WorldWideScience

Sample records for beamline front ends

  1. New x-ray pink-beam profile monitor system for the SPring-8 beamline front-end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Sunao; Kudo, Togo; Sano, Mutsumi; Watanabe, Atsuo; Tajiri, Hiroo

    2016-08-01

    A new beam profile monitoring system for the small X-ray beam exiting from the SPring-8 front-end was developed and tested at BL13XU. This system is intended as a screen monitor and also as a position monitor even at beam currents of 100 mA by using photoluminescence of a chemical vapor deposition-grown diamond film. To cope with the challenge that the spatial distribution of the photoluminescence in the vertical direction is too flat to detect the beam centroid within a limited narrow aperture, a filter was installed that absorbs the fundamental harmonic concentrated in the beam center, which resulted in "de-flattening" of the vertical distribution. For the measurement, the filter crossed the photon beam vertically at high speed to withstand the intense heat flux of the undulator pink-beam. A transient thermal analysis, which can simulate the movement of the irradiation position with time, was conducted to determine the appropriate configuration and the required moving speed of the filter to avoid accidental melting. In a demonstration experiment, the vertically separated beam profile could be successfully observed for a 0.8 × 0.8 mm2 beam shaped by an XY slit and with a fundamental energy of 18.48 keV. The vertical beam centroid could be detected with a resolution of less than 0.1 mm.

  2. LNLS: light source, beamlines, end stations and scientific instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentin, Flavio Cesar [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The LNLS is operational since 1997 and has a second-generation light source with a 1,37GeV electron storage ring and 2,08 keV critical energy. Besides the storage ring there are various beamlines installed mainly in magnetic dipoles, however were opened three beamlines based in insertion devices, wiggler and undulator. The LNLS is now operating with 16 beamlines which are open to the external user community: 9 of them are dedicated to structural studies and the other 7 to spectroscopic techniques. The beamlines devoted to structural studies involve X-ray diffraction (XRD1, XRD2, XPD and XDS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS1 and SAXS2), protein crystallography (MX1 and MX2) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The beamlines dedicated to spectroscopic studies are X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS1, XAFS2 and DXAS), soft X-ray spectroscopy (SXS), spherical grating monochromator (SGM), plane grating monochromator (PGM) and toroidal grating monochromator (TGM). Two more beamlines are expected to begin their operation in 2012: X-ray tomography and infrared spectroscopy. Each beamline has its own characteristics in terms of photon energy range, flux, resolution and beam size, but many of the optical elements and instrumentation are common to various beamlines and the main are mirrors, monochromators (crystal and diffraction grating), slits and filters. For X-ray and VUV spectroscopy, several experimental techniques can be explored including XAS, XMCD, XMLD, XPS, AES, UPS, XEOL, reflectivity and PePiCo. For that, these beamlines share different end stations and instrumentation that can be easily installed and commissioned for attend a specific experiment. (author)

  3. Align the Front End First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of management styles and front-end analysis focuses on a review of Douglas McGregor's theories. Topics include Theories X, Y, and Z; leadership skills; motivational needs of employees; intrinsic and extrinsic rewards; and faulty implementation of instructional systems design processes. (LRW)

  4. FAZIA front-end electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon F.; Edelbruck P.; Brulin G.; Boiano A.; Tortone G.; Ordine A.; Bini M.; Barlini S.; Valdré S.

    2015-01-01

    FAZIA is a multi-detector specifically designed to optimize ion identification in heavy-ion experiments. Its electronic is fully digital; it was designed in the laboratories of the collaboration. This paper presents the front-end part of this electronic.

  5. FAZIA front-end electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available FAZIA is a multi-detector specifically designed to optimize ion identification in heavy-ion experiments. Its electronic is fully digital; it was designed in the laboratories of the collaboration. This paper presents the front-end part of this electronic.

  6. FRIB Front End Design Status

    CERN Document Server

    Pozdeyev, E; Machicoane, G; Morgan, G; Rao, X; Zhao, Q; Stovall, J; Vorozhtsov, S; Sun, L

    2013-01-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will provide a wide range of primary ion beams for nuclear physics research with rare isotope beams. The FRIB SRF linac will be capable of accelerating medium and heavy ion beams to energies beyond 200 MeV/u with a power of 400 kW on the fragmentation target. This paper presents the status of the FRIB Front End designed to produce uranium and other medium and heavy mass ion beams at world-record intensities. The paper describes the FRIB high performance superconducting ECR ion source, the beam transport designed to transport two-charge state ion beams and prepare them for the injection in to the SRF linac, and the design of a 4-vane 80.5 MHz RFQ. The paper also describes the integration of the front end with other accelerator and experimental systems.

  7. Multi Front-End Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterweck, Goetz

    Multi Front-End Engineering (MFE) deals with the design of multiple consistent user interfaces (UI) for one application. One of the main challenges is the conflict between commonality (all front-ends access the same application core) and variability (multiple front-ends on different platforms). This can be overcome by extending techniques from model-driven user interface engineering.We present the MANTRA approach, where the common structure of all interfaces of an application is modelled in an abstract UI model (AUI) annotated with temporal constraints on interaction tasks. Based on these constraints we adapt the AUI, e.g., to tailor presentation units and dialogue structures for a particular platform. We use model transformations to derive concrete, platform-specific UI models (CUI) and implementation code. The presented approach generates working prototypes for three platforms (GUI, web, mobile) integrated with an application core via web service protocols. In addition to static evaluation, such prototypes facilitate early functional evaluations by practical use cases.

  8. Optimizing emergency department front-end operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Gentle, Christopher; Halfpenny, James M; Heins, Alan; Mehrotra, Abhi; Mikhail, Michael G; Fite, Diana

    2010-02-01

    As administrators evaluate potential approaches to improve cost, quality, and throughput efficiencies in the emergency department (ED), "front-end" operations become an important area of focus. Interventions such as immediate bedding, bedside registration, advanced triage (triage-based care) protocols, physician/practitioner at triage, dedicated "fast track" service line, tracking systems and whiteboards, wireless communication devices, kiosk self check-in, and personal health record technology ("smart cards") have been offered as potential solutions to streamline the front-end processing of ED patients, which becomes crucial during periods of full capacity, crowding, and surges. Although each of these operational improvement strategies has been described in the lay literature, various reports exist in the academic literature about their effect on front-end operations. In this report, we present a review of the current body of academic literature, with the goal of identifying select high-impact front-end operational improvement solutions.

  9. Front-end conceptual platform modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Platform thinking has been the subject of investigation and deployment in many projects in both academia and industry. Most contributions involve the restructuring of product programs, and only a few support front-end development of a new platform in parallel with technology development....... This contribution deals with the development of product platforms in front-end projects and introduces a modeling tool: the Conceptual Product Platform model. State of the art within platform modeling forms the base of a modeling formalism for a Conceptual Product Platform model. The modeling formalism is explored...... through an example and applied in a case in which the Conceptual Product Platform model has supported the front-end development of a platform for an electro-active polymer technology. The case describes the contents of the model and how its application supported the development work in the project...

  10. RF front-end world class designs

    CERN Document Server

    Love, Janine

    2009-01-01

    All the design and development inspiration and direction a harware engineer needs in one blockbuster book! Janine Love site editor for RF Design Line,columnist, and author has selected the very best RF design material from the Newnes portfolio and has compiled it into this volume. The result is a book covering the gamut of RF front end design from antenna and filter design fundamentals to optimized layout techniques with a strong pragmatic emphasis. In addition to specific design techniques and practices, this book also discusses various approaches to solving RF front end design problems and h

  11. Managing Controversies in the Fuzzy Front End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta

    2016-01-01

    . The analysis investigates the microprocesses around the controversies that emerge during the fuzzy front end of four products. Five different types of controversies are identified: profit, production, design, brand and customers/market. Each controversy represents a threat, but also an opportunity to search...

  12. Prototype ALICE front-end card

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    This circuit board is a prototype 48-channel front end digitizer card for the ALICE time projection chamber (TPC), which takes electrical signals from the wire sensors in the TPC and shapes the data before converting the analogue signal to digital data. A total of 4356 cards will be required to process the data from the ALICE TPC, the largest of this type of detector in the world.

  13. Universal Millimeter-Wave Radar Front End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Raul M.

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-optical front end allows any arbitrary polarization to be transmitted by controlling the timing, amplitude, and phase of the two input ports. The front end consists of two independent channels horizontal and vertical. Each channel has two ports transmit and receive. The transmit signal is linearly polarized so as to pass through a periodic wire grid. It is then propagated through a ferrite Faraday rotator, which rotates the polarization state 45deg. The received signal is propagated through the Faraday rotator in the opposite direction, undergoing a further 45 of polarization rotation due to the non-reciprocal action of the ferrite under magnetic bias. The received signal is now polarized at 90deg relative to the transmit signal. This signal is now reflected from the wire grid and propagated to the receive port. The horizontal and vertical channels are propagated through, or reflected from, another wire grid. This design is an improvement on the state of the art in that any transmit signal polarization can be chosen in whatever sequence desired. Prior systems require switching of the transmit signal from the amplifier, either mechanically or by using high-power millimeter-wave switches. This design can have higher reliability, lower mass, and more flexibility than mechanical switching systems, as well as higher reliability and lower losses than systems using high-power millimeter-wave switches.

  14. Front End Spectroscopy ASIC for Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Eric

    Large-area, tracking, semiconductor detectors with excellent spatial and spectral resolution enable exciting new access to soft (0.2-5 MeV) gamma-ray astrophysics. The improvements from semiconductor tracking detectors come with the burden of high density of strips and/or pixels that require high-density, low-power, spectroscopy quality readout electronics. CMOS ASIC technologies are a natural fit to this requirement and have led to high-quality readout systems for all current semiconducting tracking detectors except for germanium detectors. The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI), formerly NCT, at University of California Berkeley and the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) at Goddard Space Flight Center utilize germanium cross-strip detectors and are on the forefront of NASA's Compton telescope research with funded missions of long duration balloon flights. The development of a readout ASIC for germanium detectors would allow COSI to replace their discrete electronics readout and would enable the proposed Gamma-Ray Explorer (GRX) mission utilizing germanium strip-detectors. We propose a 3-year program to develop and test a germanium readout ASIC to TRL 5 and to integrate the ASIC readout onto a COSI detector allowing a TRL 6 demonstration for the following COSI balloon flight. Our group at NRL led a program, sponsored by another government agency, to produce and integrate a cross-strip silicon detector ASIC, designed and fabricated by Dr. De Geronimo at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ASIC was designed to handle the large (>30 pF) capacitance of three 10 cm^2 detectors daisy-chained together. The front-end preamplifier, selectable inverter, shaping times, and gains make this ASIC compatible with a germanium cross-strip detector as well. We therefore have the opportunity and expertise to leverage the previous investment in the silicon ASIC for a new mission. A germanium strip detector ASIC will also require precise timing of the signals at

  15. Thermal analysis of the first canted-undulator front-end components at SSRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhongmin, E-mail: xuzhongmin@sinap.ac.cn; Feng, Xinkang; Wang, Naxiu; Wu, Guanyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Jie

    2015-02-21

    The performance of three kinds of masks: pre-mask, splitter mask and fixed mask-photon shutter, used for the first canted-undulator front end under heat loads at SSRF, is studied. Because these components are shared with two beamlines, the X-rays from both dual undulators and bending magnets can strike on them. Under these complicated conditions, they will absorb much more thermal power than when they operate in usual beamline. So thermal and stress analysis is indispensable for their mechanical design. The method of applying the non-uniform power density using Ansys is presented. During thermal stress analysis, the normal operation or the worst possible case is considered. The finite element analyses results, such as the maximum temperature of the body and the cooling wall and the maximum stress of these components, show the design of them is reasonable and safe.

  16. The PHENIX Drift Chamber Front End Electroncs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancake, C.; Velkovska, J.; Pantuev, V.; Fong, D.; Hemmick, T.

    1998-04-01

    The PHENIX Drift Chamber (DC) is designed to operate in the high particle flux environment of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and provide high resolution track measurements. It is segmented into 80 keystones with 160 readout channels each. The Front End Electronics (FEE) developed to meet the demanding operating conditions and the large number of readout channels of the DC will be discussed. It is based on two application specific integrated circuits: the ASD8 and the TMC-PHX1. The ASD8 chip contains 8 channels of bipolar amplifier-shaper-discriminator with 6 ns shaping time and ≈ 20 ns pulse width, which satisfies the two track resolution requirements. The TMC-PHX1 chip is a high-resolution multi-hit Time-to-Digital Converter. The outputs from the ASD8 are digitized in the Time Memory Cell (TMC) every (clock period)/32 or 0.78 ns (at 40 MHz), which gives the intrinsic time resolution of the system. A 256 words deep dual port memory keeps 6.4 μs time history of data at 40 MHz clock. Each DC keystone is supplied with 4 ASD8/TMC boards and one FEM board, which performs the readout of the TMC-PHX1's, buffers and formats the data to be transmitted over the Glink. The slow speed control communication between the FEM and the system is carried out over ARCNET. The full readout chain and the data aquisition system are being tested.

  17. MMIC front-ends for optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders Kongstad

    1993-01-01

    Two different types of optical front-end MMIC amplifiers for a 2.5-Gb/s coherent heterodyne optical receiver are presented. A bandwidth of 6-12 GHz has been obtained for a tuned front-end and 3-13 GHz for a distributed front-end. An input noise current density of 5-15 pA/√Hz has been obtained for...

  18. Bringing the Fuzzy Front End into Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.F.; Boyack, K.W.; Bray, O.H.; Siemens, W.D.

    1999-03-03

    Technology planning is relatively straightforward for well-established research and development (R and D) areas--those areas in which an organization has a history, the competitors are well understood, and the organization clearly knows where it is going with that technology. What we are calling the fuzzy front-end in this paper is that condition in which these factors are not well understood--such as for new corporate thrusts or emerging areas where the applications are embryonic. While strategic business planning exercises are generally good at identifying technology areas that are key to future success, they often lack substance in answering questions like: (1) Where are we now with respect to these key technologies? ... with respect to our competitors? (2) Where do we want or need to be? ... by when? (3) What is the best way to get there? In response to its own needs in answering such questions, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and implementing several planning tools. These tools include knowledge mapping (or visualization), PROSPERITY GAMES and technology roadmapping--all three of which are the subject of this paper. Knowledge mapping utilizes computer-based tools to help answer Question 1 by graphically representing the knowledge landscape that we populate as compared with other corporate and government entities. The knowledge landscape explored in this way can be based on any one of a number of information sets such as citation or patent databases. PROSPERITY GAMES are high-level interactive simulations, similar to seminar war games, which help address Question 2 by allowing us to explore consequences of various optional goals and strategies with all of the relevant stakeholders in a risk-free environment. Technology roadmapping is a strategic planning process that helps answer Question 3 by collaboratively identifying product and process performance targets and obstacles, and the technology alternatives available to reach those targets.

  19. A new dynamic-XPS end-station for beamline P04 at PETRA III/DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babenkov, Sergey V., E-mail: sergey.babenkov@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Aristov, Victor Y. [Institute of Solid State Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Molodtsova, Olga V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Winkler, Konrad [Omicron NanoTechnology GmbH, Limburgerstr. 75, 65232 Taunusstein (Germany); Glaser, Leif; Shevchuk, Ivan; Scholz, Frank; Seltmann, Jörn; Viefhaus, Jens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-03-21

    We report on a new dynamic-XPS end-station for real-time investigations of advanced materials. The end-station is based on a new Argus hemispherical electron spectrometer with high speed detection system. In combination with the high brilliance XUV beamline P04 at PETRA III it provides users at PETRA III a unique tool for fast (down to 0.1 s/spectrum) and detailed investigations compared to existing XPS devices at other beamlines.

  20. UWB front-end for SAR-based imaging system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monni, S.; Grooters, R.; Neto, A.; Nennie, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    A planarly fed UWB leaky lens antenna is presented integrated with wide band transmit and receive front-end electronics, to be used in a SAR-based imaging system. The unique non-dispersive characteristics of this antenna over a very wide bandwidth, together with the dual band front-end electronics b

  1. Adaptive RF front-ends for hand-held applications

    CERN Document Server

    van Bezooijen, Andre; van Roermund, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The RF front-end - antenna combination is a vital part of a mobile phone because its performance is very relevant to the link quality between hand-set and cellular network base-stations. The RF front-end performance suffers from changes in operating environment, like hand-effects, that are often unpredictable. ""Adaptive RF Front-Ends for Hand-Held Applications"" presents an analysis on the impact of fluctuating environmental parameters. In order to overcome undesired behavior two different adaptive control methods are treated that make RF frond-ends more resilient: adaptive impedance control,

  2. Digital front-end module (DFEM) series; Digital front end module (DFEM) series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital front-end module (DFEM) is a module in which the processes ranging from the reception of digitally modulated radiofrequencies to the output of digital IF (Intermediate Frequency) signals or data streams are integrated. Beginning with a module for the MCNS (Multimedia Cable Network System) cable modem which was the first module in this business field approved by the Cable Labs, U.S., Toshiba has developed a series of DFEMs for various digital media for satellites, ground waves, and CATV (Cable Television) systems. The series is characterized by (1) the serialization of DFEMs compatible with various digital modulation techniques such as 8 PSK (Phase Shift Keying), OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), and 256 QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation), (2) easy connection with digital circuits thanks to the high shielding effect, and (3) the achievement of smaller size, higher performance, and lower power consumption. (translated by NEDO)

  3. FACILITATING RADICAL FRONT-END INNOVATION THROUGH TARGETED HR PRACTICES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how radical front end innovation can be actively facilitated through selected and targeted HR practices and bundles of HR practices. The empirical field is an explorative case study of front end innovation and HR practices in the pharmaceutical industry, with an in-depth case...... study of the Danish pharmaceutical company, H. Lundbeck A/S, and explorative studies of seven European and American pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The study aims to show how companies can apply HR practices in ways that actively supports the development of radical front end innovation. The value...... added and the contribution of this article to the existing FEI and HR literature therefore lies in the exploration and mapping of how radical front end innovation is and can be facilitated through targeted HR practices; and in identifying the unique opportunities and challenges of innovation...

  4. Indico front-end: From spaghetti to lasagna

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    We will present how we transitioned from legacy spaghetti UI code to a more coherent, easier to understand and maintain ecosystem of front-end technologies and facilities with a strong emphasis in reusable components. In particular, we will share with you: 1) how we use Sass to maintain our home-baked CSS, 2) how we survive in 2017 without front-end Javascript frameworks, and 3) how we use template macros and WTForms for generating consistent HTML transparently.

  5. Radiation hardness on very front-end for SPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Xavier [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: xcano@ub.edu; Graciani, Ricardo [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Gascon, David [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Garrido, Lluis [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Bota, Sebastia [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Herms, Atila [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Comerma, Albert [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Riera, Jordi [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat Ramon Llull (Spain)

    2005-10-11

    The calorimeter front-end electronics of the LHCb experiment will be located in a region, which is not protected from radiation. Therefore, all the electronics must be qualified to stand some defined radiation levels. The procedure, measurements and results of an irradiation test for every component of the very front-end SPD detector, which is part of the LHCb calorimeter are presented here. All the tested components, except a custom made ASIC, are commercially available.

  6. Phase 1 Front-End CMS Calorimeter (HE) Upgrade Preparation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of HE Phase 1 Front-End upgrade is shown. For the final quality control of the new generation HE front-end electronics components a Burn-in stand has been prepared. All electronics components are being tested on the burn-in stand and should pass through the burn-in QC before the installation on the CMS. First tests and results are presented.

  7. Node for Front-End Developers

    CERN Document Server

    Means, Garann

    2012-01-01

    If you know how to use JavaScript in the browser, you already have the skills you need to put JavaScript to work on back-end servers with Node. This hands-on book shows you how to use this popular JavaScript platform to create simple server applications, communicate with the client, build dynamic pages, work with data, and tackle other tasks. Although Node has a complete library of developer-contributed modules to automate server-side development, this book will show you how to program with Node on your own, so you truly understand the platform. Discover firsthand how well Node works as a we

  8. ALMA North American Integration Center Front-End Test System

    CERN Document Server

    Ediss, Geoffrey A; Crady, Kirk; Gaines, Erik; McLeod, Morgan; Morris, Greg; Williams, Rick; Perfetto, Antonio; Webber, John; 10.1007/s10762-010-9688-y

    2010-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter (ALMA) Array Front End (FE) system is the first element in a complex chain of signal receiving, conversion, processing and recording. 70 Front Ends will be required for the project. The Front End is designed to receive signals in ten different frequency bands. In the initial phase of operations, the antennas will be fully equipped with six bands. These are Band 3 (84-116 GHz), Band 4 (125-163 GHz), Band 6 (211-275 GHz), Band 7 (275-373 GHz), Band 8 (385-500 GHz) and Band 9 (602-720 GHz). It is planned to equip the antennas with the missing bands at a later stage of ALMA operations, with a few Band 5 (163-211 GHz) and Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers in use before the end of the construction project. The ALMA Front End is far superior to any existing receiver systems; spin-offs of the ALMA prototypes are leading to improved sensitivities in existing millimeter and submillimeter observatories. The Front End units are comprised of numerous elements, produced at different...

  9. CMS ECAL Front-End boards the XFEST project

    CERN Document Server

    Collard, Caroline; Debraine, A; Decotigny, D; Dobrzynski, L; Karar, A; Regnault, N; Romanteau, T

    2005-01-01

    The Front-End (FE) boards are part of the On-detector electronics system of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL). Their digital functionalities and properties are tested by a dedicated test bench located at Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, prior to the board integration in the CMS detector at CERN. XFEST, acronym for eXtended Front-End System Test, is designed to perform tests that can last several hours, on up to 12 FE boards in parallel. The system is designed to deliver 80 tested boards per week. This contribution presents the XFEST set-up and the results of the measurements on FE boards.

  10. ATLAS LAr Phase upgrade of the Front End Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Newcomer, Mitchel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Phase II upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon detector includes a 17 bit dynamic range front end amplifier with a two or three gain multi‐pole shaper employing CR‐(RC)n shaping. Each gain stage of the shaper will be followed by a 40Msps, 14b dynamic range, 12‐13b ENOB digitizer, serializer and fiber optic driver. A study is underway to see if a single technology (65nm or 130nm CMOS) will be suitable for all blocks up to the optical Link, enabling consideration of the development a Front End System On a Chip (FESOC).

  11. HINS Linac front end focusing system R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, G.; Carcagno, R.H.; Dimarco, J.; Huang, Y.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Page, T.M.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab /Argonne

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes current status of an R&D program to develop a focusing system for the front end of a superconducting RF linac. Superconducting solenoids will be used as focusing lenses in the low energy accelerating sections of the front end. The development of focusing lenses for the first accelerating section is in the production stage, and lens certification activities are in preparation at FNAL. The report contains information about the focusing lens design and performance, including solenoid, dipole corrector, and power leads, and about cryogenic system design and performance. It also describes the lens magnetic axis position measurement technique and discusses scope of an acceptance/certification process.

  12. CMOS front-end electronics for radiation sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Rivetti, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive treatment of front-end electronics for radiation detection. It discusses the fundamental principles of signal processing for radiation detectors and describes circuits at the level of functional building blocks, omitting transistor-level implementation. It also covers important system-level topics commonly found in the world of front-end electronics for radiation sensors. The book develops the topics in detail, with a constant focus on practical problems. It also provides real implementation examples that offer insights and stimuli for more experienced engineers already working in the field.

  13. Smart front-ends, from vision to design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, H.M. van; Baltus, P.; Bezooijen, A. van; Hegt, J.A.; Lopelli, E.; Mahmoudi, R.; Radulov, G.I.; Vidojkovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    An integral multi-disciplinary chain optimization based on a high-level cascaded Shannon-based channel modeling is proposed. It is argued that the analog part of the front-end (FE) will become a bottleneck in the overall chain. This requires a FE-centric design approach, aiming for maximizing the ef

  14. The next generation CBM MVD front-end electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebusch, Michael; Michel, Jan; Klaus, Philipp; Stroth, Joachim [Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-MVD-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) for the CBM experiment is a highly granular precision tracking device. Due to the ambitious requirements regarding spatial resolution, radiation hardness, read-out speed and material budget, monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) are the most suited detector technology for this purpose. A full read-out chain for these sensors was designed and prototyped, comprising a multi-purpose FPGA platform and specialized front-end electronics. During the last year an updated version of the front-end electronics was produced and successfully commissioned. The current front-end electronics incorporate additional configuration and monitoring capabilities which shall be used to optimize the concept of biasing and routing critical analog signals to the sensor. Tests regarding these issues are ongoing. Recent efforts aim at building a quarter of an MVD station with more than a dozen individual MAPS sensors. This requires the adaption of the front-end electronics to the spacial constraints of the set-up. Also the schematics have to be streamlined based on the insights from the abovementioned tests. This contribution presents the outcomes of the adaption and optimization procedures.

  15. Calibration method for direct conversion receiver front-ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Müller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology induced process tolerances in analog circuits cause device characteristics different from specification. For direct conversion receiver front-ends a system level calibration method is presented. The malfunctions of the devices are compensated by tuning dominant circuit parameters. Thereto optimization techniques are applied which use measurement values and special evaluation functions.

  16. PACE3 - front-end chip for the CMS Preshower

    CERN Multimedia

    Aspel, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This is PACE3 which is the front-end chip for the CMS Preshower. In fact PACE3 is the combination of two ASICs called Delta3 and PACEAM3. Delta3 is on the left and PACEAM3 is on the right. The two ASICs are bonded together and then packaged within a single 196 pin fpBGA package.

  17. A socio-interactive framework for the fuzzy front end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Frido E.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Voort, van der Mascha C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate that the dominating rational-analytic perspective on the Fuzzy Front End (FFE) of innovation could benefit by a complementary sociointeractive perspective that addresses the social processes during the FFE. We have developed a still fledgling socio-interactive framework

  18. Business modelling in the fuzzy front end of innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limonard, A.J.P.; Berkers, F.T.H.M.; Niamut, O.A.; Bachet, T.T.; Reuver, M. de

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we address the techno-economic dilemma in the fuzzy front end of R&D consortia: how to bridge the gap between the lack of knowledge on future demand for a technology and the need to make design decisions. The problem in these types of collaborations that the business interests to devel

  19. High Dynamic Range Cognitive Radio Front Ends: Architecture to Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Arun; Subbiah, Iyappan; Varga, Gabor; Schrey, Moritz; Heinen, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Advent of TV white space digitization has released frequencies from 470 MHz to 790 MHz to be utilized opportunistically. The secondary user can utilize these so called TV spaces in the absence of primary users. The most important challenge for this coexistence is mutual interference. While the strong TV stations can completely saturate the receiver of the cognitive radio (CR), the cognitive radio spurious tones can disturb other primary users and white space devices. The aim of this paper is to address the challenges for enabling cognitive radio applications in WLAN and LTE. In this process, architectural considerations for the design of cognitive radio front ends are discussed. With high-IF converters, faster and flexible implementation of CR enabled WLAN and LTE are shown. The effectiveness of the architecture is shown by evaluating the CR front ends for compliance of standards namely 802.11b/g (WLAN) and 3GPP TS 36.101 (LTE).

  20. Single Front-End MIMO Architecture with Parasitic Antenna Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Sakaguchi, Kei; Araki, Kiyomichi

    In recent years, wireless communication technology has been studied intensively. In particular, MIMO which employs several transmit and receive antennas is a key technology for enhancing spectral efficiency. However, conventional MIMO architectures require some transceiver circuits for the sake of transmitting and receiving separate signals, which incurs the cost of one RF front-end per antenna. In addition to that, MIMO systems are assumed to be used in low spatial correlation environment between antennas. Since a short distance between each antenna causes high spatial correlation and coupling effect, it is difficult to miniaturize wireless terminals for mobile use. This paper shows a novel architecture which enables mobile terminals to be miniaturized and to work with a single RF front-end by means of adaptive analog beam-forming with parasitic antenna elements and antenna switching for spatial multiplexing. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the proposed architecture is also discussed in this paper.

  1. Pixel front-end development in 65 nm CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Havránek, M; Kishishita, T; Krüger, H; Wermes, N

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) imposes severe constraints on the detector tracking systems in terms of radiation hardness and capability to cope with higher hit rates. One possible way of keeping track with increasing luminosity is the usage of more advanced technologies. Ultra deep sub-micron CMOS technologies allow a design of complex and high speed electronics with high integration density. In addition, these technologies are inherently radiation hard. We present a prototype of analog pixel front-end integrated circuit designed in 65 nm CMOS technology with applications oriented towards the ATLAS Pixel Detector upgrade. The aspects of ultra deep sub-micron design and performance of the analog pixel front-end circuits will be discussed.

  2. Novel Front-end Electronics for Time Projection Chamber Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    García García, Eduardo José

    This work has been carried out in the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and it was supported by the European Union as part of the research and development towards the European detector the (EUDET) project, specifically for the International Linear Collider (ILC). In particle physics there are several different categories of particle detectors. The presented design is focused on a particular kind of tracking detector called Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The TPC provides a three dimensional image of electrically charged particles crossing a gaseous volume. The thesis includes a study of the requirements for future TPC detectors summarizing the parameters that the front-end readout electronics must fulfill. In addition, these requirements are compared with respect to the readouts used in existing TPC detectors. It is concluded that none of the existing front-end readout designs fulfill the stringent requirements. The main requirements for future TPC detectors are high integration, an increased n...

  3. Flexible Frequency Discrimination Subsystems for Reconfigurable Radio Front Ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey-Smith Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The required flexibility of the software-defined radio front end may currently be met with better overall performance by employing tunable narrowband circuits rather than pursuing a truly wideband approach. A key component of narrowband transceivers is appropriate filtering to reduce spurious spectral content in the transmitter and limit out-of-band interference in the receiver. In this paper, recent advances in flexible, frequency-selective, circuit components applicable to reconfigurable SDR front ends are reviewed. The paper contains discussion regarding the filtering requirements in the SDR context and the use of intelligent, adaptive control to provide environment-aware frequency discrimination. Wide tuning-range frequency-selective circuit elements are surveyed including bandpass and bandstop filters and narrowband tunable antennas. The suitability of these elements to the mobile wireless SDR environment is discussed.

  4. Frequency to Voltage Converter Analog Front-End Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Carlos; Raines, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The frequency to voltage converter analog front end evaluation prototype (F2V AFE) is an evaluation board designed for comparison of different methods of accurately extracting the frequency of a sinusoidal input signal. A configurable input stage is routed to one or several of five separate, configurable filtering circuits, and then to a configurable output stage. Amplifier selection and gain, filter corner frequencies, and comparator hysteresis and voltage reference are all easily configurable through the use of jumpers and potentiometers.

  5. Enabling Front End of Innovation in a Mature Development Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise; Clausen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Many mature development organizations find it difficult to handle radical and incremental innovations within the same organizational structures. We examine how organizational structures, management, development mindsets and cultures represent a constitution of development for the thinking...... in staging new temporary development spaces framing for alternative Front End of Innovation opportunities in a mature development organization. The analysis indicates that it is important to know of the implicit and explicit rules of the constitution of development as these are re-enacted and points...

  6. The Role of Devices in Staging Front End Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    of the staging of inno-vation processes, which focuses on the content and framing of ideas at the front end. The understanding sensitises hereby towards con-cerns of path-dependency and translations, inclu-ding trade-offs and potentialities involved in su-stainning or reframing matters of significance as part...... or market and technological opportunities in the innovative process. In this respect, models are not neutral but offer certain framings, contribute translations and act as sensemaking devices....

  7. Holographic optical receiver front end for wireless infrared indoor communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivkova, S; Kavehrad, M

    2001-06-10

    Multispot diffuse configuration (MSDC) for indoor wireless optical communications, utilizing multibeam transmitter and angle diversity detection, is one of the most promising ways of achieving high capacities for use in high-bandwidth islands such as classrooms, hotel lobbies, shopping malls, and train stations. Typically, the optical front end of the receiver consists of an optical concentrator to increase the received optical signal power and an optical bandpass filter to reject the ambient light. Using the unique properties of holographic optical elements (HOE), we propose a novel design for the receiver optical subsystem used in MSDC. With a holographic curved mirror as an optical front end, the receiver would achieve more than an 10-dB improvement in the electrical signal-to-noise ratio compared with a bare photodetector. Features such as multifunctionality of the HOE and the receiver's small size, light weight, and low cost make the receiver front end a promising candidate for a user's portable equipment in broadband indoor wireless multimedia access.

  8. Passive front-ends for wideband millimeter wave electronic warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, Nathan Joseph

    This thesis presents the analysis, design and measurements of novel passive front ends of interest to millimeter wave electronic warfare systems. However, emerging threats in the millimeter waves (18 GHz and above) has led to a push for new systems capable of addressing these threats. At these frequencies, traditional techniques of design and fabrication are challenging due to small size, limited bandwidth and losses. The use of surface micromachining technology for wideband direction finding with multiple element antenna arrays for electronic support is demonstrated. A wideband tapered slot antenna is first designed and measured as an array element for the subsequent arrays. Both 18--36 GHz and 75--110 GHz amplitude only and amplitude/phase two element direction finding front ends are designed and measured. The design of arrays using Butler matrix and Rotman lens beamformers for greater than two element direction finding over W band and beyond using is also presented. The design of a dual polarized high power capable front end for electronic attack over an 18--45 GHz band is presented. To combine two polarizations into the same radiating aperture, an orthomode transducer (OMT) based upon a new double ridge waveguide cross section is developed. To provide greater flexibility in needed performance characteristics, several different turnstile junction matching sections are tested. A modular horn section is proposed to address flexible and ever changing operational requirements, and is designed for performance criteria such as constant gain, beamwidth, etc. A multi-section branch guide coupler and low loss Rotman lens based upon the proposed cross section are also developed. Prototyping methods for the herein designed millimeter wave electronic warfare front ends are investigated. Specifically, both printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping of micromachined systems and 3D printing of conventionally machined horns are presented. A 4--8 GHz two element array with

  9. New RPC front-end electronics for hades

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, Alejandro; Cabanelas, P; Díaz, J; Garzón, J A; González-Díaz, D; König, W; Lange, J S; Marín, J; Montes, N; Skott, P; Traxler, M

    2007-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) detectors are mainly used for both particle identification and triggering. Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors are becoming widely used because of their excellent TOF capabilities and reduced cost. The new ESTRELA* RPC wall, which is being installed in the HADES detector at Darmstadt GSI, will contain 1024 RPC modules, covering an active area of around 7 m2. It has excellent TOF and good charge resolutions. Its Front-End electronics is based on a 8-layer Mother-Board providing impedance matched paths for the output signals of each of the eight 4-channel Daughter-Boards to the TDC.

  10. Front-end electronics for the FAZIA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, F.; Edelbruck, P.; Brulin, G.; Borderie, B.; Richard, A.; Rivet, M. F.; Verde, G.; Wanlin, E.; Boiano, A.; Tortone, G.; Poggi, G.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Barlini, S.; Pasquali, G.; Valdré, S.; Petcu, M.; Bougault, R.; Le Neindre, N.; Alba, R.; Bonnet, E.; Bruno, M.; Chbihi, A.; Cinausero, M.; Dell'Aquila, D.; De Préaumont, H.; Duenas, J. A.; Fable, Q.; Fabris, D.; Francalanza, L.; Frankland, J. D.; Galichet, E.; Gramegna, F.; Gruyer, D.; Guerzoni, M.; Kordyasz, A.; Kozik, T.; La Torre, R.; Lombardo, I.; Lopez, O.; Mabiala, J.; Maiolino, C.; Marchi, T.; Maurenzig, P.; Meoli, A.; Merrer, Y.; Morelli, L.; Nannini, A.; Olmi, A.; Ordine, A.; Pârlog, M.; Pastore, G.; Piantelli, S.; Rosato, E.; Santonocito, D.; Scarlini, E.; Spadacini, G.; Stefaninni, A.; Vient, E.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-01-01

    FAZIA is a multidetector specifically designed to optimize A and Z reaction product identification in heavy-ion collision experiments. This multidetector is modular and based on three-layer telescopes made of two silicon detectors followed by a thick (10 cm) CsI(Tl) scintillator read-out by a photodiode. Its electronics is fully digital. The goal to push at maximum identification capability while preserving excellent energy resolution, can be achieved by using pulse-shape analysis techniques and by making an intensive use of high-speed flash ADCs. This paper presents the front-end part of the electronics.

  11. Review of the Neutrino Factory Muon Front End

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, C

    2011-01-01

    Three major facilities have been proposed for the precision study of neutrino oscillation parameters, the Neutrino Factory, the Betabeam and the Superbeam. Of these the Neutrino Factory offers high precision measurement of oscillations parameters. The Neutrino Factory generates neutrinos by firing protons onto a target in order to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured before being accelerated to 25 GeV and stored in racetrack-shaped rings where they decay to neutrinos. In this note the pion decay channel, longitudinal drift, adiabatic buncher, phase rotation and ionisation cooling system that make up the Neutrino Factory muon front end are reviewed.

  12. Instrument Front-Ends at Fermilab During Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Thomas; Voy, Duane; 10.1088/1748-0221/6/11/T11004

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of an accelerator relies on the ability to monitor the behavior of the beam in an intelligent and timely fashion. The use of processor-driven front-ends allowed for the deployment of smart systems in the field for improved data collection and analysis during Run II. This paper describes the implementation of the two main systems used: National Instruments LabVIEW running on PCs, and WindRiver's VxWorks real-time operating system running in a VME crate processor.

  13. Front-end electronics for the CMS preshower detector

    CERN Document Server

    Go, A; Barney, D; Bloch, P; Peisert, Anna; Löfstedt, B; Reynaud, S; Borkar, S; Lalwani, S

    2002-01-01

    The front-end readout system PACE2 for the CMS preshower detector consists of two chips: Delta is a 32 channel preamplifier and shaper that provides low noise, charge to voltage readout for large capacitive silicon sensors over a large dynamic range (up to 400 MIPs); PACE-AM contains a 32-channel wide, 160-cell deep, analog memory with a 32 to 1 multiplexer for serial readout. These chips are designed in .8 mu m BiCMOS DMILL radiation tolerant technology. The performance in terms of dynamic range, linearity, noise, peaking time and memory uniformity are presented. (4 refs).

  14. Instrument Front-Ends at Fermilab During Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas; Slimmer, David; Voy, Duane; /Fermilab

    2011-07-13

    The optimization of an accelerator relies on the ability to monitor the behavior of the beam in an intelligent and timely fashion. The use of processor-driven front-ends allowed for the deployment of smart systems in the field for improved data collection and analysis during Run II. This paper describes the implementation of the two main systems used: National Instruments LabVIEW running on PCs, and WindRiver's VxWorks real-time operating system running in a VME crate processor.

  15. Wideband monolithically integrated front-end subsystems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruk, Joseph Rene

    This thesis presents the analysis, design, and measurements of passive, monolithically integrated, wideband recta-coax and printed circuit board front-end components. Monolithic fabrication of antennas, impedance transformers, filters, and transitions lowers manufacturing costs by reducing assembly time and enhances performance by removing connectors and cabling between the devices. Computational design, fabrication, and measurements are used to demonstrate the capabilities of these front-end assemblies. Two-arm wideband planar log-periodic antennas fed using a horizontal feed that allows for filters and impedance transformers to be readily fabricated within the radiating region of the antenna are demonstrated. At microwave frequencies, low-cost printed circuit board processes are typically used to produce planar devices. A 1.8 to 11 GHz two-arm planar log-periodic antenna is designed with a monolithically integrated impedance transformer. Band rejection methods based on modifying the antenna aperture, use of an integrated filter, and the application of both methods are investigated with realized gain suppressions of over 25 dB achieved. The ability of standard circuit board technology to fabricate millimeter-wave devices up to 110 GHz is severely limited. Thin dielectrics are required to prevent the excitation of higher order modes in the microstrip substrate. Fabricating the thin line widths required for the antenna aperture also becomes prohibitively challenging. Surface micro-machining typically used in the fabrication of MEMS devices is capable of producing the extremely small features that can be used to fabricate antennas extending through W-band. A directly RF fed 18 to 110 GHz planar log-periodic antenna is developed. The antenna is fabricated with an integrated impedance transformer and additional transitions for measurement characterization. Singly terminated low-loss wideband millimeter-wave filters operating over V- and W- band are developed. High

  16. FRONT-END ASIC FOR A SILICON COMPTON TELESCOPE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE GERONIMO,G.; FRIED, J.; FROST, E.; PHLIPS, B.; VERNON, E.; WULF, E.A.

    2007-10-27

    We describe a front-end application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed for a silicon Compton telescope. Composed of 32 channels, it reads out signals in both polarities from each side of a Silicon strip sensor, 2 mm thick 27 cm long, characterized by a strip capacitance of 30 pF. Each front-end channel provides low-noise charge amplification, shaping with a stabilized baseline, discrimination, and peak detection with an analog memory. The channels can process events simultaneously, and the read out is sparsified. The charge amplifier makes uses a dual-cascode configuration and dual-polarity adaptive reset, The low-hysteresis discriminator and the multi-phase peak detector process signals with a dynamic range in excess of four hundred. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) below 200 electrons was measured at 30 pF, with a slope of about 4.5 electrons/pF at a peaking time of 4 {micro}s. With a total dissipated power of 5 mW the channel covers an energy range up to 3.2 MeV.

  17. Front End Schaltung zur Online Auswertung von EKG-Signalen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ayari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ein mobiles EKG-System zur Online Auswertung von EKG-Signalen wird dargestellt. Die Auswertung beruht auf ein energiesparendes Verfahren, das den Vorteil einer zulässigen Unterabtastung des Signals bietet und eine Interaktion zwischen der messenden Elektronik und dem funkgebundenen Auswertungsrechner ermöglicht. Diese Interaktion besteht darin, sowohl die Front End Schaltung im EKG-Sensor als auch den im ATmega8L eingebetteten A/D-Wandler vom Auswertungsrechner zu steuern und den Datenbedarf des Rechners dynamisch an die Erfordernisse des Analyseprogramms anzupassen. Das entwickelte EKG-System liefert erfolgreiche Charakterisierungen erfasster Elektrokardiogramme.

    A mobile ecg-system for an online analysis of electrocardiogram signals is presented. The analysis is based on an energy-saving procedure, which offers the advantage of an acceptable undersampling of the signal, and which allows an interaction between the measuring electronic and the radio-bound analysis-computer. In this interaction both the front-end circuit in the ecg-sensor and the A/D converter, which is embedded in the ATmega8L, are steered by the analysis computer. The data requirement of the computer is also dynamically adapted to the requirements of the analysis-program. The developed ecg-system supplies successful characterisations of measured electrocardiograms.

  18. TDC for the front end architecture in the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Alberto; Brinkmann, Kai Thomas; Di Pietro, Valentino [II Physikalisches Institut Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Garbolino, Sara; Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    In nuclear detectors the information on the energy of the particle is usually obtained by measuring the amplitude of the signal delivered by the sensor. The low voltage power supply used in modern deep submicron technologies constrains the maximum dynamic range of the ADC. So we can obtain the energy information with time-based techniques, in which the energy is associated with the duration of the signal through the Time over Threshold method. This work is focused on the PANDA Micro Vertex Detector and explores the possibility of applying a time-based readout approach for the microstrip sensors. In PANDA, the strip system must cope with hit rates up to 50 kHz per channel. Therefore, the front-end output must be relatively short. This implies that the clock resolution is not enough to measure the signal duration, so it is necessary to use a Time to Digital Converter. The front-end and the TDC structure are designed in a 0.11μm CMOS process. The TDC chosen is based on an analog clock interpolator because it combines good time resolution with a fairly simple implementation and low power consumption. In the presentation the architectures are described and the challenges associated to its implementation discussed.

  19. Performance of Front-End Readout System for PHENIX RICH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, K.; Hamagaki, H.; Nishimura, S.; Shigaki, K.; Hayano, R.S.; Hibino, M.; Kametani, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakaguchi, T.; Ebisu, K.; Hara, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Ushiroda, T.; Moscone, C.G.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1999-11-15

    A front-end electronics system has been developed for the Ring Imaging Cerenkov (RICH) detector of the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). A high speed custom back-plane with source synchronous bus architecture, a full custom analog ASIC, and board modules with FPGA's and CPLD's were developed for high performance real time data acquisition. The transfer rate of the back-lane has reached 640 MB/s with 128 bits data bus. Total transaction time is estimated to be less than 30 {micro}s per event. The design specifications and test results of the system are presented in this paper.

  20. Evolutionary algorithm for the neutrino factory front end design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poklonskiy, Alexey A.; /Michigan State U.; Neuffer, David; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory is an important tool in the long-term neutrino physics program. Substantial effort is put internationally into designing this facility in order to achieve desired performance within the allotted budget. This accelerator is a secondary beam machine: neutrinos are produced by means of the decay of muons. Muons, in turn, are produced by the decay of pions, produced by hitting the target by a beam of accelerated protons suitable for acceleration. Due to the physics of this process, extra conditioning of the pion beam coming from the target is needed in order to effectively perform subsequent acceleration. The subsystem of the Neutrino Factory that performs this conditioning is called Front End, its main performance characteristic is the number of the produced muons.

  1. The hybrid front end PCBs production for the CMS preshower

    CERN Document Server

    Soukoulias, P

    2009-01-01

    The High Energy Physics Detector CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid),installed at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN,Geneva,has been built by an International Collaboration;CMS will measure and identify the particles from proton-proton collisions.One of the CMS component is the Preshower sub-detector,comprising 5000 silicon strip sensors connected to Hybrid Front End Boards for the readout.This paper focuses on an in-kind contibution of Greece.This work was carried out by researches,engineers and managers from a medium size Company,Prisma Electronics,located in Alexandropolis and researchers from CERN in Geneva,Demokritos in Athens and the University of Ioannina.The number of pieces fitting the technical specifications was close to 100%.Because of that,in March 2009,Prisma received as recognition a CERN CMS gold award.

  2. Fact Sheet for KM200 Front-end Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iliev, Metodi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-08

    The KM200 device is a versatile, configurable front-end electronics boards that can be used as a functional replacement for Canberra’s JAB-01 boards based on the Amptek A-111 hybrid chip, which continues to be the preferred choice of electronics for large number of the boards in junction boxes of multiplicity counters that process the signal from an array of 3He detectors. Unlike the A-111 chip’s fixed time constants and sensitivity range, the shaping time and sensitivity of the new KM200 can be optimized for demanding applications such as spent fuel, and thus could improve the safeguards measurements of existing systems where the A-111 or PDT electronics does not perform well.

  3. The ALMA Front-end Archive Setup and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicenec, A.; Chen, A.; Checcucci, A.; Jeram, B.; Meuss, H.; Persson, A.; Burgos, P.; Cirami, R.

    2010-12-01

    The ALMA front-end archive system has to capture up to 64 MB/s for a period of several days plus the data of about 100,000 monitor points from all 66 antennas and the correlators. The main science data is delivered through corba based audio/video streams and finally stored on SATA disk arrays hosted on 6 computers and controlled by 12 daemons. All data is collected by software components running on computers in the antennas and then sent through dedicated fiber links to the Array Operations Site at 5000 m and from there to the Operations Support Facility (OSF) at 3000 m elevation. The various hardware and software components have been tuned and tested to be able to meet the performance requirements. This paper describes the setup and the various components in more detail and gives results of various test runs.

  4. Shielding design for the front end of the CERN SPL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistris, Matteo; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    CERN is designing a 2.2-GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) with a beam power of 4 MW, to be used for the production of a neutrino superbeam. The SPL front end will initially accelerate 2 x 10(14) negative hydrogen ions per second up to an energy of 120 MeV. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code was employed for shielding design. The proposed shielding is a combined iron-concrete structure, which also takes into consideration the required RF wave-guide ducts and access labyrinths to the machine. Two beam-loss scenarios were investigated: (1) constant beam loss of 1 Wm(-1) over the whole accelerator length and (2) full beam loss occurring at various locations. A comparison with results based on simplified approaches is also presented.

  5. Neural-network front ends in unsupervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrycz, W; Waletzky, J

    1997-01-01

    Proposed is an idea of partial supervision realized in the form of a neural-network front end to the schemes of unsupervised learning (clustering). This neural network leads to an anisotropic nature of the induced feature space. The anisotropic property of the space provides us with some of its local deformation necessary to properly represent labeled data and enhance efficiency of the mechanisms of clustering to be exploited afterwards. The training of the network is completed based upon available labeled patterns-a referential form of the labeling gives rise to reinforcement learning. It is shown that the discussed approach is universal and can be utilized in conjunction with any clustering method. Experimental studies are concentrated on three main categories of unsupervised learning including FUZZY ISODATA, Kohonen self-organizing maps, and hierarchical clustering.

  6. A software-radio front-end for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streifinger, M.; Müller, T.; Luy, J.-F.; Biebl, E. M.

    2003-05-01

    In modern communication, sensor and signal processing systems digitisation methods are gaining importance. They allow for building software configurable systems and provide better stability and reproducibility. Moreover digital front-ends cover a wider range of applications and have better performance compared with analog ones. The quest for new architectures in radio frequency front-ends is a clear consequence of the ever increasing number of different standards and the resulting task to provide a platform which covers as many standards as possible. At microwave frequencies, in particular at frequencies beyond 10 GHz, no direct sampling receivers are available yet. A look at the roadmap of the development of commercial analog-to-digital-converters (ADC) shows clearly, that they can neither be expected in near future. We present a novel architecture, which is capable of direct sampling of band-limited signals at frequencies beyond 10 GHz by means of an over-sampling technique. The wellknown Nyquist criterion states that wide-band digitisation of an RF-signal with a maximum frequency ƒ requires a minimum sampling rate of 2 · ƒ . But for a band-limited signal of bandwidth B the demands for the minimum sampling rate of the ADC relax to the value 2 · B. Employing a noise-forming sigma-delta ADC architecture even with a 1-bit-ADC a signal-to-noise ratio sufficient for many applications can be achieved. The key component of this architecture is the sample-and-hold switch. The required bandwidth of this switch must be well above 2 · ƒ . We designed, fabricated and characterized a preliminary demonstrator for the ISM-band at 2.4 GHz employing silicon Schottky diodes as a switch and SiGe-based MMICs as impedance transformers and comparators. Simulated and measured results will be presented.

  7. A software-radio front-end for microwave applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Streifinger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern communication, sensor and signal processing systems digitisation methods are gaining importance. They allow for building software configurable systems and provide better stability and reproducibility. Moreover digital front-ends cover a wider range of applications and have better performance compared with analog ones. The quest for new architectures in radio frequency front-ends is a clear consequence of the ever increasing number of different standards and the resulting task to provide a platform which covers as many standards as possible. At microwave frequencies, in particular at frequencies beyond 10 GHz, no direct sampling receivers are available yet. A look at the roadmap of the development of commercial analog-to-digital-converters (ADC shows clearly, that they can neither be expected in near future. We present a novel architecture, which is capable of direct sampling of band-limited signals at frequencies beyond 10 GHz by means of an over-sampling technique. The wellknown Nyquist criterion states that wide-band digitisation of an RF-signal with a maximum frequency ƒ requires a minimum sampling rate of 2 · ƒ . But for a band-limited signal of bandwidth B the demands for the minimum sampling rate of the ADC relax to the value 2 · B. Employing a noise-forming sigma-delta ADC architecture even with a 1-bit-ADC a signal-to-noise ratio sufficient for many applications can be achieved. The key component of this architecture is the sample-and-hold switch. The required bandwidth of this switch must be well above 2 · ƒ . We designed, fabricated and characterized a preliminary demonstrator for the ISM-band at 2.4 GHz employing silicon Schottky diodes as a switch and SiGe-based MMICs as impedance transformers and comparators. Simulated and measured results will be presented.

  8. Highly scalable digital front end architectures for digital printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staas, David

    2011-01-01

    HP's digital printing presses consume a tremendous amount of data. The architectures of the Digital Front Ends (DFEs) that feed these large, very fast presses have evolved from basic, single-RIP (Raster Image Processor) systems to multirack, distributed systems that can take a PDF file and deliver data in excess of 3 Gigapixels per second to keep the presses printing at 2000+ pages per minute. This paper highlights some of the more interesting parallelism features of our DFE architectures. The high-performance architecture developed over the last 5+ years can scale up to HP's largest digital press, out to multiple mid-range presses, and down into a very low-cost single box deployment for low-end devices as appropriate. Principles of parallelism pervade every aspect of the architecture, from the lowest-level elements of jobs to parallel imaging pipelines that feed multiple presses. From cores to threads to arrays to network teams to distributed machines, we use a systematic approach to move bottlenecks. The ultimate goals of these efforts are: to take the best advantage of the prevailing hardware options at our disposal; to reduce power consumption and cooling requirements; and to ultimately reduce the cost of the solution to our customers.

  9. Circuit techniques for cognitive radio receiver front-ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Bodhisatwa

    This thesis discusses the design of the receiver front-end for software defined radio (SDR) based cognitive radio applications. Two aspects of SDRs for cognitive radios are distinguished: signaling and spectrum sensing. Narrowband wide tuning signaling architectures and instantaneous wideband spectrum sensing architectures are identified as candidates for feasible SDR implementations. Several architectures and circuit implementations are reviewed. Wide tuning range, low phase noise frequency synthesizers for signaling, and RF samplers and signal processors for spectrum sensing are identified as critical circuit design blocks. A number of voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) techniques for wide-tuning range, and low phase noise frequency synthesis techniques are developed. Wide-tuning range techniques based on switched inductors are proposed as a way to design inductor-capacitor (LC) VCOs with wide-tuning ranges that maintain a good phase noise and power dissipation performance over the entire tuning range. Switched inductor VCOs are analyzed in detail, and a design framework is developed. Optimized capacitor array design techniques for wide-tuning ranges are discussed. Based on these techniques, measurements from two prototype designs are presented, that achieve tuning ranges of 87% and 157% in measurement. They also maintain good phase noise, power consumption, and figure of merit (FOM) over the entire tuning range. In addition, a new family of VCOs that achieve superior phase noise is introduced. This set of novel topologies are based on linearized transconductance using capacitive feedback techniques. They achieve higher amplitudes of oscillation, and consequently, a superior phase noise performance. A wide tuning range is also maintained. The VCOs are analyzed, and detailed measurement results from a design prototype are presented. For spectrum sensing, the design of CRAFT (Charge Re-use Analog Fourier Transform): an RF front-end channelizer for software defined

  10. Front-end electronics for the Muon Portal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garozzo, S.; Marano, D.; Bonanno, G.; Grillo, A.; Romeo, G.; Timpanaro, M. C.; Lo Presti, D.; Riggi, F.; Russo, V.; Bonanno, D.; La Rocca, P.; Longhitano, F.; Bongiovanni, D. G.; Fallica, G.; Valvo, G.

