (3) determined whether the sources possess similar or different genes for BPW resistance. The following sources of resistance, originating from the Mexican highlands, were evaluated for 3 years at INIFAP-Santa Lucía de Prias, Texcoco, Mexico: 'Amarillo 153', 'Amarillo 169', 'Hidalgo 58', 'J 117', 'Pinto Texcoco', 'Pinto 168', and 'Puebla 36'. All except 'Puebla 36' were crossed with the susceptible cultivar 'Jamapa'. 'Amarillo 153' and 'Puebla 36' were crossed with another susceptible cultivar, 'Bayo Mex'. The parents, F1 hybrids, and F2 populations were evaluated for BPW damage in 1992. Backcrosses of the F1 of Jamapa/Pinto 168 to the respective susceptible and resistant parents were also evaluated in 1992. All seven resistant accessions were crossed in all possible combinations, excluding reciprocals. The resulting 21 F1 hybrids and 21 F2 populations were evaluated for BPW damage in 1994. 'J 117' had the highest level of resistance to BPW. 'Pinto Texcoco' and 'Puebla 36' had the highest mean damage score of all seven sources of resistance. The F1 hybrids between susceptible parents and resistant sources were generally intermediate. Two genes segregating independently controlled the BPW resistance in each accession. One gene, Agm, has no effect when present alone, whereas the other gene, Agr, alone conferred intermediate resistance. When both genes were present, resistance to BPW was higher. Based on mean BPW damage scores, all 21 F1 hybrids

  12. Nutritional characteristics of biofortified common beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Brigide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc deficiency can cause anemia and alterations in the immune response and impair work capacity. To minimize this problem, biofortification has been developed to improve and/or maintain the nutritional status of the population. Beans are an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals. The objective of this study is to characterize biofortified beans, quantify the minerals in different cultivars, and determine mineral dialysis. Grains of raw and cooked beans were analyzed for moisture, protein, lipids, fiber, minerals, and in vitro availability using four treatments and one control. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, and the Tukey test (p<0.05. The chemical composition of the raw and cooked treatments showed a moisture content ranging from 13.4 to 81.4%, protein from 22.24 to 31.59%, lipids from 1.66 to 2.22%, fiber from 16.81 to 40.63%, carbohydrates from 27.80 to 34.78%, and ash from 4.1 to 4.82%. Different varieties of beans showed statistically significant differences in iron and zinc content compared to the control cultivar (Pérola. The iron content differed significantly from that of the Pérola cultivar in the raw treatment, while in the cooked treatment, the control cultivar did not differ from the Piratã. The same behavior was observed for the zinc content in both treatments. There was no significant difference between the cultivars in the treatments in terms of the content of the dialysis of Calcium (Ca, Iron (Fe, Magnesium (Mg, and Zinc (Zn.

  13. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  14. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  15. Evaluation for fresh consumption of new broad bean genotypes with a determinate growth habit in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Baginsky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad bean (Vicia faba L. [unranked] major (Harz Beck is usually consumed dry. In Chile, however, broad bean is grown as a vegetable crop with indeterminate genotypes. The new 'Alarga', 'Retaca' and 'Verde Bonita' broad bean genotypes, which have a determinate growth habit, were evaluated in six irrigated environments in central Chile at three locations (Rancagua, Talca, and Talagante and on two planting dates (F1 and F2; 1-mo apart. The aim was to characterize their yield and select the best-yielding genotypes in terms of pod yield (PY and fresh grain yield (GY. The best location(s to produce fresh pods and fresh grain were also identified and described. Fresh grain yield and components were measured and the genotype x environment interaction (GxE was analyzed. Pod yield differed among genotypes; 'Verde Bonita' and 'Retaca' had the highest PY (15 500 kg ha-1, 8% higher than 'Alarga'. There was a GxE interaction for GY and 'Retaca' had its highest yield in Talca on the two planting dates and in Rancagua when planted late (F2. Mean GY of 'Retaca' was 3900 kg ha-1 with the highest number of grains per 1 m² (NG. The best GY was related to a higher seasonal photothermal quotient (ranging from 1.15 to 1.82 MJ m-2 d-1 °C-1, r = 0.90, P d" 0.001. The lowest GY was in Talagante on F1. Genotypes differed in yield composition; 'Retaca' had many small pods giving many seeds per unit area and 'Verde Bonita' had large pods yielding fewer grains per unit area. The 'Retaca' genotype is preferred by the frozen broad bean industry, whereas 'Verde Bonita' is preferred by the fresh broad bean market.

  16. Yam bean oleoresin and seed quality of common bean infested by Acanthoscelides obtectus Say.

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel-Lucio, José Antonio; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo; García-Moya, Edmundo; Fernández-Andrés, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Hernández, Cesáreo; Alvarado-Bárcenas, Estéfana

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of yam bean oleoresin on common bean seed quality and bean weevil control. The oleoresin extract was obtained by the HPLC technique, the presence of rotenone was detected(15 mg/l). Three concentrations of oleoresin extract were tested (Ci, g/ml): C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, …5x10-2); C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,…6x10-2); C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,…9x10-1) and one control treatment per concentration, applied to recipients of 300 ml with 50 g of common bea...

  17. Influence of the organic matter and soil water deficit on the castor bean absolute growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Even when under low precipitations conditions, the castor bean production decrease, it constitutes a very good alternative. It has an elevated economical importance, because from the plant it is used their leaves, stem and seeds. From the stem it is obtained cellulose for the paper industry, from the leaves textile products and from the seeds oil and tort. The oil is the only glycerin soluble in alcohol and the base for several industrial products such as the biodiesel. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean, BRS 188 cultivar rate growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) regressions were used. It was observed that both, organic matter and available water for plants proportionated benefit effects to the growth rate of the plant. (author)

  18. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Ana Maria R. Junqueira; Aragão, Francisco JL; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) ...

  19. Production of pinoresinol diglucoside, pinoresinol monoglucoside, and pinoresinol by Phomopsis sp. XP-8 using mung bean and its major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Yangwu, Ruiming; Jiang, Huanshi; Che, Jinxin; Liu, Yanlin

    2015-06-01

    Phomopsis sp. XP-8 is an endophytic fungus that has the ability to produce pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) in vitro and thus has potential application for the biosynthesis of PDG independent of plants. When cultivated in mung bean medium, PDG production was significantly improved and pinoresinol monoglucoside (PMG) and pinoresinol (Pin) were also found in the culture medium. In this experiment, starch, protein, and polysaccharides were isolated from mung beans and separately used as the sole substrate in order to explore the mechanism of fermentation and identify the major substrates that attributed to the biotransformation of PDG, PMG, and Pin. The production of PDG, PMG, and Pin was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and confirmed using HPLC-MS. Activities of related enzymes, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) were analyzed and tracked during the cultivation. The reaction system contained the compounds isolated from mung bean in the designed amount. Accumulation of phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, PDG, PMG, and Pin and the activities of PAL, C4H, and 4CL were measured during the bioconversion. PMG was found only when mung bean polysaccharide was analyzed, while production of PDG and Pin were found when both polysaccharide and starch were analyzed. After examining the monosaccharide composition of the mung bean polysaccharide and the effect of the different monosaccharides had on the production of PMG, PDG, and Pin, galactose in mung bean polysaccharide proved to be the major factor that stimulates the production of PMG.

  20. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

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    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean characteristics in Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora should be taken into considerations in coffee breeding. Beside genetic factor, environment has been known as an important factor in the formation and change of composition of bean characteristics. This research aimed to find out the effect of long dry season on changes of bean characteristics. The population observed consisted of 277 genotypes originated from reciprocal crossings of three parental namely BP 409, BP 961 and Q 121. Observation was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Garden of ICCRI in Jember, East Java during two years with different drought intensity i.e. 2005—2006 and 2006—2007 production years. The result showed that long dry season decreased the range value of population of normal beans, pea beans and triage beans, and followed by decreasing in the mean value except for normal beans. Long dry season also influence the change of value range of empty bean to higher proportion, and followed by increasing in the mean value. Distribution pattern of normal beans tend in to remain at high proportion, in contrast to those of pea and triage beans. In other side, long dry season tended to change distribution pattern of empty beans to at high proportion. Correlation analysis among beans characteristics showed that normal beans had negative correlations with pea beans and empty beans. Pea beans had a positive correlation with empty beans. Long dry season decreased proportion of pea bean and triage bean, in contrast to those of empty beans. Increasing proportion of empty bean was caused by failure of growth to normal bean under stress condition. Key words : Coffee canephora, bean characteristics, long dry season, variation, correlation, composition.

  1. Friend or Foe-Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L..

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    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants. Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions.

  2. Friend or Foe-Light Availability Determines the Relationship between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Rhizobia and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Schädler, Martin; Elias, Jacob D; Millar, Jess A; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Plant associations with root microbes represent some of the most important symbioses on earth. While often critically promoting plant fitness, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) also demand significant carbohydrate allocation in exchange for key nutrients. Though plants may often compensate for carbon loss, constraints may arise under light limitation when plants cannot extensively increase photosynthesis. Under such conditions, costs for maintaining symbioses may outweigh benefits, turning mutualist microbes into parasites, resulting in reduced plant growth and reproduction. In natural systems plants commonly grow with different symbionts simultaneously which again may interact with each other. This might add complexity to the responses of such multipartite relationships. We experimented with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), which efficiently forms associations with both types of root symbionts. We applied full light and low-light to each of four treatments of microbial inoculation. After an incubation period of 14 weeks, we quantified vegetative aboveground and belowground biomass and number and viability of seeds to determine effects of combined inoculant and light treatment on plant fitness. Under light-limited conditions, vegetative and reproductive traits were inhibited in AMF and rhizobia inoculated lima bean plants relative to controls (un-colonized plants). Strikingly, reductions in seed production were most critical in combined treatments with rhizobia x AMF. Our findings suggest microbial root symbionts create additive costs resulting in decreased plant fitness under light-limited conditions.

