WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam-induced energy deposition

  1. The role of low-energy electrons in focused electron beam induced deposition: four case studies of representative precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Thorman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID is a single-step, direct-write nanofabrication technique capable of writing three-dimensional metal-containing nanoscale structures on surfaces using electron-induced reactions of organometallic precursors. Currently FEBID is, however, limited in resolution due to deposition outside the area of the primary electron beam and in metal purity due to incomplete precursor decomposition. Both limitations are likely in part caused by reactions of precursor molecules with low-energy (3, Pt(PF34, Co(CO3NO, and W(CO6. Through these case studies, it is evident that this combination of studies can provide valuable insight into potential mechanisms governing deposit formation in FEBID. Although further experiments and new approaches are needed, these studies are an important stepping-stone toward better understanding the fundamental physics behind the deposition process and establishing design criteria for optimized FEBID precursors.

  2. Beam-induced energy deposition issues in the Very Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N V; Foster, G W

    2001-01-01

    Energy deposition issues are extremely important in the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) with huge energy stored in its 20 TeV (Stage-1) and 87.5 TeV (Stage-2) beams. The status of the VLHC design on these topics, and possible solutions of the problems are discussed. Protective measures are determined based on the operational and accidental beam loss limits for the prompt radiation dose at the surface, residual radiation dose, ground water activation, accelerator components radiation damage and quench stability. The beam abort and beam collimation systems are designed to protect accelerator from accidental and operational beam losses, IP region quadrupoles from irradiation by the products of beam-beam collisions, and to reduce the accelerator-induced backgrounds in the detectors. (7 refs).

  3. Focused electron beam induced deposition: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID is a direct-writing technique with nanometer resolution, which has received strongly increasing attention within the last decade. In FEBID a precursor previously adsorbed on a substrate surface is dissociated in the focus of an electron beam. After 20 years of continuous development FEBID has reached a stage at which this technique is now particularly attractive for several areas in both, basic and applied research. The present topical review addresses selected examples that highlight this development in the areas of charge-transport regimes in nanogranular metals close to an insulator-to-metal transition, the use of these materials for strain- and magnetic-field sensing, and the prospect of extending FEBID to multicomponent systems, such as binary alloys and intermetallic compounds with cooperative ground states.Results: After a brief introduction to the technique, recent work concerning FEBID of Pt–Si alloys and (hard-magnetic Co–Pt intermetallic compounds on the nanometer scale is reviewed. The growth process in the presence of two precursors, whose flux is independently controlled, is analyzed within a continuum model of FEBID that employs rate equations. Predictions are made for the tunability of the composition of the Co–Pt system by simply changing the dwell time of the electron beam during the writing process. The charge-transport regimes of nanogranular metals are reviewed next with a focus on recent theoretical advancements in the field. As a case study the transport properties of Pt–C nanogranular FEBID structures are discussed. It is shown that by means of a post-growth electron-irradiation treatment the electronic intergrain-coupling strength can be continuously tuned over a wide range. This provides unique access to the transport properties of this material close to the insulator-to-metal transition. In the last part of the review, recent developments in mechanical

  4. Fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures with electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, H.

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was shaped by the goal---coming up new approaches to fabricate plasmonic materials with electron beam induced deposition (EBID). One-step, bottom-up and direct-write are typical adjectives that are used to indicate the advantageous properties of this technique. Thes

  5. Amorphous silicon carbonitride diaphragm for environmental-cell transmission electron microscope fabricated by low-energy ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Takaomi; Yamasaki, Kayo; Imaeda, Norihiro; Kawasaki, Tadahiro

    2015-12-01

    An amorphous silicon carbonitride (a-SiCN) diaphragm for an environmental-cell transmission electron microscope (E-TEM) was fabricated by low-energy ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition (LEIBICVD) with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSN). The films were prepared by using gaseous HMDSN and N2+ ions with energies ranging from 300 to 600 eV. The diaphragms were applied to Si (1 0 0) and a Cu grid with 100-μm-diameter holes. With increasing ion energy, these diaphragms became perfectly smooth surfaces (RMS = 0.43 nm at 600 eV), as confirmed by atomic force microscopy and TEM. The diaphragms were amorphous and transparent to 200 kV electrons, and no charge-up was observed. Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that the elimination of organic compounds and formation of Si-N and C-N bonds can be promoted in diaphragms by increasing the ion impact energy. The resistance to electron beams and reaction gases in the E-cell was improved when the diaphragm was formed with high ion energy.

  6. A critical literature review of focused electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, W. F.; Hagen, C. W.

    2008-10-01

    An extensive review is given of the results from literature on electron beam induced deposition. Electron beam induced deposition is a complex process, where many and often mutually dependent factors are involved. The process has been studied by many over many years in many different experimental setups, so it is not surprising that there is a great variety of experimental results. To come to a better understanding of the process, it is important to see to which extent the experimental results are consistent with each other and with the existing model. All results from literature were categorized by sorting the data according to the specific parameter that was varied (current density, acceleration voltage, scan patterns, etc.). Each of these parameters can have an effect on the final deposit properties, such as the physical dimensions, the composition, the morphology, or the conductivity. For each parameter-property combination, the available data are discussed and (as far as possible) interpreted. By combining models for electron scattering in a solid, two different growth regimes, and electron beam induced heating, the majority of the experimental results were explained qualitatively. This indicates that the physical processes are well understood, although quantitatively speaking the models can still be improved. The review makes clear that several major issues remain. One issue encountered when interpreting results from literature is the lack of data. Often, important parameters (such as the local precursor pressure) are not reported, which can complicate interpretation of the results. Another issue is the fact that the cross section for electron induced dissociation is unknown. In a number of cases, a correlation between the vertical growth rate and the secondary electron yield was found, which suggests that the secondary electrons dominate the dissociation rather than the primary electrons. Conclusive evidence for this hypothesis has not been found. Finally

  7. Beam-Induced Deposition of Thin Metallic Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, Herbert Oliver, III

    1990-01-01

    Ion and electron beam induced deposition (BID) of thin (1 μm), conductive films is accomplished by dissociating and removing the nonmetallic components of an adsorbed, metal-based, molecular gas. Current research has focused primarily on room temperature (monolayer adsorption) BID using electrons and slow, heavy ions. This study investigates low temperature (50 to 200 K) BID in which the condensation of the precursor gases (SnCl _4 and (CH_3) _4Sn) maximizes the efficiency of the incident radiation which can create and remove nonmetallic fragments located several monolayers below the film surface. The desired properties of the residual metallic films are produced by using as incident radiation either nuclear (35 keV Ar ^+) or electronic (2 keV electrons, 25 keV H^+, or 50 keV H ^+) energy loss mechanisms. Residual films are analyzed ex situ by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), thickness measurements, resistivity measurements, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and infrared spectroscopy. Low temperature BID film growth models, which are derived from both a computer simulation and a mathematical analysis, closely agree. Both the fragmentation and sputtering cross sections for a particular ion and energy are derived for films created from (CH_3) _4Sn. The fragmentation cross section, which corresponds to film growth, is roughly related to the electronic stopping power by the 1.9 power. The loss of carbon in films which were created from (CH_3) _4Sn is strongly dependent on the nuclear stopping power. Film growth rates for low temperature BID have been found to be 10 times those of room temperature BID.

  8. Nanopillar growth by focused helium ion-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ping; Salemink, Huub W M; Alkemade, Paul F A [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Veldhoven, Emile van; Maas, Diederik J [TNO Science and Industry, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands); Sanford, Colin A [Carl Zeiss SMT, Inc., One Corporation Way, Peabody, MA 01960 (United States); Smith, Daryl A; Rack, Philip D, E-mail: p.f.a.alkemade@tudelft.nl [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States)

    2010-11-12

    A 25 keV focused helium ion beam has been used to grow PtC nanopillars on a silicon substrate by beam-induced decomposition of a (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Pt(C{sub P}CH{sub 3}) precursor gas. The ion beam diameter was about 1 nm. The observed relatively high growth rates suggest that electronic excitation is the dominant mechanism in helium ion-beam-induced deposition. Pillars grown at low beam currents are narrow and have sharp tips. For a constant dose, the pillar height decreases with increasing current, pointing to depletion of precursor molecules at the beam impact site. Furthermore, the diameter increases rapidly and the total pillar volume decreases slowly with increasing current. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed with realistic values for the fundamental deposition processes. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observations. In particular, they reproduce the current dependences of the vertical and lateral growth rates and of the volumetric deposition efficiency. Furthermore, the simulations reveal that the vertical pillar growth is due to type-1 secondary electrons and primary ions, while the lateral outgrowth is due to type-2 secondary electrons and scattered ions.

  9. Nanopillar growth by focused helium ion-beam-induced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 25 keV focused helium ion beam has been used to grow PtC nanopillars on a silicon substrate by beam-induced decomposition of a (CH3)3Pt(CPCH3) precursor gas. The ion beam diameter was about 1 nm. The observed relatively high growth rates suggest that electronic excitation is the dominant mechanism in helium ion-beam-induced deposition. Pillars grown at low beam currents are narrow and have sharp tips. For a constant dose, the pillar height decreases with increasing current, pointing to depletion of precursor molecules at the beam impact site. Furthermore, the diameter increases rapidly and the total pillar volume decreases slowly with increasing current. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed with realistic values for the fundamental deposition processes. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observations. In particular, they reproduce the current dependences of the vertical and lateral growth rates and of the volumetric deposition efficiency. Furthermore, the simulations reveal that the vertical pillar growth is due to type-1 secondary electrons and primary ions, while the lateral outgrowth is due to type-2 secondary electrons and scattered ions.

  10. Electron-stimulated purification of platinum nanostructures grown via focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett B. Lewis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Platinum–carbon nanostructures deposited via electron beam induced deposition from MeCpPt(IVMe3 are purified during a post-deposition electron exposure treatment in a localized oxygen ambient at room temperature. Time-dependent studies demonstrate that the process occurs from the top–down. Electron beam energy and current studies demonstrate that the process is controlled by a confluence of the electron energy loss and oxygen concentration. Furthermore, the experimental results are modeled as a 2nd order reaction which is dependent on both the electron energy loss density and the oxygen concentration. In addition to purification, the post-deposition electron stimulated oxygen purification process enhances the resolution of the EBID process due to the isotropic carbon removal from the as-deposited materials which produces high-fidelity shape retention.

  11. Focused electron beam induced deposition of magnetic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Teresa, Jose M.

    2011-03-01

    Nanopatterning strategies of magnetic materials normally rely on standard techniques such as electron-beam lithography using electron-sensitive resists. Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is currently being investigated as an alternative single-step route to produce functional magnetic nanostructures. Thus, Co-based and Fe-based precursors have been recently investigated for the growth of magnetic nanostructures by FEBID. In the present contribution, I will give an overview of the existing literature on magnetic nanostructures by FEBID and I will focus on the growth of Co nanostructures by FEBID using Co 2 (CO)8 as precursor gas. The Co content in the nanostructures can reach 95%. Magnetotransport experiments indicate that full metallic behaviour is displayed with relatively low residual resistivity and standard anisotropic magnetoresistance (0.8%). The coercive field of nanowires with changing aspect ratio has been determined in nanowires with width down to 150 nm by means of Magneto-optical Kerr Effect and the magnetization reversal has been imaged by means of Magnetic Force Microscopy, Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy as well as Lorentz Microscopy experiments. Nano-Hall probes have been grown with remarkable minimum detectable magnetic flux. Noticeably, it has been found that the domain-wall propagation field is lower than the domain-wall nucleation field in L-shaped nanowires, with potential applications in magnetic logic, sensing and storage. The spin polarization of these Co nanodeposits has been determined through Andreev-Reflection experiments in ferromagnetic-superconducting nanocontacts and amounts to 35%. Recent results obtained in Fe-based nanostructures by FEBID using Fe 2 (CO)9 precursor will be also presented. I acknowledge the collaboration in this field with A. Fernandez-Pacheco, R. Cordoba, L. Serrano, S. Sangiao, L.A. Rodriguez, C. Magen, E. Snoeck, L. Morellon, M.R. Ibarra.

  12. Sub-10 nm focused electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorp, W.F.

    2008-01-01

    Work started with a critical review of literature from the past 70-odd years. The review shows that the physical processes occurring in EBID are generally well understood. By combining models for electron scattering in a solid and electron beam induced heating and knowledge of growth regimes, the ma

  13. Physico-chemical study of the focused electron beam induced deposition process

    OpenAIRE

    Bret, Tristan; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    The focused electron beam induced deposition process is a promising technique for nano and micro patterning. Electrons can be focused in sub-angström dimensions, which allows atomic-scale resolution imaging, analysis, and processing techniques. Before the process can be used in controlled applications, the precise nature of the deposition mechanism must be described and modelled. The aim of this research work is to present a physical and chemical description of the focused electron beam induc...

  14. Fe:O:C grown by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition: magnetic and electric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrijsen, R; Schoenaker, F J; Ellis, T H; Barcones, B; Kohlhepp, J T; Swagten, H J M; Koopmans, B [Department of Applied Physics, Center for NanoMaterials and COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Cordoba, R; Ibarra, M R [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); De Teresa, J M; Magen, C [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Trompenaars, P; Mulders, J J L, E-mail: r.lavrijsen@tue.nl, E-mail: deteresa@unizar.es [FEI Electron Optics, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-01-14

    We systematically study the effect of oxygen content on the magneto-transport and microstructure of Fe:O:C nanowires deposited by focused-electron-beam-induced (FEBID) deposition. The Fe/O ratio can be varied with an Fe content varying between {approx} 50 and 80 at.% with overall low C content ({approx}16 {+-} 3 at.%) by adding H{sub 2}O during the deposition while keeping the beam parameters constant as measured by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The room-temperature magnetic properties for deposits with an Fe content of 66-71 at.% are investigated using the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and electric magneto-transport measurements. The nanostructure of the deposits is investigated through cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging, allowing us to link the observed magneto-resistance and resistivity to the transport mechanism in the deposits. These results demonstrate that functional magnetic nanostructures can be created, paving the way for new magnetic or even spintronics devices.

  15. Focused-electron-beam-induced-deposited cobalt nanopillars for nanomagnetic logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; van Mourik, R A; Yin, Y; Koopmans, B; Parkin, S S P

    2016-04-22

    Nanomagnetic logic (NML) intends to alleviate problems of continued miniaturization of CMOS-based electronics, such as energy dissipation through heat, through advantages such as low power operation and non-volatile magnetic elements. In line with recent breakthroughs in NML with perpendicularly magnetized elements formed from thin films, we have fabricated NML inverter chains from Co nanopillars by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) that exhibit shape-induced perpendicular magnetization. The flexibility of FEBID allows optimization of NML structures. Simulations reveal that the choice of nanopillar dimensions is critical to obtain the correct antiferromagnetically coupled configuration. Experiments carrying the array through a clocking cycle using the Oersted field from an integrated Cu wire show that the array responds to the clocking cycle. PMID:26941232

  16. Creating pure nanostructures from electron-beam-induced deposition using purification techniques: a technology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; Mulders, J.J.L.; Hagen, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    The creation of functional nanostructures by electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is becoming more widespread. The benefits of the technology include fast ‘point-and-shoot’ creation of three-dimensional nanostructures at predefined locations directly within a scanning electron microscope. One sig

  17. Investigation of morphological changes in platinum-containing nanostructures created by electron-beam-induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; Hesselberth, M.; Mulders, J.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Focused electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) allows the rapid fabrication of three-dimensional nanodevices and metallic wiring of nanostructures, and is a promising technique for many applications in nanoresearch. The authors present two topics on platinum-containing nanostructures created by EBI

  18. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm structure

  19. Three-dimensional Nanostructures Fabricated by Ion-Beam-Induced Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, P.

    2010-01-01

    The direct writing technology known as ion-beam-induced deposition (IBID) has been attracting attention mainly because of its high degree of flexibility of locally prototyping three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures. These high-resolution nanostructures have various research applications. However, no

  20. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm structures after 2013, as described by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), or can be used for rapid prototyping in research applications. The key point is to combine the throughp...

  1. Lateral resolution in focused electron beam-induced deposition: scaling laws for pulsed and static exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek, Aleksandra [Empa, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Thun (Switzerland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Szmyt, Wojciech; Kapusta, Czeslaw [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Utke, Ivo [Empa, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Thun (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, we review the single-adsorbate time-dependent continuum model for focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID). The differential equation for the adsorption rate will be expressed by dimensionless parameters describing the contributions of adsorption, desorption, dissociation, and the surface diffusion of the precursor adsorbates. The contributions are individually presented in order to elucidate their influence during variations in the electron beam exposure time. The findings are condensed into three new scaling laws for pulsed exposure FEBID (or FEB-induced etching) relating the lateral resolution of deposits or etch pits to surface diffusion and electron beam exposure dwell time for a given adsorbate depletion state. (orig.)

  2. In situ growth optimization in focused electron-beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Weirich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of an evolutionary genetic algorithm for the in situ optimization of nanostructures that are prepared by focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID. It allows us to tune the properties of the deposits towards the highest conductivity by using the time gradient of the measured in situ rate of change of conductance as the fitness parameter for the algorithm. The effectiveness of the procedure is presented for the precursor W(CO6 as well as for post-treatment of Pt–C deposits, which were obtained by the dissociation of MeCpPt(Me3. For W(CO6-based structures an increase of conductivity by one order of magnitude can be achieved, whereas the effect for MeCpPt(Me3 is largely suppressed. The presented technique can be applied to all beam-induced deposition processes and has great potential for a further optimization or tuning of parameters for nanostructures that are prepared by FEBID or related techniques.

  3. Dispersive ground plane core-shell type optical monopole antennas fabricated with electron beam induced deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Hakkı; Coenen, Toon; Polman, Albert; Kuipers, Laurens Kobus

    2012-09-25

    We present the bottom-up fabrication of dispersive silica core, gold cladding ground plane optical nanoantennas. The structures are made by a combination of electron-beam induced deposition of silica and sputtering of gold. The antenna lengths range from 300 to 2100 nm with size aspect ratios as large as 20. The angular emission patterns of the nanoantennas are measured with angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and compared with finite-element methods. Good overall correspondence between the the measured and calculated trends is observed. The dispersive nature of these plasmonic monopole antennas makes their radiation profile highly tunable. PMID:22889269

  4. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO)3NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollnhals, Florian; Drost, Martin; Tu, Fan; Carrasco, Esther; Späth, Andreas; Fink, Rainer H; Steinrück, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA) is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO)3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO)5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID) and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO)3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO)5. Co(CO)3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO)5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO)3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures. PMID:25161851

  5. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO)3NO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollnhals, Florian; Drost, Martin; Tu, Fan; Carrasco, Esther; Späth, Andreas; Fink, Rainer H; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Marbach, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA) is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO)3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO)5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID) and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO)3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO)5. Co(CO)3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO)5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO)3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures.

  6. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO3NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Vollnhals

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM, including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO5. Co(CO3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures.

  7. Towards a single step process to create high purity gold structures by electron beam induced deposition at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, C.; Mehendale, S.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Trompenaars, P. H. F.