    2016-10-01

    The Muon Portal Project was born as a joint initiative between Italian research and industrial partners, aimed at the construction of a real-size working detector prototype to inspect the content of traveling containers by means of secondary cosmic-ray muon radiation and recognize potentially dangerous hidden materials. The tomographic image is obtained by reconstructing the incoming and outgoing muon trajectories when crossing the inspected volume, employing two tracker planes located above and below the container under inspection. In this paper, the design and development of the front-end electronics of the Muon Portal detector is presented, with particular emphasis being devoted to the photo-sensor devices detecting the scintillation light and to the read-out circuitry which is in charge of processing and digitizing the analog pulse signals. In addition, the remote control system, mechanical housing, and thermal cooling system of all structural blocks of the Muon Portal tracker are also discussed, demonstrating the effectiveness and functionality of the adopted design.

  11. DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION OF RECONFIGURABLE FRONT END FOR MIMO-OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEENA M.B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on design, implement and optimization of digital front end module of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM system on FPGA employing Alamouti Technique (Space Time Block coding. MIMO-OFDM can very effectively be used to achieve higher data rate’s and higher reliability and this is going to be the Key for 4G Technology. MIMO -OFDM designed in this work consists of Input/Output Memory, 16 QAM Modulator, MIMO Encoder (Space Time Encoder, Wireless Channel Model, MIMO Decoder Space Time Decoder and 16 QAM Demodulator. This paper has resulted in the development of a hardware prototype of a MIMO Transmitter, Receiver and channel, which is implemented on a Spartan-3 FPGA board. As the number format adopted is floating point,there was a need to develop a separate function which will show the equivalent real numbers for the corresponding floating point number. This made the task of debugging a lot easier. Test benches for individual model were developed and tested it for its correct functionality. The functional simulation was carried out for the entire design. The entire design was mapped on to FPGA. The results were compared with the MATLAB results and were found to be the same.

  12. Toward 5G software defined radio receiver front-ends

    CERN Document Server

    Spiridon, Silvian

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a new intuitive design methodology for the optimal design path for next-generation software defined radio front-ends (SDRXs). The methodology described empowers designers to "attack" the multi-standard environment in a parallel way rather than serially, providing a critical tool for any design methodology targeting 5G circuits and systems. Throughout the book the SDRX design follows the key wireless standards of the moment (i.e., GSM, WCDMA, LTE, Bluetooth, WLAN), since a receiver compatible with these standards is the most likely candidate for the first design iteration in a 5G deployment. The author explains the fundamental choice the designer has to make regarding the optimal channel selection: how much of the blockers/interferers will be filtered in the analog domain and how much will remain to be filtered in the digital domain. The system-level analysis the author describes entails the direct sampling architecture is treated as a particular case of mixer-based direct conversion archi...

  13. Digital Front End for Wide-Band VLBI Science Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeling, Andre; Sigman, Elliott; Navarro, Robert; Goodhart, Charles; Rogstad, Steve; Chandra, Kumar; Finley, Sue; Trinh, Joseph; Soriano, Melissa; White, Les; Proctor, Robert; Rayhrer, Benno

    2006-01-01

    An upgrade to the very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) science receiver (VSR) a radio receiver used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is currently being implemented. The current VSR samples standard DSN intermediate- frequency (IF) signals at 256 MHz and after digital down-conversion records data from up to four 16-MHz baseband channels. Currently, IF signals are limited to the 265-to-375-MHz range, and recording rates are limited to less than 80 Mbps. The new digital front end, denoted the Wideband VSR, provides improvements to enable the receiver to process wider bandwidth signals and accommodate more data channels for recording. The Wideband VSR utilizes state-of-the-art commercial analog-to-digital converter and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits, and fiber-optic connections in a custom architecture. It accepts IF signals from 100 to 600 MHz, sampling the signal at 1.28 GHz. The sample data are sent to a digital processing module, using a fiber-optic link for isolation. The digital processing module includes boards designed around an Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) industry-standard backplane. Digital signal processing implemented in FPGAs down-convert the data signals in up to 16 baseband channels with programmable bandwidths from 1 kHz to 16 MHz. Baseband samples are transmitted to a computer via multiple Ethernet connections allowing recording to disk at rates of up to 1 Gbps.

  14. Front-end electronics and trigger systems - status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieler, Helmuth G; Spieler, Helmuth G

    2007-08-21

    The past quarter century has brought about a revolution in front-end electronics for large-scale detector systems. Custom integrated circuits specifically tailored to the requirements of large detector systems have provided unprecedented performance and enabled systems that once were deemed impossible. The evolution of integrated circuit readouts in strip detectors is summarized, the present status described, and challenges posed by the sLHC and ILC are discussed. Performance requirements increase, but key considerations remain as in the past: power dissipation, material, and services. Smaller CMOS feature sizes will not provide the required electronic noise at lower power, but will improve digital power efficiency. Significant improvements appear to be practical in more efficient power distribution. Enhanced digital electronics have provided powerful trigger processors that greatly improve the trigger efficiency. In data readout systems they also improve data throughput, while reducing power requirements. Concurrently with new developments in high energy physics, detector systems for cosmology and astrophysics have made great strides. As an example, a large-scale readout for superconducting bolometer arrays is described.

  15. An Enhanced Front-End Algorithm for Reducing Channel Change Time in DVB-T System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Inwhee; Choi, Jongsung

    To address the low performance for channel scanning in the DVB-T system, we propose an enhanced front-end algorithm in this paper. The proposed algorithm consists of Auto Scan and Normal Scan, which is a part of the tuning algorithm for front-end (tuner) drivers in the DVB-T receiver. The key idea is that the frequency offset is saved when performing Auto Scan in order to reduce the channel change time for Normal Scan. In addition, the results of a performance evaluation demonstrate that our enhanced front-end algorithm improves the performance of channel scanning significantly, as compared to the generic front-end algorithm.

  16. Fully Integrated Biopotential Acquisition Analog Front-End IC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-09-30

    A biopotential acquisition analog front-end (AFE) integrated circuit (IC) is presented. The biopotential AFE includes a capacitively coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier (CCIA) to achieve low input referred noise (IRN) and to block unwanted DC potential signals. A DC servo loop (DSL) is designed to minimize the offset voltage in the chopper amplifier and low frequency respiration artifacts. An AC coupled ripple rejection loop (RRL) is employed to reduce ripple due to chopper stabilization. A capacitive impedance boosting loop (CIBL) is designed to enhance the input impedance and common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) without additional power consumption, even under an external electrode mismatch. The AFE IC consists of two-stage CCIA that include three compensation loops (DSL, RRL, and CIBL) at each CCIA stage. The biopotential AFE is fabricated using a 0.18 μm one polysilicon and six metal layers (1P6M) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The core chip size of the AFE without input/output (I/O) pads is 10.5 mm². A fourth-order band-pass filter (BPF) with a pass-band in the band-width from 1 Hz to 100 Hz was integrated to attenuate unwanted signal and noise. The overall gain and band-width are reconfigurable by using programmable capacitors. The IRN is measured to be 0.94 μVRMS in the pass band. The maximum amplifying gain of the pass-band was measured as 71.9 dB. The CIBL enhances the CMRR from 57.9 dB to 67 dB at 60 Hz under electrode mismatch conditions.

  17. Realization of Miniaturized Multi-/Wideband Microwave Front-Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shamaileh, Khair A.

    The ever-growing demand toward designing microwave front-end components with enhanced access to the radio spectrum (e.g., multi-/wideband functionality) and improved physical features (e.g., miniaturized circuitry, ease and cost of fabrication) is becoming more paramount than ever before. This dissertation proposes new design methodologies, simulations, and experimental validations of passive front-ends (i.e., antennas, couplers, dividers) at microwave frequencies. The presented design concepts optimize both electrical and physical characteristics without degrading the intended performance. The developed designs are essential to the upcoming wireless technologies. The first proposed component is a compact ultra-wideband (UWB) Wilkinson power divider (WPD). The design procedure is accomplished by replacing the uniform transmission lines in each arm of the conventional single-frequency divider with impedance-varying profiles governed by a truncated Fourier series. While such non-uniform transmission lines (NTLs) are obtained through the even-mode analysis, three isolation resistors are optimized in the odd-mode circuit to achieve proper isolation and output ports matching over the frequency range of interest. The proposed design methodology is systematic, and results in single-layered and compact structures. For verification purposes, an equal split WPD is designed, simulated, and measured. The obtained results show that the input and output ports matching as well as the isolation between the output ports are below --10 dB; whereas the transmission parameters vary between --3.2 dB and --5 dB across the 3.1--10.6 GHz band. The designed divider is expected to find applications in UWB antenna diversity, multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) schemes, and antenna arrays feeding networks. The second proposed component is a wideband multi-way Bagley power divider (BPD). Wideband functionality is achieved by replacing the single-frequency matching uniform microstrip lines in

  18. Basic design of beamline and polarization control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The basic concept of synchrotron radiation beamlines for vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray experiments has been introduced to beginning users and designers of beamlines. The beamline defined here is composed of a front end,pre-mirrors, and a monochromator with refocusing mirrors, which are connected by beam pipes, providing monochromatic light for the experiments. Firstly, time characteristics of the synchrotron radiation are briefly reviewed.Secondly, the basic technology is introduced as the fundamental knowledge required to both users and designers. The topics are photoabsorption by air and solids, front ends and beam pipes, mirrors, monochromators, and filters. Thirdly,the design consideration is described mainly for the designers. The topics are design principle, principle of ray tracing,optical machinery and control, and vacuum. Fourthly, polarization control is considered. The topics are polarizers,polarization diagnosis of beamline, and circularly-polarized light generation. Finally, a brief summary is given introducing some references for further knowledge of the users and the designers.

  19. Front-end research for a low-cost spectrum analyser v1 0 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses front-end research for a low-cost spectrum analyser. Requirement of the front-end are derived and a topology study is performed, both from an analogue as a digital perspective. Simulations are carried out to confirm the findings. This master project was initiated by Bruco B.V.,

  20. PHYSICS RESULTS OF THE NSLS-II LINAC FRONT END TEST STAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller R. P.; Gao, F.; Yang, X.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Piel, C

    2012-05-20

    The Linac Front End Test Stand (LFETS) was installed at the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) in the fall of 2011 in order to test the Linac Front End. The goal of these tests was to test the electron source against the specifications of the linac. In this report, we discuss the results of these measurements and the effect on linac performance.

  1. Sustainability in the front-end of innovation at design agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storaker, A.; Wever, R.; Dewulf, K.; Blankenburg, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the two last decades a considerable amount of research has been conducted on the Front End of Innovation. This is the stage of the product development process where the design brief is formulated. This phase is argued to be crucial to the success of the final product. While the Front End of Innov

  2. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmott, P. R., E-mail: philip.willmott@psi.ch; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-16

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs.

  3. The ITER neutral beam front end components integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, M., E-mail: marc.urbani@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Hemsworth, R.; Schunke, B.; Graceffa, J.; Delmas, E.; Svensson, L.; Boilson, D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Krylov, A.; Panasenkov, A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Agarici, G. [Fusion For Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Stafford Allen, R.; Jones, C.; Kalsey, M.; Muir, A.; Milnes, J. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Geli, F. [FGI Consulting, Le Garde d’Estienne, 4565 route du Puy Sainte Reparade, 13540 Puyricard (France); Sherlock, P. [AMEC Limited, Booths Park Chelford Road, Knutsford Cheshire WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    The neutral beam (NB) system for ITER is composed of two heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and a diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). A third HNB can be installed as a future up-grade. This paper will present the design development of the components between the injectors and the tokamak; the so-called ‘front end components’: the drift duct consists of the NB bellows and the drift duct liner, the vacuum vessel pressure suppression system box (VVPSS box), the absolute valve, and the fast shutter. These components represent the key links between the ITER tokamak and the vessels of the NB injectors. The design of these components is demanding due to the different loads that these components will have to stand. The paper will describe the different design solutions which have to be implemented regarding the primary vacuum confinement, the power handling capability and the remote maintenance operations. The sizes of the components are determined by the large cross section of the neutral beam. The power handling capability is driven by the anticipated re-ionization of the neutral beam and the electromagnetic fields in this region. The drift duct bellows (with an inner diameter of 2.5 m) shall guarantee a leak tight vacuum enclosure during the vertical and radial displacements of the ITER vacuum vessel. The conductance of the VVPSS box must be maximized in the available space. The absolute valve remains a challenging development. The total leak rate through the valve must be ≤1 × 10{sup −8} Pa m{sup 3}/s when the valve is closed. Due to the radiation environment, the seals of the gate valve will be metallic. An R and D program has been launched to develop a suitable metallic seal solution with the required dimensions. The maximum allowed closing time for the fast shutter shall be less than 1 s. For all these components the leak tightness will be guaranteed by a welded lip seal and the mechanical stability by bolted structures.

  4. Ultra-wideband wireless receiver front-end for high-speed indoor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Yang Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-noise, ultra-wideband (UWB wireless receiver front-end circuits were presented in this study. A two-stage common-source low-noise amplifier with wideband input impedance matching network, an active-balun and a double-balanced down-conversion mixer were adopted in the UWB wireless receiver front-end. The proposed wireless receiver front-end circuits were implemented in 0.18 μm radio-frequency-CMOS process. The maximum down-conversion power gain of the front-end is 25.8 dB; minimum single-sideband noise figure of the front-end is 4.9 dB over complete UWB band ranging from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. Power consumption including buffers is 39.2 mW.

  5. Readout Control Specifications for the Front-End and Back-End of the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system [1] in order to run at between five and ten times the initial design luminosity. The various sub-systems in the readout architecture will need to be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. The development of a new readout control system for the upgraded LHCb readout system was investigated already in 2008 [2]. This work has evolved into a detailed system-level specification of the entire timing and readout control system [3]. In this paper, we specify in detail the functionalities that must be supported by the Front-End and the Back-End electronics to comply with the timing requirements and the readout scheme, and the necessary control and monitoring capabilities in order to validate, commission and operate the upgraded experiment efficiently and with sufficient flexibility. The document focuses entirely on the readout control aspects of the FE and BE, and the ECS inter...

  6. LabVIEW interface with Tango control system for a multi-technique X-ray spectrometry IAEA beamline end-station at Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, P. M.; Bogovac, M.; Sghaier, H.; Leani, J. J.; Migliori, A.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Czyzycki, M.; Osan, J.; Kaiser, R. B.; Karydas, A. G.

    2016-10-01

    A new synchrotron beamline end-station for multipurpose X-ray spectrometry applications has been recently commissioned and it is currently accessible by end-users at the XRF beamline of Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste. The end-station consists of an ultra-high vacuum chamber that includes as main instrument a seven-axis motorized manipulator for sample and detectors positioning, different kinds of X-ray detectors and optical cameras. The beamline end-station allows performing measurements in different X-ray spectrometry techniques such as Microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (μXRF), Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (TXRF), Grazing Incidence/Exit X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (GI-XRF/GE-XRF), X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR), and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). A LabVIEW Graphical User Interface (GUI) bound with Tango control system consisted of many custom made software modules is utilized as a user-friendly tool for control of the entire end-station hardware components. The present work describes this advanced Tango and LabVIEW software platform that utilizes in an optimal synergistic manner the merits and functionality of these well-established programming and equipment control tools.

  7. Front-End Types. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with automobile front-end types. Covered in the module are three common types of passenger car front suspension systems and their major components as well as two types…

  8. RF Front End Based on MEMS Components for Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, AlphaSense, Inc. and the Carnegie Mellon University propose to develop a RF receiver front end based on CMOS-MEMS components for miniaturized...

  9. Oxford Summer School "Intelligent Front-End Signal Processing for Frontier Exploitation in Research and Industry"

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinary Summer School on Intelligent Front-End Signal Processing for Frontier Exploitation in Research and Industry. For details about the school programme and registration, please visit: http://www.physics.ox.ac.uk/INFIERI2013/

  10. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF SUPPORTING OPEN SOURCE FRONT END INNOVATION THROUGH IDEA MANAGEMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Most industries face continuing pressures from rising R&D costs, shortening product lifecycles and global competition. These challenges have increased the focus on shortening development times, which again puts pressure on the efficiency of front end innovation (FEI). In the attempt...... to overcome these various challenges companies are looking for new models to support FEI. This theoretical paper explores in what way idea management may be applied as a tool in facilitation of front end innovation and how this facilitation may be captured in a conceptual model. First, I show through...... a literature study, how idea management and front end innovation are related and how they may support each other. Secondly, I present a theoretical model of how idea management may be applied in support of the open source front end of new product innovations. Thirdly, I present different venues of further...

  11. RF Front End Based on MEMS Components for Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, AlphaSense, Inc. (AI) and the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) detail the development of RF front end based on MEMS components for miniaturized...

  12. A digital Front-End and Readout MIcrosystem for calorimetry at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-16 A Digital Front-End and Readout Microsystem for Calorimetry at LHC \\\\ \\\\Front-end signal processing for calorimetric detectors is essential in order to achieve adequate selectivity in the trigger function of an LHC experiment, with data identification and compaction before readout being required in the harsh, high rate environment of a high luminosity hadron machine. Other crucial considerations are the extremely wide dynamic range and bandwidth requirements, as well as the volume of data to be transferred to following stages of the trigger and readout system. These requirements are best met by an early digitalization of the detector information, followed by integrated digital signal processing and buffering functions covering the trigger latencies.\\\\ \\\\The FERMI (Front-End Readout MIcrosystem) is a digital implementation of the front-end and readout electronic chain for calorimeters. It is based on dynamic range compression, high speed A to D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter c...

  13. Measurement of Design Process Front-End – Radical Innovation Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Pekka; Pihlajamaa, Jussi; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2014-01-01

    The overall structure and the main characteristics of the future product are all decided in the front-end phase, which then strongly affects subsequent new product development activities. Recent studies indicate that these early front-end activities represent the most troublesome phase of the inn...... is flexible and can also be applied extensively to other purposes than manufacturing companies, like service sector, as well....

  14. A front-end stage with signal compression capability for XFEL detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, B.; Fiorini, C.; Grande, A.; Erdinger, F.; Fischer, P.; Porro, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a front-end stage with signal compression capability to be used in detectors for the new European XFEL in Hamburg. This front-end is an alternative solution under study for the DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detection system for the European XFEL. The DEPFET sensor of the DSSC project has a high dynamic range and very good noise performance. The high gain for small collected charge and the compression for large signals will provide both desired features of single photon detection capability and wide dynamic range. However, manufacturing of the DEPFET sensor requires a sophisticated processing technology with a relatively long time fabrication process. Accordingly, an alternative solution, namely Day-0 solution, was introduced as an approach characterized not by the best performance of the DEPFET, but available in a shorter time to allow first beam tests and experiments. The alternative sensor is made of mini Silicon Drift Detector (mini-SDD) and the compression behavior is obtained from the front-end on the readout ASIC and not by the transistor integrated in the silicon sensor, as in the DEPFET. The first version of corresponding front-end of the Day-0 solution has been realized based on an input PMOSFET transistor placed on the readout chip. This simple front-end proved the working principle of the proposed compression technique and the desired noise performance. In this paper, an improved version of the Day-0 front-end is presented. In the new prototype, the current gain of the front-end stage has been increased by factor of 1.8, the total input capacitance (SDD+PMOSFET) has been reduced by factor of 2 with respect to the previous prototype and consequently the noise performance has been improved. Moreover, by introducing selectable extra branches in parallel with the main one, the compression behavior of the front-end can be tuned based on desired dynamic range.

  15. Implementation of Low-Cost UHF RFID Reader Front-Ends with Carrier Leakage Suppression Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Bin You; Bo Yang; Xuan Wen; Liangyu Qu

    2013-01-01

    A new ultrahigh frequency radio frequency identification (UHF RFID) reader’s front-end circuit which is based on zero-IF, single antenna structure and composed of discrete components has been designed. The proposed design brings a significant improvement of the reading performance by adopting a carrier leakage suppression (CLS) circuit instead of a circulator which is utilized by most of the conventional RF front-end circuit. Experimental results show that the proposed design improves both th...

  16. Accurate Prediction of Transimpedances and Equivalent Input Noise Current Densities of Tuned Optical Receiver Front Ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qing Zhong

    1991-01-01

    Novel analytical expressions have been derived for calculating transimpedances and equivalent input noise current densities of five tuned optical receiver front ends based on PIN diode and MESFETs or HEMTs. Miller's capacitance, which has been omitted in previous studies, has been taken into acco...... into account. The accuracy of the expressions has been verified by using Touchstone simulator. The agreement between the calculated and simulated front end performances is very good....

  17. A 500μW 5Mbps ULP super-regenerative RF front-end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidojkovic, M.; Rampu, S.; Imamura, K.; Harpe, P.; Dolmans, G.; Groot, H. de

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an ultra low power super-regenerative RF front-end for wireless body area network (WBAN) applications. The RF front-end operates in the 2.36-2.4 GHz medical BAN and 2.4-2.485 GHz ISM bands, and consumes 500 μW. It supports OOK modulation at high data rates ranging from 1-5 Mbps.

  18. High Dynamic Range RF Front End with Noise Cancellation and Linearization for WiMAX Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with verification of the high dynamic range for a heterodyne radio frequency (RF front end. A 2.6 GHz RF front end is designed and implemented in a hybrid microwave integrated circuit (HMIC for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX receivers. The heterodyne RF front end consists of a low-noise amplifier (LNA with noise cancellation, an RF bandpass filter (BPF, a downconverter with linearization, and an intermediate frequency (IF BPF. A noise canceling technique used in the low-noise amplifier eliminates a thermal noise and then reduces the noise figure (NF of the RF front end by 0.9 dB. Use of a downconverter with diode linearizer also compensates for gain compression, which increases the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3 of the RF front end by 4.3 dB. The proposed method substantially increases the spurious-free dynamic range (DRf of the RF front end by 3.5 dB.

  19. Design of the NSLS-II Linac Front End Test Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller III, R.; Johanson, M.; Lucas, M.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II operational parameters place very stringent requirements on the injection system. Among these are the charge per bunch train at low emittance that is required from the linac along with the uniformity of the charge per bunch along the train. The NSLS-II linac is a 200 MeV linac produced by Research Instruments Gmbh. Part of the strategy for understanding to operation of the injectors is to test the front end of the linac prior to its installation in the facility. The linac front end consists of a 100 kV electron gun, 500 MHz subharmonic prebuncher, focusing solenoids and a suite of diagnostics. The diagnostics in the front end need to be supplemented with an additional suite of diagnostics to fully characterize the beam. In this paper we discuss the design of a test stand to measure the various properties of the beam generated from this section. In particular, the test stand will measure the charge, transverse emittance, energy, energy spread, and bunching performance of the linac front end under all operating conditions of the front end.

  20. Prediction and control of front-end curvature in hot finish rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunghun Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to predict the front-end curvature in hot strip finishing mills and to prevent it by controlling the rolling conditions. A theoretical model based on the slab method is developed for predicting the front-end curvature by taking into account the entrance angle of the strip, the friction condition and the back tension. To validate the developed theoretical model, the theoretically obtained curvature value is compared with the results of finite element analysis. Consequently, it is shown that the calculation results of the theoretical model are in good agreement with the measured results of the finite element analysis. Furthermore, a curvature control model based on geometrical and mathematical approaches that can reduce the front-end curvature by the control of the roll speed ratio of the upper to lower rolls is proposed. The proposed curvature control model is verified by finite element analysis, and it is shown that the front-end curvature can be reduced considerably using the proposed model. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposed control model for reducing the front-end curvature in a hot strip finishing mill can be used to improve the quality of the rolled product.

  1. Magnet Misalignment Studies for the Front-end of the Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, G. [Canterbury U.; Efthymiopoulos, I. [CERN; Stratakis, D. [Brookhaven; Neuffer, D. [Fermilab; Snopok, P. [Fermilab; Rogers, C. [Rutherford

    2013-06-01

    In the Neutrino Factory front-end the muon beam coming from the interaction of a high-power (4 MW) proton beam on a mercury jet target is transformed through a buncher, a phase rotator and an ionization cooling channel before entering the downstream acceleration system. The muon front-end channel is densely packed with solenoid magnets, normal conducting radio-frequency cavities and absorber windows for the cooling section. The tolerance to the misalignment of the different components has to be determined in order on one hand to set the limits beyond which the performance of the front-end channel would be degraded; on the other hand to optimize the design and assembly of the front-end cells such that the component alignment can be checked and corrected for where crucial for the performance of the channel. In this paper we show the results of some of the simulations of the front-end channel performance where the magnetic field direction has been altered compared to the baseline.

  2. Front-End Electronics in calorimetry: from LHC to ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Taille, Ch.

    2009-09-15

    This report summarizes the electronics developments for liquid argon calorimeter read-out at LHC and the development carried out in the framework of the CALICE collaboration for those of the future linear collider (ILC). It also includes chips designed for multi-anode photomultipliers (MaPMT) used in the OPERA experiment or on ATLAS luminometer, which also find applications in medical imaging. Started in the early 90's, the development for ATLAS calorimetry was extremely challenging in terms of readout speed, radiation tolerance and measurement accuracy. The high speed has required a new approach using current-sensitive preamplifiers instead of charge sensitive ones and the redefinition of noise performance in terms of ENI. The preamplifiers developed at Orsay and the monolithic shapers are described in Chapter 1, including considerations of digital filtering, which was a new technique in our field. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the calibration system, designed and built by Orsay, for which the high performance and accuracy necessitated in-depth studies. The 3. chapter closes the studies for ATLAS with a summary of the detector measurements which had to be carried out on the 200 000 channels in order to understand and model the detector and achieve everywhere the accuracy and uniformity at per-cent level. These developments for ATLAS ended in 2004, although parallel work was also carried out for the NA48 and DO calorimeters which are not detailed here. The next generation of collider will require a new generation of calorimeters, much more granular, referred to as 'imaging calorimetry' with embedded read-out electronics. The ASICs developed for this purpose in the framework of the CALICE collaboration are described in Chapter 4. They integrate all the functionalities of amplification, digitization and read-out making them complex 'System-On-Chip' circuits extremely efficient that find many other applications. A family of 3 chips reads out the

  3. A wide bandwidth analog front-end circuit for 60-GHz wireless communication receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, M.; Okuni, H.; Hosoya, M.; Sai, A.; Matsuno, J.; Saigusa, S.; Itakura, T.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an analog front-end circuit for a 60-GHz wireless communication receiver. The feature of the proposed analog front-end circuit is a bandwidth more than 1-GHz wide. To expand the bandwidth of a low-pass filter and a voltage gain amplifier, a technique to reduce the parasitic capacitance of a transconductance amplifier is proposed. Since the bandwidth is also limited by on-resistance of the ADC sampling switch, a switch separation technique for reduction of the on-resistance is also proposed. In a high-speed ADC, the SNDR is limited by the sampling jitter. The developed high resolution VCO auto tuning effectively reduces the jitter of PLL. The prototype is fabricated in 65nm CMOS. The analog front-end circuit achieves over 1-GHz bandwidth and 27.2-dB SNDR with 224 mW Power consumption.

  4. Towards a new perspective of managing ideas in front-end innovation as actor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn, Anna Rose; Clausen, Christian; Gish, Liv

    2013-01-01

    been identified as front-end innovation processes. The front-end innovation is distinguished from linear product development and characterised as more informal, unstructured, and unpredictable. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front......For decades the innovation process in R&D organisations has been discussed. Product development processes is well-established in R&D organisations and improvements has been implemented through theories as Lean product development and agile methods. In recent decades, more diffuse processes have......-end innovation of R&D organisations. Through theoretical and empirical investigations of managing activities of idea processes an indicative analysis in the perspective of actor network theory is performed. The analysis show how managers and employees navigate in a complex environment of organisational...

  5. Measures of the Environmental Footprint of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett Carlsen; Emily Tavrides; Erich Schneider

    2010-08-01

    Previous estimates of environmental impacts associated with the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle have focused primarily on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Results have varied widely. Section 2 of this report provides a summary of historical estimates. This study revises existing empirical correlations and their underlying assumptions to fit to a more complete set of existing data. This study also addresses land transformation, water withdrawals, and occupational and public health impacts associated with the processes of the front end of the once-through nuclear fuel cycle. These processes include uranium mining, milling, refining, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication. Metrics are developed to allow environmental impacts to be summed across the full set of front end processes, including transportation and disposition of the resulting depleted uranium.

  6. An ECG recording front-end with continuous-time level-crossing sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjia; Mansano, Andre L; Yuan, Yuan; Zhao, Duan; Serdijn, Wouter A

    2014-10-01

    An ECG recording front-end with a continuous- time asynchronous level-crossing analog-to-digital converter (LC-ADC) is proposed. The system is a voltage and current mixed-mode system, which comprises a low noise amplifier (LNA), a programmable voltage-to-current converter (PVCC) as a programmable gain amplifier (PGA) and an LC-ADC with calibration DACs and an RC oscillator. The LNA shows an input referred noise of 3.77 μVrms over 0.06 Hz-950 Hz bandwidth. The total harmonic distortion (THD) of the LNA is 0.15% for a 10 mVPP input. The ECG front-end consumes 8.49 μW from a 1 V supply and achieves an ENOB up to 8 bits. The core area of the proposed front-end is 690 ×710 μm2, fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology.

  7. Interfirm collaboration in the Fuzzy Front-End of the innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester; Bergenholtz, Carsten

    Innovation and innovation processes has traditionally been considered from the manufacturing companies' perspective. The innovation process is typically divided into a series of succeeding stages where the Fuzzy Front-End is the first stage to encounter. Several research projects have formulated...... and tendencies in formal R&D partnering relations. This paper, however, focuses on collaboration between independent companies prior to such formal agreements as joint ventures or other contractual agreements. This first phase of the innovation process is often referred to as the Fuzzy Front-End (FFE......) and is traditionally seen as an intra-organizational process (Jongbae & David 2002;Kim & Wilemon 2002e;Qingyu & William 2001;Reid & de Brentani 2004a). As the innovation process becomes an interfirm-collaboration the management of the Fuzzy Front-End also changes and calls for new ways of collaboration...

  8. Electronically Tunable Antenna Pair and Novel RF Front-End Architecture for Software-Defined Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Sung-Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel RF front-end architecture for software-defined radios (SDRs based on an electronically tunable antenna pair controlled by an antenna control unit (ACU consisting of field effect transistor (FET switches and a field programmable gate array (FPGA. The fundamental gain-bandwidth limitations of electrically small antennas prevent a small antenna from having high efficiency and wide bandwidth simultaneously. In the age of miniaturization, especially in the wireless communication industries, a promising solution to this limitation is to introduce reconfigurable antennas that can be tuned electronically to different frequency bands with both high efficiency and narrow instantaneous bandwidth. This reconfigurable antenna technology not only simplifies current RF front-end architectures, but can be reprogrammed on demand to transmit and receive RF signals in any desired frequency band. This novel RF front-end architecture implemented by a reconfigurable antenna pair can help realize SDRs.

  9. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Design of an analog front-end for ambulatory biopotential measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiazhen, Wang; Jun, Xu; Lirong, Zheng; Junyan, Ren

    2010-10-01

    A continuously tunable gain and bandwidth analog front-end for ambulatory biopotential measurement systems is presented. The front-end circuit is capable of amplifying and conditioning different biosignals. To optimize the power consumption and simplify the system architecture, the front-end only adopts two-stage amplifiers. In addition, careful design eliminates the need for chopping circuits. The input-referred noise of the system is only 1.19 μVrms (0.48-2000 Hz). The chip is fabricated via a SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS process. Although the power consumption is only 32.1 μW under a 3 V voltage supply, test results show that the chip can successfully extract biopotential signals.

  10. Implementation of Low-Cost UHF RFID Reader Front-Ends with Carrier Leakage Suppression Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new ultrahigh frequency radio frequency identification (UHF RFID reader’s front-end circuit which is based on zero-IF, single antenna structure and composed of discrete components has been designed. The proposed design brings a significant improvement of the reading performance by adopting a carrier leakage suppression (CLS circuit instead of a circulator which is utilized by most of the conventional RF front-end circuit. Experimental results show that the proposed design improves both the sensitivity and detection range compared to the conventional designs.

  11. Implementation of a 66 MHz analog memory as a front end for LHC detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munday, D.J.; Parker, M.A. (Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)); Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Campbell, M.; Chilingarov, A.; Gros, J.; Jarron, P.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Meddeler, G.; Pollet, L.; Santiard, J.C.; Verweij, H. (CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Goessling, C.; Lisowsky, B. (Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany)); Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Kambara, H.; La Marra, D.; Wu, X. (DPNC, Geneva University, CH-1211, Geneva 4 (Switzerland)); Moorhead, G. (School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia)); Weidberg, A. (Department of Nuclear Physics, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Campbell, D.; Murray, P.; Seller, P.; Stevens, R. (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)); Beuville, E.; Rouger, M.; Teiger, J. (Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1992-02-05

    We describe the front end signal processing chip (HARP) being developed by the RD2 collaboration for LHC detectors. The HARP chip, based around an analog memory, will provide data storage at LHC rates for 2 [mu]sec and allow stored data to be accessed for trigger rates of up to 50--100 KHz. We have tested two different prototypes of the final chip as front end for silicon detectors, using a Sr90 source and high energy pions and electrons from the CERN-SPS test beam.

  12. Systematic Approach to Formulate PSS Development Project Proposals in the Fuzzy Front End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barquet, Ana Paula B.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; Rozenfeld, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    patterns adopted for product development. Currently, there is not a systematic approach that can be followed for the formulation of PSS proposals in the fuzzy front end. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop a method for defining PSS project proposals based on attributes that should...... be considered by companies during this definition. The systematization of PSS attributes may help increase the knowledge about different PSS projects that can emerge in the front end, thus leading to the discovery of opportunities that are not apparent in the existing business models and give rise to new ideas...

  13. Quantitative Analysis of the Civilian Bilateral Cooperation in Front-End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Viet Phuong; Yim, Man-Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A substantial part of such cooperation is related to the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which encompasses the processes that help manufacturing nuclear fuel, including mining and milling of natural uranium, refining and chemical conversion, enrichment (in case of fuels for Pressurized Water Reactor PWR), and fuel fabrication. Traditionally, the supply of natural uranium was dominated by Canada and Australia, whereas enrichment services have been mostly provided by companies from Western states or Russia, which are also the main customers of such services. However, Kazakhstan and African countries like Niger, Namibia, and Malawi have emerged as important suppliers in the international uranium market and recent forecasts show that China will soon become a major player in the front-end market as both consumer and service provider. In this paper, the correlation between bilateral civil nuclear cooperation in front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and the political and economic relationship among countries was examined through a dataset of bilateral nuclear cooperation in the post-Cold War era, from 1990 to 2011. Such finding has implication on not only the nonproliferation research but also the necessary reinforcement of export control regimes like such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Further improvement of this dataset and the regression method are also needed in order to increase the robustness of the findings as well as to cover the whole scope of the nuclear fuel cycle, including both front-end and back-end activities.

  14. Simple Front-End Concept for the Complex Challenges of Multi-Band Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskgaard, Emil Feldborg; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del

    2015-01-01

    with additional tunable Rx and Tx filters the Rx/Tx isolation reaches 50 dB which is comparable with the isolation achieved with commercially available static duplex filters. Based on these antenna designs it is concluded that the proposed architecture is feasible for LTE phones and makes full coverage of all LTE...... bands realistic. Current 5G investigations show that the advantages of flexible front-ends will be even bigger as technology moves toward software defined radio. \\end{abstract}...

  15. Status on the development of front-end and readout electronics for large silicon trackers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J David; M Dhellot; J-F Genat; F Kapusta; H Lebbolo; T-H Pham; F Rossel; A Savoy-Navarro; E Deumens; P Mallisse; D Fougeron; R Hermel; Y Karyotakis; S Vilalte

    2007-12-01

    Final results on a CMOS 0.18 m front-end chip for silicon strips readout are summarized and preliminary results on time measurement are discussed. The status of the next version in 0.13 m is briefly presented.

  16. Commissioning and Operation of the FNAL Front end Injection Line and Ion Sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karns, Patrick R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This thesis documents the efforts made in commissioning and operating the RFQ Injection Line (RIL) as a replacement for the Cockcroft Walton front end. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) was assembled and tested with multiwire position and emittance monitor measurements. The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) commissioning was completed with the same measurements as well as output beam energy measurements that showed it initially accelerated beam only to 700 keV, which was 50 keV lower than the design energy. Working with the manufacturer solutions were found and instituted to continue testing. The Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was then connected as the RIL was installed as the new front end of Linac. Testing gave way to operation when the new front end was used as the source of all High Energy Physics (HEP) beam for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The magnetron ion source that provides the H- beam for the front end required several changes and eventual upgrades to operate well; such as new source operating points for vacuum pressure and cesium admixture, and new materials for critical source components. Further research was conducted on the cathode geometry and nitrogen doping of the hydrogen gas as well as using solid state switches for the extractor system high voltage.

  17. Social Networks in the Front End: The Organizational Life of an Idea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Kijkuit (Bob)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAn effective front end (FE) of the new product development (NPD) process is important for innovative performance in companies. To date the NPD literature has mainly focused on the selection process of ideas and very little on the processes that take place before selection. This study aim

  18. Impact of Fast Shaping at the Front-end on Signals from Micro Strip Gas Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Sciacca, G F

    1997-01-01

    The ballistic deficit due to fast shaping time constants at the front-end amplifier is evaluated using Monte Carlo generated events simulating isolated hits in MSGCs of CMS performance. The effect of the track incidence angle is also investigated up to 45 degrees.

  19. Compact Front-end Prototype for Next Generation RFI-rejecting Polarimetric L-band Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    Realizing the need for lower noise figure and smaller physical size in todays higly sensitive radiometers, this paper presents a new compact analog front-end (AFE) for use with the existing L-band (1400-1427 MHz) radiometer designed and operated by the Technical University of Denmark. Using subha...

  20. Low power analog readout front-end electronics for time and energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleczek, R., E-mail: rafal.kleczek@agh.edu.pl; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the design and measurements of an analog front-end readout electronics dedicated for silicon microstrip detectors with relatively large capacitance of the order of tens pF for time and energy measurements of incoming pulses. The front-end readout electronics is required to process input pulses with an average rate of 150 kHz/channel with low both power consumption and noise at the same time. In the presented solution the single channel is built of two different parallel processing paths: fast and slow. The fast path includes the fast CR–RC shaper with the peaking time t{sub p}=40 ns and is optimized to determine the input charge arrival time. The slow path, which consists of the slow CR–(RC){sup 2} shaper with the peaking time t{sub p}=80 ns, is dedicated for low noise accurate energy measurement. The analog front-end electronics was implemented in UMC 180 nm CMOS technology as a prototype ASIC AFE. The AFE chip contains 8 channels with the size of 58 μm×1150 μm each. It has low power dissipation P{sub diss}=3.1 mW per single channel. The article presents the details of the front-end architecture and the measurement results.

  1. Front-end Multiplexing - applied to SQUID multiplexing : Athena X-IFU and QUBIC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Prêle, Damien

    2015-01-01

    As we have seen for digital camera market and a sensor resolution increasing to "megapixels", all the scientific and high-tech imagers (whatever the wave length - from radio to X-ray range) tends also to always increases the pixels number. So the constraints on front-end signals transmission increase too. An almost unavoidable solution to simplify integration of large arrays of pixels is front-end multiplexing. Moreover, "simple" and "efficient" techniques allow integration of read-out multiplexers in the focal plane itself. For instance, CCD (Charge Coupled Device) technology has boost number of pixels in digital camera. Indeed, this is exactly a planar technology which integrates both the sensors and a front-end multiplexed readout. In this context, front-end multiplexing techniques will be discussed for a better understanding of their advantages and their limits. Finally, the cases of astronomical instruments in the millimeter and in the X-ray ranges using SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device...

  2. Front-end Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM). Prototype Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Ryan C.; Morris, Scott J.; Smith, Leon E.; Keller, Daniel T.

    2015-09-16

    The IAEA has requested that PNNL perform an initial set of tests on front-end electronics for unattended measurement (FEUM) prototypes. The FEUM prototype test plan details the tests to be performed, the criteria for evaluation, and the procedures used to execute the tests.

  3. Advances ,n Digital Front-End and Software RF Processing: Part I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    One of the biggest technology trends in wireless broadband, radar, sonar, and broadcasting systems is software radio frequency processing and digital front-end. This trend encompasses a broad range of topics, from circuit design and signal processing to system integration. It includes digital up-conversion (DUC) and down-conversion (DDC), digital predistortion (DPD),

  4. InP DHBT MMICs for millimeter-wave front-ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Hadziabdic, Dzenan; Krozer, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show advanced MMIC's using InP DHBT technology. In particular, we demonstrate front-end circuits covering a broad frequency range from Q-band to E-band. Realizations of power amplifiers, quadrature VCOs, and sub-harmonic mixers, are presented and experimental results are discussed....

  5. Single-Stage Low-Power Quadrature RF Receiver Front-End: The LMV Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liscidini, Antonio; Mazzanti, Andrea; Tonietto, Riccardo;

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first quadrature RF receiver front-end where, in a single stage, low-noise amplifier (LNA), mixer and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) share the same bias current. The new structure exploits the intrinsic mixing functionality of a classical LC-tank oscillator providing...

  6. BGO front-end electronics and signal processing in the MXGS instrument for the ASIM mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogseide, Yngve; Cenkeramaddi, Linga Reddy; Genov, Georgi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Bismuth Germanate Oxide (BGO) front-end electronics design and signal processing in Modular X- and Gamma ray sensor (MXGS) instrument onboard the Atmosphere Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM) mission, funded by the European Space Agency. University of Bergen is responsible...

  7. The front-end amplifier for the silicon microstrip sensors of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pietro, Valentino; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Riccardi, Alberto [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The most common readout systems designed for the nuclear physics detectors are based on amplitude measurements. The information that needs to be preserved is the charge delivered by a particle hitting the sensor. The electronic chain employed in these cases is made from two main building blocks: front-end amplifier and ADC. One of the issues associated with the implementation of such an architecture in scaled CMOS technologies is the dynamic range, because the charge information is extrapolated through the sampling of the peak of the front-end output signal. It is therefore interesting to explore the possibility of using time-based architectures offering better performances from that point of view. In fact, in these topologies the linearity between the charge and the signal duration can be maintained even if some building blocks in the chain saturate. The main drawback is the loss in resolution since a duration measurement involves the difference between two time measurements. This work will present the design of a front-end optimized for fast Time-over-Threshold applications. The circuit has been developed for the microstrip detectors of the PANDA experiment. The key features of the front-end amplifier are illustrated and both schematic level, and post-layout simulations are discussed.

  8. Control of SiC Based Front-End Rectifier under Unbalanced Supply Voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ramkrishan; Trintis, Ionut; Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh

    2015-01-01

    A voltage source converter is used as a front end converter typically. In this paper, a converter which is realized using SiC MOSFET is considered. Due to SiC MOSFET, a switching frequency more than 50 kHz can be achieved. This can help increasing the current control loop bandwidth, which...

  9. Radiation hardness improvement of analog front-end microelectronic devices for particle accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, A. G.; Rodin, A. S.; Bakerenkov, A. S.; Felitsyn, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    Series of schematic techniques for increasing radiation hardness of the current mirrors is developed. These techniques can be used for the design of analog front-end microelectronic devices based on the operational amplifiers. The circuit simulation of radiation degradation of current transmission coefficients was performed for various circuit solutions in LTSpice software.

  10. Performance of the front-end electronics of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, J.A.; Kooijman, P.

    2010-01-01

    ANTARES is a high-energy neutrino telescope installed in the Mediterranean Sea at a depth of 2475 m. It consists of a three-dimensional array of optical modules, each containing a large photomultiplier tube. A total of 2700 front-end ASICs named analogue ring samplers (ARS) process the phototube sig

  11. Commissioning and operation of the FNAL front end injection line and ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Patrick R.

    This thesis documents the efforts made in commissioning and operating the RFQ Injection Line (RIL) as a replacement for the Cockcroft Walton front end. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) was assembled and tested with multiwire position and emittance monitor measurements. The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) commissioning was completed with the same measurements as well as output beam energy measurements that showed it initially accelerated beam only to 700 keV, which was 50 keV lower than the design energy. Working with the manufacturer solutions were found and instituted to continue testing. The Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was then connected as the RIL was installed as the new front end of Linac. Testing gave way to operation when the new front end was used as the source of all High Energy Physics (HEP) beam for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The magnetron ion source that provides the H- beam for the front end required several changes and eventual upgrades to operate well; such as new source operating points for vacuum pressure and cesium admixture, and new materials for critical source components. Further research was conducted on the cathode geometry and nitrogen doping of the hydrogen gas as well as using solid state switches for the extractor system high voltage.

  12. Practices of a "green" front end of innovation; A gateway to environmental innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassi, L.; Wever, R.

    2010-01-01

    Activities in the fuzzy front end of the innovation process (FFE) are the root of success for any company hoping to compete on the basis of innovations. Considering the importance of the FFE, it would seem logical to bring the environmental considerations already to the activities of the early stage

  13. The fuzziness of the fuzzy front end : the influence of non-technical factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewiet, Derk Jan; Van Engelen, Jo; Achterkamp, Madolein; Chen, J; Xu, QR; Wu, XB

    2007-01-01

    The Fuzzy Front End (FFE) can be considered the most challenging part of the innovation process where large opportunities are to be found for an organization. Because of the inherently creative and non-routine characteristics of the FFE, only a small number of formal techniques are available to supp

  14. Fuzzy decision support for tools selection in the core front end activities of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achiche, S.; Appio, F.; McAloone, T.; Di Minin, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    The innovation process may be divided into three main parts: the front end (FE), the new product development (NPD) process, and the commercialization. Every NPD process has a FE in which products and projects are defined. However, companies tend to begin the stages of FE without a clear definition o

  15. Managing inter-firm collaboration in the fuzzy front-end

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob; Bergenholtz, Carsten; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2011-01-01

    organisations in an innovation network are somewhat neglected in the literature. The aim of this paper is hence to address the challenges that an organisation faces when integrating a plurality of suppliers, customers and other organisations into the Fuzzy Front End of the innovation process....

  16. Understanding Managers Decision Making Process for Tools Selection in the Core Front End of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appio, Francesco P.; Achiche, Sofiane; McAloone, Tim C.

    2011-01-01

    New product development (NPD) describes the process of bringing a new product or service to the market. The Fuzzy Front End (FFE) of Innovation is the term describing the activities happening before the product development phase of NPD. In the FFE of innovation, several tools are used to facilitate...

  17. Front-End Board with Cyclone V as a Test High-Resolution Platform for the Auger-Beyond-2015 Front End Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The surface detector (SD) array of the Pierre Auger Observatory containing at present 1680 water Cherenkov detectors spread over an area of 3000 km^2 started to operate since 2004. The currently used Front-End Boards are equipped with no-more produced ACEX and obsolete Cyclone FPGA (40 MSps/15-bit of dynamic range). Huge progress in electronics and new challenges from physics impose a significant upgrade of the SD electronics either to improve a quality of measurements (much higher sampling and much wider dynamic range) or pick-up from a background extremely rare events (new FPGA algorithms based on sophisticated approaches like e.g. spectral triggers or neural networks). Much higher SD sensitivity is necessary to confirm or reject hypotheses critical for a modern astrophysics. The paper presents the Front-End Board (FEB) with the biggest Cyclone V E FPGA 5CEFA9F31I7N, supporting 8 channels sampled with max. 250 MSps @ 14-bit resolution. Considered sampling for the SD is 120 MSps, however, the FEB has been de...

  18. Onboard Calibration Circuit for the Front-end Electronics of DAMPE BGO Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, De-Liang; Zhang, Jun-Bin; Wang, Qi; Ma, Si-Yuan; Gao, Shan-Shan; Shen, Zhong-Tao; Jiang, Di; Guo, Jian-Hua; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-01-01

    An onboard calibration circuit has been designed for the front-end electronics (FEE) of DAMPE BGO Calorimeter. It is mainly composed of a 12 bit DAC, an operation amplifier and an analog switch. Test results showed that a dynamic range of 0 ~ 30 pC with a precision of 5 fC was achieved, which meets the requirements of the front-end electronics. Furthermore, it is used to test the trigger function of the FEEs. The calibration circuit has been implemented and verified by all the environmental tests for both Qualification Model and Flight Model of DAMPE. The DAMPE satellite will be launched at the end of 2015 and the calibration circuit will perform onboard calibration in space.

  19. FEREAD: Front End Readout software for the Fermilab PAN-DA data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Moore, C.; Pordes, R.; Votava, M.

    1989-05-01

    The FEREAD system provides a multi-tasking framework for controlling the execution of experiment specific front end readout processes. It supports initializing the front end data acquisition hardware, queueing and processing readout activation signals, cleaning up at the end of data acquisition, and transferring configuration parameters and statistical data between a ''Host'' computer and the readout processes. FEREAD is implemented as part of the PAN-DA software system and is designed to run on any Motorola 68k based processor board. It has been ported to the FASTBUS General Purpose Master (GPM) interface board and the VME MVME133A processor board using the pSOS/Microtec environment. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Implementation in a FPGA of a configurable emulator of the LHCb Upgrade front end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Pena Colaiocco, Diego Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration at CERN is working towards the upgrade of the experiment, to be performed in 2019. As a part of that effort the electronics of the detector are being redesigned. There exist, already, prototypes of the back end boards. Extensive testing is required in order to check that they behave in the proper way. This work consisted in the implementation of an emulator of the front end electronics in order to test the back end prototypes. A C++ library that generates the same data as the emulator was also designed with the aim of doing, in the future, real time checking of the behaviour of the prototype.

  1. Understanding the Front-end of Large-scale Engineering Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucae, Sebastian; Rebentisch, Eric; Oehmen, Josef

    2014-01-01

    from large cost overruns. Significant problems in program execution can be traced back to practices performed, or more frequently not performed, in the so-called “fuzzy front end” of the program. The lack of sufficient and effective efforts in the early stages of a program can result in unstable......, to propose a model for the front-end of large-scale engineering programs based on a review of existing, suitable models in literature and to better understand the complexity drivers that are impeding reliable planning and common planning mistakes made in large-scale engineering programs......., unclear and incomplete requirements, unclear roles and responsibilities within the program organization, insufficient planning, and unproductive tensions between program management and systems engineering. This study intends to clarify the importance of up-front planning to improve program performance...

  2. Design of a Portable Test Facility for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Front-End Electronics Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H Y; The ATLAS collaboration; Carrio, F; Moreno, P; Masike, T; Reed, R; Sandrock, C; Schettino, V; Shalyugin, A; Solans, C; Souza, J; Suter, R; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    The stand-alone test-bench deployed in the past for the verification of the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) front-end electronics is reaching the end of its life cycle. A new version of the test-bench has been designed and built with the aim of improving the portability and exploring new technologies for future versions of the TileCal read-out electronics. An FPGA based motherboard with an embedded hardware processor and a few dedicated daughter-boards are used to implement all the functionalities needed to interface with the front-end electronics (TTC, G-Link, CANbus) and to verify the functionalities using electronic signals and LED pulses. The new device is portable and performs well, allowing the validation in realistic conditions of the data transmission rate. We discuss the system implementation and all the tests required to gain full confidence in the operation of the front-end electronics of the TileCal in the ATLAS detector.

  3. Web-based DAQ systems: connecting the user and electronics front-ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Web technologies are quickly evolving and are gaining in computational power and flexibility, allowing for a paradigm shift in the field of Data Acquisition (DAQ) systems design. Modern web browsers offer the possibility to create intricate user interfaces and are able to process and render complex data. Furthermore, new web standards such as WebSockets allow for fast real-time communication between the server and the user with minimal overhead. Those improvements make it possible to move the control and monitoring operations from the back-end servers directly to the user and to the front-end electronics, thus reducing the complexity of the data acquisition chain. Moreover, web-based DAQ systems offer greater flexibility, accessibility, and maintainability on the user side than traditional applications which often lack portability and ease of use. As proof of concept, we implemented a simplified DAQ system on a mid-range Spartan6 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) development board coupled to a digital front-end readout chip. The system is connected to the Internet and can be accessed from any web browser. It is composed of custom code to control the front-end readout and of a dual soft-core Microblaze processor to communicate with the client.

  4. Front-End Intelligence for Large-Scale Application-Oriented Internet-of-Things

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2016-06-14

    The Internet-of-things (IoT) refers to the massive integration of electronic devices, vehicles, buildings, and other objects to collect and exchange data. It is the enabling technology for a plethora of applications touching various aspects of our lives such as healthcare, wearables, surveillance, home automation, smart manufacturing, and intelligent automotive systems. Existing IoT architectures are highly centralized and heavily rely on a back-end core network for all decision-making processes. This may lead to inefficiencies in terms of latency, network traffic management, computational processing, and power consumption. In this paper, we advocate the empowerment of front-end IoT devices to support the back-end network in fulfilling end-user applications requirements mainly by means of improved connectivity and efficient network management. A novel conceptual framework is presented for a new generation of IoT devices that will enable multiple new features for both the IoT administrators as well as end users. Exploiting the recent emergence of software-defined architecture, these smart IoT devices will allow fast, reliable, and intelligent management of diverse IoT-based applications. After highlighting relevant shortcomings of the existing IoT architectures, we outline some key design perspectives to enable front-end intelligence while shedding light on promising future research directions.

  5. A MEMS-Based Power-Scalable Hearing Aid Analog Front End.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligoz, I; Naqvi, S R; Copani, T; Kiaei, S; Bakkaloglu, B; Sang-Soo Je; Junseok Chae

    2011-06-01

    A dual-channel directional digital hearing aid front end using microelectromechanical-systems microphones, and an adaptive-power analog processing signal chain are presented. The analog front end consists of a double differential amplifier-based capacitance-to-voltage conversion circuit, 40-dB variable gain amplifier (VGA) and a power-scalable continuous time sigma delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC), with 68-dB signal-to-noise ratio dissipating 67 μ W from a 1.2-V supply. The MEMS microphones are fabricated using a standard surface micromachining technology. The VGA and power-scalable ADC are fabricated on a 0.25-μ m complementary metal-oxide semciconductor TSMC process.

