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Sample records for bean lablab purpureus

  1. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  2. Lablab purpureus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    result in plants displaying determinate growth habit and bearing curved pods. While, the genes controlling growth habit, PSFT ... Dolichos bean is one of the important food grain legume extensively grown as a rainfed ... type cultivars have been developed at University of Agri- cultural Sciences (UAS), Bengaluru, India ...

  3. (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schaaffhausen, R.V. (1963). Dolichos lablab or Hyacinth bean: its uses for feed, food and soil improvement. Economic Botany, 17: 146-153. Selvan, S.P. and Gopalaswamy N. (1993). Effect of planting pattern and intercrops in sorghum under dry land conditions. Madras Agric. J., 80: 690-692. Shivashankar, G. and Kulkarni, ...

  4. Agrobotanical attributes, nitrogen-fixation, enzyme activities and nutraceuticals and tyrosinase enzyme of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.) - a bio-functional medicinal legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.) accessions of different origins received from USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA, U.S.A. were evaluated for agrobotanical attributes, enzyme activities, nutraceuticals and quality in pot culture at AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. Fresh ...

  5. Bradyrhizobium namibiense sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium from root nodules of Lablab purpureus, hyacinth bean, in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Bünger, Wiebke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2017-10-16

    Four strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet) from Namibia were previously identified as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To confirm their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized by taking a polyphasic approach. The type strain possessed 16S rRNA gene sequences identical to Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri LMTR 21 T and Bradyrhizobiumicense LMTR 13 T , the full-length sequences were identical to those retrieved from SAMN05230119 and SAMN05230120, respectively. However, the intergenic spacer sequences of the novel group showed identities of less than 93.1 % to described Bradyrhizobium species and were placed in a well-supported separate lineage in the phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic analyses of six concatenated housekeeping genes, recA, glnII, gyrB, dnaK, atpD and rpoB, corroborated that the novel strains belonged to a lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, with highest sequence identities to Bradyrhizobiumjicamae and B. paxllaeri (below 93 %). The species status was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values of genome sequences. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests, including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance, could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Phylogenetic analysis of nodC and nifH genes placed the novel strains in a group with B. paxllaeri and B.lablabi. Novel strain 5-10 T induces effective nodules on Lablab purpureus, Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata and Arachis hypogaea. Based on our results, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium namibiense sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain 5-10 T [LMG 28789, DSM 100300, NTCCM0017 (Windhoek)].

  6. (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... and Byregowda 2005) and used as vegetable (immature green soft pods and immature grains) and forage (NRC. 2006). It is cultivated either as a pure crop or intercropped with finger millet, groundnut, castor, corn, pearl millet or sorghum. In Karnataka, dolichos bean is grown in an area of 85,000 hectares ...

  7. KARAKTERISASI BIJI DAN PROTEIN KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet SEBAGAI SUMBER PROTEIN [Characterization of Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet Seed and Its Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to characterize the physiochemical properties of hyacinth beans as new protein source. The result of research showed that hyacinth beans are oval shaped and orange and yellow coloured. The edible part of hyacinth beans is 83.2 ± 1.1 % of dry seed; in which the carbohydrate is 67.9 ± 1.1 %; protein: 17.1 ± 1.5 % and fat: 1.1 ± 0.4 %. According to their solubility, the protein fractions were found as albumin: 18.22 %; globuli : 55.15 % and glutelin : 26.13 %, whereas prolamin was not detected. Further analyis showed that, the globulin is consisted of globulin 7S (3.50% and globulin 11S (0.67 %. The hyacinth beans are potential to be used for protein source.

  8. Microsatellite analysis of selected Lablab purpureus genotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Abstract. Lablab (Lablab Purpureus) is a legume of high nutritional value and broad social acceptance ranging from human food to soil fertility improvement to foarge. Information on genetic worth and diversity of lablab genotypes in Kenya is scanty and this is a great impediment to the improvement of the crop hence its ...

  9. Rescue of photoperiod/freeze-sensitive and low seed producing accessions of Lablab purpureus using hydroponic cloning and aeroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus is a legume used as a vegetable and the USDA, ARS, PGRCU conserves 137 hyacinth bean accessions from countries worldwide. Many accessions in this collection are photoperiod and freeze-sensitive due to their flower and seed production during November through March in t...

  10. Nutritive Value of Dolichos Lablab ( Lablab purpureus CV. Rongai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of cutting lablab forage at different stages of growth (6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks) on the proximate composition, growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of weaned rabbits. Lablab forage cut at different stages of growth were analyzed for dry matter (DM), crude protein ...

  11. Utilization potentials of lablab ( Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various insect pests, fungal diseases and parasitic plant including Ootheca mutabilis (Sahlb), Podagrica uniforma (Jac.), Nematocerus acerbus (Faust), Anoplocnemis curvipes (F.), Helicoverpa armigera (Hbn), aphids, Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia sp. and Cassytha filiformis (Linn.) were found on lablab plants, causing ...

  12. Hydroponic rescue and regeneration of Aeschynomene, Corchorus species, and Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschynomene, Corchorus species, and Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet) have uses ranging from forage, vegetables, nutraceutical, and medicinal. Many of these will not flower nor produce seed when grown under normal field conditions in Griffin or Byron, GA because of juvenility, photoperiod and freeze-sens...

  13. Dolichos lablab

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-17

    Jul 17, 2013 ... Cadmium (Cd)-induced stress in hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus) was investigated by growing seedlings in a nutrient solution containing increasing cadmium concentrations (0 to 50 μM), under strictly controlled growth conditions. Changes consequent to Cd uptake in growth parameters, enzyme.

  14. Effect of graded levels of lablab ( Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) hay on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results revealed that a 50% inclusion level of lablab hay in the diet led to 79% higher (P<0.05) dressed weight compared to the control diet (35%). The length of small intestine increased by 51% (P<0.05) at 100% level of inclusion of lablab hay compared to the control diet (25%). Also, there was a 45% increase (P<0.05) in ...

  15. Evaluation of forage legume Lablab purpureus as a supplement for lactating Bunaji cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.; Barje, P.P.; Bawa, E.K.; Ehoche, O.W.; Makun, H.J.; Sekoni, V.O.; Rekwot, P.I.; Chiezey, N.P.; Bale, J.O.; Malau-Aduli, A.E.O.; Osuhor, C.U.; Alawa, C.B.I.; Okaiyeto, P.O.; Olorunju, S.A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of forage legume lablab (Lablab purpureus) as a supplement for Bunaji cows was investigated both on-station and on-farm. The results of the on-farm trial involving five herds in each of two villages (control and supplemented) showed that supplementation with 3 kg of lablab increased milk off-take significantly (P<0.001) (1.27±0.09 vs. 0.71±0.1 kg per cow/day for supplemented and non-supplemented cows, respectively). Cows in the supplemented group showed a higher gain in body weight compared to non-supplemented animals (411±1.4 vs. 127±1.8 g/day respectively). They also showed a higher (P<0.001) body condition score than those in the non-supplemented group (3.5-4.5 vs. 2.0-3.5). Overall mean weight gain for calves was however, similar for both supplemented and non-supplemented groups (428±5.3 vs. 428±1.5 g/day). Supplementation of suckling Bunaji cows with lablab improved the performance of the animals and the income of the farmers. (author)

  16. Proximate Amino Acid Anti-Nutritional Factor And Mineral Composition Of Different Varieties Of Raw Lablab Purpureus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proximate chemical amino acid anti- nutritional factors ANF and mineral composition of Highworth Rongai White and Rongai Brown varieties of Lablab purpureus seed were determined. Lablab purpureus seed irrespective of the variety was lower in crude protein but higher in crude fibre than FFSB. The three varieties of lablab seed analyzed in the present study contained between 7.22-9.23 of crude fibre while the crude protein content ranged between 24.88-34.33g100g. The ether extract EE content 2.99-5.87 of lablab seed is low compare to other legume seeds such as soyabeans and groundnuts. Due to this low oil content lablab seed may not be suitable as a commercial source of oil reducing the competition for lablab seed from vegetable oil industries. The natural limiting amino acid lysine in cereals is satisfactorily high mean value is above FAO reference pattern in lablab seed. The mean values of the essential amino acids lysine histidine valine methionine isoleucine leucine and phenylalanine in lablab seed are higher than the values reported for FFSB. This suggests that lablab seed can be exploited in feed formulation as an excellent source of amino acid. The aniti-nutritional factors identified in lablab seed are trypsin inhibitors hydrogen cyanide phytate tannin oxalates alkaloids saponin and haemagglutinins which must be deactivated to improve seed utilization. Lablab seed contained 0.3-5.3g100g of major and 14.9-54.5mgkg of minor minerals assayed and this is also low compared to soyabean and groundnut.

  17. Utilization of Arachis hypogea (Groundnut and Lablab purpureus (lablab Forage Meal Fed Sole or Mixed by Growing Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iyeghe-Erakpotobor, G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six crossbred growing rabbits were used to evaluate performance of rabbits on sole and mixed forage meals in a 3 x 2 factorial experiment consisting three treatments made of Arachis hypogea (groundnut, GFM, Lablab purpureus (lablab, LFM forage meals and 50:50 mixture of both forage meals (GLFM, and two sex groups (males and females in a completely randomized design. Both forages were harvested, chopped and milled before inclusion at 50% rate into the concentrate diet to make complete diets and offered at 125 g/rabbit/day in earthen feeders in the morning at 08.00 hr. Results obtained indicated that forage type did not affect final weight of rabbits. Feed intake and weight gain respectively were similar for GFM (75.26 ± 4.18, 6.02 ± 1.18 g/day, LFM (78.91 ± 3.50, 7.86 ± 0.99 g/day and GLFM (74.35 ± 3.54, 7.53 ± 1.00 g/day. Feed cost and feed cost/kg gain were also similar for all the forage types. Male and female rabbits had similar final weight, feed intake, weight gain, feed cost and feed cost/kg gain. While weight gain was higher on GFM (7.95 ± 1.29 g/day and LFM (7.37 ± 1.39 g/day than GLFM (5.25 ± 1.29 g/day for male rabbits, for female rabbits, weight gain was similar on GLFM (9.81 ± 1.53 g/day and LFM (8.33 ± 1.39 g/day and lower on GFM (4.09 ± 1.97 g/day. Saving/kg gain for male rabbits fed GFM and LFM was $ 0.64-0.81 than GLFM while it was $ 0.91-1.35 for female rabbits fed LFM and GLFM than GFM.

  18. Lablab purpureus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    induced sensitivity to flowering time and flower colour in F2 and F3 generations. While, growth habit and pod curvature are ... Considering its multipur- pose utility and ability to tolerate drought stress (Ewansiha and Singh 2006) ... ated with economic product productivity, it serves as visual marker to identify the germplasm ...

  19. Carbon nanospheres derived from Lablab purpureus for high performance supercapacitor electrodes: a green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Gomaa A M; Divyashree, A; Supriya, S; Chong, Kwok Feng; Ethiraj, Anita S; Reddy, M V; Algarni, H; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2017-10-17

    Carbon nanospheres derived from a natural source using a green approach were reported. Lablab purpureus seeds were pyrolyzed at different temperatures to produce carbon nanospheres for supercapacitor electrode materials. The synthesized carbon nanospheres were analyzed using SEM, TEM, FTIR, TGA, Raman spectroscopy, BET and XRD. They were later fabricated into electrodes for cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy testing. The specific capacitances were found to be 300, 265 and 175 F g -1 in 5 M KOH electrolyte for carbon nanospheres synthesized at 800, 700 and 500 °C, respectively. These are on a par with those of prior electrodes made of biologically derived carbon nanospheres but the cycle lives were remarkably higher than those of any previous efforts. The electrodes showed 94% capacitance retention even after 5200 charge/discharge cycles entailing excellent recycling durability. In addition, the practical symmetrical supercapacitor showed good electrochemical behaviour under a potential window up to 1.7 V. This brings us one step closer to fabricating a commercial green electrode which exhibits high performance for supercapacitors. This is also a waste to wealth approach based carbon material for cost effective supercapacitors with high performance for power storage devices.

  20. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  1. Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

    2013-11-15

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low.

  2. Diversity Analysis and Physico-Morphlogical Characteritics of Indigenous Germplasm of Lablab Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bahadur KC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Germplasm characterization is an important component of crop breeding program. In characterizing indigenous beans lablab which is used for vegetables as well pulses in Nepal. Twenty three lablab beans germplasm were evaluated for different qualitative and quantitive physico-morphological charecteristics for two years during 2011 and 2012 at Horticulture Research Station, Malepatan, Pokhara. The germplasm showed considerable variations in most of the qualitative and quantitative traits. Leaf size, vine color, flower color, pod color, pod shape, pod type and seed color varied among the genotypes. Variation was also observed in yield attributing characters eg, pod length and width, 10 fresh pod weight, seeds per pod and 100-seed weight. Days to 50% flowering ranged from 81 to 130 days indicating the presence of early varieties. Fresh pod weight of 10 pods was ranged from 45.0 g to 162.5 g. Multivariate analysis indicated four groups in these genotypes, among with ML-02 and ML-10 were distinct in comparioson with other genotypes. Simple selection may be considered to develop high yielding, early type varieties from these gentopypes.

  3. Genome sequencing reveals a new lineage associated with lablab bean and genetic exchange between Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente eAritua

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Common bacterial blight is a devastating seed-borne disease of common beans that also occurs on other legume species including lablab and Lima beans. We sequenced and analysed the genomes of 26 isolates of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans, the causative agents of this disease, collected over four decades and six continents. This revealed considerable genetic variation within both taxa, encompassing both single-nucleotide variants and differences in gene content, that could be exploited for tracking pathogen spread. The bacterial isolate from Lima bean fell within the previously described Genetic Lineage 1, along with the pathovar type isolate (NCPPB 3035. The isolates from lablab represent a new, previously unknown genetic lineage closely related to strains of X. axonopodis pv. glycines. Finally, we identified more than 100 genes that appear to have been recently acquired by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli from X. fuscans subsp. fuscans.

  4. Effects of feeding adult snails Stylosanthes guianensis or Lablab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... The feeding trial assessed the performance, carcass and sensory evaluation of adult snails fed solely on leaves of Stylosanthes guianensis or Lablab purpureus as substitute for pawpaw leaf. Ninety-six (96) adult snails were used for the trial, and they were shared into three groups. Each group was ...

  5. Induction of thermotolerance through heat acclimation in lablab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acclimation of plants to moderately high temperature plays an important role in inducing plant tolerance to subsequent lethal temperatures. This study was performed to investigate the effects of heat acclimation and sudden heat stress on the antioxidant and metabolic profile of lablab bean (Dolichos lablab). Following ...

  6. Effect of gamma rays and chemical mutagens on induction of polygenic variability in field bean (Dolichos lablab)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakanth, R.S.; Seetharam, A.; Patil, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    Polygenic variability induced for 3 quantitative characters viz., flowering time, seed yield and 100 grain weight was studied in one of the local varieties (L 1 ) following treatments with gamma rays, NMU and NMG in M 2 generation. In all there were 16 treatments, five each in gamma rays (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Krad), NMU(0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 percent) and NMG(0.002, 0.003, 0.004, 0.005 and 0.006 percent) and one control. A polygenic trail was laid out with all the 16 treatments in a randomised block deisgn with 4 replications. Mean and variance were calculated for all the 3 characters and the values were significantly different compared to control. Mean values were significantly higher than the control in several treatments for seed yield per plant and grain weight, besides flowering was also earlier in many treatments. Similarly variance was also found to be significantly higher in many treatments. Out of 15 treatments, 9 showed significantly higher variance value than control for seed yield and grain weight while 14 out of 15 treatments showed enlarged variance for flowering time. In case of gamma rays, variance was maximum at 30 Krad for seed yield and flowering time whereas for grain weight maximum variance was at 40 Krad. Among NMU treatments, maximum variance was induced at 0.04 and 0.05 percent treatments. With regard to NMG treatments 0.005 and 0.006 percent were the most effective. The results obtained in this study are suggestive of the fact that the field bean responds favourably for the induction of polyqenic variability. Since the induced variability is more towards the positive side there is a greater scope for selection and subsequent improvement of this crop species. (author)

  7. Nutritive value of Stylosanthes guianensis and Lablab purpureus as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... The results also revealed that the nutrients digestibility (dry matter, crude protein and crude fibre) were also better in rabbit fed S. ... INTRODUCTION. Rabbit is a micro-livestock that requires small space for production. ... Alfalfa and some tropical legumes such as Desmodium distortum, Cassiatora and ...

  8. Seleção do algodoeiro para resistência à fusariose em área onde ocorre doença semelhante em plantas de labelabe (Dolichos lablab L. Selection of cotton plants resistant to fusarium wilt in a plot where similar disease occurs on hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre L. Gridi-Papp

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Em área de Latossolo Roxo, localizada na Estação Experimental "Theodureto de Camargo", em Campinas, verificou-se incidência de doença provocando "murcha", com sintomas internos caracterizados pelo escurecimento dos vasos, sucessivamente em plantas de labelabe e em algodoeiro. Em ambas as espécies vegetais determinou-se a presença de fungos do gênero Fusarium, mediante isolamento feito em plantas doentes. Seleções, feitas na referida área, de plantas pertencentes a linhagem de algodoeiro suscetível à murcha de Fusariumderam origem a linhagens que revelaram apreciável resistência quando testadas em solo infestado por Fusarium oxysporum f.vasinfectum (Atk. Snyder & Hansen. São discutidos aspectos relacionados com a possível descoberta de nova fonte genética de resistência à doença e com a existência desse fungo sob infestação natural na Estação Experimental mencionada. Também é apontada a possibilidade de serem o algodoeiro e a leguminosa em questão hospedeiras do mesmo agente patogênico.The occurrence of wilt disease, successively in plants of hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L. and cotton, was observed in a plot of latosolic B (Terra Roxa soil at the "Theodureto de Camargo" Experiment Station at Campinas, where no Fusarium wilt has been recorded before. Both species presented internal symptoms consisting in darkened vessels. Fungi of the genus Fusarium were isolated from these plants. Plant selection for wilt resistance was made in the above mentioned area where a Fusarium - susceptible variety (IAG 51/1104 of cotton had been planted. The progenies when tested in soils infested by Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum Atk. Snyder & Hansen revealed fair resistance to wilt. IAG 51/1104 comes from a cross between the varieties Delfos and Delta Pineland-10, both wilt susceptible under field conditions of the State of São Paulo. It is likely that the wilt resistance of some of its progeny might have originated by recombination

  9. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  10. Pigment characterization and lovastatin content of Monascus purpureus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNAWATI KASIM

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on characterization of pigment and lovastatin content of M. purpureus had been done. The aim of the research was to select 19 isolates of M. purpureus which produced the highest lovastatin content, and whether there was any correlation between pigment content and the lovastatin content. The isolates were grown on slant agar of bean sprout extract agar for 14 days. The spores suspension was inoculated to sterile cooked rice IR 42, then incubated for 14 days at 27-32oC. The fermented rice called “angkak”, dried in oven at 40-45oC for two weeks. The dried “angkak” was powdered to measure the content of the pigment and lovastatin. By using spectrophotometer the content of the yellow pigment and the red pigment at 390 nm and 500 nm wavelength respectively, could be detected. The content of lovastatin could be measured by using HPLC. The result showed that all the tested isolates could produce lovastatin compound, the yellow and the red pigment. The highest lovastatin content was 0.92% which produced by JmbA isolate. There was no correlation between the pigment and the lovastatin content.

  11. Identification of Key Drought Stress-Related Genes in the Hyacinth Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu-Ming; Wang, Biao; Cheng, Lin-Jing; Wu, Tian-Long

    2013-01-01

    Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus [Linn.] Sweet) possesses excellent characteristics for field production, but the response of this plant to drought stress has not been described at the molecular level. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) is an effective way to exploit key factors for plant responses to drought stress that are involved in transcriptional and metabolic activities. In this study, forward and reverse SSH libraries were generated from root tissues of the drought-tolerant hyacinth bean genotype MEIDOU 2012 under water–stress conditions. A total of 1,287 unigenes (94 contigs and 1,193 singletons) were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 1400 ESTs, and 80.6% of those hit against NCBI non-redundant (nr) database with E value <1E−06. BLASTX analysis revealed that the majority top matches were proteins form Glycine max (L.) Merrill. (61.5%). According to a gene ontology (GO) functional classification, 816 functionally annotated unigenes were assigned to the biological process category (74.1%), and 83.9% of them classified into molecular function and 69.2% involved in cellular component. A total of 168 sequences were further annotated with 207 Enzyme Commission (EC) codes and mapped to 83 different KEGG pathways. Seventeen functionally relevant genes were found to be overrepresented under drought stress using enrichment analysis. Differential expression of unigenes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR assays, and their transcript profiles generally divided into three patterns, depending on the expression peaked levels after 6, 8 or 10 days dehydration, which indicated that these genes are functionally associated in the drought-stress response. PMID:23472143

  12. Identification of key drought stress-related genes in the hyacinth bean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Ming Yao

    Full Text Available Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus [Linn.] Sweet possesses excellent characteristics for field production, but the response of this plant to drought stress has not been described at the molecular level. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH is an effective way to exploit key factors for plant responses to drought stress that are involved in transcriptional and metabolic activities. In this study, forward and reverse SSH libraries were generated from root tissues of the drought-tolerant hyacinth bean genotype MEIDOU 2012 under water-stress conditions. A total of 1,287 unigenes (94 contigs and 1,193 singletons were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 1400 ESTs, and 80.6% of those hit against NCBI non-redundant (nr database with E value <1E-06. BLASTX analysis revealed that the majority top matches were proteins form Glycine max (L. Merrill. (61.5%. According to a gene ontology (GO functional classification, 816 functionally annotated unigenes were assigned to the biological process category (74.1%, and 83.9% of them classified into molecular function and 69.2% involved in cellular component. A total of 168 sequences were further annotated with 207 Enzyme Commission (EC codes and mapped to 83 different KEGG pathways. Seventeen functionally relevant genes were found to be overrepresented under drought stress using enrichment analysis. Differential expression of unigenes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR assays, and their transcript profiles generally divided into three patterns, depending on the expression peaked levels after 6, 8 or 10 days dehydration, which indicated that these genes are functionally associated in the drought-stress response.

  13. Oxidative stress biomarkers and metabolic changes associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd)-induced stress in hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus) was investigated by growing seedlings in a nutrient solution containing increasing cadmium concentrations (0 to 50 μM), under strictly controlled growth conditions. Changes consequent to Cd uptake in growth parameters, enzyme activities and other stress ...

  14. Monascus purpureus induced apoptosis on gastric cancer cell by scavenging mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Hiromi; Ito, Hiromu; Matsui, Hirofumi

    2017-11-01

    Monascus purpureus is a red dye derived from yeast rice and has been used as color additives for food in East Asia. Monascus purpureus consists of several bioactive components. Some of these components work as a radical scavenger, thus monascus purpureus would also eliminate reactive oxygen species. Cancer cells maintain the high level of reactive oxygen species than normal cell and are death by imbalance in pro-oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis. In this study, we investigated whether monascus purpureus induced cancer specific cell death by scavenging reactive oxygen species. Compared to normal cell, monascus purpureus had cancer specific cytotoxicity. Monascus purpureus and lovastatin, its component, scavenged free radicals caused by a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, thus Monascus purpureus is likely to scavenge reactive oxygen species by a synergistic effect between lovastatin and other components. Monascus purpureus also decreased reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria in cancer cells, and cellular apoptosis was induced via activation of caspase-9. Induction of apoptosis by reduction of reactive oxygen species generation decreased acid ceramidase, and this mechanism could be involved with increasing ceramide accumulation in cells.

  15. EPR identification of irradiated Monascus purpureus red pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Ferdes, Mariana; Ferdes, Ovidiu S.

    2000-01-01

    Fresh red alimentary pigment extracted from Monascus purpureus fungus exhibits an intense EPR line consisting of a single, narrow line, attributed to a quinone radical. When irradiated with 7 MeV electrons or 60 Co γ-rays, the amplitude of this line increased with the absorbed dose following a saturation exponential dependency up to 10 kGy. During annealing treatment (isothermal heating at 100 deg. C) the irradiation centers decay exponentially with a half-life time of 2.30 min

  16. Influence of Intra row spacing on growth and fodder yield of Lablab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Srinivas, A. and Lingam, B. (1988). Crop geometry studies on the yield and economics of fodder sorghum, cowpea and sun hemp during summer months. Journal of Research, 16: 86-91. Thimmegowda, S. (1990). Influence of row spacing and fertilizer levels on straw and bhusa of Dolichos lablab under rain fed cropping.

  17. Green Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Inman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Green beans are thought to have originated in Peru and spread through South and Central America by Indian tribes. Spanish explorers introduced them into Europe in the 16th century. Surveys indicate that 60% of commercially grown green beans are produced in the United States. Particularly, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin produce the greatest amount of green beans in the United States.

  18. Optimizing Angkak Pigments and Lovastatin Production By Monascus purpureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASIM DANURI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Angkak pigments and lovastatin had been reported very useful as natural coloring agents, as an agent to increase thrombocyte level in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, and also as a compound that was able to control blood cholesterol level. Three strains of fungus Monascus purpureus AKI, AKII, and 915 were selected to produce angkak pigments and lovastatin in potato dextrose agar (PDA medium. The best fungus strain, which is AKII, was then applied in three kinds of rice media (white rice IR-42, red rice BP-1804-IF-9, and a combination of 1:1 (w/w white IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 for solid fermentation. The best medium and fermentation times were determined for the production of angkak pigments and lovastatin separately. Results showed that strains, media, and duration of fermentations gave significant effect on the amount of pigment produced. Strain AKII produced highest concentration of angkak pigments. The combination of rice (White IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 produced the highest pigment than the individual white and red rie it self. The optimum duration of fermentation was 16 days for strains AKI and AKII, but only 15 days for strain 915. Therefore the strain AKII with media combination of rice and a fermentation time of 16 days were used to investigate the additional effect of various minerals. Addition of the mineral individually gave significant increased on angkak pigment production by AKII, where as the addition of minerals mixture in the forth tube did not.

  19. Can Lutjanus purpureus (South red snapper be "legally" considered a red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Red snappers (Lutjanus purpureus in Brazil and Lutjanus campechanus in USA and Gulf of Mexico are both under clear effect of overfishing. Because of their high morphological similarity it has already been suggested that they could possibly be considered as a single species. To investigate the degree of similarity and the genetic structure of red snapper populations we constructed a common dataset of partial D-loop mtDNA sequences of L. purpureus from Brazil (Amapá, Pará and Maranhão and L. campechanus from the Atlantic coast of the USA (Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses surprisingly depicted high similarity between L. campechanus and L. purpureus, compatible with the hypothesis of a single species of red snapper for the Western Atlantic Ocean. These preliminary but very curious findings open an important discussion regarding the legislation involved on the capture of this overexploited fish resources as well as regarding their taxonomy.