    2016-10-01

    Highly pure metallic structures can be deposited by electron beam induced deposition and they have many important applications in different fields. The organo-metallic precursor is decomposed and deposited under the electron beam, and typically it is purified with post-irradiation in presence of O2. However, this approach limits the purification to the surface of the deposit. Therefore, ‘in situ’ purification during deposition using simultaneous flows of both O2 and precursor in parallel with two gas injector needles has been tested and verified. To simplify the practical arrangements, a special concentric nozzle has been designed allowing deposition and purification performed together in a single step. With this new device metallic structures with high purity can be obtained more easily, while there is no limit on the height of the structures within a practical time frame. In this work, we summarize the first results obtained for ‘in situ’ Au purification using this concentric nozzle, which is described in more detail, including flow simulations. The operational parameter space is explored in order to optimize the shape as well as the purity of the deposits, which are evaluated through scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements, respectively. The observed variations are interpreted in relation to other variables, such as the deposition yield. The resistivity of purified lines is also measured, and the influence of additional post treatments as a last purification step is studied.

  8. Spatial chemistry evolution during focused electron beam-induced deposition: origins and workarounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful application of functional nanostructures, fabricated via focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID), is known to depend crucially on its chemistry as FEBID tends to strong incorporation of carbon. Hence, it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms which finally determine the elemental composition after fabrication. In this study we focus on these processes from a fundamental point of view by means of (1) varying electron emission on the deposit surface; and (2) changing replenishment mechanism, both driven by the growing deposit itself. First, we revisit previous results concerning chemical variations in nanopillars (with a quasi-1D footprint) depending on the process parameters. In a second step we expand the investigations to deposits with a 3D footprint which are more relevant in the context of applications. Then, we demonstrate how technical setups and directional gas fluxes influence final chemistries. Finally, we put the findings in a bigger context with respect to functionalities which demonstrates the crucial importance of carefully set up fabrication processes to achieve controllable, predictable and reproducible chemistries for FEBID deposits as a key element for industrially oriented applications. (orig.)

  9. Functional nickel-based deposits synthesized by focused beam induced processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, R.; Barcones, B.; Roelfsema, E.; Verheijen, M. A.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Trompenaars, P. H. F.; Koopmans, B.

    2016-02-01

    Functional nanostructures fabricated by focused electron/ion beam induced processing (FEBIP/FIBIP) open a promising route for applications in nanoelectronics. Such developments rely on the exploration of new advanced materials. We report here the successful fabrication of nickel-based deposits by FEBIP/FIBIP using bis(methyl cyclopentadienyl)nickel as a precursor. In particular, binary compounds such as nickel oxide (NiO) are synthesized by using an in situ two-step process at room temperature. By this method, as-grown Ni deposits transform into homogeneous NiO deposits using focused electron beam irradiation under O2 flux. This procedure is effective in producing highly pure NiO deposits with resistivity of 2000 Ωcm and a polycrystalline structure with face-centred cubic lattice and grains of 5 nm. We demonstrate that systems based on NiO deposits displaying resistance switching and an exchange-bias effect could be grown by FEBIP using optimized parameters. Our results provide a breakthrough towards using these techniques for the fabrication of functional nanodevices.

  10. Review of magnetic nanostructures grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Teresa, J. M.; Fernández-Pacheco, A.; Córdoba, R.; Serrano-Ramón, L.; Sangiao, S.; Ibarra, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    We review the current status of the use of focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) for the growth of magnetic nanostructures. This technique relies on the local dissociation of a precursor gas by means of an electron beam. The most promising results have been obtained using the Co2(CO)8 precursor, where the Co content in the grown nanodeposited material can be tailored up to more than 95 at.%. Functional behaviour of these Co nanodeposits has been observed in applications such as arrays of magnetic dots for information storage and catalytic growth, magnetic tips for scanning probe microscopes, nano-Hall sensors for bead detection, nano-actuated magnetomechanical systems and nanowires for domain-wall manipulation. The review also covers interesting results observed in Fe-based and alloyed nanodeposits. Advantages and disadvantages of FEBID for the growth of magnetic nanostructures are discussed in the article as well as possible future directions in this field.

  11. Substrate effects on the electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum from a liquid precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, Eugenii U.; Schardein, Gregory; Wright, John C.; Hastings, J. Todd

    2011-07-01

    Focused electron-beam-induced deposition using bulk liquid precursors (LP-EBID) is a new nanofabrication technique developed in the last two years as an alternative to conventional EBID, which utilizes cumbersome gaseous precursors. Furthermore, LP-EBID using dilute aqueous precursors has been demonstrated to yield platinum (Pt) nanostructures with as-deposited metal content that is substantially higher than the purity achieved by EBID with currently available gaseous precursors. This advantage of LP-EBID--along with the ease of use, low cost, and relative innocuousness of the liquid precursors--holds promise for its practical applicability in areas such as rapid device prototyping and lithographic mask repair. One of the feasibility benchmarks for the LP-EBID method is the ability to deposit high-fidelity nanostructures on various substrate materials. In this study, we report the first observations of performing LP-EBID on bare and metal-coated silicon-nitride membranes, and compare the resulting Pt deposits to those obtained by LP-EBID on polyimide membranes in terms of nucleation, morphology, size dependence on electron dose, and purity.

  12. A comparison of neon versus helium ion beam induced deposition via Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Rajendra; Smith, Daryl A; Rack, Philip D

    2013-03-22

    The ion beam induced nanoscale synthesis of PtCx (where x ∼ 5) using the trimethyl (methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV) (MeCpPt(IV)Me3) precursor is investigated by performing Monte Carlo simulations of helium and neon ions. The helium beam leads to more lateral growth relative to the neon beam because of its larger interaction volume. The lateral growth of the nanopillars is dominated by molecules deposited via secondary electrons in both the simulations. Notably, the helium pillars are dominated by SE-I electrons whereas the neon pillars are dominated by SE-II electrons. Using a low precursor residence time of 70 μs, resulting in an equilibrium coverage of ∼4%, the neon simulation has a lower deposition efficiency (3.5%) compared to that of the helium simulation (6.5%). At larger residence time (10 ms) and consequently larger equilibrium coverage (85%) the deposition efficiencies of helium and neon increased to 49% and 21%, respectively; which is dominated by increased lateral growth rates leading to broader pillars. The nanoscale growth is further studied by varying the ion beam diameter at 10 ms precursor residence time. The study shows that total SE yield decreases with increasing beam diameters for both the ion types. However, helium has the larger SE yield as compared to that of neon in both the low and high precursor residence time, and thus pillars are wider in all the simulations studied.

  13. Artificial granularity in two-dimensional arrays of nanodots fabricated by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrati, F; Sachser, R; Huth, M [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Strauss, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysik, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 3, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Andrusenko, I; Gorelik, T; Kolb, U [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Welderweg 11, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bayarjargal, L; Winkler, B [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Abt. Kristallographie, Goethe-Universitaet, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-09-17

    We have prepared 2D arrays of nanodots embedded in an insulating matrix by means of focused-electron-beam-induced deposition using the W(CO){sub 6} precursor. By varying the deposition parameters, i.e. the electron beam current and energy and the raster constant, we obtain an artificial granular material with tunable electrical properties. The analysis of the temperature dependence of the conductivity and of the current-voltage characteristic suggests that the transport mechanism is governed by electron tunneling between artificial grains. In order to understand the nature of the granularity and thus the microstructural origin of the electronic transport behavior, we perform TEM and micro-Raman investigations. Independent of the deposition parameters, TEM measurements show that the dots are constituted of amorphous tungsten carbide clusters embedded in an amorphous carbonaceous matrix. Micro-Raman spectra show two peaks, around 690 and 860 cm{sup -1} associated with the W-C stretching modes. Higher frequency peaks give information on the composition of the matrix. In particular, we measure a peak at about 1290 cm{sup -1}, which is associated with sp{sup 3} carbon bonds. Furthermore we detect the so-called D and G peaks, at about 1350 and 1560 cm{sup -1}, associated with the vibration modes of the sp{sup 2} carbon bonds. The analysis of the position of the peaks and of their relative intensity suggests that the composition of the matrix is between nanocrystalline graphite and amorphous carbon.

  14. High-purity 3D nano-objects grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Sharma, Nidhi; Kölling, Sebastian; Koenraad, Paul M; Koopmans, Bert

    2016-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of current electronics, a specific challenge for the next generation of memory, sensing and logic devices is to find suitable strategies to move from two- to three-dimensional (3D) architectures. However, the creation of real 3D nano-objects is not trivial. Emerging non-conventional nanofabrication tools are required for this purpose. One attractive method is focused-electron-beam induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write process of 3D nano-objects. Here, we grow 3D iron and cobalt nanopillars by FEBID using diiron nonacarbonyl Fe2(CO)9, and dicobalt octacarbonyl Co2(CO)8, respectively, as starting materials. In addition, we systematically study the composition of these nanopillars at the sub-nanometer scale by atom probe tomography, explicitly mapping the homogeneity of the radial and longitudinal composition distributions. We show a way of fabricating high-purity 3D vertical nanostructures of ∼50 nm in diameter and a few micrometers in length. Our results suggest that the purity of such 3D nanoelements (above 90 at% Fe and above 95 at% Co) is directly linked to their growth regime, in which the selected deposition conditions are crucial for the final quality of the nanostructure. Moreover, we demonstrate that FEBID and the proposed characterization technique not only allow for growth and chemical analysis of single-element structures, but also offers a new way to directly study 3D core-shell architectures. This straightforward concept could establish a promising route to the design of 3D elements for future nano-electronic devices. PMID:27454835

  15. High-purity 3D nano-objects grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Sharma, Nidhi; Kölling, Sebastian; Koenraad, Paul M.; Koopmans, Bert

    2016-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of current electronics, a specific challenge for the next generation of memory, sensing and logic devices is to find suitable strategies to move from two- to three-dimensional (3D) architectures. However, the creation of real 3D nano-objects is not trivial. Emerging non-conventional nanofabrication tools are required for this purpose. One attractive method is focused-electron-beam induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write process of 3D nano-objects. Here, we grow 3D iron and cobalt nanopillars by FEBID using diiron nonacarbonyl Fe2(CO)9, and dicobalt octacarbonyl Co2(CO)8, respectively, as starting materials. In addition, we systematically study the composition of these nanopillars at the sub-nanometer scale by atom probe tomography, explicitly mapping the homogeneity of the radial and longitudinal composition distributions. We show a way of fabricating high-purity 3D vertical nanostructures of ˜50 nm in diameter and a few micrometers in length. Our results suggest that the purity of such 3D nanoelements (above 90 at% Fe and above 95 at% Co) is directly linked to their growth regime, in which the selected deposition conditions are crucial for the final quality of the nanostructure. Moreover, we demonstrate that FEBID and the proposed characterization technique not only allow for growth and chemical analysis of single-element structures, but also offers a new way to directly study 3D core-shell architectures. This straightforward concept could establish a promising route to the design of 3D elements for future nano-electronic devices.

  16. High-purity 3D nano-objects grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Sharma, Nidhi; Kölling, Sebastian; Koenraad, Paul M.; Koopmans, Bert

    2016-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of current electronics, a specific challenge for the next generation of memory, sensing and logic devices is to find suitable strategies to move from two- to three-dimensional (3D) architectures. However, the creation of real 3D nano-objects is not trivial. Emerging non-conventional nanofabrication tools are required for this purpose. One attractive method is focused-electron-beam induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write process of 3D nano-objects. Here, we grow 3D iron and cobalt nanopillars by FEBID using diiron nonacarbonyl Fe2(CO)9, and dicobalt octacarbonyl Co2(CO)8, respectively, as starting materials. In addition, we systematically study the composition of these nanopillars at the sub-nanometer scale by atom probe tomography, explicitly mapping the homogeneity of the radial and longitudinal composition distributions. We show a way of fabricating high-purity 3D vertical nanostructures of ∼50 nm in diameter and a few micrometers in length. Our results suggest that the purity of such 3D nanoelements (above 90 at% Fe and above 95 at% Co) is directly linked to their growth regime, in which the selected deposition conditions are crucial for the final quality of the nanostructure. Moreover, we demonstrate that FEBID and the proposed characterization technique not only allow for growth and chemical analysis of single-element structures, but also offers a new way to directly study 3D core–shell architectures. This straightforward concept could establish a promising route to the design of 3D elements for future nano-electronic devices.

  17. Low-dose patterning of platinum nanoclusters on carbon nanotubes by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition as studied by TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Ke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID is used as a direct-write approach to decorate ultrasmall Pt nanoclusters on carbon nanotubes at selected sites in a straightforward maskless manner. The as-deposited nanostructures are studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM in 2D and 3D, demonstrating that the Pt nanoclusters are well-dispersed, covering the selected areas of the CNT surface completely. The ability of FEBID to graft nanoclusters on multiple sides, through an electron-transparent target within one step, is unique as a physical deposition method. Using high-resolution TEM we have shown that the CNT structure can be well preserved thanks to the low dose used in FEBID. By tuning the electron-beam parameters, the density and distribution of the nanoclusters can be controlled. The purity of as-deposited nanoclusters can be improved by low-energy electron irradiation at room temperature.

  18. Plasmonic Gold Helices for the visible range fabricated by oxygen plasma purification of electron beam induced deposits

    CERN Document Server

    Haverkamp, Caspar; Jäckle, Sara; Manzoni, Anna; Christiansen, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) currently provides the only direct writing technique for truly three-dimensional nanostructures with geometrical features below 50 nm. Unfortunately, the depositions from metal-organic precursors suffer from a substantial carbon content. This hinders many applications, especially in plasmonics where the metallic nature of the geometric surfaces is mandatory. To overcome this problem a post-deposition treatment with oxygen plasma at room temperature was investigated for the purification of gold containing EBID structures. Upon plasma treatment, the structures experience a shrinkage in diameter of about 18 nm but entirely keep their initial shape. The proposed purification step results in a core-shell structure with the core consisting of mainly unaffected EBID material and a gold shell of about 20 nm in thickness. These purified structures are plasmonically active in the visible wavelength range as shown by dark field optical microscopy on helical nanostructures. Most no...

  19. Electron-beam-induced deposition and post-treatment processes to locally generate clean titanium oxide nanostructures on Si(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Walz, M.-M.; Vollnhals, F.; Lukasczyk, T.; Sandmann, A.; Chen, C.; Steinrück, H.-P.; Marbach, H.

    2011-02-01

    We have investigated the lithographic generation of TiOx nanostructures on Si(100) via electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and local Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). In addition, the fabricated nanostructures were also characterized ex situ via atomic force microscopy (AFM) under ambient conditions. In EBID, a highly focused electron beam is used to locally decompose precursor molecules and thereby to generate a deposit. A drawback of this nanofabrication technique is the unintended deposition of material in the vicinity of the impact position of the primary electron beam due to so-called proximity effects. Herein, we present a post-treatment procedure to deplete the unintended deposits by moderate sputtering after the deposition process. Moreover, we were able to observe the formation of pure titanium oxide nanocrystals (<100 nm) in situ upon heating the sample in a well-defined oxygen atmosphere. While the nanocrystal growth for the as-deposited structures also occurs in the surroundings of the irradiated area due to proximity effects, it is limited to the pre-defined regions, if the sample was sputtered before heating the sample under oxygen atmosphere. The described two-step post-treatment procedure after EBID presents a new pathway for the fabrication of clean localized nanostructures.

  20. Electron-beam-induced deposition and post-treatment processes to locally generate clean titanium oxide nanostructures on Si(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, M; Walz, M-M; Vollnhals, F; Lukasczyk, T; Sandmann, A; Steinrueck, H-P; Marbach, H [Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalische Chemie II and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials (ICMM), Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Chen, C, E-mail: marbach@chemie.uni-erlangen.de [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-02-25

    We have investigated the lithographic generation of TiO{sub x} nanostructures on Si(100) via electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and local Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). In addition, the fabricated nanostructures were also characterized ex situ via atomic force microscopy (AFM) under ambient conditions. In EBID, a highly focused electron beam is used to locally decompose precursor molecules and thereby to generate a deposit. A drawback of this nanofabrication technique is the unintended deposition of material in the vicinity of the impact position of the primary electron beam due to so-called proximity effects. Herein, we present a post-treatment procedure to deplete the unintended deposits by moderate sputtering after the deposition process. Moreover, we were able to observe the formation of pure titanium oxide nanocrystals (<100 nm) in situ upon heating the sample in a well-defined oxygen atmosphere. While the nanocrystal growth for the as-deposited structures also occurs in the surroundings of the irradiated area due to proximity effects, it is limited to the pre-defined regions, if the sample was sputtered before heating the sample under oxygen atmosphere. The described two-step post-treatment procedure after EBID presents a new pathway for the fabrication of clean localized nanostructures.

  1. On the magnetic properties of iron nanostructures fabricated via focused electron beam induced deposition and autocatalytic growth processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, F; Drost, M; Vollnhals, F; Späth, A; Carrasco, E; Fink, R H; Marbach, H

    2016-09-01

    We employ Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) in combination with autocatalytic growth (AG) processes to fabricate magnetic nanostructures with controllable shapes and thicknesses. Following this route, different Fe deposits were prepared on silicon nitride membranes under ultra-high vacuum conditions and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microspectroscopy (STXM). The originally deposited Fe nanostructures are composed of pure iron, especially when fabricated via autocatalytic growth processes. Quantitative near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was employed to derive information on the thickness dependent composition. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in STXM was used to derive the magnetic properties of the EBID prepared structures. STXM and XMCD analysis evinces the existence of a thin iron oxide layer at the deposit-vacuum interface, which is formed during exposure to ambient conditions. We were able to extract magnetic hysteresis loops for individual deposits from XMCD micrographs with varying external magnetic field. Within the investigated thickness range (2-16 nm), the magnetic coercivity, as evaluated from the width of the hysteresis loops, increases with deposit thickness and reaches a maximum value of ∼160 Oe at around 10 nm. In summary, we present a viable technique to fabricate ferromagnetic nanostructures in a controllable way and gain detailed insight into their chemical and magnetic properties. PMID:27454990

  2. On the magnetic properties of iron nanostructures fabricated via focused electron beam induced deposition and autocatalytic growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, F.; Drost, M.; Vollnhals, F.; Späth, A.; Carrasco, E.; Fink, R. H.; Marbach, H.

    2016-09-01

    We employ Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) in combination with autocatalytic growth (AG) processes to fabricate magnetic nanostructures with controllable shapes and thicknesses. Following this route, different Fe deposits were prepared on silicon nitride membranes under ultra-high vacuum conditions and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microspectroscopy (STXM). The originally deposited Fe nanostructures are composed of pure iron, especially when fabricated via autocatalytic growth processes. Quantitative near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was employed to derive information on the thickness dependent composition. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in STXM was used to derive the magnetic properties of the EBID prepared structures. STXM and XMCD analysis evinces the existence of a thin iron oxide layer at the deposit-vacuum interface, which is formed during exposure to ambient conditions. We were able to extract magnetic hysteresis loops for individual deposits from XMCD micrographs with varying external magnetic field. Within the investigated thickness range (2-16 nm), the magnetic coercivity, as evaluated from the width of the hysteresis loops, increases with deposit thickness and reaches a maximum value of ˜160 Oe at around 10 nm. In summary, we present a viable technique to fabricate ferromagnetic nanostructures in a controllable way and gain detailed insight into their chemical and magnetic properties.