  6. General-Purpose Front End for Real-Time Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    FRONTIER is a computer program that functions as a front end for any of a variety of other software of both the artificial intelligence (AI) and conventional data-processing types. As used here, front end signifies interface software needed for acquiring and preprocessing data and making the data available for analysis by the other software. FRONTIER is reusable in that it can be rapidly tailored to any such other software with minimum effort. Each component of FRONTIER is programmable and is executed in an embedded virtual machine. Each component can be reconfigured during execution. The virtual-machine implementation making FRONTIER independent of the type of computing hardware on which it is executed.

  7. Development and Demonstration of a Magnesium-Intensive Vehicle Front-End Substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Stephen D. [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC, Southfield, MI (United States); Forsmark, Joy H. [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC, Southfield, MI (United States); Osborne, Richard [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This project is the final phase (designated Phase III) of an extensive, nine-year effort with the objectives of developing a knowledge base and enabling technologies for the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of magnesium-intensive automotive front-end substructures intended to partially or completely replace all-steel comparators, providing a weight savings approaching 50% of the baseline. Benefits of extensive vehicle weight reduction in terms of fuel economy increase, extended vehicle range, vehicle performance and commensurate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are well known. An exemplary vehicle substructure considered by the project is illustrated in Figure 1, along with the exterior vehicle appearance. This unibody front-end “substructure” is one physical objective of the ultimate design and engineering aspects established at the outset of the larger collective effort.

  8. The Contribution of Innovation Strategy Development and Implementation in Active Facilitation of Pharmaceutical Front End Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2012-01-01

    Front end innovation (FEI) represents the first building blocks of product development, but is often regarded as a weak link in innovation literature. Various theorists emphasize that a firm’s innovation can benefit substantially by improving the front end of innovation process (Reinertsen, 1999......, Steven & Burly, 2003, and Vernorn et al., 2008) and that innovation strategies play a central role in optimization of innovation (Clark & Wheelwright, 1995; Cottam et al., 2001; Morgan & Berthon, 2008). Innovation strategies are suggested in literature (e.g. Page, 1993; Oke, 2002; Adams et al., 2006......; Igartua, 2010) as a facilitator of innovation and may therefore also be targeted at FEI support. The pharmaceutical industry has experienced a worldwide decline in the number of applications for new molecular entities to regulatory agencies since 1997. Therefore high pressures are put on pharmaceutical...

  9. Complementary bipolar application specific analog semicustom array, intended to implement front-end units

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, E; Kondratenko, S; Maslennikov, V; Meshcheriakov, V; Mishin, Yu; Volkov, Yu

    2002-01-01

    The structure of an analog semicustom array, intended to implement front-end electronics ICs on its basis, is considered. The features of this array are: implementation with an inexpensive bipolar process despite containing an equal number of NPN and PNP structures with well matched characteristics, supply voltages from 1.5 V to 15 V, transistor current gains Bst~100 and unity gain frequencies Ft > 3 GHz at collector currents of (100...300) mu A, high- and low-ohmic resistors, MOS capacitors, minimum two variable plating levels available. Specific circuit diagrams and parameters of the front-end electronics ICs, created on the basis of the considered array, are presented. The results of their tests are given. (4 refs).

  10. All-Dielectric Photonic-Assisted Radio Front-End Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Hossein Ali

    The threats to civil society posed by high-power electromagnetic weapons are viewed as a grim but real possibility in the world after 11 September 2001. These weapons produce a power surge capable of destroying or damaging sensitive circuitry in electronic systems. Unfortunately, the trend towards circuits with smaller sizes and voltages renders modern electronics highly susceptible to such damage. Radiofrequency communication systems are particularly vulnerable, because the antenna provides a direct port of entry for electromagnetic radiation. In this work, we present a novel type of radiofrequency receiver front end featuring a complete absence of electronic circuitry and metal interconnects, the traditional 'soft spots' of a conventional radiofrequency receiver. The device exploits a dielectric resonator antenna to capture and deliver the radiofrequency signal onto a whispering-gallery mode electro-optic field sensor. The dielectric approach has an added benefit in that it reduces the physical size of the front end, an important benefit in mobile applications.

  11. Common front end systems for Space Shuttle and Space Station control centers at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljon, Linda; Muratore, John

    1993-03-01

    In the beginning of the fiscal year 1992, the development organizations of Johnson Space Center (JSC) were poised to begin two major projects: the Space Station Control Center and the refurbishment of the telemetry processing area of the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center. A study team established that a common front end concept could be used and could reduce development costs for both projects. A standard processor was defined to support most of the front end functions of both control centers and supports a consolidation of control positions which effectively reduces operations cost. This paper defines that common concept and describes the progress that has been made in development of the Consolidated Communications Facility (CCF) during the past year.

  12. FELIX: The New Approach for Interfacing to Front-end Electronics for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)754725; The ATLAS collaboration; Anderson, John Thomas; Borga, Andrea; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Drake, Gary; Donszelmann, Mark; Francis, David; Gorini, Benedetto; Guest, Daniel; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Roich, Alexander; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, J\\"orn; Vandelli, Wainer; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    From the ATLAS Phase-I upgrade and onward, new or upgraded detectors and trigger systems will be interfaced to the data acquisition, detector control and timing (TTC) systems by the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX). FELIX is the core of the new ATLAS Trigger/DAQ architecture. Functioning as a router between custom serial links and a commodity network, FELIX is implemented by server PCs with commodity network interfaces and PCIe cards with large FPGAs and many high speed serial fiber transceivers. By separating data transport from data manipulation, the latter can be done by software in commodity servers attached to the network. Replacing traditional point-to-point links between Front-end components and the DAQ system by a switched network, FELIX provides scaling, flexibility uniformity and upgradability and reduces the diversity of custom hardware solutions in favour of software.

  13. The PRISMA hyperspectral imaging spectrometer: detectors and front-end electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerini, Massimo; Mancini, Mauro; Fossati, Enrico; Battazza, Fabrizio; Formaro, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Two detectors, SWIR and VNIR, and relevant front-end electronics were developed in the frame of the PRISMA(Precursore Iperspettrale della Missione Applicativa) project, an hyperspectral instrument for the earth observation. The two detectors were of the MCT type and, in particular, the VNIR was realized by Sofradir by using the CZT(Cadmium Zinc Telluride substrate of the PV diodes) substrate removal to obtain the sensitivity in the visible spectral range. The use of the same ROIC permitted to design an unique front-end electronics. Two test campaigns were carried out: by Sofradir, only on the detectors, and by Selex ES, by using the PRISMA flight electronics. This latter tests demonstrated that was possible to obtain the same detector performance, with respect of those ones obtained by a ground setup, with a flight hardware in terms of noise, linearity and thermal stability.

  14. A-3 dBm RF transmitter front-end for 802.11g application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jinxin; Yan Jun; Shi Yin

    2013-01-01

    A 2.4 GHz,direct-conversion RF transmitter front-end with an up converter and PA driver is fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS process for the reliable transmission of 54 Mb/s OFDM signals.The front-end output power is-3 dBm while the corresponding EVM is-27 dB which is necessary for the 802.11 g standard of EVM at-25 dB.With the adopted gain control strategy the output power changes from-14.3 to-3.7 dBm with every step 0.8 dB (20%) which covers the gain variation due to working temperature and process.A power detector indicates the output power and delivers a voltage to the baseband to control the output power.

  15. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, M.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Allen, M.D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Boissevain, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented.

  16. Development of a front end controller/heap manager for PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Musrock, M.S.; Walker, J.W.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    A controller/heap manager has been designed for applicability to all detector subsystem types of PHENIX. the heap manager performs all functions associated with front end electronics control including ADC and analog memory control, data collection, command interpretation and execution, and data packet forming and communication. Interfaces to the unit consist of a timing and control bus, a serial bus, a parallel data bus, and a trigger interface. The topology developed is modular so that many functional blocks are identical for a number of subsystem types. Programmability is maximized through the use of flexible modular functions and implementation using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Details of unit design and functionality will be discussed with particular detail given to subsystems having analog memory-based front end electronics. In addition, mode control, serial functions, and FPGA implementation details will be presented.

  17. Problems in Assessment of Novel Biopotential Front-End with Dry Electrode: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano D. Gargiulo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Developers of novel or improved front-end circuits for biopotential recordings using dry electrodes face the challenge of validating their design. Dry electrodes allow more user-friendly and pervasive patient-monitoring, but proof is required that new devices can perform biopotential recording with a quality at least comparable to existing medical devices. Aside from electrical safety requirement recommended by standards and concise circuit requirement, there is not yet a complete validation procedure able to demonstrate improved or even equivalent performance of the new devices. This short review discusses the validation procedures presented in recent, landmark literature and offers interesting issues and hints for a more complete assessment of novel biopotential front-end.

  18. A VLSI front-end circuit for microstrip silicon detectors for medical imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Beccherle, R; Guerra, A D; Folli, M; Marchesini, R; Bisogni, M G; Ceccopieri, A; Rosso, V; Stefanini, A; Tripiccione, R; Kipnis, I

    1999-01-01

    An analog CMOS-Integrated Circuit has been developed as Front-End for a double-sided microstrip silicon detector. The IC processes and discriminates signals in the 5-30 keV energy range. Main features are low noise and precise timing information. Low noise is achieved by optimizing the cascoded integrator with the 8 pF detector capacitance and by using an inherently low noise 1.2 mu m CMOS technology. Timing information is provided by a double discriminator architecture. The output of the circuit is a digital pulse. The leading edge is determined by a fixed threshold discriminator, while the trailing edge is provided by a zero crossing discriminator. In this paper we first describe the architecture of the Front-End chip. We then present the performance of the chip prototype in terms of noise, minimum discrimination threshold and time resolution.

  19. SiPM and front-end electronics development for Cherenkov light detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Bissaldi, E; Ferri, A; Giordano, F; Gola, A; Ionica, M; Paoletti, R; Piemonte, C; Paternoster, G; Simone, D; Vagelli, V; Zappala, G; Zorzi, N

    2015-01-01

    The Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) is involved in the development of a demonstrator for a SiPM-based camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) experiment, with a pixel size of 6$\\times$6 mm$^2$. The camera houses about two thousands electronics channels and is both light and compact. In this framework, a R&D program for the development of SiPMs suitable for Cherenkov light detection (so called NUV SiPMs) is ongoing. Different photosensors have been produced at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), with different micro-cell dimensions and fill factors, in different geometrical arrangements. At the same time, INFN is developing front-end electronics based on the waveform sampling technique optimized for the new NUV SiPM. Measurements on 1$\\times$1 mm$^2$, 3$\\times$3 mm$^2$, and 6$\\times$6 mm$^2$ NUV SiPMs coupled to the front-end electronics are presented

  20. Software-defined radio with flexible RF front end for satellite maritime radio applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budroweit, Jan

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the concept of a software-defined radio with a flexible RF front end. The design and architecture of this system, as well as possible application examples will be explained. One specific scenario is the operation in maritime frequency bands. A well-known service is the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which has been captured by the DLR mission AISat, and will be chosen as a maritime application example. The results of an embedded solution for AIS on the SDR platform are presented in this paper. Since there is an increasing request for more performance on maritime radio bands, services like AIS will be enhanced by the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). The new VHF Data Exchange Service (VDES) shall implement a dedicated satellite link. This paper describes that the SDR with a flexible RF front end can be used as a technology demonstration platform for this upcoming data exchange service.

  1. Improvement of EEG Signal Acquisition: An Electrical Aspect for State of the Art of Front End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bulent Usakli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present some practical state-of-the-art considerations in acquiring satisfactory signals for electroencephalographic signal acquisition. These considerations are important for users and system designers. Especially choosing correct electrode and design strategy of the initial electronic circuitry front end plays an important role in improving the system's measurement performance. Considering the pitfalls in the design of biopotential measurement system and recording session conditions creates better accuracy. In electroencephalogram (EEG recording electrodes, system electronics including filtering, amplifying, signal conversion, data storing, and environmental conditions affect the recording performance. In this paper, EEG electrode principles and main points of electronic noise reduction methods in EEG signal acquisition front end are discussed, and some suggestions for improving signal acquisition are presented.

  2. Fuzzy Decision Support for Tools Selection in the Core Front End Activities of New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, S.; Appio, F.P.; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    The innovation process may be divided into three main parts: the front end (FE), the new product development (NPD) process, and the commercialization. Every NPD process has a FE in which products and projects are defined. However, companies tend to begin the stages of FE without a clear definition......, an economic evaluation of the cost of tool usage is critical, and there is furthermore a need to characterize them in terms of their influence on the FE. This paper focuses on decision support for managers/ designers in their process of assessing the cost of choosing/using tools in the core front end (CFE......) activities identified by Koen, namely Opportunity Identification and Opportunity Analysis. This is achieved by first analyzing the influencing factors (firm context, industry context, macroenvironment) along with data collection from managers followed by the automatic construction of fuzzy decision support...

  3. Robust Spectrum Sensing Demonstration Using a Low-Cost Front-End Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Borio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum Sensing (SS is an important function in Cognitive Radio (CR to detect primary users. The design of SS algorithms is one of the most challenging tasks in CR and requires innovative hardware and software solutions to enhance detection probability and minimize low false alarm probability. Although several SS algorithms have been developed in the specialized literature, limited work has been done to practically demonstrate the feasibility of this function on platforms with significant computational and hardware constraints. In this paper, SS is demonstrated using a low cost TV tuner as agile front-end for sensing a large portion of the Ultra-High Frequency (UHF spectrum. The problems encountered and the limitations imposed by the front-end are analysed along with the solutions adopted. Finally, the spectrum sensor developed is implemented on an Android device and SS implementation is demonstrated using a smartphone.

  4. Compensation of impedance meters when using an external front-end amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Torrents Dolz, Josep M.; Pallàs Areny, Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Four-terminal impedance meters based on pseudo-bridges yield unexpected uncertainties when using high-contact-impedance electrodes. Adding a front-end amplifier to the impedance meter and rearranging the connection of the meter terminals overcome the contact impedance problem. However, because the compensation provisions in the instrument are meant to compensate only impedance residuals of test fixtures, by either an open/short or an open/short/load correction procedure, the external fr...

  5. A front-end automation tool supporting design, verification and reuse of SOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严晓浪; 余龙理; 王界兵

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an in-house developed language tool called VPerl used in developing a 250 MHz 32-bit high-performance low power embedded CPU core. The authors showed that use of this tool can compress the Verilog code by more than a factor of 5, increase the efficiency of the front-end design, reduce the bug rate significantly. This tool can be used to enhance the reusability of an intellectual property model, and facilitate porting design for different platforms.

  6. Trends in the design of front-end systems for room temperature solid state detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, Pier F.; Re, Valerio

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the present trends in the design of low-noise front-end systems for room temperature semiconductor detectors. The technological advancement provided by submicron CMOS and BiCMOS processes is examined from several points of view. The noise performances are a fundamental issue in most detector applications and suitable attention is devoted to them for the purpose of judging whether or not the present processes supersede the solutions featuring a field-effect transistor...

  7. Design and characterization of integrated front-end transistors in a micro-strip detector technology

    CERN Document Server

    Simi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Dalla Betta, Gian Franco; Dittongo, S; Forti, F; Giorgi, M; Gregori, P; Manghisoni, M; Morganti, M; Ratti, L; Re, V; Rizzo, G; Speziali, V; Zorzi, N

    2002-01-01

    We present the developments in a research program aimed at the realization of silicon micro-strip detectors with front-end electronics integrated in a high resistivity substrate to be used in high-energy physics, space and medical/industrial imaging applications. We report on the fabrication process developed at IRST (Trento, Italy), the characterization of the basic wafer parameters and measurements of the relevant working characteristics of the integrated transistors and related test structures.

  8. FBI Fingerprint Image Capture System High-Speed-Front-End throughput modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathke, P.M.

    1993-09-01

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has undertaken a major modernization effort called the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFISS). This system will provide centralized identification services using automated fingerprint, subject descriptor, mugshot, and document processing. A high-speed Fingerprint Image Capture System (FICS) is under development as part of the IAFIS program. The FICS will capture digital and microfilm images of FBI fingerprint cards for input into a central database. One FICS design supports two front-end scanning subsystems, known as the High-Speed-Front-End (HSFE) and Low-Speed-Front-End, to supply image data to a common data processing subsystem. The production rate of the HSFE is critical to meeting the FBI`s fingerprint card processing schedule. A model of the HSFE has been developed to help identify the issues driving the production rate, assist in the development of component specifications, and guide the evolution of an operations plan. A description of the model development is given, the assumptions are presented, and some HSFE throughput analysis is performed.

  9. Front-end electronics for accurate energy measurement of double beta decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, A., E-mail: alejandro.gil@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-UV), 46071 Valencia (Spain); Diaz, J.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-UV), 46071 Valencia (Spain); Herrero, V. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular (I3M). Centro mixto CSIC, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, CIEMAT, Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, J.; Serra, L. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-UV), 46071 Valencia (Spain); Toledo, J.; Esteve, R.; Monzo, J.M. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular (I3M). Centro mixto CSIC, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, CIEMAT, Valencia (Spain); Monrabal, F.; Yahlali, N. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-UV), 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-12-11

    NEXT, a double beta decay experiment that will operate in Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spain), aims at measuring the neutrinoless double-{beta} decay of the 136Xe isotope using a TPC filled with enriched Xenon gas at high pressure operated in electroluminescence mode. One technological challenge of the experiment is to achieve resolution better than 1% in the energy measurement using a plane of UV sensitive photomultipliers readout with appropriate custom-made front-end electronics. The front-end is designed to be sensitive to the single photo-electron to detect the weak primary scintillation light produced in the chamber, and also to be able to cope with the electroluminescence signal (several hundred times higher and with a duration of microseconds). For efficient primary scintillation detection and precise energy measurement of the electroluminescent signals the front-end electronics features low noise and adequate amplification. The signal shaping provided allows the digitization of the signals at a frequency as low as 40 MHz.

  10. An 8 channel GaAs IC front-end discriminator for RPC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Giannini, F; Orengo, G; Cardarelli, R

    1999-01-01

    Although not traditionally considered for particle detector readout, circuit solutions based upon GaAs IC technologies can offer considerable performance advantages in high speed detector signal processing: high f sub T devices, such as the GaAs MESFET, allow the realization of front-end tuned amplifiers and comparators with the same detector time resolution. Such a feature is well-suited for RPC particle detectors, characterized by short pulse duration and constant shaping responses. A new design procedure shows the suitability of high speed narrow band GaAs amplifiers as voltage-sensitive input stages of front-end discriminators to perform the required voltage amplification for the following comparator, ensuring, at the same time, SNR optimisation, high gain and low power consumption. As an application of the proposed approach, a full-custom analog chip has been designed and realized using 0.6 mu m GaAs MESFET technology from Triquint foundry. Eight channels of a front-end discriminator composed of a tuned ...

  11. Towards an Intelligent Acoustic Front End for Automatic Speech Recognition: Built-in Speaker Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit H. Yapanel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A proven method for achieving effective automatic speech recognition (ASR due to speaker differences is to perform acoustic feature speaker normalization. More effective speaker normalization methods are needed which require limited computing resources for real-time performance. The most popular speaker normalization technique is vocal-tract length normalization (VTLN, despite the fact that it is computationally expensive. In this study, we propose a novel online VTLN algorithm entitled built-in speaker normalization (BISN, where normalization is performed on-the-fly within a newly proposed PMVDR acoustic front end. The novel algorithm aspect is that in conventional frontend processing with PMVDR and VTLN, two separating warping phases are needed; while in the proposed BISN method only one single speaker dependent warp is used to achieve both the PMVDR perceptual warp and VTLN warp simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces computational requirements, thereby offering advantages for real-time ASR systems. Evaluations are performed for (i an in-car extended digit recognition task, where an on-the-fly BISN implementation reduces the relative word error rate (WER by 24%, and (ii for a diverse noisy speech task (SPINE 2, where the relative WER improvement was 9%, both relative to the baseline speaker normalization method.

  12. Towards an Intelligent Acoustic Front End for Automatic Speech Recognition: Built-in Speaker Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapanel UmitH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A proven method for achieving effective automatic speech recognition (ASR due to speaker differences is to perform acoustic feature speaker normalization. More effective speaker normalization methods are needed which require limited computing resources for real-time performance. The most popular speaker normalization technique is vocal-tract length normalization (VTLN, despite the fact that it is computationally expensive. In this study, we propose a novel online VTLN algorithm entitled built-in speaker normalization (BISN, where normalization is performed on-the-fly within a newly proposed PMVDR acoustic front end. The novel algorithm aspect is that in conventional frontend processing with PMVDR and VTLN, two separating warping phases are needed; while in the proposed BISN method only one single speaker dependent warp is used to achieve both the PMVDR perceptual warp and VTLN warp simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces computational requirements, thereby offering advantages for real-time ASR systems. Evaluations are performed for (i an in-car extended digit recognition task, where an on-the-fly BISN implementation reduces the relative word error rate (WER by 24%, and (ii for a diverse noisy speech task (SPINE 2, where the relative WER improvement was 9%, both relative to the baseline speaker normalization method.

  13. The new Front End Electronics for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase 2 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Agostinho; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present the plans, design, and performance results to date for the new front end electronics being developed for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. The front end electronics will be replaced to address the increased luminosity at the HL-LHC around 2023, as well as to upgrade to faster, more modern components with higher radiation tolerance. The new electronics will operate dead-timelessly, pushing full data sets from each beam crossing to the data acquisition system that resides off-detector in the USA15 counting room. The new electronics contains five main parts: the front end boards that connect directly to the photomultiplier tubes; the Main Boards that digitize the data; the Daughter Boards that collect the data streams and contain the high speed optical communication links for writing data to the data acquisition system; a programmable high voltage control system; and a new low voltage power supply. There are different options for implementing these subcomponents, which will be describ...

  14. The New Front End Electronics For the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase 2 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Agostinho; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present the plans, design, and performance results to date for the new front-end electronics being developed for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. The front-end electronics will be replaced to address the increased luminosity at the HL-LHC around 2023, as well as to upgrade to faster, more modern components with higher radiation tolerance. The new electronics will operate dead-timelessly, pushing full data sets from each beam crossing to the data acquisition system that resides off-detector in the USA15 counting room. The new electronics contains five main parts: the front-end boards that connect directly to the photomultiplier tubes; the Main Boards that digitize the data; the Daughter Boards that collect the data streams and contain the high-speed optical communication links for writing data to the data acquisition system; a programmable high voltage control system; and a new low-voltage power supply. There are different options for implementing these subcomponents, which will be describ...

  15. A Serializer ASIC at 5 Gbps for Detector Front-end Electronics Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Optical data links are used in detector front-end electronics readout systems of experiments in the Tevatron and the LHC. Optical links in high energy particle physics experiments usually have special requirements such as radiation tolerance, ultra high reliability and low power dissipation. These requirements are often not met by commercial components which are designed for applications in non-radiation, accessible (for maintenance) environment, and for multi-vendor systems so the parts must comply with certain standards. Future HEP experiments such as the upgrades for the sLHC call for optical links with ultra high data bandwidth, higher radiation tolerance and ultra low power dissipation. To meet these challenges and in particular those in the upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout that calls for an optical link system of 100 Gbps for each front-end board, we adopted a full custom front-end electronics system design based on application specific integrated circuits. Reported here are the de...

  16. Implementing method of optimum front-end conditioner based on Butterworth filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The front-end conditioner is an essential part of digital systems of nuclear spectrometer, which functions in two ways: (1) prevents saturation of the subsequent ADC; (2) limits the bandwidth of frequency to realize anti-aliasing. To realize the above-mentioned functions, an optimum front-end conditioner for a resistive feedback charge-sensitive preamplifier is designed. In the conditioner, the pole-zero compensation (P/Z compensation) technique was used to effectively filter signals from the preamplifier. The Butterworth filter was improved after the pole-zero position was optimally set up to shape the wave of output, which tallied with the whole system. The front-end conditioner can resolve the aberration of waveform of nuclear signals in a regular Butterworth filter. Compared with the traditional triple-pole filtering circuitry, the circuitry of this conditioner is more compact and flexible.Moreover, its output waveform is more symmetrical and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is higher. The improvement in the resolution of spectrometer is also significant.

  17. The New Front-End Electronics for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase 2 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present the plans, design, and performance results to date ofor the new front-end electronics being developed for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. The front-end electronics will be replaced to address the increase in beam energy and luminosity planned for the LHC around 2023, as well as to upgrade to faster, more modern components with higher radiation tolerance. The new electronics will operate dead-timelessly, pushing full data sets from each beam crossing to the data acquisition system that resides off-detector in the USA15 counting room. The new electronics contains five main parts: the front-end boards that connect directly to the photo-multiplier tubes; the Main Boards that digitize the data; the Daughter Boards that collect the data streams and contain the high-speed optical communication links for writing data to the data acquisition system; a programmable high voltage control system; and a new low-voltage power supply. There are different options for implementing these subcompone...

  18. The New Front-End Electronics for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase 2 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present the design for the new front-end electronics being developed for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. The front-end electronics will be replaced to address the increase in beam energy and luminosity planned for the LHC around 2023, as well as to upgrade to faster, more modern components with higher radiation tolerance. The new electronics will operate dead-timelessly, pushing full data sets from each beam crossing to the data acquisition system that resides off-detector in the USA15 counting room. The new electronics contains five main parts: the Front End Boards that connect directly to the photo-multiplier tubes; the Main Boards that digitize the data; the Daughter Boards that collect the data streams and contain the high-speed optical communication links for writing data to the data acquisition system; a programmable high voltage control system; and a new low-voltage power supply. There are different options for implementing these subcomponents, which will be described. The new sys...

  19. New Order, end of illusions and the activist matrix of the first National Front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas LEBOURG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ordre nouveau was the most important French neo-fascist movement after 1945. It lasted only for four years (1969-1973 but it induced seve-ral changes shaking the radical right wing. As it was defined as a revolutionary party, ordre nouveau spread its identity onto activists on the one hand, while it also collaborated with state authorities fighting against leftists on the other hand. Following the successful italian model of the MSI, the movement oscillated between media coverage — which gave it an identity but also led to its dissolution in 1973 — and acceptance of the electoral game for which Front national had been founded. The disappearance of ordre nouveau meant the end of dreams of revolutionary right sustained by some active minorities using political violence, as well as it stood for a transition to a post-industrial radical right symbolized by the rise of Front National.

  20. Unformatted Digital Fiber-Optic Data Transmission for Radio Astronomy Front-Ends

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Matthew A; Castro, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of a prototype integrated receiver front-end that combines all conversions from RF to baseband, from analog to digital, and from copper to fiber into one compact assembly, with the necessary gain and stability suitable for radio astronomy applications. The emphasis in this article is on a novel digital data link over optical fiber which requires no formatting in the front-end, greatly reducing the complexity, bulk, and power consumption of digital electronics inside the antenna, facilitating its integration with the analog components, and minimizing the self-generated radio-frequency interference (RFI) which could leak into the signal path. Management of the serial data link is performed entirely in the back-end based on the statistical properties of signals with a strong random noise component. In this way, the full benefits of precision and stability afforded by conventional digital data transmission are realized with far less overhead at the focal plane of a radio telescope.

  1. Front- and back-end process characterization by SIMS to achieve electrically matched devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budri, Thanas; Kouzminov, Dimitry

    2004-06-01

    Application of SIMS metrology in high volume wafer manufacturing allows comparison of important physical characteristics of devices and can address changes in the process during early stages of process flow, thus improving production yields and cycles. In the current paper, we investigate the correlation between wafer-level SIMS characterization and electrical characteristics of devices in a wide spectrum of front- and back-end applications: high precision SIMS analysis for implanter recipe development and monitoring is a technique that has provided major contributions to achieve electrically matched devices. SIMS analysis is also used widely on gate material selection and characterization. As SiGe/SiGeC is taking precedence over III-V materials for rf applications due to processing simplicity, SIMS analytical technique provides major metrology support on process targeting and development. The SIMS analytical technique has earned its reputation and is wide used as metrology solution on front-end semiconductor processing. Fluorine SIMS analysis investigation in TiN, W and its relation with increased via resistance and voids on the nucleation is an example of SIMS analysis application for back-end process support.

  2. A new portable test bench for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics certification

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Hee Yeun, K; Minashvili, I; Moreno, P; Qin, G; Reed, R; Schettino, V; Shalyugin, A; Solans, C; Sousa, J; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the upgraded portable test bench for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The previous version of the portable test bench was extensively used for certification and qualification of the front-end electronics during the commissioning phase as well as during the short maintenance periods of 2010 and 2011. The new version described here is designed to be an easily upgradable version of the 10-year-old system, able to evaluate the new technologies planned for the ATLAS upgrade as well as provide new functionalities to the present system. It will be used in the consolidation of electronics campaign during the long shutdown of the LHC in 2013-14 and during future maintenance periods. The system, based on a global re-design with state-of-the-art devices, is based on a back-end electronics crate instrumented with commercial and custom modules and a front-end GUI that is executed on an external portable computer and communicates with the controller in the crate through an Ethernet...

  3. A new portable test bench for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics certification

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Hee Yeun, K; Minashvili, I; Moreno, P; Qin, G; Reed, R; Schettino, V; Shalyugin, A; Solans, C; Sousa, J; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the upgraded portable test bench for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The previous version of the portable test bench was extensively used for certification and qualification of the front-end electronics during the commissioning phase as well as during the short maintenance periods of 2010 and 2011. The new version described here is designed to be an easily upgradable version of the 10-year-old system, able to evaluate the new technologies planned for the ATLAS upgrade as well as provide new functionalities to the present system. It will be used in the consolidation of electronics campaign during the long shutdown of the LHC in 2013-14 and during future maintenance periods. The system, based on a global re-design with state-of-the-art devices, is based on a back-end electronics crate instrumented with commercial and custom modules and a front-end GUI that is executed on an external portable computer and communicate

  4. OLS Dialog: An open-source front end to the Ontology Lookup Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidhammer Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the growing amount of biomedical data available in public databases it has become increasingly important to annotate data in a consistent way in order to allow easy access to this rich source of information. Annotating the data using controlled vocabulary terms and ontologies makes it much easier to compare and analyze data from different sources. However, finding the correct controlled vocabulary terms can sometimes be a difficult task for the end user annotating these data. Results In order to facilitate the location of the correct term in the correct controlled vocabulary or ontology, the Ontology Lookup Service was created. However, using the Ontology Lookup Service as a web service is not always feasible, especially for researchers without bioinformatics support. We have therefore created a Java front end to the Ontology Lookup Service, called the OLS Dialog, which can be plugged into any application requiring the annotation of data using controlled vocabulary terms, making it possible to find and use controlled vocabulary terms without requiring any additional knowledge about web services or ontology formats. Conclusions As a user-friendly open source front end to the Ontology Lookup Service, the OLS Dialog makes it straightforward to include controlled vocabulary support in third-party tools, which ultimately makes the data even more valuable to the biomedical community.

  5. High-Frequency Wireless Communications System: 2.45-GHz Front-End Circuit and System Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.-H.; Huang, M.-C.; Ting, Y.-C.; Chen, H.-H.; Li, T.-L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a course on high-frequency wireless communications systems is presented. With the 145-MHz baseband subsystem available from a prerequisite course, the present course emphasizes the design and implementation of the 2.45-GHz front-end subsystem as well as system integration issues. In this curriculum, the 2.45-GHz front-end…

  6. A front-end ASIC design for non-uniformity correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X.; Ding, R. J.; Lin, J. M.; Liu, F.

    2008-12-01

    A front-end design of an ASIC that implements calibration and correction for IRFPA non-uniformity is presented. An algorithm suitable for ASIC implementation is introduced, and one kind of architecture that implements this algorithm has been designed. We map the architecture to TSMC 0.25um process. After evaluating the chip area and operation speed, we confirm that this architect will also be effective when the FPA scale in enlarged to 1Kby1K. Finally the flow of circuit implementation and method of verification are introduced briefly.

  7. System-Level Design of an Integrated Receiver Front End for a Wireless Ultrasound Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Llimos Muntal, Pere;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a system-level design is presented for an integrated receive circuit for a wireless ultrasound probe, which includes analog front ends and beamformation modules. This paper focuses on the investigation of the effects of architectural design choices on the image quality. The point......). The designs that minimally satisfy the specifications are based on an 8-b 30-MSPS Nyquist converter and a single-bit third-order 240-MSPS modulator, with an SNR for the LNA in both cases equal to 64 dB. The mean lateral FWHM and CR are 2.4% and 7.1% lower for the architecture compared with the Nyquistrate one...

  8. The front end test stand high performance H- ion source at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, D C; Lawrie, S; Letchford, A P; Gabor, C; Wise, P; Whitehead, M; Wood, T; Westall, M; Findlay, D; Perkins, M; Savage, P J; Lee, D A; Pozimski, J K

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the front end test stand (FETS) project is to demonstrate that chopped low energy beams of high quality can be produced. FETS consists of a 60 mA Penning Surface Plasma Ion Source, a three solenoid low energy beam transport, a 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole, a chopper, and a comprehensive suite of diagnostics. This paper details the design and initial performance of the ion source and the laser profile measurement system. Beam current, profile, and emittance measurements are shown for different operating conditions.

  9. A CMOS self-powered front-end architecture for subcutaneous event-detector devices

    CERN Document Server

    Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    A CMOS Self-Powered Front-End Architecture for Subcutaneous Event-Detector Devices presents the conception and prototype realization of a Self-Powered architecture for subcutaneous detector devices. The architecture is designed to work as a true/false (event detector) or threshold level alarm of some substances, ions, etc. that are detected through a three-electrodes amperometric BioSensor approach. The device is conceived as a Low-Power subcutaneous implantable application powered by an inductive link, one emitter antenna at the external side of the skin and the receiver antenna under the ski

  10. The Front End Electronics of the Scintillator Pad Detector of LHCb Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gascon, David; Bota, S; Comerma, A; Diéguez, A; Garrido, L; Gaspar, A; Graciani, R; Graciani, E; Herms, A; Llorens, M; Luengo, S; Picatoste, E; Riera, J; Rosselló, M; Ruiz, H; Tortella, S; Vilasís, X

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the Front End electronics of the Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) is outlined. The SPD is a sub-system of the Calorimeter of the LHCb experiment designed to discriminate between charged and neutral particles for the first level trigger. The system design is presented, describing its different functionalities implemented through three different cards and several ASICs. These functionalities are signal processing and digitization, data transmission, interface with control and timing systems of the experiment, low voltage power supply distribution and monitoring. Special emphasis is placed on installation and commissioning subjects such as cabling, grounding, shielding and power distribution.

  11. Performance of the Fully Digital FPGA-based Front-End Electronics for the GALILEO Array

    CERN Document Server

    Barrientos, D; Bazzacco, D; Bortolato, D; Cocconi, P; Gadea, A; González, V; Gulmini, M; Isocrate, R; Mengoni, D; Pullia, A; Recchia, F; Rosso, D; Sanchis, E; Toniolo, N; Ur, C A; Valiente-Dobón, J J

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the architecture and results of a fully digital Front End Electronics (FEE) read out system developed for the GALILEO array. The FEE system, developed in collaboration with the Advanced Gamma Tracking Array (AGATA) collaboration, is composed of three main blocks: preamplifiers, digitizers and preprocessing electronics. The slow control system contains a custom Linux driver, a dynamic library and a server implementing network services. The digital processing of the data from the GALILEO germanium detectors has demonstrated the capability to achieve an energy resolution of 1.53 per mil at an energy of 1.33 MeV.

  12. Investigation of characteristics and radiation hardness of the Beetle 1.0 front-end chip

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Jans, E; Klous, S; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    Noise characteristics of the Beetle 1.0 front-end chip have been investigated as a function of input capacitance. Values for the equivalent noise charge and ballastic deficit have been extracted. Amplification and pulse shape have been studied by varying the bias settings over a wide range. Results are compared with simulations that include realistic impedances at the input and output. The chip has been subjected to 10 Mrad of radiation. Subsequently, its behaviour is measured again and compared to that preceeding the irradiation. Observed radiation damage effects are discussed.

  13. Effect of vehicle front end profiles leading to pedestrian secondary head impact to ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Yang, King H

    2013-11-01

    Most studies of pedestrian injuries focus on reducing traumatic injuries due to the primary impact between the vehicle and the pedestrian. However, based on the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS), some researchers concluded that one of the leading causes of head injury for pedestrian crashes can be attributed to the secondary impact, defined as the impact of the pedestrian with the ground after the primary impact of the pedestrian with the vehicle. The purpose of this study is to understand if different vehicle front-end profiles can affect the risk of pedestrian secondary head impact with the ground and thus help in reducing the risk of head injury during secondary head impact with ground. Pedestrian responses were studied using several front-end profiles based off a mid-size vehicle and a SUV that have been validated previously along with several MADYMO pedestrian models. Mesh morphing is used to explore changes to the bumper height, bonnet leading-edge height, and bonnet rear reference-line height. Simulations leading up to pedestrian secondary impact with ground are conducted at impact speeds of 40 and 30 km/h. In addition, three pedestrian sizes (50th, 5th and 6yr old child) are used to enable us to search for a front-end profile that performs well for multiple sizes of pedestrians, not just one particular size. In most of the simulations, secondary ground impact with pedestrian head/neck/shoulder region occurred. However, there were some front-end profiles that promoted secondary ground impact with pedestrian lower extremities, thus avoiding pedestrian secondary head impact with ground. Previous pedestrian safety research work has suggested the use of active safety methods, such as 'pop up hood', to reduce pedestrian head injury during primary impact. Accordingly, we also conducted simulations using a model with the hood raised to capture the effect of a pop-up hood. These simulations indicated that even though pop-up hood helped reducing the head injury

  14. A new design for SLAM front-end based on recursive SOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuesi; Xia, Shengping

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the graph optimization-based monocular SLAM, a novel design for the front-end in single camera SLAM is proposed, based on the recursive SOM. Pixel intensities are directly used to achieve image registration and motion estimation, which can save time compared with the current appearance-based frameworks, usually including feature extraction and matching. Once a key-frame is identified, a recursive SOM is used to actualize loop-closure detecting, resulting a more precise location. The experiment on a public dataset validates our method on a computer with a quicker and effective result.

  15. Characterization of front-end electronics for CZT based handheld radioisotope identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombigit, L.; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Yazid, Khairiah; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2016-01-01

    A radioisotope identifier device based on large volume Co-planar grid CZT detector is current under development at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device is planned to be used for in-situ identification of radioisotopes based on their unique energies. This work reports on electronics testing performed on the front-end electronics (FEE) analog section comprising charge sensitive preamplifier-pulse shaping amplifier chain. This test involves measurement of charge sensitivity, pulse parameters and electronics noise. This report also present some preliminary results on the spectral measurement obtained from gamma emitting radioisotopes.

  16. Characterization of front-end electronics for CZT based handheld radioisotope identifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombigit, L., E-mail: lojius@nm.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Yazid, Khairiah; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2016-01-22

    A radioisotope identifier device based on large volume Co-planar grid CZT detector is current under development at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device is planned to be used for in-situ identification of radioisotopes based on their unique energies. This work reports on electronics testing performed on the front-end electronics (FEE) analog section comprising charge sensitive preamplifier-pulse shaping amplifier chain. This test involves measurement of charge sensitivity, pulse parameters and electronics noise. This report also present some preliminary results on the spectral measurement obtained from gamma emitting radioisotopes.

  17. The Outer Tracker Detector of the HERA-B Experiment. Part II: Front-End Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    al., H. Albrecht et

    2004-01-01

    The HERA-B Outer Tracker is a large detector with 112674 drift chamber channels. It is exposed to a particle flux of up to 2x10^5/cm^2/s thus coping with conditions similar to those expected for the LHC experiments. The front-end readout system, based on the ASD-8 chip and a customized TDC chip, is designed to fulfil the requirements on low noise, high sensitivity, rate tolerance, and high integration density. The TDC system is based on an ASIC which digitizes the time in bins of about 0.5 ns...

  18. 65 nm CMOS analog front-end for pixel detectors at the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaioni, L.; De Canio, F.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2016-02-01

    This work is concerned with the design and the experimental characterization of analog front-end electronics conceived for experiments with unprecedented particle rates and radiation levels at future high-energy physics colliders. A prototype chip integrating different test structures has been submitted in the framework of the CHIPIX65 project. These structures are standalone channels for the readout of hybrid pixels, featuring a charge sensitive preamplifier as the first stage of the readout chain, a high-speed comparator and a circuit for fine threshold tuning. The paper thoroughly discusses the results, mainly focused on the charge sensitive amplifier, coming from the characterization of the submitted test structures.

  19. Low-Power Fully Integrated CMOS DTV Tuner Front-End for ATSC Terrestrial Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost low-power DTV tuner for current digital television application is described. In order to increase integration level and reduce power consumption for off-air DTV tuner application, an SAW-filterless tuner front-end architecture is adopted. As a part of the concept, key building blocks for this architecture are implemented on a main stream 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Experimental measurements for the prototype chip validate the system architecture; the prototype consumes 300 mw and achieves 45 dB of image rejection ratio within the entire 750 MHz frequency band.

  20. Polyphase Filter Banks for Embedded Sample Rate Changes in Digital Radio Front-Ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Mehmood-Ur-Rehman; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents efficient processing engines for software-defined radio (SDR) front-ends. These engines, based on a polyphase channelizer, perform arbitrary sample-rate changes, frequency selection, and bandwidth control. This paper presents an M-path polyphase filter bank based on a modified N....... A non-maximally-decimated polyphase filter bank (where the number of data loads is not equal to the number of M subfilters) processes M subfilters in a time period that is less than or greater than the M data loads. A polyphase filter bank with five different resampling modes is used as a case study...

  1. POLARIS: ESA's airborne ice sounding radar front-end design, performance assessment and first results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Carlos Cilla; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens;

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the design, implementation and experimental performance assessment of the RF front-end of an airborne P-band ice sounding radar. The ice sounder design comprises commercial-of-the-shelf modules and newly purpose-built components at a centre frequency of 435 MHz with 20......% relative bandwidth. The transmitter uses two amplifiers combined in parallel to generate more than >128 W peak power, with system >60% PAE and 47 dB in-band to out-of-band signal ratio. The four channel receiver features digitally controlled variable gain to achieve more than 100 dB dynamic range, 2.4 d...

  2. Simulation of wind power with front-end converter into interconnected grid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad W. Mohod

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the growing electricity supply industry and open access market for electricity worldwide, renewable sources are getting added into the grid system. This affects the grid power quality. To assess the impact on grid due to wind energy integration, the knowledge of electrical characteristic of wind turbine and associated control equipments are required. The paper presents a simulation set-up for wind turbine in MATLAB / SIMULINK, with front end converter and interconnected system. The presented control scheme provides the wind power flow to the grid through a converter. The injected power in the system at the point of common coupling is ensured within the power quality norms.

  3. Noise limits in a front-end system based on time-over-threshold signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Manfredi, P F; Mandelli, E; Perazzo, A; Re, V

    2000-01-01

    An analog signal processor based on the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) range compression is employed in the front-end section of the readout chip of the microstrip vertex detector for the BaBar experiment. The paper, after describing the circuit solutions that have been adopted to optimize the ToT operation, focuses on the noise aspects of the ToT processor. Comparisons are made between the signal-to-noise ratio in the linear processor preceding the ToT circuit and that obtained at the output of the entire analog channel including the ToT function.

  4. Testing of the front-end hybrid circuits for the CMS Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadek, T.; Blanchot, G.; Honma, A.; Kovacs, M.; Raymond, M.; Rose, P.

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the CMS Tracker for the HL-LHC requires the design of new double-sensor, silicon detector modules, which implement Level 1 trigger functionality in the increased luminosity environment. These new modules will contain two different, high-density front-end hybrid circuits, equipped with flip-chip ASICs, auxiliary electronic components and mechanical structures. The hybrids require qualification tests before they are assembled into modules. Test methods are proposed together with the corresponding test hardware and software. They include functional tests and signal injection in a cold environment to find possible failure modes of the hybrids under real operating conditions.

  5. HTS filter and front-end subsystem for GSM1800 wireless base station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The first HTS front-end subsystem for wireless base station in China was developed. This demonstration system, which aims at the application in GSM1800 mobile communication base station, consists of a single RF path, i.e. one filter and one LNA, integrated with the pulse tube cooler. The subsystem works at a pass band of 1710-1785 MHz with a gain of 18 dB and at a temperature of 70 K. The accomplishment of such a demonstration subsystem can boost the development of HTS commercial subsystem.

  6. CMOS front-end for duobinary data over 50-m SI-POF links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J.; Guerrero, E.; Gimeno, C.; Sánchez-Azqueta, C.; Celma, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a front-end for short-reach high-speed optical communications that compensates the limited bandwidth of 1-mm 50-m step-index plastic optical fiber (SI-POF). For that purpose, it combines two techniques: continuous-time equalization and duobinary modulation. An addition of both enables the receiver to operate at 3.125 Gbps. The prototype contains a transimpedance amplifier, a continuous-time equalizer and a duobinary decoder. The prototype has been implemented in a cost-effective 0.18-μm CMOS process and is fed with 1.8 V.

  7. THz semiconductor-based front-end receiver technology for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Advances in the design and fabrication of very low capacitance planar Schottky diodes and millimeter-wave power amplifiers, more accurate device and circuit models for commercial 3-D electromagnetic simulators, and the availability of both MEMS and high precision metal machining, have enabled RF engineers to extend traditional waveguide-based sensor and source technologies well into the TI-Iz frequency regime. This short paper will highlight recent progress in realizing THz space-qualified receiver front-ends based on room temperature semiconductor devices.

  8. A wide dynamics neutron monitor with BF3 and logarithmic amplifier based front-end electronics

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a wide dynamics neutron monitor based on BF3 neutron detector is described. The detector is used in current mode, and a front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier is used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many decades. The system has been calibrated at Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamics ranging ov...

  9. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Front-end Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tiankuan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5-7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter channels at 40-80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented.

  10. SYSTEMATIC METHOD TO GENERATE NEW IDEAS IN FUZZY FRONT END USING TRIZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Runhua; MA Lihui; YANG Bojun; SUN Jianguang

    2008-01-01

    The obstacle for idea generation in fuzzy front end (FFE) is difficult to apply knowledge in different fields for designers. Theory of inventive problem solving TRIZ and computer-aided innovation systems (CAIs) which are TRIZ-base software systems with a knowledge base provide a framework for knowledge application in different fields. The major methods in TRIZ are selected, which have four types. The problems to be solved for each method are summarized and mapping from the problems to the methods is given. Systematic method with eight paths to integrate the methods and problems is formed. A case study shows the idea generation in FFE using the integrated method step by step.

  11. Compact Agile Antenna Concept Utilizing Reconfigurable Front End for Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Jagielski, Ole; Svendsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    that separates the Tx and Rx chain throughout the front end (FE). The complexity of the FE is reduced dramatically by replacing the duplex filters with tunable filters and closely integrating the tunable antennas in the FE, providing filtering which can be used to lower requirements for the tunable filters....... For this purpose, very small narrow-band antennas are designed, which can cover 1710–2170 MHz by using tunable capacitors. Simulations and measurements of the antenna concept are carried out in the proposed FE architecture, serving as a proof of concept....

  12. Impact of Spectral Filter on Phase Modulation Pulse in Fiber Front End System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; JING Feng; WANG Jian-Jun; XU Dang-Peng; LIN Hong-Huan; GENG Yuan-Chao; LI Ming-Zhong; DENG Ying; ZHU Na; ZHANG Rui

    2011-01-01

    The transmission characteristics of phase modulation pulse transmitted through the filter in the power amplifier are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The narrow bandpass filter can induce large temporal modula-tion depth for the phase modulation pulse and induce double amplitude modulation(AM)if the frequency shift is lower than half bandwidth of the signal spectrum. We should choose a wider bandwidth filter to minimize the impact of the filter on the output pulse and suppress the amplified spontaneous emission(ASE) for the power fiber amplifier. These results are of benefit to the design of the fiber front end system.

  13. LHCb: Test Station for the LHCb Muon Front-End Electronic

    CERN Multimedia

    Polycarpo, E

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb Muon Group has developed the CMOS ASIC CARIOCA to readout its Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) and GEM detectors, using a rad-hard IBM 0.25um process. Each ASIC holds 8 identical current-mode ASDB channels with individual input thresholds. The Muon detector contains around 120000 physical channels, requiring production of 20000 front-end chips, roughly. CARIOCA has been developed to process MWPC cathode and anode signals and two different versions have been implemented to overcome the requirement of MWP and GEM chambers operation. The test station has been devised to accomplish bipolar tests and to measure characteristics of both CARIOCA versions.

  14. Testing of the Front-End Hybrid Circuits for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gadek, Tomasz; Honma, Alan; Kovacs, Mark Istvan; Raymond, David Mark; Rose, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the CMS tracker for the HL-LHC requires the design of new double-sensor, silicon detector modules, which implement Level 1 trigger functionality in the increased luminosity environment. These new modules will contain two different, high density front-end hybrid circuits, equipped with flip-chip ASICs, auxiliary electronic components and mechanical structures. The hybrids require qualification tests before they are assembled into modules. Test methods are proposed together with the corresponding test hardware and software. They include functional tests and signal injection in a cold environment to find possible failure modes of the hybrids under real operating conditions.

  15. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter front-end electronics for the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.

    2017-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide 5–7 times greater luminosities than assumed in the original detector design. An improved trigger system requires an upgrade of the readout electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter. Concepts for the future readout of the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40–80 MHz and 16-bit dynamic range and the developments of radiation-tolerant, low-noise, low-power, and high-bandwidth front-end electronic components, including preamplifiers and shapers, 14-bit ADCs, and 10-Gb/s laser diode array drivers, are presented in this paper.

  16. First test results from the Front-End Board with Cyclone V as a test high-resolution platform for the Auger-Beyond-2015 Front End Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew [University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, Faculty of High-Energy Astrophysics, 90-236 Lodz, Pomorska 149, (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the first results from the Front- End Board (FEB) with the biggest Cyclone{sup R} V E FPGA 5CEFA9F31I7N, supporting 8 channels sampled up to 250 MSps at 14-bit resolution. Considered sampling for the SD is 120 MSps, however, the FEB has been developed with external anti-aliasing filters to keep a maximal flexibility. Six channels are targeted to the SD, two the rest for other experiments like: Auger Engineering Radio Array and additional muon counters. More channels and higher sampling generate larger size of registered events. We used the standard radio channel for a radio transmission from the detectors to the Central Data Acquisition Station (CDAS) to avoid at present a significant modification of a software in both sides: the detector and the CDAS (planned in a future for a final design). Seven FEBs have been deployed in the test detectors on a dedicated Engineering Array in a hexagon. Several variants of the FPGA code were tested for 120, 160, 200 and even 240 MSps DAQ. Tests confirmed a stability and reliability of the FEB design in real pampas conditions with more than 40 deg. C daily temperature variation and a strong sun exposition with a limited power budget only from a single solar panel. (authors)

  17. Powerloads on the front end components and the duct of the heating and diagnostic neutral beam lines at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. J.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Urbani, M.; Schunke, B.; Chareyre, J. [ITER Organisation, 13607 St. Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Dlougach, E.; Krylov, A. [RRC Kurchatov institute, 1, Kurchatov Sq, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    The heating and current drive beam lines (HNB) at ITER are expected to deliver ∼16.7 MW power per beam line for H beams at 870 keV and D beams at 1 MeV during the H-He and the DD/DT phases of ITER operation respectively. On the other hand the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) line shall deliver ∼2 MW power for H beams at 100 keV during both the phases. The path lengths over which the beams from the HNB and DNB beam lines need to be transported are 25.6 m and 20.7 m respectively. The transport of the beams over these path lengths results in beam losses, mainly by the direct interception of the beam with the beam line components and reionisation. The lost power is deposited on the surfaces of the various components of the beam line. In order to ensure the survival of these components over the operational life time of ITER, it is important to determine to the best possible extent the operational power loads and power densities on the various surfaces which are impacted by the beam in one way or the other during its transport. The main factors contributing to these are the divergence of the beamlets and the halo fraction in the beam, the beam aiming, the horizontal and vertical misalignment of the beam, and the gas profile along the beam path, which determines the re-ionisation loss, and the re-ionisation cross sections. The estimations have been made using a combination of the modified version of the Monte Carlo Gas Flow code (MCGF) and the BTR code. The MCGF is used to determine the gas profile in the beam line and takes into account the active gas feed into the ion source and neutraliser, the HNB-DNB cross over, the gas entering the beamline from the ITER machine, the additional gas atoms generated in the beam line due to impacting ions and the pumping speed of the cryopumps. The BTR code has been used to obtain the power loads and the power densities on the various surfaces of the front end components and the duct modules for different scenarios of ITER

  18. Unified analytical expressions for calculating resonant frequencies, transimpedances, and equivalent input noise current densities of tuned receiver front ends

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Unified analytical expressions have been derived for calculating the resonant frequencies, transimpedance and equivalent input noise current densities of the four most widely used tuned optical receiver front ends built with FETs and p-i-n diodes. A more accurate FET model has been used to improve the accuracy of the analysis. The Miller capacitance has been taken into account, and its impact on the performances of the tuned front ends has been demonstrated. The accuracy of the expressions ha...

  19. Multi-channel front-end board for SiPM readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, M.; Ereditato, A.; Goeldi, D.; Kreslo, I.; Lorca, D.; Luethi, M.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Sinclair, J.; Weber, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    We describe a novel high-speed front-end electronic board (FEB) for interfacing an array of 32 Silicon Photo-multipliers (SiPM) with a computer. The FEB provides individually adjustable bias for the SiPMs, and performs low-noise analog signal amplification, conditioning and digitization. It provides event timing information accurate to 1.3 ns RMS. The signal-to-noise ratio of 12 is attained for the first photo-electron peak. The back-end data interface is realized on the basis of 100 Mbps Ethernet. The design allows daisy-chaining of up to 256 units into one network interface, thus enabling compact and efficient readout schemes for multi-channel scintillating detectors, using SiPMs as photo-sensors.

  20. Multi-channel front-end board for SiPM readout

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, M; Goeldi, D; Kreslo, I; Lorca, D; Luethi, M; von Rohr, C Rudolf; Sinclair, J; Weber, M S

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel high-speed front-end electronic board (FEB) for interfacing an array of 32 Silicon Photo-multipliers (SiPM) with a computer. The FEB provides individually adjustable bias on the SiPMs, and performs low-noise analog signal amplification, conditioning and digitization. It provides event timing information accurate to 1.3 ns RMS. The back-end data interface is realized on the basis of 100 Mbps Ethernet. The design allows daisy-chaining of up to 256 units into one network interface, thus enabling compact and efficient readout schemes for multi-channel scintillating detectors, using SiPMs as photo-sensors.