  20. Extracellular biosynthesis of anti-Candida silver ‎nanoparticles using Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf F; El-Batal, Ahmed I; Abomosalam, Farag M; Tayel, Ahmed A; Shetaia, Yousria M; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-05-01

    An eco-friendly process for the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) biosynthesis was investigated using the fungus Monascus purpureus as a safe and commercially used microorganism. M. purpureus growth filtrate was used for the reduction of the aqueous silver nitrate into Ag-NPs with almost 100% size range of 1-7 nm, which was considered as one of the smallest microbial biosynthesized Ag-NPs. The biosynthesized Ag-NPs were structurally characterized using UV, FTIR, DLS, TEM, and XRD. The biosynthesized Ag-NPs were stable after 3 months with no alteration in shape or size. M. purpureus showed no nitrate reductase activity, whereas its pigments reducing power was decreased after nanoparticles formation indicating its role in the Ag-NPs biosynthesis. The synthesized Ag-NPs exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against different bacteria and yeasts species. The anti-Candida activity of M. purpureus culture filtrate was enhanced in the presence of Ag-NPs; the maximum increase in microbial inhibition was observed against Candida albicans with 1.73 increased folds of inhibition zones, followed by their activity against C. tropicalis and C. glabrata with 0.919- and 0.694-folds of increase, respectively. The obtained results suggest that the biosynthesized Ag-NPs offers a promising cost-effective, eco-friendly, and an alternative way to the conventional method of synthesis that could have wide applications in medicine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Valorization of bakery waste for biocolorant and enzyme production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Ariful; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Koutinas, Apostolis; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-08-10

    A concept of utilizing bakery waste as a nutrient source for the fermentative production of bio-colorant by Monasucus purpureus has been developed. The proposed ideas provide an innovative approach to establish a system or method to reduce the bakery waste problem encountered by Hong Kong or other countries. Bakery waste collected from bakery store was used in submerged and solid-state fermentation of Monascus purpureus to produce bio-colorant, which could potentially be applied in food and textile industries. The feasibility of utilizing bakery waste hydrolysate deriving from hydrolytic reactions by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae for fermentative pigment production was investigated. Preliminary data from bakery waste hydrolysate experiment presented that the highest pigment yield (about 24AU/g glucose) was obtained with bakery waste hydrolysate containing 5g/L initial glucose. Results from the solid state fermentation studies presented that the highest activity of glucoamylase and protease achieved was 8U/g and 117U/g respectively, at an initial moisture content of 55% and 65% respectively at 30°C incubation temperature. The outcome from this study demonstrated that Monascus purpureus constitutes a promising host for bio-colorant and enzyme production using recovered sugars and amino acids from bakery waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chicken feather peptone: A new alternative nitrogen source for pigment production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orak, Tugba; Caglar, Ozge; Ortucu, Serkan; Ozkan, Hakan; Taskin, Mesut

    2018-04-10

    Peptones are accepted as one of the most favourable nitrogen sources supporting pigment synthesis in Monascus purpureus. The present study was performed to test the feasibility of chicken feather peptone (CFP) as nitrogen source for pigment production from M. purpureus ATCC16365. CFP was compared with fish peptone (FP) and protease peptone (PP) in order to elucidate its effectiveness on pigment production. CFP was prepared from waste feathers using hydrolysis (KOH) and neutralization (H 2 SO 4 ) methods. The protein content of CFP was determined as 67.2 g/100 g. Optimal concentrations of CFP and glucose for pigment production were determined as 3 and 20 g/L, respectively. A medium pH of 5.5 and an incubation period of 7-days were found to be more favourable for pigment production. In CFP, PP and FP media, yellow pigment absorbances were 2.819, 2.870 and 2.831, red pigment absorbances were 2.709, 2.304 and 2.748, and orange pigment absorbances were 2.643, 2.132 and 2.743, respectively. Sugar consumption and mycelia growth showed the similar trends in CFP, FP and PP media. This study indicates that the peptone from chicken feathers may be a good nutritional substrate for pigment production from M. purpureus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Caracterização do material de reserva em feijão-guandu, lablabe e mucuna Characterization of the storage material in guandu, lab-lab and mucuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Seno

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de caracterizar, em nível citoquímico, as principais reservas presentes em guandu, lablabe e mucuna, sementes foram fixadas e processadas para a microscopia, utilizando-se tanto métodos gerais como específicos para proteínas, lipídios, polissacarídeos neutros e ácidos, procedendo-se, à dosagem e à caracterização dessas reservas nas sementes. O amido revelou-se como principal material, seguido por proteínas e, em menor grau, por lipídios. O conteúdo de amido foi de 55% da matéria seca (MS para guandu, 53% para lablabe e 40% para mucuna. As proteínas foram mais abundantes em lablabe, com 26% da MS, seguindo-se o guandu (19% e a mucuna (17%. Lipídios representaram menos de 2% da MS dessas sementes, com uma quantidade maior em mucuna do que nas demais espécies. As análises dos açúcares neutros presentes indicaram grande conteúdo de glicose em função do amido e quantidade apreciável de galactose e arabinose, sempre em maior quantidade em mucuna. Os perfis eletroforéticos revelaram semelhança maior entre as proteínas de guandu e lablabe, sugerindo maior proximidade filogenética entre tais espécies. As proteínas mais abundantes apresentaram massa molecular relativa entre 65 e 70 kg/mol.For the cytochemical characterization of the storage material present in guandu, lab-lab and mucuna, seeds of each species were fixed and prepared for microscopy. Routine and specific fixation methods for proteins, lipids, neutral and acidic polysaccharides were used. The main reserves of the seeds were also analyzed and characterized. The results showed that starch is the principal reserve, with proteins surrounding the starch grains, as well as a few lipid globules. The starch concentration was 55% of the dry weight (DW for guandu, 53% for lab-lab and 40% for mucuna. The proteins were more abundant in lab-lab, with 26% DW, while guandu and mucuna had respectively 19% and 17%. Lipids represented up to 2% of the total DW of

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a galactose-specific lectin from Dolichos lablab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavanya Latha, V.; Kulkarni, Kiran A. [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Nagender Rao, R.; Siva Kumar, N. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Suguna, K., E-mail: suguna@mbu.iisc.ernet.in [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2006-02-01

    The galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of a leguminous plant, D. lablab, has been crystallized. Molecular-replacement solution using 3.0 Å X-ray diffraction data showed the lectin to be a tetramer. The galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of Dolichos lablab has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belong to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.99, b = 84.13, c = 93.15 Å, α = 89.92, β = 76.01, γ = 76.99°. X-ray diffraction data to a resolution of 3.0 Å have been collected under cryoconditions (100 K) using a MAR imaging-plate detector system mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray generator. Molecular-replacement calculations carried out using the available structures of legume lectins as search models revealed that the galactose-specific lectin from D. lablab forms a tetramer similar to soybean agglutinin; two such tetramers are present in the asymmetric unit.

  5. Productivity of columbus grass ( Sorghum almum ) intercrop with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to assess the productivity of Sorghum almum intercropped with Lablab (Lablab purpureus). The experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) which consisted of intercropping systems as sole S. almum, S. almum with lablab in intra rows (IR), S. almum with lablab ...

  6. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  7. Bio production of red pigment by local isolate of Monascus purpureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, B.M.; Khalaf, M.A.; Emam, D.A.; Hazaa, M.M.; Shash, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increased interest on natural pigments to replace some currently used synthetic dyes, since the latter have been associated with toxic effects in foods. The red pigment of the fungus Monascus is widely used in all the world as food additives or pharmaceuticals. The Monascus purpureus local strain, which was isolated from dried silage sample was employed for red pigment production in submerged fermentation (Sm F) conditions. Different fermentation parameters including: incubation period, temperature, initial ph of the medium, agitation, different carbon and nitrogen sources, bio elements and type of inoculum and its age; were carried out under Sm F conditions to enhance the red pigment production. The maximum red pigment production (1.27 gI -1 ) was achieved at incubation temperature 30 C, initial ph 5.5, agitation rate 150 rpm, 2% starch and 0.4% ammonium sulphate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, after 4 days when the production medium inoculated with 12 h age from seed culture inoculum. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of Monascus purpureus towards red pigment production. The maximum red pigment production (I.9 gI -1 ) was obtained at 0.5 kGy dose level

  8. Enhanced production of pigments by addition of surfactants in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus H1102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghui; Zhang, Bobo; Lu, Liping; Huang, Yan; Xu, Ganrong

    2013-10-01

    The production of pigments by Monascus spp. has attracted increasing attention. Modification of the cell membrane structure by addition of surfactants has proved to be effective for the secretion of intracellular metabolites. Hence in this study the effects and underlying mechanism of surfactants on the production of pigments in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus H1102 were systematically investigated. Various surfactants exerted significant but different impacts on the biomass and production of pigments. The maximum production of pigment (304.3 U mL(-1) ) and highest extracellular/intracellular pigment ratio (1.46) were achieved when 15 g L(-1) Triton X-100 was added at 24 h of fermentation, corresponding to significant increases of 88.4 and 240% respectively compared with the control. Meanwhile, the concentration of citrinin (0.94 mg L(-1) ) was 20.6% lower than that of the control. A further study on the fatty acid composition of M. purpureus H1102 showed that the unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and the index of unsaturated fatty acid increased significantly with the addition of Triton X-100. The addition of surfactant Triton X-100 could greatly enhance the production of pigment. It was suggested that Triton X-100 facilitated the secretion of intracellular pigment and therefore enhanced pigment production accordingly. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The analysis of the quality of red fermented rice (RFR product with Monascus purpureus 3090

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUMHAWAN R. PERMANA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of red fermented rice product with Monascus purpureus 3090 was conducted on monascus floor product (MFP-264, MFP-244 and rice monascus product (RMP. Evaluation of microbiological, pigment intensity and lovastatine content analysis result was aimed to see quality differences on each production of 5 kg rice raw material. Of both product types (MFP-264, RMP which only oven dried compare to MFP-244 which is sterilized in autoclave showed a significantly difference of population level on total microorganism colonies, that is mould 26x106 propagule/ml, bacteria 13x106 cell/ml (MFP-264, mould 85x106 propagule/ml, bacteria 265x106 cell/ml (RMP. The MFP-244 produced highest absorption spectra 0.3513-0.4050 compare to MFP-264 0.3110-0.3324, rice monascus product (RMP 0.3343-0.3663. Pigment biosynthesis seems occurred at sexual developmental stage or conidia formation of M. purpureus 3090, which is produced color changes of yellow pigment, orange pigment, and red pigment. Lovastatine content of MFP-264 has Rf value 0.84 MFP-244 Rf 0.83 and RMP Rf 0.82 showed higher value compare to Rf 0.81 of the lovastatine standard solution.

  10. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo da Silva

    Full Text Available The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene.

  11. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Raimundo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene.

  12. Production of angkak through co-culture of Monascus purpureus and Monascus ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhu Prasad Panda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Angkak (red mold rice, red yeast rice, Chinese red rice is a traditional Chinese medicine produced by solid-state fermentation of cooked non-glutinous rice with Monascus species. The secondary metabolite of Monascus species, monacolin K /lovastatin, has been proven to lower blood lipid levels. In this study, a co-culture of Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 and Monascus ruber MTCC 1880 was used for angkak production. Four medium parameters screened by Plackett-Burman design were optimized by response surface methodology for highest lovastatin production in angkak during solid-state fermentation by the co-culture. Maximum lovastatin production of 2.84 mg g-1 was predicted in solid medium containing 20 g rice and 40 ml liquid nutrients medium (malt extract 9.68 g l-1, dextrose 38.90 g l-1, MnSO4.H2O 1.96 g l-1, and MgSO4.7H2O 0.730 g l-1 by point prediction tool of Design Expert 7.1 software (Statease Inc. USA.

  13. Natural Pigment Production by Monascus purpureus: Improving the yield in a bioreactor based on statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieh Seyedin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDue to the especial properties such as high growth rates, easy extraction as well as high yields, using microorganisms in comparison to other sources is more chosen for pigment production. Pigments are used in food industries as natural colorants and preservatives, they also have pharmaceutical applications. In this study, fungus Monascus purpureus PTCC 5303 have been used to produce red, orange and yellow pigments. At first significant variables were screened based on plackett-Burman design and then the optimized value of two effectivefactors such as yeast extract and K2HPO4 concentrations wasoptimized byresponse surface method. Optimal levels of factors were found to be 2/75 g/L yeast extract and1/5 g/LK2HPO4 respectively. Antimicrobial activity of pigments was evaluated on Gram-positive foodborne bacteria under optimal conditionswhich resultsshowed inhibitory effects. Moreover Pigments production at optimal conditions in a bioreactor was evaluatedand the rate of production of red, orange and yellow pigments, 2.05, 1.55 and 0.78 (ODU/ml were observed respectively.  

  14. Effect of submerged and solid-state fermentation on pigment and citrinin production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Zhiqiang; Dai, Bing; Zhang, Wenxue; Yuan, Yongjun

    2013-09-01

    Monascus pigments, which are produced by various species of Monascus, often have been used as a natural colourant and as traditional natural food additives, especially in Southern China, Japan and Southeastern Asia. The limitation of wide using Monascus pigment is attributed to one of its secondary metabolites named citrinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pigment and citrinin production via submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SF) from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Monascus purpureus AS3.531. The optimal fermentation temperature and pH were significantly different for pigment production through different fermentation mode (35 °C, pH 5.0 for SF and 32 °C, pH 5.5 for SmF, respectively). Adding 2% (w/v) of glycerol in the medium could enhance the pigment production. On the optimized condition, although the concentration of citrinin produced by SmF (19.02 ug/g) increased more than 100 times than that by SF (0.018 ug/g), the pigment yield by SmF (7.93 U/g/g) could be comparable to that by SF (6.63 U/g/g). Those indicate us that fermentation mode seems to be the primary factor which influence the citrinin yield and secondary factor for pigment production.

  15. Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice promotes bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Bakr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statin can induce the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu, i.e. rice fermented with Monascus purpureus, contains a natural form of statin. This study demonstrates the effects of RYR extract on bone formation. Methods Bone defects were created in the parietal bones of two New Zealand white rabbits. In the test animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix mixed with RYR extract. In the control animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone. UMR 106 cell line was used to test RYR extract in vitro. In the control group, cells were cultured for three durations (24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours without any intervention. In the RYR group, cells were cultured for the same durations with various concentrations of RYR extract (0.001 g/ml, 0.005 g/ml and 0.01 g/ml. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP assay were performed to measure total protein, mitochondrial activity and bone cell formation respectively. Results The test animal showed more formation of new bone in the defects than the control animal. RYR significantly increased the optical density in the MTT assay and ALP activity in vitro. Conclusion RYR extract stimulated new bone formation in bone defects in vivo and increased bone cell formation in vitro.

  16. Characterization of bioactive compounds from monascus purpureus fermented different cereal substrates

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    Eva Ivanišová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermenting of cereals by Monascus is interesting strategy to produce cereals with more beneficial components.  The objective of this study was to determine selected primary and secondary metabolites in cereals (rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, corn, buckwheat fermented by Monascus purpreus and subsequently compare amount of these compounds with control sample (cereals without Monascus. In fermented cereals was determined higher protein, fat, reducing sugars, crude fiber and ash content with compare to non-fermented cereals. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH assay, ABTS assay as well as reducing power assay was also higher in fermented Monascus cereals with the best results in rice (3.09 ±0.02; 62.9 ±2.24; 43.19 ±2.07 mg TEAC per g of dry weight. Sample of fermented rice contained the highest level of total polyphenols (15.31 ±3.62 mg GAE per g of dry weight, total flavonoids (1.65 mg QE per g of dry weight and total phenolic acids (9.47 ±0.56 mg CAE per g of dry weight. In fermented cereals was also determined higher contact of reducing sugars (highest value in rice 246.97 ±7.96 mg GE per g, proteins (highest value in buckwheat 28.47 ±1.24%, ash (highest value in sorghum 2.74 ±0.08% and fat (highest value in corn 4.89 ±0.03% with compare to non-fermented samples. Results of crude fiber content of both - fermented and non-fermented cereals were balanced with similar values. Results of this study shown that Monascus purpureus fermented cereal substrates might be a potential sources of several bioactive compounds in food products.

  17. Effects of grain-producing cover crops on rice grain yield in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique

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    Adriano Stephan Nascente

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Besides providing benefits to the environment such as soil protection, release of nutrients, soil moisture maintenance, and weed control, cover crops can increase food production for grain production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of biomass and grain cover crops (and its respective effects on soil chemical and physical attributes, yield components, and grain yield of rice in Mozambique. The study was conducted in two sites located in the province of Cabo Delgado, in Mozambique. The experimental design was a randomized block in a 2 × 6 factorial, with four repetitions. Treatments were carried out in two locations (Cuaia and Nambaua with six cover crops: Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.; namarra bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet, velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens L., oloco beans (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., and fallow. Cover crops provided similar changes in chemical and physical properties of the soil. Lablab purpureus, Vigna unguiculata, and Mucuna pruriens produced the highest dry matter biomass. Vigna unguiculada produced the highest amount of grains. Rice grain yields were similar under all cover crops and higher in Cuaia than Nambaua.

  18. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  19. resistance in the common bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Two studies, one on performance of six common bean parental genotypes and another on inheritance of resistance to Phaeosariopsis griseola (Pg) in the common bean were carried out in Malawi. Common bean entries namely; Chimbamba, Nasaka, RC 15, CAL 143 and Mexico 54 were evaluated on ...

  20. Water Extract of Dolichos lablab Attenuates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in a Cellular Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Yun Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Song, Kwang Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide. Therapeutic strategies for patients with NAFLD are limited by a lack of effective drugs. In this report, we show that Dolichos lablab water extract (DLL-Ex) protects against free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipid accumulation and attenuates expression of genes involved in lipid droplet accumulation in cellular NAFLD models. The hepatoprotective effects and underlying mechanism of DLL-Ex were assessed using an in vitro cellular model in which NAFLD was simulated by inducing excessive FFA influx into hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were treated with DLL-Ex and FFAs for 24 h, after which intracellular lipid content was observed by using Nile Red and Oil Red O staining. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression levels of genes related to FFA-mediated cellular energy depletion. Western blotting was used to measure protein levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 alpha. In HepG2 cells, DLL-Ex inhibited expression of CD36, which regulates fatty acid uptake, as well as BODIPY-labeled fatty acid uptake. Additionally, DLL-Ex significantly attenuated FFA-mediated cellular energy depletion and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Furthermore, DLL-Ex enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK, indicating that AMPK is a critical regulator of DLL-Ex-mediated inhibition of hepatic lipid accumulation, possibly through its antioxidative effect. These results demonstrate that DLL-Ex exerts potent anti-NAFLD activity, suggesting that it could be a potential adjuvant treatment for patients with NAFLD.

  1. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean......The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...

  2. Sharing Beans with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  3. African yam bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Responses of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) to supplementary application of potassium. (K) on soil were examined. Effects of the varying levels of potassium on vegetative growth, flowering, pod maturation, yield and yield components were also evaluated. There seems to be no significant.

  4. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae – Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  5. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  6. Studies on high γ-aminobutyric acid-producing monascus purpureus which breeding with heavy ion beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Chen Jihong; Li Wenjian; Wang Shuyang; Ma Shuang; Yang Weicheng

    2010-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a kind of nonprotein amino acid, which is reported to antihypertension, tranquilization, improve liver function, prevent obesity and avoid senile dementia, etc., and is an important effective component in health products. In this study, Monascus Purpureus spores were radiated with 96 MeV/u, LET=28.12 keV/μm 12C6+ ion beams. Doses were set as 20, 50 and 80 Gy, respectively. The experiments were run as follows: preparation of monospore suspension → irradiated with heavy ion beam → diluted and spread on dish → screening and stored in inclined plane → shaking culture → GABA extraction → GABA concentration determined by paper chromatography. One stable high productive strain HQ06 was obtained in this study. The content of GABA in HQ06 was 2.50±0.04 mg/ml, 3.7±1.7% higher than that in control (which was 2.41±0.03 mg/ml). Results showed that it is feasible for breeding high GABA producing strains with heavy ion beam radiation, and the heavy ion beam is a kind of effective mutation source. Further studies should be done for breeding much higher productive strains to satisfy the demands of industry. (authors)

  7. Nutrients interaction investigation to improve Monascus purpureus FTC5391 growth rate using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Two vital factors, certain environmental conditions and nutrients as a source of energy are entailed for successful growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Manipulation of nutritional requirement is the simplest and most effectual strategy to stimulate and enhance the activity of microorganisms. Methodology and Results: In this study, response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN were employed to optimize the carbon and nitrogen sources in order to improve growth rate of Monascus purpureus FTC5391,a new local isolate. The best models for optimization of growth rate were a multilayer full feed-forward incremental back propagation network, and a modified response surface model using backward elimination. The optimum condition for cell mass production was: sucrose 2.5%, yeast extract 0.045%, casamino acid 0.275%, sodium nitrate 0.48%, potato starch 0.045%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.57%. The experimental cell mass production using this optimal condition was 21 mg/plate/12days, which was 2.2-fold higher than the standard condition (sucrose 5%, yeast extract 0.15%, casamino acid 0.25%, sodium nitrate 0.3%, potato starch 0.2%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.3%. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results of RSM and ANN showed that all carbon and nitrogen sources tested had significant effect on growth rate (P-value < 0.05. In addition the use of RSM and ANN alongside each other provided a proper growth prediction model.

  8. Statistical optimization for Monacolin K and yellow pigment production and citrinin reduction by Monascus purpureus in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirasatid, Sani; Nopharatana, Montira; Kitsubun, Panit; Vichitsoonthonkul, Taweerat; Tongta, Anan

    2013-03-01

    Monacolin K and yellow pigment, produced by Monascus sp., have each been proven to be beneficial compounds as antihypercholesterolemic and anti-inflammation agents, respectively. However, citrinin, a human toxic substance, was also synthesized in this fungus. In this research, solidstate fermentation of M. purpureus TISTR 3541 was optimized by statistical methodology to obtain a high production of monacolin K and yellow pigment along with a low level of citrinin. Fractional factorial design was applied in this study to identify the significant factors. Among the 13 variables, five parameters (i.e., glycerol, methionine, sodium nitrate, cultivation time, and temperature) influencing monacolin K, yellow pigment, and citrinin production were identified. A central composite design was further employed to investigate the optimum level of these five factors. The maximum production of monacolin K and yellow pigment of 5,900 mg/kg and 1,700 units/g, respectively, and the minimum citrinin concentration of 0.26 mg/kg were achieved in the medium containing 2% glycerol, 0.14% methionine, and 0.01% sodium nitrate at 25°C for 16 days of cultivation. The yields of monacolin K and yellow pigment were about 3 and 1.5 times higher than the basal medium, respectively, whereas citrinin was dramatically reduced by 36 times.

  9. Potato Processing Wastewater as a Substrate for Red Pigment Production from Immobilized Gamma-Irradiated Cells of Monascus purpureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.; Shash, S.M.; Emam, D.A.; Youssef, B.M.; Khalaf, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Although pigment production by Monascus spp. in chemically defined media is well documented (in submerged cultures and free cells), very few information is available about the use of agro-industrial wastes and immobilized cells. In this study immobilized irradiated spores (in sponge cubes) of M. purpureus (24 h age and 0.5 g cubes/50 ml medium) produced high amount of red pigment reached up to 2.32 g/I, after 4 days of incubation, compared with the amount of pigment produced by the free cells (1.84 g/I). Also, potato processing wastewater (PPW) was examined as the main culture medium for red pigment production by this fungus under optimizing culture conditions for repeated batches. The results showed that with irradiated immobilized cells, the maximum amount of red pigment production (1.96 g/I) was recorded at the second batch. Moreover, high reductions of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); 82.6 % for this waste was obtained during the second batch. The data revealed that very little amount of soluble toxic substances in the extracted sample leading to only 8% dead chicken embryos

  10. Enhanced production of natural yellow pigments from Monascus purpureus by liquid culture: The relationship between fermentation conditions and mycelial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jun; Zhang, Bo-Bo; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Chan; Chen, Lei; Xu, Gan-Rong; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung

    2017-10-01

    Natural yellow pigments produced by submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus have potential economic value and application in the food industry. In the present study, the relationships among fermentation conditions (in terms of pH and shaking/agitation speed), mycelial morphology and the production of Monascus yellow pigments were investigated in both shake-flask and scale-up bioreactor experiments. In the shake-flask fermentation, the highest yield of the Monascus yellow pigments was obtained at pH 5.0 and a shaking speed of 180 rpm. Microscopic images revealed that these results were associated with the formation of freely dispersed small mycelial pellets with shorter, thicker and multi-branched hyphae. Further investigation indicated that the hyphal diameter was highly correlated with the biosynthesis of the Monascus yellow pigments. In a scaled-up fermentation experiment, the yield of yellow pigments (401 U) was obtained in a 200-L bioreactor, which is the highest yield to the best of our knowledge. The present findings can advance our knowledge on the conditions used for enhancing the production of Monascus yellow pigments in submerged fermentation and facilitate large-scale production of these natural pigments. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  12. The effect ofintercr·opping maize with lab lab on grain and fodder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fodder scarcity problem during the dry season. Here, the major objective was to determine the effects of maize/. Lablab purpureus (lablab) cv Rongai intercropping on grain and fodder production. Materials and methods. Study area and selection of farmers. The study was carried out in Masaka district located between 00 15' ...

  13. Effect of plant spacing, phosphorus level, and time of harvest on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of plant spacing, phosphorus level, and time of harvest on forage yield of lablab (Lablab purpureus), cv. Highworth. OS Lamidi, B Abdullahi, AT Omokanye. Abstract. A field trial was conducted at Shika, Northern Nigeria to examine the effects of two plant spacings: 30 x 25cm (S1) and 60 x 25cm (S2), four phosphorus ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omokanye, AT. Vol 24, No 1 (1997) - Articles Effect of plant spacing, phosphorus level, and time of harvest on forage yield of lablab (Lablab purpureus), cv. Highworth. Abstract · Vol 31 (2004) - Articles Influence Of Intra-Row Plant Spacing, Phosphorus Application And Growth Stage On The Forage, Seed Yields And Quality ...

  15. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  16. Effect of maize density, bean cultivar and bean spatial arrangement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maize density, bean cultivar and bean spatial arrangement on intercrop performance. ... L'impact de plantes de maïs à 37000 et 24000 plantes ha-1 et des variétés de " Natal sugar" et "carioca" de haricots plantées dans et entre les lignes de maïs était évalué dans une disposition du type factoriel. La densité de ...

  17. Forage yield and green manure potential of some annual and short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five annual or semi-perennial legumes were evaluated for forage and green manure production at two sites. At Pokoase (Transition zone), Lablab purpureus, Mucuna pruriens, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Desmodium distortum and Macroptilium lathyroides were planted while at Nyankpala (Guinea savanna zone), L. purpureus, ...

  18. Evaluation of rotational effect of bean in large-scale rice-bean rotation using satellite remote sensing experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-06-01

    A large-scale rice-bean rotation experiment was examined to analyze the rotational effect of bean by using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of bean on satellite remote sensing image. The experiment was undertaken at Rudong County of China from 2009 to 2010. The difference between the bean NDVIs of bean-bean monoculture and rice-bean rotation was used to evaluate the rotational effect of bean. The results show that the NDVI of rice-bean rotation is obviously larger than one of bean-bean monoculture in such large-scale experiment. Thus, we have also found the compelling evidence that the bean yield of rice-bean rotation is greater than the bean yield of bean-bean monoculture.

  19. Efficient conversion of high concentration of glycerol to Monacolin K by solid-state fermentation of Monascus purpureus using bagasse as carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Bo; Xu, Gan-Rong

    2013-03-01

    High concentration of glycerol was used as the sole carbon source for efficient production of Monacolin K (MK) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Monascus purpureus 9901 using agricultural residue (bagasse), as an inert carrier. A comparative study showed that MK production in SSF was about 5.5 times higher than that of submerged fermentation when 26 % of glycerol was used, which may be due to the formation of glycerol concentration gradients in the inert carrier and less catabolite repression in SSF. For enhancement of MK yield in SSF, the effects of different influential variables, such as glycerol concentration, nitrogen source and its concentration, initial moisture content, inoculum size and particle size of bagasse, were systematically examined. All the factors mentioned above had an effect on the MK production in SSF to some extent. The maximal yield of MK (12.9 mg/g) was achieved with 26 % glycerol, 5 % soybean meal, 51 % initial moisture content, 20 % inoculum size and 1 mm particle size of bagasse. The results in this study may expand our understanding on the application of SSF using agricultural residue as carrier for production of useful microbial metabolites, especially the efficient conversion of high concentration of glycerol to MK by Monascus purpureus.