  3. Variation of the metallic content of Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition of Cobalt

    OpenAIRE

    Bernau, Laurent; Gabureac, Mihai; Utke, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Cobalt-containing deposits from Cobalt carbonyl are experimentally produced and their composition is measured. The Cobalt concentration is found to be readily tunable between 20 and 70 at.% by variation of the dwell time. The variations in metallic concentration are explained by co-deposition of hydrocarbons present in the chamber background pressure.

  4. Unveiling the optical properties of a metamaterial synthesized by electron-beam-induced deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Woźniak, Paweł; Brönstrup, Gerald; Banyer, Peter; Christiansen, Silke; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The direct writing using a focused electron beam allows for fabricating truly three-dimensional structures of sub-wavelength dimensions in the visible spectral regime. The resulting sophisticated geometries are perfectly suited for studying light-matter interaction at the nanoscale. Their overall optical response will strongly depend not only on geometry but also on the optical properties of the deposited material. In case of the typically used metal-organic precursors, the deposits show a substructure of metallic nanocrystals embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. Since gold-containing precursor media are especially interesting for optical applications, we experimentally determine the effective permittivity of such an effective material. Our experiment is based on spectroscopic measurements of planar deposits. The retrieved permittivity shows a systematic dependence on the gold particle density and cannot be sufficiently described using the common Maxwell-Garnett approach for effective medium.

  5. Nanoscale Soldering of Positioned Carbon Nanotubes using Highly Conductive Electron Beam Induced Gold Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Mølhave, Kristian; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina;

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ method for controlled positioning of carbon nanotubes followed by highly conductive contacting of the nanotubes, using electron beam assisted deposition of gold. The positioning and soldering process takes place inside an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E...... in a carbon matrix. Nanoscale soldering of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) onto microelectrodes was achieved by deposition of a conducting gold line across a contact point between nanotube and electrode. The solderings were found to be mechanically stronger than the carbon nanotubes. We have positioned...

  6. Focused-electron-beam-induced deposition of freestanding three-dimensional nanostructures of pure coalesced copper crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on direct writing of three-dimensional freestanding nanostructures of Cu by use of a focused electron beam (FEB) and the metalorganic precursor hfac-Cu-TMVS. Freestanding horizontal rods were deposited over about 10 μm length and consist of small 2-5 nm Cu nanocrystals dispersed in an amorphous matrix containing carbon, fluorine, silicon, and oxygen. The freestanding horizontal rods were used as support for further vertical deposits resulting in tips of coalesced facetted Cu nanocrystals of up to 100 nm in size. The almost constant deposition rate of 5-6 nm/s is in contrast to vertical tips on bulk supports, which show a deposition rate decreasing from 23 to 10 nm/s. The above results suggest a thermal decomposition process induced by electron energy absorption

  7. Formation of pure Cu nanocrystals upon post-growth annealing of Cu–C material obtained from focused electron beam induced deposition: comparison of different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkudlarek, Aleksandra; Rodrigues Vaz, Alfredo; Zhang, Yucheng; Rudkowski, Andrzej; Kapusta, Czesław; Erni, Rolf; Moshkalev, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this paper we study in detail the post-growth annealing of a copper-containing material deposited with focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). The organometallic precursor Cu(II)(hfac)2 was used for deposition and the results were compared to that of compared to earlier experiments with (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the deposition of amorphous material from Cu(II)(hfac)2. In contrast, as-deposited material from (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB) was nano-composite with Cu nanocrystals dispersed in a carbonaceous matrix. After annealing at around 150–200 °C all deposits showed the formation of pure Cu nanocrystals at the outer surface of the initial deposit due to the migration of Cu atoms from the carbonaceous matrix containing the elements carbon, oxygen, and fluorine. Post-irradiation of deposits with 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope favored the formation of Cu nanocrystals within the carbonaceous matrix of freestanding rods and suppressed the formation on their surface. Electrical four-point measurements on FEBID lines from Cu(hfac)2 showed five orders of magnitude improvement in conductivity when being annealed conventionally and by laser-induced heating in the scanning electron microscope chamber. PMID:26425404

  8. Electrically conducting, ultra-sharp, high aspect-ratio probes for AFM fabricated by electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jason, E-mail: jason.brown@physics.ox.ac.uk [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kocher, Paul; Ramanujan, Chandra S; Sharp, David N [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Torimitsu, Keiichi [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, 243-0198 (Japan); Ryan, John F [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    We report on the fabrication of electrically conducting, ultra-sharp, high-aspect ratio probes for atomic force microscopy by electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum. Probes of 4.0 ±1.0 nm radius-of-curvature are routinely produced with high repeatability and near-100% yield. Contact-mode topographical imaging of the granular nature of a sputtered gold surface is used to assess the imaging performance of the probes, and the derived power spectral density plots are used to quantify the enhanced sensitivity as a function of spatial frequency. The ability of the probes to reproduce high aspect-ratio features is illustrated by imaging a close-packed array of nanospheres. The electrical resistance of the probes is measured to be of order 100 kΩ. - Highlights: • Electrically conducting, ultra-sharp, high aspect-ratio probes for AFM with radius-of-curvature 4.0±±1.0 nm. • AFM probe fabrication by electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum. • Enhanced spatial resolution demonstrated through AFM of sputtered gold grains. • AFM imaging of deep clefts and recesses on a close-packed array of nanospheres.

  9. Graphene crystal growth by thermal precipitation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon precursor via patterned-iron thin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rius Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, relevant advances on graphene as a building block of integrated circuits (ICs have been demonstrated. Graphene growth and device fabrication related processing has been steadily and intensively powered due to commercial interest; however, there are many challenges associated with the incorporation of graphene into commercial applications which includes challenges associated with the synthesis of this material. Specifically, the controlled deposition of single layer large single crystal graphene on arbitrary supports, is particularly challenging. Previously, we have reported the first demonstration of the transformation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon (FIBID-C into patterned graphitic layers by metal-assisted thermal treatment (Ni foils. In this present work, we continue exploiting the FIBID-C approach as a route for graphene deposition. Here, thin patterned Fe layers are used for the catalysis of graphenization and graphitization. We demonstrate the formation of high quality single and few layer graphene, which evidences, the possibility of using Fe as a catalyst for graphene deposition. The mechanism is understood as the minute precipitation of atomic carbon after supersaturation of some iron carbides formed under a high temperature treatment. As a consequence of the complete wetting of FIBID-C and patterned Fe layers, which enable graphene growth, the as-deposited patterns do not preserve their original shape after the thermal treatment

  10. Electron Induced Surface Reactions of cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2: A Route to Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition of Pure Pt Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julie A; Wu, Yung-Chien; McElwee-White, Lisa; Fairbrother, D Howard

    2016-07-27

    Using mechanistic data from surface science studies on electron-induced reactions of organometallic precursors, cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2 (1) was designed specifically for use in focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of Pt nanostructures. Electron induced decomposition of adsorbed 1 under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions proceeds through initial CO loss as determined by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Although the Pt-Cl bonds remain intact during the initial decomposition step, larger electron doses induce removal of the residual chloride through an electron-stimulated desorption process. FEBID structures created from cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2 under steady state deposition conditions in an Auger spectrometer were determined to be PtCl2, free of carbon and oxygen. Coupled with the electron stimulated removal of chlorine demonstrated in the UHV experiments, the Auger deposition data establish a route to FEBID of pure Pt. Results from this study demonstrate that structure-activity relationships can be used to design new precursors specifically for FEBID.

  11. Beam induced heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Esteban Mueller, J; Gentini, L; Goddar, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Nougaret, J L; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Sapinski, M; Shaposhinkova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the rapid increase of the luminosity performance of LHC came at the expense of increased temperature and pressure readings on several near-beam LHC equipments. In some cases, this beam induced heating was suspected to cause beam dumps and even degradation of the equipment. This contribution aims at gathering the observations of beam induced heating due to beam coupling impedance, their current level of understanding and possible actions that could be implemented during the winter stop 2011-2012.

  12. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L. D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-06-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  13. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-06-15

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  14. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  15. Influence of the shape and surface oxidation in the magnetization reversal of thin iron nanowires grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron nanostructures grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID are promising for applications in magnetic sensing, storage and logic. Such applications require a precise design and determination of the coercive field (HC, which depends on the shape of the nanostructure. In the present work, we have used the Fe2(CO9 precursor to grow iron nanowires by FEBID in the thickness range from 10 to 45 nm and width range from 50 to 500 nm. These nanowires exhibit an Fe content between 80 and 85%, thus giving a high ferromagnetic signal. Magneto-optical Kerr characterization indicates that HC decreases for increasing thickness and width, providing a route to control the magnetization reversal field through the modification of the nanowire dimensions. Transmission electron microscopy experiments indicate that these wires have a bell-type shape with a surface oxide layer of about 5 nm. Such features are decisive in the actual value of HC as micromagnetic simulations demonstrate. These results will help to make appropriate designs of magnetic nanowires grown by FEBID.

  16. Low energy ion beam induced changes in structural and thermal properties of polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheem, A. M. Abdel; Atta, A.; Maksoud, M. I. A. Abdel

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study is extended for obtaining relation between the collision of ion beam with polycarbonate polymer (PC) and the introduced modification of technological applications. Polycarbonate films are irradiated by a 6 keV argon ion beam extracted from locally design cold cathode ion source with different ion fluences. The films are characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Mechanical tester, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The increase in ion beam irradiation leads to an increase in the tensile strength and reduction in elongation at break for PC. TGA Analysis shows that the thermal decomposition temperature of irradiated polycarbonate changes with ion fluence. The DSC graphs show improvements in thermal stability with increase in the activation energy after ion beam irradiation. Ion penetration depths and distributions of scattered atoms are calculated using SRIM Monte Carlo simulation programs.

  17. Beam-induced quench test of LHC main quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Holzer, E B; Kurfuerst, C; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Steckert, J; Verweij, A; Zamantzas, C

    2011-01-01

    Unexpected beam loss might lead to a transition of the accelerator superconducting magnet to a normal conducting state. The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system is designed to abort the beam before the energy deposited in the magnet coils reach a quench-provoking level. In order to verify the threshold settings generated by simulation, a series of beam-induced quench tests at various beam energies has been performed. The beam losses are generated by means of an orbital bump peaked in one of main quadrupole magnets (MQ). The analysis includes not only BLM data but also the quench protection system (QPS) and cryogenics data. The measurements are compared to Geant4 simulations of energy deposition inside the coils and corresponding BLM signal outside the cryostat.

  18. Testing beam-induced quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchmann, B.; Baer, T.; Bednarek, M.; Bellodi, G.; Bracco, C.; Bruce, R.; Cerutti, F.; Chetvertkova, V.; Dehning, B.; Granieri, P. P.; Hofle, W.; Holzer, E. B.; Lechner, A.; Nebot Del Busto, E.; Priebe, A.; Redaelli, S.; Salvachua, B.; Sapinski, M.; Schmidt, R.; Shetty, N.; Skordis, E.; Solfaroli, M.; Steckert, J.; Valuch, D.; Verweij, A.; Wenninger, J.; Wollmann, D.; Zerlauth, M.

    2015-06-01

    In the years 2009-2013 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been operated with the top beam energies of 3.5 and 4 TeV per proton (from 2012) instead of the nominal 7 TeV. The currents in the superconducting magnets were reduced accordingly. To date only seventeen beam-induced quenches have occurred; eight of them during specially designed quench tests, the others during injection. There has not been a single beam-induced quench during normal collider operation with stored beam. The conditions, however, are expected to become much more challenging after the long LHC shutdown. The magnets will be operating at near nominal currents, and in the presence of high energy and high intensity beams with a stored energy of up to 362 MJ per beam. In this paper we summarize our efforts to understand the quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets. We describe beam-loss events and dedicated experiments with beam, as well as the simulation methods used to reproduce the observable signals. The simulated energy deposition in the coils is compared to the quench levels predicted by electrothermal models, thus allowing one to validate and improve the models which are used to set beam-dump thresholds on beam-loss monitors for run 2.

  19. Exposure and analysis of microparticles embedded in silica aerogel keystones using NF3-mediated electron beam-induced etching and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aiden A.; Lin, Ting; Toth, Milos; Westphal, Andrew J.; Vicenzi, Edward P.; Beeman, Jeffrey; Silver, Eric H.

    2016-07-01

    In 2006, NASA's Stardust spacecraft delivered to Earth dust particles collected from the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2, with the goal of furthering the understanding of solar system formation. Stardust cometary samples were collected in a low-density, nanoporous silica aerogel making their study technically challenging. This article demonstrates the identification, exposure, and elemental composition analysis of particles analogous to those collected by NASA's Stardust mission using in-situ SEM techniques. Backscattered electron imaging is shown by experimental observation and Monte Carlo simulation to be suitable for locating particles of a range of sizes relevant to Stardust (down to submicron diameters) embedded within silica aerogel. Selective removal of the silica aerogel encapsulating an embedded particle is performed by cryogenic NF3-mediated electron beam-induced etching. The porous, low-density nature of the aerogel results in an enhanced etch rate compared with solid material, making it an effective, nonmechanical method for the exposure of particles. After exposure, elemental composition of the particle was analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using a high spectral resolution microcalorimeter. Signals from fluorine contamination are shown to correspond to nonremoved silica aerogel and only in residual concentrations.

  20. Beam-Induced Effects and Radiological Issues in High-Intensity High-Energy Fixed Target Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N V; Drozhdin, A I; Pronskikh, V S; Reitzner, D; Tropin, I S; Vaziri, K

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of accelerators for Megawatt proton and heavy-ion beams moves us into a completely new domain of extreme specific energies of up to 0.1 MJ/g (Megajoule/gram) and specific power up to 1 TW/g (Terawatt/gram) in beam interactions with matter. This paper is focused on deleterious effects of controlled and uncontrolled impacts of high-intensity beams on components of beam-lines, target stations, beam absorbers, shielding and environment. Two new experiments at Fermilab are taken as an example. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will explore the interactions and transformations of the world's highest-intensity neutrino beam by sending it from Fermilab more than 1,000 kilometers through the Earth's mantle to a large liquid argon detector. The Mu2e experiment is devoted to studies of the conversion of a negative muon to electron in the field of a nucleus without emission of neutrinos.

  1. Helium ion beam induced growth of hammerhead AFM probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanda, G.; Van Veldhoven, E.; Maas, D.; Sadeghian, H.; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the direct-write growth of hammerhead atomic force microscope(AFM) probes by He+beam induced deposition of platinum-carbon. In order to grow a thin nanoneedle on top of a conventional AFM probe, the authors move a focused He+beam during exposure to a PtC precursor gas. In the fina

  2. Helium ion beam induced growth of hammerhead AFM probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanda, G.; Veldhoven, E. van; Maas, D.J.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the direct-write growth of hammerhead atomic force microscope (AFM) probes by He+ beam induced deposition of platinum-carbon. In order to grow a thin nanoneedle on top of a conventional AFM probe, the authors move a focused He+ beam during exposure to a PtC precursor gas. In the f

  3. Ion-beam induced structure modifications in amorphous germanium; Ionenstrahlinduzierte Strukturmodifikationen in amorphem Germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Tobias

    2012-05-03

    Object of the present thesis was the systematic study of ion-beam induced structure modifications in amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers due to low- (LEI) and high-energetic (SHI) ion irradiation. The LEI irradiation of crystalline Ge (c-Ge) effects because the dominating nuclear scattering of the ions on the solid-state atoms the formation of a homogeneous a-Ge Layer. Directly on the surface for fluences of two orders of magnitude above the amorphization fluence the formation of stable cavities independently on the irradiation conditions was observed. For the first time for the ion-beam induced cavity formation respectively for the steady expansion of the porous layer forming with growing fluence a linear dependence on the energy {epsilon}{sub n} deposed in nuclear processes was detected. Furthermore the formation of buried cavities was observed, which shows a dependence on the type of ions. While in the c-Ge samples in the range of the high electronic energy deposition no radiation defects, cavities, or plastic deformations were observed, the high electronic energy transfer in the 3.1 {mu}m thick pre-amorphized a-Ge surface layers leads to the formation of randomly distributed cavities. Basing on the linear connection between cavity-induced vertical volume expansion and the fluence determined for different energy transfers for the first time a material-specific threshold value of {epsilon}{sub e}{sup HRF}=(10.5{+-}1.0) kev nm{sup -1} was determined, above which the ion-beam induced cavity formation in a-Ge sets on. The anisotropic plastic deformation of th a-Ge layer superposed at inclined SHI irradiation on the cavity formation was very well described by an equation derived from the viscoelastic Maxwell model, but modified under regardment of the experimental results. The positive deformation yields determined thereby exhibit above a threshold value for the ion-beam induced plastic deformation {epsilon}{sub e}{sup S{sub a}}=(12{+-}2) keV nm{sup -1} for the first

  4. Industrial perspective on focused electron beam-induced processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, Tristan; Hofmann, Thorsten; Edinger, Klaus [Betriebsstaette Rossdorf, Carl Zeiss SMS GmbH, Rossdorf (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    After a short overview of the historical developments of the technique of gas-assisted focused electron beam-induced processing (mostly deposition and etching), this paper deals with the applications of this technology to photolithographic mask repair. A commented list of results is shown on different mask types, for different types of defects, and at different node generations. The scope of this article is double: summarize the state of the art in a fast-paced highly specific industrial environment driven by ''Moore's law'' and feedback to academic researchers some technologically relevant directions for further investigations. (orig.)

  5. Beam-Induced Multipactoring and Electron-Cloud Effects in Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Scandale, Walter; Zimmermann, F

    2009-01-01

    In the beam pipe of high-energy proton or positron accelerators an “electron cloud” can be generated by a variety of processes, e.g. by residual-gas ionization, by photoemission from synchrotron radiation, and, most importantly, by secondary emission via a beam-induced multipactoring process. The electron cloud commonly leads to a degradation of the beam vacuum by several orders of magnitude, to fast beam instabilities, to beam-size increases, and to fast or slow beam losses. At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the cloud electrons could also give rise to an additional heat load inside cold superconducting magnets. In addition to the direct heat deposition from incoherently moving electrons, a potential “magnetron effect” has been conjectured, where electrons would radiate coherently when moving in a strong magnetic field under the simultaneous influence of a beam-induced electric “wake” field that may become resonant with the cyclotron frequency. Electron-cloud effects are already being observed w...

  6. Electron beam induced surface activation of oxide surfaces for nanofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollnhals, Florian; Seiler, Steffen; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Steinrueck, Hans-Peter; Marbach, Hubertus [Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalische Chemie II and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials (ICMM), Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Woolcot, Tom; Thornton, Geoff [London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The controlled fabrication of structures on the nanoscale is a major challenge in science and engineering. Direct-write techniques like Electron Beam Induced Deposition (EBID) were shown to be suitable tools in this context. Recently, Electron Beam Induced Surface Activation (EBISA) has been introduced as a new focused electron beam technique. In EBISA, a surface, e.g. SiO{sub 2}, is irradiated by a focused electron beam, resulting in an activation of the exposed area. The activated area can then react and decompose precursor gases like iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO){sub 5}. This leads to a primary deposit, which continues to grow autocatalytically as long as Fe(CO){sub 5} is supplied, resulting in pure (> 90 % at.), crystalline iron nanostructures. We expand the use of this concept by exploring EBISA to produce metallic nanostructures on TiO{sub 2}(110) in UHV; atomistic insight into the process is obtained via Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and chemical insight via Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES).