  3. Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa): effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminigo, Ebiokpo R; Metzger, Lloyd E

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pretreatment (soaking in sodium salts and blanching) on hydration coefficient (HC), chemical composition, texture, and color of African yam bean (AYB) was investigated. Soaking in water and in salt solutions increased the HC and about 90% of final HC values were attained at 12 and 4 hr of soaking for whole and dehulled beans, respectively. Protein content was slightly increased by soaking and blanching while ash and fat contents were reduced. Generally, a combination of dehulling and wet-processing reduced firmness of the beans more than soaking or blanching of the whole beans. Antioxidant activity was lowest (3260 TE(3)100 g) in cream-colored beans and highest (16,600 TE/100 g) in brown-colored beans. The tannin contents of unprocessed cream-colored beans and dehulled wet-processed marble variety were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The levels of tannins in the marble variety were reduced by blanching for 40 min (19.2%), soaking for 12 hr (16.0%), dehulling (72.0%), dehulling and blanching (88.8%). The whiteness of bean flours was increased significantly by dehulling, slightly by wet-processing of marble variety, and reduced significantly by wet-processing of cream-colored beans.

  4. Seeds with high molybdenum concentration improved growth and nitrogen acquisition of rhizobium-inoculated and nitrogen-fertilized common bean plants Sementes com alta concentração de molibdênio aumentaram o crescimento e a aquisição de nitrogênio de plantas de feijoeiro inoculadas com rizóbio ou sob fertilização nitrogenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fátima Delgado Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris with high molybdenum (Mo concentration can supply Mo plant demands, but to date no studies have concomitantly evaluated the effects of Mo-enriched seeds on plants inoculated with rhizobia or treated with N fertilizer. This work evaluated the effects of seed Mo on growth and N acquisition of bean plants fertilized either by symbiotic N or mineral N, by measuring the activities of nitrogenase and nitrate reductase and the contribution of biological N2 fixation at different growth stages. Seeds enriched or not with Mo were sown with two N sources (inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with N, in pots with 10 kg of soil. In experiment 1, an additional treatment consisted of Mo-enriched seeds with Mo applied to the soil. In experiment 2, the contribution of N2 fixation was estimated by 15N isotope dilution. Common bean plants grown from seeds with high Mo concentration flowered one day earlier. Seeds with high Mo concentration increased the leaf area, shoot mass and N accumulation, with both N sources. The absence of effects of Mo application to the soil indicated that Mo contents of Mo-enriched seeds were sufficient for plant growth. Seeds enriched with Mo increased nitrogenase activity at the vegetative stage of inoculated plants, and nitrate reductase activity at late growth stages with both N sources. The contribution of N2 fixation was 17 and 61 % in plants originating from low- or high-Mo seeds, respectively. The results demonstrate the benefits of sowing Mo-enriched seeds on growth and N nutrition of bean plants inoculated with rhizobia or fertilized with mineral N fertilizer.Sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris com alto teor de molibdênio (Mo podem suprir as demandas vegetais; entretanto, estudos prévios não avaliaram concomitantemente os efeitos do Mo da semente em plantas inoculadas com rizóbio ou sob fertilização nitrogenada. Este trabalho avaliou os efeitos do Mo da semente, no

  5. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  6. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: a greenhouse experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A; Dendooven, L

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO(2) from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N(2)O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-), but the concentration of NO(3)(-) was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil.

  7. Climatic Characteristics Analysis of Fava Bean Cultivation in Linxia Area%临夏地区蚕豆种植的气候特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡广珍; 马旭洁; 王琨; 张淑芳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the geographical environment and the characteristics of climatic resources in Linxia area, by using the historical meteorological data of Linxia area, the author analyzed the weather conditions (light, heat and moisture) in the growth period of fava bean, and the climate characteristics in the critical growth period of fava bean, formulated the climatic regionalization indexes of fava bean, and then divided four different types of suitable planting regions for fava bean. Finally, this paper discussed the developmental potential of planting fava bean in Linxia area from the aspects of climatic resources, land area, economic benefit and so on.%从临夏地区的地理环境、气候资源特征入手,利用临夏的历史气象资料,分析了蚕豆生长期的光、热、水气候条件以及蚕豆生长关键期的气候特征,制定了蚕豆气候区划指标并划分了4种不同类型的适宜种植区.从气候资源、土地面积、经济效益等方面对临夏地区种植蚕豆的发展潜力进行了研究.

  8. Traditional African plant products to protect stored cowpeas against insect damage : the battle against the beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of the cowpea plant, Vigna unguiculata , a tropical crop, are very susceptible to attack by the cowpea beetle. This specialist beetle needs only the beans to reproduce rapidly.Most farmers in West Africa have few possibilities to treat the beans and they face their stored supply

  9. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.; conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila Carmen M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba, using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type and Vf27 (paucijuga type. Results Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs, one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of

  10. Artificial intelligence in the selection of common bean genotypes with high phenotypic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Barroso, L M A; Nascimento, M; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-04-28

    Artificial neural networks have been used for various purposes in plant breeding, including use in the investigation of genotype x environment interactions. The aim of this study was to use artificial neural networks in the selection of common bean genotypes with high phenotypic adaptability and stability, and to verify their consistency with the Eberhart and Russell method. Six trials were conducted using 13 genotypes of common bean between 2002 and 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replicates. Grain yield data were submitted to individual and joint variance analyses. The data were then submitted to analysis of adaptability and stability through the Eberhart and Russell and artificial neural network methods. There was high concordance between the methodologies evaluated for discrimination of phenotypic adaptability of common bean genotypes, indicating that artificial neural networks can be used in breeding programs. Based on both approaches, the genotypes Aporé, Rudá, and CNFv 8025 are recommended for use in unfavorable, general and favorable environments, respectively by the grain yield above the overall average of environments and high phenotypic stability.

  11. Characterisation of the arabinose-rich carbohydrate composition of immature and mature marama beans (Tylosema esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosele, Minah M; Hansen, Ase S; Engelsen, Søren B; Diaz, Jerome; Sørensen, Iben; Ulvskov, Peter; Willats, William G T; Blennow, Andreas; Harholt, Jesper

    2011-08-01

    Marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) is an important component of the diet around the Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa where this drought resistant plant can grow. The marama bean contains roughly 1/3 proteins, 1/3 lipids and 1/3 carbohydrates, but despite its potential as dietary supplement little is known about the carbohydrate fraction. In this study the carbohydrate fraction of "immature" and "mature" marama seeds are characterised. The study shows that the marama bean contains negligible amounts of starch and soluble sugars, both far less than 1%. The cell wall is characterised by a high arabinose content and a high resistance to extraction as even a 6M NaOH extraction was insufficient to extract considerable amounts of the arabinose. The arabinose fraction was characterised by arabinan-like linkages and recognised by the arabinan antibody LM6 and LM13 indicating that it is pectic arabinan. Two pools of pectin could be detected; a regular CDTA (1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) or enzymatically extractable pectin fraction and a recalcitrant pectin fraction containing the majority of the arabinans, of which about 40% was unextractable using 6M NaOH. Additionally, a high content of mannose was observed, possibly from mannosylated storage proteins.

  12. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eXu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS. Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding.

  13. Epistasis in intra- and inter-gene pool crosses of the common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, J C; Ramalho, M A P; Abreu, A F B

    2016-02-26

    Epistasis has been shown to have an important role in the genetic control of several quantitative traits in the common bean. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of epistasis in intra- and inter-pool gene crosses of the common bean. Four elite lines adapted to Brazilian conditions were used as parents, two from the Andean gene pool (ESAL 686; BRS Radiante) and two from the Mesoamerican gene pool (BRSMG Majestoso; BRS Valente). Four F2 populations were obtained: "A" (ESAL 686 x BRS Radiante), "B" (BRSMG Majestoso x BRS Valente), "C" (BRS Radiante x BRSMG Majestoso), and "D" (BRS Valente x ESAL 686). A random sample of F2 plants from each population was backcrossed to parents and F1 individuals, according to the triple test cross. Three types of progenies from each population were evaluated in contiguous trials. Seed yield and 100-seed weight were evaluated. Dominance genetic variance was predominant in most cases. However, the estimates of genetic variance may be biased by the occurrence of linkage disequilibrium and epistasis. Epistasis was detected for both traits; however, the occurrence differed among the populations and between the two traits. The results of this study reinforce the hypothesis that epistasis is present in the genetic control of traits in the common bean and suggest that the phenomenon is more frequent in inter-gene pool crosses than in intra-gene pool crosses.

  14. Soil physical and microbiological attributes cultivated with the common bean under two management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Adriana De Gennaro

    Full Text Available Agricultural management systems can alter the physical and biological soil quality, interfering with crop development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and microbiological attributes of a Red Latosol, and its relationship to the biometric parameters of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, irrigated and grown under two management systems (conventional tillage and direct seeding, in Campinas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, with a split-plot arrangement for the management system and soil depth, analysed during the 2006/7 and 2007/8 harvest seasons, with 4 replications. The soil physical and microbiological attributes were evaluated at depths of 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The following were determined for the crop: density, number of pods per plant, number of beans per pod, thousand seed weight, total weight of the shoots and harvest index. Direct seeding resulted in a lower soil physical quality at a depth of 0.00-0.05 m compared to conventional tillage, while the opposite occurred at a depth of 0.05-0.10 m. The direct seeding showed higher soil biological quality, mainly indicated by the microbial biomass nitrogen, basal respiration and metabolic quotient. The biometric parameters in the bean were higher under the direct seeding compared to conventional tillage.

  15. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  16. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  17. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Faba Bean Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjiwan Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of genetic diversity is important for characterisation of crop plant collections in order to detect the presence of valuable trait variation for use in breeding programs. A collection of faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes was evaluated for intra- and inter-population diversity using a set of 768 genome-wide distributed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers, of which 657 obtained successful amplification and detected polymorphisms. Gene diversity and polymorphism information content (PIC values varied between 0.022–0.500 and 0.023–1.00, with averages of 0.363 and 0.287, respectively. The genetic structure of the germplasm collection was analysed and a neighbour-joining (NJ dendrogram was constructed. The faba bean accessions grouped into two major groups, with several additional smaller sub-groups, predominantly on the basis of geographical origin. These results were further supported by principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA, deriving two major groupings which were differentiated on the basis of site of origin and pedigree relationships. In general, high levels of heterozygosity were observed, presumably due to the partially allogamous nature of the species. The results will facilitate targeted crossing strategies in future faba bean breeding programs in order to achieve genetic gain.