  20. Red Dyeing Silk in Room Temperature Using Fermented Rice (Oryza Sativa) and Yam Tuber (Pachyrhizus erosus) by Monascus purpureus as an Alternatives of an Eco-friendly Textile Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauliza, I. N.; Mardiyati; Sunendar, B.

    2016-01-01

    Potential dyes to be developed derived from fermentation by Monascus purpureus. As a staple food, rice can be replace to the yam tuber lees as a substrates. The purpose of this study was to compare the dyeability between fermented rice and yam tuber by Monascus purpureus on silk fabrics at the room temperature in any different pH of dyebath. Monascus purpureus first cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar for 7 days. Yam tuber peeled, grated and squeezed. The material is taken from yam tuber lees, then inoculated with Monascus purpureus for 14 days until an uniform red color obtained. The substrate is dried and then characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Dyes obtained from fermented rice and yam tuber then extracted and used for dyeing silk at room temperature with various pH of the dyebath. Results showed that dyeing silk with fermented yam tuber having the same color characteristics as fermented rice. The optimum color absorption at a wavelength of 520 nm for both, except on the results of dyeing using fermented yam tuber extract with pH 6 and pH 7. The maximum absorption is achieved at pH 3 with values dyeing K/S 5.840. Color fastness to rubbing are excellent (5 point) in dry rub, while the wet rub still good at the range of 4 to 4/5.

  1. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States while continuing to...

  2. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes are large, fleshy, colorful plant seeds. Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy ...

  3. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  4. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus

  5. Nutraceutical perspectives and utilization of common beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing interest in common beans and their products because of the health claims associated with their consumption. Common beans are rich in protein, carbohydrate, fiber, minerals and vitamins. Proteins have always been recognized as the most significant macronutrient in common beans and though the seed ...

  6. morphological diversity of tropical common bean germplasm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces and varieties grown by farmers in the tropics are a major source of genes and genetic diversity for bean improvement. These materials are, however, threatened by genetic erosion. In this study, we sought to understand the current state of genetic diversity of common bean in ...

  7. Phytohemagglutination Activity in Extruded Dry Bean Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans are a highly nutritious food. Besides making beans palatable, cooking is required to denature lectin, a protein found in beans. If consumed raw or undercooked, lectin poisoning can occur. Symptoms of lectin poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and occur within hours of...

  8. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  9. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  10. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  11. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (∼10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein

  12. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  13. NUTRIMENTAL POTENTIAL OF RED DOLICHOS, BROWN DOLICHOS AND COWPEA FOR GREEN MANURE PRODUCED UNDER THREE TILLAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Alfredo Beltran-Morales

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutrimental content of N, NO3-N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, and B, was evaluated in three bean cultivars of two species with potential to be used as green manure. Cultivars were the red lab-lab bean (RL (Lablab purpureus, brown lab-lab bean (BL (L. purpureus and cowpea (CW (Vigna unguiculata. Three tillage systems were assayed: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and optimal tillage (OT. Results showed that the nutrimental content of N, NO3, P, K did not evidence statistical differences (P≤0.05 among bean cultivars and tillage systems. However, the greater content of N was in BL-CT with 4.85%. The content of P varied from 0.38 to 0.41% and the concentration of K from 2.40 to 2.84%. Ca showed the highest concentration in RL-OT with 2.88%, while the lowest percentage was evidenced by CW-CT, with 2.12% (P≤0.05. The highest percentage of Mg appeared in CW-OT with 0.89% and the lowest concentration was registered for BL-CT, showing 0.52% (P≤0.05. The highest Fe concentration was observed in RL-OT with 0.15% and the lowest in BL-CT and RL-CT, with 0.10%. The Mn content was significantly greater in CW without concerning the tillage system with 0.39% and the smallest concentration was obtained in RL-MT with 0.17%. The greatest percentage content of nutriment B was observed in BL-OT, RL-CT, CW-MT and CW-OT, from 0.024 to 0.030%. In contrast, the lowest content of B was found in RL-MT with 0.015%. The content of Zn did not showed statistical differences respect to the cropping system; the lowest concentration of Zn was observed in CW-OT with 0.0026% and the highest percentage in BL-OT with 0.0040. Cu was significantly highest in BL-CT, BL-MT, BL-OT, RL-CT, RL-MT, RL-OT and CW-OT, being BL-MT and BL-OT the combinations with the highest concentration (0.0061%, while the lowest concentration was observed in CW-MT and CW-CT, with 0.0048% and 0.0044%, respectively.

  14. Weed Azuki Bean, an Overlooked Representative

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGUCHI, Hirofumi

    1989-01-01

    Two forms of prostrated and slightly branching Azuki bean (Phaseolus angularis W.F. Wight) grow naturally in the ruderal and cultivated fields in central Japan. These have larger leaves and thick stem, like the cultigen, and have easily dehiscent black pods similar to the wild Azuki bean (P. angularis var. nipponensis Ohwi). Two forms have seeds intermediate in size between the cultigen and wild Azuki beans. The black-seed form shows relatively larger plant stature and is seen in ruderal site...

  15. BEAN CULTURE IN CHERNOZEM ZONE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Balashova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Vicia faba L. is the one of the ancient crops which have been cultivated and used for food. The historical note about bean utilization in ancient world and in Russia, and the information aboutcenters of origin, food value of seeds are presented in this review. Botanical characteristics of three bean varieties of VNIISSOK breeding are described.

  16. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  17. IN BEANS TO COMMON BLIGHT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-05-12

    May 12, 1993 ... RxR bean lines to common bacterial blight. Thé F, were advanced to F; and in each cross over 250 F2 plants were used to evaluate for the number of genes controÜing résistance using Mendelian genetics and. Stanifield 's formula. The plants were inoculated by razor blade method on the leaves and by ...

  18. Adubação mineral do feijoeiro: IX - Efeitos de N, P, K, Se de uma mistura de micronutrientes, em "terra-roxa-misturada" préviamente tratada, ou não, com calcário dolomítico e adubação verde com labelabe Mineral fertilizers for dry beans: IX - Effects of N, P, K, S and a mixture of micro-nutrients on "terra-roxa-misturada" soils treated, or not, with lime and green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis pares de experiências instaladas em áreas vizinhas, uma das quais, no ano agrícola anterior, foi tratada com calcário dolomítico e adubação verde com labelade, ficando a outra simplesmente em pousio, as respostas às adubações minerais foram geralmente menores na área prèviamente tratada, ao passo que as produções obtidas foram consideravelmente maiores naquelas que ficaram em pousio.The effects of the indicated fertilizer treatments on dry beans were tested on six areas treated with dolomitic limestone and green manure with Dolichos lablabL. in the previous year and in six neighbouring areas left simply idle in that year. The responses to the fertilizers were generally lower in the areas previously treated, but the yields were considerably higher in the untreated areas.

  19. The regulation mechanisms of soluble starch and glycerol for production of azaphilone pigments in Monascus purpureus FAFU618 as revealed by comparative proteomic and transcriptional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zi-Rui; Zhou, Wen-Bin; Yang, Xue-Ling; Tong, Ai-Jun; Hong, Jia-Li; Guo, Wei-Ling; Li, Tian-Tian; Jia, Rui-Bo; Pan, Yu-Yang; Lin, Jun; Lv, Xu-Cong; Liu, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Monascus spp. have been used for thousands of years as a traditional food additive in China. This mold can produce many different types of commercially valuable secondary metabolites of biological activity. Soluble starch and glycerol are the two principal carbon sources universally utilized by Monascus for the production of beneficial metabolites. In this study, the effects and regulation mechanisms of soluble starch and glycerol for M. purpureus FAFU618 on Monascus azaphilone pigments (MonAzPs) were investigated through ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS), comparative proteomics and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The production of intracellular and extracellular pigments was significantly different between the soluble starch group (SSG) and glycerol group (GCG). Additionally, the components of intracellular pigments revealed by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS showed that Monascin and Ankaflavin increased significantly in the GCG, while Rubropunctatin and Monascorubrin increased in the SSG. Differentially expressed proteins of mycelia between SSG and GCG were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. We identified 27 proteins with statistically altered expression, of which 18 proteins associated with the EMP (glycolytic pathway), translation, energy generation, proteolysis, etc. were up-regulated, and 9 proteins, including ribosomal proteins, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and others, were down-regulated in GCG. Meanwhile, the expression levels of MonAzP biosynthetic genes were also analyzed by RT-qPCR, and the results showed that mppA, mppC, mppR1 and mppR2 were down-regulated, whereas genes MpPKS5, MpFasA2, MpFasB2, mppB, mppD and mppE were up-regulated. Collectively, these findings illustrate that the regulation of MonAzPs is not only closely related to the expression levels of certain proteins in the polyketide synthesis pathway

  20. Mung Bean: Technological and Nutritional Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Khetarpaul, N.; Grewal, R.B.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop’s potential as food and to

  1. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BEAN WEEVIL (Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    arthropoda, class; insecta and family; celeoptera. (Akinsanmi, 1980). This species is light olive coloured and mottled with dark brown or grey reddish legs. The bean weevils are stored products granivores and typically infest various kinds of bean species particularly the species Phaseolus vulgaris where they live for most.

  3. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  4. the pan- africa bean research alliance (pabra)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    increased access to high value bean products. (varieties) targeted to niche markets. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) present a unique partnership model developed and used by PABRA to breed and deliver improved bean varieties to millions of beneficiaries in Africa; (2) review PABRA's strategy and achievements in.

  5. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  6. Clustering common bean mutants based on heterotic groupings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to cluster bean mutants from a bean mutation breeding programme, based on heterotic groupings. This was achieved by genotyping 16 bean genotypes, using 21 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) bean markers. From the results, three different clusters A, B and C, were obtained suggesting ...

  7. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Intercropping of Faba bean (Vicia fabae) and field pea (Pisum sativum) is an important cropping system in the. Horro highlands of ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a .... as per the available research recommendation for. Faba bean and field pea ...

  8. Table 5 Mineral content of ashed bean samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mamiro

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... vegetables; dry bean grains are used in various food preparations, and both are used as relish or side dishes together ... Eastern Africa and Latin America. Zinc content of beans is one of the ... Kidney bean leaves and fresh bean grains, which are prepared as relish and consumed by a number of families in ...

  9. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  10. Radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah, V.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed by Ghanaian scientists from 1977 to 1987 to evaluate the seriousness of infestation and to establish effective doses for radiation disinfestation against insects and fungi which cause deterioration in grains and cocoa beans. Supporting investigations have been done on the effect of radiation disinfestation on some quality parameters and wholesomeness of grains (with maize as the test grain) and cocoa beans. A minimum dose of 0.8 kGy was established for effective control of insects present in stored grains and cocoa beans. For the decontamination against fungi and yeasts, a combination of moist heat (85% RH) applied to 60 deg. C for 30 min followed by a dose of 4 kGy was effective for maize and moist heat (85% RH) applied 80 deg. C and a dose of 4 kGy was recommended for cocoa beans. No significant difference was found between the organoleptic qualities of the products from maize and cocoa that had been treated with moist heat and radiation and the untreated samples. The cooling (solidifying) curves of cocoa butter prepared from untreated and treated cocoa beans were very similar. Irradiated cocoa beans were found to be wholesome. The prospects of radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans have also been discussed. (author). 27 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Management of faba bean gall in faba bean producing area of Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogale Nigir Hailemariam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean new disease (faba bean gall (Olpidium viciae (Kusano is the most destructive disease of faba bean ((Vicia faba L. in Ethiopia, particularly in Amhara, Tigray and some part of Oromia region. This problem needs immediate sound management strategy to maximize faba bean productivity. A field study was carried out in Geregera and Jama during the 2013 and 2014 main crop season and Maybar watershed in 2014 to verify the fungicide to faba bean gall. The objective of this study was evaluating effective fungicides for the management of faba bean new disease. The treatments were baylaton in the form of seed dressing and foliar spray; mancozeb, redomil, chlorotalonin and cruzet in the form of foliar spray and apron star and theram used as a foliar spray and also untreated check used as a comparison. The result showed that significantly differ between treatments (p

  12. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Feeding toasted field beans to dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, K.F.; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Askegaard, M.

    2013-01-01

    Toasting field beans can improve the protein quality of field beans markedly. In the feed demonstrations carried out in Project EcoProtein testing a new method of toasting with a drum dryer, showed, however, only reduced effect on the protein quality due to a lower than optimal temperature. The toasted field beans were fed in two organic dairy herds, replacing a part of the concentrates in the ration in a cross-over design. Preliminary results showed no milk yield difference in herd 1, but a ...

  14. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  16. Synthesis of epoxidised soya bean oil acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin bin Mohd Nor; Mohamad Hilmi bin Mahmood; Dahlan bin Haji Mohd.

    1988-10-01

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from Asahi's epoxy resin AER 331 which is an epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO). Triethylamine (TEA) and Hydroquinone (HQ) were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. Observations of the experiment are described. (author)

  17. MedlinePlus: Quinoa Black Bean Salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/quinoablackbeansalad.html Quinoa Black Bean Salad To use the sharing features ... a side dish. Ingredients 1/2 cup dry quinoa 1 and 1/2 cups water 1 and ...

  18. Carboxypeptidase of Castor Bean Endosperm during Germination

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 知子; 下田, 忠久; 船津, 軍喜; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Shimoda, Tadahisa; Funatsu, Gunki

    1982-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase (CPase) in the endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) showed high activity at day 4 and 7 on germination. From the behavior of CPases on CM-cellulose column chromatography, the early stage CPases, which appeared before 4 day germination, were different from the later stage CPases which appeared after 6 day. Probably the former arised from ungerminated seeds and the latter was synthesized during the germination. The early stage endosperm of small grain castor bean cont...

  19. beans grown in an intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-02-10

    Feb 10, 2005 ... Sole crops were planted at the recommended PPD of 44 444 and 11 1 1 11 plants ha'l for maize and climbing beans, respectively. Maize in ... within-row spacing from 0.25 to 0.40 m for maize and 0.30 to 0.50 m for beans. Maize PPD .... mays) and/0r cassava(Manih0t esculentum) plants acting as live ...

  20. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  1. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  2. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Key words: Common bean, Pseudocercospora griseola, marker assisted selection, genotype, inheritance. INTRODUCTION. Common beans (Phaseolus ... and to determine the inheritance pattern of the diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... environmental effects. These results agree with what is.

  3. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  4. Yam bean seed poisoning mimicking cyanide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Y-M; Hung, S-Y; Olson, K R; Chou, K-J; Lin, S-L; Chung, H-M; Tung, C-N; Chang, J-C

    2007-02-01

    Yam bean is a common food in southern Taiwan. However, its seeds are rarely consumed. We describe five patients of yam bean seed poisoning in Taiwan, one of them life-threatening. The five patients presented with perioral numbness, nausea and vomiting after eating a same soup made from yam bean seeds. One of them, a 54-year-old woman, had difficulty breathing and lost consciousness. Physical examination showed dilated pupils and coma with no focal neurological signs. The initial blood pressure was normal. Laboratory data showed a severe anion gap metabolic acidosis, with a serum lactate level of 185 mg/dL. An initial diagnosis of cyanide intoxication was considered and she was given sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate i.v. Hypotension ensued shortly afterwards and pulmonary artery catheterization showed a decreased cardiac index. Aggressive fluid and inotropic therapy were given and the patient eventually recovered. The other four patients suffered only minor gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms and received supportive treatment. Cyanide levels were negative in all five patients. Yam bean seed poisoning can cause acute metabolic acidosis and altered mental status, which could be confused with acute cyanide intoxication from a cyanogenic glycoside-containing plant. To our knowledge, this is the first outbreak of yam bean seed poisoning reported in the English published work.

  5. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duennas Graciela; Munniz, Olegario; Sanchez, Tamara; Gomez, Luis

    1999-01-01

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  6. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  7. Registration of Gabisa Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabisa is a common name for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety with pedigree name of VAX-2. It is a bush food bean variety selected out of common bean lines introduced to Ethiopia through CIAT program and released in 2007 by the Bako Agricultural Research Center for production in western Ethiopia and ...

  8. Bacteriological Contamination of Soya Bean Flour Sold in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soya bean (Glycine max) is a leguminous crop that is used as a staple food worldwide. The raw harvest is processed into various food forms like soya bean flour and processing methods increase the chances of bacterial contamination. This research work assessed the bacteria contamination of soya bean flour sold in and ...

  9. Agronomic description of new improved climbing bean varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 21. David, S and Hoogendijk,M. 1997. Bean production systems in MbaJe district, Uganda with emphasis on varietal diversity and the adoption of new climbing beans. Network on bean research in Africa. CIA T. CIA T, occasional publication ...

  10. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  11. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... white kidney bean grains decreased as the moisture content increased from 105.18 to 71.44 N. Key words: Engineering (physical and mechanical) properties, white kidney beans, moisture content, thousand grain mass, static coefficient of friction. INTRODUCTION. White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

  12. Inheritance of halo blight resistance in common bean | Chataika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Halo blight caused by (Pseudomonas syringe pv. phaseolicola (Burkh) (Psp)) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) world-wide. Several races of the Psp exist and likewise some sources of resistance in common bean have been identified. CAL 143, is a CIAT-bred common bean line, which was ...

  13. New bean seeds and the struggle for their dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Aguilar, E.; Herrera, R.

    2007-01-01

    The northern region of Nicaragua has always been an important bean and maize producing area. But a widespread presence of the Golden Mosaic Virus made it impossible to grow beans in the last years. A Participatory Plant Breeding programme started in 1999, aiming to develop new bean varieties that

  14. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This

  15. Economic performance of community based bean seed production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    seed multiplication and marketing enterprises (CBSME) model, as an alternative to the formal seed systems, in order to ... opportunities for small scale growers to ...... Producing bean seed: handbooks for small-scale bean producers. Handbook 1. Network on Bean Research in Africa, Occasional Publications Series,. No. 29.

  16. Controlling bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Controlling bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus of soybean with spatial arrangement of maize-soybean in southeastern Nigeria. ... plant produced the lowest grain yield.of 0..82 t / ha. Keywords: Spatial arrangement, Bean leaf beetle, Bean pod Mottl virus, Maize, Soybean. Agro-Science Vol. 3 (2) 2006: pp.

  17. New bean products to improve food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... This is the first time a full nutritional profile of bean varieties has been available in Kenya and Uganda. Two types of products — precooked beans and bean snacks — have been developed, and the latter tested with consumers in major supermarkets in Kenya and Uganda. To increase production of ...

  18. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  19. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya.... SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of French beans... was inspected and found free of quarantine pests. This action will allow for the importation of French...

  20. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  1. Foliar absorption of phosphorus by common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, A.E.; Rosa, J.P.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effet of urea and/or sucrose on P uptake from H 3 PO 4 and monoammonium phosphate by bean leaves. A solution containing 0.145% P and specific activity 10μ Ci/ml is sprayed early in the morning or late afternoon. Besides the treatment without urea and sucrose, these substances are added in two concentrations 0.66% N + sucrose, and 1.32% N + sucrose. Twenty four hous after application, 52% of the applied P is absorved by the bean trifoliate leaf. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosano Edmilson José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (15N released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea, velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground parts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean, and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experiment al period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox.

  3. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose [Estacao Experimental de Agronomia de Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Centro de Acao Regional; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Cantarella, Heitor [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil). Centro de Solos e Recursos Agroambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social e Bioestatistica

    2003-03-01

    Nitrogen ({sup 15}N) released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea), velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha{sup -1} of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground arts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha{sup -1} of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf) and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean), and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with {sup 15}N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experimental period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox. (author)

  4. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Laras Cempaka; Lienda Aliwarga; Susanto Purwo

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fer...

  5. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the beans, peas and broad beans from domestic market, 1999-2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałdyga, Barbara; Zbigniew, Borejszo; Wieczorek, Jolanta; Dymkowska-Malesa, Maria; Smoczyńtski, Stefan S

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of bean, peas and broad bean, purchased from local seed production plants in the provinces of Mazowieckie and Kujawsko-Pomorskie in the years 1999-2002, were determined for the contents of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons were extracted from the seeds with a hexane-acetone mixture by means of sonification. The obtained extracts were then purified in a silica gel column. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were identified and determined quantitatively with liquid chromatography using a fluorescent detector. The presence (in different concentrations) of PAH was reported in the majority of seeds of the bean, peas and broad bean varieties examined, which indicates that they may be ingested with food and bioaccumulated in the human organism. A considerably higher content of SPAH was observed in the seeds of broad bean, compared to those of bean and peas. The highest SPAH determined reached 2 x 10(2) microg/kg of product. The obtained results were comparable with those reported by other authors for vegetables originating from non-industrial areas. It is worth emphasising that all the seeds examined revealed the presence of PAH with carcinogenic properties.

  6. COMPARATCVE CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LOCUST BEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    11g. J. B io1cchn. 15 ( 1) 42- 4 7. 42. COMPARATCVE CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LOCUST BEAN. (Parkia biglobosa) FRUIT PULP HARVESTED DURING THE DRY. AND WET SEA ON . *M. . Nadro and H. A. Umaru. Department of Biochemistry. Federal University of Technology. P. M. B. 2076, Yola. Adamawa State.

  7. Epidemiology of bean rust in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habtu, A.

    1994-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the epidemiology of rust ( Uromyces appendiculatus ) on beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Ethiopia. The experiments were conducted under low input conditions reflecting

  8. Wild beans (Phaseolus L.) of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild relatives of the five domesticated species of bean (Phaseolus L.) are widely distributed across the tropics and subtropics of the New World, with taxa extending to the Canadian border, the Caribbean islands and Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands, and south to Argentina. Mesoamerica holds the la...

  9. chitwood on African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Uguru and Madukaife, 2001). In fact, given the nutritional status of S. stenocarpa, it has the potential of replacing animal proteins in the diets of many poor Africans who cannot afford the exorbitant cost of proteins from animals. In addition to the nutritional potentials of African yam bean it is wise to depend on ...

  10. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oladebeyes

    ABSTRACT. Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol. (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption ...

  11. Determination of physicomechanical properties of velvet bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected physical and mechanical properties of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) were studied at two moisture content levels of 13% and 20% (db). Compression strength characteristics were conducted under quasi-static compressive force at longitudinal and latitudinal (lateral) loading positions and the rupture forces, ...

  12. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  13. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  14. Chemical evaluation of winged beans ( Psophocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical evaluation of winged beans ( Psophocarpus Tetragonolobus ), Pitanga cherries ( Eugenia uniflora) and orchid fruit ( Orchid fruit myristic a) ... The acid value ranged between 0.71 and 2.82 mg/KOH/g while iodine value ranged between 91.15 and 144.57. The refractive index ranged between 1.465 and 1.474 in all ...

  15. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  16. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  17. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  18. Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Mendis, Mihiri; Heck, Taylor; Ogunyemi, Samuel

    2015-08-30

    Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  20. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  1. Productivity and nutritive value of three grass-legume mixtures in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity and nutritive value of three grass-legume mixtures in the Sudan savannah zone Kano state, Nigeria. ... Results of the study indicated that Sorghum almum-Lablab purpureus mixture recorded numerically higher dry matter yield (7806 kg dm/hectare) compared to other mixtures, similarly leaf area for grass (46.4) ...

  2. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Verloove, F.

    2013-01-01

    Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides), Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta,...

  3. Green manuring and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of these treatments on agronomic trait and yield of upland rice and soil chemical properties were then investigated at UNAAB and Olowo-Papa village (OP). In the first experiment three green manure crops, namely, Mucuna utilis, Canavalia ensiformis and Lablab purpureus were screened for biomass production ...

  4. Forage yield and soil improvement potential of some annual and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six annual and semi-perennial legumes were evaluated for forage production and their effect on soil properties at two sites, Pokoase (transition zone) and Nyankpala (Guinea savanna zone). The common legumes evaluated at the two sites were Lablab purpureus, Desmodium distortum, Crotalaria ochroleuca, and ...

  5. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathleen; Singh, Jugpreet; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-08-11

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized. We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar 'Stringless green refugee') to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with the known strain NL1-Iowa causes moderate symptoms and large transcriptional responses, and the newly identified strain (Strain 2 or S2) causes severe symptoms and moderate transcriptional responses. The transcriptional profiles of host plants infected with the two isolates are distinct, and involve numerous differences in splice forms in particular genes, and pathway specific expression patterns. We identified differential host transcriptome response after infection of two different strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Virus infection initiated a suite of changes in gene expression level and patterns in the host plants. Pathways related to defense, gene regulation, metabolic processes, photosynthesis were specifically altered after virus infection. Results presented in this study can increase the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and provide resources for further investigations of the biological mechanisms in BCMV infection and defense.

  6. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  7. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  8. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  10. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. protein hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared, when the beans protein was subjected to hydrolysis with pepsin. The bean protein hydrolysate obtained by hydrolysis with alcalase enzyme, showed higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical ABTS●+. However, the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with pepsin had higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical DPPH. The use of pepsin and alcalase enzymes, under the same reaction time, produced black bean protein hydrolysates with different molecular weight profiles and superior antioxidant activity than the native bean protein.

  11. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  12. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  13. Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ana; Correia, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial...

  14. Subunit heterogeneity in the lima bean lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D D; Etzler, M E; Goldstein, I J

    1982-08-10

    Three forms of lectin (components I, II, and III) from lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) have been purified on an affinity support containing the synthetic type A blood group trisaccharide alpha-D-GalNAc-(1 leads to 3)-[alpha-L-Fuc-(1 leads to 2)]-beta-D-Gal-(1 leads to). Conversion of components I and II to component III has been achieved by reduction in 10(-2) M dithiothreitol. Isoelectric focusing of lima bean lectin in the presence of 8 M urea and beta-mercaptoethanol revealed charge heterogeneity of the lectin subunits. Three major subunit classes of apparent pI 7.05, 6.65, and 6.45, designated alpha, beta, and alpha', respectively, were identified; they occur in a relative abundance of 2:5:3. Green lima beans harvested before maturity lacked the alpha' subunit (pI 6.45) which appears to accumulate during seed maturation. The three subunits are glycoproteins of identical size and immunochemical reactivity. Identical NH2-terminal sequences were found for the three subunits. Amino acid analysis and tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the observed charge heterogeneity is probably due to differences in the primary structure of the subunits. Studies of subunit composition of charge isolectins provided evidence of nonrandom subunit assembly. A model is proposed involving pairing of a pI 6.65 subunit with either a pI 7.06 or 6.45 subunit to form dimeric units. Possible roles for subunit heterogeneity and ordered subunit assembly in determining the metal and sugar binding properties of lima bean lectin are discussed.

  15. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  16. Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ( Sphenostylis stenocarpa ) meal on eggs, sperm quality and spawning performance of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) broodstock.

  17. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  18. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  19. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A.

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of 210 Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg -1 fresh wt. obtained here is according to 210 Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg -1 . (author)

  20. Mung bean proteins and peptides: nutritional, functional and bioactive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, no extensive literature review exists regarding potential uses of mung bean proteins and peptides. As mung bean has long been widely used as a food source, early studies evaluated mung bean nutritional value against the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO/the World Health Organization (WHO amino acids dietary recommendations. The comparison demonstrated mung bean to be a good protein source, except for deficiencies in sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Methionine and cysteine residues have been introduced into the 8S globulin through protein engineering technology. Subsequently, purified mung bean proteins and peptides have facilitated the study of their structural and functional properties. Two main types of extraction methods have been reported for isolation of proteins and peptides from mung bean flours, permitting sequencing of major proteins present in mung bean, including albumins and globulins (notably 8S globulin. However, the sequence for albumin deposited in the UniProt database differs from other sequences reported in the literature. Meanwhile, a limited number of reports have revealed other useful bioactivities for proteins and hydrolysed peptides, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, anti-fungal activity and trypsin inhibitory activity. Consequently, several mung bean hydrolysed peptides have served as effective food additives to prevent proteolysis during storage. Ultimately, further research will reveal other nutritional, functional and bioactive properties of mung bean for uses in diverse applications.