  7. Light emission from particle beam induced plasma - An overview

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich, A

    2015-01-01

    Experiments to study the light emission from plasma produced by particle beams are presented. Fundamental aspects in comparison with discharge plasma formation are discussed. It is shown that the formation of excimer molecules is an important process. This paper summarizes various studies of particle beam induced light emission and presents first results of a direct comparison of light emission induced by electron- and ion beam excitation. Both high energy heavy ion beam and low energy electron beam experiments are described and an overview over applications in the form of light sources, lasers, and ionization devices is given.

  8. Ion beam induced luminescence characterisation of CVD diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Gonon, P.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The characterisation of the band structure properties of materials and devices by ion microprobe techniques has been made possible at the Melbourne MeV ion microprobe facility with the development of Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL). A number of diamond films grown by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapour Deposition (MPCVD) on silicon substrates are analysed. A preliminary study of the luminescence properties of these samples has revealed information not previously obtainable via traditional microprobe techniques. The optical effects of incorporating dopants during the deposition process is determined using IBIL. The presence of trace element impurities introduced during growth is examined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), and a measurement of the film thickness is made using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). 7 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Acetone and the precursor ligand acetylacetone : distinctly different electron beam induced decomposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warneke, Jonas; Van Dorp, Willem F.; Rudolf, Petra; Stano, Michal; Papp, Peter; Matejcik, Stefan; Borrmann, Tobias; Swiderek, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) acetylacetone plays a role as a ligand in metal acetylacetonate complexes. As part of a larger effort to understand the chemical processes in FEBID, the electron-induced reactions of acetylacetone were studied both in condensed layers and in the ga

  10. Testing beam-induced quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, B; Bednarek, M; Bellodi, G; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Cerutti, F; Chetvertkova, V; Dehning, B; Granieri, P P; Hofle, W; Holzer, E B; Lechner, A; Del Busto, E Nebot; Priebe, A; Redaelli, S; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shetty, N; Skordis, E; Solfaroli, M; Steckert, J; Valuch, D; Verweij, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2015-01-01

    In the years 2009-2013 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been operated with the top beam energies of 3.5 TeV and 4 TeV per proton (from 2012) instead of the nominal 7 TeV. The currents in the superconducting magnets were reduced accordingly. To date only seventeen beam-induced quenches have occurred; eight of them during specially designed quench tests, the others during injection. There has not been a single beam- induced quench during normal collider operation with stored beam. The conditions, however, are expected to become much more challenging after the long LHC shutdown. The magnets will be operating at near nominal currents, and in the presence of high energy and high intensity beams with a stored energy of up to 362 MJ per beam. In this paper we summarize our efforts to understand the quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets. We describe beam-loss events and dedicated experiments with beam, as well as the simulation methods used to reproduce the observable signals. The simulated energy depositio...

  11. Critical energy deposition and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    They use a spherical time dependent Thomas Fermi model, to describe the dynamical evolution of hot and compressed nuclei, coupled to a three-dimensional site-bond percolation model to describe the fluctuations of the mean field. This model predicts that nuclei break up in several pieces (multifragmentation) if the excitation energy becomes large enough (typically if it is larger than about 70% of the nucleus binding energy)

  12. Supersonic Flow Control Using Combined Energy Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Azarova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drag force control via energy deposition in an oncoming flow is a wide area of interest in aerospace sciences. Recently, investigations on the effect of combining energy sources have been conducted. The possibility of coupling microwave (MW discharges or MW and laser energy deposition is discussed. In the present work, the flow details accompanying the interaction of a combined energy release and an aerodynamic body in a supersonic flow are considered numerically on the base of the Euler equations. Comparison with non-combined energy deposition is analyzed. The effect of introducing the internal part to the energy release on the drag force reduction is examined. The flows for blunt cylinder, hemisphere-cylinder and pointed body are considered for a wide class of the combined energy source characteristics. Freestream Mach number is varied from 1.89 to 3.45. Complicated unsteady vortex structures caused by the Richtmyer–Meshkov instabilities are shown to be the reason for the reduction in drag. The unsteady double vortex mechanism of the frontal drag force reduction and mechanism of the constantly acting vortices at the steady flow are described. Suppression of shear layer instability and large scaled flow pulsations as the result of the combined energy release effect is established. Complex conservative difference schemes are used in the simulations.

  13. Relativistic-electron-beam-induced fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of a focussed relativistic electron beam (REB) with a solid target has been investigated. The beam performance of the REB generator ''REIDEN III'' is 500 kV, 80 kA at a focal spot of 1.5 mm diameter, which gives 2X1012Wcm-2. High-temperature dense plasmas are produced at the focal point on the solid target. It expands radially along the target surface. The measured electron temperature (1-2 keV) and the ion energy (approximately 2 keV) endorse the existence of enhanced REB absorption in a dense plasma. The neutrons observed (approximately 109/shot, 2.45 MeV) in the case of a CD2 target are of thermonuclear origin and compatible with the plasma temperature. On the assumption that the electron beam of radius r is stopped at a length Λ and deposits its energy, the energy balance equation is approximately given by πr2Λn1kT=IVtau. On inserting beam current I, voltage V, pulse time tau and density n1, the energy deposition distance Λ can be estimated. For a fusion temperature of 1 keV, the distance Λ must be two orders of magnitude shorter than the simple classical stopping length, which seems to be due to non-linear coupling. A pellet implosion experiment of a multi-structure target has been performed. (author)

  14. Energy Deposition and Quench Level Calculations for Millisecond and Steady-State Quench Tests of LHC Arc Quadrupoles at 4 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Shetty, N V; Chetvertkova, V; Lechner, A; Priebe, A; Sapinski, M; Verweij, A; Wollmann, D

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, beam-induced quench tests with 4 TeV protons were performed to probe the quench level of LHC arc quadrupole magnets at timescales corresponding to millisecond beam losses and steady-state losses. As the energy deposition in magnet coils cannot be measured directly, this study presents corresponding FLUKA simulations as well as estimates of quench levels derived with the QP3 code. Furthermore, beam loss monitor (BLM) signals were simulated and benchmarked against the measurements. Simulated and measured BLM signals are generally found to agree within 30 percent.

  15. Beam Induced Pressure Rise at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S Y; Bai, Mei; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Cameron, Peter; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Gullotta, Justin; He, Ping; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Iriso, Ubaldo; Lee, Roger C; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Peggs, Steve; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smart, Loralie; Snydstrup, Louis; Thieberger, Peter; Trbojevic, Dejan; Wang, Lanfa; Wei, Jie; Zeno, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Beam induced pressure rise in RHIC warm sections is currently one of the machine intensity and luminosity limits. This pressure rise is mainly due to electron cloud effects. The RHIC warm section electron cloud is associated with longer bunch spacings compared with other machines, and is distributed non-uniformly around the ring. In addition to the countermeasures for normal electron cloud, such as the NEG coated pipe, solenoids, beam scrubbing, bunch gaps, and larger bunch spacing, other studies and beam tests toward the understanding and counteracting RHIC warm electron cloud are of interest. These include the ion desorption studies and the test of anti-grazing ridges. For high bunch intensities and the shortest bunch spacings, pressure rises at certain locations in the cryogenic region have been observed during the past two runs. Beam studies are planned for the current 2005 run and the results will be reported.

  16. Measurement of therapeutic photon beams-induced Cerenkov radiation generated in PMMA- and PS-based plastic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bongsoo; Shin, Sang Hun; Yoo, Wook Jae; Jang, Kyoung Won

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we characterized Cerenkov radiation generated in polystyrene (PS)- and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based plastic optical fibers (POFs) to select an adequate optical fiber for producing Cerenkov radiation. To determine the relationship between the absorbed dose and the intensity of Cerenkov radiation, we calculated the energy depositions of photon beams and fluxes of electrons inducing Cerenkov radiation using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code. Also, intensities of Cerenkov radiation generated in PS- and PMMA-based POFs were measured as functions of dose rate and monitor unit. At last, therapeutic photon beams-induced Cerenkov radiation in PS- and PMMA-based POFs was measured according to depths of solid water phantom.

  17. Study of the beam-induced neutron flux and required shielding for DIANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Andreas, E-mail: abest1@nd.edu [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Couder, Manoel [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Famiano, Michael [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Lemut, Alberto [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wiescher, Michael [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Low energy accelerators in underground locations have emerged as a powerful tool for the measurement of critical nuclear reactions for the study of energy production and element synthesis in astrophysics. While cosmic ray induced background is substantially reduced, beam induced background on target impurities and depositions on target and collimator materials remain a matter of serious concern. The Dual Ion Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics (DIANA) is proposed to operate as a low-level background facility in an underground location. One of the main goals of DIANA is the study of neutron sources in stellar helium burning. For these experiments DIANA is a neutron radiation source which may affect other nearby low background level experiments. We therefore investigated the required laboratory layout to attenuate the neutron flux generated in a worst-case scenario to a level below the natural background in the underground environment. Detailed Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron propagation in the laboratory show that a neutron flux many orders of magnitude above expected values gets attenuated below the natural background rate using a 1 m thick water-shielded door as well as an emergency access/egress maze.

  18. Beam induced deposition of platinum using a helium ion microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, C.A.; Stern, L.; Barriss, L.; Farkas, L.; DiManna, M.; Mello, R.; Maas, D.J.; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Helium ion microscopy is now a demonstrated practical technology that possesses the resolution and beam currents necessary to perform nanofabrication tasks, such as circuit edit applications. Due to helium’s electrical properties and sample interaction characteristics relative to gallium, it is like

  19. Beam induced deposition of platinum using a helium ion microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, C.A.; Stern, L.; Barriss, L.; Farkas, L.; DiManna, M.; Mello, R.; Maas, D.J.; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Helium ion microscopy is now a demonstrated practical technology that possesses the resolution and beam currents necessary to perform nanofabrication tasks, such as circuit edit applications. Due to helium's electrical properties and sample interaction characteristics relative to gallium, it is like

  20. Beam induced RF cavity transient voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the transient voltage induced in a radio frequency (RF) cavity by the injection of a relativistic bunched beam into a circular accelerator. A simplified model of the beam induced voltage, using a single tone current signal, is generated and compared with the voltage induced by a more realistic model of a point-like bunched beam. The high Q limit of the bunched beam model is shown to be related simply to the simplified model. Both models are shown to induce voltages at the resonant frequency ωr of the cavity and at an integer multiple of the bunch revolution frequency (i.e. the accelerating frequency for powered cavity operation) hω0. The presence of two nearby frequencies in the cavity leads to a modulation of the carrier wave exp(jhω0t). A special emphasis is placed in this paper on studying the modulation function. These models prove useful for computing the transient voltage induced in superconducting RF cavities, which was the motivation behind this research. The modulation of the transient cavity voltage discussed in this paper is the physical basis of the recently observed and explained new kind of longitudinal rigid dipole mode which differs from the conventional Robinson mode

  1. Ion beam induced effects at 15 K in z-cutLiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary effects of the damage formation in z-cut LiNbO3 due to ion irradiation was investigated. Therefor the samples were irradiated stepwise and subsequently measured by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) at 15 K without changing the temperature of the sample. The irradiation was done with 30 keV H-, 50 keV Li-, 160 keV O- and 350 keV Ar-ions at ion fluences between 5 x 1011 cm-2 and 2 x 1017 cm-2. The RBS measurements were performed with 1.4 MeV He-ions in steps of equal charges providing a series of subspectra. It was observed that the backscattering yield of the damaged region decreases with increasing number of subspectra indicating an annealing of defects as a consequence of the RBS measurement. The energy deposited into electronic processes by the analyzing He beam is mostly responsible for the observed defect annealing. The amount of annealing depends on the defect concentration and the ion species. The undisturbed defect accumulation which will be observed without any effect of measurement was calculated for the different ion species by an analytical formula taking into account the He-beam induced annealing

  2. Rapid ion-beam-induced Ostwald ripening in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion-beam-induced grain coarsening in initially amorphous (Zr,Y)Ox layers is observed by atomic force microscopy. The films were bombarded at room temperature. Grain-boundary grooves indicate that the larger grains have a diameter of about 83 nm at 2 min, and 131 nm at 5 min. Up to 5 min, the grain size evolves with time as tβ, with β=0.5±0.2. Based on a new parametrization of ion-induced grain-boundary translation, we derive a theoretical estimate of β=3/7, consistent with our measurement. By 7.5 min, many of the grain-boundary grooves are shallow and indistinct, suggesting that the surviving grains are mutually well aligned. Such rapid grain growth at room temperature is unusual and is enabled by the ion bombardment. Similar grain growth processes are expected during ion-beam-assisted deposition film growth. The status of ion-textured yttria stabilized zirconia films as buffer layers for high-current high-temperature superconducting films is briefly summarized

  3. Validation of Geant4 simulation of electron energy deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Batic, Matej; Pia, Maria Grazia; Saracco, Paolo; Weidenspointner, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Geant4-based simulations of the energy deposited by electrons in various materials are quantitatively compared to high precision calorimetric measurements taken at Sandia Laboratories. The experimental data concern electron beams of energy between a few tens of keV and 1 MeV at various incidence angles. Two experimental scenarios are evaluated: the longitudinal energy deposition pattern in a finely segmented detector, and the total energy deposited in a larger size calorimeter. The simulations are produced with Geant4 versions from 9.1 to 9.6; they involve models of electron-photon interactions in the standard and low energy electromagnetic packages, and various implementations of electron multiple scattering. Significant differences in compatibility with experimental data are observed in the longitudinal energy deposition patterns produced by the examined Geant4 versions, while the total deposited energy exhibits smaller variations across the various Geant4 versions, with the exception Geant4 9.4. The valida...

  4. ION-BEAM INDUCED GENERATION OF CU ADATOMS ON CU(100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREEMAN, M; BOERMA, DO

    1992-01-01

    Low-energy ion scattering was used to study on-beam induced adatom generation during irradiation of a Cu(100) surface with 6 keV Ne ions at a sample temperature of 60 K. It was found that the number of adatoms produced per incoming ion decreases from an average of 3.5 to a saturation level of 1.8 af

  5. Electron-Beam Induced Transformations of Layered Tin Dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, E; Huang, Y; Komsa, H-P; Ghorbani-Asl, M; Krasheninnikov, A V; Sutter, P

    2016-07-13

    By combining high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and associated analytical methods with first-principles calculations, we study the behavior of layered tin dichalcogenides under electron beam irradiation. We demonstrate that the controllable removal of chalcogen atoms due to electron irradiation, at both room and elevated temperatures, gives rise to transformations in the atomic structure of Sn-S and Sn-Se systems so that new phases with different properties can be induced. In particular, rhombohedral layered SnS2 and SnSe2 can be transformed via electron beam induced loss of chalcogen atoms into highly anisotropic orthorhombic layered SnS and SnSe. A striking dependence of the layer orientation of the resulting SnS-parallel to the layers of ultrathin SnS2 starting material, but slanted for transformations of thicker few-layer SnS2-is rationalized by a transformation pathway in which vacancies group into ordered S-vacancy lines, which convert via a Sn2S3 intermediate to SnS. Absence of a stable Sn2Se3 intermediate precludes this pathway for the selenides, hence SnSe2 always transforms into basal plane oriented SnSe. Our results provide microscopic insights into the transformation mechanism and show how irradiation can be used to tune the properties of layered tin chalcogenides for applications in electronics, catalysis, or energy storage.

  6. Electron-Beam Induced Transformations of Layered Tin Dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, E; Huang, Y; Komsa, H-P; Ghorbani-Asl, M; Krasheninnikov, A V; Sutter, P

    2016-07-13

    By combining high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and associated analytical methods with first-principles calculations, we study the behavior of layered tin dichalcogenides under electron beam irradiation. We demonstrate that the controllable removal of chalcogen atoms due to electron irradiation, at both room and elevated temperatures, gives rise to transformations in the atomic structure of Sn-S and Sn-Se systems so that new phases with different properties can be induced. In particular, rhombohedral layered SnS2 and SnSe2 can be transformed via electron beam induced loss of chalcogen atoms into highly anisotropic orthorhombic layered SnS and SnSe. A striking dependence of the layer orientation of the resulting SnS-parallel to the layers of ultrathin SnS2 starting material, but slanted for transformations of thicker few-layer SnS2-is rationalized by a transformation pathway in which vacancies group into ordered S-vacancy lines, which convert via a Sn2S3 intermediate to SnS. Absence of a stable Sn2Se3 intermediate precludes this pathway for the selenides, hence SnSe2 always transforms into basal plane oriented SnSe. Our results provide microscopic insights into the transformation mechanism and show how irradiation can be used to tune the properties of layered tin chalcogenides for applications in electronics, catalysis, or energy storage. PMID:27336595

  7. Ion beam induced stress formation and relaxation in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, T., E-mail: Tobias.Steinbach@uni-jena.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Reupert, A.; Schmidt, E.; Wesch, W. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Ion irradiation of crystalline solids leads not only to defect formation and amorphization but also to mechanical stress. In the past, many investigations in various materials were performed focusing on the ion beam induced damage formation but only several experiments were done to investigate the ion beam induced stress evolution. Especially in microelectronic devices, mechanical stress leads to several unwanted effects like cracking and peeling of surface layers as well as changing physical properties and anomalous diffusion of dopants. To study the stress formation and relaxation process in semiconductors, crystalline and amorphous germanium samples were irradiated with 3 MeV iodine ions at different ion fluence rates. The irradiation induced stress evolution was measured in situ with a laser reflection technique as a function of ion fluence, whereas the damage formation was investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The investigations show that mechanical stress builds up at low ion fluences as a direct consequence of ion beam induced point defect formation. However, further ion irradiation causes a stress relaxation which is attributed to the accumulation of point defects and therefore the creation of amorphous regions. A constant stress state is reached at high ion fluences if a homogeneous amorphous surface layer was formed and no further ion beam induced phase transition took place. Based on the results, we can conclude that the ion beam induced stress evolution seems to be mainly dominated by the creation and accumulation of irradiation induced structural modification.

  8. Beam-induced backgrounds in detectors at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is general consensus in the high-energy physics community that the next particle collider to be built should be a linear electron-positron accelerator. Such a machine, colliding point-like particles with a well-defined initial state, would be an ideal complement to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and would allow high-precision measurements of the new physics phenomena that are likely to be discovered at the TeV energy scale. The most advanced project in that context is the International Linear Collider (ILC), aiming for a centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV and a luminosity of 2 x 1034 cm-2s-1 in its first stage. One of the detector concepts that are currently being developed and studied is the so-called International Large Detector (ILD). A prime feature of the ILD concept is the usage of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) as the main tracker, which allows to reach the required momentum resolution, but which also has excellent particle identification capabilities and a highly robust and efficient tracking. The beam-beam interaction of the strongly focused particle bunches at the ILC will produce beamstrahlung photons, which can in turn scatter to electron-positron pairs. These pairs are a major source of detector backgrounds. This thesis explains the methods to study the effects of beam-induced electron-positron pair backgrounds with Mokka, a full detector simulation for the ILC that is based on Geant4, and it presents the simulation results for different detector configurations and various small modifications. The main focus of the simulations and their analysis is on the vertex detector and the TPC, but results for the inner silicon trackers and the hadronic calorimeters are shown as well. (orig.)