  18. Induction of ferritin synthesis by water deficit and iron excess in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, Daiane Mariele; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sergio Augusto Morais

    2014-03-01

    Ferritins are molecules for iron storage present in most living beings. In plants, ferritin is an essential iron homeostasis regulator and therefore plays a fundamental role in control of iron induced by oxidative stress or by excess of iron ions. Ferritin gene expression is modulated by various environmental factors, including the intensity of drought, cold, light and pathogenic attack. Common bean, one of the most important species in the Brazilian diet, is also affected by insufficiency or lack of water. Thus, the present study was conducted for the purpose of determining the levels of expression of ferritins transcripts in leaf tissues of three common bean cultivars (BAT 477, Carioca Comum and IAC-Diplomata) under osmotic shock caused by polyethylene glycol 6000 and by iron excess. The expression of three ferritins genes (PvFer1, PvFer2 and PvFer3), determined by quantitative PCR, indicated a difference in the expression kinetics among the cultivars. All the ferritin genes were actively transcribed under iron excess and water deficit conditions. The cultivars most responsive to treatments were BAT 477 and IAC-Diplomata. All the cultivars responded to treatments. Nevertheless, the ferritin genes were differentially regulated according to the cultivars. Analysis of variance indicated differences among cultivars in expression of the genes PvFer1 and PvFer3. Both genes were most responsive to treatments. This result suggests that ferritin genes may be functionally important in acclimatization of common bean under iron excess or water deficit conditions.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars—“Dubai bean” and “Ningjiang-3”, which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively—were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  1. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility.

  2. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  3. Effects ofbiological resources and natural products onSclerotium rolfsii Sacc.incommon bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dienelys Hernández Pérez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were developed under laboratory, semi controlled and field conditions to assess effectiveness of biological resources and natural products on protecting common bean plants against disease caused by S. rolfsii. Antagonist effect of P.aeruginosa, B. subtilis, B.cepacia and P.fluorescens rhizobacterias was found. While the first two completely inhibited the in vitro growth of the pathogen the last two just did in an 80.72% and 40.97% respectively using the dual culture method. Lower levels of inhibition for each case were recorded by the use of the method of the wells. For evaluations under controlled conditions and field, in addition to the previously mentioned biological means, the effect of natural products Fungend and Chitosan in the protection of bean plants was evaluated. Treatments with P. fluorescens, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis were similar to those achieved with chemical control (TMTD 80% PH. Affections by the pathogen were reduced for both the application of biological resources as well as natural product, in any case diseased plants were lower than non-treated plants and similar to chemical control.

  4. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  5. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree gro

  6. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to s

  7. Variability for Biological Nitrogen Fixation Capacity in Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    As legumes, common beans have the capacity to form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia and fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Common beans however are considered to be poor nitrogen fixers as compared to other legumes. Identification of genetic variability for N fixation capac...

  8. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  9. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata

      that the distribution of iron is dependant on the genotype. Using immunolocalization, we visualized the localization of  ferritin in mature common bean seeds.   This knowledge can contribute to the discovery of factors that affect the bioavailability of micronutrients and  can contribute to breeding common beans...

  10. Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls nutrient solution for growing crops in space. Pump draws nutrient solution along inside of tubular membrane in pipe from reservoir, maintaining negative pressure in pipe. Roots of plants in slot extract nutrient through membrane within pipe. Crop plants such as wheat, rice, lettuce, tomatoes, soybeans, and beans grown successfully with system.

  11. Comparative analysis of PvPAP gene family and their functions in response to phosphorus deficiency in common bean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiyue Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs play a vital role in adaptive strategies of plants to phosphorus (P deficiency. However, their functions in relation to P efficiency are fragmentary in common bean. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five PvPAPs were isolated and sequenced in common bean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PvPAPs could be classified into two groups, including a small group with low molecular mass, and a large group with high molecular mass. Among them, PvPAP3, PvPAP4 and PvPAP5 belong to the small group, while the other two belong to the large group. Transient expression of 35S:PvPAPs-GFP on onion epidermal cells verified the variations of subcellular localization among PvPAPs, suggesting functional diversities of PvPAPs in common bean. Quantitative PCR results showed that most PvPAPs were up-regulated by phosphate (Pi starvation. Among them, the expression of the small group PvPAPs responded more to Pi starvation, especially in the roots of G19833, the P-efficient genotype. However, only overexpressing PvPAP1 and PvPAP3 could result in significantly increased utilization of extracellular dNTPs in the transgenic bean hairy roots. Furthermore, overexpressing PvPAP3 in Arabidopsis enhanced both plant growth and total P content when dNTPs were supplied as the sole external P source. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PvPAPs in bean varied in protein structure, response to P deficiency and subcellular localization. Among them, both PvPAP1 and PvPAP3 might function as utilization of extracellular dNTPs.

  12. Leaf area of common bean genotypes during early pod filling as related to plant adaptation to limited phosphorus supply Área foliar de genótipos de feijoeiro no início de enchimento de vagens e sua relação com a adaptação vegetal ao suprimento limitado de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Santos Trindade

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Low phosphorus supply markedly limits leaf growth and genotypes able to maintain adequate leaf area at low P could adapt better to limited-P conditions. This work aimed to investigate the relationship between leaf area production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes during early pod filling and plant adaptation to limited P supply. Twenty-four genotypes, comprised of the four growth habits in the species and two weedy accessions, were grown at two P level applied to the soil (20 and 80 mg kg-1 in 4 kg pots and harvested at two growth stages (pod setting and early pod filling. High P level markedly increased the leaf number and leaf size (leaf area per leaf, slightly increased specific leaf area but did not affect the net assimilation rate. At low P level most genotypic variation for plant dry mass was associated with leaf size, whereas at high P level this variation was associated primarily with the number of leaves and secondarily with leaf size, specific leaf area playing a minor role at both P level. Determinate bush genotypes presented a smaller leaf area, fewer but larger leaves with higher specific leaf area and lower net assimilation rate. Climbing genotypes showed numerous leaves, smaller and thicker leaves with a higher net assimilation rate. Indeterminate bush and indeterminate prostrate genotypes presented the highest leaf area, achieved through intermediate leaf number, leaf size and specific leaf area. The latter groups were better adapted to limited P. It is concluded that improved growth at low P during early pod filling was associated with common bean genotypes able to maintain leaf expansion through leaves with greater individual leaf area.O baixo suprimento de P limita acentuadamente o crescimento foliar, e genótipos capazes de manter adequada área foliar sob baixo P podem adaptar-se melhor a condições de limitação do nutriente. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar as relações entre a produção de

  13. Further evidence for the genetic basis of qualitative traits and their linkage relationships in dolichos bean (Lablab purpureus L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. M. Keerthi; S. Ramesh; M. Byregowda; A. Mohan Rao; B. S. Rajendra Prasad; P. V. Vaijayanthi

    2016-03-01

    An investigation on inheritance of qualitative traits in dolichos bean revealed biallelic monogenic control of photoperiodinduced sensitivity to flowering time and flower colour in F2 and F3 generations. While, growth habit and pod curvature are each controlled by two genes that exhibit classical complementary epistasis, raceme emergence was controlled by two genes that displayed classical inhibitory epistasis. The dominant alleles, at two different unlinked pairs of genes are necessary for plants to exhibit indeterminate growth habit and bear straight pods. Any other combination of alleles at the two pairs of genes result in plants displaying determinate growth habit and bearing curved pods. While, the genes controlling growth habit, PSFT and raceme emergence are linked. Those controlling flower colour and pod curvature are segregated independent of each other. These results are discussed in relation to strategies for breeding dolichos bean.

  14. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  15. Endomycorrhizal Inoculation Effect On Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., OAT (Avena sativa L., And Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Growth Cultivated In Two Soil Types Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with Glomus intraradices on oat, beans, and wheat. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soil types from San Luis Potosí State were used, one was red (Xerosol, and the other one was grey (Litosol. With and without Glomus intraradices inoculation. Three bean cultivars: Pinto Saltillo, Bayo comercial and Flor de Mayo; Chihuahua (oat variety; and Tlaxcala wheat genotype were planted. The experimental design was factorial complete randomized block and three replications. The result showed that bean yield (average 3.7 g plant-1, pod number and dry weight, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, and aerial part dry weight were positively affected by the inoculation with Glomus intraradices, but not by soil type. A similar trend was observed in root length, volume and dry weight, and in the nodule number. In relation with the species studied, Phaseolus vulgaris varieties had higher values than wheat and oats in growth and yield variables evaluated. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The soil types studied did not affect significantly plant responses in this study.

  16. Light-dependent reversal of dark-chilling induced changes in chloroplast structure and arrangement of chlorophyll-protein complexes in bean thylakoid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garstka, M; Drozak, A; Rosiak, M; Venema, JH; Kierdaszuk, B; Simeonova, E; van Hasselt, PR; Dobrucki, J; Mostowska, A

    2005-01-01

    Changes in chloroplast structure and rearrangement of chlorophyll-protein (CP) complexes were investigated in detached leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Eureka), a chilling-sensitive plant, during 5-day dark-chilling at 1 degrees C and subsequent 3-h photoactivation under white light (200 mu

  17. Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 infecting common bean Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes show differential infection patterns between gene pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2 (PvEV-2), in breeding-lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as well as other Phaseolus species collected from two...

  18. Seed transmission rates of Bean pod mottle virus and Soybean mosaic virus in soybean may be affected by mixed infection or expression of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    To facilitate their spread, plant viruses have developed several methods for dispersal including insect and seed transmission. While insect transmission requires virus stability against insect digestion, seed-transmitted viruses have to overcome barriers to entry into embryos. Bean pod mottle virus ...

  19. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans.

  20. Genomic surveys and expression analysis of bZIP gene family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengwei; Xu, Wei; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-02-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise a family of transcriptional regulators present extensively in plants, involved in regulating diverse biological processes such as flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and pathogen defense. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. We performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification and analysis of the bZIP transcription factors that exist in the castor bean genome in this study. In total, 49 RcbZIP transcription factors were identified, characterized and categorized into 11 groups (I-XI) based on their gene structure, DNA-binding sites, conserved motifs, and phylogenetic relationships. The dimerization properties of 49 RcbZIP proteins were predicted on the basis of the characteristic features in the leucine zipper. Global expression profiles of 49 RcbZIP genes among different tissues were examined using high-throughput sequencing of digital gene expression profiles, and resulted in diverse expression patterns that may provide basic information to further reveal the function of the 49 RcbZIP genes in castor bean. The results obtained from this study would provide valuable information in understanding the molecular basis of the RcbZIP transcription factor family and their potential function in regulating the growth and development, particularly in seed filling of castor bean.