  1. The next generation Front-End Controller for the Phase-I Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, F.; Behrens, U.; Campbell, A.; Karakaya, T.; Martens, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. A.; Sahin, M. O.

    2017-03-01

    The next generation Front-End Controller (ngFEC) is the system responsible for slow and fast control within the Phase-I Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeters. It is based on the FC7, a μTCA compatible Advanced Mezzanine Card developed at CERN and built around the Xilinx Kintex®-7 FPGA. The ngFEC decodes the 40.0788 MHz LHC clock and the synchronization signals received from the backplane and distributes them to the front-end electronics through six GBT links. The latency of the fast control signals is fixed across power cycles. Even if the direct link to a front-end module is broken, a redundancy scheme ensures a successful communication using the link to the neighboring front-end module. Thanks to the ngFEC all front-end modules can be remotely programmed using the JTAG standard protocol. The CCM server software interfaces the ngFEC to the Detector Control System which constantly monitors voltages and temperatures on the front-end electronics. This document reviews the characteristics and the development status of the ngFEC.

  2. Fast front-end electronics for semiconductor tracking detectors: Trends and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivetti, Angelo

    2014-11-21

    In the past few years, extensive research efforts pursued by both the industry and the academia have lead to major improvements in the performance of Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Time to Digital Converters (TDCs). ADCs achieving 8–10 bit resolution, 50–100 MHz conversion frequency and less than 1 mW power consumption are the today's standard, while TDCs have reached sub-picosecond time resolution. These results have been made possible by architectural upgrades combined with the use of ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies with minimum feature size of 130 nm or smaller. Front-end ASICs in which a prompt digitization is followed by signal conditioning in the digital domain can now be envisaged also within the tight power budget typically available in high density tracking systems. Furthermore, tracking detectors embedding high resolution timing capabilities are gaining interest. In the paper, ADC's and TDC's developments which are of particular relevance for the design front-end electronics for semiconductor trackers are discussed along with the benefits and challenges of exploiting such high performance building blocks in implementing the next generation of ASICs for high granularity particle detectors.

  3. An instrumentation amplifier as a front-end for a four-electrode bioimpedance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagar, T; Krizaj, D

    2007-08-01

    The performance of a monolithic instrumentation amplifier used as an interface for a four-electrode bioimpedance measurement is examined with a commercially available impedance meter based on an auto-balancing bridge. The errors due to particularities in the input stage of the impedance meter, when used without a front-end, were several orders of magnitude higher than the measured quantity. The analysis was performed on an electrical circuit model of the skin and electrodes over a frequency range of 20 Hz to 1 MHz. The achieved accuracy with balanced electrode impedances for the frequencies up to 100 kHz can be below 0.2% for impedance magnitude and 0.1 degrees for impedance phase, which is within the specified basic accuracy range of the LCR-meter used for the measurements. At frequencies above 100 kHz the errors are increasing and are higher than the LCR-meter's basic accuracy. This study indicates that use of an instrumentation amplifier as a front-end with the particular LCR-meter can significantly improve the measurement accuracy of the four-electrode bioimpedance measurement at low frequencies.

  4. Estimation of radiation effects in the front-end electronics of an ILC electromagnetic calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, V.; Postranecky, M.; Targett-Adams, C.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.

    2008-08-01

    The front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of an International Linear Collider detector are situated in a radiation environment. This requires the effect of the radiation on the performance of the electronics, specifically FPGAs, to be examined. In this paper we study the flux, particle spectra and deposited doses at the front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of a detector at the ILC. We also study the occupancy of the electromagnetic calorimeter. These estimates are compared with measurements, e.g. of the radiation damage of FPGAs, done elsewhere. The outcome of the study shows that the radiation doses and the annual flux is low enough to allow today's FPGAs to operate. The Single Event Upset rate, however, lies between 14 min and 12 h depending on the FPGA used and therefore needs to be considered in the design of the data acquisition system of the electromagnetic calorimeter. The occupancy is about 0.002 per bunch train not taking into account the effect of noise which depends on the choice of the detector.

  5. An ultra low-power front-end IC for wearable health monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Pin Hsu; Zemin Liu; Hella, Mona M

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a low-power front-end IC for wearable health monitoring systems. The IC, designed in a standard 0.13μm CMOS technology, fully integrates a low-noise analog front-end (AFE) to process the weak bio-signals, followed by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to digitize the extracted signals. An AC-coupled driving buffer, that interfaces between the AFE and the ADC is introduced to scale down the power supply of the ADC. The power consumption decreases by 50% compared to the case without power supply scaling. The AFE passes signals from 0.5Hz to 280Hz and from 0.7Hz to 160Hz with a simulated input referred noise of 1.6μVrms and achieves a maximum gain of 35dB/41dB respectively, with a noise-efficiency factor (NEF) of the AFE is 1. The 8-bit ADC achieves a simulated 7.96-bit resolution at 10KS/s sampling rate under 0.5V supply voltage. The overall system consumes only 0.86μW at dual supply voltages of 1V (AFE) and 0.5 V (ADC).

  6. Implementation of re-configurable Digital front end module of MIMO-OFDM module using NCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena M.B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on FPGA implementation of Reconfigurable Digital Front end MIMO-OFDM module. The modeling of the MIMO-OFDM system was carried out in MATLAB followed by Verilog HDL implementation. Unlike the conventional OFDM based systems, the Numerically Controlled Oscillators (NCO is used for mapping modulated data onto the sub carriers. The use of NCO in the MIMO-OFDM system reduces the resource utilization of the design on FPGA along with reduced power consumption. The major modules that were designed, which constitute the digital front end module, are Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK modulator/demodulator, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM modulator/demodulator and NCOs. Each of the modules was tested for their functionality by developing corresponding test benches. In order to achieve real time reconfigurability of the proposed architecture, the proposed approach is realized on FPGAs optimizing area, power and speed. Reconfigurability of the proposed approach is dependent upon user requirement. Hence the proposed approach can support future generation communication technologies that are based on MIMO-OFDM.

  7. Design of a Portable Test Facility for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Front-End Electronics Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, HY; The ATLAS collaboration; Carrio, F; Moreno, P; Masike, T; Reed, R; Sandrock, C; Schettino, V; Shalyugin, A; Solans, C; Souza, J; Suter, R; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    An FPGA-based motherboard with an embedded hardware processor is used to implement a portable test- bench for the full certification of Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics in the ATLAS experiment at CERN. This upgrade will also allow testing future versions of the TileCal read-out electronics as well. Because of its lightness the new facility is highly portable, allowing on-detector validation using sophisticated algorithms. The new system comprises a front-end GUI running on an external portable computer which controls the motherboard. It also includes several dedicated daughter-boards that exercise the different specialized functionalities of the system. Apart from being used to evaluate different technologies for the future upgrades, it will be used to certify the consolidation of the electronics by identifying low frequency failures. The results of the tests presented here show that new system is well suited for the 2013 ATLAS Long Shutdown. We discuss all requirements necessary to give full confidence...

  8. FERMI: a digital Front End and Readout MIcrosystem for high resolution calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanian, H.; Appelquist, G.; Bailly, P.; Benetta, R.; Berglund, S.; Bezamat, J.; Blouzon, F.; Bohm, C.; Breveglieri, L.; Brigati, S.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Dadda, L.; David, J.; Engström, M.; Genat, J. F.; Givoletti, M.; Goggi, V. G.; Gong, S.; Grieco, G. M.; Hansen, M.; Hentzell, H.; Holmberg, T.; Höglund, I.; Inkinen, S. J.; Kerek, A.; Landi, C.; Ledortz, O.; Lippi, M.; Lofstedt, B.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Maloberti, F.; Mutz, S.; Nayman, P.; Piuri, V.; Polesello, G.; Sami, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwemling, P.; Stefanelli, R.; Sundblad, R.; Svensson, C.; Torelli, G.; Vanuxem, J. P.; Yamdagni, N.; Yuan, J.; Ödmark, A.; Fermi Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    We present a digital solution for the front-end electronics of high resolution calorimeters at future colliders. It is based on analogue signal compression, high speed {A}/{D} converters, a fully programmable pipeline and a digital signal processing (DSP) chain with local intelligence and system supervision. This digital solution is aimed at providing maximal front-end processing power by performing waveform analysis using DSP methods. For the system integration of the multichannel device a multi-chip, silicon-on-silicon multi-chip module (MCM) has been adopted. This solution allows a high level of integration of complex analogue and digital functions, with excellent flexibility in mixing technologies for the different functional blocks. This type of multichip integration provides a high degree of reliability and programmability at both the function and the system level, with the additional possibility of customising the microsystem to detector-specific requirements. For enhanced reliability in high radiation environments, fault tolerance strategies, i.e. redundancy, reconfigurability, majority voting and coding for error detection and correction, are integrated into the design.

  9. Front-end electronics and readout system for the ILD TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Hedberg, V; Lundberg, B; Mjörnmark, U; Oskarsson, A; Österman, L; De Lentdecker, G; Yang, Y; Zhang, F

    2015-01-01

    A high resolution TPC is the main option for a central tracking detector at the future International Linear Collider (ILC). It is planned that the MPGD (Micro Pattern Gas Detector) technology will be used for the readout. A Large Prototype TPC at DESY has been used to test the performance of MPGDs in an electron beam of energies up to 6 GeV. The first step in the technology development was to demonstrate that the MPGDs are able to achieve the necessary performance set by the goals of ILC. For this ’proof of principle’ phase, the ALTRO front-end electronics from the ALICE TPC was used, modified to adapt to MPGD readout. The proof of principle has been verified and at present further improvement of the MPGD technology is going on, using the same readout electronics. The next step is the ’feasibility phase’, which aims at producing front-end electronics comparable in size (few mm2) to the readout pads of the TPC. This development work is based on the succeeding SALTRO16 chip, which combines the analogue ...

  10. Towards a smart Holter system with high performance analogue front-end and enhanced digital processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Leilei; Yan, Yan; Wu, Wenxian; Mei, Qiujun; Luo, Yu; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-lead dynamic ECG recorders (Holter) play an important role in the earlier detection of various cardiovascular diseases. In this paper, we present the first several steps towards a 12-lead Holter system with high-performance AFE (Analogue Front-End) and enhanced digital processing. The system incorporates an analogue front-end chip (ADS1298 from TI), which has not yet been widely used in most commercial Holter products. A highly-efficient data management module was designated to handle the data exchange between the ADS1298 and the microprocessor (STM32L151 from ST electronics). Furthermore, the system employs a Field Programmable Gate Array (Spartan-3E from Xilinx) module, on which a dedicated real-time 227-step FIR filter was executed to improve the overall filtering performance, since the ADS1298 has no high-pass filtering capability and only allows limited low-pass filtering. The Spartan-3E FPGA is also capable of offering further on-board computational ability for a smarter Holter. The results indicate that all functional blocks work as intended. In the future, we will conduct clinical trials and compare our system with other state-of-the-arts.

  11. Fast front-end electronics for semiconductor tracking detectors: Trends and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    In the past few years, extensive research efforts pursued by both the industry and the academia have lead to major improvements in the performance of Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Time to Digital Converters (TDCs). ADCs achieving 8-10 bit resolution, 50-100 MHz conversion frequency and less than 1 mW power consumption are the today's standard, while TDCs have reached sub-picosecond time resolution. These results have been made possible by architectural upgrades combined with the use of ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies with minimum feature size of 130 nm or smaller. Front-end ASICs in which a prompt digitization is followed by signal conditioning in the digital domain can now be envisaged also within the tight power budget typically available in high density tracking systems. Furthermore, tracking detectors embedding high resolution timing capabilities are gaining interest. In the paper, ADC's and TDC's developments which are of particular relevance for the design front-end electronics for semiconductor trackers are discussed along with the benefits and challenges of exploiting such high performance building blocks in implementing the next generation of ASICs for high granularity particle detectors.

  12. Characterization of RF front-ends by long-tail pulse response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Ranney, Kenneth I.

    2010-04-01

    The recognition of unauthorized communications devices at the entry-point of a secure location is one way to guard against the compromise of sensitive information by wireless transmission. Such recognition may be achieved by backscatter x-ray and millimeter-wave imaging; however, implementation of these systems is expensive, and the ability to image the contours of the human body has raised privacy concerns. In this paper, we present a cheaper and less-invasive radio-frequency (RF) alternative for recognizing wireless communications devices. Characterization of the device-under-test (DUT) is accomplished using a stepped-frequency radar waveform. Single-frequency pulses excite resonance in the device's RF front-end. Microsecond periods of zero-signal are placed between each frequency transition to listen for the resonance. The stepped-frequency transmission is swept through known communications bands. Reception of a long-tail decay response between active pulses indicates the presence of a narrowband filter and implies the presence of a front-end circuit. The frequency of the received resonance identifies its communications band. In this work, cellular-band and handheld-radio filters are characterized.

  13. A low power dual-band multi-mode RF front-end for GNSS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hao; Li Zhiqun; Wang Zhigong, E-mail: zhhseu@gmail.com [Institute of RF- and OE- ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-11-15

    A CMOS dual-band multi-mode RF front-end for the global navigation satellite system receivers of all GPS, Bei-Dou, Galileo and Glonass systems is presented. It consists of a reconfigurable low noise amplifier (LNA), a broadband active balun, a high linearity mixer and a bandgap reference (BGR) circuit. The effect of the input parasitic capacitance on the input impedance of the inductively degenerated common source LNA is analyzed in detail. By using two different LC networks at the input port and the switched capacitor at the output port, the LNA can work at two different frequency bands (1.2 GHz and 1.5 GHz) under low power consumption. The active balun uses a hybrid-connection structure to achieve high bandwidth. The mixer uses the multiple gated transistors technique to acquire a high linearity under low power consumption but does not deteriorate other performances. The measurement results of the proposed front-end achieve a noise figure of 2.1/2.0 dB, again of 33.9/33.8 dB and an input 1-dB compression point of 0/1 dBm at 1227.6/1575.42 MHz. The power consumption is about 16 mW under a 1.8 V power supply.

  14. Development of a front end ASIC for Dark Matter directional detection with MIMAC

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, J P; Bourrion, O; Grignon, C; Guillaudin, O; Mayet, F; Santos, D

    2009-01-01

    A front end ASIC (BiCMOS-SiGe 0.35 um) has been developed within the framework of the MIMAC detector project, which aims at directional detection of non-baryonic Dark Matter. This search strategy requires 3D reconstruction of low energy (keV) tracks with a gazeous uTPC. The development of this front end ASIC is a key point in this project, allowing the 3D track reconstruction. Each ASIC monitors 16 strips of pixels with charge preamplifiers and their time over threshold is provided in real time by current discriminators via two serializing LVDS links working at 320 MHz. The charge is summed over the 16 strips and provided via a shaper. These specifications have been chosen in order to build an auto triggered electronic. An acquisition board and the related software were developed in order to validate this methodology on a prototype chamber. The prototype detector presents an anode where 2x96 strips are monitored.

  15. Development of a front end ASIC for Dark Matter directional detection with MIMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, J.P.; Bosson, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, Grenoble (France); Bourrion, O., E-mail: olivier.bourrion@lpsc.in2p3.f [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, Grenoble (France); Grignon, C.; Guillaudin, O.; Mayet, F.; Santos, D. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, Grenoble (France)

    2010-08-21

    A front end ASIC (BiCMOS-SiGe 0.35{mu}m) has been developed within the framework of the MIMAC detector project, which aims at directional detection of non-baryonic Dark Matter. This search strategy requires 3D reconstruction of low energy (a few keV) tracks with a gaseous {mu}TPC. The development of this front end ASIC is a key point of the project, allowing the 3D track reconstruction. Each ASIC monitors 16 strips of pixels with charge preamplifiers and their time over threshold is provided in real time by current discriminators via two serializing LVDS links working at 320 MHz. The charge is summed over the 16 strips and provided via a shaper. These specifications have been chosen in order to build an auto triggered electronics. An acquisition board and the related software were developed in order to validate this methodology on a prototype chamber. The prototype detector presents an anode where 2x96 strips of pixels are monitored.

  16. Front-end Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM). Results of Prototype Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Ryan C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Keller, Daniel T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) deploys unattended monitoring systems to provide continuous monitoring of nuclear material within safeguarded facilities around the world. As the number of unattended monitoring instruments increases, the IAEA is challenged to become more efficient in the implementation of those systems. In 2010, the IAEA initiated the Front-End Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM) project with the goals of greater flexibility in the interfaces to various sensors and data acquisition systems, and improved capabilities for remotely located sensors (e.g., where sensor and front-end electronics might be separated by tens of meters). In consultation with the IAEA, a technical evaluation of a candidate FEUM device produced by a commercial vendor has been performed. This evaluation assessed the device against the IAEA’s original technical specifications and a broad range of important parameters that include sensor types, cable lengths and types, industrial electromagnetic noise that can degrade signals from remotely located detectors, and high radiation fields. Testing data, interpretation, findings and recommendations are provided.

  17. Instrumentation of a Track Trigger with Double Buffer Front-End Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Wardrope, DR; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The planned high luminosity upgrade for the LHC (SLHC), will increase the collision rate in the ATLAS detector by approximately a factor 5 beyond the present LHC design goal, while also increasing the number of pile-up collisions in each event by a similar factor. This means that the level-1 trigger must achieve a higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment. We describe a possible design which splits the level-1 trigger into a two-level system, where the first level, using only calorimetry and muon chambers, defines regions of interest in the tracker from which to extract information for a second, refined trigger. The use of a two-buffer front-end architecture will allow a significantly longer decision time to move data off the detector keeping the data bandwidth and buffer sizes moderate. We will describe the implementation of the scheme in the ATLAS tracker front-end electronics and the simulated performance of the system. Results on thresholds, rejection, bandwidth and trigger latency will be s...

  18. Data acquisition at the front-end of the Mu3e pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrevoort, Ann-Kathrin [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: Mu3e-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Mu3e experiment - searching for the lepton-flavour violating decay of the muon into three electrons at an unprecedented sensitivity of one in 10{sup 16} decays - is based on a pixel tracking detector. The sensors are High-Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors, a technology which allows for very fast and thin detectors, and thus is an ideal fit for Mu3e where the trajectories of low-momentum electrons at high rates are to be measured. The detector will consist of about 275 million pixels and will be operated at up to 10{sup 9} muon stops per second. Therefore, a fast and trigger-less data readout is required. The pixel sensors feature zero-suppressed data output via high-speed serial links. The data is then buffered and sorted by time on a FPGA on the front-end before being processed to the following readout stage. In this talk, the readout of the Mu3e pixel detector at the front-end is introduced. Furthermore, a first firmware implementation of this concept in a beam telescope consisting of the current pixel sensor prototype MuPix7 is presented.

  19. Onboard calibration circuit for the DAMPE BGO calorimeter front-end electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Liang; Feng, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Jun-Bin; Wang, Qi; Ma, Si-Yuan; Shen, Zhong-Tao; Jiang, Di; Gao, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Yun-Long; Guo, Jian-Hua; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-05-01

    DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientific satellite which is mainly aimed at indirectly searching for dark matter in space. One critical sub-detector of the DAMPE payload is the BGO (bismuth germanium oxide) calorimeter, which contains 1848 PMT (photomultiplier tube) dynodes and 16 FEE (Front-End Electronics) boards. VA160 and VATA160, two 32-channel low power ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits), are adopted as the key components on the FEEs to perform charge measurement for the PMT signals. In order to monitor the parameter drift which may be caused by temperature variation, aging, or other environmental factors, an onboard calibration circuit is designed for the VA160 and VATA160 ASICs. It is mainly composed of a 12-bit DAC (Digital to Analog Converter), an operational amplifier and an analog switch. Test results showed that a dynamic range of 0-30 pC with a precision of 5 fC (Root Meam Square, RMS) was achieved, which covers the VA160’s input range. It can be used to compensate for the temperature drift and test the trigger function of the FEEs. The calibration circuit has been implemented for the front-end electronics of the BGO Calorimeter and verified by all the environmental tests for both Qualification Model and Flight Model of DAMPE. The DAMPE satellite was launched at the end of 2015 and the calibration circuit will operate periodically in space. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA04040202-4), and National Basic Research Program (973 Program) of China (2010CB833002) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11273070)

  20. Wave front and phase correction for double-ended gauge block interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, A.; Byman, V.

    2015-10-01

    Double-ended interferometry has several benefits over single-ended gauge block interferometry: there is no need for wringing, which wears surfaces and requires expertise, and there is improved repeatability, since there is no variation due to inconsistent wringing conditions or form errors of the gauge block surfaces. Some disadvantages of double-ended interferometry are that absolute phase change correction is needed for the gauge block and its uncertainty has a double effect on total uncertainty. In addition, elimination of the wavefront error is more complicated than with single-ended interferometry. A simple optical modification that enables double-ended interferometer (DEI) measurements with the MIKES interferometer for long gauge blocks is presented. This modification is applicable to almost any single-ended interferometer (SEI). A procedure for evaluating the wave front correction for different parts of the interferogram of DEI is explained, and a modification and software with capability for nine-point phase stepping is presented. Three independent methods for evaluation of the phase correction were studied. One of them uses integrating sphere for the surface roughness correction and literature values for the phase change due to complex refractive index of material correction. The second evaluates the phase correction from the difference between DEI and SEI results obtained with a quartz platen. The third uses differences—from separate measurements—between the results obtained with quartz or steel auxiliary platens. Only a few gauge blocks per set need testing to obtain phase correction. SEI and DEI results with different phase correction determination methods are presented and evaluated. The uncertainty estimate for gauge block calibration with DEI gives a similar standard uncertainty to that with the best SEIs, u=\\sqrt{{{≤ft(10.0~ \\text{nm}\\right)}2}+{{≤ft(118× {{10}-9}L\\right)}2}} .

  1. The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trong-Hieu; Chao, Paul Chang-Po; Chien, Ping-Chieh

    2016-09-02

    This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR) linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an "MR reader" stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB) over the input range of 0.5-2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm², while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL) is -0.79-0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL) is -0.68-0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB) of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement measurement error is within

  2. The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Hieu Tran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an “MR reader” stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs. The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB over the input range of 0.5–2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm2, while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL is −0.79–0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL is −0.68–0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement

  3. The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trong-Hieu; Chao, Paul Chang-Po; Chien, Ping-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR) linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an “MR reader” stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB) over the input range of 0.5–2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm2, while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL) is −0.79–0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL) is −0.68–0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB) of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement measurement

  4. 上海光源光束线前端区 XBPM 探测器%The X-ray Beam Position Monitor Used in the Front end of SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚培荣; 徐慧超; 周剑英; 何迎花; 张永立; 朱周侠; 蒋建国

    2015-01-01

    XBPM探测器是同步辐射装置中测量X光位置的关键设备,主要用于测量光源点产生的X光的位置和光斑形状等。本文着重阐述了用于上海光源光束线前端区的刀片式X光位置探测器的构成及其分析,荧光靶探测器的结构,以及如何使用两种探测器在Canted光束线上进行初次调光;同时,就这两种探测器的当前现状和今后的发展做了简要的说明,并给出了上海光源一期光束线前端区XBPM探测器升级改造的初步结果。%The XBPM ( X ray Beam Position Monitor) detector is the key device of the beamline for measuring x ray beam position or observing x ray spot shape.Each synchrotron light source must manufacture and own itself XBPM detector.In order to measure x ray beam position accurately and display it for users, and to give a feed-back signal for stabilizing output x ray beam.The blade XBPM detector ( BBPM) and Fluorescence screen de-tector ( FS) were usually adopted at front end of the beamline.The FS is very useful to adjust light path roughly during commissioning and the BBPM signal can lead to adjustment finely.The structure and the constituent a-nalysis of the BBPM and the FS were introduced at first, and main talk was about how to use these two types of XBPM to adjust x ray beam path in the first debugging for the Canted beamline commissioning.Meanwhile, the currently status and future development about these two types of XBPM were mentioned, and a brief description of the upgrading outcome about the BBPM used in the front end of the beamline of SSRF were given.Now the white x-ray measurement resolution of the XBPM detector was 1 micron in vertical direction and 2 microns in horizontal direction at SSRF.

  5. 75 FR 1179 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards; Front End Strength of Cab Cars and Multiple-Unit Locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    .... Front End Frame Structures of Cab Cars and MU Locomotives C. Accident History D. FRA and Industry... effects of collisions involving higher impact speeds. Nevertheless, CEM will also require proper end frame... views on the preemptive effect of this part. DATES: Effective Date: This final rule is effective March...

  6. One size does not fit all - understanding the front-end and back-ens of business model innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günzel, Franziska; Holm, Anna B.

    2013-01-01

    understanding of the business model innovation process by drawing on existing knowledge from new product development literature and examining the front-end and the back-end of business model innovation of three leading Danish newspapers. We studied how changes introduced during the development of digital news...... of organizational learning when incumbents are faced with disruptive technologies....

  7. Dedicated front-end and readout electronics developments for real time 3D directional detection of dark matter with MIMAC

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrion, O; Grignon, C; Richer, J P; Guillaudin, O; Mayet, F; Billard, J; Santos, D

    2011-01-01

    A complete dedicated electronics, from front-end to back-end, was developed to instrument a MIMAC prototype. A front end ASIC able to monitor 64 strips of pixels and to provide their individual "Time Over Threshold" information has been designed. An associated acquisition electronics and a real time track reconstruction software have been developed to monitor a 512 channel prototype. This auto-triggered electronic uses embedded processing to reduce the data transfer to its useful part only, i.e. decoded coordinates of hit tracks and corresponding energy measurements. The electronic designs, acquisition software and the results obtained are presented.

  8. A protocol for hit and control synchronous transfer for the front-end electronics at the CBM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinski, K.; Szczygiel, R.; Zabolotny, W.; Lehnert, J.; Schmidt, C. J.; Müller, W. F. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Silicon Tracking System, Muon Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time-Of-Flight among others are the detector systems of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the FAIR facility. These detector systems will be built with tens of thousands of front-end ASICs exposed to high radiation doses and difficult environmental and interference conditions. A CERN's GBTx-based solution was chosen for combining data from multiple front-end ASICs into an optical link before further concentration and preprocessing in the common Data Processing Board data hub. This paper presents the protocol design addressing the DAQ system requirements, simplifying the ASIC's back-end design and presents its adaptation for the STS and MUCH detector's conditions. A specific link synchronization technique, hit data bandwidth optimization and time synchronization method for the self-triggered front-end chip are presented.

  9. Harmonic Mitigated Front End Three Level Diode Clamped High Frequency Link Inverter by Using MCI Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar Madichetty

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it proposes a high efficient soft-switching scheme based on zero-voltage-switching (ZVS and zero-current-switching(ZCS principle operated with a simple auxiliary circuit extended range for the front-end isolated DC-AC-DC-AC high power converter with an three phase three level diode clamped multi level inverter by using Minority Charge Carrier inspired optimization technique (MCI with Total Harmonic Distortion(THD,Switching losses, Selective harmonic elimination maintaining with its fundamental as an objective function. Input to the inverter is obtained by the photo voltaic cells and with battery bank. The switching scheme is optimized by MCI technique, analyzed and executed in Matlab and implemented with a digital signal processor (DSP .Experimental results with different loads have observed and shows its effectives, robustness of the applied technique.

  10. An analog front-end circuit for ISO/IEC 15693-compatible RFID transponder IC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-sheng; ZOU Xue-cheng; YANG Qiu-ping; XIONG Ting-wen

    2006-01-01

    The 13.56 MHz analog front-end circuit for ISO/IEC 15693-compatible radio frequency identification (RFID) transponder IC presented in this paper converts RF power to DC and extracts clock and data from the interrogator by 10% or 100% ASK modulation. The transponder sends data back to the interrogator by load modulation technology. The electrostatic discharge (ESD)protection circuits function to limit RF voltage to a safe level. An inductive coupling simulation modelling for 13.56 MHz RFID system is presented, with simulation results showing that the transponder operates over a wide range of electromagnetic field strength from Hmin (150 mA/m) to Hmax (5 A/m). The transponder IC is implemented in SMIC 0.35-μm three-metal two-poly mixed signal CMOS technology with embedded EEPROM.

  11. Prototype ATLAS IBL Modules using the FE-I4A Front-End Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Alimonti, Gianluca; Allport, Phil; Altenheiner, Silke; Ancu, Lucian; Andreazza, Attilio; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arutinov, David; Backhaus, Malte; Bagolini, Alvise; Ballansat, Jacques; Barbero, Marlon; Barbier, Gérard; Bates, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Baudin, Patrick; Beau, Tristan; Beccherle, Roberto; Beck, Hans Peter; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, Jim; Bomben, Marco; Borri, Marcello; Boscardin, Maurizio; Botelho Direito, Jose Antonio; Bousson, Nicolas; Boyd, George Russell Jr; Breugnon, Patrick; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buchholz, Peter; Buttar, Craig; Cadoux, Franck; Calderini, Giovanni; Caminada, Leah; Capeans, Mar; Casse, Gianluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Chauveau, Jacques; Chu, Ming-Lee; Ciapetti, Marco; Cindro, Vladimir; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan; Cobal, Marina; Coelli, Simone; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Colin, Daly; Collot, Johann; Crespo-Lopez, Olivier; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; DaVia, Cinzia; David, Pierre-Yves; Debieux, Stéphane; Delebecque, Pierre; Devetak, Erik; DeWilde, Burton; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Dinu, Nicoleta; Dittus, Fridolin; Diyakov, Denis; Djama, Fares; Dobos, Daniel Adam; Doonan, Kate; Dopke, Jens; Dorholt, Ole; Dube, Sourabh; Dushkin, Andrey; Dzahini, Daniel; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrmann, Oswin; Elldge, David; Elles, Sabine; Elsing, Markus; Eraud, Ludovic; Ereditato, Antonio; Eyring, Andreas; Falchieri, Davide; Falou, Aboud; Fang, Xiaochao; Fausten, Camille; Favre, Yannick; Ferrere, Didier; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien; Flick, Tobias; Forshaw, Dean; Fougeron, Denis; Fritzsch, Thomas; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gaglione, Renaud; Gallrapp, Christian; Gan, K; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gariano, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Thibaut; Gemme, Claudia; Gensolen, Fabrice; George, Matthias; Ghislain, Patrick; Giacomini, Gabriele; Gibson, Stephen; Giordani, Mario Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Gjersdal, Håvard; Glitza, Karl Walter; Gnani, Dario; Godlewski, Jan; Gonella, Laura; Gorelov, Igor; Gorišek, Andrej; Gössling, Claus; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gray, Heather; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gromov, Vladimir; Grondin, Denis; Grosse-Knetter, Jörn; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hansson, Per; Harb, Ali; Hartman, Neal; Hasi, Jasmine; Hegner, Franziska; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hessey, Nigel; Hetmánek, Martin; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hügging, Fabian; Husi, Coralie; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Idarraga, John; Ikegami, Yoichi; Janoška, Zdenko; Jansen, Jens; Jansen, Luc; Jensen, Frank; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Joseph, John; Kagan, Harris; Karagounis, Michael; Kass, Richard; Kenney, Christopher J; Kersten, Susanne; Kind, Peter; Klingenberg, Reiner; Kluit, Ruud; Kocian, Martin; Koffeman, Els; Kok, Angela; Korchak, Oleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Krieger, Nina; Krüger, Hans; Kruth, Andre; Kugel, Andreas; Kuykendall, William; La Rosa, Alessandro; Lai, Chung-Hang; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laporte, Didier; Lapsien, Tobias; Lounis, abdenour; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Yunpeng; Lubatti, Henry; Macchiolo, Anna; Mallik, Usha; Mandić, Igor; Marchand, Denis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Massol, Nicolas; Matthias, Wittgen; Mättig, Peter; Mekkaoui, Abderrazak; Menouni, Mohsine; Menu, Johann; Meroni, Chiara; Mesa, Javier; Micelli, Andrea; Michal, Sébastien; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mikuž, Marko; Mitsui, Shingo; Monti, Mauro; Moore, J; Morettini, Paolo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Murray, Peyton; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, David J; Nessi, Marzio; Neumann, Manuel; Nisius, Richard; Nordberg, Markus; Nuiry, Francois-Xavier; Oppermann, Hermann; Oriunno, Marco; Padilla, Cristobal; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pelleriti, Gabriel; Pernegger, Heinz; Piacquadio, Nicola Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Pohl, David; Polini, Alessandro; Popule, Jiří; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Povoli, Marco; Puldon, David; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Quadt, Arnulf; Quirion, David; Ragusa, Francesco; Rambure, Thibaut; Richards, Erik; Ristic, Branislav; Røhne, Ole; Rothermund, Mario; Rovani, Alessandro; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rummler, André; Ruscino, Ettore; Salek, David; Salzburger, Andreas; Sandaker, Heidi; Schipper, Jan-David; Schneider, Basil; Schorlemmer, Andre; Schroer, Nicolai; Schwemling, Philippe; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Šícho, Petr; Skubic, Patrick; Sloboda, Michal; Smith, D; Sood, Alex; Spencer, Edwin; Strang, Michael; Stugu, Bjarne; Stupak, John; Su, Dong; Takubo, Yosuke; Tassan, Jean; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Todorov, Theodore; Tomášek, Michal; Toms, Konstantin; Travaglini, Riccardo; Trischuk, William; Troncon, Clara; Troska, Georg; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsurin, Ilya; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Unno, Yoshinobu; Vacavant, Laurent; Verlaat, Bart; Vianello, Elisa; Vigeolas, Eric; von Kleist, Stephan; Vrba, Václav; Vuillermet, Raphaël; Wang, Rui; Watts, Stephen; Weber, Michele; Weber, Marteen; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Welch, Steven David; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Wiese, Andreas; Wittig, Tobias; Yildizkaya, Tamer; Zeitnitz, Christian; Ziolkowski, Michal; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zorzi, Nicola; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration will upgrade its semiconductor pixel tracking detector with a new Insertable B-layer (IBL) between the existing pixel detector and the vacuum pipe of the Large Hadron Collider. The extreme operating conditions at this location have necessitated the development of new radiation hard pixel sensor technologies and a new front-end readout chip, called the FE-I4. Planar pixel sensors and 3D pixel sensors have been investigated to equip this new pixel layer, and prototype modules using the FE-I4A have been fabricated and characterized using 120 GeV pions at the CERN SPS and 4 GeV positrons at DESY, before and after module irradiation. Beam test results are presented, including charge collection efficiency, tracking efficiency and charge sharing.

  12. CMS Tracker Readout Prototype Front-End Driver PCI Mezzanine Card (Mk1) (connector side)

    CERN Multimedia

    J.Coughlan

    1998-01-01

    The tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC employs Front End Driver (FED) cards to digitise, buffer and sparsify analogue data arriving via optical links from on detector pipeline chips. This paper describes a prototype version of the FED based upon the popular commercial PCI bus Mezzanine Card (PMC) form factor. The FED-PMC consists of an 8 channel, 9 bit ADC, card, providing a 1 MByte data buffer and operating at the LHC design frequency of 40 MHz. The core of the card is a re-programmable FPGA which allows the functionality of the card to be conveniently modified. The card is supplied with a comprehensive library of C routines.The PMC form factor allows the card to be plugged onto a wide variety of processor carrier boards and even directly into PCI based PCs. The flexibility of the FPGA based design permits the card to be used in a variety of ADC based applications.

  13. Developments for the upgrade of the CMS HCAL front-end electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baden, D [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Frahm, E; Mans, J [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Freeman, J; Grassi, T; Los, S; Shaw, T; Whitmore, J; Zimmerman, T [FERMILAB, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Tully, C, E-mail: tullio.grassi@cern.c [Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We present a scheme to upgrade the CMS HCAL front-end electronics in 2015-16. The HCAL upgrade is required to handle a major luminosity increase of LHC which is expected for 2017. This paper focuses on the requirements for the new electronics and on the proposed solutions. The requirements include increased channel count, additional timing capabilities, and additional redundancy in a harsh environment which is constrained by the existing system. The proposed solutions span from chip level to system level. They include the development of a new ADC ASIC, the evaluation and use of circuits from other developments, evaluation of commercial FPGAs, better thermal design and improvements in the overall architecture.

  14. HDI flexible front-end hybrid prototype for the PS module of the CMS tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, M.; Blanchot, G.; Gadek, T.; Honma, A.; Koliatos, A.

    2017-02-01

    The CMS tracker upgrade for the HL-LHC relies on different module types, depending on the position of the respective module. They are built with high-density interconnection flexible circuits that are wire bonded to silicon strip and pixel-strip sensors. The Front-End hybrids will contain several flip-chip bonded readout ASICs that are still under development. Mock-up prototypes are used to qualify the advanced flexible circuit technology and the parameters of the hybrids. This paper presents the Pixel-Strip (PS) mock-up hybrid in terms of testing, interconnection, fold-over, thermal properties and layout feasibility. Plans for circuit testing at operating temperature (-30o) are also presented.

  15. Study of the performance of ATLAS prototype detectors using analogue LHC front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Riedler, P; Kaplon, J; Weilhammer, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS experiment at LHC will be exposed to very high hadron fluences. In order to study the radiation damage effects ATLAS prototype detectors and small test detectors were irradiated to a fluence of 3 * 10/sup 14/ 24 GeV protons/cm/sup 2/. After irradiation, the detectors were annealed at 25 degrees C to simulate the damage foreseen after 10 years of ATLAS operation. The detectors were then connected to the SCT32A analogue front-end chips and tested with a /sup 106/Ru source. The performance of the irradiated detectors was compared to non-irradiated detectors from the same batch. The charge collection efficiency is discussed taking into account the electronic response of the readout chip and the ballistic deficit. (10 refs).

  16. Evaluation of a front-end ASIC for the readout of PMTs in large dynamic range

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Weihao; Liang, Yu; Yu, Li; Liu, Jianfeng; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project has been proposed for the survey and study of cosmic rays. In the LHAASO project, the Water Cherenkov Detector Array (WCDA) is one of major detectors for searching gamma ray sources. A Charge-to-Time Convertor (QTC) ASIC (Application Specification Integrated Circuit) fabricated in Global Foundry 0.35 {\\mu}m CMOS technology, has been developed for readout of Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) in the WCDA. This paper focuses on the evaluation of this front-end readout ASIC performance. Test results indicate that the time resolution is better than 400 ps and the charge resolution is better than 1% with large input signals and remains better than 15% @ 1 Photo Electron (P.E.), both beyond the application requirement. Moreover, this ASIC has a weak ambient temperature dependence, low input rate dependence and high channel-to-channel isolation.

  17. A digital front-end and readout microsystem for calorimetry at LHC--The FERMI project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Acqua, A.; Hansen, M.; Lofstedt, B.; Vanuxem, J.P. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Svensson, C.; Yuan, J. (Univ. of Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Physics and Measurement Technology); Hentzell, H. (Univ. of Linkoeping (Sweden). Center for Industrial Microelectronics and Materials Technology); Alippi, C.; Breveglieri, L.; Dadda, L.; Piuri, V.; Salice, F.; Sami, M.; Stefanelli, R. (Sezione INFN, Pavia, Milano (Italy). Dept. di Ellettronica); Cattaneo, P.; Fumagalli, G.; Goggi, V.G. (Univ. e Sezione INFN, Pavia (Italy). Dept. di Fisica Nucleare); Brigati, S.; Gatti, U.; Maloberti, F.; Torelli, G. (Univ. e Sezione INFN, Pavia (Italy). Dept. di Electronica); Carlson, P.; Fuglesang, C.; Kerek, A. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)); Appelquist, G.; Berglund, S.; Bohm, C.; Yamdagni, N. (Univ. of Stockholm (Sweden)); Sundblad, R. (SiCon AB, Linkoeping (Sweden))

    1993-08-01

    The authors present a digital solution to the front-end electronics for calorimetric detectors at future supercolliders based on high speed A/D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter chain and local intelligence. Questions of error correction, fault-tolerance and system redundancy are also considered. A system integration of a multichannel device in a multichip, Silicon-on-Silicon Microsystem hybrid will be used. This solution allows a new level of integration of complex analog and digital functions, with an excellent flexibility in mixing technologies for the different functional blocks. This type of VLSI multichip integration allows a high degree of programmability at both the function and the system level, and offers the possibility of customizing the microsystem with detector-specific functions.

  18. NOVEL ELECTRONIC TUNER USING VARACTORS FOR TUNABLE RF FRONT-ENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liang; Liu Taijun; Ye Yan; Zhang Haili; Hui Ming; Li Jun; Wen Huafeng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel electronic tuner with high power handling capability utilizing varactors based on the asymmetric bilateral coupled microstrip transmission line.Through varying the bias voltage of the varactor at the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band,the performance of the tuner is demonstrated according to simulated and measured results from several cases with the return loss (S11)below-20 dB and the insertion loss (S21) within ±0.5 dB.Compared with tuners using π and T network,electronic tuner of this paper shows superior frequency agility as well as wide impendence coverage.Advanced biasing structure has been developed to improve power handling for high power level applications.It is expected that the novel tuner would be part of intelligent Radio Frequency (RF)front-ends system and cognitive wireless system in the future.

  19. A CMOS analog front-end chip for amperometric electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhichao, Li; Yuntao, Liu; Min, Chen; Jingbo, Xiao; Jie, Chen

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) analog front-end chip for amperometric electrochemical sensors. The chip includes a digital configuration circuit, which can communicate with an external microcontroller by employing an I2C interface bus, and thus is highly programmable. Digital correlative double samples technique and an incremental sigma-delta analog to digital converter (Σ-Δ ADC) are employed to achieve a new proposed system architecture with double samples. The chip has been fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process with high-precision and high-linearity performance occupying an area of 1.3 × 1.9 mm2. Sample solutions with various phosphate concentrations have been detected with a step concentration of 0.01 mg/L. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research and Development Project (No. 2015CB352103).

  20. Charge-Sensitive Front-End Electronics with Operational Amplifiers for CdZnTe Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Födisch, P; Lange, B; Kirschke, T; Enghardt, W; Kaever, P

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, "CZT") radiation detectors are announced to be a game-changing detector technology. However, state-of-the-art detector systems require high-performance readout electronics as well. Even though an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an adequate solution for the readout, our demands on a high dynamic range for energy measurement and a high throughput are not served by any commercially available circuit. Consequently, we had to develop the analog front-end electronics with operational amplifiers for an 8x8 pixelated CZT detector. For this purpose, we model an electrical equivalent circuit of the CZT detector with the associated charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA). Therefore, we present the mathematical equations for a detailed network analysis. Additionally, we enhance the design with numerical values for various features such as ballistic deficit, charge-to-voltage gain, rise time, noise level and verify the performance with synthetic detector signals. With this benchm...

  1. Conductive Cooling of SDD and SSD Front-End Chips for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Brink, A; Daudo, F; Feofilov, G A; Godisov, O N; Giraudo, G; Igolkin, S N; Kuijer, P; Nooren, G J L; Swichev, A; Tosello, F

    2001-01-01

    We present analysis, technology developments and test results of the heat drain system of the SDD and SSD front-end electronics for the ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS). Application of super thermoconductive carbon fibre thin plates provides a practical solution for the development of miniature motherboards for the FEE chips situated inside the sensitive ITS volume. Unidirectional carbon fibre motherboards of 160 -300 micron thickness ensure the mounting of the FEE chips and an efficient heat sink to the cooling arteries. Thermal conductivity up to 1.3 times better than copper is achieved while preserving a negligible multiple scattering contribution by the material (less than 0.15 percent of X/Xo).

  2. Front end electronics and first results of the ALICE V0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoccarato, Y., E-mail: y.zoccarato@ipnl.in2p3.f [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Tromeur, W. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Aguilar, S.; Alfaro, R.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Anzo, A.; Belmont, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Combaret, C. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Contreras, G. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508 Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cuautle, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria. Delg. Coyoacan, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ducroux, L. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gonzalez Trueba, L.; Grabski, V. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Grossiord, J.-Y. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Herrera Corral, G. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508 Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-01-21

    This paper gives a detailed description of the acquisition and trigger electronics especially designed for the V0 detector of ALICE at LHC. A short presentation of the detector itself is given before the description of the Front End Electronics (FEE) system, which is completely embedded within the LHC environment as far as acquisition (DAQ), trigger (CTP), and detector control (DCS) are concerned. It is able to detect on-line coincident events and to achieve charge (with a precision of 0.6 pC) and time measurements (with a precision of 100 ps). It deploys quite a simple architecture. It is however totally programmable and fully non-standard in discriminating events coming from Beam-Beam interaction and Beam-Gas background. Finally, raw data collected from the first LHC colliding beams illustrate the performance of the system.

  3. Detector and Front-end electronics for ALICE and STAR silicon strip layers

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Higueret, S; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Suire, C; Tarchini, A; Berst, D; Blondé, J P; Clauss, G; Colledani, C; Deptuch, G; Dulinski, W; Hu, Y; Hébrard, L; Kucewicz, W; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Ravel, O; Retière, F

    1998-01-01

    Detector modules consisting of Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and Front End Electronics (FEE) assembly have been designed in order to provide the two outer layers of the ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) [1] as well as the outer layer of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) [2]. Several prototypes have beenproduced and tested in the SPS and PS beam at CERN to validate the final design. Double-sided, AC-coupled SSD detectors provided by two different manufacturers and also a pair of single-sided SSD have been asssociated to new low-power CMOS ALICE128C ASIC chips in a new detector module assembly. The same detectors have also been associated to current Viking electronics for reference purpose. These prototype detector modules are described and some first results are presented.

  4. The Analog Front-end Prototype Electronics Designed for LHAASO WCDA

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Cong; Guo, Yu-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Feng; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2015-01-01

    In the readout electronics of the Water Cerenkov Detector Array (WCDA) in the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) experiment, both high-resolution charge and time measurement are required over a dynamic range from 1 photoelectron (P.E.) to 4000 P.E. The Analog Front-end (AFE) circuit is one of the crucial parts in the whole readout electronics. We designed and optimized a prototype of the AFE through parameter calculation and circuit simulation, and conducted initial electronics tests on this prototype to evaluate its performance. Test results indicate that the charge resolution is better than 1% @ 4000 P.E. and remains better than 10% @ 1 P.E., and the time resolution is better than 0.5 ns RMS, which is better than application requirement.

  5. FEC-CCS A common Front-End Controller card for the CMS detector electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kloukinas, Kostas; Drouhin, F; Ljuslin, C; Marchioro, A; Murer, E; Paillard, C; Vlasov, E

    2007-01-01

    The FEC-CCS is a custom made 9U VME64x card for the CMS Off-Detector electronics. The FEC-CCS card is responsible for distributing the fast timing signals and the slow control data, through optical links, to the Front-End system. Special effort has been invested in the design of the card in order to make it compatible with the operational requirements of multiple CMS detectors namely the Tracker, ECAL, Preshower, PIXELs, RPCs and TOTEM. This paper describes the design architecture of the FEC-CCS card focusing on the special design features that enable the common utilization by most of the CMS detectors. Results from the integration tests with the detector electronics subsystems and performance measurements will be reported. The design of a custom made testbench for the production testing of the 150 cards produced will be presented and the attained yield will be reported.

  6. Ionization Readout Electronics for SuperCDMS SNOLAB Employing a HEMT Front-End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, R.

    2014-09-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment seeks to deploy 200 kg of cryogenic Ge detectors employing phonon and ionization readout to identify dark matter interactions. One of the design challenges for the experiment is to provide amplification of the high impedance ionization signal while minimizing power dissipation and noise. This paper describes the design and expected performance of the ionization readout being developed for an engineering model of the SuperCDMS SNOLAB Ge Tower System. The readout features the use of a low-noise HEMT front end transistor operating at 4 K to achieve a power dissipation of 100 W per channel, local grounding to minimize noise injection, and biasing circuitry that allows precise control of the HEMT operating point.

  7. Design of a wideband CMOS impedance spectroscopy ASIC analog front-end for multichannel biosensor interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Virgilio; Dai Jiang; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the preliminary design and simulation of a flexible and programmable analog front-end (AFE) circuit with current and voltage readout capabilities for electric impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The AFE is part of a fully integrated multifrequency EIS platform. The current readout comprises of a transimpedance stage and an automatic gain control (AGC) unit designed to accommodate impedance changes larger than 3 order of magnitude. The AGC is based on a dynamic peak detector that tracks changes in the input current over time and regulates the gain of a programmable gain amplifier in order to optimise the signal-to-noise ratio. The system works up to 1 MHz. The voltage readout consists of a 2 stages of fully differential current-feedback instrumentation amplifier which provide 100 dB of CMRR and a programmable gain up to 20 V/V per stage with a bandwidth in excess of 10MHz.

  8. Digital column readout architecture for the ATLAS pixel 025 mum front end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, E; Blanquart, L; Comes, G; Denes, P; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fischer, P; Marchesini, R; Meddeler, G; Peric, I

    2002-01-01

    A fast low noise, limited power, radiation-hard front-end chip was developed for reading out the Atlas Pixel Silicon Detector. As in the past prototypes, every chip is used to digitize and read out charge and time information from hits on each one of its 2880 inputs. The basic column readout architecture idea was adopted and modified to allow a safe transition to quarter micron technology. Each pixel cell, organized in a 160 multiplied by 18 matrix, can be independently enabled and configured in order to optimize the analog signal response and to prevent defective pixels from saturating the readout. The digital readout organizes hit data coming from each column, with respect to time, and output them on a low-level serial interface. A considerable effort was made to design state machines free of undefined states, where single-point defects and charge deposited by heavy ions in the silicon could have led to unpredicted forbidden states. 7 Refs.

  9. A Survey of Neural Front End Amplifiers and Their Requirements toward Practical Neural Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bharucha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When designing an analog front-end for neural interfacing, it is hard to evaluate the interplay of priority features that one must upkeep. Given the competing nature of design requirements for such systems a good understanding of these trade-offs is necessary. Low power, chip size, noise control, gain, temporal resolution and safety are the salient ones. There is a need to expose theses critical features for high performance neural amplifiers as the density and performance needs of these systems increases. This review revisits the basic science behind the engineering problem of extracting neural signal from living tissue. A summary of architectures and topologies is then presented and illustrated through a rich set of examples based on the literature. A survey of existing systems is presented for comparison based on prevailing performance metrics.

  10. Design of fast signal processing readout front-end electronics implemented in CMOS 40 nm technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczek, Rafal

    2016-12-01

    The author presents considerations on the design of fast readout front-end electronics implemented in a CMOS 40 nm technology with an emphasis on the system dead time, noise performance and power dissipation. The designed processing channel consists of a charge sensitive amplifier with different feedback types (Krummenacher, resistive and constant current blocks), a threshold setting block, a discriminator and a counter with logic circuitry. The results of schematic and post-layout simulations with randomly generated input pulses in a time domain according to the Poisson distribution are presented and analyzed. Dead time below 20 ns is possible while keeping noise ENC ≈ 90 e- for a detector capacitance CDET = 160 fF.

  11. Front-end signal analysis of the transverse feedback system for SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lifeng; YUAN Renxian; YU Luyang; YE Kairong

    2008-01-01

    Multi-bunch instabilities degrade beam quality through increased beam emittance, energy spread and even cause beam loss. A feedback system is used to suppress multi-bunch instabilities associated with resistive wall of the beam ducts, cavity-like structures, and trapped ions. A digital TFS (Transverse Feedback System) is in construction at the SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility), which is based on the latest generation of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) processor. Before we get such FPGA digital board, investigation and simulation of the front-end were done in the first place. The signal flow was analyzed by SystemView. Construction and optimization of the entire system is our next goal.

  12. Performance of the front-end electronics of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis; Chiarusi, T.; Chon Sen, N.; Circella, M.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; de Botton, N.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fopma, J.; Fratini, K.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; Hoffmann, C.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mazure, A.; Monmarthe, E.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Olivetto, Ch.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvăla, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J. P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    ANTARES is a high-energy neutrino telescope installed in the Mediterranean Sea at a depth of 2475 m. It consists of a three-dimensional array of optical modules, each containing a large photomultiplier tube. A total of 2700 front-end ASICs named analogue ring samplers (ARS) process the phototube signals, measure their arrival time, amplitude and shape as well as perform monitoring and calibration tasks. The ARS chip processes the analogue signals from the optical modules and converts information into digital data. All the information is transmitted to shore through further multiplexing electronics and an optical link. This paper describes the performance of the ARS chip; results from the functionality and characterization tests in the laboratory are summarized and the long-term performance in the apparatus is illustrated.

  13. An Analog Front End for Recording Neuronal Activity in Freely Behaving Small Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Chun-feng; CAO Mao-yong; LI Cai-fang; KONG Hui-min; QIN Feng-ju; YAN Yu-qin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract.Extracting characteristic brain signals and simultaneous recording animals behaving could help us to understand the complex behavior of neuronal ensembles. Here,a system was established to record local field potentials (LFP) and extracellular signal or multiple-unit discharge and behavior synchronously by utilizing electrophysiology and integrated circuit technique. It comprised microelectrodes and micro-driver assembly, analog front end ( AFE), while a computer ( Pentium Ⅲ ) was used as the platform for the graphic user interface, which was developed using the LabVIEW programming language. It was designed as a part of ongoing research to develop a portable wireless neural signal recording system. We believe that this information will be useful for the research of brain-computer interface.

  14. Ka-Band SiGe Receiver Front-End MMIC for Transponder Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Jaikrishna; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Hashemi, Hassein; Aflatouni, Firooz

    2010-01-01

    A fully integrated, front-end Ka-band monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) was developed that houses an LNA (low noise amplifier) stage, a down-conversion stage, and output buffer amplifiers. The MMIC design employs a two-step quadrature down-conversion architecture, illustrated in the figure, which results in improved quality of the down-converted IF quadrature signals. This is due to the improved sensitivity of this architecture to amplitude and phase mismatches in the quadrature down-conversion process. Current sharing results in reduced power consumption, while 3D-coupled inductors reduce the chip area. Improved noise figure is expected over previous SiGe-based, frontend designs

  15. System considerations and RF front-end design for integration of satellite navigation and mobile standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Miskiewicz

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the challenges involved in a system design of a robust reconfigurable RF front-end for navigation and mobile standards. Receiver architecture is chosen from the point of view of inter-system interference and 130nm CMOS process characteristics. System concept covers the implementation of GPS, Galileo, UMTS, GSM and CDMA2000 using a Zero-IF architecture with reconfigurable analog and digital path. Feasibility studies of the system cover analysis of the wireless regulations and performance criteria, such as overall gain, noise figure (NF, and 1dB compression point (P1dB of the RF chain, phase noise requirements and VCO tuning range [1]. The presented chip was fabricated in 130 nm CMOS technology. System considerations are confirmed with the chip measurements of gain, noise figure, and linearity. Prospects for the future work are presented including technology shrink.