  9. Beam-induced backgrounds in detectors at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Adrian

    2008-11-15

    There is general consensus in the high-energy physics community that the next particle collider to be built should be a linear electron-positron accelerator. Such a machine, colliding point-like particles with a well-defined initial state, would be an ideal complement to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and would allow high-precision measurements of the new physics phenomena that are likely to be discovered at the TeV energy scale. The most advanced project in that context is the International Linear Collider (ILC), aiming for a centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV and a luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in its first stage. One of the detector concepts that are currently being developed and studied is the so-called International Large Detector (ILD). A prime feature of the ILD concept is the usage of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) as the main tracker, which allows to reach the required momentum resolution, but which also has excellent particle identification capabilities and a highly robust and efficient tracking. The beam-beam interaction of the strongly focused particle bunches at the ILC will produce beamstrahlung photons, which can in turn scatter to electron-positron pairs. These pairs are a major source of detector backgrounds. This thesis explains the methods to study the effects of beam-induced electron-positron pair backgrounds with Mokka, a full detector simulation for the ILC that is based on Geant4, and it presents the simulation results for different detector configurations and various small modifications. The main focus of the simulations and their analysis is on the vertex detector and the TPC, but results for the inner silicon trackers and the hadronic calorimeters are shown as well. (orig.)

  10. Update on Beam Induced RF Heating in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J; Nosych, A; Nougaret, J; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M; Fassnacht, P; Jakobsen, S; Deile, M

    2013-01-01

    Since June 2011 the rapid increase of the luminosity performance of the LHC has come at the expense of both increased temperature and pressure of specific, near-beam, LHC equipment. In some cases, this beam induced heating has caused delays while equipment cool-down, beam dumps and even degradation of some devices. This contribution gathers the observations of beam induced heating, attributed to longitudinal beam coupling impedance, their current level of understanding and possible actions planned to be implemented during the 1st LHC Long Shutdown (LS1) in 2013-2014.

  11. Ultrahigh resolution focused electron beam induced processing: the effect of substrate thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dorp, Willem F; Lazic, Ivan; Beyer, André;

    2011-01-01

    It is often suggested that the growth in focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) is caused not only by primary electrons, but also (and even predominantly) by secondary electrons (SEs). If that is true, the growth rate for FEBIP can be changed by modifying the SE yield. Results from our...... Monte Carlo simulations show that the SE yield changes strongly with substrate thickness for thicknesses below the SE escape depth. However, our experimental results show that the growth rate is independent of the substrate thickness. Deposits with an average size of about 3 nm were written on 1 and 9...... nm thick carbon substrates. The apparent contradiction between simulation and experiment is explained by simulating the SE emission from a carbon substrate with platinum deposits on the surface. It appears that the SE emission is dominated by the deposits rather than the carbon substrate, even for...

  12. Ion beam induced luminescence of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, R

    2001-01-01

    luminescence dead zone at the domain walls. Neodymium-yttrium-aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) was examined and the spectra measured as a function of temperature to show the evolution of intensity of the narrow line emission from the Nd rare earth. Shifts and changes in the intrinsic UV band in the YAG material were also apparent. Thin films of alumina grown on silica on a silicon substrate, along with some that contained copper nanoclusters were also examined. TRIM software was used to model the rate of excitation within the different layers of the material for the various implant energies and to identify the source of the luminescence profile observed in each case. Evidence of thin film interference fringes was apparent in the spectra by fringe patterns modulated onto the luminescence signal as a function of wavelength and film thickness. Analysis of an alkali feldspar material using IBL, and combined with work done using RL and CL experiments, showed a shift towards lower wavelengths of the main red/IR band with ...

  13. Electron-beam-induced conduction in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical conduction in polyethylene induced by the irradiation of the short-pulsed-electron-beam (100 nsec time width) consists of the fast and the slow components. The former is attributed to the carrier transport in the crystalline part and the latter to that in the amorphous part. Logarithmic plot (Scher-Montroll plot) of the slow part of the induced current vs. time gives a knee at time T sub(r), which is thought to be the transit time of the carrier front between electrodes. Simple calculation by the formula μ = L/T sub(r) E gives the apparent slow carrier mobility μ of 5.6 x 10-7 cm2/V.sec and 3.2 x 10-7 cm2/V.sec for the electron and the hole respectively at 343 K under the field E of 1.2 MV/cm for the sample thickness L of 12 μm. These apparent slow carrier mobilities are dependent on both the thickness and the field strength. These behavior are discussed in terms of Scher-Montroll theory on the transport in amorphous substances. The activation energy of the mobility is in good agreement with the apparent trap depth obtained from the TSC measurement. (author)

  14. GEANT4 simulation of electron energy deposition in extended media

    CERN Document Server

    Kadri, O; Gharbi, F; Trabelsi, A

    2007-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that GEANT4 yields a consistent description of electron transport processes in semi-infinite homogeneous and heterogeneous extended media. This comparison covers the e− energy deposition profiles in a range of elements from aluminum to tantalum through molybdenum at source energies from 0.3 to 1.0 MeV and at incident angles from 0° to 60°. The good agreement between simulation results and data confirms that the Monte Carlo used code is capable of accurate electron beam energy deposition calculation even under such conditions.

  15. Energy deposition model for I-125 photon radiation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an electron-tracking Monte Carlo algorithm developed by us is combined with established photon transport models in order to simulate all primary and secondary particle interactions in water for incident photon radiation. As input parameters for secondary electron interactions, electron scattering cross sections by water molecules and experimental energy loss spectra are used. With this simulation, the resulting energy deposition can be modelled at the molecular level, yielding detailed information about localization and type of single collision events. The experimental emission spectrum of I-125 seeds, as used for radiotherapy of different tumours, was used for studying the energy deposition in water when irradiating with this radionuclide. (authors)

  16. Energy deposition model for I-125 photon radiation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, M.C.; Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Munoz, A.; Oller, J.C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Limao-Vieira, P. [Laboratorio de Colisoes Atomicas e Moleculares, Departamento de Fisica, CEFITEC, FCT-Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Williart, A.; Garcia, G. [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain); Huerga, C.; Tellez, M. [Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, an electron-tracking Monte Carlo algorithm developed by us is combined with established photon transport models in order to simulate all primary and secondary particle interactions in water for incident photon radiation. As input parameters for secondary electron interactions, electron scattering cross sections by water molecules and experimental energy loss spectra are used. With this simulation, the resulting energy deposition can be modelled at the molecular level, yielding detailed information about localization and type of single collision events. The experimental emission spectrum of I-125 seeds, as used for radiotherapy of different tumours, was used for studying the energy deposition in water when irradiating with this radionuclide. (authors)

  17. Electron beam induced current in photovoltaics with high recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Haney, Paul M.; Yoon, Heayoung P.; Koirala, Prakash; Collins, Robert W.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Ideally, an EBIC measurement reflects the spatially resolved quantum efficiency of the device. In this work, a model for EBIC measurements is presented which applies when recombination within the depletion region is substantial. This model is motivated by cross-sectional EBIC experiments on CdS-CdTe photovoltaic cells which show th...

  18. A nuclear fragmentation energy deposition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, D. M.; Wilson, J. W.; Fogarty, T. N.; Buck, W. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    A formalism for target fragment transport is presented with application to energy loss spectra in thin silicon devices. A nuclear data base is recommended that agrees well with the measurements of McNulty et al. using surface barrier detectors. High-energy events observed by McNulty et al., which are not predicted by intranuclear cascade models, are well represented by the present work.

  19. Spatial distribution of energy deposited in nitrogen by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution of the energy deposited by kilovolt electrons moving through gaseous molecular nitrogen was measured. The range of electrons of initial energy 300 eV to 5 keV was obtained and can be expressed by the formula R=K1+K2E/subA/1-K3E/subA/2, where R is the range, E is the initial energy of the electrons, and K/subi/,A/subi/ are constants. The range, in this energy interval, is greater than that determined by previous measurements. A source of error, not previously discussed, is considered. The energy region (above 1 keV) where the simpler expression R=KE/subA/ holds is discussed. It is shown that this is the energy region where the energy and range dependence of the energy deposition curve can be removed and a normalized, characteristic energy deposition curve lambda can be obtained. The efficiency of conversion of electron energy at 1 keV and 280 μ pressure to energy of photons at 3914 A was measured to be (0.28+-0.03) %

  20. Study of energy deposition and stripper temperature for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Su-Min; ZHANG Tian-Jue; AN Shi-zhong; BI Yuan-Jie

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays high intensity proton accelerators are extensively applied,and this paper gives particular emphasis on CYCIAE-100,a 100 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron being constructed at CIAE.For accelerators of this type,the study is focused on how to improve the beam intensity.As for CYCIAE-100,the charge-exchange extraction is used to get protons.So it is crucial to enhance the lifetime of the stripping foil,which is largely determined by the energy deposition on it.For this cyclotron,due to the influence of the magnetic field.the electrons will spin near the foil and lose energy each time when they cross the foil.The energy deposition refers to all the energy deposition of protons and electrons.This paper stresses the stripper study of CYCIAE-100,in which the particle distribution on the foil is simulated and the energy deposition of calculated as a main reference for the foil design.

  1. Gas-assisted electron-beam-induced nanopatterning of high-quality titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazanova, A. V.; Costanzi, B. N.; Aristov, A. I.; Rikers, Y. G. M.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Kabashin, A. V.; Dahlberg, E. Dan; Belova, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition of titanium oxide nanopatterns is described. The precursor is titanium tetra-isopropoxide, delivered to the deposition point through a needle and mixed with oxygen at the same point via a flow through a separate needle. The depositions are free of residual carbon and have an EDX determined stoichiometry of TiO2.2. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal an amorphous structure of the fabricated titanium oxide. Ellipsometric characterization of the deposited material reveals a refractive index of 2.2-2.4 RIU in the spectral range of 500-1700 nm and a very low extinction coefficient (lower than 10-6 in the range of 400-1700 nm), which is consistent with high quality titanium oxide. The electrical resistivity of the titanium oxide patterned with this new process is in the range of 10-40 GΩ cm and the measured breakdown field is in the range of 10-70 V μm-1. The fabricated nanopatterns are important for a variety of applications, including field-effect transistors, memory devices, MEMS, waveguide structures, bio- and chemical sensors.

  2. Cobalt cluster-assembled thin films deposited by low energy cluster beam deposition: Structural and magnetic investigations of deposited layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalt cluster-assembled thin films were deposited on amorphous-carbon-coated copper grids and on silicon substrates at room temperature by low energy cluster beam deposition. Characterizations using high-resolution transmission electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal randomly stacked agglomerates of 9-11 nm diameter, which are themselves composed of small 3.6 nm diameter fcc cobalt clusters. The films are ferromagnetic up to room temperature and above, which implies that the clusters are exchange coupled. The approach to saturation is analyzed within the random anisotropy model. The values of the exchange coefficient A and the anisotropy constant K then derived are discussed. The temperature dependence of the coercivity below 100 K is discussed in terms of thermal activation effects. All results indicate that the fundamental entity governing the magnetic behaviors is constituted by the 9-11 nm diameter agglomerates rather than by the clusters themselves

  3. Nanocomposite oxide thin films grown by pulsed energy beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nistor, M., E-mail: mnistor@infim.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, L22, P.O. Box MG-36, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Petitmangin, A.; Hebert, C. [INSP, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Seiler, W. [LIM, ENSAM, 151 boulevard de l' Hopital, 75013 Paris (France)

    2011-04-01

    Highly non-stoichiometric indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were grown by pulsed energy beam deposition (pulsed laser deposition-PLD and pulsed electron beam deposition-PED) under low oxygen pressure. The analysis of the structure and electrical transport properties showed that ITO films with a large oxygen deficiency (more than 20%) are nanocomposite films with metallic (In, Sn) clusters embedded in a stoichiometric and crystalline oxide matrix. The presence of the metallic clusters induces specific transport properties, i.e. a metallic conductivity via percolation with a superconducting transition at low temperature (about 6 K) and the melting and freezing of the In-Sn clusters in the room temperature to 450 K range evidenced by large changes in resistivity and a hysteresis cycle. By controlling the oxygen deficiency and temperature during the growth, the transport and optical properties of the nanocomposite oxide films could be tuned from metallic-like to insulating and from transparent to absorbing films.

  4. Focused electron beam induced etching of titanium with XeF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenaker, F J; Cordoba, R; Fernandez-Pacheco, R; Magen, C; Zuriaga-Monroy, C; Ibarra, M R [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Stephan, O [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS UMR 8502, Universite Paris Sud XI, Batiment 510, F-91405 Orsay (France); De Teresa, J M, E-mail: deteresa@unizar.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    Titanium is a relevant technological material due to its extraordinary mechanical and biocompatible properties, its nanopatterning being an increasingly important requirement in many applications. We report the successful nanopatterning of titanium by means of focused electron beam induced etching using XeF{sub 2} as a precursor gas. Etch rates up to 1.25 x 10{sup -3} {mu}m{sup 3} s{sup -1} and minimum pattern sizes of 80 nm were obtained. Different etching parameters such as beam current, beam energy, dwell time and pixel spacing are systematically investigated, the etching process being optimized by decreasing both the beam current and the beam energy. The etching mechanism is investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Potential applications in nanotechnology are discussed.

  5. Origin of the Difference in the Resistivity of As-Grown Focused-Ion- and Focused-Electron-Beam-Induced Pt Nanodeposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. De Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the origin of the strong difference in the resistivity of focused-electron- and focused-Ga-ion-beam-induced deposition (FEBID and FIBID, resp. of Pt performed in a dual beam equipment using (CH33Pt(CpCH3 as the precursor gas. We have performed in-situ and ex-situ resistance measurements in both types of nanodeposits, finding that the resistivity of Pt by FEBID is typically four orders of magnitude higher than Pt by FIBID. In the case of Pt by FEBID, the current-versus-voltage dependence is nonlinear and the resistance-versus-temperature behavior is strongly semiconducting, whereas Pt by FIBID shows linear current-versus-voltage dependence and only slight temperature dependence. The microstructure, as investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, consists in all cases of Pt single crystals with size about 3 nm embedded in an amorphous carbonaceous matrix. Due to the semiconducting character of the carbon matrix, which is the main component of the deposit, we propose that the transport results can be mapped onto those obtained in semiconducting materials with different degrees of doping. The different transport properties of Pt by FEBID and FIBID are attributed to the higher doping level in the case of FIBID, as given by composition measurements obtained with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

  6. Nanostructured Electrodes Via Electrostatic Spray Deposition for Energy Storage System

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, C.

    2014-10-02

    Energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors are extremely important in today’s society, and have been widely used as the energy and power sources for portable electronics, electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles. A lot of research has focused on improving their performance; however, many crucial challenges need to be addressed to obtain high performance electrode materials for further applications. Recently, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique has attracted great interest to satisfy the goals. Due to its many advantages, the ESD technique shows promising prospects compared to other conventional deposition techniques. In this paper, our recent research outcomes related to the ESD derived anodes for Li-ion batteries and other applications is summarized and discussed.

  7. Flow Control Using Energy Deposition at Mach 5

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Leichao

    2012-01-01

    Flow control has always been an intense research subject with the pursuit of favourable control effects like drag reduction, transition delay, and separation prevention. In practice, these flow control effects are achieved using mechanical actuators such as deflectors, vortex generators, transverse jets and so on. However, such mechanical actuators may face the drag penalty and limitation of actuation response time. In recent years, energy deposition has been suggested as a novel flow control...

  8. Semiconductor characterization by scanning ion beam induced charge (IBIC) microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vittone, E; Olivero, P; Manfredotti, C; Jaksic, M; Giudice, A Lo; Fizzotti, F; Colombo, E

    2016-01-01

    The acronym IBIC (Ion Beam Induced Charge) was coined in early 1990's to indicate a scanning microscopy technique which uses MeV ion beams as probes to image the basic electronic properties of semiconductor materials and devices. Since then, IBIC has become a widespread analytical technique to characterize materials for electronics or for radiation detection, as testified by more than 200 papers published so far in peer-reviewed journals. Its success stems from the valuable information IBIC can provide on charge transport phenomena occurring in finished devices, not easily obtainable by other analytical techniques. However, IBIC analysis requires a robust theoretical background to correctly interpret experimental data. In order to illustrate the importance of using a rigorous mathematical formalism, we present in this paper a benchmark IBIC experiment aimed to test the validity of the interpretative model based on the Gunn's theorem and to provide an example of the analytical capability of IBIC to characteriz...

  9. Ion beam induced luminescence analysis of painting pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been exploited for the first time in the analysis of inorganic painting pigments. The elemental constituents of the different compounds have been determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The acquisition time of each spectrum ranges from 100 ms to a few seconds, depending on the luminescence intensity. The luminescence features are fingerprints of the different compounds, thus identifying the provenience of pigments of the same nominal composition. Organic varnish layers do not affect the IBIL features, allowing the identification of pigments, like lapis-lazuli, whose identification with PIXE is hindered by the varnish. IBIL proved to be a technique complementary to PIXE in the archeometry and cultural heritage analysis fields

  10. Ion beam induced luminescence on white inorganic pigments for paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been used for studying the emission features and the radiation hardness of white pigments. In particular, ZnO, gypsum and basic lead sulphate pigments have been analyzed with a 3.0 MeV H+ beam at the AGLAE Louvre laboratory. The same pigments mixed with different binders have been also analyzed on a canvas, in order to evaluate the contribution of the binders both to the IBIL spectra and to the radiation hardness. It turns out that the binder affects both the IBIL spectra and the radiation hardness of pigments when the emission bands are related to point defects, as occurs for ZnO

  11. Ion beam induced luminescence on white inorganic pigments for paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, A.; Dran, J. C.; Salomon, J.; Tonezzer, M.; Scian, C.; Beck, L.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Della Mea, G.

    2008-05-01

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been used for studying the emission features and the radiation hardness of white pigments. In particular, ZnO, gypsum and basic lead sulphate pigments have been analyzed with a 3.0 MeV H+ beam at the AGLAE Louvre laboratory. The same pigments mixed with different binders have been also analyzed on a canvas, in order to evaluate the contribution of the binders both to the IBIL spectra and to the radiation hardness. It turns out that the binder affects both the IBIL spectra and the radiation hardness of pigments when the emission bands are related to point defects, as occurs for ZnO.

  12. Ion beam induced luminescence analysis of painting pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, A.; Salomon, J.; Dran, J. C.; Tonezzer, M.; Della Mea, G.

    2007-01-01

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been exploited for the first time in the analysis of inorganic painting pigments. The elemental constituents of the different compounds have been determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The acquisition time of each spectrum ranges from 100 ms to a few seconds, depending on the luminescence intensity. The luminescence features are fingerprints of the different compounds, thus identifying the provenience of pigments of the same nominal composition. Organic varnish layers do not affect the IBIL features, allowing the identification of pigments, like lapis-lazuli, whose identification with PIXE is hindered by the varnish. IBIL proved to be a technique complementary to PIXE in the archeometry and cultural heritage analysis fields.