  1. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean characteristics in Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora should be taken into considerations in coffee breeding. Beside genetic factor, environment has been known as an important factor in the formation and change of composition of bean characteristics. This research aimed to find out the effect of long dry season on changes of bean characteristics. The population observed consisted of 277 genotypes originated from reciprocal crossings of three parental namely BP 409, BP 961 and Q 121. Observation was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Garden of ICCRI in Jember, East Java during two years with different drought intensity i.e. 2005—2006 and 2006—2007 production years. The result showed that long dry season decreased the range value of population of normal beans, pea beans and triage beans, and followed by decreasing in the mean value except for normal beans. Long dry season also influence the change of value range of empty bean to higher proportion, and followed by increasing in the mean value. Distribution pattern of normal beans tend in to remain at high proportion, in contrast to those of pea and triage beans. In other side, long dry season tended to change distribution pattern of empty beans to at high proportion. Correlation analysis among beans characteristics showed that normal beans had negative correlations with pea beans and empty beans. Pea beans had a positive correlation with empty beans. Long dry season decreased proportion of pea bean and triage bean, in contrast to those of empty beans. Increasing proportion of empty bean was caused by failure of growth to normal bean under stress condition. Key words : Coffee canephora, bean characteristics, long dry season, variation, correlation, composition.

  2. Caffeine Extraction from Raw and Roasted Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh

    2018-03-25

    Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  4. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  5. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes for ALS and ...

  6. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes ...

  7. Factors influencing smallholder farmers' bean production and supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) is a major staple food in Burundi; thus increasing its production and marketing has the potential for raising incomes of the farming households. In the country, bean outputs have been declining for decades, yet demand for the crop in East Africa has surged considerably. This study was ...

  8. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  9. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  10. Agronomic qualities of genetic pyramids of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple co-infections by different pathogens on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affect its productivity and cause complete crop loss in susceptible varieties. Therefore, gene pyramiding using marker assisted selection (MAS) and backcrossing, provide alternative cost-effective control measures to bean diseases.

  11. Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...

  12. Plants growth, water relations and photosynthesis of two bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris has a great variability regarding the tolerance to salinity. In this work, we used fluridone as a tool to study the herbicide's effect on two salt stressed bean genotypes since fluridone alters photosynthetic pigments and blocks normal abscisic acid biosynthesis under salinity. Plants from two bean genotypes ...

  13. Effect Of Replacing Soybean Meal With Lima Bean Meal On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) was processed by soaking and toasting before usage to feed 75 broiler birds for 28 days. The birds were randomly assigned to five treatment diets with each treatment being replicated three times and containing five birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. The bean was ...

  14. Red kidney beans - to eat or not to eat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importation of dry red kidney beans (a variety of the species Phaseolus vulgaris) for cultivation or consumption in South Africa is prohibited because of their potential toxicity to humans. It has been established that the haemagglutinating lectins (e.g. phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in kidney beans are responsible for this ...

  15. Inheritance of resistance to angular leaf spot in yellow beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angular leaf spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in most parts of Africa, causing yield losses of 40-80%. This study was carried out to determine the inheritance of resistance to angular leaf spot in yellow beans. Biparental crosses were done between ...

  16. Methionine in Velvet Bean ( Mucuna pruriens ) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler chicks fed starter diets containing 30% raw or heat treated, and 20% heat treated velvet beans with varying levels of methionine was determined. The influence of varying levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was ...

  17. Susceptibility to bruchids among common beans in Uganda | Ebinu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bean bruchids, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say and Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), are cosmopolitan pests of stored dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), causing damage through reduction of grain quality and seed germination. Biological resistance to these bruchids was definitively ...

  18. Economics of oil bean ( Pentaclethra macrophylla ), seed marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the economics of oil bean marketing in Owerri agricultural zone of Imo state. Forty- five marketers oil bean marketers were randomly selected from three markets of the study area. Primary data were collected using structural questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using statistical tools such as ...

  19. Determinants of haricot bean market participation in Misrak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at analyzing commodity level determinants of output side market participation of haricot bean based on cross sectional primary data collected from 123 randomly selected haricot bean producers sample households in six kebeles in Misrak Badawacho District, Hadiya Zone, Southern Nations Nationalities ...

  20. Effect of soya bean diet preparations on some haematological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Soya bean diet preparations on the hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, plasma albumin, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were studied in male albino rats. The animals were fed diets containing 75%, 50% and 25% Soya bean in groups II, III and IV respectively. Group I rats ...

  1. Small Scale Farmers' Knowledge on Grain Losses from Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    whether bean bruchids is major pest, how much damage it causes, knowledge of pests problem, management strategies and how safe are treated beans to consumers. In addition we interviewed input dealers in Huye town, which covered pesticides most sold, price range and advice given to buyers. In most cases farmers ...

  2. Assessment of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris l.) Seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major causes of low yield of common bean in Ethiopia is the shortage and/or inaccessibility of high quality seed. In the Hararghe highlands of eastern Ethiopia, farmers often use common bean seeds produced both under sole crop and intercrop systems. This study was carried out to investigate the physical, ...

  3. Interaction between faba bean cultivars and the Rhizobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of eight Rhizobium leguminosarum strains isolated from root nodules of Faba bean plants which were collected from different Governorate in Egypt has been examined. After inoculation of faba bean seeds with each Rhizobium strain individually, we measured the growth promotion, nodule formation and plant ...

  4. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column

  5. relative performance of staking techniques on yield of climbing bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important staple grain legume in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. In addition, it is a major source of proteins, energy and micro-nutrients (e.g. Fe and Zn), especially for smallholder farmers. The climbing bean is particularly more productive, an efficient land user and tolerant to ...

  6. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree

  7. Potato Bean: Potential Forage/Dietary Supplement for Small Ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, leguminous vine indigenous to the eastern half of the United States. This vine climbs on plants and objects making its foliage accessible to browsing animals. We have observed deer eating potato bean foliage. Both deer and goa...

  8. Volumetric and viscometric behaviour of soya bean and gram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volumetric and viscometric behaviour of soya bean and gram proteins in aqueous methotrexate (anticancer drug) solution at 298.15 to 308.15K. ... and viscosities (h) for 0.00005 to 0.0004 kg.mol-1 (50 to 400 mmol kg-1) aqueous methotrexate (MTX), gram (Gp) and soya bean (SBp) proteins, and similar compositions of Gp

  9. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  10. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed

  11. Coffee Bean Grade Determination Based on Image Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferdiansjah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality standard for coffee as an agriculture commodity in Indonesia uses defect system which is regulated in Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI for coffee bean, No: 01-2907-1999. In the Defect System standard, coffee bean is classified into six grades, from grade I to grade VI depending on the number of defect found in the coffee bean. Accuracy of this method heavily depends on the experience and the expertise of the human operators. The objective of the research is to develop a system to determine the coffee bean grading based on SNI No: 01-2907-1999. A visual sensor, a webcam connected to a computer, was used for image acquisition of coffee bean image samples, which were placed under uniform illumination of 414.5+2.9 lux. The computer performs feature extraction from parameters of coffee bean image samples in the term of texture (energy, entropy, contrast, homogeneity and color (R mean, G mean, and B mean and determines the grade of coffee bean based on the image parameters by implementing neural network algorithm. The accuracy of system testing for the coffee beans of grade I, II, III, IVA, IVB, V, and VI have the value of 100, 80, 60, 40, 100, 40, and 100%, respectively.

  12. Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean, (Parkia Biglobosa),. Castor Seeds (Ricinu Communis) and African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra Macrophylla). A.A. Liman*, P. Egwin, M.A. Vunchi and C. Ayansi. Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Arts and Sciences. Federal Polytechnic ...

  13. Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) is a major pest of stored dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other legumes world wide. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) oils against A. obtectus on stored dry beans under laboratory conditions.

  14. Screening of spontaneous castor bean accesses for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... discriminant power between the castor bean accesses, being the multivariate analysis efficient in this process. The castor bean accesses ACS-001 CRSP and ACS-001-MASP are promising for introduction in genetic improvement programs of this culture. Keywords: Ricinus communis L., genotype, multivariate statistics, ...

  15. Screening of spontaneous castor bean accesses for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... castor bean accesses, being the multivariate analysis efficient in this process. The castor bean accesses ACS-001-CRSP and ACS-001-MASP are promising for introduction in genetic improvement programs of this culture. Key words: Ricinus communis L., genotype, multivariate statistics, bioenergy.

  16. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean ( Mucuna urens ) meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement for soybean meal. The cracked beans were subjected to three processing methods viz: soaking in plain water for 48 hours, cooking for 90 minutes, and toasting on open ...

  17. Determinants of Haricot Bean Market Participation in Misrak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-23

    Oct 23, 2010 ... Second, Pseudo. R2 values indicate that the independent variables included in the regression explain 76% of the variations in the likelihood to participate in haricot bean market. The decision to participate in haricot bean market were significantly affected by household size, number of oxen owned, use of ...

  18. Determination of ochratoxin A levels in ivorian cocoa beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to monitor levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in terms of the marketability of Ivorian cocoa beans stored at the ports of Abidjan and San Pedro. Thus, 270 samples of cocoa beans were analyzed. Merchantability and OTA levels were determined respectively according to the Ivorian Coffee and Cocoa ...

  19. The Effect of Processing Method of Dolichos Bean (Lablob Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, growth performance and slaughter characteristics ... chos diets. It was concluded that thermC!-processing, particularly boiling greatly improved nutrient availability and overall utilisation of dolichos bean meal for pigs. Keywords: Dolichos bean ... quality associated with low profile of sul- phur containing amino ...

  20. Potential of Toasted Lima bean ( Phaseolus lunatus L) as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential of Toasted Lima bean ( Phaseolus lunatus L) as a substitute for full fat soyabean meal in the diets for (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. ... decreased with increase in inclusion level of toasted lima bean except the high specific growth rate (SGR) value observed in the group fed test diet D (40% inclusion level).

  1. Small scale farmers' knowledge on grain losses from bean bruchid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small scale farmers' knowledge on grain losses from bean bruchid, pesticides safe use and implication on food security and safety in Huye District, Rwanda. ... We used questionnaires and face to face interviews to collect data on bean bruchid, control methods, pesticide use and safety measures. The results indicate that ...

  2. Resistance and inheritance of common bacterial blight in yellow bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume among the pulses. It is a cheap source of protein, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, bean production is constrained by bacterial diseases, of which common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis p.v. phaseoli) is prevalent in Africa.

  3. Susceptibility of South African dry bean cultivars to bacterial diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry beans are an important crop in South Africa with the annual bean consumption being approximately 120 000 t. The crop is annually subjected to a number of biotic constraints such as bacterial diseases that can cause serious yield losses especially when the climate is conducive to diseases. The use of resistant ...

  4. Determination of radioactivity in maize and mung beans grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two staple foods (maize and mung beans) which were cultivated in Minjingu village, where there is phosphate deposit in Tanzania, were collected directly from the farms. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th and 40K were determined in the maize and mung beans samples using γ ray spectrometry employing HPGe ...

  5. Aluminium Tolerance of Four Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Root elongation produced superior differential rating in assessing for aluminium toxicity in the beans. On the other hand, Eriochrome cyanine R staining lacked clear differentiation especially where there were marginal differences of Al tolerance. It follows that, screening for aluminium tolerance in common beans can ...

  6. Effects of irradiation on the physicochemical properties of carioca beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Damaris Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    The common bean is an important component in the diet of the average Brazilian person. Each harvest of beans, losses occur due to attacks of insects and rodents. One of the ways to preserve the beans, and at the same time keep its nutritional characteristics, is the use of gamma radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma radiation on the physical and chemical properties of the carioca variety of common beans subject to cooking of soaked and unsoaked beans. Portions of raw beans were used as control and the other was subject to ionizing radiation at doses of 1, 5 and 10 kGy. Following irradiation, a portion of the samples (control and irradiated) were soaked and the other was not, then all beans were cooked. The cooked samples were lyophilized, milled and then accommodated in pots and stored at -23 deg C temperatures. The analysis of chemical composition, determination of protein digestibility, condensed tannin and phytic acid content were performed using the milled samples. Using whole grains, were performed analysis of expansion capability and hydration, cooking time and instrumental color. Irradiation did not alter the chemical composition of soaked and unsoaked samples. The condensed tannin levels did not reduce according to increased doses. The phytic acid concentrations were reduced at the doses of 5 and 10 kGy for soaked samples, whereas for the not soaked beans, gamma irradiation did not influence the phytate content. The protein digestibility decreased on soaked samples, at doses of 1 kGy and in the other doses, the reduction was not significant. As for not soaked beans, increases in digestibility were observed at dose of 10 kGy. As the doses increased, reduction in cooking time on soaked and unsoaked beans was noted. At a dose of 10 kGy, the bean expansion capability increased. The samples' color did not change significantly, as the doses increased. Therefore, it is concluded that ionizing radiation has no effect

  7. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata

    . A common nutritional base for poor populations is a staple such as maize, wheat, rice, potatoes, cassava, or beans, but many of these have low iron and zinc content as well as potent inhibitors of iron uptake. Nutritional supplements are often unavailable to such populations due to lacking infrastructure...... in common beans. We used micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and proton backscattering analysis to localize and quantify zinc and iron in mature bean seeds. In addition the iron distribution in different P. vulgaris genotypes was studied using Perl's Prussian blue staining. We show......  that the distribution of iron is dependant on the genotype. Using immunolocalization, we visualized the localization of  ferritin in mature common bean seeds.   This knowledge can contribute to the discovery of factors that affect the bioavailability of micronutrients and  can contribute to breeding common beans...

  8. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  9. Induced leaf variations in faba bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The frequency and spectrum of M2 chlorophyll and other leaf mutations after gamma ray, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and nitrous oxide (N2O) seed treatment in two varieties of faba bean were studied. In general, cv JV1 was more sensitive and EMS treatment was most effective. The frequency of chlorina-type mutations was higher than that of xantha and chlorotica type chlorophyll mutations. The highest frequency of variations was observed in leaflet texture, followed by arrangement, shape and size in both varieties. The use of these leaf mutations in formulating an ideotype of Vicia faba L. are discussed

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores for bean and bean-rice infant weaning food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S; Nielsen, S S; Mason, A C

    2001-10-01

    Vegetable proteins are an integral part of infant weaning diets in Latin America. Protein quality in plant-based products, however, is constrained by amino acid composition and intrinsically present antinutritional factors. The goal of this study was to improve bean protein quality by utilizing fermentation and germination processing. The objectives were to determine if protein quality, as measured by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) approved True Protein Digestibility (TPD) and Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores (PDCAAS), of formulated bean-based weaning products could be improved upon fermentation and germination and if protein quality could be further improved when processed beans were combined with cooked rice. Results showed that the highest TPD and PDCAAS values were obtained for cooked germinated beans combined with rice. The TPD values for products ranged from 80 to 91%, and the PDCAAS values were 0.38-0.51. There was no significant increase (P PDCAAS values upon fermentation. Germination increased TPD of cooked bean products; this increase was not, however, accompanied by an increase in PDCAAS. When combined with rice, the PDCAAS values for all bean products improved significantly, thus supporting the concept of cereal-legume complementation. In conclusion, this study showed the range of PDCAAS in processed black bean and bean-rice infant weaning food products. The potential for incorporation of these products into the diets of weaning age Latin American children would, however, be confirmed only after validation with growth or metabolic balance studies in human infants.

  12. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality : with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional

  13. Production of peptone from soya beans ( Glycine max L merr ) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of peptone from soya beans (Glycine max L merr) and African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa). RE Uzeh, SO Akinola, SOA Olatope. Abstract. Peptone was produced from soya beans and African locust beans. The produced peptones were evaluated as component of microbiological media for the growth of some ...

  14. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  15. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  17. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  18. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  19. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  20. Advances in faba bean genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Martin O'Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centres of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favoured plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea.However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fuelled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990’s and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are

  1. Sensitization to green coffee bean (GCB) and castor bean (CB) allergens among dock workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, R; Patussi, V; Fiorito, A; Larese, F

    1988-01-01

    Dock workers (n = 218) occupationally exposed to green coffee beans (GCB) were studied, using a specific questionnaire for allergic symptoms and skin tests for common and occupational allergens. Thirty-one workers (14.3%) complained of allergic symptoms of the eye, nose and bronchial system at the workplace. The prick tests, using both commercial allergens and specific extracts prepared from the most common types of coffee and their corresponding sacks, confirmed a sensitization in 21 workers (9.6%). A positive skin reaction to castor beans (CB) was found in nearly all these cases; in ten workers there was also a positive reaction to GCB allergens and in 14 cases prick tests were positive to extracts of sacks. There was a good concordance between prick tests and specific IgE for CB (95.0%) and also, but to a lesser extent, for GCB. The authors concluded that there is a significant risk of sensitization to CB and GCB allergens in dock workers occupied in handling green coffee bean, despite the fact that the exposure is not continuous. CB emerged as a common contaminant of GCB from various countries. For effective prevention, a modification of the methods of transport is required to avoid CB contamination to other products. Eliminating environmental dust during shipping operations is the most important preventive measure and it can be achieved by the use of containers, as some exporting countries are already doing.

  2. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Gamma radiosensitivity of a common bean cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, W.; Martinez, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitivity of common bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.), cultivar to gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Sets of seeds (60 seed/sample) irradiated with 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy, were compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction, determined at 15 days after emergence (DAE), and also through seedling survival, root length, and dry matter production of leaves, shoots and roots. Seedling height was significantly reduced for the treatments with 150 and 250 Gy, in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height was between 150 and 200 Gy. Survival rates corresponding to these doses, were, respectively, 85% and 60%. Root length and dry matter of leaves, shoots and roots, were inversely related to the doses. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  4. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  5. The introduction of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) into Western Europe and the phenotypic variation of dry beans collected in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The first introduction of common bean from Central/South America into Western Europe most likely took place around 1500. The attractive bean seeds and their easy transportation warranted numerous additional introductions, not only from the Americas, but also from other areas where the common bean

  6. Effectiveness of rapid neutrons on small hoarse bean seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlek, S.; Janiszewski, T.

    1986-01-01

    The small hoarse bean seeds were irradiated. The radiation doses 100-300 rads were used. The obtained mutants were applied in the breeding. The use of fast neutrons was successful and shortened the breeding cycle. (A.S.)

  7. Agronomic performance of some haricot bean varieties ( haseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agronomic performance of some haricot bean varieties ( haseolus vulgaris L.) with and without phosphorus fertilizer under irrigated and rain fed conditions in the Tigray and Afar regional states, northern Ethiopia.

  8. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized...... by a distinctly fatty mouthfeel and creamy flavour and a pronounced sugar-sweet taste and creamy odour. The higher proportions of maize in the feed resulted, in general, in milk characterized by a significantly more intense maize odour (P 

  9. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  10. Methionine in Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucuna pruriens) Based Broiler Starter. Diets and Bean Influence on Finishing Broilers. G. Olaboro. Department of Animal Science, Makerere University,. P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. (Accepted for publication in May, 1992). Abstract.

  11. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.

    1979-01-01

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 32 0 C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  12. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  13. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  14. The genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm is important for the implementation of measures addressed to their utilizations and conservation. The objective of this study was to characterize common bean in Uganda using polymorphic ...

  15. A lab-scale model system for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanens, Edwina; Näf, Rebecca; Lobmaier, Tobias; Pedan, Vasilisa; Leischtfeld, Susette Freimüller; Meile, Leo; Schwenninger, Susanne Miescher

    2018-04-01

    Lab-scale systems modelling the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process are useful tools to research the influence of process parameters on the fermentation and the final bean quality. In this study in Honduras, a 1-kg lab-scale fermentation (LS-F) was compared to a 300-kg on-farm fermentation (OF-F) in a multiphasic approach, analysing microbial counts, microbial species diversity, physico-chemical parameters, and final dried bean quality. Yeast and total aerobic counts of up to 8 log CFU/g during the LS-F were comparable to the OF-F, while counts for lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria were up to 3 log CFU/g lower during the LS-F than during the OF-F. While species of the genera Hansenia, Saccharomyces, and Acetobacter dominated most of the fermentation processes, the genera dominating the drying phases were Pichia, Trichosporon, Pediococcus, and Acetobacter. Dried beans resulting from the LS-F, compared to the OF-F, were similar in contents of acetic acid, 6 times lower in lactic acid, up to 4 times higher in residual sugars, and 3-12 times higher in polyphenols. Dried beans processed at LS showed a similar flavour profile in terms of astringency, bitterness, acidity, and brown, fine, and cocoa flavours, but 2 units higher off-flavours than OF processed beans. With 81%, the share of well-fermented beans from the LS-F complied with industrial standards, whereas 7% over-fermented beans were above the threshold. Conclusively, the 5-day model fermentation and subsequent drying successfully mimicked the on-farm process, providing a high-throughput method to screen microbial strains to be used as starter cultures.

  16. Preparation and characterization of soaps made from soya bean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work deals with the preparation of soaps from neem oil and soya bean oil blends and analyses the soap produced. The soaps were produced using cold process technique by varying the percentage of oils; (soya bean oil and neem oil) in the ratio of 100%, 90/10%, 80/20%, 70/30%, 60/40%, 50/50%, 40/60%, ...

  17. Isoamylase profile of mung bean seedlings treated with high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of high temperatures and GA3 were evaluated in terms of amylase isozymes in four mung bean genotypes. Twenty four hours old seedlings of four mung bean genotypes (NM 19-19, NM 20-21, NM 121-123 and NCM 89) were exposed to lethal temperature (50°C), pretreated with 40°C prior to lethal temperature with ...

  18. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  19. The Characteristics of Extruded Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liene Strauta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Faba beans (Vicia faba L. are an excellent protein source and should be more present in human diet, but due to their long cooking time, they are rarely used. So, in order to increase the accessibility of faba beans (Vicia faba L., experiments were carried out to obtain new food products. Extrusion-cooking was chosen as the potential thermal cooking process and two different products were obtained. One was made exclusively from faba bean (Vicia faba L. flour, while the second one was produced with a 50% addition of wheat flour to bean flour. Protein content, size, volume mass, pH and starch content for obtained products were analysed in order to characterise the products, as well as to see the differences from non-extruded faba beans (Vicia faba L. and obtained samples. The experiments were carried out using faba beans (Vicia faba L. obtained at Ltd. “Pure Horticultural Research Centre”. They were milled at Ltd. “Grauda spēks” and extruded with a twin screw extruder at Ltd. “Milzu”. The experiments showed that the extrusion process had decreased the protein content by 9%, but the starch content had risen by 13% with the addition of wheat flour. But, for sample, without added wheat flour differences were not significant. No significant size differences were observed in the obtained samples and pH values had no significant differences between extruded samples.

  20. Biological nitrogen fixation in common bean and faba bean using N-15 methodology and two reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, Marcelo.

    1989-01-01

    A field was conducted on a Typic ustropepts soil located at 'La Tola', the experimental campus of the Agricultural Sciences Faculty at Tumbaco, Ecuador. The objectives were to quantify faba bean (Vicia faba) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) biological nitrogen fixation, using quinoa (chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) as reference crops. The average values were 80 and 70 per cent for faba bean and 42 and 14 per cent for common bean, respectively. It was assumed that nitrogen use eficiency was the same for fixing crops but observed that a crop with high nitrogen use efficiency overestimates legume biological nitrogen fixation. Results suggests that greater caution is needed when selecting reference crops for legumes with nitrogen fixation

  1. Growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of refried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Akins, E Deann; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Simonne, Amarat H

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens have been associated with dishes containing refried beans from food service establishments. However, growth of C. perfringens in refried beans has not been investigated, and predictive models have not been validated in this food matrix. We investigated the growth of C. perfringens during the cooling of refried beans. Refried beans (pinto and black, with and without salt added) were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g C. perfringens spores and incubated isothermally at 12, 23, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50°C. The levels of C. perfringens were monitored 3, 5, 8, and 10 h after inoculation, and then fitted to the Baranyi primary model and the Rosso secondary model prior to solving the Baranyi differential equation. The final model was validated by dynamic cooling experiments carried out in stockpots, thus mimicking the worst possible food service conditions. All refried beans samples supported the growth of C. perfringens, and all models fit the data with pseudo-R(2) values of 0.95 or greater and mean square errors of 0.3 or lower. The estimated maximum specific growth rates were generally higher in pinto beans, with or without salt added (2.64 and 1.95 h(-1), respectively), when compared with black beans, with or without salt added (1.78 and 1.61 h(-1), respectively). After 10 h of incubation, maximum populations of C. perfringens were significantly higher in samples with no salt added (7.9 log CFU/g for both pinto and black beans) than in samples with salt added (7.3 and 7.2 log CFU/g for pinto and black beans, respectively). The dynamic model predicted the growth of C. perfringens during cooling, with an average root mean squared error of 0.44. The use of large stockpots to cool refried beans led to an observed 1.2-log increase (1.5-log increase predicted by model) in levels of C. perfringens during cooling. The use of shallower pans for cooling is recommended, because they cool faster, therefore limiting the growth of C. perfringens.

  2. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans.

  3. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya — Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sennhenn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and lablab [Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM. The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index. While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha−1. An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and

  4. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya - Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn, Anne; Njarui, Donald M G; Maass, Brigitte L; Whitbread, Anthony M

    2017-01-01

    Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and lablab [ Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM). The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE) was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index). While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha -1 . An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and dry matter

  5. Yield and Quality of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (l. R. Wilczek Seeds Produced in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil MISIAK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to do field and laboratory assessments of yield and quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek seeds cultivated in Western Poland. Mean yield of seeds per plant was higher for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. than for mung one: 13.1 g and 2.58 g, respectively. The mean 1000 mung seeds weight was 50.9 g and their germination – 78 %. Germination capacities of seeds of both beans in the field were similar. Mung beans, compared to common bean, had much smaller seeds, started to bloom later and produced mature seeds later than the latter. Mung bean seeds had more total proteins and Magnesium and Copper than common bean seeds. In Western Poland, production of high quality mung bean seeds was possible.

  6. Induced mutations of winged bean in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klu, G.Y.P.; Quaynor-Addy, M.; Dinku, E.; Dikumwin, E.