  16. A Test Apparatus for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Front-end Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harjit; Loach, James; Poon, Alan

    2012-10-01

    One of the most important experimental programs in neutrino physics is the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. The MAJORANA collaboration is searching for this rare nuclear process in the Ge-76 isotope using HPGe detectors. Each detector is instrumented with high-performance electronics to read out and amplify the signals. The part of the electronics close to the detectors, consisting of a novel front-end circuit, cables and connectors, is made of radio-pure materials and is exceedingly delicate. In this work a dedicated test apparatus was created to benchmark the performance of the electronics before installation in the experiment. The apparatus was designed for cleanroom use, with fixtures to hold the components without contaminating them, and included the electronics necessary for power and readout. In addition to testing, the station will find longer term use in development of future versions of the electronics.

  17. First commissioning experience with the LINAC4 3 MeV front-end at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, J B; Bellodi, G; Comblin, J F; Dimov, V A; Granemann Souza, E; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A M; Midttun, O; Ovalle, E; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F; Rossi, C; Sanchez Alvarez, R; Scrivens, C A; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Vretenar, M; Yarmohammadi Satri, M

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a normal-conducting 160 MeV H- linear accelerator presently under construction at CERN. It will replace the present 50 MeV Linac2 as injector of the proton accelerator complex as part of a project to increase the LHC luminosity. The Linac front-end, composed of a 45 keV ion source, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) housing a beam chopper, have been commissioned at the 3 MeV test stand during the first half of 2013. The status of the installation and the results of the first commissioning stage are presented in this paper.

  18. Predictive Duty Cycle Control of Three-Phase Active-Front-End Rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhanfeng; Tian, Yanjun; Chen, Wei;

    2016-01-01

    of optimal duty cycles is made by predicting the effect of duty cycles on instantaneous current variations and minimizing the cost function. Due to the adoption of behavior prediction, the proposed controller inherits the excellent dynamic characteristics of predictive controllers. Moreover, the application......This paper proposed an on-line optimizing duty cycle control approach for three-phase active-front-end rectifiers, aiming to obtain the optimal control actions under different operating conditions. Similar to finite control set model predictive control strategy, a cost function previously...... of optimal duty cycles determined by cost function minimization automatically ensures optimum operations of converters within each sampling period. Improved transient and steady-state features of the proposed strategy are confirmed by experimental validations and in-depth comparisons with linear controllers...

  19. The front-end chip of the SuperB SVT detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, F., E-mail: giorgi@bo.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Comotti, D. [Università degli Studi di Bergamo (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Università degli Studi di Bergamo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia (Italy); Fabbri, L.; Gabrielli, A. [Università degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Semprini-Cesari, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A. [Università degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M. [Università dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Bevan, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Wilson, F. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Beck, G.; Morris, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-08-01

    The asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup −} collider SuperB is designed to deliver a high luminosity, greater than 10{sup 36}cm{sup −2}s{sup −1}, with moderate beam currents and a reduced center of mass boost with respect to earlier B-Factories. The innermost detector is the Silicon Vertex Tracker which is made of 5 layers of double sided silicon strip sensors plus a layer 0, that can be equipped with short striplets detectors in a first phase of the experiment. In order to achieve an overall track reconstruction efficiency above 98% it is crucial to optimize both analog and digital readout circuits. The readout architecture being developed for the front-end chips will be able to cope with the very high rates expected in the first layer. The digital readout will be optimized to be fully efficient for hit rates up to 2 MHz/strip, including large margins on the maximum expected background rates, but can potentially accommodate higher rates with a proper tuning of the buffer depth. The readout is based on a triggered architecture where each of the 128 strip channel is provided with a dedicated digital buffer. Each buffer collects the digitized charge information by means of a 4-bit TOT, storing it in conjunction with the related time stamp. The depth of buffers was dimensioned considering the expected trigger latency and hit rate including suitable safety margins. Every buffer is connected to a highly parallelized circuit handling the trigger logic, rejecting expired data in the buffers and channeling the parallel stream of triggered hits to the common output of the chip. The presented architecture has been modeled by HDL language and investigated with a Monte Carlo hit generator emulating the analog front-end behavior. The simulations showed that even applying the highest stressing conditions, about 2 MHz per strip, the efficiency of the digital readout remained above 99.8%.

  20. Low-Cost Ratiometric Front-End for Industrial PRT Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgon, D.; Fernicola, V. C.; Coslovi, L.

    2011-12-01

    Cost, size, speed, and measurement range limitations make the resistance bridge not always suitable for temperature measurements with platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) in industrial applications. However, high-accuracy resistance thermometer systems are often needed in many industrial applications, where measurement performances comparable to resistance bridges are often needed at a lower cost and size. A tiny, portable, ratiometric front-end exploiting a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with Σ Δ modulator is described. It was designed to measure the resistance ratio between a 100 Ω industrial PRT (IPRT) and a reference resistor with repeatability to within a few parts in 106. Its small size makes it ideal for integration in the stem-handle assembly of a thermometric probe, enabling an early transmission of measurement data in digital form. The ADC-based system design, development, and performance testing are discussed. The system was investigated in the resistance ratio range from about 4 × 10-3 to 5 × 10-2. Furthermore, a comparison between the system performance and a commercial AC resistance bridge was carried out and the results reported in this paper. An accurate thermometer for industrial applications resulted from the above developments. The compactness of the devices enabled an implementation of the `smart sensor' concept in the measurement chain, where the front-end electronics was placed inside the IPRT handle together with an integrated memory to hold device identification, calibration coefficients, and the associated uncertainty. All data are transmitted to the readout module and are available to the user at a 5 Hz update rate for further analysis.

  1. Optimizing read-out of the NECTAr front-end electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiov, S., E-mail: vorobiov@lpta.in2p3.fr [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); DESY-Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Feinstein, F. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Falvard, A. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, Montpellier (France); Gascon, D. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Glicenstein, J.-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France); Ribo, M.; Sanuy, A. [ICC-UB, Universitat Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2012-12-11

    We describe the optimization of the read-out specifications of the NECTAr front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The NECTAr project aims at building and testing a demonstrator module of a new front-end electronics design, which takes an advantage of the know-how acquired while building the cameras of the CAT, H.E.S.S.-I and H.E.S.S.-II experiments. The goal of the optimization work is to define the specifications of the digitizing electronics of a CTA camera, in particular integration time window, sampling rate, analog bandwidth using physics simulations. We employed for this work real photomultiplier pulses, sampled at 100 ps with a 600 MHz bandwidth oscilloscope. The individual pulses are drawn randomly at the times at which the photo-electrons, originating from atmospheric showers, arrive at the focal planes of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The timing information is extracted from the existing CTA simulations on the GRID and organized in a local database, together with all the relevant physical parameters (energy, primary particle type, zenith angle, distance from the shower axis, pixel offset from the optical axis, night-sky background level, etc.), and detector configurations (telescope types, camera/mirror configurations, etc.). While investigating the parameter space, an optimal pixel charge integration time window, which minimizes relative error in the measured charge, has been determined. This will allow to gain in sensitivity and to lower the energy threshold of CTA telescopes. We present results of our optimizations and first measurements obtained using the NECTAr demonstrator module.

  2. Towards Optimal Filtering on ARM for ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Front-End Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Mitchell A.

    2015-10-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN generates enormous amounts of raw data which presents a serious computing challenge. After planned upgrades in 2022, the data output from the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter will increase by 200 times to over 40 Tb/s. Advanced and characteristically expensive Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are currently used to process this quantity of data. It is proposed that a cost- effective, high data throughput Processing Unit (PU) can be developed by using several ARM System on Chips in a cluster configuration to allow aggregated processing performance and data throughput while maintaining minimal software design difficulty for the end-user. ARM is a cost effective and energy efficient alternative CPU architecture to the long established x86 architecture. This PU could be used for a variety of high-level algorithms on the high data throughput raw data. An Optimal Filtering algorithm has been implemented in C++ and several ARM platforms have been tested. Optimal Filtering is currently used in the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end for basic energy reconstruction and is currently implemented on DSPs.

  3. Inter-firm collaboration in the Fuzzy Front-End of the innovation process - Exploring New Forms of Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester; Bergenholz, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Innovation and innovation processes has traditionally been considered from the manufacturing companies' perspective. The innovation process is typically divided into a series of succeeding stages where the Fuzzy Front-End is the first stage to encounter. Several research projects have formulated...... and tendencies in formal R&D partnering relations. This paper, however, focuses on collaboration between independent companies prior to such formal agreements as joint ventures or other contractual agreements. This first phase of the innovation process is often referred to as the Fuzzy Front-End (FFE......) and is traditionally seen as an intra-organizational process (Jongbae & David 2002;Kim & Wilemon 2002e;Qingyu & William 2001;Reid & de Brentani 2004a). As the innovation process becomes an interfirm-collaboration the management of the Fuzzy Front-End also changes and calls for new ways of collaboration...

  4. LHCb : A generic firmware core to drive the Front-End GBT-SCAs for the LHCb ugprade

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, Federico; Gaspar, Clara; Jacobsson, Richard; Wyllie, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire Front-End electronics will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancy, higher data rate and to work in a complete trigger-less fashion. In this paper, we describe a novel way to transmit slow control information to the Front-End electronics, by profiting from bidirectional optical connections and the GBT and GBT-SCA chipset capabilities. The implementation and preliminary validation tests are shown as well

  5. A generic firmware core to drive the Front-End GBT-SCAs for the LHCb upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, F.; Caplan, C.; Gaspar, C.; Jacobsson, R.; Wyllie, K.

    2015-02-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire Front-End electronics will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancy, higher data rate and to work in a complete trigger-less fashion. In this paper, we describe a novel way to transmit slow control information to the Front-End electronics, by profiting from bidirectional optical connections and the GBT and GBT-SCA chipset capabilities. The implementation and preliminary validation tests are shown as well.

  6. A generic firmware core to drive the Front-End GBT-SCAs for the LHCb ugprade

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Gaspar, C; Jacobsson, R; Wyllie, K

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire Front-End electronics will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancy, higher data rate and to work in a complete trigger-less fashion. In this paper, we describe a novel way to transmit slow control information to the Front-End electronics, by profiting from bidirectional optical connections and the GBT and GBT-SCA chipset capabilities. The implementation and preliminary validation tests are shown as well.

  7. Reconfigurable and Wideband Receiver Components for System-on-Chip Millimetre-Wave Radiometer Front-Ends

    OpenAIRE

    Reyaz, Shakila Bint

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents solutions and studies related to the design of reconfigurable and wideband receiver circuits for system-on-chip (SoC) radiometer front-ends within the millimetre-wave (mm-wave) range. Whereas many of today’s mm-wave front-ends are bulky and costly due to having discrete RF components, single-chip receiver modules could potentially result in a wider use for emerging applications such as wireless communication, short range radar and passive imaging security sensors if reali...

  8. Influence Of Tools Input/Output Requirements On Managers Core Front End Activities In New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appio, Francesco P.; Achiche, Sofiane; Minin, Alberto Di

    2011-01-01

    The object of analysis of this explorative research is the Fuzzy Front End of Innovation in Product Development, described by those activities going from the opportunity identification to the concept definition. Business scholars have shown that confusion in terms of goals and different ideas about...... opportunities; make this early phase of the innovation process uncertain and extremely risky. Literature suggests that the understanding, selection and use of appropriate tools/techniques to support decision making are instrumental for a less fuzzy front end of innovation. This paper considers the adoption...

  9. Modes of reaction front propagation and end-gas combustion of hydrogen/air mixtures in a closed chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Xian

    2017-01-05

    Modes of reaction front propagation and end-gas combustion of hydrogen/air mixtures in a closed chamber are numerically investigated using an 1-D unsteady, shock-capturing, compressible and reacting flow solver. Different combinations of reaction front propagation and end-gas combustion modes are observed, i.e., 1) deflagration without end-gas combustion, 2) deflagration to end-gas autoignition, 3) deflagration to end-gas detonation, 4) developing or developed detonation, occurring in the sequence of increasing initial temperatures. Effects of ignition location and chamber size are evaluated: the asymmetric ignition is found to promote the reactivity of unburnt mixture compared to ignitions at center/wall, due to additional heating from asymmetric pressure waves. End-gas combustion occurs earlier in smaller chambers, where end-gas temperature rise due to compression heating from the deflagration is faster. According to the ξ−ε regime diagram based on Zeldovich theory, modes of reaction front propagation are primarily determined by reactivity gradients introduced by initial ignition, while modes of end-gas combustion are influenced by the total amount of unburnt mixture at the time when autoignition occurs. A transient reactivity gradient method is provided and able to capture the occurrence of detonation.

  10. Front-end ASICs for high-energy astrophysics in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevin, O.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.

    2016-07-01

    In most of embedded imaging systems for space applications, high granularity and increasing size of focal planes justify an almost systematic use of integrated circuits. . To fulfill challenging requirements for excellent spatial and energy resolution, integrated circuits must fit the sensors perfectly and interface the system such a way to optimize simultaneously noise, geometry and architecture. Moreover, very low power consumption and radiation tolerance are mandatory to envision a use onboard a payload in space. Consequently, being part of an optimized detection system for space, the integrated circuit is specifically designed for each application and becomes an Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). The paper focuses on mixed analog and digital signal ASICs for spectro-imaging systems in the keVMeV energy band. The first part of the paper summarizes the main advantages conferred by the use of front-end ASICs for highenergy astrophysics instruments in space mission. Space qualification of ASICs requires the chip to be radiation hard. The paper will shortly describe some of the typical hardening techniques and give some guidelines that an ASIC designer should follow to choose the most efficient technology for his project. The first task of the front-end electronics is to convert the charge coming from the detector into a voltage. For most of the Silicon detectors (CCD, DEPFET, SDD) this is conversion happens in the detector itself. For other sensor materials, charge preamplifiers operate the conversion. The paper shortly describes the different key parameters of charge preamplifiers and the binding parameters for the design. Filtering is generally mandatory in order to increase the signal to noise ratio or to reduce the duration of the signal. After a brief review on the main noise sources, the paper reviews noise-filtering techniques that are commonly used in Integrated circuits designs. The way sensors and ASICs are interconnected together plays a

  11. The Virtual Learning Commons: Supporting the Fuzzy Front End of Scientific Research with Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Gandara, A.; Gris, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of Semantic Web, mash up, and social networking tools that supports knowledge sharing and innovation across scientific disciplines in research and education communities and networks. The explosion of scientific resources (data, models, algorithms, tools, and cyberinfrastructure) challenges the ability of researchers to be aware of resources that might benefit them. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about those resources to become potential adopters or re-users. Often scientific data and emerging technologies have little documentation, especially about the context of their use. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of researchers to organize Web resources into virtual collections, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant resources that are available; b) design research that leverages those resources; and c) develop initial work plans. The VLC aims to support the "fuzzy front end" of innovation, where novel ideas emerge and there is the greatest potential for impact on research design. It is during the fuzzy front end that conceptual collisions across disciplines and exposure to diverse perspectives provide opportunity for creative thinking that can lead to inventive outcomes. The VLC integrates Semantic Web functionality for structuring distributed information, mash up functionality for retrieving and displaying information, and social media for discussing/rating information. We are working to provide three views of information that support researchers in different ways: 1. Innovation Marketplace: supports users as they try to understand what research is being conducted, who is conducting it, where they are located, and who they collaborate with; 2. Conceptual Mapper: supports users as they organize their

  12. The front end electronics of the NA62 Gigatracker: challenges, design and experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noy, M., E-mail: matthew.noy@cern.ch [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Aglieri Rinella, G.; Ceccucci, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dellacasa, G. [INFN - Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1 IT-10125-Torino (Italy); Fiorini, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Garbolino, S. [INFN - Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1 IT-10125-Torino (Italy); Jarron, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1 IT-10125-Torino (Italy); Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marchetto, F. [INFN - Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1 IT-10125-Torino (Italy); Martin, E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain 1, Place de l' Universite BE-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Mazza, G.; Martoiu, S. [INFN - Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1 IT-10125-Torino (Italy); Morel, M.; Perktold, L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rivetti, A. [INFN - Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1 IT-10125-Torino (Italy); Tiuraniemi, S. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    The beam spectrometer of the NA62 experiment consists of 3 Gigatracker (GTK) stations. Each station comprises a pixel detector of 16cm{sup 2} active area made of an assembly of 10 readout ASICs bump bonded to a 200{mu}m thick pixel silicon sensor, comprising 18000 pixels of 300{mu}mx300{mu}m. The main challenge of the NA62 pixel GTK station is the combination of an extremely high kaon/pion beam rate, where the intensity in the center of the beam reaches up to 1.5Mhit s{sup -1}mm{sup -2} together with an extreme time resolution of 100ps. To date, it is the first silicon tracking system with this time resolution. To face this challenge, the pixel analogue front end has been designed with a peaking time of 4ns, with a planar silicon sensor operating up to 300V over depletion. Moreover, the radiation level is severe, 2x10{sup 14}1MeVn{sub eq.}cm{sup -2} per year of operation. Easy replacement of the GTK stations is foreseen as a design requirement. The amount of material of a single station should also be less than 0.5% X{sub 0} to minimize the background, which imposes strong constraints on the mechanics and the cooling system. We report upon the design and architecture of the 2 prototype demonstrator chips both designed in 130nm CMOS technology, one with a constant fraction discriminator and the time stamp digitisation in each pixel (In-Pixel), and the other with a time-over-threshold discriminator and the processing of the time stamp located in the End of Column (EoC) region at the chip periphery. Some preliminary results are presented.

  13. The dielectric-filled parabola - A new millimeter/submillimeter wavelength receiver/transmitter front end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Dengler, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    A design is presented for a semi-integrated millimeter/submillimeter wavelength receiver/transmitter front end incorporating a planar antenna and a solid-state device in an efficient feed structure which can be matched directly to high f-number optical systems. The feed system combines the simplicity and robustness of a dielectric substrate lens with the high gain of a parabolic reflector in a single structure that is termed a dielectric-filled parabola. The same fundamental unit can be configured as either a heterodyne or direct detection mode receiver, a power transmitter or a frequency multiplier by changing out the solid-state device and/or the integrated antenna. The structure can also be used with a small integrated antenna array in a multibeam or imaging arrangement. Design and fabrication details for the feed system are given. These are followed by beam pattern and impedance measurements taken on a microwave model when dipole, bow-tie, log-periodic, and log-spiral antennas are used as the integrated feed elements.

  14. An Analogue Front-End ASIC Prototype Designed For PMT Signal Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianfeng; Yu, Li; Liang, Yu; Qin, Jiajun; Yang, Yunfang; Wu, Weihao; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) is designed for high energy gamma ray and cosmic ray detection. A Water Cherenkov Detector Array which is sensitive to gamma ray showers above a few hundred GeV is proposed to survey gamma ray sources. The WCDA consists of 3600 PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMT) which collect the Cherenkov light produced by the shower particles in water. Both high precision time and charge measurement are required over a large dynamic range from 1 photo electron (P.E.) to 4000 P.E. Prototype of an analogue front-end Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) fabricated in Chartered 0.35 {\\mu}m CMOS technology is designed to read out PMT signal in the WCDA. This ASIC employs leading edge discrimination and RC4 shaping structure; combined with the following Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) and Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), both the arrival time and charge of the PMT signal can be measured. Initial test results indicate that time resolution is better than 350 ps and charge...

  15. An analogue front-end ASIC prototype designed for PMT signal readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Li; Liang, Yu; Qin, Jia-Jun; Yang, Yun-Fan; Wu, Wei-Hao; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-06-01

    The Water Cherenkov Detector Array (WCDA) is one of the core detectors in the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), and it consists of 3600 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Both high resolution time and charge measurement are required over a large dynamic range from 1 photoelectron (P.E.) to 4000 P.E. The prototype of an analogue front-end Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) fabricated using Global Foundry 0.35 μm CMOS technology is designed to read out the PMT signal in the WCDA. This ASIC employs leading edge discrimination and an (RC)4 shaping structure. Combined with the following Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) and Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), both the arrival time and charge of the PMT signal can be measured. Initial test results indicate that time resolution is better than 350 ps and charge resolution is better than 10% at 1 P.E. and better than 1% with large input signals (300 P.E. to 4000 P.E.). Besides, this ASIC has a good channel-to-channel isolation of more than 84 dB and the temperature dependency of charge measurement is less than 5% in the range 0-50°C. Supported by Knowledge Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-YW-N27), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175174) and CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  16. Advances in Front-end Enabling Technologies for Thermal Infrared ` THz Torch' Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangjing; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2016-09-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands (typically 20-40 and 60-100 THz) are best known for remote sensing applications that include temperature measurement (e.g. non-contacting thermometers and thermography), night vision and surveillance (e.g. ubiquitous motion sensing and target acquisition). This unregulated part of the electromagnetic spectrum also offers commercial opportunities for the development of short-range secure communications. The ` THz Torch' concept, which fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation by partitioning thermally generated spectral radiance into pre-defined frequency channels, was recently demonstrated by the authors. The thermal radiation within each channel can be independently pulse-modulated, transmitted and detected, to create a robust form of short-range secure communications within the thermal infrared. In this paper, recent progress in the front-end enabling technologies associated with the THz Torch concept is reported. Fundamental limitations of this technology are discussed; possible engineering solutions for further improving the performance of such thermal-based wireless links are proposed and verified either experimentally or through numerical simulations. By exploring a raft of enabling technologies, significant enhancements to both data rate and transmission range can be expected. With good engineering solutions, the THz Torch concept can exploit nineteenth century physics with twentieth century multiplexing schemes for low-cost twenty-first century ubiquitous applications in security and defence.

  17. Photodetectors and front-end electronics for the LHCb RICH upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Cassina, L

    2016-01-01

    The RICH detectors of the LHCb experiment provide identification of hadrons produced in high energy proton-proton collisions in the LHC at CERN over a wide momentum range (2 to 100 GeV/c). Cherenkov light is collected on photon detector planes sensitive to single photons. The RICH will be upgraded (in 2019) to read out every bunch crossing, at a rate of 40 MHz. The current hybrid photon detectors (HPD) will be replaced with multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (customisations of the Hamamatsu R11265 and the H12699 MaPMTs). These 8$\\times$8 pixel devices meet the experimental requirements thanks to their small pixel size, high gain, negligible dark count rate ($\\sim$50 Hz/cm$^2$) and moderate cross-talk. The measured performance of several tubes is reported, together with their long-term stability. A new 8-channel front-end chip, named CLARO, has been designed in 0.35 $\\mu$m CMOS AMS technology for the MaPMT readout. The CLARO chip operates in binary mode and combines low power consumption (\\hbox{$\\sim$1 mW/Ch}),...

  18. A novel pseudo resistor structure for biomedical front-end amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Chieh Huang; Tzu-Sen Yang; Shun-Hsi Hsu; Xin-Zhuang Chen; Jin-Chern Chiou

    2015-08-01

    This study proposes a novel pseudo resistor structure with a tunable DC bias voltage for biomedical front-end amplifiers (FEAs). In the proposed FEA, the high-pass filter composed of differential difference amplifier and a pseudo resistor is implemented. The FEA is manufactured by using a standard TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS process. In this study, three types FEAs included three different pseudo resistor are simulated, fabricated and measured for comparison and electrocorticography (ECoG) measurement, and all the results show the proposed pseudo resistor is superior to other two types in bandwidth. In chip implementation, the lower and upper cutoff frequencies of the high-pass filter with the proposed pseudo resistor are 0.15 Hz and 4.98 KHz, respectively. It also demonstrates lower total harmonic distortion performance of -58 dB at 1 kHz and higher stability with wide supply range (1.8 V and 3.3 V) and control voltage range (0.9 V and 1.65 V) than others. Moreover, the FEA with the proposed pseudo successfully recorded spike-and-wave discharges of ECoG signal in in vivo experiment on rat with pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.

  19. Front-End electronics development for the new Resistive Plate Chamber detector of HADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A.; Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Díaz, J.; Garzón, J. A.; González-Díaz, D.; Koenig, W.; Lange, J. S.; Marín, J.; Montes, N.; Skott, P.; Traxler, M.

    2007-11-01

    In this paper we present the new RPC wall, which is being installed in the HADES detector at Darmstadt GSI. It consists of time-of-flight (TOF) detectors used for both particle identification and triggering. Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors are becoming widely used because of their excellent TOF capabilities and reduced cost. The wall will contain 1024 RPC modules, covering an active area of around 7 m2, replacing the old TOFino detector at the low polar angle region. The excellent TOF and good charge resolutions of the new detector will improve the time resolution to values better than 100 ps. The Front-End electronics for the readout of the RPC signals is implemented with two types of boards to satisfy the space constraints: the Daughterboards are small boards that amplify the low level signals from the detector and provide fast discriminators for time of flight measurements, as well as an integrator for charge measurements. The Motherboard provides stable DC voltages and a stable ground, threshold DACs for the discriminators, multiplicity trigger and impedance matched paths for transfer of time window signals that contain information about time and charge. These signals are sent to a custom TDC board that label each event and send data through Ethernet to be conveniently stored.

  20. Irradiation Studies of Multimode Fibres for use in ATLAS Front-end Links

    CERN Document Server

    Mahout, G; Arvidsson, C B; Charlton, D G; Dinkespiler, B; Dowell, John D; Gallin-Martel, L; Homer, RJ; Jovanovic, P; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kuyt, G; Lundqvist, J M; Mandic, I; Martin, O; Pearce, M; Shaylor, H R; Stroynowski, R; Troska, Jan K; Wastie, R L; Weidberg, AR; Wilson, J A; Ye, J

    1999-01-01

    The radiation tolerance of three multimode optical fibres has been investigatedto establish their suitability for use in the front-end data links of the ATLAS experiment. Both gamma and neutron irradiation studies are reported. A step-index fibre with a pure silica core showed an induced attenuation of $\\sim$0.05~dB/mat 330~kGy(Si) and 1$\\times$10$^{15}$~n(1~MeV~Si)/cm$^{2}$ and is suitablefor use with the inner detector links which operate at 40-80~Mb/s. A graded-indexfibre with a predominantly germanium doped core exhibits an induced attenuation of $\\sim$0.1~dB/mat 800~Gy(Si) and 2$\\times$10$^{13}$~n(1~MeV~Si)/cm$^{2}$ and is suitable for the calorimeterlinks which operate at 1.6~Gb/s. Measurements of the dose rate dependence of the induced attenuation indicate that the attenuation in ATLAS will be lower.

  1. CMOS Receiver Front-ends for Gigabit Short-Range Optical Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Aznar, Francisco; Calvo Lopez, Belén

    2013-01-01

    This book describes optical receiver solutions integrated in standard CMOS technology, attaining high-speed short-range transmission within cost-effective constraints.  These techniques support short reach applications, such as local area networks, fiber-to-the-home and multimedia systems in cars and homes. The authors show how to implement the optical front-end in the same technology as the subsequent digital circuitry, leading to integration of the entire receiver system in the same chip.  The presentation focuses on CMOS receiver design targeting gigabit transmission along a low-cost, standardized plastic optical fiber up to 50m in length.  This book includes a detailed study of CMOS optical receiver design – from building blocks to the system level. Reviews optical communications, including long-haul transmission systems and emerging applications focused on short-range; Explains necessary fundamentals, such as characteristics of a data signal, system requirements affecting receiver design and key par...

  2. Continuous-time digital front-ends for multistandard wireless transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Nuyts, Pieter A J; Dehaene, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the design of fully digital multistandard transmitter front-ends which can directly drive one or more switching power amplifiers, thus eliminating all other analog components.  After reviewing different architectures, the authors focus on polar architectures using pulse width modulation (PWM), which are entirely based on unclocked delay lines and other continuous-time digital hardware.  As a result, readers are enabled to shift accuracy concerns from the voltage domain to the time domain, to coincide with submicron CMOS technology scaling.  The authors present different architectural options and compare them, based on their effect on the signal and spectrum quality.  Next, a high-level theoretical analysis of two different PWM-based architectures – baseband PWM and RF PWM – is made.  On the circuit level, traditional digital components and design techniques are revisited from the point of view of continuous-time digital circuits.  Important design criteria are identified and diff...

  3. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, W.-S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is ``time stamped'' by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA . This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  4. Comparison of OQPSK and CPM for Communications at 60 GHz with a Nonideal Front End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Nsenga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-range digital communications at 60 GHz have recently received a lot of interest because of the huge bandwidth available at those frequencies. The capacity offered to the users could finally reach 2 Gbps, enabling the deployment of new multimedia applications. However, the design of analog components is critical, leading to a possible high nonideality of the front end (FE. The goal of this paper is to compare the suitability of two different air interfaces characterized by a low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR to support communications at 60 GHz. On one hand, we study the offset-QPSK (OQPSK modulation combined with a channel frequency-domain equalization (FDE. On the other hand, we study the class of continuous phase modulations (CPM combined with a channel time-domain equalizer (TDE. We evaluate their performance in terms of bit error rate (BER considering a typical indoor propagation environment at 60 GHz. For both air interfaces, we analyze the degradation caused by the phase noise (PN coming from the local oscillators; and by the clipping and quantization errors caused by the analog-to-digital converter (ADC; and finally by the nonlinearity in the PA.

  5. Comparison of OQPSK and CPM for Communications at 60 GHz with a Nonideal Front End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsenga Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-range digital communications at 60 GHz have recently received a lot of interest because of the huge bandwidth available at those frequencies. The capacity offered to the users could finally reach 2 Gbps, enabling the deployment of new multimedia applications. However, the design of analog components is critical, leading to a possible high nonideality of the front end (FE. The goal of this paper is to compare the suitability of two different air interfaces characterized by a low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR to support communications at 60 GHz. On one hand, we study the offset-QPSK (OQPSK modulation combined with a channel frequency-domain equalization (FDE. On the other hand, we study the class of continuous phase modulations (CPM combined with a channel time-domain equalizer (TDE. We evaluate their performance in terms of bit error rate (BER considering a typical indoor propagation environment at 60 GHz. For both air interfaces, we analyze the degradation caused by the phase noise (PN coming from the local oscillators; and by the clipping and quantization errors caused by the analog-to-digital converter (ADC; and finally by the nonlinearity in the PA.

  6. FELIX: A high-throughput network approach for interfacing to front end electronics for ATLAS upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John Thomas; The ATLAS collaboration; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Drake, Gary; Francis, David; Gorini, Benedetto; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Narevicius, Julia; Christian Plessl; Roich, Alexander; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, Jorn; Vandelli, Wainer; Vermeulen, Jos; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning full deployment of a new unified link technology for connecting detector front end electronics on the timescale of the LHC Run 4 (2025). It is estimated that roughly 8000 GBT (GigaBit Transceiver) links, with transfer rates probably up to 9.6 Gbps, will replace existing links used for readout, detector control and distribution of timing and trigger information. In particular the links used for readout are often detector-specific. Already in Run 3 this technology will be deployed in conjunction with new muon detectors, additional muon first-level triggering electronics and new on-detector and off-detector liquid argon calorimeter electronics to be used for first level triggering. A total of roughly 2000 GBT links or GBT-like links (for connecting to off-detector trigger electronics) will be needed. A new class of devices will need to be developed to interface many GBT links to the rest of the trigger, data-acquisition and detector control systems. In this paper we prese...

  7. Charge-sensitive front-end electronics with operational amplifiers for CdZnTe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Födisch, P.; Berthel, M.; Lange, B.; Kirschke, T.; Enghardt, W.; Kaever, P.

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, CZT) radiation detectors are suitable for a variety of applications, due to their high spatial resolution and spectroscopic energy performance at room temperature. However, state-of-the-art detector systems require high-performance readout electronics. Though an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an adequate solution for the readout, requirements of high dynamic range and high throughput are not available in any commercial circuit. Consequently, the present study develops the analog front-end electronics with operational amplifiers for an 8×8 pixelated CZT detector. For this purpose, we modeled an electrical equivalent circuit of the CZT detector with the associated charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA). Based on a detailed network analysis, the circuit design is completed by numerical values for various features such as ballistic deficit, charge-to-voltage gain, rise time, and noise level. A verification of the performance is carried out by synthetic detector signals and a pixel detector. The experimental results with the pixel detector assembly and a 22Na radioactive source emphasize the depth dependence of the measured energy. After pulse processing with depth correction based on the fit of the weighting potential, the energy resolution is 2.2% (FWHM) for the 511 keV photopeak.

  8. The MYRRHA ADS Project in Belgium Enters the Front End Engineering Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Didier; Abderrahim, Hamid Aït; Baeten, Peter; Leysen, Paul

    The MYRRHA project started in 1998 by SCK•CEN. MYRRHA is a MTR, based on the ADS concept, for material and fuel research, for studying the feasibility of transmutation of Minor Actinides and Long-Lived Fission Products arising from radioactive waste reprocessing and finally for demonstrating at a reasonable power scale the principle of the ADS. The MYRRHA design has progressed through various framework programmes of the European Commission in the context of Partitioning and Transmutation. The design has now entered into the Front End Engineering Phase (FEED) covering the period 2012-2015. The engineering company, which will handle this phase, has been selected and the works have begun in the late 2013. In the mean time we have made some refinements in both primary systems and plant layout, including reactor building design. In this paper, we present the most recent developments of the MYRRHA design in terms of reactor building and plant layout as existing today as well as a preliminary study concerning the spent fuel building of the facility. During the oral presentation we add some preliminary results of the interaction with the FEED contractor and the most recent version of the primary systems.

  9. The front-end electronics of the LSPE-SWIPE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanelli, F.; Biasotti, M.; Bevilacqua, A.; Siccardi, F.

    2016-07-01

    The SWIPE detector of the Ballon Borne Mission LSPE (see e.g. the contribution of P. de Bernardis et al. in this conference) intends to measure the primordial 'B-mode' polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). For this scope microwave telescopes need sensitive cryogenic bolometers with an overall equivalent noise temperature in the nK range. The detector is a spiderweb bolometer based on transition edge sensor and followed by a SQUID to perform the signal readout. This contribution will concentrate on the design, description and first tests on the front-end electronics which processes the squid output (and controls it). The squid output is first amplified by a very low noise preamplifier based on a discrete JFET input differential architecture followed by a low noise CMOS operational amplifier. Equivalent input noise density is 0.6 nV/Hz and bandwidth extends up to at least 2 MHz. Both devices (JFET and CMOS amplifier) have been tested at liquid nitrogen. The second part of the contribution will discuss design and results of the control electronics, both the flux locked loop for the squid and the slow control chain to monitor and set up the system will be reviewed.

  10. A new front-end ASIC for GEM detectors with time and charge measurement capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciriello, F.; Corsi, F.; De Robertis, G.; Felici, G.; Loddo, F.; Marzocca, C.; Matarrese, G.; Ranieri, A.

    2016-07-01

    A 32 channel CMOS front-end ASIC has been designed to read out the GEM detectors intended to be used for beam monitoring in a new proton-therapy facility currently under construction. In order to improve the spatial resolution by exploiting charge centroid algorithms, the analog channels, based on the classic CSA+shaper architecture, are equipped with a peak detector (PD) which works as an analog memory during the read-out phase. The outputs of the PDs are multiplexed towards an integrated 8-bit subranging ADC. An accurate trigger signal marks the arrival of a valid event and is generated by fast-ORing the outputs of 32 voltage discriminators which compare the shaper outputs with a programmable threshold. The digital part of the ASIC manages the read-out of the channels, the A/D conversion and the configuration of the ASIC. A 100 Mbit/s LVDS serial link is used for data communication. The sensitivity of the analog channel is 15 mV/fC and the dynamic range is 80 fC. The simulated ENC is about 650 e- for a detector capacitance of 10 pF. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  11. A new front-end ASIC for GEM detectors with time and charge measurement capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciciriello, F., E-mail: fabio.ciciriello@poliba.it [DEI-Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Corsi, F. [DEI-Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Felici, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Loddo, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Marzocca, C.; Matarrese, G. [DEI-Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Ranieri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    A 32 channel CMOS front-end ASIC has been designed to read out the GEM detectors intended to be used for beam monitoring in a new proton-therapy facility currently under construction. In order to improve the spatial resolution by exploiting charge centroid algorithms, the analog channels, based on the classic CSA+shaper architecture, are equipped with a peak detector (PD) which works as an analog memory during the read-out phase. The outputs of the PDs are multiplexed towards an integrated 8-bit subranging ADC. An accurate trigger signal marks the arrival of a valid event and is generated by fast-ORing the outputs of 32 voltage discriminators which compare the shaper outputs with a programmable threshold. The digital part of the ASIC manages the read-out of the channels, the A/D conversion and the configuration of the ASIC. A 100 Mbit/s LVDS serial link is used for data communication. The sensitivity of the analog channel is 15 mV/fC and the dynamic range is 80 fC. The simulated ENC is about 650 e{sup −} for a detector capacitance of 10 pF. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

  12. Irradiation studies of multimode optical fibres for use in ATLAS front-end links

    CERN Document Server

    Mahout, G; Andrieux, M L; Arvidsson, C B; Charlton, D G; Dinkespiler, B; Dowell, John D; Gallin-Martel, L; Homer, R James; Jovanovic, P; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kuyt, G; Lundqvist, J M; Mandic, I; Martin, O; Shaylor, H R; Stroynowski, R; Troska, Jan K; Wastie, R L; Weidberg, A R; Wilson, J A; Ye, J

    2000-01-01

    The radiation tolerance of three multimode optical fibres has been investigated to establish their suitability for the use in the front- end data links of the ATLAS experiment. Both gamma and neutron irradiation studies are reported. A step-index fibre with a pure silica core showed an induced attenuation of ~0.05 dB/m at 330 kGy (Si) and 1*10/sup 15/ n(1 MeV Si)/cm/sup 2/ and is suitable for use with the inner detector links which operate at 40-80 Mb/s. A graded- index fibre with a predominantly germanium-doped core exhibits an induced attenuation of ~0.1 dB/m at 800 Gy(Si) and 2*10/sup 13/ n(1 MeV Si)/cm/sup 2/ and is suitable for the calorimeter links which operate at 1.6 Gb/s. Measurements of the dose rate dependence of the induced attenuation indicate that the attenuation in ATLAS will be lower. (30 refs).

  13. Digital pulse processing and optimization of the front-end electronics for nuclear instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, C; Bouchard, J; Thiam, C; Ménesguen, Y

    2014-05-01

    This article describes an algorithm developed for the digital processing of signals provided by a high-efficiency well-type NaI(Tl) detector used to apply the 4πγ technique. In order to achieve a low-energy threshold, a new front-end electronics has been specifically designed to optimize the coupling to an analog-to-digital converter (14 bit, 125 MHz) connected to a digital development kit produced by Altera(®). The digital pulse processing is based on an IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) approximation of the Gaussian filter (and its derivatives) that can be applied to the real-time processing of digitized signals. Based on measurements obtained with the photon emissions generated by an (241)Am source, the energy threshold is estimated to be equal to ~2 keV corresponding to the physical threshold of the NaI(Tl) detector. An algorithm developed for a Silicon Drift Detector used for low-energy x-ray spectrometry is also described. In that case, the digital pulse processing is specifically designed for signals provided by a reset-type preamplifier ((55)Fe source).

  14. FPGA-Based Front-End Electronics for Positron Emission Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselman, Michael; Dewitt, Don; McDougald, Wendy; Lewellen, Thomas K; Miyaoka, Robert; Hauck, Scott

    2009-02-22

    Modern Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are capable of performing complex discrete signal processing algorithms with clock rates above 100MHz. This combined with FPGA's low expense, ease of use, and selected dedicated hardware make them an ideal technology for a data acquisition system for positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Our laboratory is producing a high-resolution, small-animal PET scanner that utilizes FPGAs as the core of the front-end electronics. For this next generation scanner, functions that are typically performed in dedicated circuits, or offline, are being migrated to the FPGA. This will not only simplify the electronics, but the features of modern FPGAs can be utilizes to add significant signal processing power to produce higher resolution images. In this paper two such processes, sub-clock rate pulse timing and event localization, will be discussed in detail. We show that timing performed in the FPGA can achieve a resolution that is suitable for small-animal scanners, and will outperform the analog version given a low enough sampling period for the ADC. We will also show that the position of events in the scanner can be determined in real time using a statistical positioning based algorithm.

  15. Front-end receiver electronics for a matrix transducer for 3-D transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zili; Blaak, Sandra; Chang, Zu-yao; Yao, Jiajian; Bosch, Johan G; Prins, Christian; Lancée, Charles T; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel A P; Meijer, Gerard C M

    2012-07-01

    There is a clear clinical need for creating 3-D images of the heart. One promising technique is the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). To enable 3-D TEE, we are developing a miniature ultrasound probe containing a matrix piezoelectric transducer with more than 2000 elements. Because a gastroscopic tube cannot accommodate the cables needed to connect all transducer elements directly to an imaging system, a major challenge is to locally reduce the number of channels, while maintaining a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. This can be achieved by using front-end receiver electronics bonded to the transducers to provide appropriate signal conditioning in the tip of the probe. This paper presents the design of such electronics, realizing time-gain compensation (TGC) and micro-beamforming using simple, low-power circuits. Prototypes of TGC amplifiers and micro-beamforming cells have been fabricated in 0.35-μm CMOS technology. These prototype chips have been combined on a printed circuit board (PCB) to form an ultrasound-receiver system capable of reading and combining the signals of three transducer elements. Experimental results show that this design is a suitable candidate for 3-D TEE.

  16. BPM Analog front-end electronics based on the AD8307 log amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurter, R. B.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Power, J.

    2000-11-01

    Beam position monitor (BPM) signal-processing electronics utilizing the Analog Devices AD8307 logarithmic amplifier has been developed for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at Los Alamos. The low-pass filtered 350 MHz fundamental signal from each of the four microstrip electrodes in a BPM is "detected" by an AD8307 log amp, amplified and scaled to accommodate the 0 to +5 V input of an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. The resultant four digitized signals represent a linear power relationship to the electrode signals, which are in turn related to beam current and position. As the AD8307 has a potential dynamic range of approximately 92 dB, much attention must be given to noise reduction, sources of which can be digital signals on the same board, power supplies, inter-channel coupling, stray RF and others. This paper will describe the operational experience of this particular analog front-end electronic circuit design.

  17. Radiation induced Single Event Effects in the ATLAS MDT-ASD front-end chip

    CERN Document Server

    Posch, C

    2002-01-01

    Single Event Effect (SEE) tests of the MDT-ASD, the ATLAS MDT front-end chip have been performed at the Harvard Cyclotron Lab. The MDT-ASD is an 8-channel drift tube read-out ASIC fabricated in a commercial 0.5um CMOS process (AMOS14TB). The chip contains a 53 bit register which holds the setup information and an associated shift register of the same length plus some additional control logic. 10 test devices were exposed to a 160 MeV proton beam with a fluence of 1.05E9 p.cm-2.s-1 up to >4.4E p.cm-2 per device. After a total fluence of 4.46E13 p.cm-2, 7 soft SEEs (non-permanent bit flips in the registers) and 0 hard/destructive SEE (e.g. latch-ups, SEL) had occurred. The simulated fluence for 10 years of LHC operation at nominal luminosity for worst case location MDT components is 2.67E11 h.cm-2. The rate of SEUs in the ASD setup register for all of ATLAS, derived from these numbers, is 2.4 per day. It is foreseen to update the active registers of the on-detector electronics at regular intervals. Depending on...

  18. A Time-Based Front End Readout System for PET & CT

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, T C; Anghinolfi, F; Auffray, E; Dosanjh, M; Hillemanns, H; Hoffmann, H -F; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Kronberger, M; Lecoq, P; Moraes, D; Trummer, J

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the European FP6's BioCare project, we develop a novel, time-based, photo-detector readout technique to increase sensitivity and timing precision for molecular imaging in PET and CT. The project aims to employ Avalanche Photo Diode (APD) arrays with state of the art, high speed, front end amplifiers and discrimination circuits developed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics program at CERN, suitable to detect and process photons in a combined one-unit PET/CT detection head. In the so-called time-based approach our efforts focus on the system's timing performance with sub-nanosecond time-jitter and -walk, and yet also provide information on photon energy without resorting to analog to digital conversion. The bandwidth of the electronic circuitry is compatible with the scintillator's intrinsic light response (e.g. les40ns in LSO) and hence allows high rate CT operation in single-photon counting mode. Based on commercial LSO crystals and Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays, we show the system pe...

  19. Fatalic, a very-front-end Asic for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Manen, Samuel Pierre; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast program of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HLLHC) forseen in 2024. The current readout electronics of every subdetector, including the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), must be upgraded to comply with the new specifications aiming for the future operating conditions. The ASIC described in this document, named Front-end ATlAs tiLe Integrated Circuit (FATALIC), has been developed to fulfil the requirements of the TileCal upgrade. FATALIC is based on a 130 nm CMOS technology and performs the complete processing of the signal, including amplification, shaping and digitization. The first stage is a current conveyor which splits the input signal into three ranges, allowing to deal with a large dynamic range (from 25 fC up to 1.2 nC). Each current conveyor output is followed by a shaper and a dedicated pipeline 12 bit ADC operating at 40 MHz. Measurements show a non-linearity at the percent level for a typical input charge of interest. The noise of the ...

  20. Development of a GUI Based Front End for Open Source CFD Program, OpenFOAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Samhee; Lee, Youngjin; Kim, Hyongchol; Park, Sunbyung; Kim, Hyunjik [Nuclear Safety Evaluation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    OpenFOAM is sorely lacking in user friendliness as it runs in console mode under Li nux. Run{sub F}OAM was developed to greatly simplify the task of running an OpenFOAM calculation under Windows OS. Run{sub F}OAM was written using Delphi object pascal language, and GLScene package was used for the 3D graphics. Verification of Run{sub F}OAM was carried out by performing some OpenFOAM CFD calculations provided in OpenFOAM package, and these showed that the use of Run{sub F}OAM is simple whilst providing sufficient allowances in user modifications. Run{sub F}oam, a GUI based front end program to simplify running Open Foam CFD cases, has been developed. By incorporating numerous GUI in the program, Run{sub F}oam has demonstrated that running an Open Foam case can be easily accomplished. There is a potential for further development as the Open Foam has the great advantage of being free to develop and to use. There is also a potential to couple or interface the Open Foam with the systems analysis code such as Relap5.

  1. Front-end electronics and data acquisition system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.T., E-mail: chenytao@ynu.edu.cn [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming (China); La Taille, C. de [OMEGA (UMS 3605) - IN2P3/CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Suomijärvi, T. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Cao, Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, 100049 Beijing (China); Deligny, O. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Dulucq, F. [OMEGA (UMS 3605) - IN2P3/CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Ge, M.M. [Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming (China); Lhenry-Yvon, I. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Martin-Chassard, G. [OMEGA (UMS 3605) - IN2P3/CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Nguyen Trung, T.; Wanlin, E. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Xiao, G.; Yin, L.Q. [Institute of High Energy Physics, 100049 Beijing (China); Yun Ky, B. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Zhang, L. [Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming (China); Zhang, H.Y. [Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China); Zhang, S.S.; Zhu, Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2015-09-21

    In this paper, a front-end electronics based on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is presented for the future imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). To achieve this purpose, a 16-channel ASIC chip, PARISROC 2 (Photomultiplier ARray Integrated in SiGe ReadOut Chip) is used in the analog signal processing and digitization. The digitized results are sent to the server by a user-defined User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol (UDP/IP) hardcore engine through Ethernet that is managed by a FPGA. A prototype electronics fulfilling the requirements of the Wide Field of View Cherenkov Telescope Array (WFCTA) of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project has been designed, fabricated and tested to prove the concept of the design. A detailed description of the development with the results of the test measurements are presented. By using a new input structure and a new configuration of the ASIC, the dynamic range of the circuit is extended. A highly precise-time calibrating algorithm is also proposed, verified and optimized for the mass production. The test results suggest that the proposed electronics design fulfills the general specification of the future IACTs.

  2. A high dynamic range programmable CMOS front-end filter with a tuning range from 1850 to 2400 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais; Lee, Thomas H.; Bruun, Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a highly programmable front-end filter and amplifier intended to replace SAW filters and low noise amplifiers (LNA) in multi-mode direct conversion radio receivers. The filter has a 42 MHz bandwidth, is tunable from 1850 to 2400 MHz, achieves a 5.8 dB NF, -25 dBm in-band 1-dB ...

  3. Unified analytical expressions for calculating resonant frequencies, transimpedances, and equivalent input noise current densities of tuned receiver front ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qing Zhong

    1992-01-01

    Unified analytical expressions have been derived for calculating the resonant frequencies, transimpedance and equivalent input noise current densities of the four most widely used tuned optical receiver front ends built with FETs and p-i-n diodes. A more accurate FET model has been used to improve...

  4. A low-power front-end amplifier for the microstrip sensors of the PANDA microvertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pietro, Valentino; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Riccardi, Alberto [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel; Garbolino, Sara [INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The most common readout systems designed for nuclear physics detectors are based on amplitude measurements. The information that needs to be preserved is the charge delivered by a particle hitting the sensor. The electronic chain employed in these cases is made of two main building blocks: front-end amplifier and ADC. An issue in the implementation of such an architecture in scaled CMOS technologies is the dynamic range, because the charge information is extrapolated through the sampling of the peak of the front-end output signal. It is therefore interesting to explore the use of time-based architectures that offer better performances. In fact, in these topologies the linearity between the charge and the signal duration can be maintained even if some building blocks in the chain saturate. The main drawback is the loss in resolution since a duration measurement involves the difference between two time measurements. This work presents the design of a front-end optimized for fast Time-over-Threshold applications. The circuit has been developed for the microstrip detectors of the PANDA experiment. The architecture of the front-end amplifier is presented, and simulations in a 110 nm CMOS technology are discussed.

  5. A 24 GHz integrated SiGe BiCMOS vital signs detection radar front-end

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Johansen, Tom K.; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a 24 GHz integrated front-end transceiver for vital signs detection (VSD) radars is described. The heterodyne radar transceiver integrates LO buffering and quadrature splitting circuits, up- and down-conversion SSB mixers and two cascaded receiver LNA's. The chip has been manufactured...

  6. High-contrast 10-fs OPCPA-based Front-End for the Apollon-10PW laser

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios PAPADOPOULOS; Ramirez, Patricia; Pellegrina, A; Lebas, N.; Leblanc, Catherine; Cheriaux, Gilles; ZOU, J-P; Mennerat, G.; Monot, P.; Mathieu, F.; Audebert, P.; Georges, Patrick; Druon, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present a high-contrast 10-fs Front-End for Ti:sapphire PW-lasers within the Apollon-10PW project. This injector uses OPCPA pumped at 100 Hz by Yb-based CPA chain. Combination of OPCPA and XPW permits a >10 12 contrast ratio.

  7. Collaboration with Customers in Network-Based Innovation Processes - Network and relations in the Fuzzy Front-End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Høj

    by Eric von Hippel to a network innovation perspective and discusses the different concepts as a method when identifying industrial customers for network based innovation. This is done in order to provide insights in how the Fuzzy Front-End of network based innovation can become more efficient.  ...

  8. Play it forward: A Game-based tool for Sustainable Product and Business Model Innovation in the Fuzzy Front End

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewulf, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with sustainability in the fuzzy front end of innovation is complex and often hard. There are a number of tools available to guide designers, engineers and managers in the design process after the specifications of the product or service are already set, but methods supporting goal finding f

  9. An inquiry on managers use of decision-making tools in the core front end of the innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appio, Francesco P.; Achiche, Sofiane; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Core Front End (CFE) activities of the innovation process to say, Opportunity Identification and Opportunity Analysis. In the CFE of innovation, several tools are used to facilitate and optimise decisions. To select them, managers of the product development team have...

  10. Managing Inter-Firm Collaboration in the Fuzzy Front-End: Structure as a Two-Edged Sword

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj Jørgensen, Jacob; Goduscheit, René Chester; Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    organisations in an innovation network are somewhat neglected in the literature. The aim of this paper is hence to address the challenges that an organisation faces when integrating a plurality of suppliers, customers and other organisations into the Fuzzy Front End of the innovation process....

  11. Interfirm collaboration in the fuzzy front-end of the innovation process - Exploring new forms of collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, Rene Chester

    The objective of this paper is to elaborate on the differentiating characteristics between intra-firm and inter-firm innovation projects in the Fuzzy Front-End (FFE) of the innovation process. Focus is on management methods of the collaboration and the CEO-commitment to the project. The main point...

  12. Low-power transceiver analog front-end circuits for bidirectional high data rate wireless telemetry in medical endoscopy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Baoyong; Yao, Jinke; Han, Shuguang; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Wang, Zhihua

    2007-07-01

    State-of-the-art endoscopy systems require electronics allowing for real-time, bidirectional data transfer. Proposed are 2.4-GHz low-power transceiver analog front-end circuits for bidirectional high data rate wireless telemetry in medical endoscopy applications. The prototype integrates a low-IF receiver analog front-end [low noise amplifier (LNA), double balanced down-converter, bandpass-filtered automatic gain controlled (AGC) loop and amplitude-shift keying (ASK) demodulator], and a direct up-conversion transmitter analog front-end [20-MHz IF phase-locked loop (PLL) with well-defined amplitude control circuit, ASK modulator, up-converter, and power amplifier] on a single chip together with an internal radio frequency oscillator and local oscillating (LO) buffers. Design tradeoffs have been made over the boundaries of the different building blocks to optimize the overall system performance. All building blocks feature circuit topologies that enable comfortable operation at low power consumption. The circuits have been implemented in a 0.25-microm CMOS process. The measured sensitivity of the receiver analog front-end is -70 dBm with a data rate of 256 kbps, and the measured output power of the transmitter analog front-end could achieve -23 dBm with a data rate of 1 Mbps. The integrated circuit consumes a current of 6 mA in receiver mode and 5.6 mA in transmitter mode with a power supply of 2.5 V. This paper shows the feasibility of achieving the analog performance required by the wireless endoscopy capsule system in 0.25 microm CMOS.

  13. A 12-bit 40-MS/s SHA-less pipelined ADC using a front-end RC matching technique*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Mingjun; Ren Junyan; Shu Guanghua; Guo Yao; Li Ning; Ye Fan; Xu Jun

    2011-01-01

    A 12-Bit 40-MS/s pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) incorporates a front-end RC constant matching technique and a set of front-end timing with different duty cycle that are beneficial for enhancing linearity in SHA-less architecture without tedious verification in back-end layout simulation. Employing SHA-less, opampsharing and low-power opamps for low dissipation and low cost, designed in 0.13-μm CMOS technology, the prototype digitizes a 10.2-MHz input with 78.2-dB of spurious free dynamic range, 60.5-dB of signal-to-noiseand-distortion ratio, and -75.5-dB of total harmonic distortion (the first 5 harmonics included) while consuming 15.6-mW from a 1.2-V supply.