  13. Swift Heavy Ion Beam-induced Recrystallisation of Buried Silicon Nitride Layer (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Som

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on MeV heavy ion beam-induced epitaxial crystallisation of a buried silicon nitride layer are reported. Transmission electron micrographs and selected area diffraction patterns have been used to study the recrystallisation of an ion beam-synthesised layer. Complete recrystallisation of the silicon nitride layer having good quality interfaces with the top- and the substrate-Si has been obsorved. Recrystallisation is achieved at significantly lower temperatures of 100 and 200OC for oxygen and silver ions, respectively. The fact that recrystallisation is achieved at the lowest temperature for the oxygen ions is discussed on the basis of energy loss processes.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(4, pp.351-355, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1533

  14. Beam Induced Hydrodynamic Tunneling in the Future Circular Collider Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    A future circular collider (FCC) has been proposed as a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator, to explore particle physics in unprecedented energy ranges. The FCC is a circular collider in a tunnel with a circumference of 80-100 km. The FCC study puts an emphasis on proton-proton high-energy and electron-positron high-intensity frontier machines. A proton-electron interaction scenario is also examined. According to the nominal FCC parameters, each of the 50 TeV proton beams will carry an amount of 8.5 GJ energy that is equivalent to the kinetic energy of an Airbus A380 (560 t) at a typical speed of 850 km /h . Safety of operation with such extremely energetic beams is an important issue, as off-nominal beam loss can cause serious damage to the accelerator and detector components with a severe impact on the accelerator environment. In order to estimate the consequences of an accident with the full beam accidently deflected into equipment, we have carried out numerical simulations of interaction of a FCC beam with a solid copper target using an energy-deposition code (fluka) and a 2D hydrodynamic code (big2) iteratively. These simulations show that, although the penetration length of a single FCC proton and its shower in solid copper is about 1.5 m, the full FCC beam will penetrate up to about 350 m into the target because of the "hydrodynamic tunneling." These simulations also show that a significant part of the target is converted into high-energy-density matter. We also discuss this interesting aspect of this study.

  15. History and modern applications of nano-composite materials carrying GA/cm2 current density due to a Bose-Einstein Condensate at room temperature produced by Focused Electron Beam Induced Processing for many extraordinary novel technical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Hans W. P.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Focused Electron Beam Induced Processing and early applications of this technology led to the possible use of a novel nanogranular material “Koops-GranMat®” using Pt/C and Au/C material. which carries at room temperature a current density > 50 times the current density which high TC superconductors can carry. The explanation for the characteristics of this novel material is given. This fact allows producing novel products for many applications using Dual Beam system having a gas supply and X.Y.T stream data programming and not using GDSII layout pattern control software. Novel products are possible for energy transportation. -distribution.-switching, photon-detection above 65 meV energy for very efficient energy harvesting, for bright field emission electron sources used for vacuum electronic devices like amplifiers for HF electronics, micro-tubes, 30 GHz to 6 THz switching amplifiers with signal to noise ratio >10(!), THz power sources up to 1 Watt, in combination with miniaturized vacuum pumps, vacuum gauges, IR to THz detectors, EUV- and X-Ray sources. Since focusing electron beam induced deposition works also at low energy, selfcloning multibeam-production machines for field emitter lamps, displays, multi-beam - lithography, - imaging, and - inspection, energy harvesting, and power distribution with switches controlling field-emitter arrays for KA of currents but with < 100 V switching voltage are possible. Finally the replacement of HTC superconductors and its applications by the Koops-GranMat® having Koops-Pairs at room temperature will allow the investigation devices similar to Josephson Junctions and its applications now called QUIDART (Quantum interference devices at Room Temperature). All these possibilities will support a revolution in the optical, electric, power, and electronic technology.

  16. Gamma-ray transfer and energy deposition in supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, D A; Harkness, R P; Swartz, Douglas A; Sutherland, Peter G; Harkness, Robert P

    1995-01-01

    Solutions to the energy-independent (gray) radiative transfer equations are compared to results of Monte Carlo simulations of the \\Ni\\ and \\Co\\ radioactive decay \\GR\\ energy deposition in supernovae. The comparison shows that an effective, purely absorptive, gray opacity, \\KG\\ \\sim (0.06 \\pm 0.01)Y_e cm^2 g^{-1}, where Y_e is the total number of electrons per baryon, accurately describes the interaction of \\GRs\\ with the cool supernova gas and the local \\GR\\ energy deposition within the gas. The nature of the \\GR\\ interaction process (dominated by Compton scattering in the relativistic regime) creates a weak dependence of \\KG\\ on the optical thickness of the (spherically symmetric) supernova atmosphere: The maximum value of \\KG\\ applies during optically thick conditions when individual \\GRs\\ undergo multiple scattering encounters and the lower bound is reached at the phase characterized by a total Thomson optical depth to the center of the atmosphere \\te\\ \\LA\\ 1. Our results quantitatively confirm that the qu...

  17. Energy Deposition and Radiological Studies for the LBNF Hadron Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, I. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mokhov, N. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tropin, I. S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Eidelman, Y. I. [Euclid Techlabs LLC., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-25

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition and radiological studies performed for the LBNF hadron absorber with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable design options.

  18. Energy deposition and radiological studies for the LBNF Hadron Absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Rakhno, I L; Tropin, I S; Eidelman, Y I

    2015-01-01

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition and radiological studies performed for the LBNF hadron absorber with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system - all with corresponding radiation shielding - was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable design options.

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition of Bismuth Vanadates for Solar Energy Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication of porous nanocomposites is key to the advancement of energy conversion and storage devices that interface with electrolytes. Bismuth vanadate, BiVO4 , is a promising oxide for solar water splitting where the controlled fabrication of BiVO4 layers within porous, conducting scaffolds has remained a challenge. Here, the atomic layer deposition of bismuth vanadates is reported from BiPh3 , vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide, and water. The resulting films have tunable stoichiometry and may be crystallized to form the photoactive scheelite structure of BiVO4 . A selective etching process was used with vanadium-rich depositions to enable the synthesis of phase-pure BiVO4 after spinodal decomposition. BiVO4 thin films were measured for photoelectrochemical performance under AM 1.5 illumination. The average photocurrents were 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode using a hole-scavenging sulfite electrolyte. The capability to deposit conformal bismuth vanadates will enable a new generation of nanocomposite architectures for solar water splitting. PMID:27246652

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition of Bismuth Vanadates for Solar Energy Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication of porous nanocomposites is key to the advancement of energy conversion and storage devices that interface with electrolytes. Bismuth vanadate, BiVO4 , is a promising oxide for solar water splitting where the controlled fabrication of BiVO4 layers within porous, conducting scaffolds has remained a challenge. Here, the atomic layer deposition of bismuth vanadates is reported from BiPh3 , vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide, and water. The resulting films have tunable stoichiometry and may be crystallized to form the photoactive scheelite structure of BiVO4 . A selective etching process was used with vanadium-rich depositions to enable the synthesis of phase-pure BiVO4 after spinodal decomposition. BiVO4 thin films were measured for photoelectrochemical performance under AM 1.5 illumination. The average photocurrents were 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode using a hole-scavenging sulfite electrolyte. The capability to deposit conformal bismuth vanadates will enable a new generation of nanocomposite architectures for solar water splitting.

  1. Monte Carlo Simulation on Energy Deposition of Low-Energy Electrons in Liquid Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Zhen-Yu; XIA Yue-Yuan; ZHAO Ming-Wen; LIU Xiang-Dong; HUANG Bo-Da; LI Feng; JI Yan-Ju

    2005-01-01

    @@ A Monte Carlo approach to simulate the transport and energy deposition of low energy electrons (E0 ≤ 10 keV) in liquid water is presented. The elastic scattering of electrons is described by Mott cross section, which is derivedfrom the relativistic wave equation of Dirac. The inelastic scattering model of electrons is b~ed on the dielectric response theory with exchange effect included. A new method of sampling various inelaltic scattering events is proposed in the simulation. Using the approach stated, the spatial distribution of inel~tic scattering events and energy deposition of electrons in liquid water are computed and the results are compared with other theoretical studies.

  2. Quantitative Traits of Ion Beam Induced Mutagenesis in Triticum aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan FANG; Zhen JIAO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to elucidate the quantitative traits of plants mutagenized by ion beam. [Method] The particular variation phenotypes, a- gronomic traits, and protein and wet gluten contents of progenies derived from the same ion beam induced mutant were investigated. [Result] Morphological polymor- phism existed in some individuals. Plant height, spike length and protein content were significantly influenced by ion beam, and effective tiller number and wet gluten content were moderately influenced. Multiple comparisons of all the indices within groups indicated genomic instability among these groups. Coefficient of variation im- plied the differences within group were very low. [Conclusion] Ion beam irradiation displayed characteristics of multi-directivity and non-directiveness. It aroused multiple variations in the same mutant. Instability among progeny indicates cells had different fate even in the same irradiated tissue. It may take several generations for mutants to stabilize particular phenotypes. The effects of ion beam irradiation may be the in- terrelated direct irradiation damage, indirect irradiation damage and late effect, such as bystander effect and adaptive response.

  3. Beam induced vacuum measurement error in BEPC II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    When the beam in BEPCII storage ring aborts suddenly, the measured pressure of cold cathode gauges and ion pumps will drop suddenly and decrease to the base pressure gradually. This shows that there is a beam induced positive error in the pressure measurement during beam operation. The error is the difference between measured and real pressures. Right after the beam aborts, the error will disappear immediately and the measured pressure will then be equal to real pressure. For one gauge, we can fit a non-linear pressure-time curve with its measured pressure data 20 seconds after a sudden beam abortion. From this negative exponential decay pumping-down curve, real pressure at the time when the beam starts aborting is extrapolated. With the data of several sudden beam abortions we have got the errors of that gauge in different beam currents and found that the error is directly proportional to the beam current, as expected. And a linear data-fitting gives the proportion coefficient of the equation, which we derived to evaluate the real pressure all the time when the beam with varied currents is on.

  4. Mapping ion beam induced current changes in a commercial MOSFET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, A.D.C.; Thompson, S.; Yang, C. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Jamieson, D.N., E-mail: d.jamieson@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    We demonstrate a novel nuclear microprobe imaging and analysis modality for micrometre-scale field effect transistor devices probed with focused beams of MeV ions. By recording the drain current as a function of time during ion irradiation it is possible to identify current transients induced by the passage of single ions through the sensitive structures of the device. This modality takes advantage of the fact that the ionization produced by the passage of a single ion acts in an equivalent way to a transient change in the gate bias which therefore modulates the drain current as a function of time. This differs from the traditional ion beam induced charge technique where the ionization drifts in an internal electric field and induces a single charge pulse in an electrode applied to the device. Instead a richer variety of phenomena are observed, with different time constants which depend on the proximity of the ion strike to the channel of the device. The signals may be used to examine device function, radiation sensitivity or to count ion impacts within the channel.

  5. Effect of Energy Input on the Characteristic of AISI H13 and D2 Tool Steels Deposited by a Directed Energy Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun; Lee, Min-Gyu; Sung, Ji Hyun; Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Da Hye

    2016-05-01

    Among the many additive manufacturing technologies, the directed energy deposition (DED) process has attracted significant attention because of the application of metal products. Metal deposited by the DED process has different properties than wrought metal because of the rapid solidification rate, the high thermal gradient between the deposited metal and substrate, etc. Additionally, many operating parameters, such as laser power, beam diameter, traverse speed, and powder mass flow rate, must be considered since the characteristics of the deposited metal are affected by the operating parameters. In the present study, the effect of energy input on the characteristics of H13 and D2 steels deposited by a direct metal tooling process based on the DED process was investigated. In particular, we report that the hardness of the deposited H13 and D2 steels decreased with increasing energy input, which we discuss by considering microstructural observations and thermodynamics.

  6. Direct-Write Fabrication of Cellulose Nano-Structures via Focused Electron Beam Induced Nanosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganner, Thomas; Sattelkow, Jürgen; Rumpf, Bernhard; Eibinger, Manuel; Reishofer, David; Winkler, Robert; Nidetzky, Bernd; Spirk, Stefan; Plank, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In many areas of science and technology, patterned films and surfaces play a key role in engineering and development of advanced materials. Here, we introduce a new generic technique for the fabrication of polysaccharide nano-structures via focused electron beam induced conversion (FEBIC). For the proof of principle, organosoluble trimethylsilyl-cellulose (TMSC) thin films have been deposited by spin coating on SiO2 / Si and exposed to a nano-sized electron beam. It turns out that in the exposed areas an electron induced desilylation reaction takes place converting soluble TMSC to rather insoluble cellulose. After removal of the unexposed TMSC areas, structured cellulose patterns remain on the surface with FWHM line widths down to 70 nm. Systematic FEBIC parameter sweeps reveal a generally electron dose dependent behavior with three working regimes: incomplete conversion, ideal doses and over exposure. Direct (FT-IR) and indirect chemical analyses (enzymatic degradation) confirmed the cellulosic character of ideally converted areas. These investigations are complemented by a theoretical model which suggests a two-step reaction process by means of TMSC → cellulose and cellulose → non-cellulose material conversion in excellent agreement with experimental data. The extracted, individual reaction rates allowed the derivation of design rules for FEBIC parameters towards highest conversion efficiencies and highest lateral resolution. PMID:27585861

  7. Direct-Write Fabrication of Cellulose Nano-Structures via Focused Electron Beam Induced Nanosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganner, Thomas; Sattelkow, Jürgen; Rumpf, Bernhard; Eibinger, Manuel; Reishofer, David; Winkler, Robert; Nidetzky, Bernd; Spirk, Stefan; Plank, Harald

    2016-09-01

    In many areas of science and technology, patterned films and surfaces play a key role in engineering and development of advanced materials. Here, we introduce a new generic technique for the fabrication of polysaccharide nano-structures via focused electron beam induced conversion (FEBIC). For the proof of principle, organosoluble trimethylsilyl-cellulose (TMSC) thin films have been deposited by spin coating on SiO2 / Si and exposed to a nano-sized electron beam. It turns out that in the exposed areas an electron induced desilylation reaction takes place converting soluble TMSC to rather insoluble cellulose. After removal of the unexposed TMSC areas, structured cellulose patterns remain on the surface with FWHM line widths down to 70 nm. Systematic FEBIC parameter sweeps reveal a generally electron dose dependent behavior with three working regimes: incomplete conversion, ideal doses and over exposure. Direct (FT-IR) and indirect chemical analyses (enzymatic degradation) confirmed the cellulosic character of ideally converted areas. These investigations are complemented by a theoretical model which suggests a two-step reaction process by means of TMSC → cellulose and cellulose → non-cellulose material conversion in excellent agreement with experimental data. The extracted, individual reaction rates allowed the derivation of design rules for FEBIC parameters towards highest conversion efficiencies and highest lateral resolution.

  8. Erbium doping of silicon and silicon carbide using ion beam induced epitaxial crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucaud, P.; Julien, F.H.; Lourtioz, J.M.; Bernas, H.; Clerc, C.; Chaumont, J. [Univ. Paris XI, Orsay (France); Bodnar, S.; Regolini, J.L. [France Telecom CNET-CNS, Meylan (France); Lin, X.W. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Erbium doping of silicon and silicon carbide using implantation followed by ion beam induced epitaxial crystallization (IBIEC) is investigated. The implanted concentration of Er was 1.4 at.% in both cases. In Si(100), Rutherford backscattering/channeling revealed that about 40% of the Er atoms evolved upon rapid thermal annealing from an undetermined position (room temperature) to an interstitial tetrahedral position (650 C) and finally to a substitutional position (950 C). The remaining Er atoms were presumably trapped in the small precipitates visible in high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The photoluminescence at 1.54 {micro}m of Er{sup 3+} is enhanced with annealing and persists up to room temperature after a 950 C 1 min anneal. The high concentration of optically active Er atoms is illustrated by the lack of saturation of the photoluminescence at high pumping excitation intensity. Erbium was also implanted into cubic silicon carbide films prepared by chemical vapor deposition on Si at 900 C. Both solid phase epitaxy (SPE) and IBIEC were performed. After a 950 C anneal, the low temperature photoluminescence at 1.54 {micro}m after IBIEC was five times higher in SiC than in silicon. The difference in photoluminescence linewidth between IBIEC (broad lines) and SPE (sharp lines) is explained in terms of interactions between optically active erbium atoms.

  9. Modeling Planetary Atmospheric Energy Deposition By Energetic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Christopher; Bougher, Stephen; Gronoff, Guillaume; Barthelemy, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    The structure, dynamics, chemistry, and evolution of planetary upper atmospheres are in large part determined by the available sources of energy. In addition to the solar EUV flux, the solar wind and solar energetic particle (SEP) events are also important sources. Both of these particle populations can significantly affect an atmosphere, causing atmospheric loss and driving chemical reactions. Attention has been paid to these sources from the standpoint of the radiation environment for humans and electronics, but little work has been done to evaluate their impact on planetary atmospheres. At unmagnetized planets or those with crustal field anomalies, in particular, the solar wind and SEPs of all energies have direct access to the atmosphere and so provide a more substantial energy source than at planets having protective global magnetic fields. Additionally, solar wind and energetic particle fluxes should be more significant for planets orbiting more active stars, such as is the case in the early history of the solar system for paleo-Venus and Mars. Therefore quantification of the atmospheric energy input from the solar wind and SEP events is an important component of our understanding of the processes that control their state and evolution. We have applied a full Lorentz motion particle transport model to study the effects of particle precipitation in the upper atmospheres of Mars and Venus. Such modeling has been previously done for Earth and Mars using a guiding center precipitation model. Currently, this code is only valid for particles with small gyroradii in strong uniform magnetic fields. There is a clear necessity for a Lorentz formulation, hence, a systematic study of the ionization, excitation, and energy deposition has been conducted, including a comparison of the influence relative to other energy sources (namely EUV photons). The result is a robust examination of the influence of energetic ion transport on the Venus and Mars upper atmosphere which

  10. Energetic particle energy deposition in Titan's upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, J. H.; Smith, H. T.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C. P.; Rymer, A. M.; Bell, J. M.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Mandt, K. E.

    2012-04-01

    Titan’s upper atmosphere has been observed to be variable on a pass-by-pass basis. During the nominal mission where the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) only sampled the northern hemisphere this variability was initially believed to be tied to solar drivers manifest in latitudinal variations in the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere. However, when Cassini delved into the southern hemisphere the latitudinal dependence was not present in the data. Recently, Westlake et al. (2011) showed that the pass-by-pass variability is correlated with the deviations in the plasma environment as identified by Rymer et al. (2009) and Simon et al. (2010). Furthermore, the studies of Westlake et al. (2011) and Bell et al. (2011) showed that Titan’s upper atmosphere responds to changes in the ambient magnetospheric plasma on timescales of roughly one Titan day (16 Earth days). We report on recent studies of energy deposition in Titan’s upper atmosphere. Previous studies by Smith et al. (2009), Cravens et al. (2008), Tseng et al. (2008), and Shah et al. (2009) reported on energetic proton and oxygen ion precipitation. Back of the envelope calculations by Sittler et al. (2009) showed that magnetospheric energy inputs are expected to be of the order of or greater than the solar processes. We report on further analysis of the plasma environment around Titan during the flybys that the INMS has good data. We utilize data from the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument to determine how the magnetospheric particle population varies from pass to pass and how this influences the net magnetospheric energy input prior to the flyby. We also report on enhanced energetic neutral atom emissions during select highly energetic passes. References: Bell, J., et al.: “Simulating the time-dependent response of Titan's upper atmosphere to periods of magnetospheric forcing”. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 38, L06202, 2011. Rymer, A. M., et al.: “Discrete classification and electron

  11. Fluka Energy Deposition Studies for the HL LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, L S; Todesco, E

    2013-01-01

    The LHC upgrade, planned in about ten years from now, is envisaged to accumulate up to 3000 fb−1 integrated luminosity by running at a peak luminosity of 5×1034 cm−2 s−1 [1]. In order to reach such an ambitious goal, the high luminosity insertions need a major redesign implying a 150 mm aperture low-beta Inner Triplet (IT), a superconducting D1 and new quadrupoles in the Matching Section. Energy deposition studies show that degradation of the coil insulator represents the most challenging issue from the radiation impact point of view. We propose a suitable shielding consisting of a beam screen with several mm tungsten absorbers at mid-planes to guarantee not to exceed a few ten MGy. This will also allow a good margin with respect to the risk of radiation induced quenches.