    1989-01-01

    Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.) was introduced into Ghana about two decades ago and not long after a high quality baby food was compounded from it. Germplasm collections are established at the Kade Agricultural Research Station of the University of Ghana and the University of Cape Coast. In 1980 a mutation breeding project was initiated at the University of Cape Coast under FAO/IAEA research contract and among various mutants a single erect stem mutant, a multiple branched bush type and a mutant with extra long pods were obtained. A similar programme was started at the National Nuclear Research Centre Kwabenya in 1982. Seeds of accessions UPS 122 and Kade 6/16 were gamma irradiated (100-400 Gy). In M 2 a mutant was obtained that did not flower throughout a growing period of five months. This mutant had very few leaves but developed an underground tuber weighing ca. 100 g. The parent, UPS 122, although normally tuber producing did not form tubers at Kwabenya within the period studied. In M 3 , mutants with variations in seed size and seed coat colour have been detected

  7. Irradiation disinfestation of stored cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim bin Muda, Ab.; Osman, H.; Sivaprogasm, A.; Mohd, N.O.; Radziah, A.; Karmariah, L.; Kamaruzzaman, S.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between effective dosages to induce mortality and sterility in several important storage beetles was investigated. To induce 100% mortality, doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 kGy require 4-7 weeks, 0.2-1.0 kGy need 1.5-3 weeks and 2.0 kGy require 1 week for Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Lasioderma serricorne, respectively. Only at 5.0 kGy did instant mortality occur in the insects tested. Total prevention of F 1 progeny was achieved at the lowest dosage (0.05 kGy) for T. castaneum and O. surinamensis; for L. serricorne, the sterility level achieved was 92-99% for doses ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 kGy. Semi-pilot scale tests (12 months) were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of gamma irradiation to control insects (artificially infested L. serricorne and T. castaneum) and moulds in cocoa beans packed in either jute or laminated polypropylene or unlaminated polypropylene bags. Good control against insect infestations was achieved for the whole duration of storage. Laminated polypropylene afforded the best protection against insect reinfestation. Other than a change in moisture content, no changes in the physicochemical properties were observed in the flavour or in the total protein, soluble protein, amino acid and free fatty acid contents. 15 refs, 10 tabs

  8. Melhoramento do feijoeiro Breeding of dry beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Abrahão

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Os ensaios de variedades e linhagens de feijão, realizados no período de 1948 a 1957 pelo Seção de Genética e resumidamente aqui apresentados, vieram indicar que as variedades e linhagens do grupo Mulatinho e Chumbinho eram as mais produtivas. A partir dêste ano agrícola, novos ensaios comparativos de produção foram realizados, a fim de verificar o comportamento das variedades e linhagens existentes com as variedades recém-introduzidas e as novas linhagens selecionadas. As variedades comerciais e suas linhagens, estudadas neste trabalho, foram classificadas em oito grupos, com base nas observações realizadas principalmente sôbre o tipo de planta e característicos dos sementes, o saber: Mulatinho, Chumbinho, Rosinha, Roxinho, Manteiga, Prêto, Bico-de-Ouro e diversos. Dos oito ensaios analisados em detalhes e realizados em Campinas, chegou-se à conclusão de que as variedades dos grupos Prêta e Rosinha são as de maior capacidade produtiva, devendo ser intensificado o aproveitamento dêsses grupos no plano de melhoramento em execução. As do grupo Roxinho apresentam-se menos produtivas. A comparação das análises dos ensaios como látice e blocos ao acaso revelou uma eficiência média de ordem de 30% para o tipo látice nos oito ensaios analisados. A fim de observar se o pêso total de plantas por ocasião da colheita mostra correlação com a produção de grãos, determinou-se, para cada grupo, o índice entre essas duas variáveis. Observou-se que êstes índices são proporcionais à produção, servindo, assim, para melhor caracterizar os diversos grupos de variedades e linhagens de feijão.In spite of the fact that dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris are one of the main sources of protein in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, they are considered a secondary crop and grown only in small patches or intercropped with coffee, sugar cane, or corn. The development of high yielding strains resistant to the most prevailing diseases, has

  9. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa from fava bean, green peas and green beans by high performance liquid gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran S M, Mohseni; B, Golshani

    2013-06-01

    According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson's disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson's disease. We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects.

  10. Induced mutations in beans and peas for resistance to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) were applied in a mutation-induction programme for rust resistance in bean and pea. Bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked 2 hours before irradiation with 9, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical mutagen treatments bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked for 8 hours and treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. M 2 seeds of beans and peas were planted in 1979. Resistant M 2 plants were selected for their rust resistance and other morphological characters. M 3 seeds of selected plants were planted in 1980. In 1980 more seeds of the same varieties of beans and peas were treated with 0.1 and 0.3% EMS with the aim to produce rust-resistant mutants. Seed germination was reduced by gamma rays or EMS. Dwarf, malformed and abnormal plants were noticed. Some resistant M 2 plants selected gave high grain yields. Some were different in morphological characters. In the M 3 of selected plants various other mutant characters appeared, such as different height of plants, early and late flowering, resistance to powdery mildew in peas, altered grain yield, thickness of stem, pod shape and flower colour. (author)

  11. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  12. Words denoting faba bean (Vicia faba in European languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L took part in the 'agricultural revolution' of post-glacial Europe along with other grain legumes and cereals. In order to assess the diversity and the origin of the words denoting faba bean in the languages of Europe, a lexicological study was carried out with emphasis upon etymological dictionaries. The words in almost all modern Indo-European languages in Europe owe their origin to the Proto-Indo-European root *bhabh bhabhā, also denoting faba bean. The Proto-Altaic root *bŭkrV, denoting pea nut and cone, through the Proto-Turkic *burčak, denoting both pea and bean is responsible for the words in several modern Altaic languages of Europe while the others are borrowings from Arabic. The origin of the words in modern Caucasian languages is the Proto-Caucasian root *howł[ā], meaning both bean and lentil. The words in Uralic languages are either borrowings, mostly from Slavic, or derived from their own words denoting pea.

  13. Contribution of minerals from fresh kidney bean leaves and grains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Varieties of legumes are recognized as an important source of protein and dietary minerals by a number of ethnic groups in East, South and Central Africa. Among the legume that is preferred by most Africans are the bean varieties. Beans are consumed in many forms: the young leaves, green pods, and fresh bean grains ...

  14. Chemometric dissimilarity in nutritive value of popularly consumed Nigerian brown and white common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyib, Oluwasayo Kehinde; Alashiri, Ganiyy Olasunkanmi; Adejoye, Oluseyi Damilola

    2015-01-01

    Brown beans are the preferred varieties over the white beans in Nigeria due to their assumed richer nutrients. This study was aimed at assessing and characterising some popular Nigerian common beans for their nutritive value based on seed coat colour. Three varieties, each, of Nigerian brown and white beans, and one, each, of French bean and soybean were analysed for 19 nutrients. Z-statistics test showed that Nigerian beans are nutritionally analogous to French bean and soybean. Analysis of variance showed that seed coat colour varied with proximate nutrients, Ca, Fe, and Vit C. Chemometric analysis methods revealed superior beans for macro and micro nutrients and presented clearer groupings among the beans for seed coat colour. The study estimated a moderate genetic distance (GD) that will facilitate transfer of useful genes and intercrossing among the beans. It also offers an opportunity to integrate French bean and soybean into genetic improvement programs in Nigerian common beans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 43142 - United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans AGENCY: Agricultural... for Grades of Refried Beans. After reviewing and considering industry input, the Agency has decided... representing the processed food industry requested that USDA develop grade standards for canned refried beans...

  16. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  17. Interplanting annual ryegrass, wheat, oat, and corn to mitigate iron deficiency in dry beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal.

  18. “Eat dry beans, split peas, lentils and soya regularly”: a food-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-09

    Apr 9, 2013 ... iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and zinc.15 The content and bioavailability in dry beans and soy foods varies according to the processing methods and phytate content.20. Dry beans and soy beans are good sources of water- soluble vitamins, especially thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and folate, but ...

  19. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large

  20. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry bean powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four bean varieties. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size = 0.5 mm)...

  1. Genetics of resistance to the geminivirus, Bean dwarf mosaic virus, and the role of the hypersensitive response in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y-S; Gepts, P; Gilbertson, R L

    2004-03-01

    Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) is a single-stranded DNA virus (genus: Begomovirus, family: Geminiviridae) that infects common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and causes stunted plant growth, and mosaic and mottle symptoms in leaves. BDMV shows differential pathogenicity in common bean, infecting germplasm of the Andean gene pool (e.g., the snap bean cultivar Topcrop), but not that of the Middle American gene pool (e.g., the pinto bean cultivar Othello). Resistance to BDMV in Othello is associated with development of a hypersensitive response (HR) in vascular (phloem) tissues. In this study, Middle American germplasm representing the four recognized races (i.e., Durango, Guatemala, Jalisco, and Mesoamerica) and the parents of Othello were inoculated with BDMV and a BDMV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. All genotypes showed partial or complete resistance to BDMV and BDMV-GFP, indicating the widespread distribution of resistance in the Middle American gene pool. A number of BDMV-resistant germplasm did not show the HR, indicating it is not correlated with resistance. In the F(1), F(2), and F(3) of reciprocal crosses between Othello and Topcrop, a single dominant allele, Bdm, conferred BDMV resistance.

  2. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  3. Knowing beans: Human mirror mechanisms revealed through motor adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Glenberg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Human mirror mechanisms (MMs respond during both performed and observed action and appear to underlie action goal recognition. We introduce a behavioral procedure for discovering and clarifying functional MM properties: Blindfolded participants repeatedly move beans either toward or away from themselves to induce motor adaptation. Then, the bias for perceiving direction of ambiguous visual movement in depth is measured. Bias is affected by a number of beans moved, b movement direction, and c similarity of the visual stimulus to the hand used to move beans. This cross-modal adaptation pattern supports both the validity of human MMs and functionality of our testing instrument. We also discuss related work that extends the motor adaptation paradigm to investigate contributions of MMs to speech perception and language comprehension.

  4. STORED COCOA BEANS QUALITY AFFECTED BY FERMENTATION AND EPHESTIA CAUTELLA WALKER (LEPIDOPTERA: PHYCITIDAE INFESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OK.KY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermentation on Ephestia cautella population and cocoa bean s quality in terms of moisture content, fungal population, the percentage of insect-damaged and mouldy beans, lipid and free fatty acid contents during storage were investigated together with the effects of £. cautella infestation on the quality of stored cocoa beans and weight loss. Fermented and unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% were placed in ventilated plastic jars (Ikg/jar and stored for 6 months under room conditions. Seven larvae of £. cautella instar IV (2 males and 5 females were introduced in each jar at the beginning of storage. Untreated jars contained only cocoa beans. Population of £. cautella on fermented cocoa beans with either initial moisture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The population either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 7% was lower than that of 9%, and the population of all treatments increased during storage. Moisture content of all treatments either on cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% had the same pattern. The percentage of insect-damaged beans on fermented cocoa beans was lower than that on unfermented cocoa beans after 5 to 6 months of storage. The damaged beans on fermented cocoa after 6 months of storage was not different than on unfermented beans after 4 months of storage. The weig ht loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 9% was higher than that with initial moisture content of 7%. The weight loss on fermented cocoa beans either with mois ture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The weight loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans increased during storage. The percentage of mouldy beans on cocoa infested with £. cautella tended to increase during storage, while on beans not infested with the insect it

  5. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L; Thompson, Sharon V

    2016-01-01

    Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  6. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  7. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  8. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  9. In Rwandese Women with Low Iron Status, Iron Absorption from Low-Phytic Acid Beans and Biofortified Beans Is Comparable, but Low-Phytic Acid Beans Cause Adverse Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Rohner, Fabian; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Campion, Bruno; Boy, Erick; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Zimmerman, Michael Bruce; Zwahlen, Christian; Wirth, James P; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is a major inhibitor of iron bioavailability from beans, and high PA concentrations might limit the positive effect of biofortified beans (BBs) on iron status. Low-phytic acid (lpa) bean varieties could increase iron bioavailability. We set out to test whether lpa beans provide more bioavailable iron than a BB variety when served as part of a composite meal in a bean-consuming population with low iron status. Dietary iron absorption from lpa, iron-biofortified, and control beans (CBs) (regular iron and PA concentrations) was compared in 25 nonpregnant young women with low iron status with the use of a multiple-meal crossover design. Iron absorption was measured with stable iron isotopes. PA concentration in lpa beans was ∼10% of BBs and CBs, and iron concentration in BBs was ∼2- and 1.5-fold compared with CBs and lpa beans, respectively. Fractional iron absorption from lpa beans [8.6% (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.5%)], BBs [7.3% (95% CI: 4.0%, 13.4%)], and CBs [8.0% (95% CI: 4.4%, 14.6%)] did not significantly differ. The total amount of iron absorbed from lpa beans and BBs was 421 μg (95% CI: 234, 756 μg) and 431 μg (95% CI: 237, 786 μg), respectively, and did not significantly differ, but was >50% higher (P beans were hard to cook, and their consumption caused transient adverse digestive side effects in ∼95% of participants. Gel electrophoresis analysis showed phytohemagglutinin L (PHA-L) residues in cooked lpa beans. BBs and lpa beans provided more bioavailable iron than control beans and could reduce dietary iron deficiency. Digestive side effects of lpa beans were likely caused by PHA-L, but it is unclear to what extent the associated digestive problems reduced iron bioavailability. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02215278. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  11. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  12. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pcacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative Importance of Common Bean Attributes and Variety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work assessed the relative importance of production and consumption attributes of different wealth groups of households and tested the effect of attribute preference and that of other factors on common bean variety demand in the drought areas of Eastern Kenya. Variety demand was conceptualized within the ...

  14. Yield performance of dwarf bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entries SDDT-54-C5, PC490-D8 and DOR 715 were stable across all sites and between the two seasons. DOR 715 was also high yielding entry in Thondwe and Ntchenachena sites followed by BCMV B2 though the latter was unstable. Among sites, Thondwe was the best because yields of most of the bean entries were ...

  15. Performance and risk assessment of Bambara beans grown on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safe levels of exposure to contaminants were further investigated using albino Wistar rats for 28 feeding trial days to trace inherent biomagnifications. Bambara beans extracted up to 88.88 and 43.38 mg/kg into its shoot and root respectively at 10% contaminant dose while achieving 63.17% Cu removal unamended. Poultry

  16. Genetic diversity study of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. (family Leguminosae), is a leguminous crop widely distributed in all parts of the world. In Ethiopia, common bean is cultivated as a source of protein for local consumption and for export. Mostly, it grows in the warm and lowland areas of the country. The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic ...

  17. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only, 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly obtained, out of which ...

  18. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at Bel Air station, in Dakar using 15N isotope dilution technique and the non nodulating soybean (Glycine max) variety m129 as reference plant to test the compatibility of Dichlorofenthion-thiram (DCT) fungicide to the inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Paulista variety with ...

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... RAPD molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity in the fourteen varieties of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) of three eco-geographical regions of Bangladesh. Out of the 20 primers only,. 6 yielded polymorphic banding patterns. In total, 40 different DNA bands were reproducibly ...

  20. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was assessed as ...

  1. assessment of common bean cultivar diversity in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) diversity has been nurtured by Uganda's farming communities and in return it has sustained their livelihoods for over 40 decades. Despite the farmers' invaluable effort in perpetuating this diversity, there is limited overall understanding of its status and dynamics on-farm. This study ...

  2. Damage Caused By the Bean Bruchid, Callosobruchus Maculatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The damage caused by the bean bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus(Fabricius) on eight different legume seeds on sale in Awka and Onitshamarkets in Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria, were studied betweenJanuary and April, 2008. Clean legume seeds purchased from local marketswere screened to remove ...

  3. reaction of selected common bean genotypes to physiological races

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    friendly strategy of managing ALS, especially for small-scale farmers in sub Saharan Africa. The advantage of host plant ... breeding broad and durable resistance into dry bean (Mahuku et al., 2002b). Combining Andean ..... and differentiation of Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates with the polymerase chain reaction and ...

  4. GGE biplot application for adaptability of African yam bean grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotypes respond to environments differently; therefore it is important that their response to growing environment should be investigated in order to identify most suitable genotype(s) for specific environment. The objective of this study was to understand the adaptability of some accessions of African yam bean to different ...

  5. Performance characteristics of broiler chicks fed kidney bean as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal and groundnut cake meal with cooked and decorticated kidney bean seed meals on the performance characteristics of broilers. One hundred and eighty day old broiler chicks of Anak strain were raised on six experimental diets.

  6. Ochratoxin A in Cocoa beans and cocoa based beverages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination was carried out on cocoa beans and cocoa based beverages commercialized in Nigeria using direct sensitive ELISA test. A total of 17 samples from shops and factories representing samples from farms, stores, port, processing sites and finished products from retailers were ...

  7. POP levels in beans from Mediterranean and tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Haddaoui, Imen; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Fede, Maria Rita; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-01

    Despite the importance of beans as food, few studies are conducted to control their contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), compounds of great importance because of their toxicity and tendency to accumulate in food chains. In order to evaluate the human exposure to POPs by the consumption of beans a monitoring programme was conducted on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in samples coming from Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast. All beans were extracted with an accelerated solvents extractor in triplicate; the clean-up step was done with a Florisil column; identification and quantification was carried out using a TSQ Quantum XLS Ultra GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring mode. Results revealed concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 7.31 µg kg -1 to 686 µg kg -1 , ∑PCBs between 1.85 µg kg -1 and 43.1 µg kg -1 and ∑OCPs ranged from 1.37 µg kg -1 to 71.8 µg kg -1 . Our results showed that beans coming from Ivory Coast are the most exposed to the risk of contamination by all the pollutants investigated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. What Can Students Learn about Lab Safety from Mr. Bean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jeremy M.; Carr, June M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical laboratory safety education is often synonymous with boring, dry, drawn-out lectures. In an effort to challenge this norm and stimulate vivid learning opportunities about laboratory safety, college chemistry classes analyzed a short, humorous video clip of a character, named Mr. Bean, who visits a chemistry laboratory and commits several…

  9. Performance of broiler chickens fed on lima bean, groundnut and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental diets were formulated using lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus Linn) groundnut (Arachis hypogeae Linn) and soybean (Glacin max Linn) mixed in varying proportions to supply 23% crude protein (CP) for starter and 20% crude protein (CP) for finisher diets. Proximate analysis of the diets revealed a generally lower ...

  10. (Sugar Cane) Bagasse and Parkia Biglobosa (Locust Bean)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbons were formed from the saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) bagasse and parkia biglobosa (locust bean) pods and their effectiveness in the treatment of domestic wastewater were compared. The activated carbons were obtained from carbonised sugarcane bagasse and locust beanpod at a temperature of ...

  11. Iron beans in Rwanda: crop development and delivery experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HarvestPlus and its partners have successfully developed and delivered iron bean varieties to more than one million farming households in Rwanda, DRC, and Uganda to help combat the adverse health effects of iron deficiency widespread in these countries. Focusing primarily on Rwanda, this chapter summarizes the ...

  12. clustering common bean mutants based on heterotic groupings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Blair, W.M., Porch, T., Cichy, K., Galeano, H. C,. Lariguet, P., Pankhurst, C. and Broughton, W. 2007a. Induced mutants in common bean. (Phaseolus vulgaris) and their potential use in nutrition quality, breeding and gene discovery. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences. 55:191 - 200. Blair, W.M., Fregene, A.M., ...

  13. Response of Field Beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agronomic effectiveness of minjingu rock phosphate (MRP) was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with field bean (P. vulgaris L. ) in a greenhouse at the field station of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya. MRP finely ground with 30 Grade % P and ...

  14. The Proximate and Functional Properties of African Yam Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) known as AYB was subjected to different processing treatments such as soaking in water, blanching, cooking and roasting. Soaking was carried out for 24 h. A portion was blanched in hot water at 100oC for 2 min, 4 min, 6 min and 8 min respectively while the last portion was ...

  15. The Number of Genes Controlling Resistance in Beans to Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten crosses were made between resistant (R), susceptible (S), RxS susceptible and Intermediate (I), SxI and RxR bean lines to common bacterial blight. The F1 were advanced to F2 and in each cross over 250 F2 plants were used to evaluate for the number of genes controlling resistance using Mendelian genetics and ...

  16. Characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) causes bacterial brown spot (BBS) of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with yield losses of up to 55% in South Africa. Pss has a wide host range and for many of these, the pathogen has been biochemically and genetically characterised. However, few studies have been conducted on ...

  17. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  18. Protein nutritional quality of cowpea and navy bean residue fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the use of the insoluble legume residue, following protein extraction for cereal-legume protein complementation has not been widely studied. In fact, legume residue is considered a waste by-product. The protein quality of cowpea residuewheat and navy bean residue-wheat diets was determined using in-vivo and ...

  19. Host-Parasite Relationship Between African Yam Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Host-Parasite Relationship Between African Yam Bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. ... Plant Products Research Journal ... Inoculated plants in the pots received 4,000 eggs of M. incognita while the field was confirmed to be infested with inoculum level of about 75 nematode larvae per 50 cm3 of soil sample. Results ...

  20. Variability in yield of faba beans (Vicia faba L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashoff, C.

    1992-01-01

    Yield variability is one of the major problems in growing faba beans. In this thesis, the effect of water supply pattern on yield variability of the crop is studied with experiments in the field and under controlled conditions, and with a simulation model. In a series of field experiments,

  1. Genetic diversity studies in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of thirteen common bean genotypes was done with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Initially, 15 primers were screened out of which only seven were selected which generated a total of 65 amplification products out of which 63 bands (96.62%) were polymorphic indicating fair ...

  2. Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to estimate the economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. Primary data was used and purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the respondents used for the study. A total number of 60 respondents were interviewed ...

  3. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels | Oladebeye | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption capacity (WAC) ...

  4. Epicatechin content and antioxidant capacity of cocoa beans from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between antioxidant potential and epicatechin content of raw cocoa beans from different countries, namely Malaysia, Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire and Sulawesi (Indonesia). Antioxidant potential was determined using trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric ...

  5. acid on growth and yield components of common beans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pods perplant, 100-seed mass and harvest index. The highest seed yields were equi valient to 1854 kg ha1 in 1997 ... In pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) (Singh et ah, 1978), and broad beans (Diethelm et al, 1986) ...... growth, chemical composition, flowering, pod yield and chemical composition of green seeds of pea plant ...

  6. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, James W.; Wilson, Michael H.; Derks, M.F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J.; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed

  7. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James W; Wilson, Michael H; Derks, Martijn F L; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-04-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on faba bean (cv. Wizard) leaves. Read alignment to the faba bean reference transcriptome identified 16 300 high quality unigenes. In addition, Illumina paired-end sequencing was used to establish a baseline for genomic information assembly. Genomic reads were assembled de novo into contigs with a size range of 50-5000 bp. Over 85% of sequences did not align to known genes, of which ~10% could be aligned to known repetitive genetic elements. Over 26 000 of the reference transcriptome unigenes could be aligned to DNA-sequencing (DNA-seq) reads with high confidence. Moreover, this comparison identified 56 668 potential splice points in all identified unigenes. Sequence length data were extended at 461 putative loci through alignment of DNA-seq contigs to full-length, publicly available linkage marker sequences. Reads also yielded coverages of 3466× and 650× for the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Inter- and intraspecies organelle genome comparisons established core legume organelle gene sets, and revealed polymorphic regions of faba bean organelle genomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fire7-

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... Population structure for 120 common bean accessions from different growing regions of Ethiopia and. 3 Kenyan cultivars compared to Andean and Mesoamerican control genotypes at K = 2 to K = 5. Predetermined group names indicated below figure are: Amhara = Genotypes from Amhara Regional State; ...

  9. Phenotypic and seed protein analysis in 31 Lima bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic and seed protein analyses were performed on 31 accessions of Lima bean assembled in Ghana. Data on 16 phenotypic characters consisting of eight quantitative and eight qualitative were analysed. There were significant differences among the accessions based on the eight quantitative characters.

  10. Molecular assessment of genetic diversity in mung bean germplasm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-04-02

    Apr 2, 2008 ... RAPD profiles were used to identify the extent of diversity among 54 accessions of mung bean that included both improved and local land races. Out of the 40 primers screened, seven primers generated 174 amplification products with an average of. 24.85 bands per primer. The RAPD profiles were ...

  11. From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute to marine conservation planning. ... a valuable new tool for marine conservation planning. Keywords: marine conservation planning; participatory mapping and scoring methods; Sparidae; workshops. African Journal of Marine Science 2008, 30(3): 475–487 ...

  12. Agronomic performance of some haricot bean varieties (haseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    In Ethiopia, Haricot bean is grown predominantly under smallholder producers as an important food crop and ... research is done so far in this regard, despite its importance the crop has been introduced inadequately to ...... a differential genotypic expression across environments (Abay and Bjornstad, 2009). The genotype ...

  13. identification of common bean genotypes with dual leaf and pod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES WITH DUAL LEAF AND. POD RESISTANCE TO COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT DISEASE IN UGANDA. B.M.E. ALLADASSI, S.T. NKALUBO1, C. MUKANKUSI2, H.N. KAYAGA, P. GIBSON, R. EDEMA,. C.A. URREA3, J.D. KELLY4 and P.R. RUBAIHAYO.

  14. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as influenced by fungicide seed treatment. Ndeye Fatou Diaw GUENE, Adama DIOUF and Mamadou GUEYE*. MIRCEN/ Laboratoire commun de microbiologie IRD-ISRA-UCAD, BP 1386, DAKAR, Senegal. Accepted 23 June 2003.

  15. Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Haricot Bean Production in Misrak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, results of inefficiency analysis indicates that draught animals ownership, age, extension contact, soil fertility status, and availability of market and price condition of the output were negatively and significantly affect technical inefficiency of haricot bean production implying that improvement in these variables ...

  16. Mechanism for pollination in African yam bean | Ojuederie | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African yam bean (AYB) (Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst Ex. A. Rich) Harms is a neglected and underutilised legume in tropical Africa. Its utilisation has been hampered by the presence of anti-nutritional factors and lack of improved varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate pollination and determine the rates ...

  17. Making chocolate from beans: what’s involved?

    OpenAIRE

    Sundara, Ramana; Manez, Angel; Coutel, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Industry differentiates between cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa processing covers the activity of converting the beans into nib, liquor, butter, cake and powder. Chocolate manufacturing covers the blending and refining of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and various optional ingredients, such as milk and sugar.

  18. Evaluation of essential minerals in carioquinha beans by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Ellen Cristina Alves de; Aquino, Reginaldo R.; Scapin, Marcos A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the levels of essential minerals in the carioquinha beans were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF), searching determine the possible minerals, quantities and the correlation among different sources of same variety and the possible contribution of each to the human diet

  19. Bean nodulation patterns in soils of different texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the, relationship between nodulation in a bean-Rhizobium system in three soils of varying texture and % recovery of rhizobia I cells immediately after inoculation into such soils. Effects of inoculation methods (seed pelleting versus soil inoculation) on nodulation and plant growth were ...

  20. Flow cytometry determination of ploidy level in winged bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ploidy determination and mutation breeding of crop plants are inseparable twins given that mutation breeding is hinged majorly on polyploidization of crop's chromosome number. The present research was aimed at determining the ploidy level of 20 accessions of winged bean (Psophoscarpus tetragonolobus) using known ...

  1. Examination of genetic diversity in common bean (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... To study the pattern of genetic diversity in 45 genotypes of common bean, 19 RAPD primers were used. Of 253 bands produced, 236 bands (94.22%) were polymorphic in which maximum number (20 polymorphic bands) were observed in the profiles of the primer OPB-07. Highest PIC value (0.79) was.

  2. (Jacq) Benth (African Locust Bean) on Hypertension in Bogou and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... (Jack) Benth, Mimosaceae (African locust bean) by humans on the prevention of hypertension. .... Information about prior CVD and eating ..... diabetic rats. Clin exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006;. 33: 808- 812. 18 Millogo-Kone H, Guissou IP, Nacoulma O, Traore. AS. Comparative study of leaf and stem bark.

  3. Detection of metabolites in Flor de Mayo common beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    katia

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... Behavior of Flor de Mayo bean seeds at different times. was plotted with the program Excel® (2007) ... behavior to the last sample was observed with 456 ppm of KYN and 62 ppm of TRP; IAA and TAM ..... preferenciales de los consumidores de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L) en Mexico. Arch. Latinoam.

  4. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  5. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Delincee, Henry [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition - BFE, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a {sup 60} Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  6. Multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export vegetable crop, produced mainly by small to medium scale farmers under various disease constraints. Disease resistant varieties can reduce reliance on fungicides, and enhance the capacities of smallholder farmers to meet the stringent European export ...