  14. Wideband Fully-Programmable Dual-Mode CMOS Analogue Front-End for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Valente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-channel dual-mode CMOS analogue front-end (AFE for electrochemical and bioimpedance analysis. Current-mode and voltage-mode readouts, integrated on the same chip, can provide an adaptable platform to correlate single-cell biosensor studies with large-scale tissue or organ analysis for real-time cancer detection, imaging and characterization. The chip, implemented in a 180-nm CMOS technology, combines two current-readout (CR channels and four voltage-readout (VR channels suitable for both bipolar and tetrapolar electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS analysis. Each VR channel occupies an area of 0.48 mm 2 , is capable of an operational bandwidth of 8 MHz and a linear gain in the range between −6 dB and 42 dB. The gain of the CR channel can be set to 10 kΩ, 50 kΩ or 100 kΩ and is capable of 80-dB dynamic range, with a very linear response for input currents between 10 nA and 100 μ A. Each CR channel occupies an area of 0.21 mm 2 . The chip consumes between 530 μ A and 690 μ A per channel and operates from a 1.8-V supply. The chip was used to measure the impedance of capacitive interdigitated electrodes in saline solution. Measurements show close matching with results obtained using a commercial impedance analyser. The chip will be part of a fully flexible and configurable fully-integrated dual-mode EIS system for impedance sensors and bioimpedance analysis.

  15. AMIC: an expandable integrated analog front-end for light distribution moments analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaggiari, M; Herrero, V; Lerche, C W; Aliaga, R; Monzo, J M; Gadea, R, E-mail: michele.spaggiari@gmail.com [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular (I3M), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, 46022, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    In this article we introduce AMIC (Analog Moments Integrated Circuit), a novel analog Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) front-end for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. Its working principle is based on mathematical analysis of light distribution through moments calculation. Each moment provides useful information about light distribution, such as energy, position, depth of interaction, skewness (deformation due to border effect) etc. A current buffer delivers a copy of each input current to several processing blocks. The current preamplifier is designed in order to achieve unconditional stability under high input capacitance, thus allowing the use of both Photo-Multiplier Tubes (PMT) and Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM). Each processing block implements an analog current filtering by multiplying each input current by a programmable 8-bit coefficient. The latter is implemented through a high linear MOS current divider ladder, whose high sensitivity to variations in output voltages requires the integration of an extremely stable fully differential current collector. Output currents are then summed and sent to the output stage, that provides both a buffered output current and a linear rail-to-rail voltage for further digitalization. Since computation is purely additive, the 64 input channels of AMIC do not represent a limitation in the number of the detector's outputs. Current outputs of various AMIC structures can be combined as inputs of a final AMIC, thus providing a fully expandable structure. In this version of AMIC, 8 programmable blocks for moments calculation are integrated, as well as an I2C interface in order to program every coefficient. Extracted layout simulation results demonstrate that the information provided by moment calculation in AMIC helps to improve tridimensional positioning of the detected event. A two-detector test-bench is now being used for AMIC prototype characterization and preliminary results are presented.

  16. MEMS-based redundancy ring for low-noise millimeter-wave front-end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Patrick; Dubuc, David; Flourens, Federic; Saddaoui, Mohammad; Melle, Samuel; Tackacs, Alex; Tao, Junwu; Aubert, Herve; Boukabache, Ali; Paillot, T.; Blondy, Pierre; Vendier, Olivier; Grenier, Katia M.; Plana, Robert

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the potentialities of the MEMS technologies to develop innovative microsystem for millimetre wave communication essentially for space applications. One main issue deals with the robustness and the reliability of the equipment as it may difficult to replace or to repair them when a satellite has been launched. One solution deals with the development of redundancy rings that are making the front end more robust. Usually, the architecture of such system involves waveguide or diode technologies, which present severe limitations in term of weight, volume and insertion loss. The concept considered in this paper is to replace some key elements of such system by MEMS based devices (Micromachined transmission lines, switches) in order to optimize both the weight and the microwave performance of the module. A specific technological process has been developed consisting in the fabrication of the devices on a dielectric membrane on air suspended in order to improve the insertion loss and the isolation. To prove the concept, building blocks have been already fabricated and measured (i.e micromachined transmission and filter featuring very low insertion loss, single pole double through circuits to address the appropriate path of the redundancy ring). We have to outline that MEMS technology have allowed a simplification of the architecture and a different system partitioning which gives more degree of freedom for the system designer. Furthermore, it has been conducted an exhaustive reliability study in order to identify the failure mechanisms. Again, from the results obtained, we have proposed an original topology for the SPDT circuit that takes into account the reliability behaviour of the MEMS devices and that allow to prevent most of the failure mechanisms reported so far (mainly related to the dielectric charging effect). Finally, the active device (millimetre wave low noise amplifier) will be reported on the MEMS based chip using

  17. A 14-bit 40-MHz analog front end for CCD application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingyu, Wang; Zhangming, Zhu; Shubin, Liu

    2016-06-01

    A 14-bit, 40-MHz analog front end (AFE) for CCD scanners is analyzed and designed. The proposed system incorporates a digitally controlled wideband variable gain amplifier (VGA) with nearly 42 dB gain range, a correlated double sampler (CDS) with programmable gain functionality, a 14-bit analog-to-digital converter and a programmable timing core. To achieve the maximum dynamic range, the VGA proposed here can linearly amplify the input signal in a gain range from -1.08 to 41.06 dB in 6.02 dB step with a constant bandwidth. A novel CDS takes image information out of noise, and further amplifies the signal accurately in a gain range from 0 to 18 dB in 0.035 dB step. A 14-bit ADC is adopted to quantify the analog signal with optimization in power and linearity. An internal timing core can provide flexible timing for CCD arrays, CDS and ADC. The proposed AFE was fabricated in SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The whole circuit occupied an active area of 2.8 × 4.8 mm2 and consumed 360 mW. When the frequency of input signal is 6.069 MHz, and the sampling frequency is 40 MHz, the signal to noise and distortion (SNDR) is 70.3 dB, the effective number of bits is 11.39 bit. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61234002, 61322405, 61306044, 61376033), the National High-Tech Program of China (No. 2013AA014103), and the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory (No. ZHD201302).

  18. Silicon Photomultipliers and front-end electronics performance for Cherenkov Telescope Array camera development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, G.; Bissaldi, E.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Ionica, M.; Paoletti, R.; Rando, R.; Simone, D.; Vagelli, V.

    2017-02-01

    In the last few years a number of efforts have been undertaken to develop new technology related to Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). These photosensors consist of an array of identical Avalanche Photodiodes operating in Geiger mode and connected in parallel to a single output. The Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) is involved in the R&D program Progetto Premiale Telescopi CHErenkov made in Italy (TECHE.it) to develop photosensors for a SiPM based camera that will be part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory. In this framework tests are ongoing on innovative devices suitable to detect Cherenkov light in the blue and near-UV wavelength region, the so-called Near Ultra-Violet Silicon Photomultipliers (NUV SiPMs). The tests on photosensors produced by Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) are revealing promising performance: low operating voltage, capability to detect very low intensity light down to a single photon and high Photo Detection Efficiency (PDE) in the range 390-410 nm. In particular the developed device is a High Density NUV-SiPM (NUV-HD SiPM) based on a micro-cell of 30 μm×30 μm and 6 mm×6 mm area. Tests on this detector in single-cell configuration and in a matrix arrangement have been done. At the same time front-end electronics based on the waveform sampling technique optimized for the new NUV-HD SIPMs is under study and development.

  19. Interference Rejection in UWB LNA using Front-End Triode MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rezaei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an Ultra Wide Band Low Noise Amplifier (UWB LNA with new input stage for interference rejection is presented. In this scheme, a common gate front end MOS device in triode mode is used to reject in-band and out-band interferences. Furthermore, advantage of weak inversion mode of MOS device is used. While this stage has no DC power consumption, it is possible to easily reject in band and out band interferences with 12.5 and 9.2 dB, respectively. In order to increase power gain of the circuit two stages are added as an amplifier to the circuit. Also, in order to improve the Noise Figure (NF and bandwidth of the circuit, the advantages of thermal noise cancellation technique in the second stage and the series-peaking method in the output buffer are used. The circuit is design in 0.18 μm technology. Simulation results show peak gain of 17.6 dB in the low band (3.1-4.75 GHz and 15.6 dB in the high band (6.1-10.6 GHz. Minimum NF in mentioned frequency band is 3 and 2.3 dB, respectively. Hence, this circuit rejects in band and out band interferences 15.6 and 11.5 dB, respectively, while UWB LNA consumes 16 mW DC power from 1.8 V. The s11 is less than -9.6 dB over entire bandwidth since worst value of IIP3 over entire bandwidth is -14 dBm which occurs at 10.6 GHz.

  20. Low Noise and Highly Linear Wideband CMOS RF Front-End for DVB-H Direct-Conversion Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ilku; Moon, Hyunwon; Woo, Doo Hyung

    In this paper, a wideband CMOS radio frequency (RF) front-end for digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H) receiver is proposed. The RF front-end circuit is composed of a single-ended resistive feedback low noise amplifier (LNA), a single-to-differential amplifier, an I/Q down-conversion mixer with linearized transconductors employing third order intermodulation distortion cancellation, and a divide-by-two circuit with LO buffers. By employing a third order intermodulation (IMD3) cancellation technique and vertical NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) switching pair for an I/Q down-conversion mixer, the proposed RF front-end circuit has high linearity and low low-frequency noise performance. It is fabricated in a 0.18µm deep n-well CMOS technology and draws 12mA from a 1.8V supply voltage. It shows a voltage gain of 31dB, a noise figure (NF) lower than 2.6dB, and an IIP3 of -8dBm from 470MHz to 862MHz.

  1. Desarrollo de una aplicación web, con Front-end y Back-end para compraventa de segunda mano

    OpenAIRE

    NIETO RODRIGO, JORGE

    2016-01-01

    Desde el CDM (Centro De Movilidad) de la multinacional ‘Babel, sistemas de información’ se motiva al autor a diseñar y crear una página web de compraventa de productos de segunda mano la cual sirva como proyecto de fin de carrera. La empresa tiene como objetivo para este proyecto:  Implementar una web, tanto el front-end como su back-end.  Implementar medidas de seguridad y su corroboración.  Trabajar con metodologías agiles de programación como Scrum.  Trabajar con G...

  2. Front-end Design and Implementation of HDMI%HDMI前端设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡湘宏; 蔡述庭; 熊晓明; 詹瑞典

    2015-01-01

    随着高清影音时代的到来,新的高清多媒体接口技术也渐趋成熟。本文研究了高清多媒体接口的编码和解码功能,并采用硬件描述语言实现高清多媒体接口规范定义的编解码功能。首先对高清多媒体接口的整体信道传输过程进行了分析和分解,并阐述了三个数据周期传输时间及其解码方式的不同。在此基础上对编解码功能进行了模块划分,采用分层及模块复用至顶向下的设计方法。最后通过NC-Verilog仿真工具仿真验证代码功能的正确性。%The arrival of the era of high-definition multimedia, including both video images and sounds, requires new definition and realization of the interface technology. The encoding and decoding functions of high-definition multimedia interface are studied in this paper. Using the high-definition multimedia interface specification (HDMI), the front-end design of the encoding and decoding functions is implemented with the hardware description language - Verilog. First, we analyzed and decomposed the transmission process of the whole channel in the high-definition multimedia interface, and elaborated the difference of transmit time in three data periods and decoding methods. Second, based on the analysis, we divided the functions into sub-modules and adopted hierarchical and IP-reuse methodology in our implementation process. Finally, we tested the correctness of the design implementation with both functional verification and circuit simulation.

  3. Custom single-photon avalanche diode with integrated front-end for parallel photon timing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammi, C; Panzeri, F; Gulinatti, A; Rech, I; Ghioni, M

    2012-03-01

    Emerged as a solid state alternative to photo multiplier tubes (PMTs), single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are nowadays widely used in the field of single-photon timing applications. Custom technology SPADs assure remarkable performance, in particular a 10 counts/s dark count rate (DCR) at low temperature, a high photon detection efficiency (PDE) with a 50% peak at 550 nm and a 30 ps (full width at half maximum, FWHM) temporal resolution, even with large area devices, have been obtained. Over the past few years, the birth of novel techniques of analysis has led to the parallelization of the measurement systems and to a consequent increasing demand for the development of monolithic arrays of detectors. Unfortunately, the implementation of a multidimensional system is a challenging task from the electrical point of view; in particular, the avalanche current pick-up circuit, used to obtain the previously reported performance, has to be modified in order to enable high parallel temporal resolution, while minimizing the electrical crosstalk probability between channels. In the past, the problem has been solved by integrating the front-end electronics next to the photodetector, in order to reduce the parasitic capacitances and consequently the filtering action on the current signal of the SPAD, leading to an improvement of the timing jitter at higher threshold. This solution has been implemented by using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies, which, however, do not allow a complete control on the SPAD structure; for this reason the intrinsic performance of CMOS SPADs, such as DCR, PDE, and afterpulsing probability, are worse than those attainable with custom detectors. In this paper, we propose a pixel architecture, which enables the development of custom SPAD arrays in which every channel maintains the performance of the best single photodetector. The system relies on the integration of the timing signal pick-up circuit next to the

  4. Front-end electronics for CsI based charged particle array for the study of reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhingan, Akhil, E-mail: akhil@iuac.res.in [Inter University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sugathan, P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kaur, Gurpreet; Kapoor, K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Saneesh, N.; Banerjee, T. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Singh, Hardev [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Kumar, A.; Behera, B.R. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Nayak, B.K. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-06-21

    The characteristics and performance of a new detector system based on CsI(TI) scintillators, and its front-end electronics are presented. The detector system has been developed for the detection of light charged particles to investigate fusion–fission dynamics, and will also serve as ancillary detector for an array of neutron detectors. CsI scintillators are read by photo-diodes. The main feature of the array is its compact and simple high density front-end electronics which includes custom developed low noise charge sensitive preamplifiers (with very low power consumption for operation inside vacuum), NIM differential drivers, and commercially available Mesytec amplifiers with two different time constants for particle identification using a ballistic deficit technique.

  5. Low power analog front-end electronics in deep submicrometer CMOS technology based on gain enhancement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Galán, J.A., E-mail: jgalan@uhu.es [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Sánchez-Rodríguez, T.; Sánchez-Raya, M.; Martel, I. [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Sist. Informáticos y Automática, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); López-Martín, A. [Dpto de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad Pública de Navarra (Spain); Carvajal, R.G. [Dpto de Ingeniería Electrónica, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Ramírez-Angulo, J. [Klipsch School of Electrical Engineering, New Mexico State University (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This paper evaluates the design of front-end electronics in modern technologies to be used in a new generation of heavy ion detectors—HYDE (FAIR, Germany)—proposing novel architectures to achieve high gain in a low voltage environment. As conventional topologies of operational amplifiers in modern CMOS processes show limitations in terms of gain, novel approaches must be raised. The work addresses the design using transistors with channel length of no more than double the feature size and a supply voltage as low as 1.2 V. A front-end system has been fabricated in a 90 nm process including gain boosting techniques based on regulated cascode circuits. The analog channel has been optimized to match a detector capacitance of 5 pF and exhibits a good performance in terms of gain, speed, linearity and power consumption.

  6. Low-noise design issues for analog front-end electronics in 130 nm and 90 nm CMOS technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Manghisoni, M; Re, V; Speziali, V; Traversi, G

    2007-01-01

    Deep sub-micron CMOS technologies provide wellestablished solutions to the implementation of low-noise front-end electronics in various detector applications. The IC designers’ effort is presently shifting to 130 nm CMOS technologies, or even to the next technology node, to implement readout integrated circuits for silicon strip and pixel detectors, in view of future HEP applications. In this work the results of noise measurements carried out on CMOS devices in 130 nm and 90 nm commercial processes are presented. The behavior of the 1/f and white noise terms is studied as a function of the device polarity and of the gate length and width. The study is focused on low current density applications where devices are biased in weak or moderate inversion. Data obtained from the measurements provide a powerful tool to establish design criteria in nanoscale CMOS processes for detector front-ends in LHC upgrades.

  7. Fuzzy Decision Support in the Early Phases of the Fuzzy Front End of Innovation in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Appio, Francesco Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The innovation process may be divided into three areas: the fuzzy front end (FFE), the new product development (NPD) process, and commercialization. Every NPD process has a FFE in which products and projects are defined. Companies tend to begin the stages of FFE without a clear definition...... evaluation of the cost of their usage is very critical and there is also a need to characterize them in terms of their influence on the FFE. This paper focuses on decision support for managers/designers in their process of assessing the cost of choosing/using tools in the core front end activities, namely...... Opportunity Identification and Opportunity Analysis. This is achieved by analyzing the Influencing Factors (Firm context, Industry context, Macro environment) along with data collection from managers followed by the automatic construction of fuzzy decision support models (FDSM) of the discovered relationships...

  8. Web前端的安全防护漫谈%Web front-end Security Protection Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid spread ofweb application services, the threats to the web application are very seriousat the same time. Recent years many famous Internetwebsite was be attacked, and most of them focused on the weak protection of web front-end. Web front-end protection has some special characteristic itself, and has been a important branch of web application security. This article introduced some root causes and major threats for web front-end security, and then investigates some principles of web front-end attack. Based on the analysis and comparison, itproposed somesecurity protection methods for the popular attacks.%  Web应用普及的同时,也导致了Web面临了越来越严重的安全威胁.近年来各大网站频繁受到攻击,其中很多攻击针对以前比较薄弱的Web前端.Web前端的安全防护具有自身的独特性,并已经成为Web应用安全的一个重要分支.首先研究了Web前端安全隐患产生的根源以及面临的主要威胁,并介绍了一些web前端攻击方式的原理.在分析和比较的基础上,针对当前主流的攻击提出一些安全防护的解决方法.

  9. Total Ionization Dose effects in the FE-I4 front-end chip of the ATLAS Pixel IBL detector

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Pixel Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    During the first year of operation, a drift of the IBL calibration parameters (Threshold and ToT) and a low voltage current increase was observed. It was assumed that both observations were related to radiation damage effects depending on the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) in the NMOS transistors of which each Front End chip holds around 80 million. The effect of radiation on those transistors was investigated in lab measurements and the results will be presented in this talk.

  10. A 7-13 GHz low-noise tuned optical front-end amplifier for heterodyne transmission system application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebskamp, Frank; Schiellerup, Gert; Høgdal, Morten

    1991-01-01

    The authors present a 7-13 GHz low-noise bandpass tuned optical front-end amplifier, showing 46±1 dBΩ transimpedance, and a noise spectral density of about 12 pA/√Hz. This is the first time such a flat response and such low noise were obtained simultaneously at these frequencies, without any furt......, resulting in a sensitivity of -41.7 dBm at a bit error rate of 10-9...

  11. Workshop on physics at the first muon collider and front-end of a muon collider: A brief summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.

    1998-02-01

    In November 1997 a workshop was held at Fermilab to explore the physics potential of the first muon collider, and the physics potential of the accelerator complex at the `front-end` of the collider. An extensive physics program emerged from the workshop. This paper attempts to summarize this physics program and to identify the main conclusions from the workshop. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Neural recording front-end IC using action potential detection and analog buffer with digital delay for data compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Yao, Lei; Zou, Xiaodan; Goh, Wang Ling; Je, Minkyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a neural recording analog front-end IC intended for simultaneous neural recording with action potential (AP) detection for data compression in wireless multichannel neural implants. The proposed neural recording front-end IC detects the neural spikes and sends only the preserved AP information for wireless transmission in order to reduce the overall power consumption of the neural implant. The IC consists of a low-noise neural amplifier, an AP detection circuit and an analog buffer with digital delay. The neural amplifier makes use of a current-reuse technique to maximize the transconductance efficiency for attaining a good noise efficiency factor. The AP detection circuit uses an adaptive threshold voltage to generate an enable signal for the subsequent functional blocks. The analog buffer with digital delay is employed using a finite impulse response (FIR) filter which preserves the AP waveform before the enable signal as well as provides low-pass filtering. The neural recording front-end IC has been designed using standard CMOS 0.18-µm technology occupying a core area of 220 µm by 820 µm.

  13. Development of a dedicated front-end electronics for straw tube trackers in the bar PANDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyborowski, D.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Korcyl, G.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Swientek, K.; Terlecki, P.; Tokarz, J.

    2016-08-01

    The design and tests of front-end electronics for straw tube trackers in the bar PANDA experiment at FAIR are presented. The challenges for the front-end electronics, comprising operation at high counting rate up to 1 MHz per straw tube, are discussed and the proposed architecture comprising a switched gain charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP), a pole-zero cancellation circuit (PZC), a second order variable peaking time shaper, a trimming ion tail cancellation circuit, and a baseline holder (BLH), is described. The front-end provides an analogue output and a discriminator with LVDS differential driver for the Time-of-Arrival (ToA) and Time-over-Threshold (ToT) measurements. A prototype readout ASIC featuring four channels was fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS technology consuming 15.5 mW (analog part) and 12 mW (LVDS) per channel. The results of measurements of peaking time (25-67 ns), gain, noise (ENC 800-2500 el. for various gains), time walk and jitter are presented as well as the first results obtained with prototype straw tubes connected.

  14. Diagnostic X-Multi-Axis Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A C

    2000-04-05

    Tomographic reconstruction of explosive events require time resolved multipal lines of sight. Considered here is a four (or eight) line of sight beam layout for a nominal 20 MeV 2000 Ampere 2 microsecond electron beam for generation of x-rays 0.9 to 5 meters from a given point, the ''firing point''. The requirement of a millimeter spatial x-ray source requires that the electron beam be delivered to the converter targets with sub-millimeter precision independent of small variations in beam energy and initial conditions. The 2 usec electron beam pulse allows for four bursts in each line, separated in time by about 500 microseconds. Each burst is divided by a electro-magnetic kicker into four (or eight) pulses, one for each beamline. The arrival time of the four (or eight) beam pulses at the x-ray target can be adjusted by the kicker timing and the sequence that the beams of each burst are switched into the different beamlines. There exists a simple conceptual path from a four beamline to a eight beamline upgrade. The eight line beamline is built up from seven unique types of sub-systems or ''blocks''. The beamline consists of 22 of these functional blocks and contains a total of 455 individual magnets, figure 1. The 22 blocks are inter-connected by a total of 30 straight line inter-block sections (IBS). Beamlines 1-4 are built from 12 blocks with conceptual layout structure shown in figure 2. Beamlines 5-8 are built with an additional 10 blocks with conceptual layout structure shown in figure 3. This beamline can be thought of as looking like a lollipop consisting of a 42 meter long stick leading to a 60 by 70 meter rectangular candy blob consisting of the eight lines of sight. The accelerator providing the electron beam is at the end of the stick and the firing point is at the center of the blob. The design allows for a two stage implementation. Beamlines 1-3 can be installed to provide a tomographic azimuthal resolution of 45

  15. System-level considerations for the front-end readout ASIC in the CBM experiment from the power supply perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinski, K.; Koczon, P.; Ayet, S.; Löchner, S.; Schmidt, C. J.

    2017-03-01

    New fixed target experiments using high intensity beams with energy up to 10 AGeV from the SIS100 synchrotron presently being constructed at FAIR/GSI are under preparation. Most of the readout electronics and power supplies are expected to be exposed to a very high flux of nuclear reaction products and have to be radiation tolerant up to 3 MRad (TID) and sustain up to 1014/cm2 of 1 MeV neutron equivalent in their life time. Moreover, the mostly minimum ionising particles under investigation leave very little signal in the sensors. Therefore very low noise level amplitude measurements are required by the front-end electronics for effective tracking. Sensor and interconnecting micro-cable capacitance and series resistance in conjunction with intrinsic noise of the charge sensitive amplifier are dominant noise sources in the system. However, the single-ended architecture of the amplifiers employed for the charge processing channels implies a potential problem with noise contributions from power supply sources. Strict system-level constraints leave very little freedom in selecting a power supply structure optimal with respect to: power efficiency, cooling capabilities and power density on modules, but also noise injection to the front-end via the power supply lines. Design of the power supply and distribution system of the Silicon Tracking System in the CBM experiment together with details on the front-end ASICs (STS -XYTER2) and measurement results of power supply and conditioning electronics (selected DC/DC converter and LDO regulators) are presented.

  16. Field Programmable Gate Array based Front-End Data Acquisition Module for the COSMICi Astroparticle Telescope System

    CERN Document Server

    McGowan, Darryl W; Frank, Michael P; Junnarkar, Sachin; O'Neal, Ray H

    2012-01-01

    We describe an FPGA based Front-End Data Acquisition Module (FEDAM) for implementing Time-over-Threshold (ToT) Time-to-Digital conversion (TDC) of pulses obtained from the COSMICi astroparticle telescope detector system photomultiplier tubes. The telescope system consists of a minimum of three scintillation detectors configured to detect particle airshowers likely initiated by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). The relative time delay of detection events between the detectors is used to estimate the angle of incidence of the shower. The FEDAM provides time-over-threshold measurements with a resolution of 2 ns. This allows determination of shower direction to an error of 0.035 (cos {\\theta})-1 radians where {\\theta} is the angle between the baseline axis through a pair of detectors and the plane representing the shower front.

  17. Beamline for Schools 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Two teams of high-school students from the UK and Poland had the opportunity to conduct their own experiments at a fully equipped CERN beamline. Two teams of high-school students from the UK and Poland had the opportunity to conduct their own experiments at a fully equipped CERN beamline, after winning the Beamline for Schools competition. The teams, ‘Pyramid Hunters’ from Poland and ‘Relatively Special’ from the United Kingdom, spent 10 days at CERN conducting the experiments they had dreamt up in their winning proposals. The Beamline for Schools competition gives high-school students the chance to run an experiment on a fully equipped CERN beamline, in the same way researchers do at the Large Hadron Collider and other CERN facilities every day. 

  18. A Novel Front-End ASIC With Post Digital Filtering and Calibration for CZT-Based PET Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, W.; Yin, J.; Li, C.; Zeng, H.; Gao, D. [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Computer Science and Techonology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China); Hu, Y. [Institut Pluridiscipline Hubert Curien, CNRS/UDS/IN2P3, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a novel front-end electronics based on a front-end ASIC with post digital filtering and calibration dedicated to CZT detectors for PET imaging. A cascade amplifier based on split-leg topology is selected to realize the charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA) for the sake of low noise performances and the simple scheme of the power supplies. The output of the CSA is connected to a variable-gain amplifier to generate the compatible signals for the A/D conversion. A multi-channel single-slope ADC is designed to sample multiple points for the digital filtering and shaping. The digital signal processing algorithms are implemented by a FPGA. To verify the proposed scheme, a front-end readout prototype ASIC is designed and implemented in 0.35 μm CMOS process. In a single readout channel, a CSA, a VGA, a 10-bit ADC and registers are integrated. Two dummy channels, bias circuits, and time controller are also integrated. The die size is 2.0 mm x 2.1 mm. The input range of the ASIC is from 2000 e{sup -} to 100000 e{sup -}, which is suitable for the detection of the X-and gamma ray from 11.2 keV to 550 keV. The linearity of the output voltage is less than 1 %. The gain of the readout channel is 40.2 V/pC. The static power dissipation is about 10 mW/channel. The above tested results show that the electrical performances of the ASIC can well satisfy PET imaging applications. (authors)

  19. Low noise 4-channel front end ASIC with on-chip DLL for the upgrade of the LHCb Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picatoste, E.; Bigbeder-Beau, C.; Duarte, O.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Grauges, E.; Lefrançois, J.; Machefert, F.; Mauricio, J.; Vilasis, X.

    2015-04-01

    An integrated circuit for the Upgrade of the LHCb Calorimeter front end electronics is presented. It includes four analog channels, a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) for signal phase synchronization for all channels and an SPI communication protocol based interface. The analog circuit is based on two fully differential interleaved channels with a switched integrator to avoid dead time and it incorporates dedicated solutions to achieve low noise, linearity and spill-over specifications. The included DLL is capable of shifting the phase of the LHC clock (25 ns) in steps of 1 ns. The selected technology is AMS SiGe BiCMOS 0.35 um.

  20. Irradiation induced effects in the FE-I4 front-end chip of the ATLAS IBL detector

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) detector was installed into the ATLAS experiment in 2014 and has been in operation since 2015. During the first year of IBL data taking an increase of the low voltage currents produced by the FE-I4 front-end chip was observed and this increase was traced back to the radiation damage in the chip. The dependence of the current on the total-ionising dose and temperature has been tested with Xray and proton irradiations and will be presented in this paper together with the detector operation guidelines.

  1. Design of an FPGA-based embedded system for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics test-bench

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Sandrock, C; Shalyugin, A; Schettino, V; Solans, C; Souza, J; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    The portable test bench (VME based) used for the certification of the Tile calorimeter front-end electronics has been redesigned for the LHC Long Shutdown (2013-2014) improving its portability. The new version is based on a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA that implements an embedded system using a hard core PowerPC 440 microprocessor and custom IP cores. The PowerPC microprocessor runs a light Linux version and handles the IP cores written in VHDL that implement the different functionalities (TTC, G-Link, CAN-Bus) Description of the system and performance measurements of the different components will be shown.

  2. Desarrollo del Front-End de una aplicación web con el framework EXT JS 5

    OpenAIRE

    Carrero Salcedo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo de fin de grado trata sobre el desarrollo de una aplicación web utilizando uno de los frameworks de JavaScript más potentes del mercado, el EXT JS5. Este ha sido desarrollado por Sencha. La memoria está dividida en 9 capítulos, en los cuales se explican los conocimientos básicos que un desarrollador debe tener para comenzar a utilizar el EXT JS 5; las ventajas y los contras de este framework respecto a otros; una descripción general de cómo desarrollar el Front-End de una apli...

  3. An Upgraded Front-End Switching Power Supply Design For the ATLAS TileCAL Detector of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of an upgraded switching power supply brick for the front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter (TileCAL) at the LHC. The new design features significant improvement in noise, improved fault detection, and generally a more robust design, while retaining the compact size, water-cooling, output control, and monitoring features in this 300 KHz design. We discuss the improvements to the design, and the radiation testing that we have done to qualify the design. We also present our plans for the production of 2400 new bricks for installation on the detector in 2013.

  4. Pixel front-end with synchronous discriminator and fast charge measurement for the upgrades of HL-LHC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, E.; Demaria, N.; Pacher, L.; Rivetti, A.; Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Rotondo, F.; Leng, C.

    2016-03-01

    The upgrade of the silicon pixel sensors for the HL-LHC experiments requires the development of new readout integrated circuits due to unprecedented radiation levels, very high hit rates and increased pixel granularity. The design of a very compact, low power, low threshold analog very front-end in CMOS 65 nm technology is described. It contains a synchronous comparator which uses an offset compensation technique based on storing the offset in output. The latch can be turned into a local oscillator using an asynchronous logic feedback loop to implement a fast time-over-threshold counting. This design has been submitted and the measurement results are presented.

  5. Development and validation of a 64 channel front end ASIC for 3D directional detection with MIMAC

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, J P; Bosson, G; Guillaudin, O; Mayet, F; Santos, D

    2011-01-01

    A front end ASIC has been designed to equip the {\\mu}TPC prototype developed for the MIMAC project, which requires 3D reconstruction of low energy particle tracks in order to perform directional detection of galactic Dark Matter. Each ASIC is able to monitor 64 strips of pixels and provides the "Time Over Threshold" information for each of those. These 64 digital informations, sampled at a rate of 50 MHz, can be transferred at 400MHz by eight LVDS serial links. Eight ASIC were validated on a 2x256 strips of pixels prototype.

  6. Design of a Constant Fraction Discriminator for the VFAT3 front-end ASIC of the CMS GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069646; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abi Akl, M.; Aboamer, O.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Aly, R.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F.R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M.M.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R.M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y.G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Magnani, A.; Mal, P.K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Masod, R.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J.A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A.K.; Mohamed, S.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L.M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio,G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M.S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Shah, A.H.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S.K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tamma, C.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work the design of a Constant Fraction Discriminator (CFD) to be used in the VFAT3 chip, currently under design for the read-out of the Triple-Gem detectors of the CMS experiment, is described. Simulations show that it is possible to extend the front-end shaping time in order to fully integrate the GEM detector signal charge whilst maintaining optimal timing resolution using the CFD technique. A prototype chip containing 8 CFDs was implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology to prove the effectiveness of the proposed architecture before its integration in the VFAT3 chip. The CFD design and test results will be shown.

  7. Building Blocks for a 24 GHz Phased-Array Front-End in CMOS Technology for Smart Streetlights

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ban; Tasselli, Gabriele; Botteron, Cyril; Farine, Pierre-André

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent European Union report, lighting represents a significant share of electricity costs and the goal of reducing lighting power consumption by 20% demands the coupling of light-emitting diode (LED) lights with smart sensors and communication networks. In this context, this paper proposes the integration of these three elements into a smart streetlight, incorporating a 24 GHz phased-array (Ph-A) front-end (FE). The main building blocks of this Ph-A FE integrated in a low cost...

  8. Irradiation induced effects in the FE-I4 front-end chip of the ATLAS IBL detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00218666

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) detector was installed into the ATLAS experiment in 2014 and has been in operation since 2015. During the first year of IBL data taking an increase of the low voltage currents associated with the FE-I4 front-end chip was observed and this increase was traced back to the radiation damage in the chip. The dependence of the current on the total-ionising dose and temperature has been tested with X-ray and proton irradiations and will be presented in this paper together with the detector operation guidelines.

  9. WWMCCS Host to Front End Protocols Specifications Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-05

    I CURRENT STATE INPUT INEXT STATE IOUTPUT COMMENT INDERL acceptable I SEDR acceptI I~ ~ PEDN end c (fuhnr...pENDT1NG I(vaTid or IIEnd Response I I invalid, flushing I I I ~or non-flushing) I -------- - .- I I SEDR I any other command I--------I corresponding Ilog...RESTLISZ Ivalid NU end, , 1 discard any data i (fluE-sbi-) I End-=A I cueed for SAP! and I F’II for apposite CPI I i- -----. --- ----- I- I I SEDR I vai

  10. Utilizing a Novel Approach at the Fuzzy Front-End of New Product Development: A Case Study in a Flexible Fabric Supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Gwo-Tsuen Jou; Benjamin J. C. Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The fuzzy front-end plays a most crucial part in new product development (NPD), leading to the success of product development and product launch in the market. This study proposes a novel method, TTRI_MP, by combining Crawford and Di Benedetto’s model and Cooper’s model, to strengthen the management of the fuzzy front-end. The proposed method comprises four stages: market exploration and technology forecasting, idea generation and segmentation, portfolio analysis and technology roadmapping (T...

  11. A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanyang, Li; Hao, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks is presented for enhancing the signal processing accuracy of the hearing aid. Compared with the conventional system, the accuracy optimized system is characterized by the dual feedback network and the gain compensation technique used in the front- and back-end blocks, respectively, so as to alleviate the nonlinearity distortion caused by the output swing. By using the technique, the accuracy of the whole hearing aid system can be significantly improved. The prototype chip has been designed with a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process and tested with 1 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that, for driving a 16 Ω loudspeaker with a normalized output level of 300 mVp-p, the total harmonic distortion reached about -60 dB, achieving at least three times reduction compared to the previously reported works. In addition, the typical input referred noise is only about 5 μVrms.

  12. Characteristics of a multichannel low-noise front-end ASIC for CZT-based small animal PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W.; Liu, H.; Gan, B.; Hu, Y.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design and characteristics of a novel low-noise front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit dedicated to CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for a small animal PET imaging system. A low-noise readout method based on the charge integration and the delayed peak detection is proposed. An eight-channel front-end readout prototype chip is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS process. The die size is 2.3 mm ×2.3 mm. The prototype chip is tested in different methods including electronic test, energy spectrum test and irradiation test. The input range of the ASIC is from 2000e- to 180,000e-, reflecting the energy of the gamma ray from 11.2 keV to 1 MeV. The gain of the readout channel is 65 mV/fC at the shaping time of 1 μs. The best test result of the equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 58.9 e- at zero farad plus 5.4 e- per picofarad. The nonlinearity and the crosstalk are less than 3% and less than 2%, respectively, at the room temperature. The static power dissipation is about 3 mW/channel.

  13. A SAR-ADC using unit bridge capacitor and with calibration for the front-end electronics of PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Tingcun; Li, Bo; Yang, Lifeng; Xue, Feifei; Hu, Yongcai

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a 12-bit 1 MS/s successive approximation register-analog to digital converter (SAR-ADC) for the 32-channel front-end electronics of CZT-based PET imaging system. To reduce the capacitance mismatch, instead of the fractional capacitor, the unit capacitor is used as the bridge capacitor in the split-capacitor digital to analog converter (DAC) circuit. In addition, in order to eliminate the periodical DNL errors of -1 LSB which often exists in the SAR-ADC using the charge-redistributed DAC, a calibration algorithm is proposed and verified by the experiments. The proposed 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC is designed and implemented using a 0.35 μm CMOS technology, it occupies only an active area of 986×956 μm2. The measurement results show that, at the power supply of 3.3/5.0 V and the sampling rate of 1 MS/s, the ADC with calibration has a signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SINAD) of 67.98 dB, the power dissipation of 5 mW, and a figure of merit (FOM) of 2.44 pJ/conv.-step. This ADC is with the features of high accuracy, low power and small layout area, it is especially suitable to the one-chip integration of the front-end readout electronics.

  14. Characteristics of a multichannel low-noise front-end ASIC for CZT-based small animal PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, W., E-mail: gaowu@nwpu.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Computer S and T, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an (China); Liu, H., E-mail: newhui.cn@gmail.com [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Computer S and T, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an (China); Gan, B., E-mail: shadow524@163.com [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Computer S and T, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an (China); Hu, Y., E-mail: Yann.Hu@ires.in2p3.fr [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, IN2P3/CNRS/UDS, Strasbourg (France)

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design and characteristics of a novel low-noise front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit dedicated to CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for a small animal PET imaging system. A low-noise readout method based on the charge integration and the delayed peak detection is proposed. An eight-channel front-end readout prototype chip is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS process. The die size is 2.3 mm ×2.3 mm. The prototype chip is tested in different methods including electronic test, energy spectrum test and irradiation test. The input range of the ASIC is from 2000e{sup −} to 180,000e{sup −}, reflecting the energy of the gamma ray from 11.2 keV to 1 MeV. The gain of the readout channel is 65 mV/fC at the shaping time of 1 μs. The best test result of the equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 58.9 e{sup −} at zero farad plus 5.4 e{sup −} per picofarad. The nonlinearity and the crosstalk are less than 3% and less than 2%, respectively, at the room temperature. The static power dissipation is about 3 mW/channel.

  15. A SAR-ADC using unit bridge capacitor and with calibration for the front-end electronics of PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei [School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Tingcun, E-mail: weitc@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Li, Bo; Yang, Lifeng; Xue, Feifei [School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Hu, Yongcai [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert CURIEN, Strasbourg (France)

    2016-05-11

    This paper presents a 12-bit 1 MS/s successive approximation register-analog to digital converter (SAR-ADC) for the 32-channel front-end electronics of CZT-based PET imaging system. To reduce the capacitance mismatch, instead of the fractional capacitor, the unit capacitor is used as the bridge capacitor in the split-capacitor digital to analog converter (DAC) circuit. In addition, in order to eliminate the periodical DNL errors of −1 LSB which often exists in the SAR-ADC using the charge-redistributed DAC, a calibration algorithm is proposed and verified by the experiments. The proposed 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC is designed and implemented using a 0.35 μm CMOS technology, it occupies only an active area of 986×956 μm{sup 2}. The measurement results show that, at the power supply of 3.3/5.0 V and the sampling rate of 1 MS/s, the ADC with calibration has a signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SINAD) of 67.98 dB, the power dissipation of 5 mW, and a figure of merit (FOM) of 2.44 pJ/conv.-step. This ADC is with the features of high accuracy, low power and small layout area, it is especially suitable to the one-chip integration of the front-end readout electronics.

  16. Inductorless Ultra-Wide Band Front-End Chip Design with Noise Cancellation Technology for Wireless Communication Applications 10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jhin-fang HUANG; Ming-chun HSU; Ron-yi LIU

    2010-01-01

    An inductorless Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) receiver front-end chip design used in wireless communications for the frequency band of 3.1~4.8 GHz is presented. This homodyne receiver mainly consists of a differential Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) circuit followed by a down-converting mixer. The proposed LNA circuit with a noise canceling resistor is connected to the CMOS device's body to reduce the substrate thermal noise. Simulation and measurement results show that the chip can reduce the front-end Noise Figure (NF) about 0.5dB and achieve the Conversion Gain (CG) of 19.44~21.57 dB and double-sideband NF less than 7.8 dB. Also, the input third-order intercept point (IIP3) is -11 dBm, and the input second-order intercept point (IIP2) is 49 dBm. Fabricated in TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology, this chip occupies only 0.167 mm2 and dissipates power 59.2 mW.

  17. Noise-canceling and IP3 improved CMOS RF front-end for DRM/DAB/DVB-H applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Keping; Wang Zhigong; Lei Xuemei, E-mail: zgwang@seu.edu.c [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-02-15

    A CMOS RF (radio frequency) front-end for digital radio broadcasting applications is presented that contains a wideband LNA, I/Q-mixers and VGAs, supporting other various wireless communication standards in the ultra-wide frequency band from 200 kHz to 2 GHz as well. Improvement of the NF (noise figure) and IP3 (third-order intermodulation distortion) is attained without significant degradation of other performances like voltage gain and power consumption. The NF is minimized by noise-canceling technology, and the IP3 is improved by using differential multiple gate transistors (DMGTR). The dB-in-linear VGA (variable gain amplifier) exploits a single PMOS to achieve exponential gain control. The circuit is fabricated in 0.18-{mu}m CMOS technology. The S{sub 11} of the RF front-end is lower than -11.4 dB over the whole band of 200 kHz-2 GHz. The variable gain range is 12-42 dB at 0.25 GHz and 4-36 dB at 2 GHz. The DSB NF at maximum gain is 3.1-6.1 dB. The IIP3 at middle gain is -4.7 to 0.2 dBm. It consumes a DC power of only 36 mW at 1.8 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Single Event Effect Hardness for the Front-end ASICs Applied in BGO Calorimeter of DAMPE Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Shan-Shan; Feng, Chang-Qing; Xi, Kai; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a Chinese scientific satellite designed for cosmic ray study with a primary scientific goal of indirect search of dark matter particles. As a crucial sub-detector, BGO calorimeter measures the energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. In order to implement high-density front-end electronics (FEE) with the ability to measure 1848 signals from 616 photomultiplier tubes on the strictly constrained satellite platform, two kinds of 32-channel front-end ASICs, VA160 and VATA160, are customized. However, a space mission period of more than 3 years makes single event effect (SEE) a probable threat to reliability. In order to evaluate the SEE sensitivity of the chips and verify the effectiveness of mitigation methods, a series of laser-induced and heavy ion-induced SEE tests were performed. Benefiting from the single event latch-up (SEL) protection circuit for power supply, the triple module redundancy (TMR) technology for the configuration regist...

  19. A Baseband, Impulse Ultra-Wideband Transceiver Front-end for Low Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-08

    Jim Young , and Roy Sutton who had a similar long, strange road to travel. Here’s to the end and what lies beyond. I also would like to thank ST...taken at “plusN” ( modulo 32) from the DLL phases to generate the output control. For example, if phase N is “plus00” and starts sampling (ending reset...Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 1990. [107] I. A. Young , J. K. Greason, and K. L. Wong, “A pll clock generator with 5 to 110 mhz of lock range for

  20. Single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS front-end system for real-time volumetric IVUS and ICE imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurun, Gokce; Tekes, Coskun; Zahorian, Jaime; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Karaman, Mustafa; Hasler, Jennifer; Degertekin, F Levent

    2014-02-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intracardiac echography (ICE) catheters with real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging capability can provide unique benefits to many interventional procedures used in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary and structural heart diseases. Integration of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays with front-end electronics in single-chip configuration allows for implementation of such catheter probes with reduced interconnect complexity, miniaturization, and high mechanical flexibility. We implemented a single-chip forward-looking (FL) ultrasound imaging system by fabricating a 1.4-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array using CMUT-on-CMOS technology on a front-end IC implemented in 0.35-μm CMOS process. The dual-ring array has 56 transmit elements and 48 receive elements on two separate concentric annular rings. The IC incorporates a 25-V pulser for each transmitter and a low-noise capacitive transimpedance amplifier (TIA) for each receiver, along with digital control and smart power management. The final shape of the silicon chip is a 1.5-mm-diameter donut with a 430-μm center hole for a guide wire. The overall front-end system requires only 13 external connections and provides 4 parallel RF outputs while consuming an average power of 20 mW. We measured RF A-scans from the integrated single- chip array which show full functionality at 20.1 MHz with 43% fractional bandwidth. We also tested and demonstrated the image quality of the system on a wire phantom and an ex vivo chicken heart sample. The measured axial and lateral point resolutions are 92 μm and 251 μm, respectively. We successfully acquired volumetric imaging data from the ex vivo chicken heart at 60 frames per second without any signal averaging. These demonstrative results indicate that single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS systems have the potential to produce realtime volumetric images with image quality and speed suitable for catheter-based clinical applications.

  1. Practical Limits in the Sensitivity-Linearity Trade-off for Radio Telescope Front Ends in the HF and VHF-low Bands

    CERN Document Server

    Tillman, R H; Brendler, J

    2016-01-01

    Radio telescope front ends must have simultaneously low noise and sufficiently-high linearity to accommodate interfering signals. Typically these are opposing design goals. For modern radio telescopes operating in the HF (3-30 MHz) and VHF-low (30-88 MHz) bands, the problem is more nuanced in that front end noise temperature may be a relatively small component of the system temperature, and increased linearity may be required due to the particular interference problems associated with this spectrum. In this paper we present an analysis of the sensitivity-linearity trade off at these frequencies, applicable to existing commercially-available monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers in single-ended, differential, and parallelized configurations. This analysis and associated findings should be useful in the design and upgrade of front ends for low frequency radio telescopes. The analysis is demonstrated explicitly for one of the better-performing amplifiers encountered in this study, the Mini-Ci...

  2. Exploiting jump-resonance hysteresis in silicon auditory front-ends for extracting speaker discriminative formant trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Kenji; Shaga, Ravi K; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2013-08-01

    Jump-resonance is a phenomenon observed in non-linear circuits where the amplitude of the output signal exhibits an abrupt jump when the frequency of the input signal is varied. For [Formula: see text] filters used in the design of analog auditory front-ends (AFEs), jump-resonance is generally considered to be undesirable and several techniques have been proposed in literature to avoid or alleviate this artifact. In this paper we explore the use of jump-resonance based hysteresis in [Formula: see text] band-pass filters for encoding speech formant trajectories. Using prototypes of silicon AFEs fabricated in a 0.5 μm CMOS process, we demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach for extracting speaker discriminative features. These benefits are validated using speaker recognition experiments where consistent improvements in equal-error-rates (EERs) are achieved using the jump-resonance based features as compared to conventional features.

  3. Optimization of DC-DC Converters for Improved Electromagnetic Compatibility With High Energy Physics Front-End Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, C; Michelis, S; Blanchot, G; Allongue, B; Faccio, F; Orlandi, S; Kayal, M; Pontt, J

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN sets new challenges for the powering of the detectors. One of the powering schemes under study is based on DC-DC buck converters mounted on the front-end modules. The hard environmental conditions impose strict restrictions to the converters in terms of low volume, radiation and magnetic field tolerance. Furthermore, the noise emission of the switching converters must not affect the performance of the powered systems. A study of the sources and paths of noise of a synchronous buck converter has been made for identifying the critical parameters to reduce their emissions. As proof of principle, a converter was designed following the PCB layout considerations proposed and then used for powering a silicon strip module prototype for the ATLAS upgrade, in order to evaluate their compatibility.

  4. Controller design and implementation of a three-phase Active Front End using SiC based MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Frerk; Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The design and implementation of a three phase Active Front End for power factor correction purposes using fast switching SiC based MOSFETs is presented. Possible applications are within the drives- and renewable energy sector. The controller is designed and implemented in the synchronous rotating...... factor correction for an active rectifier in comparison to a passive rectifier. The SiC based power switches thereby offer the possibility of using high switching frequencies leading to a reduction in filter size - here a simple L filter. The controller is able to validate the simulation results...... reference frame. Besides the theoretical modelling the controller is optimized through simulations and implemented on a low cost DSP processor using a visual programming language - here MATLAB/SIMULINK - with automatic code generation for embedded targets. The paper illustrates the advantages of power...

  5. A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Siena and INFN, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Avanzini, C. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Edificio C-Polo Fibonacci Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bigongiari, G.; Cecchi, R.; Kim, M.Y.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.S. [Department of Physics, University of Siena and INFN, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Morsani, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Edificio C-Polo Fibonacci Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    A new class of instruments - based on Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) photosensors - are currently under development for the next generation of Astroparticle Physics experiments in future space missions. A custom front-end ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) for the readout of 64 SiPM sensors was specified in collaboration with GM-IDEAS (Norway) that designed and manufactured the ASIC. Our group developed a custom readout board equipped with a 16 bit ADC for the digitization of both pulse height and time information. A time stamp, generated by the ASIC in correspondence of the threshold crossing time, is digitized and recorded for each channel. This allows to define a narrow time window around the physics event that reduces significantly the background due to the SiPM dark count rate. In this paper, we report on the preliminary test results obtained with the readout board prototype.

  6. A Simulation of the Front End Signal Digitization for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer thin RPC trigger upgrade project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangting; Chapman, John; Levin, Daniel; Dai, Tiesheng; Zhu, Junjie; Zhou, Bing; Um Atlas Group Team

    2016-03-01

    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Phase-I (and Phase-II) upgrade includes the BIS78 muon trigger detector project: two sets of eight very thin Resistive Place Chambers (tRPCs) combined with small Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers in the pseudorapidity region 1Phase-I operation, a stringent latency requirement of 43 bunch crossings (1075 ns) is imposed. The latency budget for the front end digitization must be kept to a minimal value, ideally less than 350 ns. We conducted detailed HPTDC latency simulations using the Behavioral Verilog code from the CERN group. We will report the results of these simulations run for the anticipated detector operating environment and for various HPTDC configurations.

  7. Irradiation induced effects in the FE-I4 front-end chip of the ATLAS IBL detector

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) detector was installed into the ATLAS experiment in 2014 and has been in operation since 2015. During the first year of IBL data taking an increase of the low voltage currents associated with the FE-I4 During the first year of the IBL operation in 2015 a significant increase of the LV current of the front-end chip and the detuning of its parameters (threshold and time-over- threshold) have been observed in relation to the received TID. In this talk , the TID effects in the FE-I4 chip are reported based on studies performed in the laboratory using X-ray and proton irradiation sources for various temperature and irradiation intensity conditions. Based on these results, an operation guideline of the IBL detector is presented.

  8. A wide dynamic range BF{sub 3} neutron monitor with front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrarini, M., E-mail: michele.ferrarini@polimi.i [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Fondazione CNAO, via Caminadella 16, 20123 Milano (Italy); Varoli, V. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Caresana, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento Energia, via G. Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP 800, Via E. Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy)

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a wide dynamic range neutron monitor based on a BF{sub 3} neutron detector. The detector is used in current mode, and front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier are used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many orders of magnitude. The system has been calibrated at the Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude, being able to measure single neutron pulses and showing saturation-free response for a reaction rate up to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. It has also proved effective in measuring the PUNITA facility pulse integral fluence.

  9. Linear Modeling of the Three-Phase Diode Front-Ends with Reduced Capacitance Considering the Continuous Conduction Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Máthé, Lászlo; Yang, Feng; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the DC-link capacitance considerably is a new trend in many applications, such as: motor drives, electrolysers etc.. A straight forward method for modelling the diode front-end is to build a non-linear diode based model. This non-linear model gives difficulties when the controllers...... for the entire drive systems have to be designed. A linearization and simplification to single phase model can be performed; however, when inductance is present at the grid side its performance is not satisfactory. The problem is mainly caused by neglecting the continuous conduction mode of the rectifier...... in the simplified model. This article proposes a simplified linear model where the continuous conduction mode is also considered. The DC-link voltage and current waveforms obtained through the proposed simplified model matches very well the waveforms obtained with the three phase diode based model and also...

  10. Linear Modeling of the Three-Phase Diode Front-Ends with Reduced Capacitance Considering the Continuous Conduction Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Máthé, Lászlo; Yang, Feng; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    for the entire drive systems have to be designed. A linearization and simplification to single phase model can be performed; however, when inductance is present at the grid side its performance is not satisfactory. The problem is mainly caused by neglecting the continuous conduction mode of the rectifier...... in the simplified model. This article proposes a simplified linear model where the continuous conduction mode is also considered. The DC-link voltage and current waveforms obtained through the proposed simplified model matches very well the waveforms obtained with the three phase diode based model and also......Reducing the DC-link capacitance considerably is a new trend in many applications, such as: motor drives, electrolysers etc.. A straight forward method for modelling the diode front-end is to build a non-linear diode based model. This non-linear model gives difficulties when the controllers...

  11. MEPHISTO - a 128-channel front end chip with real time data sparsification and multi-hit capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P.; Comes, G.; Krüger, H.

    1999-07-01

    The MEPHISTO chip uses a novel binary architecture to achieve a high speed readout for multichannel detectors, like silicon strip detectors or MSGCs. The architecture is an alternative to existing designs with raw data pipelines as are commonly used in particle physics applications. The chip receives 128 digital input signals from an analog front end chip at a rate of up to 80 MHz. The hit pattern is sparsified in real time and only the addresses and interaction times of hits are stored temporarily in FIFOs. Multiple hits per event are possible. A trigger selects interesting events for readout. All other hits are automatically discarded. Untriggered readout at high rates is also possible. The occupied chip area depends on the average data rate which can be very small in many applications. Very compact designs with up to ten times less first level storage can therefore be realized.