  1. Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on the Activity and Expression of Alternative Oxidase in Red Kidney Bean Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Guang Zhao; Ying-Gao Liu; Li-Xin Zhang; Lin Zheng; Yu-Rong Bi

    2007-01-01

    An increase in ultraviolet (UV) B radiation on the earth's surface is a feature of current global climate changes. It has been reported that alternative oxidase (AOX) may have a protective role against oxidative stress induced by environmental stresses, such as UV-B. To better understand the characteristic tolerance of plants to UV-B radiation, the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the activity and expression of AOX in red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves were investigated in the present study. The results show that the total respiration rate and AOX activity in red kidney bean leaves increased significantly during treatment with enhanced UV-B. However, cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity did not change at 24 h of UV-B treatment, before dropping rapidly. Both alternative pathway content and alternative pathway activity were increased in the presence of exogenous H2O2. Immunoblotting analysis with anti-AOX monoclonal antibody revealed that expression of the AOX protein increased in red kidney bean leaves under enhanced UV-B radiation, reaching a peak at 72increase in AOX activity in red kidney bean leaves under enhanced UV-B radiation was mainly due to H2O2-induced AOX expression.

  2. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  3. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CASTOR BEANS GROWN UNDER SALINITY CONDITIONS (VARIETIES BRS ENERGIA, MPA 34 AND MPB 01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL ANTÔNIO PRESOTTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that some plant species exhibit satisfactory production levels when grown under high salinity levels, whereas others exhibit decreased production due to sodium sensitivity even at low sodium concentrations. The castor bean is moderately sensitive to salinity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early growth of three castor bean varieties (BRS Energia, MPA 34 and MPB 01 grown in nutrient solution with increasing sodium concentrations (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol L - 1 . A completely randomized split - plot experimental design was used, with a 5x3 factorial scheme and three replicates per treatment. Salinity resulted in decreased dry weight of all castor bean varieties grown for 31 days under hydroponic conditions. The dry weight accumulation was less affected at the root than at the shoot level. Nevertheless, the shoot dry weight decreased with the increasing salinity. MPA 34 exhibited higher early growth than the remaining tested varieties. Salinity affected the early development of the tested castor bean varieties, and this effect was more pronounced at the shoot than at the root. Variety MPA 34 is promising for cultivation under moderate salinity levels.

  4. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J; Navarini, Luciano; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Drew, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  5. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J Troup

    Full Text Available The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (< 3 kD fraction exhibited the highest AO capacity using DPPH as an oxidant. The AO activity was not mediated by the stable radicals or by metal complexes within the brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  6. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  7. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  8. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  9. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  10. Chemical Investigations of the Castor Bean Plant Ricinus communis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    difficulties in the LC-MS analysis of sugars and amino acids . Consequently, it could be expected that environment would have had no measureable impact...the analysis of the 2% acidic R. communis extracts, allowed for cultivar and provenance determinations to be made with a high degree of certainty...applys his background in NMR spectroscopy and LCMS in the analysis of highly toxic mixtures

  11. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement; Desempenho agronomico de mucuna-verde em diferentes arranjos espaciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aijanio Gomes de Brito; Goncalves Junior, Murilo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Costa, Janaina Ribeiro; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva, E-mail: gmguerra@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: janaina@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: ednaldo@cnpab.EMBRAP [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m{sup -1}). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m{sup -1} density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m{sup -1}1density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  12. Reasoned opinion on the setting of MRLs for imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean and other oilseeds and in lentils

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an import tolerance application from Exponent International Ltd., on behalf of BASF Corporation, to set MRLs for the use of the active substance imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean grown in Brazil, imidazolinone-tolerant lentils, rape and mustard plants grown in Canada and sunflowers in Argentina. The United Kingdom proposed to set MRLs o...

  13. Yield Responses of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. to Intercropping with Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Bean (Phaseoluse vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koocheki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of intercropping on yield of black cumin in intercropping with chickpea and bean, an experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Crops were planted as pure stands and intercrops in three arrangements: A alternating rows of a field crop and a medicinal plant, B two rows of field crops and one row of medicinal plant, C alternating double rows of field crops and medicinal plants. Results showed that land equivalent ratio was more than 1 in all treatment indicating seed yield of the plants were higher in pure stands compared to intercrops but the advantages of the intercropping compared to sole cropping. Black cumin performed best in alternating rows of a field crop and a medicinal plant and alternating double rows of field crops and medicinal plants treatments and the highest partial land equivalent ratio was also related to black seed in these treatments.

  14. Magnesium sulphate and the development of the common bean cultivated in an ultisol of Northeast Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, I. P. de; ASHER, C. J.; Edwards, D.G.; SANTOS, R. S. M. dos

    2000-01-01

    Magnesium applications (MgS0(4).7H(2)0) to achieve 8 and 16 mmol c/cm3 of Mg (324 and 1284 kg of MgS0(4) ha-1) were made on one Ultisol from Australia Northeast to correct Mg deficiency in plants and to verify the optimum level of Mg to grow common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). Magnesium was applied together with lime, N, K, Cu, Zn, B, and Mo as calcium carbonate, ammonium nitrate, potassium phosphate, cupric and zinc sulphate, boric acid and sodium molybdate respectively a month before planti...

  15. Genetic Diversity and Symbiotic Efficiency of Indigenous Common Bean Rhizobia in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohajda, Ines; Babić, Katarina Huić; Rajnović, Ivana; Kajić, Sanja; Sikora, Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) in symbiotic associations with legumes enable considerable entries of biologically fixed nitrogen into soil. Efforts are therefore made to intensify the natural process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legume inoculation. Studies of field populations of rhizobia open up the possibility to preserve and probably exploit some indigenous strains with hidden symbiotic or ecological potentials. The main aim of the present study is to determine genetic diversity of common bean rhizobia isolated from different field sites in central Croatia and to evaluate their symbiotic efficiency and compatibility with host plants. The isolation procedure revealed that most soil samples contained no indigenous common bean rhizobia. The results indicate that the cropping history had a significant impact on the presence of indigenous strains. Although all isolates were found to belong to species Rhizobium leguminosarum, significant genetic diversity at the strain level was determined. Application of both random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC- -PCR) methods resulted in similar grouping of strains. Symbiotic efficiency of indigenous rhizobia as well as their compatibility with two commonly grown bean varieties were tested in field experiments. Application of indigenous rhizobial strains as inoculants resulted in significantly different values of nodulation, seed yield as well as plant nitrogen and seed protein contents. The most abundant nodulation and the highest plant nitrogen and protein contents were determined in plants inoculated with R. leguminosarum strains S17/2 and S21/6. Although, in general, the inoculation had a positive impact on seed yield, differences depending on the applied strain were not determined. The overall results show the high degree of symbiotic efficiency of the specific indigenous strain S21/6. These results indicate different symbiotic

  16. Influence of different doses of FitoMas-E on common bean

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    Edelio Guevara Tejeda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed in the Agricultural Enterprise “Omar Rivero Fonseca”, located in Manzanillo municipality, Granma province, in order to determine the effect of different doses of Fitomas-E on the vegetative growth variables in bean crop. Results showed differential responses in the evaluated variables: stem diameter, fruit length, number of leaves per plant, number of pod and seed number per fruit, depending on the different concentrations of Fitomas-E that were applied. The treatment with 60 mL was the most effective one.

  17. The development of an efficient multipurpose bean pod mottle virus viral vector set for foreign gene expression and RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunquan; Bradshaw, Jeffrey D; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

    2010-05-01

    Plant viral vectors are valuable tools for heterologous gene expression, and because of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), they also have important applications as reverse genetics tools for gene function studies. Viral vectors are especially useful for plants such as soybean (Glycine max) that are recalcitrant to transformation. Previously, two generations of bean pod mottle virus (BPMV; genus Comovirus) vectors have been developed for overexpressing and silencing genes in soybean. However, the design of the previous vectors imposes constraints that limit their utility. For example, VIGS target sequences must be expressed as fusion proteins in the same reading frame as the viral polyprotein. This requirement limits the design of VIGS target sequences to open reading frames. Furthermore, expression of multiple genes or simultaneous silencing of one gene and expression of another was not possible. To overcome these and other issues, a new BPMV-based vector system was developed to facilitate a variety of applications for gene function studies in soybean as well as in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). These vectors are designed for simultaneous expression of multiple foreign genes, insertion of noncoding/antisense sequences, and simultaneous expression and silencing. The simultaneous expression of green fluorescent protein and silencing of phytoene desaturase shows that marker gene-assisted silencing is feasible. These results demonstrate the utility of this BPMV vector set for a wide range of applications in soybean and common bean, and they have implications for improvement of other plant virus-based vector systems.

  18. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L..

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    Zhi Zou

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III. Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  19. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  20. Physical and chemical characteristics of common bean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Barros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most widely consumed legumes in the world, but nevertheless different varieties vary with respect to their physical and chemical aspects. This study evaluated the physical and chemical characteristics (color, hardness after cooking, water absorption capacity, cooking time, integrity of the beans after cooking, proximate composition and mineral composition of the following varieties of the common bean: Carioca, IAPAR 81, Saracura, Juriti, Pérola, Colibri and IAPAR 31, all destined for both the internal Brazilian and external markets. The varieties studied had different proximate compositions and contents of the following minerals: K, Ca, N, Mg, S, Cu, Fe and Mn; but identical contents of P, Zn and B. The beans were classified as small in size. The Carioca variety showed the lowest values for L* (41.29 and H* (57.22, and the highest values for a* (12.17, its beans being redder and darker than the others. The Saracura variety showed the lowest degree of hydration (95.70 g/100g, cooking time (22.67 min. and whole beans after cooking (30%, while the Pérola variety showed the highest values for these same parameters, 106.77 g/100g, 43.67 min. and 82.16%, respectively. No correlation was observed between the calcium and magnesium contents of the beans and the hardness of the raw bean, degree of hydration during maceration, cooking time and integrity of the cooked beans. According to the characteristics studied, the Saracura variety is a good option for both industrial and domestic use.