  7. Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus ): A Limiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactions of twenty soybean varieties to infection with Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus) disease were studied for 2 consecutive years in the Department of Crop Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka Farm (Latitude 060 25N; Longitude 070 24N; attitude 447.26 m above sea level). Factorial arrangement ...

  8. Structural features of acelated galactomannans from green Coffea arabica Beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Coenen, G.J.; Vermeulen, N.C.B.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from green Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C, 1 h). Galactomannans were isolated from the water extract using preparative anion-exchange chromatography. Almost all of the galactomannans eluted in two neutral populations, while almost all of the arabinogalactans

  9. Differential interactions between Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens and common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdo, S C D; Wendland, A; Araújo, L G; Melo, L C; Pereira, H S; Melo, P G; Faria, L C

    2016-11-21

    Bacterial wilt of common bean caused by Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens is an important disease in terms of economic importance. It reduces grain yield by colonizing xylem vessels, subsequently impeding the translocation of water and nutrients to the superior plant parts. The existence of physiological races in C. flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens has not so far been reported. The objective of the present investigation was to identify physiological races, evaluate differential interaction, and select resistant genotypes of common bean. Initially, 30 genotypes of common bean were inoculated with eight isolates exhibiting different levels of aggressiveness, under controlled greenhouse conditions. Disease was assessed 15 days after inoculation. The existence of differential interactions between C. flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens isolates and common bean genotypes were identified by utilizing partial diallel analysis. The most aggressive isolates were BRM 14939 and BRM 14942 and the least aggressive isolates were BRM 14941 and BRM 14946. The genotypes IPA 9, Ouro Branco, and Michelite were selected as more resistant among the test isolates. The genotypes IAC Carioca Akytã, BRS Notável, Pérola, IAC Carioca Aruã, and Coquinho contributed more to the isolate x genotype interaction according to the ecovalence method of estimation, and were, therefore, indicated as differentials. Based on these results, it was possible to conclude that physiological races of the pathogen exist, to select resistant genotypes, and to propose a set of differentials.

  10. Response of common bean cultivars to phosphorus application in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important food crop in Southern Ethiopia. However, the productivity of the crop is constrained by low soil fertility, particularly, phosphorus deficiency due to soil acidity. Therefore, field experiments were conducted to study the response of the crop to phosphorus application on ...

  11. Toxic leukoencephalopathy due to yam bean seeds poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pin-Kuei; Wang, Pao-Yu

    2012-07-01

    Toxic leukoencephalopathy is attributed to exposure to a wide variety of agents, including systemic chemotherapy, cranial irradiation, illicit drug abuse, and toxins from the environment. Diagnosis of this disease requires documented exposure to a toxin, neurobehavioral deficits, and typical neuroimaging abnormalities. Intoxication by compounds extracted from yam bean seeds may mimic cyanide poisoning but fail to respond to antidotal therapy. We report a 54-year-old Chinese woman who developed disturbed consciousness after eating 40 pieces of yam bean seeds. Head computed tomography obtained 24 hours after the episode was normal. However, magnetic resonance imaging obtained 20 days after the episode revealed symmetrical faint high signal over the bilateral periventricular white matter on T1-weighted image, which turned into diffuse and symmetrical bright high signal on FLAIR. The diagnosis of this patient was toxic leukoencephalopathy by yam bean seeds intoxication. The changes in brain images after yam bean seeds intoxication have not ever been reported. Physicians in Asia and the Pacific islands should have a high index of suspicion when they care for patients with acute confusion and a high anion gap metabolic acidosis but normal serum cyanide level.

  12. feeding value of processed horse eye bean meal as alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement .... Replacement levels (%) (Starter mash). Replacement levels (%) (Grower .... The result revealed that values were slightly depressed with increase level of HEBM in the ...

  13. characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Agricultural Research Council - Grain Crops Institute, 114 Chris Hani Street, Potchefstroom,. 2520, South ... for damage to bean plants (Quegley and Gross,. 1994). ... Erwinia carotovora (Pectobacterium carotovorum) was used as negative control and un-inoculated nutrient broth as positive control (Ignjatov et al.,. 2007). (ii).

  14. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear

  15. variation for green bean caffeine, chlorogenic acid, sucrose and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biochemical composition of coffee accessions grown in northwestern Ethiopia was unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the presence of green bean biochemical composition variation among 42 Cojfiea arabica L accessions. Caffeine, chlorogenic acid, sucrose and trigonelline were extracted from dry ...

  16. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1996-01-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a 60 Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  17. Enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from beans pudding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    36 samples of beans pudding from selected sources were analysed for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus using standard protocols aimed at assessing its bacteriological quality. Samples obtained from restaurant showed slightly lower value for total plate count (1.3 x 104 - 1.6 x 106 cfu/gm) compared to samples ...

  18. Purification and characterization of arcelin seed protein from common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, T C; Burow, M; Bliss, F A

    1988-02-01

    Arcelin, a seed protein originally discovered in wild bean accessions, was purified, characterized, and compared to phaseolin, the major seed protein of common bean, and to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the major bean seed lectin. Arcelin and PHA has several characteristics in common. Both were glycoproteins having similar subunit M(r), deglycosylated M(r), and amino acid compositions. The two proteins were related antigenically and they had the same developmental timing of accumulation. Arcelin also had some hemagglutinating activity, a characteristic associated with lectins. However, several features distinguished arcelin from PHA. Arcelin had a more basic isoelectric point than PHA, greater numbers of basic amino acid residues, additional cysteine residues, and one methionine residue, which PHA lacks. Native PHA protein is a tetramer of subunits, and although a small component of native arcelin protein was also tetrameric, most of the arcelin preparation was dimeric. The hemagglutinating activity of arcelin was specific only for some pronase-treated erythrocytes. It did not agglutinate native erythrocytes, nor did it bind to thyroglobulin or fetuin affinity resins as did PHA. Although arcelin has lectin-like properties, we believe the distinctions between arcelin and PHA warrant the designation of arcelin as a unique bean seed protein.

  19. Intercropping of wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and bean ( Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and bean (Vicia faba L.) sole crops and their mixture in three planting pattern (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop) were used to investigate the amount of resource consumption in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception, water and ...

  20. Bean Nodulation Patterns in Soils of Different Texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study was designed to examine the, relationship between nodulation in a bean-Rhizobium system in three soils of varying texture and % recovery of rhizobia I cells immediately after in- oculation into such soils. Effects of inoculation methods (seed pelleting versus soil inocula- tion) on nodulation and plant ...

  1. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  2. assessment of common bean cultivar diversity in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) diversity has been nurtured by Uganda's farming communities and in return it has sustained their ... amount and status of the cultivar diversity in selected rural and peri-urban communities of central Uganda. Data ..... on board other challenges like the need to assess the lower limits in ...

  3. Performance Evaluation of a Dryer for Processed Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance Evaluation of a Dryer for Processed Locust Bean Condiments. ... parameters on the drying rates of the dried processed products. These results showed a significant difference in the different varieties dried at 5% confidence level. Keywords: Performance Evaluation, Efficiency, Drying Rates, Iru Woro, Iru Pete ...

  4. characterisation of common bean genotypes based on storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    sulphate (10%) detergent was added. The mixtures were vortexed for 15 seconds and left for 1 hr. They were then ... first well to assist in estimating the relative mobility of the bands. The markers were lysomes. (14.4 kd) .... speckled sugar beans and strike. Lesotho cultivars were also found in other sub-groups with US and ...

  5. The growth promotion of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... production of endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA), and also it reduced the production of abscisic acid. (ABA). Findings of this study suggest ... HPP16, mung bean, abscisic acid, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). INTRODUCTION ..... The soaking liquid remove plant pigments by diatomite adsorption.

  6. Time of haricot bean intercropping into the maize- based cropping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... indices as grain yield, biomass weight, partial and total LER and competitive indices such as relative crowding coefficient (K), aggressivity (A), competitive ratio (CR) and system productivity index (SPI).There was no interaction between tillage practices and time of intercropping haricot bean in any of the indices studied.

  7. inheritance of resistance to angular leaf spot in yellow beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Susceptible. II -indeterminate erect; III -indeterminate semi-prostate; ALS = Angular leaf spot. Isolation of Phaeoisariopsis griseola and plant inoculation. Isolation of angular leaf spot was made from lesions of naturally infected bean leaves showing fungal sporulation. In the case of non-sporulating lesions, the fungus was.

  8. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was ...

  9. Effects of Fermented Soya Bean Supplements on Serum Insulin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fermented soya bean supplements on serum insulin and leptin levels of high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rabbits. Methods: Twenty rabbits of both sexes weighing, 1–2kg were used. Type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding the animals with a high fat diet for eight ...

  10. Intercropping of corn with cowpea and bean: Biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... quality of corn (Zea mays indendata) mixed with legumes such as various cowpea (Vigna ungiuculata) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) ... seeding of soybean with corn in alternate-rows as 1 corn + 1 soybean or 1 corn + 2 ..... And also silage quality is many times more significant property than quantity.

  11. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of fresh leaf castor beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelopathy defines the production of specific biomolecules (allelochemical) by a plant that can induce positive or negative impacts on another culture. The crop of castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) is being economically valued and receiving attention, mainly by the biodiesel production, castor oil and animal feeding.

  12. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of fresh leaf castor beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... Allelopathy defines the production of specific biomolecules (allelochemical) by a plant that can induce positive or negative impacts on another culture. The crop of castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) is being economically valued and receiving attention, mainly by the biodiesel production, castor oil and.

  13. EFFECT OF CASTOR BEAN (Ricinus communis L.) AQUEOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    EFFECT OF CASTOR BEAN (Ricinus communis L.) AQUEOUS. EXTRACTS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROOT-KNOT. NEMATODES (Meloidogyne spp.) ON TOMATO. (Solanum lycopersicum L.) J. Adomako1 and C. K. Kwoseh2. 1. Plant Health Division, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Fumesua, Kumasi. 2. Department ...

  14. A sample for biodiversity in Turkey: Common bean ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artvin province located in north-east region of Turkey is small province but has rich plant diversity due to its different geographical and ecological formation. Significant part of this province has been flooded by the dams which have been built. The common bean is a very important crop for Artvin's farmers. This study was ...

  15. Molecular assessment of genetic diversity in mung bean germplasm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAPD profiles were used to identify the extent of diversity among 54 accessions of mung bean that included both improved and local land races. Out of the 40 primers screened, seven primers generated 174 amplification products with an average of 24.85 bands per primer. The RAPD profiles were analysed for Jaccard's ...

  16. Epiphytic bacteria from various bean genotypes and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naturally occurring epiphytic non-pathogeni bacteria were isolated from reproductive tissue of various bean genotypes grown in the field and screened for both in vitro and in vivo antagonism to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (formely X. campestris pv phaseoli). Of the 22 potential bacterial antagonists screened in ...

  17. Design, fabrication and performance evaluation of beans dehuller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... evaluated and the results showed that the higher the feed regulator opening the higher the dehulling rate. The average capacity of the dehulling machine is found to be 3.67kg/h and the efficiency also is 75.7%. Keywords: design, fabrication, performance evaluation, bean dehuller. Journal Of Science And Technology Vol.

  18. Microbiological and Physicochemical analysis of African yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and Physicochemical analysis of African yam bean Moi Moi stored at. D. O. DOSUNMU, H. O. NJOKU. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v7i4.16296 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  19. Functional properties of unmodified and modified Jack bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The native Jack bean (Canavalia eniformis) starch was chemically modified through oxidation and acetylation. Proximate composition analysis revealed higher moisture, protein, fat and ash contents 'native unmodified than modified starches and higher yield in modified starches. Swelling capacity and solubility of all the ...

  20. Gene mining a marama bean expressed sequence tags (ESTs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tylosema esculentum (marama bean) is one of the underutilized legumes that have potential to provide protein and fatty acids to ensure food security in dry parts of Southern Africa. In order to establish rapid domestication programs for the plant, it is important to explore the plant's genome and identify functional genes ...

  1. agronomic qualities of genetic pyramids of common bean developed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Makerere University, Department of Agricultural Production. P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. 1International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)/Pan African Bean Research Alliance (PABRA),. P. O. Box 6247, Kampala, Uganda. 2National Crops Resources Research Institute, Namulonge, Legumes Program, P. O. Box ...

  2. Characterization of pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a pre-gelatinized flour using a mixture of broken rice and split beans by thermoplastic extrusion, and to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological quality of the final product. The extrusion parameters were maintained using three heating zones with temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, and 70 ºC; screw speed of 177 rpm; feed rate of 257 g/m, and circular matrix of 3.85 mm. The following characterization analyses were performed: physicochemical, nutritional, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI, and paste viscosity. The pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour had an intermediate value of WAI, 7.51 g/g, and high WSI value, 24.61%. Regarding proteins, it was verified an average content of 12.9% in the final product. The amino acid contents found in the pre-gelatinized flour indicate that the mixture has the essential amino acids. It was also found that the pre-gelatinized flour supplies more than 60% of the essential amino acids recommended for children aged one to three years old. The gelatinized flour composed of broken rice and split beans is an alternative to the use of these by-products of the manufacture process of rice and beans to obtain a product with viable technological characteristics and high nutritional value.

  3. Recovery of herbicide-resistant Azuki bean [ Vigna angularis (Wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the bar gene as determined by assaying for resistance to bialaphos applied directly to leaves. This result demonstrates the feasibility of introducing potentially useful agronomic traits into azuki bean through genetic engineering. Key Words: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, bar gene, bialaphos, transgenic, Vigna angulazris.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

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    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  5. Effects of locust bean pulp with melon husk supplementation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of locust bean pulp with melon husk supplementation on nitrogen utilization and blood chemistry of West African Dwarf goats were assessed in a 3 months feeding trial. Eighteen West African Dwarf goats with an average weight of 6.00 ± 0.15kg were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments with two replicates ...

  6. Processing, utilization and challenges of African locust bean ( Parkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The processing/utilization challenges include unavailability of the product in large proportions in the study area, lack of water supply, stressful nature of the processing, poor packaging, lack of storage facilities, etc. Based on the results ... Key Words: African locust bean, utilization/processing, marketing, Ondo State, Tasboos ...

  7. Determination Of Lipid Contents Of Two New Soy Bean Cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of fatty acids and sterols in oil is very important as they serve as the vital indicators of the activity and purity, respectively of the oils. A qualitative Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry study of oils from soy beans of two varieties (TGX 1802-1F, and TGX 1019-2EB) was done to determine their fatty acid, ...

  8. Farm-level determinants of output commercialization: In haricot bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key determinants of commercialization among haricot bean based farmers are family size, land size, age, livestock holding and dependency ratio. The study recommends that policy makers and development organizations should target on improving labor and land efficiency and asset accumulation in order to promote ...

  9. Yield performance of dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... percentage of protein as compared to maize, rice and cassava. This protein is high in lysine, ... source of protein that is especially important in the diet of resource-poor people who live far from ..... Chiumia LC, Msuku WAB, Mloza Banda HR, Mkandawire ABC (2003). Status of seedborne diseases in beans ...

  10. Allelopathic potential of a noxious weed on mung bean

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    Parthapratim Maiti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eupatorium odoratum have invaded the waste lands of South West Bengal, India. A field study indicated a gradual and also significant increase in Eupatorium odoratum accompanied with significant decrease in other coexisting species. Considering the above in mind, a study was undertaken to evaluate the existence of inhibitory effect of leaf extracts and leaf leachates noxious weed Eupatorium odoratum using fully viable seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata as the bioassay material. The study showed the reduced the percentage germination and TTC stainability along with extended T50 values of mung bean seeds. The levels of protein, DNA and RNA, activities of dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes were significantly retarded in pretreated seed samples. Amino acid and sugar levels were increased in the leachates of seeds pretreated with leaf extracts and leaf leachates. Thus, from the overall results it can be concluded that various inhibitors present in E. odoratum can impart strong inhibitory effect on mung bean. The study suggests that the leaves of E. odoratum possess phytotoxic or allelopathic chemicals which potentially rendered the inhibitory action on mung bean seeds.

  11. Utility of adzuki bean [ Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  12. Strengthening local seed systems within the bean value chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening local seed systems within the bean value chain: Experience of agricultural innovation platforms in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... associations, local grain/seed traders, private and public extension agents, researchers, finance and credit cooperatives and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).

  13. Chemical quality of common beans as influenced by genotype and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil acidity affects seed yield and crop quality negatively due to aluminium toxicity in most humid tropics where the crop is cultivated for food and cash income by smallholder farmers. This study was conducted to assess the effect of different exchangeable aluminium concentrations on bean chemical quality of two common ...

  14. Evaluation of seed yield and competition indices of corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with different bean (Phaseolus spp. types

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    Hakime Ziaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the intercropping of corn (Zea mays L. and bean cultivars (Phaseolus spp. an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicaties at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of sole cropping of corn, white bean, bush bean, red bean, pinto bean and sword bean and 50:50 ratio of corn and bean types. In this experiment, the corn-bush bean and corn-pinto bean intercropping had the highest seed yield (5734.4 and 5674.3 kg/ha-1, respectively and land equivalent ratio (LER=1.13 and 1.21, respectively. Evaluated intercropping indices indicated that red bean (k= 1.85, pinto bean (k= 2.41 and sword bean (k= 2.80 had the highest crowding coefficient whereas the maximum aggressivity value was belonged to pinto bean intercropped with corn (A= -0.02. Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.

  15. Biofortified red mottled beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus valgaris L.), one standard (“Low FE”) and the other biofortified (“High Fe”) in Fe (49 and 71 ug Fe...

  16. WATER NEEDS FOR WINTER BEAN CROP

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    A.E. Klar

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of water use by bean winter crop (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., cv. Carioca was carried out in a Red Yellow Latosol, clay texture. A furrow irrigation system maintained soil water potentials higher than -40 KPa. Two broadcast nitrogen treatments (0 and 30 kg N/ha were applied 25 days after planting. The major objectives were to study the nitrogen and evapotranspiration interaction and measure the crop coefficients (Kc. The maximum average evapotranspiration (ETm was 1.71 mm/day, or 157.16 mm over 92 days of observations; the ETm values for the vegetative (1, flowering (2 and pod formation (3 phases were 1.48, 2.35, and 1.50 mm/day, respectively, for the 30 kg/ha nitrogen treatment, and 1.48, 1.88 and 1.45 mm/day for the no nitrogen treatment. The crop coefficients (Kc = ETm / ETo were 0.62 and 0.78 for the phase 1, 0.80 and 1.10 for the phase 2, 0.45 and 0.55 for the phase 3 and 0.61 and 0.80 for the entire cycle, based on the FAO-Penman and Class A Pan reference methods (ETo, respectively. The latter one was the best approach to estimate maximum water use by winter bean crop. Nitrogen treatments did not affect evapotranspiration significantly. However, the measured evapotranspiration obtained from the water balance method was 59.78 and 27.12% higher in the flowering than in the vegetative phase, respectively, under 30 and 0 kg N/ha.Um estudo sobre o uso de água do feijoeiro de inverno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca foi realizado num solo Latossol Vermelho Amarelo de textura argilosa. Um sistema de sulcos de infiltração foi usado para proceder a irrigação com o intuito de manter o solo em potenciais de água superiores a -40,0 KPa. Duas doses de aplicação de N em cobertura (0 a 30 Kg N/ha foram colocados 25 dias após o plantio. Os principais objetivos do estudo foram: avaliar a interação entre as duas doses de N com a evapotranspiração e medir os coeficientes de cultura (Kc. A evapotranspiração média máxima (ETm foi 1,71 mm

  17. Models of price development on world market for cocoa beans

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    Pavel Syrovátka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the modelling and simulating the development of the price of cocoa beans on the world market. The developed models were based on the dependence of the level of the world price of cocoa beans on the world stock to grindings ratio of the beans in the last crop year. The ICCO databases from 1960/1961 to 2005/2006 crop years were used for the estimation of the parameters in the investigated forms of the price model. The linear and logarithmic-linear categories of the price models were studied in this paper. Within the linear forms of the price models; the single linear construction and the linear construction with dummy time variable were specified and tested. Within the logarithmic-linear category of the price models; the error correction model and autoregressive model were examined. From the point of view of statistical verification and from the low value of deviation of the simulated world price of cocoa beans for the 2005/2006 period from the actual price level of price for this crop period, the logarithmic-linear form of model with the error correction achieved the best results. Acceptable results were also obtained by means of the modified price model with the error correction component. By using the logarithmic-linear form of error correction model, the world price of the cocoa beans for the crop period 2006/2007 will achieve the following value 1047 SDR · t−1.Under the modified error correction model, the level of the world price will be 1050 SDR · t−1.

  18. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

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    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  19. Beans, Boats and Archaeobotany : A New Translation of Phasolus, or why the Romans ate neither Kidney beans nor Cow peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrich, Frits; Wilkins, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Among classicists, archaeobotanists and agricultural historians, the meaning of the word phasolus (ϕασηλος in Greek) is ambiguous. While Latin scholars have agreed that the word refers to a type of pulse or bean, there are various interpretations and subsequent identifications as to which botanical

  20. Effect of pea, pea hulls, faba beans and faba bean hulls on the ileal microbial composition in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Panneman, H.; Jansman, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Grain legumes produced in Europe such as pea, faba beans and lupins are alternative vegetable protein sources for imported soy protein in animal feeds. These legume seeds contain constituents that are not digested and may act as a substrate for microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract,

  1. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  2. Aseptic artificial fermentation of cocoa beans can be fashioned to replicate the peptide profile of commercial cocoa bean fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Warren A; Kumari, Neha; Böttcher, Nina L; Koffi, Kouame Jean; Grimbs, Sergio; Vrancken, Gino; D'Souza, Roy N; Kuhnert, Nikolai; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2016-11-01

    The fermentation of cocoa beans is essential for the generation of flavour precursors that are required later on to form the flavour components of chocolate. From the many different precursors that are generated, oligopeptides and free amino acids comprise a significant proportion as some of them form Maillard reaction products during the roasting process. Therefore, the diversity of peptides is an important contributing factor to the quality of a fermentation which is in turn controlled by proteolytic activity within the cocoa bean, and is driven by changes in the presence of fermentation by-products as a result of microbial activity outside the bean. Being able to control proteolytic activity within the bean using only the presence of fermentation by-products would prove a valuable tool in the study of these proteases and the processing of cocoa storage proteins. Thus, this tool would help elucidate key mechanisms that generate the components responsible for flavour. In this study, we describe an artificial fermentation system, free from microbial activity, which is able to replicate proteolytic degradation of protein as well as to generate similar peptide fragments as seen during a commercial fermentation. It was also found that acidification is a main contributor to protein degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, MORPHOLOGIC, PROTEINIC AND CULINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAIN OF BEAN CULTIVARS SOWED IN THE REGION OF TLATZALA, GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Solano Cervantes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research had for object describe the productive process of the of bean culture in the community of Tlatzala, Guerrero and the species diversity by means of the morphologic characteristics of the grain, protein content and the culinary quality. 30 questionnaires were applied to bean producers and 20 varieties of bean were collected from which the morphologic characters of the grain, protein content and the culinary characters were obtained. The production cycle of bean initiates in May and finishes in October. The technology used is traditional, characterized by the use of the yoke in the labors of the culture that demands workforce to realize the activities of manual form. The biological cycle of the varieties begins in June, the variation at time is determinated for the cultivated genotype. The determinate or indeterminate bush beans are predominant (65 %. The sowing systems are intercalated (50 % and associated with maize (30 % and monoculture (20 %. The varieties Rojito and Blanco have special uses, the first one has the attribute of being consumed as green-bean all the year around and the second one is used to prepare the dish called Chile-ajo. The Black beans were the most frequent (45 % followed by the Red beans (35 % and the least frequent were the Striped one (5 % and Muddy-like (5 %. The kidney shape of grain was the most abundant (85 % and the oval one was the least frequent (5 %. The grain weight changed from 14.4 up to 38.5 g. The sizes of grains founded were medium (50 % and small (50 %. The protein content registered was: White beans 24.68 %, Red bean 24.64 %, Black beans 23.5 % and Striped beans of guide 22.27 %. The Rojito Enano had the major protein content (27.6 %. The cooking times were: Red beans 73 minutes, Striped of guide bean 65.5, Blacks bean 64.6 and Whites bean 59. The Black bean Enano-1 used less time (54 minutes. The Striped of guide bean registered the major amount of solid (0.32 %, followed by the Black beans

  4. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development. Data used in this study wastime series data ranging from 1995 to 2004 supported with some primary data.The export data were analyzed descriptively and the Revealed ComparativeAdvantage (RCA Index employed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. The results of the analysis gave some conclusions, asfollows : (1 The export of Indonesian coffee bean was product oriented notmarket oriented. (2 The Indonesian coffee bean export was characterized withlow quality with no premium price, different from that of Vietnam coffee export. (3 Besides quality, the uncompetitive Indonesian coffee export was related to market hegemony by buyers, emerging issue of Ochratoxin A. contamination and high cost economy in export. (4 The competitiveness of Indonesian coffee export was lower than those other countries, such as Columbia,Honduras, Peru, Brazil, and Vietnam. (5 Indonesia still held opportunity todevelop organic coffee for export. Some policy implications emerged from thediscussion were as follows : (1 The Government should facilitate market development through the provisions of market information and export incentives.(2 The Government should develop and applied national standard of coffeebean referring to that of international, as well as, improve processing technology equipments in the farm level for both wet and dry process. (3 Besides improving quality, the improvement

  5. Evaluation of vegetable-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under Latvian agro-ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepse, Līga; Dane, Sandra; Zeipiņa, Solvita; Domínguez-Perles, Raul; Rosa, Eduardo As

    2017-10-01

    Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015). Data obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.20-0.43 kg m -2 ) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.10-0.52 kg m -2 ), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66-1.09 kg m -2 ), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m -2 ). Vegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Oviposition in Delia platura (Diptera, Anthomyiidae): the role of volatile and contact cues of bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouinguené, Sandrine P; Städler, Erich

    2006-07-01

    The choice of a suitable oviposition site by female insects is essential for survival of their progeny. Both olfactory and contact cues of the oviposition site may mediate this choice. The polyphagous Delia platura (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), a severe agricultural pest of numerous crops, lays eggs in the soil close to germinating seeds. Maggots feed upon the cotyledons. Only little is known about the cues guiding oviposition behavior. In this study, the effects of both olfactory and contact cues of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on oviposition of D. platura females were tested. Egg deposition on germinated beans was preferred to egg deposition on ungerminated beans or on beans in different postgerminating developmental stages. Olfactory cues of germinating beans alone stimulated female flies to lay eggs. Additional contact cues of germinating beans seemed to enhance the response, but the difference was not significant. Surface extracts of germinating beans sprayed on surrogate beans showed that both polar and nonpolar substances stimulated oviposition of D. platura flies. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection recordings of head space samples of germinating beans showed positive response of females to different compounds. We conclude that olfaction plays a major role when D. platura females are searching for oviposition sites. Volatile compounds released from germinating beans such as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 1-hepten-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and 3-octanone should be considered as key compounds that mediate oviposition behavior. The use of different sensory modalities by closely related species of Delia is discussed.