  12. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  13. Controlling electron beam-induced structure modifications and cation exchange in cadmium sulfide–copper sulfide heterostructured nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Haimei [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sadtler, Bryce; Habenicht, Carsten [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Freitag, Bert [FEI Company, P.O. Box 80066, KA 5600 Eindhoven (Netherlands); Alivisatos, A. Paul [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kisielowski, Christian, E-mail: CFKisielowski@lbl.gov [National Center for Electron Microcopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The atomic structure and interfaces of CdS/Cu{sub 2}S heterostructured nanorods are investigated with the aberration-corrected TEAM 0.5 electron microscope operated at 80 kV and 300 kV applying in-line holography and complementary techniques. Cu{sub 2}S exhibits a low-chalcocite structure in pristine CdS/Cu{sub 2}S nanorods. Under electron beam irradiation the Cu{sub 2}S phase transforms into a high-chalcocite phase while the CdS phase maintains its wurtzite structure. Time-resolved experiments reveal that Cu{sup +}–Cd{sup 2+} cation exchange at the CdS/Cu{sub 2}S interfaces is stimulated by the electron beam and proceeds within an undisturbed and coherent sulfur sub-lattice. A variation of the electron beam current provides an efficient way to control and exploit such irreversible solid-state chemical processes that provide unique information about system dynamics at the atomic scale. Specifically, we show that the electron beam-induced copper–cadmium exchange is site specific and anisotropic. A resulting displacement of the CdS/Cu{sub 2}S interfaces caused by beam-induced cation interdiffusion equals within a factor of 3–10 previously reported Cu diffusion length measurements in heterostructured CdS/Cu{sub 2}S thin film solar cells with an activation energy of 0.96 eV. - Highlights: • Heterostructured nanorods were investigated at atomic resolution showing that they are free of extended defects. • Beam–sample interactions are controlled by current and voltage variations to provide pristine crystal structures. • Beam-induced migration of heterointerfaces are measured time-resolved and compared with Cu diffusion coefficients. • Beam–sample interaction overwrite possible signal improvements that can be expected by sample cooling.

  14. Electron-cloud instabilities and beam-induced multipacting in the LHC and in the VLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the beam pipe of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), photoemission and secondary emission give rise to a quasi-stationary electron cloud, which is established after a few buncn passages. The response of this electron cloud to a transversely displaced bunch resembles a short-range wakefield and can cause a fast instability. In additoin, beam-induced multipacting of the electrons may lead to an enhanced gas desorption and an associated pressure increase. In this paper the authors report preliminary simulation results of the electron-cloud build-up both in a dipole magnet and in a straight section of the LHC at top energy. The effective wakefield created by the electron cloud translates into an instability rise time of about 40 ms horizontally and 500 ms vertically. This rise time is not much larger than that of the resistive-wall instability at injection energy. Similar simulation studies show that the instability rise time for the proposed Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) is about 3--4 s in both trasnverse planes. The smaller growth rate in the VLHC, as compared with the LHC, is primarily due to the much lower bunch population

  15. Damage evaluation in metal structures subjected to high energy deposition due to particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Peroni, L; Dallocchio, A

    2011-01-01

    The unprecedented energy intensities of modern hadron accelerators yield special problems with the materials that are placed close to or into the high intensity beams. The energy stored in a single beam of LHC particle accelerator is equivalent to about 80 kg of TNT explosive, stored in a transverse beam area with a typical value of 0.2 mm×0.2 mm. The materials placed close to the beam are used at, or even beyond, their damage limits. However, it is very difficult to predict structural efficiency and robustness accurately: beam-induced damage for high energy and high intensity occurs in a regime where practical experience does not exist. The interaction between high energy particle beams and metals induces a sudden non uniform temperature increase. This provokes a dynamic response of the structure entailing thermal stress waves and thermally induced vibrations or even the failure of the component. This study is performed in order to estimate the damage on a copper component due to the impact with a 7 TeV pro...

  16. Buoyancy Driven Mixing with Continuous Volumetric Energy Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtor, Adam J.; Jebrail, Farzaneh F.; Dennisen, Nicholas A.; Andrews, Malcolm J.; Gore, Robert A.

    2014-11-01

    An experiment involving a miscible fluid pair is presented which transitioned from a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) stable to RT unstable configuration through continuous volumetric energy deposition (VED) by microwave radiation. Initially a light, low microwave absorbing fluid rested above a heavier, more absorbing fluid. The alignment of the density gradient with gravity made the system stable, and the Atwood number (At) for the initial setup was approximately -0.12. Exposing the fluid pair to microwave radiation preferentially heated the bottom fluid, and caused its density to drop due to thermal expansion. As heating of the bottom fluid continued, the At varied from negative to positive, and after the system passed through the neutral stability point, At = 0, buoyancy driven mixing ensued. Continuous VED caused the At to continue increasing and further drive the mixing process. Successful VED mixing required careful design of the fluid pair used in the experiment. Therefore, fluid selection is discussed, along with challenges and limitations of data collection using the experimental microwave facility. Experimental and model predictions of the neutral stability point, and onset of buoyancy driven mixing, are compared, and differences with classical, constant At RT driven turbulence are discussed.

  17. Electron Beam Induced Artifacts During in situ TEM Deformation of Nanostructured Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rohit; Rentenberger, Christian; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan

    2015-11-01

    A critical assumption underlying in situ transmission electron microscopy studies is that the electron beam (e-beam) exposure does not fundamentally alter the intrinsic deformation behavior of the materials being probed. Here, we show that e-beam exposure causes increased dislocation activation and marked stress relaxation in aluminum and gold films spanning a range of thicknesses (80-400 nanometers) and grain sizes (50-220 nanometers). Furthermore, the e-beam induces anomalous sample necking, which unusually depends more on the e-beam diameter than intensity. Notably, the stress relaxation in both aluminum and gold occurs at beam energies well below their damage thresholds. More remarkably, the stress relaxation and/or sample necking is significantly more pronounced at lower accelerating voltages (120 kV versus 200 kV) in both the metals. These observations in aluminum and gold, two metals with highly dissimilar atomic weights and properties, indicate that e-beam exposure can cause anomalous behavior in a broad spectrum of nanostructured materials, and simultaneously suggest a strategy to minimize such artifacts.

  18. Beam-induced radiation in the compact muon solenoid tracker at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Singh; P C Bhat; N V Mokhov; S Beri

    2010-05-01

    The intense radiation environment at the Large Hadron Collider, CERN at a design energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 14$ TeV and a luminosity of 1034 cm−2S−1 poses unprecedented challenges for safe operation and performance quality of the silicon tracker detectors in the CMS and ATLAS experiments. The silicon trackers are crucial for the physics at the LHC experiments, and the inner layers, being situated only a few centimeters from the interaction point, are most vulnerable to beam-induced radiation. We have recently carried out extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies using MARS program to estimate particle fluxes and radiation dose in the CMS silicon pixel and strip trackers from proton–proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 14$ TeV and from machine-induced background such as beam–gas interactions and beam halo. We will present results on radiation dose, particle fluxes and spectra from these studies and discuss implications for radiation damage and performance of the CMS silicon tracker detectors.

  19. Room Temperature Ion-Beam-Induced Recrystallization and Large Scale Nanopatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpati, Biswarup; Ghosh, Tanmay

    2015-02-01

    We have studied ion-induced effects in the near-surface region of two eutectic systems. Gold and Silver nanodots on Silicon (100) substrate were prepared by thermal evaporation under high vacuum condition at room temperature (RT) and irradiated with 1.5 MeV Au2+ ions at flux ~1.25 x 10(11) ions cm-2 s-1 also at RT. These samples were characterized using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and associated techniques. We have observed that gold act as catalysis in the recrystallization process of ion-beam-induced amorphous Si at room temperature and also large mass transport up to a distance of about 60 nm into the substrate. Mass transport is much beyond the size (~ 6-20 nm) of these Au nanodots. Ag nanoparticles with diameter 15-45 nm are half-way embedded into the Si substrate and does not stimulate in recrystallization. In case of Au nanoparticles upon ion irradiation, mixed phase formed only when the local composition and transient temperature during irradiation is sufficient to cause mixing in accordance with the Au-Si stable phase diagram. Spectroscopic imaging in the scanning TEM using spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy provides one of the few ways to measure the real-space nanoscale mixing.

  20. Time-of-flight MeV-SIMS with beam induced secondary electron trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Borchers, Martina; Döbeli, Max; Müller, Arnold Milenko; George, Matthias; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-08-01

    A new Time-of-flight MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (MeV-SIMS) setup was developed to be used with a capillary microprobe for molecular imaging with heavy primary ions at MeV energies. Due to the low output current of the ion collimating capillary a Time-of-flight (ToF) measurement method with high duty cycle is necessary. Secondary electrons from the sample surface and transmitted ions were studied as start signals. They enable measurements with a continuous primary beam and unpulsed ToF spectrometer. Tests with various primary ion beams and sample types have shown that a secondary electron signal is obtained from 30% to 40% of incident MeV particles. This provides a ToF start signal with considerably better time resolution than the one obtained from transmitted primary ions detected in a radiation hard gas ionization detector. Beam induced secondary electrons therefore allow for MeV-SIMS measurements with reasonable mass resolution at primary ion beam currents in the low fA range.

  1. Evidence against a universal electron-beam-induced virtual temperature in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Pia; Kaiser, Ute; Lehtinen, Ossi

    2016-04-01

    The continuous electron bombardment of a sample during transmission electron microscopy (TEM) drives atomic-scale transformations. In earlier studies the transformations appeared to proceed as if the sample was held at an elevated temperature, and, indeed, the hypothesis of an electron-beam-induced virtual temperature has gained traction in the scientific community. However, the sample is not significantly heated by the electron beam, meaning the processes are not activated by thermal vibrations. Instead, individual collisions between the electrons and the target atoms, and/or excitations of the electronic system, lead to the observed transformations. It is not a priori clear what virtual temperature can be assigned to the conditions under the electron irradiation, or even if such a temperature can be defined at all. Here, we attempt to measure the virtual temperature, specific to this system, by comparing the relative population of the three different divacancy defect states in single-layer graphene to the Boltzmann distribution using calculated energy levels of the defect states. The experiment is conducted using aberration-corrected high-resolution TEM at an acceleration voltage of 80 kV. Atomistic simulations are used to learn about the energetics of the defects. We find that the measured populations cannot be fitted to the Boltzmann distribution, and consequently no universal virtual temperature can be assigned to the system.

  2. Focused-electron-beam-induced processing (FEBIP) for emerging applications in carbon nanoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focused-electron-beam-induced processing (FEBIP), a resist-free additive nanomanufacturing technique, is an actively researched method for ''direct-write'' processing of a wide range of structural and functional nanomaterials, with high degree of spatial and time-domain control. This article attempts to critically assess the FEBIP capabilities and unique value proposition in the context of processing of electronics materials, with a particular emphasis on emerging carbon (i.e., based on graphene and carbon nanotubes) devices and interconnect structures. One of the major hurdles in advancing the carbon-based electronic materials and device fabrication is a disjoint nature of various processing steps involved in making a functional device from the precursor graphene/CNT materials. Not only this multi-step sequence severely limits the throughput and increases the cost, but also dramatically reduces the processing reproducibility and negatively impacts the quality because of possible between-the-step contamination, especially for impurity-susceptible materials such as graphene. The FEBIP provides a unique opportunity to address many challenges of carbon nanoelectronics, especially when it is employed as part of an integrated processing environment based on multiple ''beams'' of energetic particles, including electrons, photons, and molecules. This avenue is promising from the applications' prospective, as such a multi-functional (electron/photon/molecule beam) enables one to define shapes (patterning), form structures (deposition/etching), and modify (cleaning/doping/annealing) properties with locally resolved control on nanoscale using the same tool without ever changing the processing environment. It thus will have a direct positive impact on enhancing functionality, improving quality and reducing fabrication costs for electronic devices, based on both conventional CMOS and emerging carbon (CNT/graphene) materials. (orig.)

  3. Focused-electron-beam-induced processing (FEBIP) for emerging applications in carbon nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andrei G.; Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Kulkarni, Dhaval; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2014-12-01

    Focused-electron-beam-induced processing (FEBIP), a resist-free additive nanomanufacturing technique, is an actively researched method for "direct-write" processing of a wide range of structural and functional nanomaterials, with high degree of spatial and time-domain control. This article attempts to critically assess the FEBIP capabilities and unique value proposition in the context of processing of electronics materials, with a particular emphasis on emerging carbon (i.e., based on graphene and carbon nanotubes) devices and interconnect structures. One of the major hurdles in advancing the carbon-based electronic materials and device fabrication is a disjoint nature of various processing steps involved in making a functional device from the precursor graphene/CNT materials. Not only this multi-step sequence severely limits the throughput and increases the cost, but also dramatically reduces the processing reproducibility and negatively impacts the quality because of possible between-the-step contamination, especially for impurity-susceptible materials such as graphene. The FEBIP provides a unique opportunity to address many challenges of carbon nanoelectronics, especially when it is employed as part of an integrated processing environment based on multiple "beams" of energetic particles, including electrons, photons, and molecules. This avenue is promising from the applications' prospective, as such a multi-functional (electron/photon/molecule beam) enables one to define shapes (patterning), form structures (deposition/etching), and modify (cleaning/doping/annealing) properties with locally resolved control on nanoscale using the same tool without ever changing the processing environment. It thus will have a direct positive impact on enhancing functionality, improving quality and reducing fabrication costs for electronic devices, based on both conventional CMOS and emerging carbon (CNT/graphene) materials.

  4. The penetration, diffusion and energy deposition of high-energy photon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zheng-Ming(罗正明); Gou Cheng-Jun(勾成俊); Wolfram Laub

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory for calculating the transport of high-energy photons and their secondary chargedparticles. We call this new algorithm characteristic line method, which is completely analytic. Using this new method wecannot only accurately calculate the transport behaviour of energetic photons, but also precisely describes the transportbehaviour and energy deposition of secondary electrons, photoelectrons, Compton recoil electrons and positron-electronpairs. Its calculation efficiency is much higher than that of the Monte Carlo method. The theory can be directlyapplied to layered media situation and obtain a pencil-beam-modelled solution. Therefore, it may be applied to clinicalapplications for radiation therapy.

  5. The penetration, diffusion and energy deposition of high-energy photon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗正明; 勾成俊; WolframLaub

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory for calculating the transport of high-energy photons and their secondary charged particles. We call this new algorithm characteristic line method, which is completely analytic. Using this new method we cannot only accurately calculate the transport behaviour of energetic photons, but also precisely describes the transport behaviour and energy deposition of secondary electrons, photoelectrons, Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs. Its calculation efficiency is much higher than that of the Monte Carlo method. The theory can be directly applied to layered media situation and obtain a pencil-beam-modelled solution. Therefore, it may be applied to clinical applications for radiation therapy.

  6. Monte Carlo calculation of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, Chen; Shuming, Peng; Dan, Meng; Yuehong, He; Heyi, Wang

    2014-10-01

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements has been theoretically studied using Monte Carlo code MCNP 5. The influence of many factors, including carrier gas, chamber size, wall materials and gas pressure, has been evaluated in the simulations. It is found that β rays emitted by tritium deposit much more energy into chambers flowing through with argon than with deuterium in them, as much as 2.7 times higher at pressure 100 Pa. As chamber size gets smaller, energy deposition decreases sharply. For an ionization chamber of 1 mL, β rays deposit less than 1% of their energy at pressure 100 Pa and only 84% even if gas pressure is as high as 100 kPa. It also indicates that gold plated ionization chamber results in the highest deposition ratio while aluminum one leads to the lowest. In addition, simulations were validated by comparison with experimental data. Results show that simulations agree well with experimental data.

  7. The role of electron-stimulated desorption in focused electron beam induced deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dorp, Willem F.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;

    2013-01-01

    experiments compared to literature values is consistent with earlier findings by other authors. The discrepancy is attributed to electron-stimulated desorption, which is known to occur during electron irradiation. The data suggest that, of the W(CO)6 molecules that are affected by the electron irradiation...

  8. Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Johan Petur; Birger Morillon, Melanie; Lambrechtsen, Jess;

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa......Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa...

  9. PRISM -- A tool for modelling proton energy deposition in semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a description of, and test results from, a new PC based software simulation tool PRISM (Protons in Semiconductor Materials). The model describes proton energy deposition in complex 3D sensitive volumes of semiconductor materials. PRISM is suitable for simulating energy deposition in surface-barrier detectors and semiconductor memory devices, the latter being susceptible to Single-Event Upset (SEU) and Multiple-Bit Upset (MBU). The design methodology on which PRISM is based, together with the techniques used to simulate ion transport and energy deposition, are described. Preliminary test results used to analyze the PRISM model are presented

  10. Electron-Beam-Induced Antiphase Boundary Reconstructions in a ZrO2-LSMO Pillar-Matrix System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Sigle, Wilfried; Kelsch, Marion; Habermeier, Hanns-Ulrich; van Aken, Peter A

    2016-09-14

    The availability of aberration correctors for the probe-forming lenses makes simultaneous modification and characterization of materials down to atomic scale inside a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) realizable. In this work, we report on the electron-beam-induced reconstructions of three types of antiphase boundaries (APBs) in a probe-aberration-corrected TEM. With the utilization of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), annular bright-field STEM, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, the motion of both heavy element Mn and light element O atomic columns under moderate electron beam irradiation are revealed at atomic resolution. Besides, Mn segregated in the APBs was observed to have reduced valence states which can be directly correlated with oxygen loss. Charge states of the APBs are finally discussed on the basis of these experimental results. This study provides support for the design of radiation-engineering solid-oxide fuel cell materials.

  11. Evolution of Wave Energy Deposition Profile in HT-7 Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德; 石跃江; 匡光力; 刘岳修; 沈慰慈; 丁伯江

    2001-01-01

    Lower hybrid waves (LHWs) with a selected n‖ spectrum have been used to control the energy deposition profiles, and then the wave driven current profiles effectively in tokamak discharges. In our lower hybrid current drive experiment in the HT-7 tokamak, it was found that the set-up of the wave energy deposition profile is a graduation process. In the beginning phase of the wave injection duration, the waves (with different n‖ spectra)deposit almost all their energy in the central region of the plasma column, even if their n‖ are very different. Up to around one hundred milliseconds, the wave energy deposition profiles can only take their corresponding shapes according to the n‖ spectra of LHWs. It also shown that this evolution process is affected obviously by the LHW driven current profile, which has been formed early.