  1. Improvement of Faba Bean Yield Using Rhizobium/Agrobacterium Inoculant in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil

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    Sameh H. Youseif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is one of the major limiting factors for crop’s productivity in Egypt and the world in general. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF has a great importance as a non-polluting and a cost-effective way to improve soil fertility through supplying N to different agricultural systems. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the most efficient nitrogen-fixing legumes that can meet all of their N needs through BNF. Therefore, understanding the impact of rhizobial inoculation and contrasting soil rhizobia on nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean is crucial to optimize the crop yield, particularly under low fertility soil conditions. This study investigated the symbiotic effectiveness of 17 Rhizobium/Agrobacterium strains previously isolated from different Egyptian governorates in improving the nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean cv. Giza 843 under controlled greenhouse conditions. Five strains that had a high nitrogen-fixing capacity under greenhouse conditions were subsequently tested in field trials as faba bean inoculants at Ismaillia Governorate in northeast Egypt in comparison with the chemical N-fertilization treatment (96 kg N·ha−1. A starter N-dose (48 kg N·ha−1 was applied in combination with different Rhizobium inoculants. The field experiments were established at sites without a background of inoculation under low fertility sandy soil conditions over two successive winter growing seasons, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Under greenhouse conditions, inoculated plants produced significantly higher nodules dry weight, plant biomass, and shoot N-uptake than non-inoculated ones. In the first season (2012/2013, inoculation of field-grown faba bean showed significant improvements in seed yield (3.73–4.36 ton·ha−1 and seed N-yield (138–153 Kg N·ha−1, which were higher than the uninoculated control (48 kg N·ha−1 that produced 2.97 Kg·ha−1 and 95 kg N·ha−1, respectively. Similarly, in the second season (2013

  2. Identification of loci governing eight agronomic traits using a GBS-GWAS approach and validation by QTL mapping in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonah, Humira; O'Donoughue, Louise; Cober, Elroy; Rajcan, Istvan; Belzile, François

    2015-02-01

    Soya bean is a major source of edible oil and protein for human consumption as well as animal feed. Understanding the genetic basis of different traits in soya bean will provide important insights for improving breeding strategies for this crop. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to accelerate molecular breeding for the improvement of agronomic traits in soya bean. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach was used to provide dense genome-wide marker coverage (>47,000 SNPs) for a panel of 304 short-season soya bean lines. A subset of 139 lines, representative of the diversity among these, was characterized phenotypically for eight traits under six environments (3 sites × 2 years). Marker coverage proved sufficient to ensure highly significant associations between the genes known to control simple traits (flower, hilum and pubescence colour) and flanking SNPs. Between one and eight genomic loci associated with more complex traits (maturity, plant height, seed weight, seed oil and protein) were also identified. Importantly, most of these GWAS loci were located within genomic regions identified by previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for these traits. In some cases, the reported QTLs were also successfully validated by additional QTL mapping in a biparental population. This study demonstrates that integrating GBS and GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary approach to classical biparental mapping for dissecting complex traits in soya bean.

  3. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the Gods": quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lídia J R; Almeida, M Helena; Nout, M J Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2011-09-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The formation of these precursors depends on the activity of different microbial groups on the beans pulp. A comparison of fermentations in different countries showed that a well-defined microbial succession does not always take place and that the role of Bacillus spp. in this process remains unclear. Considering the overriding importance of the fermentation to achieve high quality commercial cocoa beans, we discuss the need of addressing the impact of the farming system, the ripeness state of the pods, and the role of microbial interactions on the fermentation in future research. In addition, the problem of high acidification cocoa beans, aspects dealing with the volatile fraction of the flavor, and the cocoa butter properties, all were identified as critical aspects that need further investigation. The standardization of the microbiological methods and the application of metagenomic approaches would magnify the knowledge in this domain.

  4. Adubação da mamoneira: IV - Experiências de espaçamento x adubação (2.a série Fertilizer experiments with castor beans: IV - Plant density x fertility level (2nd series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz V. Rocha

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar a influência da densidade de plantio sôbre a produção da mamoneira-anã, variedade IAC-38, foram conduzidas duas experiências fatoriais com os espaçamentos de 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0 m entre as linhas de plantas, as distâncias de 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5 m entre as covas (deixando-se duas plantas por cova e três níveis de NPK: 0, 30-60-30 e 60-90-60 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O. As experiências, localizadas em Pindorama e Tatuí, foram instaladas em 1960-61 e repetidas (adubadas e plantadas, nos mesmos canteiros, em 1961-62. As melhores produções foram obtidas com os espaçamentos de 1,0 x 1,0 e 1,5 x 0,5 m. Para o efeito de NPK, as distâncias intermediárias, entre as linhas ou entre as covas; proporcionaram muito melhores condições do que as extremas. Levando em consideração detalhes das observações efetuadas, os autores supõem que um espaçamento da ordem de 1,25 x 0,80 m seria mais adequado, pois, em relação ao de 1,0 x 1,0 m, facilitaria os tratos culturais e a colheita, e, em relação ao de 1,5 x 0,5 m, evitaria possível desperdício de espaço entre as linhas e atenuaria a concorrência entre as plantas da.mesma linha.This paper reports the results obtained in two factorial experiments designed to study the effect, on the dwarf castor beans variety IAC-38, of three spacings between the rows (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 meters, three distances between the hills (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 meters, and three levels of an NPK fertilizer. The experiments were conducted for two years. The largest yields were obtained with the spacings of 1.0 x 1.0 and 1.5 x 0.5 meters. For the effect of NPK, the intermediate distances, between the rows, as well as between the hills, were much better than the wider and the closer ones. After considering the observations made, the authors believe that a spacing of about 1.25 x 0.8 meters would be more adequate. Compared with that of 1.0 x 1.0 meters, it would contribute to facilitate cultivations and harvest; compared with

  5. Reasoned opinion on the setting of MRLs for imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean and other oilseeds and in lentils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an import tolerance application from Exponent International Ltd., on behalf of BASF Corporation, to set MRLs for the use of the active substance imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean grown in Brazil, imidazolinone-tolerant lentils, rape and mustard plants grown in Canada and sunflowers in Argentina. The United Kingdom proposed to set MRLs of 5 mg/kg in soya bean, 0.08 mg/kg in sunflower seed, 0.05 mg/kg in rape seed and mustard seed and 0.2 mg/kg in lentils. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 5 mg/kg on soya bean, 0.08 mg/kg on sunflower seed, the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.05 mg/kg on rape and mustard seed and 0.3 mg/kg on lentils. In the countries of origin the MRLs are set at 3 mg/kg on soya bean, 0.05 mg/kg on sunflower, rape and mustard seed and 0.2 mg/kg on lentils. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of imazapyr in the crops under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of imazapyr in soya bean, sunflower seed, rape seed, mustard seed and lentils will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  6. Peripheral odour perception by adult aphid forms with the same genotype but different host-plant preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardie, J.; Visser, J.H.; Piron, P.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    As adults, the summer (alate virginopara) and autumn (gynopara) winged forms of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, utilise different host plants, the bean Vicia faba, and the spindle tree, Euonymus europaeus, respectively. Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the antennae of these aphid for

  7. Identification of a RAPD marker linked to the Co-6 anthracnose resistant gene in common bean cultivar AB 136

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzate-Marin Ana Lilia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic variability of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum represents an obstacle for the creation of resistant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties. Gene pyramiding is an alternative strategy for the development of varieties with durable resistance. RAPD markers have been proposed as a means to facilitate pyramiding of resistance genes without the need for multiple inoculations of the pathogens. The main aims of this work were to define the inheritance pattern of resistance present in common bean cultivar AB 136 in segregating populations derived from crosses with cultivar Rudá (susceptible to most C. lindemuthianum races and to identify RAPD markers linked to anthracnose resistance. The two progenitors, populations F1 and F2, F2:3 families and backcross-derived plants were inoculated with race 89 of C. lindemuthianum under environmentally controlled greenhouse conditions. The results indicate that a single dominant gene, Co-6, controls common bean resistance to this race, giving a segregation ratio between resistant and susceptible plants of 3:1 in the F2, 1:0 in the backcrosses to AB 136 and 1:1 in the backcross to Rudá. The segregation ratio of F2:3 families derived from F2 resistant plants was 1:2 (homozygous to heterozygous resistant. Molecular marker analyses in the F2 population identified a DNA band of approximately 940 base pairs (OPAZ20(940, linked in coupling phase at 7.1 cM of the Co-6 gene. This marker is being used in our backcross breeding program to develop Rudá-derived common bean cultivars resistant to anthracnose and adapted to central Brazil.

  8. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability.

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis

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    Rabinowicz Pablo D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor bean (Ricinus communis is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide. Understanding population structure and the distribution of castor bean cultivars has been challenging because of limited genetic variability. We analyzed the population genetics of R. communis in a worldwide collection of plants from germplasm and from naturalized populations in Florida, U.S. To assess genetic diversity we conducted survey sequencing of the genomes of seven diverse cultivars and compared the data to a reference genome assembly of a widespread cultivar (Hale. We determined the population genetic structure of 676 samples using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 48 loci. Results Bayesian clustering indicated five main groups worldwide and a repeated pattern of mixed genotypes in most countries. High levels of population differentiation occurred between most populations but this structure was not geographically based. Most molecular variance occurred within populations (74% followed by 22% among populations, and 4% among continents. Samples from naturalized populations in Florida indicated significant population structuring consistent with local demes. There was significant population differentiation for 56 of 78 comparisons in Florida (pairwise population ϕPT values, p Conclusion Low levels of genetic diversity and mixing of genotypes have led to minimal geographic structuring of castor bean populations worldwide. Relatively few lineages occur and these are widely distributed. Our approach of determining population genetic structure using SNPs from genome-wide comparisons constitutes a framework for high-throughput analyses of genetic diversity in plants, particularly in species with limited genetic diversity.