  12. MEPHISTO - a 128-channel front end chip with real time data sparsification and multi-hit capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P. E-mail: fischerp@physik.uni-bonn.de; Comes, G.; Krueger, H

    1999-07-11

    The MEPHISTO chip uses a novel binary architecture to achieve a high speed readout for multichannel detectors, like silicon strip detectors or MSGCs. The architecture is an alternative to existing designs with raw data pipelines as are commonly used in particle physics applications. The chip receives 128 digital input signals from an analog front end chip at a rate of up to 80 MHz. The hit pattern is sparsified in real time and only the addresses and interaction times of hits are stored temporarily in FIFOs. Multiple hits per event are possible. A trigger selects interesting events for readout. All other hits are automatically discarded. Untriggered readout at high rates is also possible. The occupied chip area depends on the average data rate which can be very small in many applications. Very compact designs with up to ten times less first level storage can therefore be realized. (author)

  13. MEPHISTO - a 128-channel front end chip with real time data sparsification and multi-hit capability

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, P; Krüger, H

    1999-01-01

    The MEPHISTO chip uses a novel binary architecture to achieve a high speed readout for multichannel detectors, like silicon strip detectors or MSGCs. The architecture is an alternative to existing designs with raw data pipelines as are commonly used in particle physics applications. The chip receives 128 digital input signals from an analog front end chip at a rate of up to 80 MHz. The hit pattern is sparsified in real time and only the addresses and interaction times of hits are stored temporarily in FIFOs. Multiple hits per event are possible. A trigger selects interesting events for readout. All other hits are automatically discarded. Untriggered readout at high rates is also possible. The occupied chip area depends on the average data rate which can be very small in many applications. Very compact designs with up to ten times less first level storage can therefore be realized. (author)

  14. A wide dynamic range BF 3 neutron monitor with front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, M.; Varoli, V.; Favalli, A.; Caresana, M.; Pedersen, B.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a wide dynamic range neutron monitor based on a BF 3 neutron detector. The detector is used in current mode, and front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier are used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many orders of magnitude. The system has been calibrated at the Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude, being able to measure single neutron pulses and showing saturation-free response for a reaction rate up to 10 6 s -1. It has also proved effective in measuring the PUNITA facility pulse integral fluence.

  15. Web前端开发技术研究%Research on Web Front-End Development Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏娜

    2011-01-01

    Expounds the Web front-end development related technologies, focusing on development technology and standards based on the Web browser programming, including HTML/XHTML, CSS, DOM, JavaScript, cross browser development, Firefox extension and Web site design and maintenance%阐述Web前端开发相关技术等.主要聚焦于基于Web浏览器编程的前端开发技术和标准,内容包括HTML/XHTML、层叠样式表(CSS)、文档对象模型(DOM),JavaScript、跨浏览器开发、Firefox扩展开发以及Web站点设计与维护等。

  16. Low-noise monolithic bipolar front-end for silicon drift detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, W.; Bialas, W.; Bonazzola, G.; Bonvicini, W.; Casati, L.; Ceretto, F.; Giubellino, P.; Prest, M.; Riccati, L.; Zampa, N.

    1999-01-01

    A very low noise, 32-channel preamplifier/shaper chip has been designed for the analogue readout of silicon detectors. The circuit has been optimized in view of the operation of silicon drift detectors, which have very low capacitance and produce gaussian signals of σ of few tens of ns. The chip (OLA) has been designed and manufactured using the SHPi full-custom bipolar process by Tektronix. Each channel is composed by a preamplifier, a shaper and a symmetrical line driver, which allows to drive either a positive and a negative single ended output separately on 50 Ω impedance or a differential twisted pair. The intrinsic peaking time of the circuit is ˜60 ns, and the noise is below 250 electrons at zero input load capacitance. The power consumption is 2 mW/channel, mostly due to the output driver.

  17. IMOTEPAD: A mixed-signal 64-channel front-end ASIC for small-animal PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaochao; Ollivier-Henry, Nicolas; Gao, Wu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Colledani, Claude; Humbert, Bernard; Brasse, David; Hu, Yann

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the design and characteristics of a mixed-signal 64-channel front-end readout ASIC called IMOTEPAD dedicated to multi-channel plate (MCP) photodetector coupled to LYSO scintillating crystals for small-animal PET imaging. In our configuration, the crystals are oriented in the axial direction readout on both sides by individual photodetector channels allowing the spatial resolution and the detection efficiency to be independent of each other. As a result, both energy signals and timing triggers from the photodetectors are required to be read out by the front-end ASIC. This dedicated ASIC IMOTEPAD comprises two parts: the analog part IMOTEPA and the digital part IMOTEPD. The IMOTEPA is dedicated to energy measurement. And the timing information is digitized by the IMOTEPD in which the key principal element is a time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on a delay-locked loop (DLL) with 32 delay cells. The chip is designed and fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS process. The measurements show that for the analog part IMOTEPA, the energy gain is 13.1 mV/pC while the peak time of a CR-RC pulse shaper is 280 ns. The SNR is 39 dB and the RMS noise is 300 μV. The nonlinearity is less than 3%. The crosstalk is less than 0.2%. For the IMOTEPD, the bin size of the TDC is 625 ps with a reference clock of 50 MHz. The RMS jitter of the DLL is less than 42 ps. The DNL of the TDC is equal to about 0.17 LSB and the INL is equal to 0.31 LSB. The power dissipation of each channel is less than 16.8 mW. The design of the ASIC, especially for TDC and the measurement results of the IMOTEPAD will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  18. Imaging X-ray detector front-end with high dynamic range: IDeF-X HD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevin, O.; Lemaire, O.; Lugiez, F. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' Electronique, de Detecteurs et d' Informatique, Bat. 141, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Michalowska, A., E-mail: alicja.michalowska@cea.fr [CEA, Irfu, Service d' Electronique, de Detecteurs et d' Informatique, Bat. 141, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Baron, P. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' Electronique, de Detecteurs et d' Informatique, Bat. 141, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Limousin, O. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' Astrophysique, Bat. 709 Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Delagnes, E. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' Electronique, de Detecteurs et d' Informatique, Bat. 141, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-12-11

    Presented circuit, IDeF-X HD (Imaging Detector Front-end) is a member of the IDeF-X ASICs family for space applications. It has been optimized for a half millimeter pitch CdTe or CdZnTe pixelated detector arranged in 16 Multiplication-Sign 16 array. It is aimed to operate in the hard X-ray range from few keV up to 250 keV or more. The ASIC has been realized in AMS 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process. The IDeF-X HD is a 32 channel analog front-end with self-triggering capability. The architecture of the analog channel includes a chain of charge sensitive amplifier with continuous reset system and non-stationary noise suppressor, adjustable gain stage, pole-zero cancellation stage, adjustable shaping time low pass filter, baseline holder and peak detector with discriminator. The power consumption of the IDeF-X HD is 800 {mu}W per channel. With the in-channel variable gain stage the nominal 250 keV dynamic range of the ASIC can be extended up to 1 MeV anticipating future applications using thick sensors. Measuring the noise performance without a detector at the input with minimized leakage current (programmable) at the input, we achieved ENC of 33 electrons rms at 10.7 {mu}s peak time. Measurements with CdTe detector show good energy resolution FWHM of 1.1 keV at 60 keV and 4.3 keV at 662 keV with detection threshold below 4 keV. In addition, an absolute temperature sensor has been integrated with resolution of 1.5 Degree-Sign C.

  19. Imaging X-ray detector front-end with high dynamic range: IDeF-X HD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevin, O.; Lemaire, O.; Lugiez, F.; Michalowska, A.; Baron, P.; Limousin, O.; Delagnes, E.

    2012-12-01

    Presented circuit, IDeF-X HD (Imaging Detector Front-end) is a member of the IDeF-X ASICs family for space applications. It has been optimized for a half millimeter pitch CdTe or CdZnTe pixelated detector arranged in 16×16 array. It is aimed to operate in the hard X-ray range from few keV up to 250 keV or more. The ASIC has been realized in AMS 0.35 μm CMOS process. The IDeF-X HD is a 32 channel analog front-end with self-triggering capability. The architecture of the analog channel includes a chain of charge sensitive amplifier with continuous reset system and non-stationary noise suppressor, adjustable gain stage, pole-zero cancellation stage, adjustable shaping time low pass filter, baseline holder and peak detector with discriminator. The power consumption of the IDeF-X HD is 800 μW per channel. With the in-channel variable gain stage the nominal 250 keV dynamic range of the ASIC can be extended up to 1 MeV anticipating future applications using thick sensors. Measuring the noise performance without a detector at the input with minimized leakage current (programmable) at the input, we achieved ENC of 33 electrons rms at 10.7 μs peak time. Measurements with CdTe detector show good energy resolution FWHM of 1.1 keV at 60 keV and 4.3 keV at 662 keV with detection threshold below 4 keV. In addition, an absolute temperature sensor has been integrated with resolution of 1.5 °C.

  20. 7-GeV advanced photon source beamline initiative: Conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The DOE is building a new generation 6-7 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source known as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility, to be completed in FY 1996, can provide 70 x-ray sources of unprecedented brightness to meet the research needs of virtually all scientific disciplines and numerous technologies. The technological research capability of the APS in the areas of energy, communications and health will enable a new partnership between the DOE and US industry. Current funding for the APS will complete the current phase of construction so that scientists can begin their applications in FY 1996. Comprehensive utilization of the unique properties of APS beams will enable cutting-edge research not currently possible. It is now appropriate to plan to construct additional radiation sources and beamline standard components to meet the excess demands of the APS users. In this APS Beamline Initiative, 2.5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on four straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional four bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these eight x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build standard beamline components to meet scientific and technological research demands of the Collaborative Access Teams. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Beamline Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Beamline Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.

  1. Visualization for Hyper-Heuristics. Front-End Graphical User Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenung, Lauren [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Modern society is faced with ever more complex problems, many of which can be formulated as generate-and-test optimization problems. General-purpose optimization algorithms are not well suited for real-world scenarios where many instances of the same problem class need to be repeatedly and efficiently solved because they are not targeted to a particular scenario. Hyper-heuristics automate the design of algorithms to create a custom algorithm for a particular scenario. While such automated design has great advantages, it can often be difficult to understand exactly how a design was derived and why it should be trusted. This project aims to address these issues of usability by creating an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) for hyper-heuristics to support practitioners, as well as scientific visualization of the produced automated designs. My contributions to this project are exhibited in the user-facing portion of the developed system and the detailed scientific visualizations created from back-end data.

  2. Mm-wave front-end developed within the on-going AWARE/LOCOMOTIVE projects for automotive applications at 77GHz

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a millimetre-wave front-end for a 76.5GHz Collision Warning Avoidance (CW/A) car radar. This CW/A sensor is based on a FMCW concept. The main development steps are described and have led to the definition of a fully MMIC-based front-end. Based on a demonstrator done in AWARE a new chip-set has been defined, fabricated and characterised within LOCOMOTIVE. Using a total chip-set area of 13.7 mm2, the first obtained results show a high level of performance.

  3. Development and tests of a new prototype detector for the XAFS beamline at Elettra Synchrotron in Trieste

    CERN Document Server

    Fabiani, S; Baldazzi, G; Bellutti, P; Bertuccio, G; Bruschi, M; Bufon, J; Carrato, S; Castoldi, A; Cautero, G; Ciano, S; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Santos, M Dos; Gandola, M; Giacomini, G; Giuressi, D; Guazzoni, C; Menk, R H; Niemela, J; Olivi, L; Picciotto, A; Piemonte, C; Rashevskaya, I; Rachevski, A; Rignanese, L P; Sbrizzi, A; Schillani, S; Vacchi, A; Garcia, V Villaverde; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zorzi, N

    2016-01-01

    The XAFS beamline at Elettra Synchrotron in Trieste combines X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to provide chemically specific structural information of materials. It operates in the energy range 2.4-27 keV by using a silicon double reflection Bragg monochromator. The fluorescence measurement is performed in place of the absorption spectroscopy when the sample transparency is too low for transmission measurements or the element to study is too diluted in the sample. We report on the development and on the preliminary tests of a new prototype detector based on Silicon Drift Detectors technology and the SIRIO ultra low noise front-end ASIC. The new system will be able to reduce drastically the time needed to perform fluorescence measurements, while keeping a short dead time and maintaining an adequate energy resolution to perform spectroscopy. The custom-made silicon sensor and the electronics are designed specifically for the beamline requirements.

  4. Design of a Modular Multilevel Converter as an Active Front-End for a magnet supply application

    CERN Document Server

    Panagiotis, Asimakopoulos; Massimo, Bongiorno

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the general design procedure of a Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) applied as an Active Front-End (AFE) for a magnet supply for beam accelerators. The dimensioning criteria for the converter and the dc-link capacitance are presented and the grid transformer requirements are set. Considering the converter design, the arm inductance calculation is based on the specifications for the arm-current ripple and the DC-link fault tolerance, but, also, on the limitation of the second harmonic and the second-order LC resonance of the arm current. The module capacitance value is evaluated by focusing on the required switching dynamics and the capacitor-voltage ripple according to a newly proposed graphical method. The loading of each semiconductor in the half bridge is calculated via simulation, indicating the unsymmetrical current distribution. It is concluded that the current distribution for each semiconductor depends on the mode of operation of the converter. The different criter...

  5. LHCb: Dynamically Adaptive Header Generator and Front-End Source Emulator for a 100 Gbps FPGA Based DAQ

    CERN Multimedia

    Srikanth, S

    2014-01-01

    The proposed upgrade for the LHCb experiment envisages a system of 500 Data sources each generating data at 100 Gbps, the acquisition and processing of which is a big challenge even for the current state of the art FPGAs. This requires an FPGA DAQ module that not only handles the data generated by the experiment but also is versatile enough to dynamically adapt to potential inadequacies of other components like the network and PCs. Such a module needs to maintain real time operation while at the same time maintaining system stability and overall data integrity. This also creates a need for a Front-end source Emulator capable of generating the various data patterns, that acts as a testbed to validate the functionality and performance of the Header Generator. The rest of the abstract briefly describes these modules and their implementation. The Header Generator is used to packetize the streaming data from the detectors before it is sent to the PCs for further processing. This is achieved by continuously scannin...

  6. High strength steels, stiffness of vehicle front-end structure, and risk of injury to rear seat occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer; Roddis, Kim

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has shown that rear seat occupant protection has decreased over model years, and front-end stiffness is a possible factor causing this trend. In this research, the effects of a change in stiffness on protection of rear seat occupants in frontal crashes were investigated. The stiffness was adjusted by using higher strength steels (DP and TRIP), or thicker metal sheets. Finite element simulations were performed, using an LS Dyna vehicle model coupled with a MADYMO dummy. Simulation results showed that an increase in stiffness, to the extent it happened in recent model years, can increase the risk of AIS3+ head injuries from 4.8% in the original model (with a stiffness of 1,000 N/mm) to 24.2% in a modified model (with a stiffness of 2,356 N/mm). The simulations also showed an increased risk of chest injury from 9.1% in the original model to 11.8% in the modified model. Distribution of injuries from real world accident data confirms the findings of the simulations.

  7. Performances of the Front-End Electronics for the HADES RPC TOF wall on a 12C beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Díaz, J.; Garzón, J. A.; Gil, A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Koenig, W.; Traxler, M.; Zapata, M.

    2009-05-01

    A Front-End Electronics (FEE) chain for timing accurate measurements has been developed for the RPC wall upgrade of the High-Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES). The wall will cover an area of around 8 m with 1122 RPC cells (2244 electronic channels). The FEE chain consists of two boards: a four-channel DaughterBOard (DBO) and a 32-channel MotherBOard (MBO). The DBO uses a fast 2 GHz amplifier feeding a discriminator. The time and the charge information are encoded in the leading and the trailing edge (by a charge to width method) of an LVDS signal. Each MBO houses up to eight DBOs providing them regulated voltage supply, threshold values via DACs, test signals and collection of their trigger outputs. The MBO delivers LVDS signals to a time-to-digital converter readout board (TRB) based on HPTDC for data acquisition. In this work, we present the performance of the FEE measured using: (a) narrow electronic test pulses and (b) real signals read out in a fully instrumented RPC sextant installed in its final position at the HADES. The detector was exposed to particles coming from reactions of a 12C beam on Be and Nb targets at 2 GeV/A kinetic energy. Results for the whole electronic chain (DBO+MBO+TRB) show a timing jitter of around 40 ps/channel for pulses above 100 fC and 80 ps/channel for beam data taken with the RPC.

  8. Analog Circuit Design Low Voltage Low Power; Short Range Wireless Front-Ends; Power Management and DC-DC

    CERN Document Server

    Roermund, Arthur; Baschirotto, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The book contains the contribution of 18 tutorials of the 20th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design.  Each part discusses a specific to-date topic on new and valuable design ideas in the area of analog circuit design. Each part is presented by six experts in that field and state of the art information is shared and overviewed. This book is number 20 in this successful series of Analog Circuit Design, providing valuable information and excellent overviews of Low-Voltage Low-Power Data Converters - Chaired by Prof. Anderea Baschirotto, University of Milan-Bicocca Short Range Wireless Front-Ends - Chaired by Prof. Arthur van Roermund, Eindhoven University of Technology Power management and DC-DC - Chaired by Prof. M. Steyaert, Katholieke University Leuven Analog Circuit Design is an essential reference source for analog circuit designers and researchers wishing to keep abreast with the latest development in the field. The tutorial coverage also makes it suitable for use in an advanced design.

  9. Front-end electronics in a 65 nm CMOS process for high density readout of pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo; Ratti, Lodovico; Re, Valerio; Traversi, Gianluca

    2011-09-01

    In future high energy physics experiments (HEP), readout integrated circuits for vertexing and tracking applications will be implemented by means of CMOS devices belonging to processes with minimum feature size in the 100 nm span. In these nanoscale technologies the impact of new dielectric materials and processing techniques on the analog behavior of MOSFETs has to be carefully evaluated. This paper is concerned with the study of the analog properties, in particular in terms of noise performance and radiation hardness, of MOSFET devices belonging to a 65 nm CMOS low power technology. The behavior of the 1/ f and white noise terms is studied as a function of the main device parameters before and after exposure to 10 keV X-rays and 60Co γ-rays. A prototype chip designed in a 65 nm CMOS process including deep n-well MAPS structures and a fast front-end conceived for the readout of high-resistivity pixel sensors will be introduced.

  10. Front-end chip for Silicon Photomultiplier detectors with pico-second Time-of-Flight resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankova, V.; Briggl, K.; Chen, H.; Gil, A.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Shen, W.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.

    2016-07-01

    A mixed-mode readout Application Specific Integrated Circuit (STIC3) has been developed for high precision timing measurements with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) for medical imaging and particle physics applications. The STiC3 is a 64-channel chip, with fully differential analog front-end for cross-talk and electronic noise immunity. The time and charge information from the SiPM signals are encrypted into two time stamps generated by integrated Time to Digital Converter (TDC) modules with 50 ps time binning. The TDC data is stored in an internal memory and transferred to a PC via a 160 MBit/s serial link using an 8/10 bit encoding. The chip provides an input bias tuning in a range of 0-900 mV to compensate the breakdown voltage variation of individual SiPMs. The TDC jitter together with the digital part is around 37 ps. A Coincidence Time Resolution (CTR) of 213.6 ps FWHM has been obtained with 3.1 × 3.1 × 15m2 LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals and Hamamatsu SiPM matrices (S12643-050CN(X)). Characterization measurements with the chip and its integration into the external plate of the EndoTOFPET-US prototype are presented.

  11. Neutron-induced Single Event Upset on the RPC front-end chips for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Belli, G; Bruno, G; Colaleo, A; De Bari, A; Guida, R; Iaselli, G; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Manera, S; Marangelli, B; Merlo, M; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Romano, F; Torre, P; Vitulo, P

    2002-01-01

    Neutrons from a reactor and from a cyclotron have been used to characterise the CMS Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) front-end chip to neutron-induced damaging events. Single Event Upset (SEU) cross-sections have been measured up to 60 MeV for different chip thresholds. Tests at a reactor were done with an integrated fast (E sub n >3 MeV) neutron fluence of 1.7x10 sup 1 sup 0 cm sup - sup 2 and a thermal neutron fluence of 9.5x10 sup 1 sup 1 cm sup - sup 2. High-energy neutrons from a cyclotron were used up to a fluence of 10 sup 1 sup 2 cm sup - sup 2. Data indicate the existence of a chip SEU sensitivity already at thermal energy and a saturated SEU cross-section from 3 to 60 MeV. Values of the SEU cross-sections from the thermal run well agree with those obtained by another CMS group that uses the same technology (0.8 mu m BiCMOS) though with different architecture. Cross-sections obtained with fast neutrons (from 3 MeV to about 10 MeV) are consistently higher by one order of magnitude compared to the therm...

  12. The front-end electronics for the 1.8-kchannel SiPM tracking plane in the NEW detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J.; Toledo, J.; Esteve, R.; Lorca, D.; Monrabal, F.

    2015-01-01

    NEW is the first phase of NEXT-100 experiment, an experiment aimed at searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay. NEXT technology combines an excellent energy resolution with tracking capabilities thanks to a combination of optical sensors, PMTs for the energy measurement and SiPMs for topology reconstruction. Those two tools result in one of the highest background rejection potentials in the field. This work describes the tracking plane that will be constructed for the NEW detector which consists of close to 1800 sensors with a 1-cm pitch arranged in twenty-eight 64-SiPM boards. Then it focuses in the development of the electronics needed to read the 1800 channels with a front-end board that includes per-channel differential transimpedance input amplifier, gated integrator, automatic offset voltage compensation and 12-bit ADC. Finally, a description of how the FPGA buffers data, carries out zero suppression and sends data to the DAQ interface using CERN RD-51 SRS's DTCC link specification complements the description of the electronics of the NEW detector tracking plane.

  13. Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    de La Taille, C

    2008-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  14. Design, development and verification of the 30 and 44 GHz front-end modules for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R J; Wilkinson, A; Davies, R D; Winder, W F; Roddis, N; Blackhurst, E J; Lawson, D; Lowe, S R; Baines, C; Butlin, M; Galtress, A; Shepherd, D [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Aja, B; Artal, E [Departamento de IngenierIa de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Bersanelli, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F [INAF IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti, 101, 40129, Bologna (Italy); Castelli, C [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Swindon, Wiltshire, SN2 1SZ (United Kingdom); D' Arcangelo, O [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Gaier, T, E-mail: Richard.Davis@manchester.ac.u [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California (United States)

    2009-12-15

    We give a description of the design, construction and testing of the 30 and 44 GHz Front End Modules (FEMs) for the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission to be launched in 2009. The scientific requirements of the mission determine the performance parameters to be met by the FEMs, including their linear polarization characteristics. The FEM design is that of a differential pseudo-correlation radiometer in which the signal from the sky is compared with a 4-K blackbody load. The Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) at the heart of the FEM is based on indium phosphide High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The radiometer incorporates a novel phase-switch design which gives excellent amplitude and phase match across the band. The noise temperature requirements are met within the measurement errors at the two frequencies. For the most sensitive LNAs, the noise temperature at the band centre is 3 and 5 times the quantum limit at 30 and 44 GHz respectively. For some of the FEMs, the noise temperature is still falling as the ambient temperature is reduced to 20 K. Stability tests of the FEMs, including a measurement of the 1/f knee frequency, also meet mission requirements. The 30 and 44 GHz FEMs have met or bettered the mission requirements in all critical aspects. The most sensitive LNAs have reached new limits of noise temperature for HEMTs at their band centres. The FEMs have well-defined linear polarization characteristics.

  15. A low-phase-noise wide-band CMOS quadrature VCO for multi-standard RF front-ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fard, Ali; Andreani, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    A low phase noise CMOS LC quadrature VCO (QVCO) with a wide frequency range of 3.6-5.6 GHz, designed in a standard 0.18 μm process for multi-standard front-ends, is presented. A significant advantage of the topology is the larger oscillation amplitude when compared to other conventional QVCO...... structures. The QVCO is compared to a double cross-coupled LC-tank differential oscillator, both in theory and experiments, for evaluation of its phase noise, providing a good insight into its performance. The measured data displays up to 2 dBc/Hz lower phase noise in the 1/f2 region for the QVCO, when...... consuming twice the current of the differential VCO, based on an identical LC-tank. Experimental results on the QVCO show a phase noise level of -127.5 dBc/Hz at 3 MHz offset from a 5.6 GHz carrier while dissipating 8 mA of current, resulting in a figure of merit of 181.3 dBc/Hz....

  16. Analog front-end cell designed in a commercial 025 mu m process for the ATLAS pixel detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Blanquart, L; Comes, G; Denes, P; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fischer, P; Mandelli, E; Meddeler, G; Peric, I; Richardson, J

    2002-01-01

    A new analog pixel front-end cell has been developed for the ATLAS detector at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This analog cell has been submitted in two commercial 0.25 mu m CMOS processes (in an analog test chip format), using special layout techniques for radiation hardness purposes. It is composed of two cascaded amplifiers followed by a fast discriminator featuring a detection threshold within the range of 1000 to 10000 electrons. The first preamplifier has the principal role of providing a large bandwidth, low input impedance, and fast rise time in order to enhance the time-walk and crosstalk performance, whereas the second fully differential amplifier is aimed at delivering a sufficiently high-voltage gain for optimum comparison. A new do feedback concept renders the cell tolerant of sensor leakage current up to 300 nA and provides monitoring of this current. Two 5-bit digital-to-analog converters tolerant to single- event upset have been i...

  17. Analysis of RF Front-End Performance of Reconfigurable Antennas with RF Switches in the Far Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insu Yeom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The RF front-end performances in the far-field condition of reconfigurable antennas employing two commonly used RF switching devices (PIN diodes and RF-MEMS switches were compared. Two types of antennas (monopole and slot representing general direct/coupled feed types were used for the reconfigurable antennas to compare the excited RF power to the RF switches by the reconfigurable antenna types. For the switching operation of the antennas, a biasing circuit was designed and embedded in the same antenna board, which included a battery to emphasize the antenna’s adaptability to mobile devices. The measurement results of each reconfigurable antenna (radiation patterns and return losses are presented in this study. The receiving power of the reference antenna was measured by varying the transmitting power of the reconfigurable antennas in the far-field condition. The receiving power was analyzed using the “Friis transmission equation” and compared for two switching elements. Based on the results of these measurements and comparisons, we discuss what constitutes an appropriate switch device and antenna type for reconfigurable antennas of mobile devices in the far-field condition.

  18. A short range, low data rate, 7.2 GHz-7.7 GHz FM-UWB receiver front-end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Dong, Y.; Gerrits, J.F.M.; Van Veenendaal, G.; Ling, J.R.; Farserotu, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    A 9 mW FM-UWB receiver front-end for low data rate (<50 kbps), short range (<10 m) applications operating in the ultra-wideband (UWB) band centered at 7.45 GHz is described in this paper. A single-ended-to-differential preamplifier with 30 dB voltage gain, a 1 GHz bandwidth FM demodulator, and a com

  19. Wavefront propagation through the beamline designed for seeding the DESY XUV FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Reininger, R; Gürtler, P; Bahrdt, J

    2001-01-01

    A beamline designed to reduce the spectral bandwidth of the DESY XUV FEL is described. The beamline is intended to cover the wavelength range from 6.4 to 50 nm with three variable line spacing gratings. A plane mirror in front of the grating is used to maintain constant magnification in the dispersion direction. The electric field generated by the first undulator at three wavelengths, 6.4, 13, and 25 nm, is propagated through the beamline. The results show that the beamline has the resolution and imaging properties required for seeding the second undulator at these wavelengths.

  20. Beamline for schools

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    This video is about BL4S Snapshot 22 Sep 2015 12:02:47From 10–20 September, winners of the Beamline for Schools competition visited CERN to perform their experiments. Two teams of high-school students – “Accelerating Africa” from South Africa and “Leo4G” from Italy – were chosen from a total of 119 teams, adding up to 1050 high-school students. “When we were told we’d won we never believed it. People’s parents thought we were lying,” says Michael Copeland from Accelerating Africa. The two teams shared a fully equipped accelerator beamline and conducted their experiment just like other researchers at CERN.

  1. A CMOS power-efficient low-noise current-mode front-end amplifier for neural signal recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Liang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a new current-mode front-end amplifier (CMFEA) for neural signal recording systems is proposed. In the proposed CMFEA, a current-mode preamplifier with an active feedback loop operated at very low frequency is designed as the first gain stage to bypass any dc offset current generated by the electrode-tissue interface and to achieve a low high-pass cutoff frequency below 0.5 Hz. No reset signal or ultra-large pseudo resistor is required. The current-mode preamplifier has low dc operation current to enhance low-noise performance and decrease power consumption. A programmable current gain stage is adopted to provide adjustable gain for adaptive signal scaling. A following current-mode filter is designed to adjust the low-pass cutoff frequency for different neural signals. The proposed CMFEA is designed and fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology and the area of the core circuit is 0.076 mm(2). The measured high-pass cutoff frequency is as low as 0.3 Hz and the low-pass cutoff frequency is adjustable from 1 kHz to 10 kHz. The measured maximum current gain is 55.9 dB. The measured input-referred current noise density is 153 fA /√Hz , and the power consumption is 13 μW at 1-V power supply. The fabricated CMFEA has been successfully applied to the animal test for recording the seizure ECoG of Long-Evan rats.

  2. An Ultra-Low Voltage Analog Front End for Strain Gauge Sensory System Application in 0.18µm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Alexander; Chan, Pak Kwong

    This paper presents analysis and design of a new ultra-low voltage analog front end (AFE) dedicated to strain sensor applications. The AFE, designed in 0.18µm CMOS process, features a chopper-stabilized instrumentation amplifier (IA), a balanced active MOSFET-C 2nd order low pass filter (LPF), a clock generator and a voltage booster which operate at supply voltage (Vdd) of 0.6V. The designed IA achieves 30dB of closed-loop gain, 101dB of common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) at 50Hz, 80dB of power-supply rejection ratio (PSRR) at 50Hz, thermal noise floor of 53.4 nV/√Hz, current consumption of 14µA, and noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 9.7. The high CMRR and rail-to-rail output swing capability is attributed to a new low voltage realization of the active-bootstrapped technique using a pseudo-differential gain-boosting operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) and proposed current-driven bulk (CDB) biasing technique. An output capacitor-less low-dropout regulator (LDO), with a new fast start-up LPF technique, is used to regulate this 0.6V supply from a 0.8-1.0V energy harvesting power source. It achieves power supply rejection (PSR) of 42dB at frequency of 1MHz. A cascode compensated pseudo differential amplifier is used as the filter's building block for low power design. The filter's single-ended-to-balanced converter is implemented using a new low voltage amplifier with two-stage common-mode cancellation. The overall AFE was simulated to have 65.6dB of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), total harmonic distortion (THD) of less than 0.9% for a 100Hz sinusoidal maximum input signal, bandwidth of 2kHz, and power consumption of 51.2µW. Spectre RF simulations were performed to validate the design using BSIM3V3 transistor models provided by GLOBALFOUNDRIES 0.18µm CMOS process.

  3. 关于 IP 数字电视前端的新思考%New Thoughts about the IP Digital TV Front End

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙学士; 王聪香

    2014-01-01

    Three network convergences promoted the business transition of radio and television operators , from the unidirectional broadcast service to two-way interactive service .The business development of Radio and televi-sion operators and Telecom operators is homogeneous , forming a overlapping and competitive business .The simi-lar and same business content promoted the mutual penetration on the network structure .In recent years , in the demand for new services , radio and television operators introduced the Internet technology in the network , which transited the traditional ASI front to IP-based front-end, and broke the limitation on the business development of ASI front .The new introduced technology continuously explores value -added business development in the IP front-end, and continues digging the function of IP front-end in the new market environment .Based on technical advantages of IP front-end, this paper discussed the changes in platform construction of radio and television op -erators brought by IP front-end and its powerful support for new business .%三网融合促进广电运营商由单向广播业务向双向互动业务转变,广电运营商与电信运营商在业务上同质化发展,形成交叉和竞争,业务内容的相近和相同驱使双方在网络结构上相互渗透。近几年来广电运营商根据新业务的需求,在网内引入互联网技术,使传统ASI前端向IP化前端过渡,以打破ASI前端在业务拓展方面的限制,不断探索IP前端下增值业务的发展,并不断挖掘IP前端在新的市场环境中所能起到的作用,阐述IP前端在技术上的优势并讨论其对广电运营商平台建设和对新业务的有力支撑。

  4. EIS: the scattering beamline at FERMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciovecchio, Claudio; Battistoni, Andrea; Giangrisostomi, Erika; Bencivenga, Filippo; Principi, Emiliano; Mincigrucci, Riccardo; Cucini, Riccardo; Gessini, Alessandro; D'Amico, Francesco; Borghes, Roberto; Prica, Milan; Chenda, Valentina; Scarcia, Martin; Gaio, Giulio; Kurdi, Gabor; Demidovich, Alexander; Danailov, Miltcho B; Di Cicco, Andrea; Filipponi, Adriano; Gunnella, Roberto; Hatada, Keisuke; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Svetina, Cristian; Godnig, Roberto; Abrami, Alessandro; Zangrando, Marco

    2015-05-01

    The Elastic and Inelastic Scattering (EIS) beamline at the free-electron laser FERMI is presented. It consists of two separate end-stations: EIS-TIMEX, dedicated to ultrafast time-resolved studies of matter under extreme and metastable conditions, and EIS-TIMER, dedicated to time-resolved spectroscopy of mesoscopic dynamics in condensed matter. The scientific objectives are discussed and the instrument layout illustrated, together with the results from first exemplifying experiments.

  5. ADS design and simulation of radio receiver front-end%射频接收前端的ADS设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾锋; 杨瑞民

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of the Radio Front(RF)signal analyzer, the RF receiver front-end plays a decisive role in the measurement of the RF signal. This paper builds one kind of 860~960 MHz RF receiver front-end system simulation platform of RF signal analyzer using the Advanced Design System(ADS)software. The pre-LNA is used to reduce system noise, and AGC is used to achieve a large dynamic range of the RF receiver front-end in the design. The gain, noise figure, sensitivity, dynamic range and other indicators of RF front-end of the design are calculated, and simulated by the software simulation tools. The simulations show that the RF front-end designed in the paper meets the requirements of the design.%射频接收前端作为射频信号分析仪的重要组成部分,对射频(RF)信号的测量起着决定性的作用。使用ADS软件,构建了一种860~960 MHz的射频信号分析仪射频接收前端系统仿真平台。在设计中采用了前置低噪声放大器(LNA)来降低系统噪声,利用自动增益控制(AGC)来实现接收前端的大动态范围。对设计的射频接收前端的增益、噪声系数、灵敏度、动态范围等指标进行了分析计算,并通过仿真工具进行了仿真验证。仿真结果表明,所设计的射频接收前端各项指标均达到了设计要求。

  6. A 5.4mW GPS CMOS quadrature front-end based on a single-stage LNA-mixer-VCO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liscidini, Amtonio; Mazzanti, Andrea; Tonietto, Riccardo;

    2006-01-01

    A GPS RF front-end combines the LNA, mixer, and VCO in a single stage and can operate from a 1.2V supply. The chip is implemented in a 0.13um CMOS process and occupies 1.5mm2 active area. It consumes 5.4mW with a 4.8dB NF, 36dB gain, and a P1dB of -31dBm.......A GPS RF front-end combines the LNA, mixer, and VCO in a single stage and can operate from a 1.2V supply. The chip is implemented in a 0.13um CMOS process and occupies 1.5mm2 active area. It consumes 5.4mW with a 4.8dB NF, 36dB gain, and a P1dB of -31dBm....

  7. Simulation study of STS-XYTER front-end electronics in overload situations for the silicon tracking system in the CBM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Tomas [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In high-rate experiments, as the CBM Experiment at FAIR, a situation can occur in which the data rate temporarily exceeds the available bandwidth. With self-triggered front end electronics such overload situations would lead, without further measures, to uncontrolled data losses and potentially a large number of incomplete events. Mechanisms needed to control data losses and to ensure the collection of complete events can be understood via simulations performed with the hardware description language SystemC. Results from simulations of a simplified front-end electronics for the CBM Silicon Tracking System, based on the STS-XYTER ASIC, are presented. Performed simulations give first insight in the behavior of data flow and data losses in the DAQ system of the CBM experiment. Options and solutions for the data throttling mechanisms at beam conditions required by the CBM experiment are discussed.

  8. FELIX: a PCIe based high-throughput approach for interfacing front-end and trigger electronics in the ATLAS Upgrade framework

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00015561; Bauer, Kevin Thomas; Borga, Andrea; Boterenbrood, Henk; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Drake, Gary; Donszelmann, Mark; Francis, David; Guest, Daniel; Gorini, Benedetto; Joos, Markus; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Narevicius, Julia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Roich, Alexander; Ryu, Soo; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, Jorn; Vandelli, Wainer; Vermeulen, Jos; Whiteson, Daniel; Wu, Weihao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade (2018) requires a Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system able to trigger and record data from up to three times the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity. The Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) system provides an infrastructure to achieve this in a scalable, detector agnostic and easily upgradeable way. It is a PC-based gateway, interfacing custom radiation tolerant optical links from front-end electronics, via FPGA PCIe Gen3 cards, to a commodity switched Ethernet or InfiniBand network. FELIX enables reducing custom electronics in favour of software running on commercial servers. The FELIX system, the design of the PCIe prototype card and the integration test results are presented in this paper.

  9. Measurement of the front-end dead-time of the LHCb muon detector and evaluation of its contribution to the muon detection inefficiency

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078645; Archilli, F; Auriemma, G; Baldini, W; Bencivenni, G; Bizzeti, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bochin, B; Bozzi, C; Brundu, D; Cadeddu, S; Campana, P; Carboni, G; Cardini, A; Carletti, M; Casu, L; Chubykin, A; Ciambrone, P; Dané, E; De Simone, P; Falabella, A; Felici, G; Fiore, M; Fontana, M; Fresch, P; Furfaro, E; Graziani, G; Kashchuk, A; Kotriakhova, S; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Loi, A; Maev, O; Manca, G; Martellotti, G; Neustroev, P; Oldeman, R G C; Palutan, M; Passaleva, G; Penso, G; Pinci, D; Polycarpo, E; Saitta, B; Santacesaria, R; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Saputi, A; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Schmidt, B; Schneider, T; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Siddi, B G; Tellarini, G; Vacca, C; Vazquez-Gomez, R; Vecchi, S; Veltri, M; Vorobyev, A

    2016-01-01

    A method is described which allows to deduce the dead-time of the front-end electronics of the LHCb muon detector from a series of measurements performed at different luminosities at a bunch-crossing rate of 20 MHz. The measured values of the dead-time range from 70 ns to 100 ns. These results allow to estimate the performance of the muon detector at the future bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz and at higher luminosity.

  10. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors, front-end electronics, and prototype tracking detectors for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2013-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryonic densities. The matter at the extreme conditions will be studied in collisions of a heavy ion beam with a fixed heavy element target. The present work is devoted to the development of the main component of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The STS has to enable reconstruction of up to 1000 charged particle tracks per nucleus-nucleus interaction at the rate of up to 10 MHz, provide a momentum resolution Δp/p of 1 %, and withstand the radiation load of up to 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} (n{sub eq}-neutron equivalent). The STS will be based on double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, that will be arranged in 8 planes in the aperture of the dipole magnet. Selftriggering readout electronics will be located on the periphery of the detecting planes, and connected to the sensors with low mass microcables. In the stage of R and D, as well as in the stages of pre-series and series production, characterization of the sensors, of the front-end electronics, and of the complete detector modules has to be performed. In the present work the required techniques were developed, and the performance of the latest detector prototypes was evaluated. A particular attention is paid to evaluation of the signal amplitude, as it is one of the most important detector characteristics. Techniques for measuring the passive electrical characteristics of the sensors were developed. These include: the coupling and the interstrip capacitances, the interstrip resistance, the bias resistance, the strip leakage current, the bulk capacitance, and the bulk leakage current. The techniques will be applied for the quality assurance of the sensors during the pre-series and the series production. Extensive characterization of the prototype readout chip, n-XYTER, was performed. The register settings were optimized, and the dependence of the

  11. THE PROJECT-X INJECTOR EXPERIMENT: A NOVEL HIGH PERFORMANCE FRONT-END FOR A FUTURE HIGH POWER PROTON FACILITY AT FERMILAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev, S.; et al,

    2013-09-25

    A multi-MW proton facility, Project X, has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. We are carrying out a program of research and development aimed at integrated systems testing of critical components comprising the front end of Project X. This program, known as the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), is being undertaken as a key component of the larger Project X R&D program. The successful completion of this program will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing a primary technical risk element within Project X. PXIE is currently under construction at Fermilab and will be completed over the period FY12-17. PXIE will include an H* ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two superconductive RF (SRF) cryomodules providing up to 25 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA (upgradable to 2 mA). Successful systems testing will also demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that are expected find applications beyond Project X.

  12. A 4 μW/Ch analog front-end module with moderate inversion and power-scalable sampling operation for 3-D neural microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashmouny, Khaled M; Chang, Sun-Il; Yoon, Euisik

    2012-10-01

    We report an analog front-end prototype designed in 0.25 μm CMOS process for hybrid integration into 3-D neural recording microsystems. For scaling towards massive parallel neural recording, the prototype has investigated some critical circuit challenges in power, area, interface, and modularity. We achieved extremely low power consumption of 4 μW/channel, optimized energy efficiency using moderate inversion in low-noise amplifiers (K of 5.98 × 10⁸ or NEF of 2.9), and minimized asynchronous interface (only 2 per 16 channels) for command and data capturing. We also implemented adaptable operations including programmable-gain amplification, power-scalable sampling (up to 50 kS/s/channel), wide configuration range (9-bit) for programmable gain and bandwidth, and 5-bit site selection capability (selecting 16 out of 128 sites). The implemented front-end module has achieved a reduction in noise-energy-area product by a factor of 5-25 times as compared to the state-of-the-art analog front-end approaches reported to date.

  13. NINO an ultrafast low-power front-end amplifier discriminator for the time-of-flight detector in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anghinolfi, F; Krummenacher, F; Usenko, E; Williams, M C S

    2004-01-01

    An ultrafast front-end preamplifier-discriminator chip called NINO has been developed for use in the ALICE time-of-flight detector. The chip has eight channels. Each channel is designed with an amplifier with less than 1-ns peaking time, a discriminator with a minimum detection threshold of 10 fC and an output stage. The output pulse has minimum time jitter (less than 25 ps) on the front edge, and the pulsewidth is dependent of the input signal charge. Each channel consumes 27 mW, and the eight channels fit in a 2*4 mm/sup 2/ ASIC processed in IBM 0.25- mu m CMOS technology. (3 refs).

  14. Radiation protection of a proton beamline at ELI-Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechet, S.; Versaci, R.; Rollet, S.; Olsovcova, V.; Fajstavr, A.; Zakova, M.; Margarone, D.

    2016-12-01

    ELI-Beamlines (ELI stands for Extreme Light Infrastructure) is a new EU funded laser facility located near Prague, in Czech Republic. It will use laser-driven plasma sources to accelerate particles and host a dedicated proton beamline called ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser- Ion Acceleration) designed to reach energies up to 250 MeV. This beamline could be exploited to study possible future medical application of laser-driven beams. The first part of this paper introduces the beamline, the corresponding source terms and the complete set-up. The second part of the paper details the evaluation of the ambient dose equivalent and the activation study inside the experimental halls based on Monte-Carlo simulation. These calculations show that the ELIMAIA operation is safe as long as nobody is present in the hall when the beam is on.

  15. Evaluation of the PANDA silicon pixel front-end electronics and investigation of the anti ΛΛ final state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Simone

    2014-04-28

    high precision particle beams for several experiments. The AntiProton Annihilation at Darmstadt (PANDA) experiment is one of the large detectors at FAIR. PANDAs main physics objectives center around the properties of particles and excited particles made from quarks of the first and second quark family. It is a fixed target experiment within the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR), which delivers an intense, phase-space cooled antiproton beam in the momentum range of 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. With the high precision of the HESR, PANDA will be able to perform precise spectroscopic studies of hadronic states in the charm quark mass range. The luminosity will be up to 2.10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, thus enabling very rare processes to be studied. This high luminosity leads to a high particle flux and a high radiation environment which the sub-detectors must withstand. The most highly affected sub-detector of this high radiation environment is the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), the innermost detector of PANDA. The main task of the MVD is the detection of the interaction points of events (vertexing). This vertex finding is crucial for the analysis of short living particles like e.g. D-mesons, particles consisting of a c-quark and a light antiquark. An essential part of the MVD detector is the readout of the semiconductor sensors. The ToPix (Torino Pixel) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the front-end electronics for the MVD sensor, developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Turin, Italy. It measures the spatial coordinate, the time and the deposited charge of incident charged particles. The most recent prototype of this ASIC is the ToPix 3, a version of reduced size and functionality. The Juelich Digital Readout System (JDRS) was adopted and extended to be able to readout this prototype, thus enabling specific test measurements of the prototype. In addition, the performance of PANDA for detecting long lived. particles was studied, and the

  16. A 1.4-V 48-μW current-mode front-end circuit for analog hearing aids with frequency compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaoyu; Yang Haigang; Li Fanyang; Yin Tao; Liu Fei

    2012-01-01

    A current-mode front-end circuit with low voltage and low power for analog hearing aids is presented.The circuit consists of a current-mode AGC (automatic gain control) and a current-mode adaptive filter.Compared with its conventional voltage-mode counterparts,the proposed front-end circuit has the identified features of frequency compensation based on the state space theory and continuous gain with an exponential characteristic.The frequency compensation which appears only in the DSP unit of the digital hearing aid can upgrade the performance of the analog hearing aid in the field of low-frequency hearing loss.The continuous gain should meet the requirement of any input amplitude level,while its exponential characteristic leads to a large input dynamic range in accordance with the dB SPL (sound pressure level).Furthermore,the front-end circuit also provides a discrete knee point and discrete compression ratio to allow for high calibration flexibility.These features can accommodate users whose ears have different pain thresholds.Taking advantage of the current-mode technique,the MOS transistors work in the subthreshold region so that the quiescent current is small.Moreover,the input current can be compressed to a low voltage signal for processing according to the compression principle from the current-domain to the voltage-domain.Therefore,the objective of low voltage and low power (48 μW at 1.4 V) can be easily achieved in a high threshold-voltage CMOS process of 0.35 μm (VToN + |Vrop|≈ 1.35 V).The THD is below -45 dB.The fabricated chip only occupies the area of 1 × 0.5 mm2 and 1 × 1 mm2.

  17. Linearity enhancement design of a 16-channel low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huiming; Wei, Tingcun; Wang, Jia

    2017-03-01

    A 16-channel front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with linearity enhancement design for cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) detectors is presented in this paper. The resistors in the slow shaper are realized using a high-Z circuit to obtain constant resistance value instead of using only a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor, thus the shaping time of the slow shaper can be kept constant for different amounts of input energies. As a result, the linearity of conversion gain is improved significantly. The ASIC was designed and fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a die size of 2.60 mm×3.53 mm. The tested results show that a typical channel provides an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 109.7e-+16.3e-/pF with a power consumption of 4 mW and achieves a conversion gain of 87 mV/fC with a nonlinearity of <0.4%. The linearity of conversion gain is improved by at least 86.6% as compared with the traditional approaches using the same front-end readout architecture and manufacture process. Moreover, the inconsistency among channels is <0.3%. An energy resolution of 2.975 keV (FWHM) for gamma rays of 59.5 keV was measured by connecting the ASIC to a 5 mm×5 mm ×2 mm CdZnTe detector at room temperature. The front-end readout ASIC presented in this paper achieves an outstanding linearity performance without compromising the noise, power consumption, and chip size performances.

  18. The Low Density Matter (LDM) beamline at FERMI: optical layout and first commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetina, Cristian; Grazioli, Cesare; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Fava, Claudio; Zangrando, Marco; Gerusina, Simone; Alagia, Michele; Avaldi, Lorenzo; Cautero, Giuseppe; de Simone, Monica; Devetta, Michele; Di Fraia, Michele; Drabbels, Marcel; Feyer, Vitaliy; Finetti, Paola; Katzy, Raphael; Kivimäki, Antti; Lyamayev, Viktor; Mazza, Tommaso; Moise, Angelica; Möller, Thomas; O'Keeffe, Patrick; Ovcharenko, Yevheniy; Piseri, Paolo; Plekan, Oksana; Prince, Kevin C; Sergo, Rudi; Stienkemeier, Frank; Stranges, Stefano; Coreno, Marcello; Callegari, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    The Low Density Matter (LDM) beamline has been built as part of the FERMI free-electron laser (FEL) facility to serve the atomic, molecular and cluster physics community. After the commissioning phase, it received the first external users at the end of 2012. The design and characterization of the LDM photon transport system is described, detailing the optical components of the beamline.

  19. FELIX: a PCIe based high-throughput approach for interfacing front-end and trigger electronics in the ATLAS upgrade framework

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade requires a Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system able to trigger and record data from up to three times the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity. The FELIX system provides this in a scalable, detector agnostic and easily upgradeable way. It is a PC-based gateway, routing between custom radiation tolerant optical links from front-end electronics, via FPGA PCIe Gen3 cards, and a commodity switched Ethernet or InfiniBand network. FELIX enables reducing custom electronics in favor of software on commercial servers. The FELIX system, results of demonstrator, design and testing of prototype are described.

  20. Front-end vision and multi-scale image analysis multi-scale computer vision theory and applications, written in Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romeny, Bart M Haar

    2008-01-01

    Front-End Vision and Multi-Scale Image Analysis is a tutorial in multi-scale methods for computer vision and image processing. It builds on the cross fertilization between human visual perception and multi-scale computer vision (`scale-space') theory and applications. The multi-scale strategies recognized in the first stages of the human visual system are carefully examined, and taken as inspiration for the many geometric methods discussed. All chapters are written in Mathematica, a spectacular high-level language for symbolic and numerical manipulations. The book presents a new and effective

  1. CARIOCA : A Fast Binary Front-End Implemented in 0.25Pm CMOS using a Novel Current-Mode Technique for the LHCb Muon Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The CARIOCA front-end is an amplifier discriminator chip, using 0.25mm CMOS technology, developed with a very fast and low noise preamplifier. This prototype was designed to have input impedance below 10W. Measurements showed a peaking time of 14ns and noise of 450e- at zero input capacitance, with a noise slope of 37.4 e-/pF. The sensitivity of 8mV/fC remains almost unchanged up to a detector capacitance of 120pF.

  2. An analog front end with a 12-bit 3.2-MS/s SAR ADC for a power line communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Huabin; Xiang Jixuan; Xue Xiangyan; Chen Chixiao; Ye Fan; Xu Jun; Ren Junyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analog front end for a power line communication system,including a 12-bit 3.2-MS/s energy-efficient successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter,a positive feedback programmable gain amplifier,a 9.8 ppm/℃ bandgap reference and on-chip low-output voltage regulators.A two segment capacitive array structure (6 MSB 5 LSB) composed by split capacitors is designed for the SAR core to save area cost and release reference voltage accuracy requirements.Implemented in the GSMC 0.13μm 1.5 V/12 V dual-gate 4P6M e-flash process,the analog front end occupies an area of 0.457 mm2 and consumes power of 18.8 mW,in which 1.1 mW cost by the SAR ADC.Measured at 500 kHz input,the spurious-free dynamic range and signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio of the ADC are 71.57 dB and 60.60 dB respectively,achieving a figure of merit of 350 fJ/conversion-step.

  3. An analog front end with a 12-bit 3.2-MS/s SAR ADC for a power line communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huabin, Chen; Jixuan, Xiang; Xiangyan, Xue; Chixiao, Chen; Fan, Ye; Jun, Xu; Junyan, Ren

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an analog front end for a power line communication system, including a 12-bit 3.2-MS/s energy-efficient successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter, a positive feedback programmable gain amplifier, a 9.8 ppm/°C bandgap reference and on-chip low-output voltage regulators. A two segment capacitive array structure (6 MSB 5 LSB) composed by split capacitors is designed for the SAR core to save area cost and release reference voltage accuracy requirements. Implemented in the GSMC 0.13 μm 1.5 V/12 V dual-gate 4P6M e-flash process, the analog front end occupies an area of 0.457 mm2 and consumes power of 18.8 mW, in which 1.1 mW cost by the SAR ADC. Measured at 500 kHz input, the spurious-free dynamic range and signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio of the ADC are 71.57 dB and 60.60 dB respectively, achieving a figure of merit of 350 fJ/conversion-step.

  4. The front-end electronics of the Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-Rays (STIX) on the ESA Solar Orbiter satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, O.; Bednarzik, M.; Commichau, V.; Graczyk, R.; Gröbelbauer, H. P.; Hurford, G.; Krucker, S.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Przepiórka, A.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K.; Viertel, G.

    2012-12-01

    Solar Orbiter is an ESA mission to study the heliosphere in proximity to the Sun, scheduled for launch in January 2017. It carries a suite of ten instruments for comprehensive remote-sensing and in-situ measurements. The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-Rays (STIX), one of the remote sensing instruments, images X-rays between 4 and 150keV using an Fourier technique. The angular resolution is 7 arcsec and the spectral resolution 1keV full-width-half-maximum at 6keV. X-ray detection uses pixelized Cadmium Telluride crystals provided by the Paul Scherrer Institute. The crystals are bonded to read-out hybrids developed by CEA Saclay, called Caliste-SO, incorporating a low-noise, low-power analog front-end ASIC IDeF-X HD. The crystals are cooled to -20°C to obtain very low leakage currents of less than 60pA per pixel, the prerequisite for obtaining the required spectral resolution. This article briefly describes the mission goals and then details the front-end electronics design and main challenges, resulting in part from the allocation limit in mass of 7kg and in power of 4W. Emphasis is placed on the design influence of the cooling requirement within the warm environment of a mission approaching the Sun to within the orbit of Mercury. The design for the long-term in-flight energy calibration is also explained.

  5. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Noise-canceling and IP3 improved CMOS RF front-end for DRM/DAB/DVB-H applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keping, Wang; Zhigong, Wang; Xuemei, Lei

    2010-02-01

    A CMOS RF (radio frequency) front-end for digital radio broadcasting applications is presented that contains a wideband LNA, I/Q-mixers and VGAs, supporting other various wireless communication standards in the ultra-wide frequency band from 200 kHz to 2 GHz as well. Improvement of the NF (noise figure) and IP3 (third-order intermodulation distortion) is attained without significant degradation of other performances like voltage gain and power consumption. The NF is minimized by noise-canceling technology, and the IP3 is improved by using differential multiple gate transistors (DMGTR). The dB-in-linear VGA (variable gain amplifier) exploits a single PMOS to achieve exponential gain control. The circuit is fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The S11 of the RF front-end is lower than -11.4 dB over the whole band of 200 kHz-2 GHz. The variable gain range is 12-42 dB at 0.25 GHz and 4-36 dB at 2 GHz. The DSB NF at maximum gain is 3.1-6.1 dB. The IIP3 at middle gain is -4.7 to 0.2 dBm. It consumes a DC power of only 36 mW at 1.8 V supply.