  7. Improvement of glucose metabolism via mung bean protein consumption: A clinical trial of GLUCODIATM isolated mung bean protein in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutaka Kohno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: The main component of mung bean protein, accounting for more than 80%, is 8S globulin. Its structure closely resembles that of soybean -conglycinin. Thereby, the mung bean protein Is expected to have similar physiological effects to those of -conglycinin, but there is no clinical evidence for these effects. Purpose of this study: The aim of this study was to confirm the positive effects of mung bean protein (GLUCOD IATM on glucose metabolism in clinical trials. Method: This clinical study was conducted using a double-blind placebo-controlled design with 45 prediabetes patients. Results: Many of the subjects were pre-diabetes with blood glucose levels exceeding 140 mg/dl by 2-hour plasma glucose lev el. However, the initial mean fasting plasma glucose level was less than 100 mg/dl. Therefore, mung bean protein did not lower fasting plasma glucose levels. The test period extended from summer to autumn, and increased fasting plasma glucose levels in the placebo group were observed due to seasonal factors. However, this increase was suppressed in the test group. Similarly, the mean insulin level increased in the placebo group, but the increase was also suppressed in the test group. Among obese subjects with a high body mass index, significant increases in fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in the placebo group were observed. In the comparison between the test and the placebo groups with the average elevation value, there was a significant difference in fasting blood glucose level and significant tendencies in insulin level and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance value between the two groups. Conclusion: Mung bean protein suppresses fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels. Consequently, it may have an inhibitory effect on insulin resistance, a trigger of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination.

  9. Interactions Between QTL SAP6 and SU91 on Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Red Kidney Bean and Pinto Bean Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL, SAP6 and SU91, which condition resistance to CBB.The QTL were studied in a pinto bean F2 population a cross between Othello (sap6 sap6 //...

  10. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoyama, Daiki; Iwasa, Keiko; Seta, Harumichi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Chifumi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe) of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS) regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans.

  11. Application of in silico bulked segregant analysis for rapid development of markers linked to Bean common mosaic virus resistance in common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean was one of the first crops that benefited from the development and utilization of molecular markers in tagging major disease resistance genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Efficiency of MAS breeding in common bean is still hampered; however, due to the dominance, linkage phase, an...

  12. White beans provide more bioavailable iron than red beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron-biofortification of crops is a strategy that alleviates iron deficiency. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an attractive candidate for biofortification. However, beans are high in poly-phenols that may inhibit iron absorption. In vitro studies have shown that iron bioavailability from ...

  13. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Setoyama

    Full Text Available The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans.

  14. Changes of sour taste and the composition of carboxylic acids induced in brewed coffee by γ-irradiation on green beans and storage of roast beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, Goro; Matsuyama, Jun; Nagano, Akiko; Namatame, Mitsuko; Morita, Yoshiaki.

    1980-01-01

    Brazil santos green coffee beans were irradiated with 60 Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 1.5 Mrad respectively and changes of the composition of carboxylic acids in roast beans were analyzed by means of GLC together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage by use of the cup testing. The total acid content immediately after roasting was about 6,000 mg/100 g (roast beans) and the composition of carboxylic acids was as follows. Chlorogenic acid: hydroxy-carboxylic acids: mono-carboxylic acid: others = 73 : 18 : 7 : 2. Fresh coffee flavour was influenced markedly especially in acid taste by both irradiation of γ-rays on green beans and storage of roast beans, because of the change of above acids composition. On γ-ray irradiation, the change of the acid composition were more clear than that of stored roast beans. Therefore, the quality of γ-irradiated coffee beans seems to be closely associated with the ratio of hydroxy-carboxylic acids mg/ monocarboxylic acids mg, but little with total acid content. (author)

  15. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Reyes-Varela, V; Martínez-Suárez, C; Salomón-Hernández, G; Yáñez-Meneses, J; Ceballos-Ramírez, J M; Dendooven, L

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater sludge can be used to fertilize crops, especially after vermicomposting (composting with earthworms to reduce pathogens). How wastewater sludge or vermicompost affects bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth is still largely unknown. In this study the effect of different forms of N fertilizer on common bean plant characteristics and yield were investigated in a Typic Fragiudepts (sandy loam) soil under greenhouse conditions. Beans were fertilized with wastewater sludge, or wastewater sludge vermicompost, or urea, or grown in unamended soil, while plant characteristics and yield were monitored (the unamended soil had no fertilization). Yields of common bean plants cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with urea were lower than those cultivated in wastewater sludge-amended soil. Application of vermicompost further improved plant development and increased yield compared with beans cultivated in wastewater amended soil. It was found that application of organic waste products improved growth and yield of bean plants compared to those amended with inorganic fertilizer.

  17. Expert System Based on an Ontology Method to Analyze Types of Arabica Coffee Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Angelica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, the use of ontologies in information systems has become popular in many fields, such as website development, database integration, and natural language processing. Because many kinds of coffee beans can be used in coffee shops, the prospective coffee house entrepreneur meets obstacles in terms of choosing the right coffee beans because of multiple unique characteristics. In order to help this cohort make decisions, our study proposed a simulation ontology-based matching for coffee bean selection by inserting three parameters—aroma, flavor, and sour level—as inputs on the website. Arabica coffee bean is used as the principal object in this study and the outputs would be the beans matched with the parameters that had been inserted. In this study, the system model gained from the ontology method is shown in the implementation by using an example.Key Words—Arabica coffee beans, Ontology, OWL, Protégé, SPARQL

  18. Developing a prebiotic yogurt enriched by red bean powder: Microbiological, physi-cochemical and sensory aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyoningrum, Fitri; Priadi, Gunawan; Afiati, Fifi

    2017-01-01

    Red bean is widely known as a prebiotic, but addition of it into yogurt is rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red bean powder addition on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory of yogurt. Skim milk also added into yogurt formula to optimize the quality of yogurt. The treatment of concentrations, either red bean and skim milk, did not effect on the viability of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt (8.35 - 9.03 log cfu/ml) and the crude fiber content (0.04 - 0.08%). The increasing of red bean concentration induced the increase of protein content significantly. The increasing of level concentration, either red bean or skim milk, induced the increasing of carbohydrate content. Opposite phenomenon was occurred on the moisture content. Based on the sensory test result, the addition of 3% of skim milk and 2%of red bean into yogurt still accepted by panelist.

  19. Distinction of Ecuadorian varieties of fermented cocoa beans using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Ciobotă, Valerian; Salinas, Wilson; Kampe, Bernd; Aponte, Pedro M; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Ramos, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots. The most important Raman features of the spectra were assigned and discussed. The spectroscopic data were processed using chemometrics, resulting in a distinction of varieties with 91.8% of total accuracy. Differences in the average Raman spectra of cocoa beans from different sites but within the same variety can be attributed to environmental factors affecting the cocoa beans during the fermentation and drying processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MHD stability properties of bean-shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, R.C.; Chance, M.S.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1984-03-01

    A study of the MHD stability properties of bean-shaped tokamak plasmas is presented. For ballooning modes, while increased indentation gives larger β stable configurations, the existence and accessibility of the second stable region is sensitive to the pressure and safety factor profiles. The second stable region appears at lower β values for large aspect ratio and moderately high q-values. Finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) kinetic effects can significantly improve the stability properties. For low q (< 1) operation, long wavelength (n approx. 2,3) internal pressure driven modes occur at modest β/sub p/ values and accessibility to higher β operation is unlikely. Indentation modifies the nature of the usually vertical axisymmetric instability, but the mode can be passively stabilized by placing highly conducting plates near to the tips of the plasma bean. At constant q, indentation has a stabilizing effect on tearing modes

  1. Italian Common Bean Landraces: History, Genetic Diversity and Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Piergiovanni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The long tradition of common bean cultivation in Italy has allowed the evolution of many landraces adapted to restricted areas. Nowadays, in response to market demands, old landraces are gradually being replaced by improved cultivars. However, landraces still survive in marginal areas of several Italian regions. Most of them appear severely endangered with risk of extinction due to the advanced age of the farmers and the socio-cultural context where they are cultivated. The present contribution is an overview of the state of the art about the knowledge of Italian common bean germplasm, describing the most important and recent progresses made in its characterization, including genetic diversity and nutritional aspects.

  2. NOTE - Genetics of phosphorus content in common bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The common bean is an important source of minerals and protein in human nutrition. The objective of this studywas to investigate possible maternal effects on phosphorus contents in seeds of the common bean, to estimate the heritability in earlyhybrid generations for the phosphorus content character and to evaluate the potential for genetic improvement. The controlledcrossings were performed among Pérola x Guapo Brilhante and TPS Nobre x Guapo Brilhante cultivars. Reciprocal F1, and F2generations as well as backcross populations were produced by each hybrid combination. The range of variation in phosphoruscontent among tested progenies was from 3.38 to 5.78 g kg-1 dry matter, and no significant maternal effect was discovered. Narrowsense heritability was of an intermediate 65.54% to low 21.37 % value. An increase of 19.17 % was obtained for phosphorus contentin the seeds using just the three parents tested in this study.

  3. Ecotoxicological Study of Insecticide Effects on Arthropods in Common Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon–Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. PMID:25700537

  4. Ecotoxicological study of insecticide effects on arthropods in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Emerson Cristi; Ventura, Hudson Vaner; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Pereira, Renata Ramos; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Arthropods are an important group of macroorganisms that work to maintain ecosystem health. Despite the agricultural benefits of chemical control against arthropod pests, insecticides can cause environmental damage. We examined the effects of one and two applications of the insecticides chlorfenapyr (0.18 liters a.i. ha-1) and methamidophos (0.45 liters a.i. ha-1), both independently and in combination, on arthropods in plots of common bean. The experiment was repeated for two growing seasons. Principal response curve, richness estimator, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index analyses were performed. The insecticides generally affected the frequency, richness, diversity, and relative abundance of the arthropods. In addition, the arthropods did not experience recovery after the insecticide applications. The results suggest that the insecticide impacts were sufficiently drastic to eliminate many taxa from the studied common bean plots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. A Novel Evolutionary Algorithm Inspired by Beans Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the transmission of beans in nature, a novel evolutionary algorithm-Bean Optimization Algorithm (BOA is proposed in this paper. BOA is mainly based on the normal distribution which is an important continuous probability distribution of quantitative phenomena. Through simulating the self-adaptive phenomena of plant, BOA is designed for solving continuous optimization problems. We also analyze the global convergence of BOA by using the Solis and Wetsarsquo; research results. The conclusion is that BOA can converge to the global optimization solution with probability one. In order to validate its effectiveness, BOA is tested against benchmark functions. And its performance is also compared with that of particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The experimental results show that BOA has competitive performance to PSO in terms of accuracy and convergence speed on the explored tests and stands out as a promising alternative to existing optimization methods for engineering designs or applications.

  6. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Dionísio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua. This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  7. Use of a mobile nursery to obtain a virulence pattern of common bean.

    OpenAIRE

    Steadman, James; Godoy-Lutz, Gabriela; Rosas, Juan Carlos; Beaver, James

    2006-01-01

    As new sources of resistance genes areidentified to rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, weneed to know if these genes or others incorporated in the beangermplasm will become susceptible to the pathogen when theresistant varieties are widely grown. We have used a mobilenursery of bean lines/varieties with different rust resistancegenes to answer this question. This nursery, composed of sixday-old bean plants, is placed in a rusted bean field for two tothree hours, misted for 15 hours in a ...

  8. The Effect of Cocoa Beans Heavy and Trace Elements on Safety and Stability of Confectionery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vītola Vineta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate cocoa beans quality produced in Cameroon, Ecuador, Nigeria and Ghana from safety position determining heavy and trace metals concentration and evaluating the oxidative stability of confectionery products prototypes (trials with analysing cocoa beans. For evaluation of oxidative stability of confectionery products, the main ingredients - butter and cocoa beans kernels were tested making trials as milk chocolate prototype.

  9. Homogenization of Cocoa Beans Fermentation to Upgrade Quality Using an Original Improved Fermenter

    OpenAIRE

    Aka S. Koffi; N'Goran Yao; Philippe Bastide; Denis Bruneau; Diby Kadjo

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cocoa L.) are the main components for chocolate manufacturing. The beans must be correctly fermented at first. Traditional process to perform the first fermentation (lactic fermentation) often consists in confining cacao beans using banana leaves or a fermentation basket, both of them leading to a poor product thermal insulation and to an inability to mix the product. Box fermenter reduces this loss by using a wood with large thickness (e>3cm), but mixing to homogenize ...

  10. Evaluating the Competitive Ability of Different Common Bean Genotypes Against The Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of weeds interference on yield and yield components of different genotypes of common bean, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Tabriz University, in 2011. The main plots were eight genotypes of different types of common bean including red bean, (cv. Gholi, Sayad, Derakhshan and Akhtar; pinto bean, (cv. Khomein and Sadri and white bean (cv. Shokufa and Pak and the sub-plots were two levels of weed including weed-free and weed-infested. Results indicated that the effect of bean genotype was significant on yield and yield components. The effect of weed treatment was significant on all traits of common bean, except 100-seeds weight. The pod number per plant of all common bean genotypes reduced significantly under weed-infested treatment. The interaction effect of weed treatment× genotype was significant on bean seed number per pod, grain and biological yield. Among the genotype, the cv. Gholi had the highest pod number per plant and the cultivars Gholi and Shokufa had the highest seed number per pod. The cultivars of Gholi and Khomein produced the highest and lowest seed yield, respectively in both weed-free and weed-infested treatment. The common bean genotype showed different competitive ability as the genotypes Gholi and Pak had the higher competitive ability against the weeds than other genotypes. Therefore by cultivating the bean genotypes with high competitive ability against the weeds, the yield loss of common bean could be reduced as well as the growth of weed species will be suppressed.

  11. Effect of Superheated Steam Roasting on Radical Scavenging Activity and Phenolic Content of Robusta Coffee Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi Ee Shan; Wahidu Zzaman; Tajul A. Yang

    2015-01-01

    Robusta coffee is one of the coffee species grown in Malaysia. However, there is little research conducted on Robusta coffee beans as Arabica coffee is more popular among the consumers. Coffee is a rich source of antioxidants, therefore research on antioxidant properties of Robusta coffee beans is important to explore its market value. Nowadays, most of coffee analysis is on conventional roasted coffee which reduces their antioxidant properties. In this study, Robusta coffee beans (Coffea can...

  12. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    JAMILI; NUR ARFA YANTI; PRIMA ENDANG SUSILOWATI

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Jamili, Yanti NA, Susilowati PE. 2016. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 90-95. Yeast is one of the microbial group which is role in the process of cocoa spontaneously fermentation. The objective of this study was to determinate and to know the diversity of yeast that role on cocoa bean fermentation. Yeast was isolated by pour plate method from cocoa bean that was naturally fermented by a coco...

  13. How Many Jelly Beans Are in the Jar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, George J.; Hodges, Thomas E.; Graul, LuAnn

    2016-01-01

    Who will make a better estimate concerning the number of jelly beans in a jar, a single person or a group of people? On one side of the debate is the notion that a person would make a better decision because he or she uses unique knowledge that the group may not possess. On the opposite side of the argument is the claim that because of their…

  14. Performance of improved bean varieties in Kasulu and Kibondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A project aimed at improving bean production in Kigoma Region was carried out from 2008/09 to 2010/11 in Kasulu and Kibondo districts. Soils at trial sites varied from sandy clay loams to clay, mostly acidic with pH water varying from 4.5 to 6.3 (mean 5.5 „b 0.5) with low to medium (1.86% „b 0.57%) organic carbon (OC), ...

  15. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans ( Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... d.b. The static coefficient of friction of white kidney bean grains increased linearly against surfaces of six structural materials, namely, rubber (0.501 to 0.727), stainless steel (0.384 to 0.468), aluminium (0.345 to 0.499), galvanized iron (0.346 to 0.489), medium density fibreboard (MDF) (0.325 to 0.426) and glass (0.287 to ...

  16. Thermal properties of African yam bean seeds as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific heat capacity of African yam bean seeds, measured using copper calorimeter, increased from 2.035 to 2.816 KJ kg-1 k-1, as the moisture content and temperatures increased from 9.6 to 30 % (w.b) and 30 to 50oC respectively. The thermal conductivity of the seed was determined using the line heat source and ...

  17. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  18. Nutritional composition of the African locust bean ( Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of the African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) fruit pulp were determined using standard methods. Results showed a moisture content of 8.41%, protein 6.56%, fat 1.80%, crude fibre 11.75%, ash. 4.18% and carbohydrate of 67.30%. Sugar content was found to be 9.00 °Brix; total ...

  19. Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, both on International and European level a series of treaties and laws have been devised in order to save local varieties of crop plants. The most important methods of traditional seed conservation are on farm and ex situ (Maxim et al., 2010; Kontoleonet al., 2009. The identification of local Romanian varieties of bean, their morphological and agronomic description, seed production and its spreading in the purpose of genetic erosion reduction. Their have been taken into study 13 local varieties of bean. For the morphological description descriptors have been used accordingly to the IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. For the evaluation of the diseases attack, frequency (F%, intensity (I% and degree of attack (GA% have been calculated.The exchanges of seed between farmers were facilitated through the online catalog edited by the Eco Ruralis Association that promotes traditional seeds. Of the 13 local varieties of beean taken into study, two are with determined growth(15.3%, and 11 are with undetermined growth(84.7%. The most significant production of pods on the plant was documented on local variety MM 1039 (2.736kg, and the most significant production of beans on plant was documented on local variety HD 904 (1.156kg. The most resistant varieties against bacterian attack, anthracnose, aphids and rust were: SJ 890, CJ 909, CV 917 şi HD 1159. The growing phenomenon of genetic erosion implies the indentification and the conservation of crop plants. In the year 2015, 13 local varieties of bean have been taken into study that were used for conservation in seeds’ genbank and for the exchange of seeds between farmers.

  20. Antixenosis of bean genotypes to Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Morando, Rafaela [UNESP; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz [UNESP; Cruz, Patricia Leite [UNESP; Lourencao, Andre Luiz; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate bean genotypes for resistance to soybean looper (Chrysodeixis includens). Initially, free-choice tests were carried out with 59 genotypes, divided into three groups according to leaf color intensity (dark green, light green, and medium green), in order to evaluate oviposition preference. Subsequently, 12 genotypes with high potential for resistance were selected, as well as two susceptible commercial standards. With these genotypes, new tests were pe...

  1. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Srivastava, 2002), hemp (Saçılık et al., 2003), quinoa seeds (Vilche et al., 2003), vetch (Yalçın and Özarslan,. 2004), caper seed (Dursun and Dursun, 2005), sweet corn seed (Coşkun et al., 2006), black-eyed pea (Unal et al., 2006), Turkish Göynük Bombay beans (Tekin et al.,. 2006), some grain legume ...

  2. Complete genome sequences of two novel bipartite begomoviruses infecting common bean in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Sidorchuk, Lidia; González-Alvarez, Heidy; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila

    2017-05-01

    The common bean is a host for a large number of begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) in the New World. Based on the current taxonomic criteria established for the genus Begomovirus, two new members of this genus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Cuba are herein reported. The cloned bipartite genomes, composed of DNA-A and DNA-B, showed the typical organization of the New World begomoviruses. We propose the names common bean severe mosaic virus and common bean mottle virus for the new begomovirus species.

  3. Effect of traditional and oven roasting on the physicochemical properties of fermented cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djikeng, Fabrice Tonfack; Teyomnou, William Teyomnou; Tenyang, Noël; Tiencheu, Bernard; Morfor, Azia Theresia; Touko, Blaise Arnaud Hako; Houketchang, Serges Ndomou; Boungo, Gires Teboukeu; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi; Ngoufack, François Zambou; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oven and traditional roasting on the polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, lipid quality, proximate composition and mineral content of fermented cocoa beans. Results showed that traditional roasting significantly decrease (p beans. The analysis of oil showed that oven and traditional roasting significantly increase (p beans was also seriously affected during cooking. Drying and oven roasting for 5 and 10 min; and drying and traditional roasting for 5 min appear to be the best processing methods of cocoa beans for production of cocoa based foods like chocolate.

  4. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after home cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Corrêa, Mariana M.; Pereira, Elenilda J.; Nutti, Marília R.; Carvalho, José L. V.; Ribeiro, Ediane M. G.; Freitas, Sidinéa C.

    2012-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P). All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth. PMID:22389643

  5. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. after home cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to the World Health Organization (WHO, iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives : This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design : Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P. All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results : Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion : The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth.

  7. 1H NMR study of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Acquotti, Domenico; Cirlini, Martina; Palla, Gerardo

    2010-12-08

    This study reports for the first time the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans using the (1)H NMR technique applied to polar extracts of fermented cocoa beans. The simultaneous detection and quantification of amino acids, polyalcohols, organic acids, sugars, methylxanthines, catechins, and phenols were obtained by assigning the major signals of the spectra for different varieties of cocoa beans (Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario) from different countries (Ecuador, Ghana, Grenada, and Trinidad). The data set obtained, representative of all classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was useful to characterize the fermented cocoa beans as a function of the variety and geographic origin.

  8. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Practical evaluation of Mung bean seed pasteurization method in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M L; Enomoto, K; Nei, D; Kawamoto, S

    2010-04-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, an effective method for inactivating these organisms on the seeds before sprouting is needed. The current pasteurization method for mung beans in Japan (hot water treatment at 85 degrees C for 10 s) was more effective for disinfecting inoculated E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli on mung bean seeds than was the calcium hypochlorite treatment (20,000 ppm for 20 min) recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Hot water treatment at 85 degrees C for 40 s followed by dipping in cold water for 30 s and soaking in chlorine water (2,000 ppm) for 2 h reduced the pathogens to undetectable levels, and no viable pathogens were found in a 25-g enrichment culture and during the sprouting process. Practical tests using a working pasteurization machine with nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate produced similar results. The harvest yield of the treated seed was within the acceptable range. These treatments could be a viable alternative to the presently recommended 20,000-ppm chlorine treatment for mung bean seeds.

  10. Common bean breeding to improve red grain lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ângelo Nogueira de Menezes Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance potential of red bean lines, derived from populations ofthe first cycle of recurrent selection in the common bean breeding program of the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais. In theF3:5, F3:6 and F3:7 generations, 243 families from 18 segregating populations were evaluated. These families were conducted by thebulk-within-families method and from the best, 154 lines were obtained and evaluated in the dry season of 2006 (F7: 9 and of 2007(F7: 10, Coimbra - MG. The estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters revealed variability among families. The method bulkwithin F3-derived families proved useful for bean breeding. The most promising lines that may be included in future tests of valuefor cultivation and use (VCU, and will possibly be recommended for planting in the state of Minas Gerais, were derived from thepopulations Vermelhinho/AN9022180//Vermelhinho/Vermelho2157, Vermelhinho//Vermelhinho/ IAPAR81,Vermelhinho/LR720982//Vermelhinho/AB136 and Vermelhinho/AB136//Vermelhinho/ Vermelho2157.

  11. Osmoregulation and nutritional relationships between Orobanche foetida and faba bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharrat, Mohamed; Delavault, Philippe; Chaïbi, Wided; Simier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims at comparing the phloem composition of the tolerant XBJ90.03-16-1-1-1 and the susceptible Bachaar genotypes and the impact of the faba bean genotype on the levels of the major solutes and invertase activities in the parasite Orobanche foetida. In comparison to Bachaar, the XBJ90.03-161-1-1 genotype limited the growth of orobanche tubercles under in vitro conditions. The limited growth was due to low soluble invertase activity, low osmotic potential of the infected roots and the organic nitrogen deficiency of the host phloem sap. The faba bean genotype did not affect the osmoregulation process of O. foetida. Among the organic solutes, stachyose, hexoses, starch and free amino acids, mainly asparagine and aspartate were highly accumulated in orobanche. However, asparagine/aspartate, glutamine/glutamate, alanine, serine, gamma amino butyric acid, stachyose, sucrose were identified as the main organic components in the host phloem exudates. The key role of the enzymes α-galactosidase, asparagine synthetase and aspartate oxaloglutarate aminotransferase in the utilization of the host solutes is proposed in O. foetida parasitizing faba bean. PMID:19794856

  12. Specific pretreatments reduce curing period of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, R V; Roohie, K; Venkatachalam, L; Narayan, M S; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2007-04-18

    With the aiming of reducing the curing period, effects of pretreatments on flavor formation in vanilla beans during accelerated curing at 38 degrees C for 40 days were studied. Moisture loss, change in texture, levels of flavoring compounds, and activities of relevant enzymes were compared among various pretreatments as well as the commercial sample. Use of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 5 mg/L) or Ethrel (1%) with blanching pretreatment resulted in 3-fold higher vanillin on the 10th day. Other flavoring compounds-vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde-fluctuated greatly, showing no correlation with the pretreatments. Scarification of beans resulted in nearly 4- and 3.6-fold higher vanillin formations on the 10th day in NAA- and Ethrel-treated beans, respectively, as compared to control with a significant change in texture. When activities of major relevant enzymes were followed, addition of NAA or Ethrel helped to retain higher levels of cellulase throughout the curing period and higher levels of beta-glucosidase on the 20th day that correlated with higher vanillin content during curing and subsequent periods. Peroxidase, being highest throughout, did not correlate with the change in levels of major flavoring compounds. The pretreatment methods of the present study may find importance for realizing higher flavor formation in a shorter period because the major quality parameters were found to be comparable to those of a commercial sample.

  13. Physicochemical Changes of Cocoa Beans during Roasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro García-Alamilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During cocoa beans roasting, there are physicochemical changes that develop the chocolate quality attributes. Roasting systems have a particular influence on the development of these characteristics, and the effects of operation variables for each system must be evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of roasting time and temperature in a rotatory system on cocoa beans physicochemical parameters of quality as moisture, water activity, pH, total acidity, color (L⁎,a⁎,b⁎, total phenolic content (TPC, and DPPH radical capacity. Cocoa beans were roasted as a function with a central rotatable design with 22 + 5 central points and 4 axial points (-1.414, -1, 0, +1, and +1,414 and a response surface methodology was applied. Temperature and time levels were 110–170°C and 5–65 minutes, respectively. The effect of the variables was nonlinear and modeled with a second-order response polynomial. Roasting time and temperature presented a significative effect (p<0.05 on the response variables except for both TPC and DPPH radical capacity in aqueous extract.

  14. Fertilization management in bean crop under organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barradas Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the food production systems tend to include the sustainable management of soil and water. One of the main obstacles to the organic cultivation of common bean is the fertilization management. This study aimed to evaluate doses of organic fertilizer containing slaughterhouse residues (1.0 t ha-1, 1.5 t ha-1, 2.0 t ha-1 and 2.5 t ha-1. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4x2x2 factorial scheme, with 16 treatments and 4 replications. Plant dry weight; foliar diagnose; initial and final plant population; number of pods per plant, grains per plant and grains per pod; 1000-grain weight; and grain yield were evaluated. It was concluded that the methods and time of organic fertilizer application do not affect the production components and yield in common bean. The dose of 2.5 t ha-1 of organic fertilizer provided the highest common bean yield in 2012, but it did not express its maximum production capacity.

  15. Physiological behavior of bean's seeds and grains during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, Flávia D R; Fortes, Andréa M T; Mendonça, Lorena C; Buturi, Camila V; Marcon, Thaís R

    2016-05-31

    Beans are one of the most used foods to meet the energy needs of the Brazilian diet, requiring farmers to use high seed physiological potential. The aim was to evaluate the physiological quality of beans stored for 360 days. Analyses were performed at 0, 30, 90, 180, 270, and 360 days after receiving the seeds (S1 and S2) and grains (G1 and G2) of BRS Splendor. Tests of germination, accelerated aging, cold, speed of germination, average length of shoots, and root were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized split-plot in time and the means were compared through Tukey test at 5% probability. Seed germination was not affected in S2, while the drop in S1 and G1 was significant. The vigor of grains from field 1 declined from 91 to 50% and from 93% to 76% by accelerated aging and cold, respectively, after 360 days. The germination speed tests performed showed a decreased during the experiment. The grains from field 1 had lower physiological quality. The accelerated aging and cold tests, through the speed of germination parameter, showed decrease in the vigor of the Splendor BRS. The storage period influenced the physiological quality of the beans tested.