  10. Leaf photosynthesis and yield components of mung bean under fully open-air elevated [CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ji; HAN Xue; Saman Seneweera; LI Ping; ZONG Yu-zheng; DONG Qi; LIN Er-da; HAO Xing-yu

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia, and symbiotic association of soil micro lfora may facilitate the photosynthesis and plant growth response to elevated [CO2]. Mung bean was grown at either ambient CO2 400 µmol mol–1 or [CO2] ((550±17) µmol mol–1) under free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experimental facility in North China. Elevated [CO2] increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), water use efifciency (WUE) and the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of upper most ful y-expanded leaves, but decreased stomatal conductance (Gs), intrinsic efifciency of PSII (Fv´/Fm´), quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSI ) and proportion of open PSII reaction centers (qP). At elevated [CO2], the decrease of Fv´/Fm´,ΦPSI , qP at the bloom stage were smal er than that at the pod stage. On the other hand, Pn was increased at elevated [CO2] by 18.7 and 7.4%at ful bloom (R2) and pod maturity stages (R4), respectively. From these ifndings, we concluded that as a legume despite greater nutrient supply to the carbon assimilation at elevated [CO2], photosynthetic capacity of mung bean was stil suppressed under elevated [CO2] particularly at pod maturity stage but plant biomass and yield was increased by 11.6 and 14.2%, respectively. Further, these ifndings suggest that even under higher nutrient acquisition systems such as legumes, nutrient assimilation does not match carbon assimilation under elevated [CO2] and leads photosynthesis down-regulation to elevated [CO2].

  11. CASTOR BEAN PRODUCTION AND CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF SOIL IRRIGATED WITH WATER WITH VARIOUS CATIONIC COMPOSITIONS

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    GEOVANI SOARES DE LIMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the production of castor beans, cv. „BRS Energia‟, in terms of soil chemical composition as a function of the cationic nature, and salinity levels, of the irrigation water. The experiment was carried out using lysimeters in a controlled environment at the Center of Technology and Natural Resources of the Federal University of Campina Grande, from November 2013 to February 2014. The treatments consisted of six types of salinity (S 1 - Control; S 2 - Na + ; S 3 - Ca 2+ ; S 4 - Na + + Ca 2+ ; S 5 - K + , and S 6 - Na + + Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ , distributed in randomized blocks with four replicates; each plot consisted of five plants for evaluation, totaling 120 experimental plots. Plants in the control treatment (S 1 were irrigated with water with an electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.6 dS m - 1 , and the other treatments (S 2 ; S 3 ; S 4 ; S 5 and S 6 with ECw of 4.5 dS m - 1 , but with (a different cation(s. Water salinity of 4.5 dS m - 1 hampers castor bean production, regardless of the cationic nature of the water; castor bean „BRS Energia‟ was more sensitive to salinity caused by the presence of potassium salts in the irrigation water; the mass of seeds in the primary raceme is the most sensitive variable to salinity and the cationic nature of the irrigation water; the adopted leaching fraction (0.10 was not sufficient to avoid salt accumulation in the soil; irrigation with low ECw promoted the lowest value of exchangeable sodium percentage.

  12. Genetic control on morphoagzronomic traits in snap bean

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    Marlon Peres da Silva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Five divergent snap bean accessions from the vegetables germplasm bank at UENF and their ten diallel hybrids were evaluated to inheritance on five morphoagronomic traits using Hayman's methodology (1954. The results showed that additive effects were predominant for pod weight per plant, number of seeds per pod, height of the insertion of the first pod and number of days to flowering while non-additive effects were more important for number of pods per plant. The best strategy to be adopted was the use of these acessions in an intrapopulation breeding program aiming the obtaintion of superior segregants. For pod numbers the indicated strategy would be an interpopulational breeding procedure, to exploite the heterosis related to the non-additive effects. The analysis also revealed that dominant alleles increased the number of pods per plant, pod weight per plant and number of seeds per pod. Allelic interaction was overdominance to the number of pods per plant, while the partial dominance controled the expression of other traits.Cinco acessos divergentes de feijão-de-vagem do banco de germoplasma da UENF, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e seus dez híbridos dialélicos possíveis, foram avaliados quanto à herança para cinco características morfoagronômicas, utilizando a metodologia de Hayman (1954. Os resultados evidenciaram que os efeitos gênicos aditivos foram predominantes para peso de vagem por planta, número de sementes por vagem, altura da inserção da primeira vagem e número de dias para florescimento, enquanto os efeitos gênicos não aditivos foram mais importantes na expressão de número de vagens por planta. Isso demonstra que, para as quatro primeiras características, a melhor estratégia a ser adotada é o uso dos acessos em programa de melhoramento intrapopulacional, visando a obtenção de segregantes superiores. Para número de vagens, a estratégia de melhoramento interpopulacional seria mais indicada, por explorar a heterose

  13. The introduction of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) into Western Europe and the phenotypic variation of dry beans collected in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The first introduction of common bean from Central/South America into Western Europe most likely took place around 1500. The attractive bean seeds and their easy transportation warranted numerous additional introductions, not only from the Americas, but also from other areas where the common bean ha

  14. The role of amino acids in improvement in salt tolerance of crop plants

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    Abd El-Samad H. M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been performed to study the growth and metabolic activities of maize and broad bean plants which are shown to have a degree of sensitivity to salinity and to determine the role of amino acids proline or phenylalanine in increasing the salt tolerance of theses plants. Dry mass, water content, leaf area and photosynthetic pigment of maize and broad bean plants decreased with increasing salinity. These changes were accompanied with a drop in the contents of soluble sugars, soluble proteins and amino acids. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the proline content. When maize and broad bean plants sprayed with proline or phenylalanine the opposite effect was occurred, saccharides as well as proteins progressively increased at all sanitization levels and proline concentration significantly declined. Salinity significantly increased the sodium content in both shoots and roots of maize and broad bean plants, while a decline in the accumulation of K+, Ca++, Mg++ and P was observed. Amino acids treatments markedlyaltered the selectivity of Na+, K+, Ca++ and P in both maize and broad bean plants. Spraying with any of either proline orphenylalanine restricted Na+ uptake and enhanced the uptake of K+, K+/Na+ ratio, Ca++ and P selectivity in maize and broad bean plants.

  15. Use of BABA and INA as activators of a primed state in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Keren eMartínez-Aguilar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that prime their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus. In addition, the priming status of a plant for induced resistance can be inherited to its offspring. However, analyses on the molecular mechanisms of generational and transgenerational priming in the common bean (Phaseolus vulagris L., an economically important crop, are absent.Here, we provide evidence that resistance to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola infection was induced in the common bean with the synthetic priming activators BABA and INA. Resistance was assessed by evaluating symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, changes in gene expression of defense genes, as well as changes in the H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter-exon regions of defense-associated genes. We conclude that defense priming in the common bean occurred in response to BABA and INA and that these synthetic activators primed distinct genes for enhanced disease resistance.We hope that an understanding of the molecular changes leading to defense priming and pathogen resistance will provide valuable knowledge for producing disease-resistant crop varieties by exposing parental plants to priming activators, as well as to the development of novel plant protection chemicals that stimulate the plant's inherent disease resistance mechanisms.

  16. Inactivation of jack bean urease by allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszkiewicz, Adam; Zaborska, Wiesława; Sepioł, Janusz; Góra, Maciej; Zaborska, Anna

    2003-10-01

    Allicin--diallyl thiosulfinate--is the main biologically active component of freshly crushed garlic. Allicin was synthesized as described elsewhere and was tested for its inhibitory ability against jack bean urease in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 22 degrees C. The results indicate that allicin is an enzymatic inactivator. The loss of urease activity was irreversible, time- and concentration dependent and the kinetics of the inactivation was biphasic; each phase, obeyed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The rate constants for inactivation were measured for the fast and slow phases and for several concentrations of allicin. Thiol reagents, and competitive inhibitor (boric acid) protected the enzyme from loss of enzymatic activity. The studies demonstrate that urease inactivation results from the reaction between allicin and the SH-group, situated in the urease active site (Cys592).

  17. An antifungal peptide from baby lima bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2006-12-01

    A 6-kDa antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. The peptide suppressed growth in M. arachidicola with an IC(50) of 0.87 muM and inhibited activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4 muM. The peptide exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel but was adsorbed on CM-cellulose.

  18. Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Dufera Gurmesa, N.; Lute, J.C.M.; Loo, van E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.

  19. [Formation of the vascular system of developing bean (Phaseolus limensis L.) seeds according to nuclear magnetic resonance microtomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, I S; Falaleev, O V

    2012-01-01

    1H magnetic resonance microtomography imaging was applied to study vascular systems in developing bean (Phaseolus limensis L.) seeds. Using the gradient echo method, we recorded 2D tomographic sections in the sagittal and axial planes of the fruits sampled from a vegetating plant on days 10, 17, 24, and 31 after fertilization. Any vascular connection between the tissues of maternal plant (bean pod and seed coat) and the embryo were undetectable. The embryo has an autonomous branched network of procambial strands in the cotyledons, converging to the embryonic axis. The bean pods are covered with a network of vascular bundles; large vascular strands run along the dorsal and ventral sutures. The seed coat vascular bundles are formed in the process of seed ripening and are represented by a developed vascular system multiply branching in the middle part of the ground parenchyma at the stage of physiological maturity. They are connected with the source of assimilates via the lateral pod veins and a large vascular bundle, entering the seed below the hilum via the placenta. Assimilates enter the external part of the seed coat, which contains no vascular bundles, via the funiculus vascular bundles and hilum tissue.

  20. Interactive effects of SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ on the yield of snap beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.P.

    1979-12-07

    During the summers of 1977 and 1978 two experiments were conducted testing the effects of SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ + O/sub 3/ on the yield of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The crops were planted in the field and fumigated with the gases within a minimum-interference facility developed by personnel of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. By providing a gradient of pollutant concentration along the planted rows, a continuum of treatments could be studied and the results analyzed by regression analysis. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the dose-response functions for snap beans and the pollutant treatments; (2) determine if synergistic responses occurred in the presence of SO/sub 2/ + O/sub 3/; and (3) evaluate how well the two runs of the experiment replicated each other. No significant differences were found between the SO/sub 2/ and the combined gas treatments in either year. There is strong evidence for a lack of interaction between SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ in affecting bean yields in the field. The small differences between the two treatments in yield reductions, on the order of 10%, also corroborates this conclusion. This result is in opposition to earlier findings demonstrating a substantial difference in yield reduction between H/sub 2/S and H/sub 2/S + O/sub 3/. (ERB)

  1. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Poel, van der, A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy yielding and other nutrients. The common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is such an ingredient.In common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) the supply of nutrients is often lower than is expected from its chemical an...