  6. A 55-dB SNDR, 2.2-mW double chopper-stabilized analog front-end for a thermopile sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengying, Chen; Xiaoyu, Hu; Jun, Fan; Yong, Hei

    2014-05-01

    A double chopper-stabilized analog front-end (DCS-AFE) circuit for a thermopile sensor is presented, which includes a closed-loop front-end amplifier and a 2nd-order 1 bit quantization sigma—delta modulator. The amplifier with a closed-loop structure ensures the gain stability against the temperature. Moreover, by adopting the chopper-stabilized technique both for the amplifier and 2nd-order 1-bit quantization sigma—delta modulator, the low-frequency 1/f noise and offset is reduced and high resolution is achieved. The AFE is implemented in the SMIC 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process. The measurement results show that in a 3.3 V power supply, 1 Hz input frequency and 3KHz clock frequency, the peak signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) is 55.4 dB, the effective number of bits (ENOB) is 8.92 bit, and in the range of -20 to 85 degrees, the detection resolution is 0.2 degree.

  7. Analog front-end design of the STS/MUCH-XYTER2—full size prototype ASIC for the CBM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczek, Rafal

    2017-01-01

    The design of the analog front-end of the STS/MUCH-XYTER2 ASIC, a full-size prototype chip for the Silicon Tracking System (STS, based on double-sided silicon strip sensors) and Muon Chamber (MUCH, based on gas sensors) detectors is presented. The ASIC contains 128 charge processing channels, each built of a charge sensitive amplifier, a polarity selection circuit and two pulse shaping amplifiers forming two parallel signal paths. The first path is used for timing measurement with a fast discriminator. The second path allows low-noise amplitude measurement with a 5-bit continuous-time flash ADC. Different operating conditions and constraints posed by two target detectors' applications require front-end electronics flexibility to meet extended system-wise requirements. The presented circuit implements switchable shaper peaking time, gain switching and trimming, input amplifier pulsed reset circuit, fail-safe measures. The power consumption is scalable (for the STS and the MUCH modes), but limited to 10 mW/channel.

  8. A 16 GHz silicon-based monolithic balanced photodetector with on-chip capacitors for 25 Gbaud front-end receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Mohammed Shafiqul; Sakib, Meer Nazmus; Liboiron-Ladouceur, Odile

    2013-12-30

    In this paper, a Germanium-on-Silicon balanced photodetector (BPD) with integrated biasing capacitors is demonstrated for highly compact monolithic 100 Gb/s coherent receivers or 25 Gbaud front-end receivers for differential or quadrature phase shift keying. The balanced photodetector has a bandwidth of approximately 16.2 GHz at a reverse bias of -4.5 V. The balanced photodetector exhibits a common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 30 dB. For balanced detection of return-to-zero (RZ) differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signal, the photodetector has a sensitivity of -6.95 dBm at the BER of 10(-12). For non-return-to-zero (NRZ) on off keying (OOK) signal, the measured BER is 1.0 × 10(-12) for a received power of -1.65 dBm at 25 Gb/s and 9.9 × 10(-5) for -0.34 dBm at 30 Gb/s. The total footprint area of the monolithic front-end receiver is less than 1 mm(2). The BPD is packaged onto a ceramic substrate with two DC and one RF connectors exhibits a bandwidth of 15.9 GHz.

  9. Utilizing a Novel Approach at the Fuzzy Front-End of New Product Development: A Case Study in a Flexible Fabric Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Tsuen Jou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy front-end plays a most crucial part in new product development (NPD, leading to the success of product development and product launch in the market. This study proposes a novel method, TTRI_MP, by combining Crawford and Di Benedetto’s model and Cooper’s model, to strengthen the management of the fuzzy front-end. The proposed method comprises four stages: market exploration and technology forecasting, idea generation and segmentation, portfolio analysis and technology roadmapping (TRM. In the first stage, SWOT was utilized to identify the key strategic areas, and the technology readiness level (TRL was adopted to position the level of developed technologies. In the second stage, the business concepts were required to go through the viability test and customers, collaborators, competitors and company (4C. In the third stage, the Strategic Position Analysis (SPAN and Financial Analysis (FAN developed by IBM were employed in the portfolio analysis to screen out potential NPD projects. In the last stage, the selected NPD projects were linked with their functions and technologies in the TRM chart. The method was successfully implemented by a research team working on a flexible fabric supercapacitor at the Taiwan Textile Research Institute (TTRI.

  10. Testing and commissioning of the LHCb Outer Tracker front-end electronic and a study for a background estimation in the decay B{sup 0}{sub s} {yields} J/{psi} {phi}; Tests und Inbetriebnahme der LHCb Outer Tracker Front-end Elektronik und eine Studie zur Abschaetzung des Untergrundes im Zerfall B{sup 0}{sub s} {yields} J/{psi} {phi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, Jan

    2009-07-08

    The readout electronic of the LHCb outer tracker measures the drift time of a straw tube. The front-end electronic consists of three radiation hard chips. The ASDBLR preamplifier amplifies and discriminates the charge puls produced by the drift chamber. The OTIS-TDC chip measures the drift time every 25 ns on 32 detector channels. The generated data is send via an optical link with 1.6 GBit/s, making use of the GOL chip. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the testing and commissioning of the outer tracker front-end electronic. Altogether three test systems were developed and operated. The first test system was built to thoroughly check the features of the OTIS-TDC chips on the wafer. The quality of the OTIS board and GOL-Aux board production was checked with another test system. The front-end electronic was also combined and tested to the LHCB readout chain. One of the main goals of the LHCb experiment is the measurement of the CP-violating phase {phi}{sub s}. It can be measured by using the golden decay mode B{sup 0}{sub s} {yields} J/{psi} {phi}. It is vital to have a good knowledge about the background for this decay in order to extract the phase. In this thesis a study was performed to overcome the current limitations due to low Monte-Carlo statistics in this area. (orig.)

  11. Hard X-ray micro-focusing beamline at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 兰旭颖; 毛成文; 王娟; 蒋晖; 郑怡; 董朝晖; 曾乐勇; 李爱国; 闫帅; 蒋升; 杨科; 王华; 何上明; 梁东旭; 张玲; 何燕

    2015-01-01

    The hard X-ray micro-focusing beamline (BL15U1) of SSRF is dedicated to hard X-ray micro/nano-spectrochemical analysis consisting of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It is one of the most versatile instruments in hard X-ray microscopy sci-ence. Since its commission in 2009, BL15U1 has allocated over 25000 h beamtime for users, and about 700 proposals have been executed. The beamline and the experimental end-station were upgraded for several times to facilitate the users’ experimental needs and make it more convenient to operate. In this paper, we give a review on the beamline, describing its characteristics, recent technical developments, and a few examples of scientific progresses achieved in recent years on BL15U1.

  12. Front-end Evaluation as Part of a Comprehensive Approach to Inform the Development of a New Climate Exhibit at NCAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristvey, J. D., Jr.; Brinkworth, C.; Hatheway, B.; Williams, V.

    2015-12-01

    In an era of discord in public views of climate change, communicating atmospheric and related sciences to the public at a large research facility like the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) can be a daunting challenge yet one that is filled with many possibilities. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Center for Science Education (SciEd) is responsible for education and outreach activities at UCAR, including the exhibits program. Over 90,000 people visit the NCAR Mesa Lab each year to enjoy a number of exhibits that showcase our community's research. The current climate exhibit is twelve years old, and with advances in our understanding of climate science and exhibit design, SciEd staff are developing a new exhibit that is as cutting edge as the research conducted at NCAR. Based on listening sessions with NCAR scientists, the following big ideas for the exhibit emerged: How the climate system works The climate system is changing How scientists study our climate Regional impacts Solutions The goal of the new climate exhibit is to reach people using a variety of learning styles, including offerings for visitors who learn by doing, as well as providing informative text and images (Hatheway, 2014). Developers and evaluators are working together to conduct front-end, formative, and summative evaluations to understand of the needs of our visitors and collect ongoing data to inform development. The purpose of the front-end evaluation, conducted in the summer of 2014 was to develop informed data-driven strategies to move forward with exhibit design. The evaluation results to be shared in this session include: The demographics and behaviors of visitors Trends in visitors' experiences Visitor input on exhibit design (Williams and Tarsi, 2014). In this presentation, we will share the results, significance, and application of the front-end evaluation as part of a comprehensive approach to study both how we convey information about climate

  13. The 3rd generation Front-End cards of the Pierre Auger surface detectors: Test results and performance in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowski, Z.; Bäcker, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Buchholz, P.; Fleck, I.; Kampert, K.-H.; Rammes, M.; Rautenberg, J.; Taşcău, O.

    2009-07-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory comprises 1600 water Cherenkov detectors distributed over an area of 3000 km2. The Cherenkov light is detected by three 9-in. photo-multiplier tubes from which the signals of the anode and last dynode are digitized by 10 bit 40 MHz FADCs. An Altera Cyclone FPGA is employed to generate different local triggers and to handle the data transfer to a communication board. After briefly discussing the design of the cards we present an autonomous test-bench, which has been set up in order to test the large number of boards prior to installation in the field. The qualification procedure and the results obtained in the laboratory are presented. Up to three years of operation in the field demonstrate a very good performance and reliability of the Front-End cards.

  14. The 3rd generation Front-End cards of the Pierre Auger surface detectors: Test results and performance in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szadkowski, Z. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Department of Physics, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)], E-mail: zszadkow@kfd2.phys.uni.lodz.pl; Baecker, T. [Universitaet Siegen, Department of Physics, 57058 Siegen (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Department of Physics, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Buchholz, P.; Fleck, I. [Universitaet Siegen, Department of Physics, 57058 Siegen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Department of Physics, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)], E-mail: kampert@uni-wuppertal.de; Rammes, M. [Universitaet Siegen, Department of Physics, 57058 Siegen (Germany); Rautenberg, J.; Tascau, O. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Department of Physics, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-07-21

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory comprises 1600 water Cherenkov detectors distributed over an area of 3000km{sup 2}. The Cherenkov light is detected by three 9-in. photo-multiplier tubes from which the signals of the anode and last dynode are digitized by 10 bit 40 MHz FADCs. An Altera Cyclone FPGA is employed to generate different local triggers and to handle the data transfer to a communication board. After briefly discussing the design of the cards we present an autonomous test-bench, which has been set up in order to test the large number of boards prior to installation in the field. The qualification procedure and the results obtained in the laboratory are presented. Up to three years of operation in the field demonstrate a very good performance and reliability of the Front-End cards.

  15. Optimization of the design of DC-DC converters for improving the electromagnetic compatibility with the Front-End electronic for the super Large Hadron Collider Trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes Rojas, Cristian Alejandro; Blanchot, G

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN sets new challenges for the powering of the detectors. One of the powering schemes under study is based on DC-DC buck converters mounted on the front-end modules. The hard environmental conditions impose strict restrictions to the converters in terms of low volume, radiation and magnetic field tolerance. Furthermore, the noise emission of the switching converters must not affect the performance of the powered systems. A study of the sources and paths of noise of a synchronous buck converter has been made for identifying the critical parameters to reduce their emissions. As proof of principle, a converter was designed following the PCB layout considerations proposed and then used for powering a silicon strip module prototype for the ATLAS upgrade, in order to evaluate their compatibility.

  16. Studies of the performance of different front-end systems for flat-panel multi-anode PMTs with CsI(Tl) scintillator arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: sekiya@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Hattori, K. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kubo, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Miuchi, K. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nagayoshi, T. [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 17 Kikui-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0044 (Japan); Nishimura, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Okada, Y. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Orito, R. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkoudai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Takada, A. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takeda, A. [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo, 456 Higasi-mozumi, Hida-shi, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Tanimori, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ueno, K. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    We have studied the performance of two different types of front-end systems for our gamma camera based on Hamamatsu H8500 (flat-panel 64 channels multi-anode PSPMT) with a CsI(Tl) scintillator array. The array consists of 64 pixels of 6x6x20mm{sup 3} which corresponds to the anode pixels of H8500. One of the system is based on commercial ASIC chips in order to read out every anode. The others are based on resistive charge divider network between anodes to reduce readout channels. In both systems, each pixel (6mm) was clearly resolved by flood field irradiation of {sup 137}Cs. We also investigated the energy resolution of these systems and showed the performance of the cascade connection of resistive network between some PMTs for large area detectors.

  17. An ASIC design for versatile receive front-end electronics of an ultrasonic medical imaging system--16 channel analog inputs and 4 dynamically focused beam outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song B; Kwak, Jaeyoung; Lee, Kwyro

    2003-04-01

    An ultra large-scale ASIC is designed for the receive front-end electronics of an ultrasonic medical imaging system. The chip receives 16 channel analog rf signals and outputs 4 sets of sample-point-wise dynamically focused partial beam data. Four complete beam data sets are obtained in parallel by simply cascading as many chips as needed in an array system. High resolution of the focusing delay is obtained by nonuniformly selecting each channel data from a quadruply-interpolated rf data stream. The proposed ASIC can be applied to most practical array transducers in the frequency range of 2 to 10 MHz. The digital part of the designed ASIC can be implemented on a chip area of 17.9 microm2 with 0.18 mm CMOS technology, leaving sufficient room for 16 ADCs of 8 bits, 50 MHz on the 5.7 mm x 5.7 mm chip with a 208 pin package.

  18. Integration of market pull and technology push in the corporate front end and innovation management - Insights from the German software industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Voigt, K.-I.

    2009-01-01

    a conceptual framework. Additionally, the most common front end innovation models will be introduced. Finally, the authors will introduce how a technology-based service company is managing the connection of these two alternatives. A special focus will be laid on the accordant methods in order to search...... will be introduced as to how market pull and technology push activities within the corporate technology and innovation management can be integrated. Hence, the purpose of the paper is to introduce a theory-based conceptual framework that can be used in today’s corporate environment. In this context, technology......Within the framework of this paper, an extensive literature overview of technology and innovation management aspects on market pull and technology push will be given. The existing classification of market pull and technology push will be particularly shown and called into question by suggesting...

  19. Studies of the performance of different front-end systems for flat-panel multi-anode PMTs with CsI(Tl) scintillator arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sekiya, H; Kubo, H; Miuchi, K; Nagayoshi, T; Nishimura, H; Okada, Y; Orito, R; Takada, A; Takeda, A; Tanimori, T; Ueno, K

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the performance of two different types of front-end systems for our gamma camera based on Hamamatsu H8500 (flat-panel 64 channels multi-anode PSPMT) with a CsI(Tl) scintillator array. The array consists of 64 pixels of $6\\times6\\times20{\\rm mm}^3$ which corresponds to the anode pixels of H8500. One of the system is based on commercial ASIC chips in order to readout every anode. The others are based on resistive charge divider network between anodes to reduce readout channels. In both systems, each pixel (6mm) was clearly resolved by flood field irradiation of $^{137}$Cs. We also investigated the energy resolution of these systems and showed the performance of the cascade connection of resistive network between some PMTs for large area detectors.

  20. Studies of the performance of different front-end systems for flat-panel multi-anode PMTs with CsI(Tl) scintillator arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, H.; Hattori, K.; Kubo, H.; Miuchi, K.; Nagayoshi, T.; Nishimura, H.; Okada, Y.; Orito, R.; Takada, A.; Takeda, A.; Tanimori, T.; Ueno, K.

    2006-07-01

    We have studied the performance of two different types of front-end systems for our gamma camera based on Hamamatsu H8500 (flat-panel 64 channels multi-anode PSPMT) with a CsI(Tl) scintillator array. The array consists of 64 pixels of 6×6×20 mm3 which corresponds to the anode pixels of H8500. One of the system is based on commercial ASIC chips in order to read out every anode. The others are based on resistive charge divider network between anodes to reduce readout channels. In both systems, each pixel (6 mm) was clearly resolved by flood field irradiation of 137Cs. We also investigated the energy resolution of these systems and showed the performance of the cascade connection of resistive network between some PMTs for large area detectors.

  1. 车辆状态监测平台的前端设计与实现%Front-end Design and Implementation of Platform for Vehicle State Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫蓬; 陈宇峰; 张金亮; 张涛

    2015-01-01

    The platform architecture of the vehicle state monitoring was analyzed and designed based on MVC(Model-View-Controller)design pattern. The front end of the platform was designed and imple⁃mented by optimized technologies according to the requirements. The fast dynamic web page loading and web page segmentation design were achieved by JSP(Java Server Pages), AJAX(Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)and Div. The lightweight display of vehicle states was implemented by JS(JavaS⁃cript)plug-in components, including jQuery easyUI and Highcharts. The results show that the platform can achieve the dynamic web page display and fast pages loading, as well as the decrease of the cost of the design and implementation of the front end.%采用MVC(Model-View-Controller)设计模式,分析设计了车辆状态监测平台架构,根据功能需求对平台前端进行了优化设计和实现,即结合JSP(Java Server Pages)、AJAX(Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)、Div等技术实现快速动态网页加载、网页分块设计等功能,并采用jQuery easyUI与Highcharts等JS(JavaScript)插件实现车辆状态监测数据的轻量化展示。结果表明:本平台前端设计能够达到页面动态显示、页面加载速度更快的效果,降低了前端设计开发成本。

  2. SPIROC (SiPM Integrated Read-Out Chip): dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchel, M.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Jaeger, J.-J.; de La Taille, C.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.

    2011-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC (International Linear Collider) prototype of hadronic calorimeter using Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) or Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2010. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC-SiPM used for the ILC Analogue HCAL physics prototype. The first prototype of SPIROC was submitted in June 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35 μm SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, dual gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2,000 photoelectron and the time with a 100 ps accurate Time-to-digital Converter (TDC). An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson Analogue-to-digital Converter (ADC) has been embedded to digitize the analogue memory content (time and charge on 2 gains). The data are then stored in a 4 Kbytes RAM. A very complex digital part has been integrated to manage all these features and to transfer the data to the DAQ which is described in Dulucq et al. After an exhaustive description, the extensive measurement results of this new front-end chip are presented.

  3. Research on the Web Front-end Hijacking and Defense against HTTPS%针对HTTPS的Web前端劫持及防御研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国锋; 陈勇; 王新恒

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the HTTPS protocol communication process, analyzes the basic principles and methods in detail based on forged certiifcates and man in the middle session hijacking. Then it points out that conventional hijacking method through the backend to manipulate the original data lfow and defects, and puts forward a front-end scripting XSS based on injection of more efifcient and more perfect HTTPS session hijacking method, which can realize the hijacking of the form submission, dynamic elements, the script window, and the page frame. Finally it expounds the priciple and process the Web front-end hijacking, builds a prototype system to validate, and makes a further analysis of the HTTPS communication security risks. According to the present situation, it also puts forward feasible preventive measures.%文章针对HTTPS协议通信流程,详细分析了基于伪造证书与中间人会话劫持的基本方法及原理,指出了常用劫持方法通过后端来操控原始数据流量时的缺陷,并重点提出了一种基于前端XSS脚本注入的更高效的HTTPS会话劫持方法,实现了表单提交、动态元素、脚本弹窗、框架页面的劫持。最后详细阐述了Web前端劫持方法的实现原理与流程,并搭建原型系统进行验证,进一步分析给出了HTTPS通信的安全隐患,提出了可行的防范措施。

  4. The TDCpix readout ASIC: A 75 ps resolution timing front-end for the NA62 Gigatracker hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluge, A., E-mail: alexander.kluge@cern.ch; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonacini, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Poltorak, K.

    2013-12-21

    The TDCpix is a novel pixel readout ASIC for the NA62 Gigatracker detector. NA62 is a new experiment being installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Its Gigatracker detector shall provide on-beam tracking and time stamping of individual particles with a time resolution of 150 ps rms. It will consist of three tracking stations, each with one hybrid pixel sensor. The peak flow of particles crossing the detector modules reaches 1.27 MHz/mm{sup 2} for a total rate of about 0.75 GHz. Ten TDCpix chips will be bump-bonded to every silicon pixel sensor. Each chip shall perform time stamping of 100 M particle hits per second with a detection efficiency above 99% and a timing accuracy better than 200 ps rms for an overall three-station-setup time resolution of better than 150 ps. The TDCpix chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology. It will feature 45×40 square pixels of 300×300μm{sup 2} and a complex End of Column peripheral region including an array of TDCs based on DLLs, four high speed serializers, a low-jitter PLL, readout and control circuits. This contribution will describe the complete design of the final TDCpix ASIC. It will discuss design choices, the challenges faced and some of the lessons learned. Furthermore, experimental results from the testing of circuit prototypes will be presented. These demonstrate the achievement of key performance figures such as a time resolution of the processing chain of 75 ps rms with a laser sent to the center of the pixel and the capability of time stamping charged particles with an overall resolution below 200 ps rms. -- Highlights: • Feasibility demonstration of a silicon pixel detector with sub-ns time tagging capability. • Demonstrator detector assembly with a time resolution of 75 ps RMS with laser charge injection; 170 ps RMS with particle beam. • Design of trigger-less TDCpix ASIC with 1800 pixels, 720 TDC channels and 4 3.2 Gbit/s serializers.

  5. The TDCpix Readout ASIC: A 75 ps Resolution Timing Front-End for the Gigatrackerof theNA62 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, G. Aglieri; Fiorini, M.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Martin, E.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Poltorak, K.

    NA62 is an experiment under development at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron, aiming at measuring ultra rare kaon decays. The Gigatracker (GTK) detector shall combine on-beam tracking of individual particles with a time resolution of 150 ps rms. The peak flow of particles crossing the detector modules reaches 1.27 MHz/mm2 fora total rateof about 0.75 GHz.Ahybrid siliconpixel detectoris beingdevelopedto meet these requirements. The pixel chip for the Gigatracker (TDCpix) is under design. The TDCpix chip will feature 1800 square pixels of 300×300 μm2 arranged in a matrix of 45 rows × 40 columns. Bump-bonded to a silicon pixel sensor it shall perform time stamping of particle hits with a timing accuracybetter than 200 ps rms and a detection efficiencyabove 99%. The chosen architecture provides full separation of the sensitive analog amplifiers of the pixel matrix from the noisy digital circuits of the TDCs and of the readout blocks. Discriminated hit signals from each pixel are transmitted to the end of column region. An array ofTime to Digital Converters (TDC) is implemented at the bottom of the pixel array. The TDCs are based on time tagging the events with the fine time codes generated by Delay Locked Loops (DLL) and have a nominal time bin of ˜100 ps. Time stamps and time-over-threshold are recorded for each discriminated hit and the correction of the discriminator's time-walk is performed off-detector. Data are continuously transmitted on four 2.4 Gb/s serial output links. Adescription of the on-going design of the final TDCpix is given in this paper. Design choices and some technical implementation details are presented. Aprototype ASIC including thekeycomponents of this architecture has been manufactured. The achievement of specification figures such as a time resolution of the processing chain of 75 ps rms as well as charged particle time stampingwitha resolutionbetterthan200psrmswere demonstratedexperimentally.Asummaryoftheseresultsisalso presented in

  6. A time-based front-end ASIC for the silicon micro strip sensors of the bar PANDA Micro Vertex Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, V.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Stockmanns, T.; Zambanini, A.

    2016-03-01

    The bar PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) experiment foresees many detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. Among them, the innermost is the MVD (Micro Vertex Detector) responsible for a precise tracking and the reconstruction of secondary vertices. This detector will be built from both hybrid pixel (two inner barrels and six forward disks) and double-sided micro strip (two outer barrels and outer rim of the last two disks) silicon sensors. A time-based approach has been chosen for the readout ASIC of the strip sensors. The PASTA (bar PANDA Strip ASIC) chip aims at high resolution time-stamping and charge information through the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. It benefits from a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) allowing a time bin width down to 50 ps. The analog front-end was designed to serve both n-type and p-type strips and the performed simulations show remarkable performances in terms of linearity and electronic noise. The TDC consists of an analog interpolator, a digital local controller, and a digital global controller as the common back-end for all of the 64 channels.

  7. ALS beamline design requirements: A guide for beamline designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This manual is written as a guide for researchers in designing beamlines and endstations acceptable for use at the ALS. It contains guidelines and policies related to personnel safety and equipment and vacuum protection. All equipment and procedures must ultimately satisfy the safety requirements set aside in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000) which is available from the ALS User Office or on the World WideWeb from the LBNL Homepage (http:// www.lbl.gov).

  8. 无源UHF RFID电子标签模拟前端设计%Design of an Analog Front End for Passive UHF RFID Transponder IC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈力颖; 吴顺华; 毛陆虹; 郝先人

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a high-performance analog front end for a passive UHF RFID transponder IC,which is compatible with the ISO/IEC 18000-6B standard,operating at the 915MHz ISM band with a total supply current consumption less than 8μA.There are no external components,except for the antenna.The passive IC's power supply is taken from the energy of the received RF electromagnetic field with the help of a Schottky diode rectifier.The RFID analog front end includes a local oscillator,clock generator,power on reset circuit,matching network and backscatter,rectifier,regulator,and AM demodulator.The IC,whose reading distance is more than 3m,is fabricated with a Chartered 0.35μm two-poly four-metal CMOS process with Schottky diodes and is EEPROM supported.The core size is 300μm×720μm.%提出了一种符合ISO/IEC 18000-6B标准的高性能无源UHF RFID电子标签模拟前端,在915MHz ISM频带下工作时其电流小于8μA.该模拟前端除天线外无外接元器件,通过肖特基二极管整流器从射频电磁场接收能量.该RFID模拟前端包括本地振荡器、时钟产生电路、复位电路、匹配网络和反向散射电路、整流器、稳压器以及AM解调器等.该芯片采用支持肖特基二极管和EEPROM的Chartered 0.35μm 2P4M CMOS工艺进行流片,读取距离大于3m,芯片面积为300μm×720μm.

  9. Design of the LBNF Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, V.; Andrews, R.; Hylen, J.; Kobilarcik, T.; Krafczyk, G.; Marchinonni, A.; Moore, C. D.; Schlabach, P.; Tariq, S.

    2015-08-30

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a beamline located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band neutrino beam toward underground detectors placed at the SURF Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60-120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab’s Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are subsequently focused by magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial proton beam power is expected to be 1.2 MW; however, the facility is designed to be upgradeable to 2.4 MW. We discuss here the design status and the associated challenges as well as plans for improvements before baselining the facility.

  10. Design of the LBNE Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, Vaia [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Andrews, Richard [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hylen, James [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kobilarcik, Thomas [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchionni, Alberto [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Moore, Craig D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schlabach, Phil [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tariq, Salman [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-05

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60-120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab’s Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are sign selected and subsequently focused by a set of magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay mostly into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints, and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~1.2 MW; however, the facility is designed to be upgradeable for 2.3 MW operation. We discuss here the status of the design and the associated challenges.

  11. Design of the LBNE Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitriou, V; Hylen, J; Kobilarcik, T; Marchionni, A; Moore, C D; Schlabach, P; Tariq, S

    2015-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60 -120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab's Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are sign selected and subsequently focused by a set of magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay mostly into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~1.2 MW, however the facility is desi...

  12. Supporting radical front end innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Gertsen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    ). Pharmaceutical innovation is unique, as it opposed to most other industries’ product development is science-driven and not customer-driven. In addition, the pharmaceutical FEI, as represented by research, lasts up to 5 years and the entire R&D process constitutes a period of 10-12 years, which is highly...

  13. Canadian macromolecular crystallography facility: a suite of fully automated beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochulski, Pawel; Fodje, Michel; Labiuk, Shaunivan; Gorin, James; Janzen, Kathryn; Berg, Russ

    2012-06-01

    The Canadian light source is a 2.9 GeV national synchrotron radiation facility located on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon. The small-gap in-vacuum undulator illuminated beamline, 08ID-1, together with the bending magnet beamline, 08B1-1, constitute the Canadian Macromolecular Crystallography Facility (CMCF). The CMCF provides service to more than 50 Principal Investigators in Canada and the United States. Up to 25% of the beam time is devoted to commercial users and the general user program is guaranteed up to 55% of the useful beam time through a peer-review process. CMCF staff provides "Mail-In" crystallography service to users with the highest scored proposals. Both beamlines are equipped with very robust end-stations including on-axis visualization systems, Rayonix 300 CCD series detectors and Stanford-type robotic sample auto-mounters. MxDC, an in-house developed beamline control system, is integrated with a data processing module, AutoProcess, allowing full automation of data collection and data processing with minimal human intervention. Sample management and remote monitoring of experiments is enabled through interaction with a Laboratory Information Management System developed at the facility.

  14. Small angle X-ray scattering beamline at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丰; 李小芸; 缪夏然; 边风刚; 王吉力; 李秀宏; 王玉柱; 杨春明; 周平; 林金友; 曾建荣; 洪春霞; 滑文强

    2015-01-01

    Beamline BL16B1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is dedicated to studying the mi-crostructure and dynamic processes of polymers, nanomaterials, mesoporous materials, colloids, liquid crystals, metal materials, etc. At present, SAXS, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), simultaneous SAXS/WAXS, grazing incident SAXS, and anomalous SAXS techniques are available for end user to conduct diverse ex-periments at this beamline. The sample-to-detector distance is adjustable from 0.2 m to 5 m. The practicable q-range is 0.03–3.6 nm−1 at incident X-ray of 10 keV for conventional SAXS whilst a continuous q-region of 0.06–33 nm−1 can be achieved in simultaneous SAXS/WAXS mode. Time-resolved SAXS measurements in sub-second level was achieved by the beamline upgrating in 2013. This paper gives detailed descriptions about the status, performance and applications of the SAXS beamline.

  15. SPIROC (SiPM Integrated Read-Out Chip) Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchel, Michel; Fleury, Julien; de La Taille, Christophe; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Raux, Ludovic

    2007-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  16. The Method of Magnetic Induction Transmission Transceiver Analog Front End Hardware Implementation%磁感应传输模拟前端硬件实现方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴轲

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the current traditional underground wireless communication technology using high path loss of electromagnetic waves, with the reference channel and other issues, this paper designed a magnetic induction transmission system front end:using magnetic inductance coil as the antenna and magnetic induction to transfer data. This design dedicated for data transmission in the soil medium, the transmission performance is stable and high efficiency. This is well positioned to meet the demand for underground transmission, greatly improving efficiency.%为了解决目前传统的地下无线通信技术运用的电磁波的高路径损耗、随参信道等问题,本文设计了一个磁感应传输系统前端:采用磁性电感线圈作为天线,利用磁感应来传输数据。本设计专用于土壤介质中进行数据传输,传输性能稳定,效率高。这很好的满足了用于地下传输的需求,大大提高了效率。

  17. Design and Implementation of an Electronic Front-End Based on Square Wave Excitation for Ultrasonic Torsional Guided Wave Viscosity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rabani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The market for process instruments generally requires low cost devices that are robust, small in size, portable, and usable in-plant. Ultrasonic torsional guided wave sensors have received much attention by researchers for measurement of viscosity and/or density of fluids in recent years. The supporting electronic systems for these sensors providing many different settings of sine-wave signals are bulky and expensive. In contrast, a system based on bursts of square waves instead of sine waves would have a considerable advantage in that respect and could be built using simple integrated circuits at a cost that is orders of magnitude lower than for a windowed sine wave device. This paper explores the possibility of using square wave bursts as the driving signal source for the ultrasonic torsional guided wave viscosity sensor. A simple design of a compact and fully automatic analogue square wave front-end for the sensor is also proposed. The successful operation of the system is demonstrated by using the sensor for measuring the viscosity in a representative fluid. This work provides the basis for design and manufacture of low cost compact standalone ultrasonic guided wave sensors and enlightens the possibility of using coded excitation techniques utilising square wave sequences in such applications.

  18. Firmware Development and Integration for ALICE TPC and PHOS Front-end Electronics A Trigger Based Readout and Control System operating in a Radiation Environment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068589; Rohrich, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    The readout electronics in PHOS and TPC - two of the major detectors of the ALICE experiment at the LHC - consist of a set of Front End Cards (FECs) that digitize, process and buffer the data from the detector sensors. The FECs are connected to a Readout Control Unit (RCU) via two sets of custom made PCB backplanes. For PHOS, 28 FECs are connected to one RCU, while for TPC the number is varying from 18 to 25 FECs depending on location. The RCU is in charge of the data readout, including reception and distribution of triggers and in moving the data from the FECs to the Data Acquisition System. In addition it does low level control tasks. The RCU consists of an RCU Motherboard that hosts a Detector Control System (DCS) board and a Source Interface Unit. The DCS board is an embedded computer running Linux that controls the readout electronics. All the mentioned devices are implemented in commercial grade SRAM based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Even if these devices are not very radiation tolerant, the...

  19. Design and Implementation of an Electronic Front-End Based on Square Wave Excitation for Ultrasonic Torsional Guided Wave Viscosity Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani, Amir

    2016-10-12

    The market for process instruments generally requires low cost devices that are robust, small in size, portable, and usable in-plant. Ultrasonic torsional guided wave sensors have received much attention by researchers for measurement of viscosity and/or density of fluids in recent years. The supporting electronic systems for these sensors providing many different settings of sine-wave signals are bulky and expensive. In contrast, a system based on bursts of square waves instead of sine waves would have a considerable advantage in that respect and could be built using simple integrated circuits at a cost that is orders of magnitude lower than for a windowed sine wave device. This paper explores the possibility of using square wave bursts as the driving signal source for the ultrasonic torsional guided wave viscosity sensor. A simple design of a compact and fully automatic analogue square wave front-end for the sensor is also proposed. The successful operation of the system is demonstrated by using the sensor for measuring the viscosity in a representative fluid. This work provides the basis for design and manufacture of low cost compact standalone ultrasonic guided wave sensors and enlightens the possibility of using coded excitation techniques utilising square wave sequences in such applications.

  20. A 4-Channel Waveform Sampling ASIC in 0.13 μm CMOS for front-end Readout of Large-Area Micro-Channel Plate Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberla, E.; Grabas, H.; Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H.; Genat, J. F.; Nishimura, K.; Varner, G.; Wong, A.

    We describe here the development of PSEC-3, a custom integrated circuit designed in the IBM-8RF 0.13 μm CMOS process and intended for fast, low-power waveform sampling. As part of the Large-Area Picosecond Photo-Detector (LAPPD) collaboration, this chip has been designed as a prototype application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the front-end transmission line readout of large-area micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMTs). With 4 channels, PSEC-3 has a buffer depth of 256 samples on each channel, a chip-parallel ramp-compare ADC, and a serial data readout that includes the capability for region-of-interest windowing to reduce dead time. Chip calibrations and performance results, including achieved sampling rates of 2.5-17 GSa/s, are reported. Some design issues are identified, in particular the dependence of analog bandwidth on location in the sampling array. The causes have been found and addressed in a subsequent PSEC-4 submission.

  1. Enhanced performance of reversely transferred, doubly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays for front-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kang, Soon-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Doubly open-ended conventional TiO2 nanotube arrays (Type I) and nanoporous-layer-covered nanotube arrays (Type II) were transferred to transparent fluorine-doped tin oxides (FTOs) for front-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). FTO/Type II exhibited a long electron lifetime ( τ e ) and rapid electron transport compared to FTO/Type I because of the reduced surface defect-state-mediated recombination rate. In particular, Type II transferred reversely to the FTO (FTO/Type II-rev) had beneficial geometric effects, leading to a decrease in pore size from the bottom to the top and a nanoporous TiO2 thin bottom layer. These enabled more effective light scattering near the FTO and facilitated lateral electron movement toward the FTO, leading to a shortened electron pathway and a reduced recombination rate. The significantly enhanced electron lifetime and the shortened electron transit time of the FTO/Type II-rev improved the charge collection efficiency significantly. Furthermore, the enhanced light scattering increased the light harvesting efficiency. These beneficial geometric effects of FTO/Type II-rev contributed to the greatly enhanced overall cell efficiency (7.61%) of the DSSC compared to the DSSCs with FTO/Type I (5.27%) and FTO/Type II (6.65%).

  2. SPIROC (SiPM Integrated Read-Out Chip) Dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with SiPM read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchel, Michel; Dulucq, Frédéric; Fleury, Julien; de La Taille, Christophe; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Raux, Ludovic

    2009-01-01

    The SPIROC chip is a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC prototype hadronic calorimeter with Silicon photomultiplier (or MPPC) readout. This ASIC is due to equip a 10,000-channel demonstrator in 2009. SPIROC is an evolution of FLC_SiPM used for the ILC AHCAL physics prototype [1]. SPIROC was submitted in June 2007 and will be tested in September 2007. It embeds cutting edge features that fulfil ILC final detector requirements. It has been realized in 0.35m SiGe technology. It has been developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of readout channels needed. SPIROC is an auto-triggered, bi-gain, 36-channel ASIC which allows to measure on each channel the charge from one photoelectron to 2000 and the time with a 100ps accurate TDC. An analogue memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. A 12-bit Wilkinson ADC has been embedded to digitize the analogue memor...

  3. Development of a compact radiation-hardened low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CZT-based hard X-ray imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, W., E-mail: gaowu@nwpu.edu.cn; Gan, B.; Li, X.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2015-04-21

    In this paper, we present the development and performances of a radiation-hardened front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to CZT detectors for a hard X-ray imager in space applications. The readout channel consists of a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), a CR-RC shaper, a fast shaper, a discriminator and a driving buffer. With the additional digital filtering, the readout channel can achieve very low noise performances and low power dissipation. An eight-channel prototype ASIC is designed and fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS process. The energy range of the detected X-rays is evaluated as 1.45 keV to 281 keV. The gain is larger than 100 mV/fC. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of the ASIC is 53 e{sup −} at zero farad plus 10 e{sup −} per picofarad. The power dissipation is less than 4.4 mW/channel. Through the measurement with a CZT detector, the energy resolution is less than 3.45 keV (FWHM) under the irradiation of the radioactive source {sup 241}Am. The radiation effect experiments indicate that the proposed ASIC can resist the total ionization dose (TID) irradiation of higher than 200 krad (Si)

  4. Design of a 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for front-end readout of 32-channel CZT detector imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Tingcun; Li, Bo; Guo, Panjie; Hu, Yongcai

    2015-06-01

    A 12-bit 1MS/s SAR-ADC for the front-end readout of a 32-channel CZT detector imaging system is presented. In order to improve the performances of the ADC, several techniques are proposed. First, a novel offset cancellation method for comparator is proposed, in which no any capacitor is introduced in the signal pathway, thus it has faster operation speed than traditional one. Second, the architecture of unit capacitor array is adopted in the charge-redistribution DAC to reduce the capacitor mismatch. Third, the radiation-hardened ability is enhanced through circuit and layout design. The prototype chip was fabricated using a TSMC 0.35 um 2P4M CMOS process. At a 3.3/5 V power supply, the proposed SAR-ADC achieves 67.64 dB SINAD at 1MS/s, consumes 10 mW power and occupies a core area of 1180×1080 um2.

  5. Design of a 12-bit 1 MS/s SAR-ADC for front-end readout of 32-channel CZT detector imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei, E-mail: liouwei930@sina.com [School of Computer Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Tingcun; Li, Bo; Guo, Panjie [School of Computer Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Hu, Yongcai [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert CURIEN, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-06-21

    A 12-bit 1MS/s SAR-ADC for the front-end readout of a 32-channel CZT detector imaging system is presented. In order to improve the performances of the ADC, several techniques are proposed. First, a novel offset cancellation method for comparator is proposed, in which no any capacitor is introduced in the signal pathway, thus it has faster operation speed than traditional one. Second, the architecture of unit capacitor array is adopted in the charge-redistribution DAC to reduce the capacitor mismatch. Third, the radiation-hardened ability is enhanced through circuit and layout design. The prototype chip was fabricated using a TSMC 0.35 um 2P4M CMOS process. At a 3.3/5 V power supply, the proposed SAR-ADC achieves 67.64 dB SINAD at 1MS/s, consumes 10 mW power and occupies a core area of 1180×1080 um{sup 2}.

  6. Development of a compact radiation-hardened low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CZT-based hard X-ray imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W.; Gan, B.; Li, X.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present the development and performances of a radiation-hardened front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to CZT detectors for a hard X-ray imager in space applications. The readout channel consists of a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), a CR-RC shaper, a fast shaper, a discriminator and a driving buffer. With the additional digital filtering, the readout channel can achieve very low noise performances and low power dissipation. An eight-channel prototype ASIC is designed and fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS process. The energy range of the detected X-rays is evaluated as 1.45 keV to 281 keV. The gain is larger than 100 mV/fC. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of the ASIC is 53 e- at zero farad plus 10 e- per picofarad. The power dissipation is less than 4.4 mW/channel. Through the measurement with a CZT detector, the energy resolution is less than 3.45 keV (FWHM) under the irradiation of the radioactive source 241Am. The radiation effect experiments indicate that the proposed ASIC can resist the total ionization dose (TID) irradiation of higher than 200 krad (Si).

  7. Charge Pump Clock Generation PLL for the Data Output Block of the Upgraded ATLAS Pixel Front-End in 130 nm CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Kruth, A; Arutinov, D; Barbero, M; Gronewald, M; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Krueger, H; Wermes, N; Fougeron, D; Menouni, M; Beccherle, R; Dube, S; Ellege, D; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gnani, D; Mekkaoui, A; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Schipper, J

    2009-01-01

    FE-I4 is the 130 nm ATLAS pixel IC currently under development for upgraded Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosities. FE-I4 is based on a low-power analog pixel array and digital architecture concepts tuned to higher hit rates [1]. An integrated Phase Locked Loop (PLL) has been developed that locally generates a clock signal for the 160 Mbit/s output data stream from the 40 MHz bunch crossing reference clock. This block is designed for low power, low area consumption and recovers quickly from loss of lock related to single-event transients in the high radiation environment of the ATLAS pixel detector. After a general introduction to the new FE-I4 pixel front-end chip, this work focuses on the FE-I4 output blocks and on a first PLL prototype test chip submitted in early 2009. The PLL is nominally operated from a 1.2V supply and consumes 3.84mW of DC power. Under nominal operating conditions, the control voltage settles to within 2% of its nominal value in less than 700 ns. The nominal operating frequency for t...

  8. Design of the Front End Electronics for the Infrared Camera of JEM-EUSO, and manufacturing and verification of the prototype model

    CERN Document Server

    Maroto, Oscar; Carbonell, Jordi; Tomàs, Albert; Reyes, Marcos; Joven, Enrique; Martín, Yolanda; Ríos, J A Morales de los; Del Peral, Luis; Frías, M D Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) will be launched and attached to the Japanese module of the International Space Station (ISS). Its aim is to observe UV photon tracks produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays developing in the atmosphere and producing extensive air showers. The key element of the instrument is a very wide-field, very fast, large-lense telescope that can detect extreme energy particles with energy above $10^{19}$ eV. The Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS), comprising, among others, the Infrared Camera (IRCAM), which is the Spanish contribution, plays a fundamental role in the understanding of the atmospheric conditions in the Field of View (FoV) of the telescope. It is used to detect the temperature of clouds and to obtain the cloud coverage and cloud top altitude during the observation period of the JEM-EUSO main instrument. SENER is responsible for the preliminary design of the Front End Electronics (FEE) of the Infrared Camera, based on an unco...

  9. The design of CMOS general-purpose analog front-end circuit with tunable gain and bandwidth for biopotential signal recording systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ming; Yang, Wen-Chia; Tsai, Tzung-Yun; Chiueh, Herming; Wu, Chung-Yu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an 8-channel CMOS general-purpose analog front-end (AFE) circuit with tunable gain and bandwidth for biopotential signal recording systems is presented. The proposed AFE consists of eight chopper stabilized pre-amplifiers, an 8-to-1 analog multiplexer, and a programmable gain amplifier. It can be used to sense and amplify different kinds of biopotential signals, such as electrocorticogram (ECoG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and electromyogram (EMG). The AFE chip is designed and fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The measured maximum gain of AFE is 60.8 dB. The low cutoff frequency can achieve as low as 0.8 Hz and high cutoff frequency can be adjusted from 200 Hz to 10 kHz to suit for different kinds of biopotential signals. The measured input-referred noise is 0.9 μV(rms), with the power consumption of 18μW per channel at 1.8-V power supply. And the noise efficiency factor (NEF) is only 1.3 for pre-amplifier.

  10. The front-end electronics and slow control of large area SiPM for the SST-1M camera developed for the CTA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Borkowski, J.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Favre, Y.; Heller, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszałek, A.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Schioppa, E.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Ziȩtara, K.; Błocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Curyło, M.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudniki, Ł.; Grudzińska, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Lalik, K.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Michałowski, J.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśsko, P.; Pech, M.; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Sowiński, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Walter, R.; Wiȩcek, M.; Zagdański, A.; Żychowski, P.

    2016-09-01

    The single mirror Small Size Telescope (SST-1M) is one of the proposed designs for the smallest type of telescopes, SSTs that will compose the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The SST-1M camera will use Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM) which are nowadays commonly used in High Energy Physics experiments and many imaging applications. However the unique pixel shape and size have required a dedicated development by the University of Geneva and Hamamatsu. The resulting sensor has a surface of ∼94 mm2 and a total capacitance of ∼3.4 nF. These unique characteristics, combined with the stringent requirements of the CTA project on timing and charge resolution have led the University of Geneva to develop custom front-end electronics. The preamplifier stage has been tailored in order to optimize the signal shape using measurement campaigns and electronic simulation of the sensor. A dedicated trans-impedance pre-amplifier topology is used resulting in a power consumption of 400 mW per pixel and a pulse width control electronics was designed to provide the bias voltage with 6.7 mV precision and to correct for temperature variation with a forward feedback compensation with 0.17 °C resolution. It is fully configurable and can be monitored using CANbus interface. The architecture and the characterization of the various elements are presented.

  11. Development of the control system of the ALICE transition radiation detector and of a test environment for quality-assurance of its front-end electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado Perez, Jorge

    2008-11-10

    Within this thesis, the detector control system (DCS) for the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has been developed. The TRD DCS is fully implemented as a detector oriented hierarchy of objects behaving as finite state machines. It controls and monitors over 65 thousand front-end electronics (FEE) units, a few hundred low voltage and one thousand high voltage channels, and other sub-systems such as cooling and gas. Commissioning of the TRD DCS took place during several runs with ALICE using cosmic events. Another part of this thesis describes the development of a test environment for large-scale production quality-assurance of over 4 thousand FEE read-out boards containing in total about 1.2 million read-out channels. The hardware and software components are described in detail. Additionally, a series of performance studies were carried out earlier including radiation tolerance tests of the TRAP chip which is the core component of the TRD FEE. (orig.)

  12. CLARO-CMOS: a fast, low power and radiation-hard front-end ASIC for single-photon counting in 0.35 micron CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fiorini, M.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Luppi, E.; Maino, M.; Malaguti, R.; Pessina, G.; Tomassetti, L.

    2015-01-01

    The CLARO-CMOS is a prototype ASIC designed for fast photon counting with multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MaPMT). The CLARO features a 5 ns peaking time, a recovery time to baseline smaller than 25 ns, and a power consumption of less than 1 mW per channel. The chip was designed in 0.35 μm CMOS technology, and was tested for radiation hardness with neutrons up to 1014 1 MeV neq/cm2, X-rays up to 40 kGy and protons up to 76 kGy. Its capability to read out single photons at high rate from a Hamamatsu R11265 MaPMT, the baseline photon detector for the LHCb RICH upgrade, was demonstrated both with test bench measurements and with actual signals from a R11265 MaPMT. The presented results allowed CLARO to be chosen as the front-end readout chip in the upgraded LHCb RICH detector.

  13. 高校图书馆网站页面的前端设计探讨%Discussion on the university library website front-end design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晶

    2014-01-01

    高校图书馆网站的设计应从读者的角度出发,以服务于广大高校师生教学科研为目的。本文指出了对于高校图书馆网站进行前端设计的必要性,并且介绍了高校图书馆网站设计特点。进而提出了针对图书馆网站设计特点所采用的设计方法,并进行了简单的举例说明。%With the consideration of the readers, the University Library website is designed to serve the purposes for teaching and researching. This article points out the necessity of the University Library website front-end design and introduces the main features of the University Library website design. Furthermore, based on the characteristics of the library website design, the design method are provided and illustrated with simple examples.

  14. Towards the development of a wearable Electrical Impedance Tomography system: A study about the suitability of a low power bioimpedance front-end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolotto, Matteo; Rossi, Stefano; Dario, Paolo; Della Torre, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Wearable systems for remote monitoring of physiological parameter are ready to evolve towards wearable imaging systems. The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) allows the non-invasive investigation of the internal body structure. The characteristics of this low-resolution and low-cost technique match perfectly with the concept of a wearable imaging device. On the other hand low power consumption, which is a mandatory requirement for wearable systems, is not usually discussed for standard EIT applications. In this work a previously developed low power architecture for a wearable bioimpedance sensor is applied to EIT acquisition and reconstruction, to evaluate the impact on the image of the limited signal to noise ratio (SNR), caused by low power design. Some anatomical models of the chest, with increasing geometric complexity, were developed, in order to evaluate and calibrate, through simulations, the parameters of the reconstruction algorithms provided by Electrical Impedance Diffuse Optical Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) project. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements taken with our bioimpedance device on a phantom reproducing chest tissues properties. The comparison was both qualitative and quantitative through the application of suitable figures of merit; in this way the impact of the noise of the low power front-end on the image quality was assessed. The comparison between simulation and measurement results demonstrated that, despite the limited SNR, the device is accurate enough to be used for the development of an EIT based imaging wearable system.

  15. The Development of High-Performance Front-End Electronics Based Upon the QIE12 Custom ASIC for the ATLAS TileCal Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Gary; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present the design of a new candidate front-end electronic readout system being developed for the ATLAS TileCal Phase 2 Upgrade. The system is based upon the QIE12 custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit. The chip features a least count sensitivity of 1.5 fC, more than 17 bits of dynamic range with logarithmic response, and an on-chip TDC with one nanosecond resolution. The design incorporates an on-board current integrator, and has several calibration systems. The new electronics will operate dead-timelessly at 40 MHz, pushing full data sets from each beam crossing to the data acquisition system that resides off-detector in the USA15 counting room using high-speed optical links. The system is one of three candidate systems for the Phase 2 Upgrade. We have built a “Demonstrator” – a fully functional prototype of the new system. Performance results from bench measurements and from a recent test beam campaign will be presented.

  16. Beamline 9.0.1 - a high-resolution undulator beamline for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Mossessian, D. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source is an undulator beamline with a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) which provides very high resolution and flux over the photon energy range 20-320eV. The beamline has been used primarily by the atomic and molecular science community to conduct spectroscopy experiments using electron, ion and fluorescence photon detection. A description of the beamline and its performance will be provided in this abstract.

  17. Artificial Neural Network as the FPGA Trigger in the Cyclone V based Front-End for a Detection of Neutrino-Origin Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Glas, Dariusz [University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, Faculty of High-Energy Astrophysics, 90-236 Lodz, Pomorska 149 (Poland); Pytel, Krzysztof [University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, Faculty of Informatics, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    Neutrinos play a fundamental role in the understanding of the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. They interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere generating extensive air showers. However, their a very low rate of events potentially generated by neutrinos is a significant challenge for a detection technique and requires both sophisticated algorithms and high-resolution hardware. A trigger based on a artificial neural network was implemented into the Cyclone{sup R} V E FPGA 5CEFA9F31I7 - the heart of the prototype Front-End boards developed for tests of new algorithms in the Pierre Auger surface detectors. Showers for muon and tau neutrino initiating particles on various altitudes, angles and energies were simulated in CORSICA and Offline platforms giving pattern of ADC traces in Auger water Cherenkov detectors. The 3-layer 12-8-1 neural network was taught in MATLAB by simulated ADC traces according the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Results show that a probability of a ADC traces generation is very low due to a small neutrino cross-section. Nevertheless, ADC traces, if occur, for 1-10 EeV showers are relatively short and can be analyzed by 16-point input algorithm. We optimized the coefficients from MATLAB to get a maximal range of potentially registered events and for fixed-point FPGA processing to minimize calculation errors. New sophisticated triggers implemented in Cyclone{sup R} V E FPGAs with large amount of DSP blocks, embedded memory running with 120 - 160 MHz sampling may support a discovery of neutrino events in the Pierre Auger Observatory. (authors)

  18. On-line sample processing involving microextraction techniques as a front-end to atomic spectrometric detection for trace metal assays: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miró, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.miro@uib.es [FI-TRACE Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain); Hansen, Elo Harald [Granåsen 93, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-06-11

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Role of flow injection in automation of microextraction techniques for metal assays. •On-line coupling of liquid phase microextraction (LPME) to atomic spectrometry. •Critical evaluation of on-line single drop and dispersive LPME. •On-line coupling of micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) to atomic spectrometry. •Critical appraisal of magnetic/carbon nanoparticles and biomass for on-line μSPE. -- Abstract: Within the last decade, liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) approaches have emerged as substitutes for conventional sample processing procedures for trace metal assays within the framework of green chemistry. This review surveys the progress of the state of the art in simplification and automation of microextraction approaches by harnessing to the various generations of flow injection (FI) as a front end to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/MS). It highlights the evolution of flow injection analysis and related techniques as vehicles for appropriate sample presentation to the detector and expedient on-line matrix separation and pre-concentration of trace levels of metals in troublesome matrices. Rather than being comprehensive this review is aimed at outlining the pros and cons via representative examples of recent attempts in automating green sample preparation procedures in an FI or sequential injection (SI) mode capitalizing on single-drop microextraction, dispersive liquid-phase microextraction and advanced sorptive materials including carbon and metal oxide nanoparticles, ion imprinted polymers, superparamagnetic nanomaterials and biological/biomass sorbents. Current challenges in the field are identified and the synergetic combination of flow analysis, nanotechnology and metal-tagged biomolecule detection is envisaged.

  19. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedurin, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jing, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratakis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Swinson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  20. Design of the LBNF Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, Vaia; et al.

    2016-06-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a beamline located at Fermilab to provide and aim a neutrino beam of sufficient intensity and appropriate energy range toward DUNE detectors, placed deep underground at the SURF Facility in South Dakota. The primary proton beam (60 - 120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab's Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are subsequently focused by magnetic horns into a 194 m long decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The Beamline facility is designed for initial operation at a proton-beam power of 1.2 MW, with the capability to support an upgrade to 2.4 MW. LBNF/DUNE obtained CD-1 approval in November 2015. We discuss here the design status and the associated challenges as well as the R&D and plans for improvements before baselining the facility.