  16. Physiological behavior of bean's seeds and grains during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA D.R. CASSOL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beans are one of the most used foods to meet the energy needs of the Brazilian diet, requiring farmers to use high seed physiological potential. The aim was to evaluate the physiological quality of beans stored for 360 days. Analyses were performed at 0, 30, 90, 180, 270, and 360 days after receiving the seeds (S1 and S2 and grains (G1 and G2 of BRS Splendor. Tests of germination, accelerated aging, cold, speed of germination, average length of shoots, and root were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized split-plot in time and the means were compared through Tukey test at 5% probability. Seed germination was not affected in S2, while the drop in S1 and G1 was significant. The vigor of grains from field 1 declined from 91 to 50% and from 93% to 76% by accelerated aging and cold, respectively, after 360 days. The germination speed tests performed showed a decreased during the experiment. The grains from field 1 had lower physiological quality. The accelerated aging and cold tests, through the speed of germination parameter, showed decrease in the vigor of the Splendor BRS. The storage period influenced the physiological quality of the beans tested.

  17. Weed Control in White Bean with Various Halosulfuron Tankmixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Soltani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four field trials were conducted over a three-year period (2011–2013 in southwestern Ontario to evaluate the level of weed control provided by various halosulfuron tankmixes applied preplant incorporated (PPI in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied alone or in combination caused 4% or less visible injury 1 and 4 weeks after emergence (WAE in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied PPI provided 80–96%, 84–95%, 83–100%, and 75–92% control of redroot pigweed; 19–28%, 30–40%, 97–99%, and 73–84% control of common ragweed; 94–96%, 63–82%, 96–100%, and 96–100% control of common lambsquarters; 14-15%, 12–35%, 100%, and 96–97% control of wild mustard; and 96–97%, 95–97%, 53–56%, and 80–82% control of green foxtail, respectively. The two- and three-way tankmixes of halosulfuron with trifluralin, s-metolachlor, or imazethapyr provided 85–100% control of redroot pigweed, 90–98% control of common ragweed, 97–100% control of common lambsquarters, 100% control of wild mustard, and 93–98% control of green foxtail. Weed density, weed biomass and white bean seed yields reflected the level of visible weed control.

  18. Changes in flavour and taste of irradiated coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.; Loaharanu, S.; Vokac, L.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of changes in the smell and taste of coffee from beans submitted to irradiation for preservation is a significant gap in the programme devoted to increasing the product life time with such a process. Therefore, the main objective of the paper was to evaluate changes in aroma and flavour that can be noticed by the consumer. Coffee beans were given disinfestation doses of 50krad, producing an insect mortality rate of 98.33% +-2.89 in Araecerus fasciculatus (adult stage). The samples, provided by IBC, were from the same crop and free from pesticides. Some of the material was kept by that Institute for organoleptic tests. The remainder was sent to the National Institute of Technology for gas-chromatographic analysis. Should any significant changes be noticed, it could be assumed that the gamma-irradiation process would be rejected by the consumer. However, no significant change was observed in the most important characteristics, flavour and aroma, that might induce the consumer to reject irradiated coffee beans. (author)

  19. Induction of mutants with higher protein content in soy bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, S.; Tanaka, S.; Nakamura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to examine the effects of ionizing radiation on protein content of soy beans and to estimate the potential value of ionizing radiation in soy bean breeding. In the first experiment seeds of three cultivars were acutely irradiated by gamma ray doses of 8 krad and 16 krad. Seeds of M 3 plants were analysed for protein content by the Biuret method. Selection within each variety was made to isolate plants having about 2% higher protein content than the control populations. In the second experiment growing plants of a soy bean cultivar were irradiated with 2.9 krad and 6.1 krad, from germination to maturation, in a 60 Co gamma field. Seeds on individual lines in M 5 , M 6 and M 7 plants were determined for their protein contents by the Kjeldahl method and the upper 10% of the treated lines were selected for progeny testing. From the results of the analysis of variance for each trait, significant differences were observed between the control variety and selected lines for all the traits. Six out of 19 lines showed significant increases in both 100 seed weight and protein content, and four lines promising. The mean protein content of selected lines increased 0.68% compared with the control variety. Genetic gain expected from selection for high protein content was therefore considered at about 1%; however, the likelihood of a large increase in protein content would greatly increase if large populations derived from irradiated seeds were observed

  20. Crop relationship "yield – evapotranspiration" for green bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalaydzhieva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the study is to establish the parameters of the relationship "Yield - ET" for green beans on the base of the growth stages. The experiment was conducted during the period 2010 – 2012 on the experimental field of Agricultural University, Plovdiv. The parameters of this relationship are established on the base of existing formulas as follows: the two-degree formula of Davidov, the linear formula of FAO, the one-degree formula of Davidov and the linear formula of Stewart. Data for yield and ET (for the different growth stages are used with the following treatments: 1 no irrigation; 2 irrigation with 30% of the optimal irrigation rate; 3 irrigation with 70% optimal rate; 4 optimum irrigation (supply of 100% of the calculated irrigation norm. For this purpose, the vegetation period of the beans is divided into three sub-periods: (before bud formation, bud formation-flowering and bean formation. For the conditions of the experiment, the dependence is represented best by the two-degree formula of Davidov at R = 0.98. The exponent for the entire growing period is N = 1.8. The values for the different sub-periods are as follows: m = 0.05, m = 0.05 and m = 1.12. This means that the sensitivity of the third sub-period is the greatest, and the first and 1 2 3 second have insignificant sensitivity.

  1. Nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of 26 kidney bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lijiao; Nie, Shaoping; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Cui, Steve W; Li, Yawen; Xu, Sifan; Wu, Yue; Wang, Junqiao; Bai, Zhouya; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-10-01

    Detailed characterization in nutrients and phytochemicals with antioxidant activities of 26 kidney beans was performed. The kidney beans contained high levels of dietary fiber (29.32-46.77%), resistant starch (9.16-18.09%) and protein (22.06-32.63%) but low levels of lipid (1.05-2.83%) and sugars (1.55-9.07%). The monosaccharide composition of soluble fiber was dominated by arabinose, galactose, mannose and galacturonic acid. The ratio of essential amino acid to the total amino acid was ranged from 0.29 to 0.36. The predominant fatty acid was polyunsaturated fatty acids, accounting for 47.54-67.26% of total fatty acids. The total tocopherol content was in the range of 12.83-68.35 μg/g, predominantly γ-tocopherol, followed by δ-tocopherol. In addition, certain levels of total phenolics and flavonoids with respective values of 0.25-3.79 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight and 0.19-7.05 mg rutin equivalent/g dry weight resulted in significant antioxidant activities. And a good correlation was observed between TPC and FRAP values (R2 = 0.8030). The results indicated that kidney beans are excellent sources of health-promoting compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and Purification of Thiamine Binding Protein from Mung Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWIRINI RETNO GUNARTI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thiamine has fundamental role in energy metabolism. The organs mostly sensitive to the lack of thiamine levels in the body are the nervous system and the heart. Thiamine deficiency causes symptoms of polyneuritis and cardiovascular diseases. Because of its importance in the metabolism of carbohydrates, we need to measure the levels of thiamine in the body fluids by using an easy and inexpensive way without compromising the sensitivity and selectivity. An option to it is thiamine measurement based on the principle of which is analogous to ELISA, in which a thiamine binding protein (TBP act by replacing antibodies. The presence of TBP in several seeds have been reported by previous researchers, but the presence of TBP in mung beans has not been studied. This study was aimed to isolate and purify TBP from mung bean. The protein was isolated from mung bean through salting out by ammonium sulphate of 40, 70, and 90% (w/v. TBP has a negative charge as shown by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The result obtained after salting out by ammonium sulphate was further purified bymeans of DEAE-cellulose chromatography and affinity chromatography. In precipitation of 90% of salting out method, one peak protein was obtained by using affinity chromatography. The protein was analyzed by SDS PAGE electrophoresis. The result of SDS PAGE electrophoresis showed that TBP has a molecular weight of 72.63 kDa.

  3. Effect of Gamma Radiation and Electron Beam on Microbiological Quality and Protein Patterns of 4 Selected Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chookaew, S.; Eamsir, J.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gamma ray and electron beam on microbiological quality and protein pattern of four selected beans: mung beans, soy beans, peanuts and black beans. All beans samples were exposed to irradiation at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 kGy before evaluated for their microbiological quality using AOAC method and protein analysis by gel electrophoresis. Results showed that the amount of bacteria, yeast and mold of irradiated mung beans and peanuts were reduced, whereas these microbiological quality values remained relatively the same for irradiated soy beans and black beans compared to non-irradiated samples. In terms of protein analysis, the protein patterns of the irradiated beans were of the same quality as the non-irradiated samples. To further tested the effect of irradiation on the bean's protein at higher doses, all four selected beans were exposed to gamma ray at 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy. We found that the protein patterns of mung beans, peanuts and black beans were altered at doses above 50 kGy.

  4. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  5. Solar-Terrestrial Effects on Bean Seed Imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minorsky, P. V.

    2012-12-01

    Forty years ago, a lively debate ensued amongst biologists concerning the nature of biological rhythms. The "endogenous" school argued that biological rhythms that occur in the absence of any obvious environmental oscillation arise endogenously from within the organism itself. The "exogenous" school on the other hand proposed that subtle and pervasive exogenous factors (e.g., geomagnetic variations or cosmic radiation) underlie most biological rhythms. Much of the debate between the endogenous vs. exogenous schools focused on circadian (circa-24 h) rhythms in particular. The demonstration that circadian rhythms continue in orbiting spacecraft was widely regarded as the final nail in the coffin of the "exogenous" school, and the entire school sank into obscurity. Regrettably, the demise of the "exogenous" school also caused some interesting findings concerning non-circadian rhythms to fall into oblivion as well. Three different research groups, for example, reported that bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds display rhythms in imbibition that have ~7- or ~14-day periodicities. Consistent with the idea of an exogenous synchronizer, these rhythms often occurred synchronously in bean seed populations located 1500 km apart. The present experiment was initiated with the intention of examining whether these ~7 and ~14 d oscillations in imbibition corresponded to oscillations in solar-terrestrial parameters. Three replicates of ~25 g of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Provider) were weighed daily and placed into beakers containing 200 ml of distilled water at 25° C. This temperature was maintained by nesting the beakers inside larger, temperature-jacketed beakers through which water from a temperature-regulated water bath was circulated. Four hours later the experiments were terminated: the bean seeds were blotted and weighed. Experiments were conducted almost every day between 3 and 7 AM UT from Jan 18, 2007 to Feb 26, 2008. A major difference between the present study and

  6. Immunocapture RT-PCR detection of Bean common mosaic virus and strain blackeye cowpea mosaic in common bean and black gram in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra; Niranjana, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    The strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic (BICM), genus Potyvirus, were detected from 25 common bean and 14 black gram seeds among 142 seed samples collected from different legume-growing regions of India. The samples were subjected to a growing-on test, an indicator...... plant test, an electron microscopic observations, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and an immunocapture RT-PCR. The incidence of the two tested viruses in common bean and black gram seed samples was 1–6% and 0.5–3.5%, respectively in growing-on test evaluations. Electron microscopic observations...

  7. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  8. Effects of dietary cooked navy bean on the fecal microbiome of healthy companion dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Kerr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooked bean powders are a promising novel protein and fiber source for dogs, which have demonstrated potential to alter microbial composition and function for chronic disease control and prevention. This study aimed to determine the impact of cooked navy bean powder fed as a staple food ingredient on the fecal microbiome of healthy adult pet dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy dogs prior to dietary control and after 4 wk of dietary treatment with macro- and micronutrient matched diets containing either 0 or 25% cooked navy beans (n = 11 and n = 10, respectively were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. There were few differences between dogs fed the control and navy bean diets after 4 wk of treatment. These data indicate that there were no major effects of navy bean inclusion on microbial populations. However, significant differences due to dietary intervention onto both research diets were observed (i.e., microbial populations at baseline versus 4 wk of intervention with 0 or 25% navy bean diets. After 4 wk of dietary intervention on either control or navy bean diet, the Phylum Firmicutes was increased and the Phyla Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria were decreased compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: No negative alterations of microbial populations occurred following cooked navy bean intake in dogs, indicating that bean powders may be a viable protein and fiber source for commercial pet foods. The highly variable microbial populations observed in these healthy adult pet dogs at baseline is one potential reason for the difficulty to detect alterations in microbial populations following dietary changes. Given the potential physiological benefits of bean intake in humans and dogs, further evaluation of the impacts of cooked navy bean intake on fecal microbial populations with higher power or more sensitive methods are warranted.

  9. Evaluation of Maize (Zea mays L. and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Growth Indices in Strip Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nasiri Mahallati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping systems are one of the best approaches in development of sustainable agriculture. Based on this purpose, the present study was conducted to evaluate effect of strip intercropping on maize and bean growth analysis and their yield during 2009. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized block with 3 replications and 6 treatments based on replacement design. The treatments were strip width, which included 2 rows bean plus 2 rows maize, 3 rows bean plus 3 rows maize, 4 rows bean plus 4 rows maize, 5 rows bean plus 5 rows maize, maize monoculture, and bean monoculture. Crop growth ratio, relative growth ratio, biological yield, economic yield, harvest index and land equivalent ratio were measured. Our results indicated that all of the measured traits were increased in the strip intercropping treatments compare to the monoculture treatments. Increasing of strip width in the central row of intercropping treatments in comparison with the two rows bean plus two rows maize treatment led to decrease crop growth rate (15.3% and 28.7%, relative growth rate (17.5% and 19.2%, biological yield (30.9% and 14%, economic yield (52.9% and 20.2%, harvest index (31.9% and 7.3% in maize and bean, respectively. With increasing of strip width, all of the measured traits decreased more in the central rows than the side rows. The highest (1.45 and the lowest (1.22 land equivalent ratio were found in the two rows bean plus two rows maize treatment and five rows bean plus five rows maize treatment, respectively. Partial of maize had more role compare to bean in terms of enhance land equivalent ratio.

  10. Effects of dietary cooked navy bean on the fecal microbiome of healthy companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katherine R; Forster, Genevieve; Dowd, Scot E; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-01-01

    Cooked bean powders are a promising novel protein and fiber source for dogs, which have demonstrated potential to alter microbial composition and function for chronic disease control and prevention. This study aimed to determine the impact of cooked navy bean powder fed as a staple food ingredient on the fecal microbiome of healthy adult pet dogs. Fecal samples from healthy dogs prior to dietary control and after 4 wk of dietary treatment with macro- and micronutrient matched diets containing either 0 or 25% cooked navy beans (n = 11 and n = 10, respectively) were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. There were few differences between dogs fed the control and navy bean diets after 4 wk of treatment. These data indicate that there were no major effects of navy bean inclusion on microbial populations. However, significant differences due to dietary intervention onto both research diets were observed (i.e., microbial populations at baseline versus 4 wk of intervention with 0 or 25% navy bean diets). After 4 wk of dietary intervention on either control or navy bean diet, the Phylum Firmicutes was increased and the Phyla Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria were decreased compared to baseline. No negative alterations of microbial populations occurred following cooked navy bean intake in dogs, indicating that bean powders may be a viable protein and fiber source for commercial pet foods. The highly variable microbial populations observed in these healthy adult pet dogs at baseline is one potential reason for the difficulty to detect alterations in microbial populations following dietary changes. Given the potential physiological benefits of bean intake in humans and dogs, further evaluation of the impacts of cooked navy bean intake on fecal microbial populations with higher power or more sensitive methods are warranted.

  11. Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Frasconi, C.; Fontanelli, M.; Raffaelli, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control. (Author)

  12. Characterization and quantification of flavonoids and saponins in adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) by HPLC–DAD–ESI–MSn analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui; Cai, Zongwei; Xu, Baojun

    2017-01-01

    Background Bioactive activities of adzuki bean have been widely reported, however, the phytochemical information of adzuki bean is incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify flavonoids and saponins in adzuki bean. High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electro spray ionization-tandem multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–ESI–MSn) were applied to do qualitative and quantitative analyses. Results A total of 15 compounds from adzuki bean w...

  13. The Phaseolus vulgaris PvTRX1h gene regulates plant hormone biosynthesis in embryogenic callus from common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Barraza, Aar?n; Cabrera-Ponce, Jos? L.; Gamboa-Becerra, Roberto; Luna-Mart?nez, Francisco; Winkler, Robert; ?lvarez-Venegas, Ra?l

    2015-01-01

    Common bean is the most important grain legume in the human diet. Bean improvement efforts have been focused on classical breeding techniques because bean is recalcitrant to both somatic embryogenesis and in vitro regeneration. This study was undertaken to better understand the process of somatic embryogenesis in the common bean. We focused on the mechanisms by which somatic embryogenesis in plants is regulated and the interaction of these mechanisms with plant hormones. Specifically, we exam...

  14. 78 FR 25623 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD69 Importation of Fresh Beans... regulations to allow the importation of commercial shipments of fresh beans, shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), from Jordan into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the beans...

  15. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...

  16. Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of common beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-processing methods caused significant (pbean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal processing. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different processing methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal processing caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-environment selection of small sieve snap beans reduces production constraints in East Africa and subtropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, and heat stress lower the yield and quality of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in East Africa. Four snap bean breeding lines previously selected for broad-spectrum rust resistance (involving Ur-4 and Ur-11 rust genes) and heat tolerance followin...

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Proteinaceous Films from Seven Mexican Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Montalvo-Paquini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean protein concentrate (BPC as a protein source from seven varieties of Mexican common beans (alubia, flor de mayo, garbancillo, peruano, pinto, mantequilla, and negro was utilized for formulating edible films (EF. EF were prepared with BPC (3% w/w and glycerol as a plasticizer by the casting method; their thickness, water content, soluble matter, protein solubility, color, puncture strength, elongation, water vapor permeability (WVP, and chemical properties (Fourier transform infrared, FTIR, and spectroscopy were evaluated. Tested EF had an average thickness of 0.045±0.001 mm. Good stability was observed since the studied polymers did not exceed 35% of the total soluble matter while protein solubilities were not greater than 3%. EF made from peruano bean protein presented a lower value of total matter solubility (25.38±2.24% than the other tested EF. A low value of WVP (2.06±0.25×10-10 g m/Pa s m2 was observed in films from negro bean protein, while EF from flor de mayo bean protein exhibited the highest values of puncture strength (17.35±0.82 MPa and elongation (38.21±0.64%. Most bean protein EF had reddish or brownish color; however, films from alubia and peruano bean proteins displayed light yellowish colors. FTIR spectra of EF revealed that glycerol did not react with the studied bean proteins through covalent bonds.

  19. Evaluation of gluten-free amaranth and navy bean flour blends on quality of sugar cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten free sugar cookies were made from amaranth (Salvia hispanica L.) and navy bean flours of different ratios. The physical properties of flour blends, dough, and cookies were evaluated. This study found that navy bean and its blends with amaranth had higher water holding capacities (WHC) compare...

  20. Microwave and micronization treatments affect dehulling characteristics and bioactive contents of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomah, B Dave; Kotzeva, Lily; Allen, Meghan; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk

    2014-05-01

    Heat pretreatment is considered the first step in grain milling. This study therefore evaluated microwave and micronization heat treatments in improving the dehulling characteristics, phenolic composition and antioxidant and α-amylase activities of bean cultivars from three market classes. Heat treatments improved dehulling characteristics (hull yield, rate coefficient and reduced abrasive hardness index) depending on bean cultivar, whereas treatment effects increased with dehulling time. Micronization increased minor phenolic components (tartaric esters, flavonols and anthocyanins) of all beans but had variable effects on total phenolic content depending on market class. Microwave treatment increased α-amylase inhibitor concentration, activity and potency, which were strongly correlated (r²  = 0.71, P < 0.0001) with the flavonol content of beans. Heat treatment had variable effects on the phenolic composition of bean hulls obtained by abrasive dehulling without significantly altering the antioxidant activity of black and pinto bean hulls. Principal component analysis on 22 constituents analyzed in this study demonstrated the differences in dehulling characteristics and phenolic components of beans and hulls as major factors in segregating the beneficial heat treatment effects. Heat treatment may be useful in developing novel dietary fibers from beans with variable composition and bioactivity with a considerable range of applications as functional food ingredients. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV...

  2. Demonstrating a Nutritional Advantage to the Fast-Cooking Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Jason A; Cichy, Karen A; Glahn, Raymond P; Grusak, Michael A; Brick, Mark A; Thompson, Henry J; Tako, Elad

    2016-11-16

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient-dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the nutritive value of 12 dry edible bean lines that vary for cooking time (20-89 min) from four market classes (yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled) of economic importance in bean-consuming regions of Africa and the Americas. When compared to their slower cooking counterparts within each market class, fast-cooking dry beans retain more protein and minerals while maintaining similar starch and fiber densities when fully cooked. For example, some of the highest protein and mineral retention values were measured in the fast-cooking yellow bean cultivar Cebo Cela, which offered 20% more protein, 10% more iron, and 10% more zinc with each serving when compared with Canario, a slow-cooking yellow bean that requires twice the cooking time to become palatable. A Caco-2 cell culture model also revealed the bioavailability of iron is significantly higher in faster cooking entries (r = -0.537, P = 0.009) as compared to slower cooking entries in the same market class. These findings suggest that fast-cooking bean varieties have improved nutritive value through greater nutrient retention and improved iron bioavailability.

  3. Improving the detection of cocoa bean fermentation-related changes using image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Criollo, Ronald; Liao, Wenzhi; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2017-05-01

    Complex chemical processes occur in during cocoa bean fermentation. To select well-fermented beans, experts take a sample of beans, cut them in half and visually check its color. Often farmers mix high and low quality beans therefore, chocolate properties are difficult to control. In this paper, we explore how close-range hyper- spectral (HS) data can be used to characterize the fermentation process of two types of cocoa beans (CCN51 and National). Our aim is to find spectral differences to allow bean classification. The main issue is to extract reliable spectral data as openings resulting from the loss of water during fermentation, can cover up to 40% of the bean surface. We exploit HS pan-sharpening techniques to increase the spatial resolution of HS images and filter out uneven surface regions. In particular, the guided filter PCA approach which has proved suitable to use high-resolution RGB data as guide image. Our preliminary results show that this pre-processing step improves the separability of classes corresponding to each fermentation stage compared to using the average spectrum of the bean surface.

  4. can tepary bean be a model for improvement of drought resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    levels of water supply (irrigated and rainfed). Results showed that two accessions of tepary bean, P. acutifolius. (G 40159 and G 40068) and two elite lines (RAB 650, SEA 23) of common bean were outstanding in their adaptation to terminal drought stress. The superior performance of these genotypes under drought stress ...

  5. A differential nursery for testing nodulation effectiveness of rhizobium strains in common beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Central America are produced on soils having low nitrogen (N) and phosphorous content. The small-scale farmers do not have resources to use fertilizers or implement soil management practices. Strategies to improve the adaptation of beans to low N soils in...

  6. Black bean anthocyanin-rich extracts as food colorants: Physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black beans contain anthocyanins that could be used as colorants in foods with associated health benefits. The objective was to optimize anthocyanins extraction from black bean coats and evaluate their physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential. Optimal extraction conditions were 24% ethan...

  7. 78 FR 8698 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS... of the vessel COOL BEANS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Sightseeing and sunset cruises...

  8. Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps in Knowledge of Bean Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon V.; Dougherty, Mariah K.

    2018-01-01

    Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health benefits. Some gaps in awareness were evident, including effect on cancer risk, intestinal health benefits, folate content, and application with celiac disease patients. RDs with greater personal bean consumption had significantly higher bean health benefit knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of the RDs did not know the meaning of ‘legume’, and over two-thirds could not define the term ‘pulse’. It is essential that RDs have up-to-date, evidence-based information regarding bean benefits to provide appropriate education to patients, clients, and the public. PMID:29316699

  9. Extrusion-cooking to improve the animal feed quality of broad beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscicki, L.; Wojcik, S.; Plaur, K.; Zuilichem, van D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Extrusion-cooking of broad beans with a single-screw extruder has been investigated. Attention was focused on process requirements as well as on the nutritional effects of extrusion-cooked broad beans in a chicken feed formulation. The optimal thermal process conditions required for a product of

  10. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination by

  11. Combining parasitoids and plant resistance for the control of the bruchid Acanthoscelides obtectus in stored beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, I.; Wäckers, F.L.; Cardona, C.; Dorn, S.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) are the main bruchid pests of stored beans in widespread regions of Latin America and Africa. Host-plant resistance based on the protein arcelin is effective in reducing damage caused by Z. subfasciatus, but beans containing

  12. Detection of Mixtures of Bean and Cowpea Viruses by Using Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensitivity of ELISA to detect bean common mosaic potyvirus (BCMV), cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), bean yellow mosaic potyvirus (BYMV), cowpea mottle carmovirus (CPMoV), cowpea mosaic como virus (CPMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic potyvirus (BLCMV) singly or in mixtures was evaluated using ...

  13. The impact of tillage on Pinto bean cultivar response to drought induced by deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought stress is a major factor limiting yield of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and drought tolerant cultivars are being developed. Reducing tillage in row crops has advantages of conserving moisture and increasing water infiltration, and may alter the response of dry bean cultivars to drought stre...

  14. Consumer acceptability of gluten-free cookies containing raw cooked and germinated pinto bean flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney Wayne; Hall, Clifford

    2018-01-01

    Beany and grassy flavors in raw edible bean flours reduce consumer acceptability of bean-based baked products. In order to improve consumer acceptability, beans may be further processed by cooking and germination. However, these operations drive up the cost of end-products. Therefore, it is necessary to develop formulations, using raw edible bean flours that have acceptable sensory attributes. In this study, cooked, germinated, and germinated/steam-blanched (GSB) pinto bean flours were used to make gluten-free cookies, and their sensory characteristics evaluated to determine how their consumer acceptability scores compared. Taste panelists (31) graded cookies made from raw pinto beans with an overall value of 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale ( p  cookies formulated with germinated and GSB flours. Therefore, gluten-free cookies can be made using raw pinto bean flours at a 40% inclusion level, with similar sensory characteristics as those prepared with flours treated by cooking and germination. Instrumental measurement of cookie hardness and color showed no significant difference in hardness, but significant differences in color. The germinated bean flour produced cookies with a significantly lower L* value and significantly higher a*, b*, Chroma and hue values compared to the other treatments. There was no significant difference in the cookie spread ratio. Proximate composition, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and gelatinization properties of the flour treatments were characterized.

  15. Performance of Andean common bean under low fertility stress in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low soil fertility is a limiting factor for bean production in East Africa. In Tanzania low available N and P soils are widespread. Average bean yields in Tanzania are around 500 kg/ha although the potential yield under reliable rain-fed conditions is 1500–3000kg/ha, using improved varieties and pro...

  16. Advances in tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) genetics and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a drought and heat-tolerant sister species of common bean with similar nutritional characteristics and with potential for expanded production in agroecological zones that are marginal due to abiotic stress. A key to expanded production of this orphan crop is the improvement of biotic ...

  17. Production of peptone from soya beans (Glycine max L merr) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... Peptone was produced from soya beans and African locust beans. The produced peptones were evaluated as component of microbiological media for the growth of some bacteria and compared with some commercial peptones. Some of the tested bacteria are Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...

  18. Effect of temporary drought at different growth stages on snap bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High quality snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be produced under rain-fed conditions, provided that adequate moisture is available. However, drought may occur at any stage of growth of snap bean. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of drought stress at different growth stages on pod physical quality ...

  19. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  20. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation effects on degradation of pesticides used in stored rice and beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppo, Gerson A.

    1988-02-01

    The present work, carried out at CENA, an agriculture nuclear energy center - University of Sao Paulo - Brazil, investigates the Cobalt-60 gamma radiation effects on insecticides applied to stored rice and beans. The radiation dose applied - 200 Gy - to the stored rice and beans treated with insecticides was not sufficient to cause a noticeable chemical degradation through insect mortality. (author). 31 refs., 23 tabs