  2. Copper and zinc forms in soil fertilized with pig slurry in the bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Grohskopf

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of pig slurry may have different influence on copper (Cu and zinc (Zn dynamics in the soil compared with mineral fertilization. The aim of this research was to determine the different forms of Cu and Zn in soil and their uptake by bean plants in response to the application of mineral fertilizer and pig slurry (PS. The treatments were: mineral fertilizer (Cu and Zn oxides and liquid pig slurry, at increasing rates (0/0, 1.7/6.0, 3.4/12.0 and 6.8/24.0 kg ha-1 Cu/Zn, respectively applied in a Rhodic Kandiudox. PS increased the Cu content in soil in the exchangeable form, Fe oxides and residual, while the mineral fertilizer increased Cu contents in the fraction associated with soil organic matter. Soil Zn contents in the fractions available, exchangeable and SOM were highest under mineral fertilization, while in the soluble fraction the contents were highest under PS. The fertilizers had not impact on Cu and Zn contents associated with Al oxides, and these elements were mostly associated with Fe oxides in the soil. PS promoted the highest biomass production in shoots and roots of the bean plants, reflecting in the highest accumulation of Cu and Zn.

  3. Evaluation of three pinto bean varieties under drought and irrigation in Durango, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Pedroza-Sandoval

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the behavioral response in growth and physiology on three bean varieties under irrigation and drought. The study was conducted in 2014 at the experimental campus from the Autonomous University of Chapingo, Regional University Unit of the Arid Zones, Durango, Mexico. A randomized block design with three replications in a split plot arrangement was used. The plots were the soil moisture contents: favorable, near to Field Capacity (FC: 22-26% and unfavorable, near to Permanent Wilting Point (PWP: 16-20%; subplots were varieties of beans: Pinto Centauro, Pinto Americano, and Pinto Saltillo. The variety Pinto Centauro had the greatest plant height (10.2 cm, vegetation cover (155.1 cm2, and dry matter production per plant (5.2 g and, physiologically, it showed an outstanding water use efficiency (15.8 μmol CO2: μmol H20. The variety Pinto Americano was the most stable in growth and development when changing from the favorable moisture condition (CC to the hydric stress condition (PWP, which makes it more viable under restrictive water availability conditions, but also more susceptible to root rot, associated to soil pathogens.

  4. TiO2 nanoparticle biosynthesis and its physiological effect on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Raliya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticle (NPs biosynthesis is a low cost, ecofriendly approach developed using the fungi Aspergillus flavus TFR 7. To determine whether TiO2 NPs is suitable for nutrient, we conducted a two part study; biosynthesis of TiO2 NP and evaluates their influence on mung bean. The characterized TiO2 NPs were foliar sprayed at 10 mgL−1 concentration on the leaves of 14 days old mung bean plants. A significant improvement was observed in shoot length (17.02%, root length (49.6%, root area (43%, root nodule (67.5%, chlorophyll content (46.4% and total soluble leaf protein (94% as a result of TiO2 NPs application. In the rhizosphere microbial population increased by 21.4–48.1% and activity of acid phosphatase (67.3%, alkaline phosphatase (72%, phytase (64% and dehydrogenase (108.7% enzyme was observed over control in six weeks old plants owing to application of TiO2 NPs. A possible mechanism has also been hypothesized for TiO2 NPs biosynthesis.

  5. Effect of the organic matter and soil water deficit on the castor bean inflorescences emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has become important due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean inflorescence emission. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under Greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. When flowering occurred it was measured the number, the time required for the emission and the height of the emissions. The results were analyzed statistically; for the qualitative factor (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) regressions were used. The time for the emission of the inflorescences was affected significantly by the organic matter and the available soil water content for plants. The number of inflorescences was affected positively by both treatments. (author)

  6. Influence Mf Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Yield and Seed Quality of French Bean

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    SS Kakon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the research field of Agronomy Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur during Rabi (winter season of 2010-11 to 2011-12 to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on yield and seed quality of French bean. A randomized complete block design was followed with ten treatment combinations such as N0P0, N0 P44, N50 P44, N100 P44, N150 P44, N200 P44, N150P0, N150P22, N150P33 and N150P55. Number of pods and yield of French bean were significantly increased with the increase in N (150 and P (44 kg ha--1. Averaged over the years, maximum number of pod (9.45 plant-1 and seed yield (1563.33 kg ha-1 were obtained when N and P were applied at the rate of 150 and 44 kg ha-1, respectively while lowest yield to N0P0 treatment in both the years. The treatment (N150P44 kg ha-1 gave the highest seed yield which was 51.4 and 54.30% higher than the control. Quality in terms of germination percentage and vigour index of harvested seed was also significantly influenced by higher doses of N and P while the lowest seed quality from plants that received no fertilizer in both the years.

  7. Nodulation and N2 fixation effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium strains in symbiosis with Adzuki Bean, Vigna angularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Delić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiment, one isolate Knj from a Serbian soil, four strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and three strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. were examined for the effect on adzuki bean nodulation and effectiveness in symbiotic N2 fixation. All the tested strains produced root nodules in adzuki bean. Strains of B. japonicum showed high potential of N2 fixation, particularly 525 and 542. B. japonicum strains resulted 65-71% shoot dry weight and 99-138% total N content of uninoculated control with full N content (100%. No significant difference was found between the plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. strains and uninoculated control plants without N (40-42 and 42% shoot dry weight, respectively, which indicated symbiotic N2 fixation inactivity of the Bradyrhizobium spp. strains. Knj strain had the middle position (56% shoot dry weight. These data showed that B. japonicum 525 and 542 strains could be used in further investigations in order to apply them as inoculants in microbiological N fertilizers.

  8. Integrated control of white rot disease on beans caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using Contans® and reduced fungicides application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheshtawi, Mohamed; Elkhaky, Maged T; Sayed, Shaban R; Bahkali, Ali H; Mohammed, Arif A; Gambhir, Dikshit; Mansour, Aref S; Elgorban, Abdallah M

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compatibility of Contans® (Coniothyrium minitans) with fungicides against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results showed that both Contans® and Topsin® significantly reduced the disease incidence caused by S. sclerotiorum by 90% and 95% survival plants, respectively when they were individually applied and compared to control. While, soil application of Contans® and Sumisclex mixture was the most effective in suppressing the white rot disease incidence that produced 100% survival plants, application of C. minitans combined with the reduced doses of fungicides would be advantageous in saving labor cost, thus increasing production efficiency of bean.

  9. Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yields of candidate space crops in the laboratory biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Thillo, M. van

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.), pinto beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat ( Triticum sativa L.) was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, from February to May 2005. The lighting regime was 13 h light/11 h dark at a light intensity of 960 μmol m -2 s -1, 45 mol m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps. The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different planting densities. Pinto bean production was 341.5 g dry seed m -2 (5.42 g m -2 day -1) and 579.5 dry seed m -2 (9.20 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 32.5 plants m -2 and 37.5 plants m -2, respectively. Cowpea yielded 187.9 g dry seed m -2 (2.21 g m -2 day -1) and 348.8 dry seed m -2 (4.10 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 20.8 plants m -2 and 27.7 plants m -2, respectively. The crop was grown at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, with levels ranging from 300-3000 ppm daily during the majority of the crop cycle. During early stages (first 10 days) of the crop, CO 2 was allowed to rise to 7860 ppm while soil respiration dominated, and then was brought down by plant photosynthesis. CO 2 was injected 27 times during days 29-71 to replenish CO 2 used by the crop during photosynthesis. Temperature regime was 24-28 °C day/deg 20-24 °C night. Pinto bean matured and was harvested 20 days earlier than is typical for this variety, while the cowpea, which had trouble establishing, took 25 days more for harvest than typical for this variety. Productivity and atmospheric dynamic results of these studies contribute toward the design of an envisioned ground-based test bed prototype Mars base.

  10. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  11. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  12. Effect of management practices on mycorrhizal infection, growth and dry matter partitioning in field-grown bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alberto Rocha Oliveira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out on unsterilized field soil with low phosphorus availability with the objective of examining the effect of cultural practices on mycorrhizal colonization and growth of common bean. The treatments were: three pre-crops (maize, wheat and fallow followed by three soil management practices ("ploughing", mulching and bare fallow without "ploughing" during the winter months. After the cultural practices, Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Canadian Wonder was grown in this soil. Fallowing and soil disturbance reduced natural soil infectivity. Mycorrhizal infection of the bean roots occurred more rapidly in the recently cropped soil than in the fallow soil. Prior cropping with a strongly mycorrhizal plant (maize increased infectivity even further.

  13. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

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    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  14. Toxicity symptoms of nickel in common bean Sintomas de toxidez de níquel em feijoeiro

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    Marcela Campanharo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of nickel (Ni in the N metabolism of legumes, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is considered very sensitive to Ni doses. The objective in this study was to characterize the toxicity symptoms of Ni in common bean cv. Pérola. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse in the campus of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense - Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ. Solutions containing 0; 20; 40; 60 and 100 mg L-1 of Ni, in the form of nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2.6H2O, were applied to shoots of common bean plants at the rate of 2.5 mL of solution per plant of common bean, 25 days after sowing. Plants of common bean treated with 0; 20; 40 and 60 mg L-1 of Ni showed no toxicity symptoms. Plants treated with 100 mg L-1 of Ni showed chlorotic leaves with gray spots that coalesced and became necrotic in a more advanced stage.Apesar de o Ni ser importante no metabolismo do N em leguminosas, o feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é considerado bastante sensível a doses de Ni. Objetivou-se caracterizar os sintomas de fitotoxidez de Ni em feijoeiro comum cv. Pérola. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense - Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ. Foram aplicados 0; 20; 40; 60 e 100 mg L-1 de Ni (2,5 mL de solução por planta na forma de cloreto de níquel hexahidratado - NiCl2.6H2O, na parte aérea de plantas de feijoeiro comum aos 25 dias após a semeadura. Plantas de feijão tratadas com 0; 20; 40 e 60 mg L-1 de Ni não apresentaram sintomas de ftoxidez. Já as plantas que receberam a dose de 100 mg L-1 de Ni apresentaram folhas cloróticas e com manchas acinzentadas que coalesceram e se tornaram necróticas em um estádio mais avançado.

  15. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield and yield component in some of broad bean (Vicia faba l. genotypes

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    Sharifi Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean is a grain legume and grown for its high protein content in the seed. It is also serves as a rotational crop which play great role in controlling disease epidemics in areas were cereal mono-cropping is abundant. Yield in faba bean, similar to the other crops, is a complex trait and constitute by many of morphological and physiological traits. This study was carried out during 2011-12 and 2012-13 in two region of Iran including Guilan and Lorestan provinces. Field experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications and ten genotypes. The results of combined analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the studied traits. The results indicated also environment effect and environment × genotype interaction effects were significant or highly significant for all of the traits. The highest seed yield were determined for genotype 1 (3159.9 and 4016.9 kg ha-1 at 2012 and 2013, respectively in Guilan and genotype 5 (495.44 kg ha-1 in Lorestan. The results of correlation analysis indicated that there were positive significant correlation coefficients between seed yield and seed length (LS, seed width (WS, pod length (PL and hundred seed weight (HSW in Guilan province at two cropping season. Path coefficient analysis indicated that traits containing number of pod per plant, number of steam per plant, pod length, seed length/width ratio and hundred seed weight had the highest positive direct effects on dry seed yield in studied faba bean genotypes. Attention should be paid to some of characters such as pod length, hundred seed weight, number of pods per plant and number of stems per plant for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. It could be

  16. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

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    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  17. Growth restoration in azuki bean and maize seedlings by removal of hypergravity stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, K; Wakabayashi, K; Kamisaka, S; Hoson, T

    2003-01-01

    Hypergravity stimuli, gravitational acceleration of more than 1 x g, decrease the growth rate of azuki bean epicotyls and maize coleoptiles and mesocotyls by decreasing the cell wall extensibility via an increase in the molecular mass of matrix polysaccharides. An increase in the pH in the apoplastic fluid is hypothesized to be involved in the processes of the increase in the molecular mass of matrix polysaccharides due to hypergravity. However, whether such physiological changes by hypergravity are induced by normal physiological responses or caused by physiological damages have not been elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effects of the removal of hypergravity stimuli on growth and the cell wall properties of azuki bean and maize seedlings to clarify whether the effects of hypergravity stimuli on growth and the cell wall properties are reversible or irreversible. When the seedlings grown under hypergravity conditions at 300 x g for several hours were transferred to 1 x g conditions, the growth rate of azuki bean epicotyls and maize coleoptiles and mesocotyls greatly increased within a few hours. The recovery of growth rate of these organs was accompanied by an immediate increase in the cell wall extensibility, a decrease in the molecular mass of matrix polysaccharides, and an increase in matrix polysaccharide-degrading activities. The apoplastic pH also decreased promptly upon the removal of hypergravity stimuli. These results suggest that plants regulate the growth rate of shoots reversibly in response to hypergravity stimuli by changing the cell wall properties, by which they adapt themselves to different gravity conditions. This study also revealed that changes in growth and the cell wall properties under hypergravity conditions could be recognized as normal physiological responses of plants. In addition, the results suggest that the effects of microgravity on plant growth and cell wall properties should be reversible and could disappear promptly

  18. Effect of Flower Removal on Senescence and Metabolism of Faba Bean (Vicia Faba L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaMingzhong

    1999-01-01

    In pot experiments of Xichang,China,during 1989-1994,visual scnescence symptoms and associated changes in constituent contents and activities of leaves of faba bean(Vicia faba L.)were compared in respones to flower removal.the leaves from upper, middle and lower positions were sampled six times during reproductive development phase.At 70 DAP flower removal had caused 37%-189% and 82%-197% increase of green leaf area and green leaf dry weight per plant respectively.Flower removal led to a significant increase in the chlorophyll,soluble surar and protein contents and the catalase activity.The leaf cell relative electroconductivity of those plants was maintained at a lower level,relative to the control,during the late growing stage.These results certainly implied that the leaves of flower removal plants were still fully functional at a very late growing stage,consequently the plants increased many new branches per plant.

  19. 菜豆矮化促花与产量提高的研究%Promoting Flower and Increasing Production of Kidney Bean by Dwarfing Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寿芹; 阿建兵; 张武

    2012-01-01

    Explore the root outside the spraying love of common bean yield and plant traits, mainly in the kidney bean yield and plant growth as an indicator to provide a preliminary basis for production applications. Pharmaceutical treatment, kidney beans at the base of the leaf axils flowering and fruiting, the entire plant is relatively dwarf, increase in production. In the present study, six kinds of pesticides were tested and finally selected "Aike"(ene oxime 10% tebuconazole 10%). Five concentrations of two pesticides were imposed respectively on the beans, the results showed that spraying pesticide "Aike" (600 times liquid) twice in seedling stage could promote ventilation and light transmission, thus improved the beans production.%以菜豆产量和植株生长量为指标.探讨根外喷施爱可对菜豆产量及植株性状的影响,为生产应崩提供初步依据。通过药剂处理,菜豆从叶腋内基部开始开花结荚,整个植株相对矮化,产量提高。从农药矮化促花试验的6种不同农药中,筛选出爱可(烯肟10%·戊唑醇10%)药剂,分别在5个浓度下处理菜豆。结果表明,存菜豆苗期,喷施爱可600倍液2次,可促进菜豆通风透光,从而提高菜豆单产,增加总产量。

  20. [Effects of low temperature at 10 degrees C on some antioxidant enzyme activities and ultrastructures of hypocotylar cells in mung bean and garden pea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Wei; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Yi; Gong, Ju-Fang

    2005-10-01

    Mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) and garden pea (Pisum satium Linn.), which were stressed 4 days under a low temperature of 10 degrees C, were used as materials to study the cold tolerance of plant with different resistance. On the 2nd and 3rd day under 10 degrees C stress, both the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities increased significantly in hypocotylar cells of mung bean, so did SOD activity in garden pea, but other physiological indexes in garden pea were not different from the non-treatment groups (Figs. 1-5). In hypocotylar cells of mung bean, SOD activity always maintain at the highest level in a period of time,and so does POD activity (Figs. 3, 4). Ultrastructural results after stress indicated as follows: (1) Plastids in hypocotylar cells of mung bean accumulated much starch (Plate I-6), whereas the form of plastids in hypocotylar cells of garden pea changed maskedly to become dumb-bell-shaped, round or irregular, with the last one being the most common form (Plate I-8, 12); (2) In both mung bean and garden pea, central vacuole was divided into small vacuoles (Plate I-4, 10), and the number of mitochondria increased and became aggregated (Plate I-3, 11, 12). Judging from the activities of protective enzymes and ultrastructures, 10 degrees C low temperature caused non-lethal, temporary injuries to hypocotyls ultrastructures in mung bean, but no visible injury at all, and even improved its cold tolerance to a certain degree in garden pea.

  1. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, A. [Biomembrane Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Upreti, Raj K. [Biomembrane Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)], E-mail: upretirk@rediffmail.com

    2008-05-01

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6 h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels.

  2. Increasing the resistance of common bean to white mold through recurrent selection

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    Monik Evelin Leite

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT White mold, caused by Sclerotinea sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary is one of the most important diseases of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. worldwide. Physiological resistance and traits related to disease avoidance such as architecture contribute to field resistance. The aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of recurrent selection in physiological resistance to white mold, “Carioca” grain type and upright habit in common bean. Thirteen common bean lines with partial resistance to white mold were intercrossed by means of a circulant diallel table, and seven recurrent selection cycles were obtained. Of these cycles, progenies of the S0:1, S0:2 and S0:3 generations of cycles III, IV, V and VI were evaluated. The best (8 to 10 progenies of the seven cycles were also evaluated, in two experiments, one in the greenhouse and one in the field. Lattice and/or randomized block experimental designs were used. The traits evaluated were: resistance to white mold by the straw test method, growth habit and grain type. The most resistant progenies were selected based on the average score of resistance to white mold. Subsequently, they were evaluated with regard to grain type and growth habit. Recurrent selection allowed for genetic progress of about 11 % per year for white mold resistance and about 15 % per year for the plant architecture. There was no gain among cycles for grain type. Progeny selection and recurrent selection were efficient for obtaining progenies with a high level of resistance to white mold with “Carioca” grain type and upright habit.

  3. Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Kiruthika Viswanathan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Protein quantity in diet including the digestibility and bioavailability of protein is of importance to eradicate undernutrition in developing countries. Bread protein is an incomplete source as it lacks an essential amino acid lysine. When they are combined with other plant foods like pulses and legumes, they become a complete source of protein. Since bread is most common staple food the objective of this study is to fortify bread with legumes in order to increase the total protein content of bread to 13-15% which is required to meet at least 1/3rd of protein requirement of an adult recommended daily allowance. Material and methods. Fortifi cation of fl at bread was done by adding sprouted red kidney bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris at 5, 15 and 25% to white fl our. The composite bread was analysed for crude protein and in vitro protein digestibility using the Kjeldahl and pepsin-pancreatin method. Results. The protein content of raw beans showed trivial increase on soaking for 17h and sprouting for 3 days. On the other hand, a remarkable increase was observed in protein digestibility i.e., 8% and 11% respectively. The protein content of control and composite breads increased gradually at 1% and protein digestibility decreased by 12% from control. This is due to the presence of dietary fi bers which bind with protein and inhibit its digestibility. Conclusion. The study infers that sprouting the beans for 72 h did not show any remarkable increase in protein content but a signifi cant increase in invitro protein digestibility was observed. Overall, breads made using 15% legume fl our was comparatively equal in protein content, with overall acceptable quality.

  4. The Effects of Designated Pollutants on Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    two marigold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 21. Probit analysis of five plant species: petunia, bean, radish, salvia and tomato...Raphanus sativus L. Comet Salvia Salvia splendens Ker-Gawl Patens Tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill Ace Wallflower Cheiranthus allioni L. Golden bedder...Zinnia Zinnia elegans Jacq. White gem, Cherry gem INSTRUMENTATION AND CALIBRATION GEOMET HCI MONITOR The HCI chemiluminescent monitor, Geomet model

  5. Buried Alive! An Investigation of Plant Dormancy