  12. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  13. Biological characterization of low-energy ions with high-energy deposition on human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wilson, Paul; Thieberger, Peter; Lowenstein, Derek; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-09-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiation that is comprised of high-energy nuclear particles. Cancer patients are also exposed to high-energy nuclear particles when treated with proton and carbon beams. Nuclear interactions from high-energy particles traversing shielding materials and tissue produce low-energy (space environment produced at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL. Immunostaining for DNA damage response proteins was carried out after irradiation with 5.6 MeV/n boron (LET 205 keV/μm), 5.3 MeV/n silicon (LET 1241 keV/μm), 600 MeV/n Fe (LET 180 keV/μm) and 77 MeV/n oxygen (LET 58 keV/μm) particles. Low-energy ions caused more persistent DNA damage response (DDR) protein foci in irradiated human fibroblasts and esophageal epithelial cells compared to HZE particles. More detailed studies comparing boron ions to Fe particles, showed that boron-ion radiation resulted in a stronger G2 delay compared to Fe-particle exposure, and boron ions also showed an early recruitment of Rad51 at double-strand break (DSB) sites, which suggests a preference of homologous recombination for DSB repair in low-energy albeit high-LET particles. Our experiments suggest that the very high-energy radiation deposition by low-energy ions, representative of galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event secondary radiation, generates massive but localized DNA damage leading to delayed DSB repair, and distinct cellular responses from HZE particles. Thus, low-energy heavy ions provide a valuable probe for studies of homologous recombination repair in radiation responses. PMID:25098728

  14. Focused helium and neon ion beam induced etching for advanced extreme ultraviolet lithography mask repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, Carlos M.; Timilsina, Rajendra; Li, Guoliang; Duscher, Gerd; Rack, Philip D.; Slingenbergh, Winand; van Dorp, Willem F.; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.; Klein, Kate L.; Wu, Huimeng M.; Stern, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    The gas field ion microscope was used to investigate helium and neon ion beam induced etching of nickel as a candidate technique for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography mask editing. No discernable nickel etching was observed for room temperature helium exposures at 16 and 30 keV in the dose range

  15. Dispersion of heavy ion deposited energy in nanometric electronic devices: Experimental measurements and simulation possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, M.; Gaillardin, M.; Paillet, P.; Duhamel, O.; Martinez, M.; Bernard, H.

    2015-12-01

    The dispersion of heavy ion deposited energy is explored in nanometric electronic devices. Experimental data are reported, in a large thin SOI diode and in a SOI FinFET device, showing larger distributions of collected charge in the nanometric volume device. Geant4 simulations are then presented, using two different modeling approaches. Both of them seem suitable to evaluate the dispersion of deposited energy induced by heavy ion beams in advanced electronic devices with nanometric dimensions.

  16. Particle production and energy deposition studies for the neutrino factory target station

    OpenAIRE

    Back, John L.; Densham, Chris; Edgecock, R.; Prior, Gersende

    2013-01-01

    We present FLUKA and MARS simulation studies of the pion production and energy deposition in the Neutrino Factory baseline target station, which consists of a 4 MW proton beam interacting with a liquid mercury jet target within a 20 T solenoidal magnetic field. We show that a substantial increase in the shielding is needed to protect the superconducting coils from too much energy deposition. Investigations reveal that it is possible to reduce the magnetic field in the solenoid capture syst...

  17. Mechanisms of ignition by transient energy deposition: Regimes of combustion wave propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Kiverin, A. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Ivanov, M. F.; Liberman, Mikhail A.

    2013-01-01

    Regimes of chemical reaction wave propagating in reactive gaseous mixtures, whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics, are studied depending on the characteristics of a transient thermal energy deposition localized in a finite volume of reactive gas. Different regimes of the reaction wave propagation are initiated depending on the amount of deposited thermal energy, power of the source, and the size of the hot spot. The main parameters which define regimes of the combustion wave...

  18. Beam Induced Hydrodynamic Tunneling in the Future Circular Collider Components

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, Naeem Ahmad; Schmidt, Rudiger; Shutov, A; Wollmann, Daniel; Piriz, A

    2016-01-01

    A future circular collider (FCC) has been proposed as a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator, to explore particle physics in unprecedented energy ranges. The FCC is a circular collider in a tunnel with a circumference of 80–100 km. The FCC study puts an emphasis on proton-proton high-energy and electron-positron high-intensity frontier machines. A proton-electron interaction scenario is also examined. According to the nominal FCC parameters, each of the 50 TeV proton beams will carry an amount of 8.5 GJ energy that is equivalent to the kinetic energy of an Airbus A380 (560 t) at a typical speed of 850  km/h . Safety of operation with such extremely energetic beams is an important issue, as off-nominal beam loss can cause serious damage to the accelerator and detector components with a severe impact on the accelerator environment. In order to estimate the consequences of an accident with the full beam accidently deflected into equipment, we have carried out numerical simulations of interaction of a FCC...

  19. Energy deposition characteristics of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators: Influence of dielectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, G.; Winkel, R.; Kotsonis, M.

    2015-08-01

    An experimental study aimed at the characterization of energy deposition of nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators was carried out. Special attention was given on the effect of the thickness and material used for dielectric barrier. The selected materials for this study were polyimide film (Kapton), polyamide based nylon (PA2200), and silicone rubber. Schlieren measurements were carried out in quiescent air conditions in order to observe density gradients induced by energy deposited. Size of heated area was used to qualify the energy deposition coupled with electrical power measurements performed using the back-current shunt technique. Additionally, light intensity measurements showed a different nature of discharge based upon the material used for barrier, for a fixed thickness and frequency of discharge. Finally, a characterisation study was performed for the three tested materials. Dielectric constant, volume resistivity, and thermal conductivity were measured. Strong trends between the control parameters and the energy deposited into the fluid during the discharge were observed. Results indicate that efficiency of energy deposition mechanism relative to the thickness of the barrier strongly depends upon the material used for the dielectric barrier itself. In general, a high dielectric strength and a low volumetric resistivity are preferred for a barrier, together with a high heat capacitance and a low thermal conductivity coefficient in order to maximize the efficiency of the thermal energy deposition induced by an ns-DBD plasma actuator.

  20. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  1. Argon ion beam induced surface pattern formation on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofsäss, H.; Bobes, O.; Zhang, K. [2nd Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, University Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-01-21

    The development of self-organized surface patterns on Si due to noble gas ion irradiation has been studied extensively in the past. In particular, Ar ions are commonly used and the pattern formation was analyzed as function of ion incidence angle, ion fluence, and ion energies between 250 eV and 140 keV. Very few results exist for the energy regime between 1.5 keV and 10 keV and it appears that pattern formation is completely absent for these ion energies. In this work, we present experimental data on pattern formation for Ar ion irradiation between 1 keV and 10 keV and ion incidence angles between 50° and 75°. We confirm the absence of patterns at least for ion fluences up to 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}. Using the crater function formalism and Monte Carlo simulations, we calculate curvature coefficients of linear continuum models of pattern formation, taking into account contribution due to ion erosion and recoil redistribution. The calculations consider the recently introduced curvature dependence of the erosion crater function as well as the dynamic behavior of the thickness of the ion irradiated layer. Only when taking into account these additional contributions to the linear theory, our simulations clearly show that that pattern formation is strongly suppressed between about 1.5 keV and 10 keV, most pronounced at 3 keV. Furthermore, our simulations are now able to predict whether or not parallel oriented ripple patterns are formed, and in case of ripple formation the corresponding critical angles for the whole experimentally studied energies range between 250 eV and 140 keV.

  2. Biological characterization of low-energy ions with high-energy deposition on human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wilson, Paul; Thieberger, Peter; Lowenstein, Derek; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-09-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiation that is comprised of high-energy nuclear particles. Cancer patients are also exposed to high-energy nuclear particles when treated with proton and carbon beams. Nuclear interactions from high-energy particles traversing shielding materials and tissue produce low-energy (energy (HZE) particles and low-energy secondary ions of similar LET will have distinct biological effects for cellular and tissue damage endpoints. We investigated the biological effects of low-energy ions of high LET utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and compared these to experiments with HZE particles, that mimic the space environment produced at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL. Immunostaining for DNA damage response proteins was carried out after irradiation with 5.6 MeV/n boron (LET 205 keV/μm), 5.3 MeV/n silicon (LET 1241 keV/μm), 600 MeV/n Fe (LET 180 keV/μm) and 77 MeV/n oxygen (LET 58 keV/μm) particles. Low-energy ions caused more persistent DNA damage response (DDR) protein foci in irradiated human fibroblasts and esophageal epithelial cells compared to HZE particles. More detailed studies comparing boron ions to Fe particles, showed that boron-ion radiation resulted in a stronger G2 delay compared to Fe-particle exposure, and boron ions also showed an early recruitment of Rad51 at double-strand break (DSB) sites, which suggests a preference of homologous recombination for DSB repair in low-energy albeit high-LET particles. Our experiments suggest that the very high-energy radiation deposition by low-energy ions, representative of galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event secondary radiation, generates massive but localized DNA damage leading to delayed DSB repair, and distinct cellular responses from HZE particles. Thus, low-energy heavy ions provide a valuable probe for studies of homologous recombination repair in radiation responses.

  3. Beam induced electron cloud resonances in dipole magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvey, J. R.; Hartung, W.; Makita, J.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple of bunch spacing. Both resonances have been studied directly in dipole fields using retarding field analyzers installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. These measurements are supported by both analytical models and computer simulations.

  4. Limits for Beam Induced Damage: Reckless or too Cautious?

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Accidental events implying direct beam impacts on collimators are of the utmost importance as they may lead to serious limitations of the overall LHC Performance. In order to assess damage threshold of components impacted by high energy density beams, entailing changes of phase and extreme pressures, state-of-the-art numerical simulation methods are required. In this paper, a review of the different dynamic response regimes induced by particle beams is given along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each regime. Particular attention is paid to the most critical case, that of shock waves, for which standard Finite Element codes are totally unfit. A novel category of numerical tools, named Hydrocodes, has been adapted and used to analyse the consequences of an asynchronous beam abort on Phase 1 Tertiary Collimators (TCT). A number of simulations has been carried out with varying beam energy, number of bunches and bunch sizes allowing to identify different damage levels for the TCT up to catastr...

  5. Monte Carlo modeling of ion beam induced secondary electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, U; Cho, W; Joy, D C

    2016-09-01

    Ion induced secondary electrons (iSE) can produce high-resolution images ranging from a few eV to 100keV over a wide range of materials. The interpretation of such images requires knowledge of the secondary electron yields (iSE δ) for each of the elements and materials present and as a function of the incident beam energy. Experimental data for helium ions are currently limited to 40 elements and six compounds while other ions are not well represented. To overcome this limitation, we propose a simple procedure based on the comprehensive work of Berger et al. Here we show that between the energy range of 10-100keV the Berger et al. data for elements and compounds can be accurately represented by a single universal curve. The agreement between the limited experimental data that is available and the predictive model is good, and has been found to provide reliable yield data for a wide range of elements and compounds. PMID:27337603

  6. High-power, electron beam-induced switching in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors are developing a high-voltage, high-average-power, electron beam-controlled diamond switch that could significantly impact high power solid-state electronics in industrial and defense applications. An electron beam-controlled, thin film diamond could switch, with high efficiency, well over 100 kW average power at MHz frequencies greater than 5kV. This performance is due to the excellent thermal and electronic properties of diamond, the high efficiency achieved with electron beam control, and the demonstrated effectiveness of microchannel cooling. The authors' electron beam penetration-depth measurements agree with their Monte Carlo calculations. They have not observed electron beam damage in diamond for beam energies up to 150 keV. This report describes their experimental and calculational results and research objectives

  7. Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljeva, I.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: radiant@skylink.spb.ru; Mjakin, S.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Makarov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krasovsky, A.N. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Varlamov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15

    Electron beam processing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films is found to promote significant changes in the melting heat, intrinsic viscosity and polymer film-liquid (water, isooctane and toluene) boundary surface tension. These properties are featured with several maximums depending on the absorbed dose and correlating with the modification of PET surface functionality. Studies using adsorption of acid-base indicators and IR-spectroscopy revealed that the increase of PET surface hydrophilicity is determined by the oxidation of methylene and methyne groups. Electron beam treatment of PET films on the surface of N-vinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution provided graft copolymerization with this comonomer at optimum process parameters (energy 700 keV, current 1 mA, absorbed dose 50 kGy)

  8. Energy deposition dynamics of femtosecond pulses in water

    CERN Document Server

    Minardi, Stefano; Gopal, Amrutha; Tamošauskas, Gintaras; Milián, Carles; Couairon, Arnaud; Pertsch, Thomas; Dubietis, Audrius

    2014-01-01

    We exploit inverse Raman scattering and solvated electron absorption to perform a quantitative characterization of the energy loss and ionization dynamics in water with tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond pulses. A comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations suggests that the ionization energy of water is 8 eV, rather than the commonly used value of 6.5 eV.

  9. Energy storage and heat deposition in Cr,Yb,Er co-doped phosphate glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chen; Shunguang Li; Lei Wen; Yongchun Xu; Lili Hu; Biao Wang; Wei Chen

    2006-01-01

    Energy storage and heat deposition in Cr,Yb,Er co-doped phosphate glass were reported. A model based on rate equations was used to determine the energy storage from the free-oscillating output energy characteristics. The heat deposition was calculated by measuring the temperature rise of the glass rod. The results provided important information for the glass operating in Q-switched mode, and also for calculating the temperature profiles and cooling requirements of the glass under single shot and repetitive pulsed conditions.

  10. Large Storm Energy Deposition and Solar Wind Drivers: A Study of Geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N. E.; Lopez, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    We examine the role of solar wind driving conditions in the deposition of large amounts of energy in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Our database consists of eight storms ranging in size, including especially the October and November 2003 superstorms. We estimate energy deposition into the ring current, ionospheric Joule heating, and auroral precipitation for each event and compare with relevant solar wind data. Results suggest that the magnetosonic Mach number of the solar wind may be a useful parameter in identifying the potential for large amounts of energy deposition, possibly because of the role of the bow shock in modulating the magnetosheath field, and therefore its influence of reconnection rates. We use Dst, ionospheric indices, and MHD simulation results where available to investigate the magnetospheric response to different types of solar wind energy input. Our results are examined with a focus on superstorms and the driving conditions observed in connection with them.

  11. Ion beam induced charge and cathodoluminescence imaging of response uniformity of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J; Galbiati, A; Maghrabi, M; Townsend, P D

    2002-01-01

    The uniformity of response of CVD diamond radiation detectors produced from high quality diamond film, with crystallite dimensions of >100 mu m, has been studied using ion beam induced charge imaging. A micron-resolution scanning alpha particle beam was used to produce maps of pulse height response across the device. The detectors were fabricated with a single-sided coplanar electrode geometry to maximise their sensitivity to the surface region of the diamond film where the diamond crystallites are highly ordered. High resolution ion beam induced charge images of single crystallites were acquired that demonstrate variations in intra-crystallite charge transport and the termination of charge transport at the crystallite boundaries. Cathodoluminescence imaging of the same crystallites shows an inverse correlation between the density of radiative centres and regions of good charge transport.

  12. Modeling of neutron elastic scattering energy deposition in proton recoil counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of determining the neutron energy deposition in proton-recoil detectors, a model based on the multigroup transport theory is developed. The matrix of the averaged recoil nucleus energies represents the entire process of neutron kinetic energy transfer to the target nuclei. The averaged energy recoil nucleus receive is correspondent to the energy loss of a neutron that suffers collision within detector volume. The necessary algorithm for the matrix elements determination is developed. Computer code EESCAT is developed to calculate elastic scattering matrices and recoil nucleus energies received from elastically scattered neutrons. (author)

  13. Electron beam induced electronic transport in alkyl amine-intercalated VOx nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer, Colm; Lavayen, Vladimir; Clavijo-Cedeno, C.; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.

    2008-01-01

    The electron beam induced electronic transport in primary alkyl amine-intercalated V2O5 nanotubes is investigated where the organic amine molecules are employed as molecular conductive wires to an aminosilanized substrate surface and contacted to Au interdigitated electrode contacts. The results demonstrate that the high conductivity of the nanotubes is related to the non-resonant tunnelling through the amine molecules and a reduced polaron hopping conduction through the vanadium oxide itself...

  14. Radiation hardness of polysiloxane scintillators analyzed by ion beam induced luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, A., E-mail: quaranta@ing.unitn.i [University of Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali - DIMTI, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Carturan, S. [Universita di Padova, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Marchi, T.; Antonaci, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Scian, C. [Universita di Padova, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Kravchuk, V.L. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica, Viale Carlo Berti Pichat 6, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Degerlier, M.; Gramegna, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Maggioni, G. [Universita di Padova, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2010-10-01

    The radiation hardness of polysiloxane based scintillators has been measured by ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL). The light intensity as a function of the irradiation fluence with an He{sup +} beam at 1.8 MeV (1.0 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) has been measured on undoped polymers synthesized with different amounts of phenyl units and on polysiloxanes doped with two different dye molecules (BBOT and Lumogen Violet) sensitizing the scintillation yield.

  15. Direct simulation of ion beam induced stressing and amorphization of silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Beardmore, Keith M.; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, we investigate the mechanical response of silicon to high dose ion-irradiation. We employ a realistic and efficient model to directly simulate ion beam induced amorphization. Structural properties of the amorphized sample are compared with experimental data and results of other simulation studies. We find the behavior of the irradiated material is related to the rate at which it can relax. Depending upon the ability to deform, we observe either the ge...

  16. Energy deposition dynamics of femtosecond pulses in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minardi, Stefano, E-mail: stefano@stefanominardi.eu; Pertsch, Thomas [Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Milián, Carles; Couairon, Arnaud [Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS, École Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Majus, Donatas; Tamošauskas, Gintaras; Dubietis, Audrius [Department of Quantum Electronics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9, bldg. 3, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gopal, Amrutha [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    We exploit inverse Raman scattering and solvated electron absorption to perform a quantitative characterization of the energy loss and ionization dynamics in water with tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond pulses. A comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations suggests that the ionization energy of water is 8 eV, rather than the commonly used value of 6.5 eV. We also introduce an equation for the Raman gain valid for ultra-short pulses that validates our experimental procedure.

  17. Optimization of Energy Scope for Titanium Nitride Films Grown by Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; MA Zhong-Quan; WANG Ye; WANG De-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The deposited energy during film growth with ion bombardment, correlated to the atomic displacement on the surface monolayer and the underlying bulk, has been calculated by a simplified ion-solid interaction model under binary collision approximation. The separated damage energies caused by Ar ion, different for the surface and the bulk, have been determined under the standard collision cross section and a well-defined surface and bulk atom displacement threshold energy of titanium nitride (TiN). The optimum energy scope shows that the incident energy of Ar+ around 110eV for TiN (111) and 80eV for TiN (200) effectively enhances the mobility of adatom on surface but excludes the damage in underlying bulk. The theoretical prediction and the experimental result are in good agreement in low energy ion beam-assisted deposition.

  18. Photon Energy Deposition in Strong-Field Single Ionization of Multielectron Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Zhichao; Lu, Peifen; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Lin, Kang; Ma, Junyang; He, Feng; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Molecules exposed to strong laser fields may coherently absorb multiple photons and deposit the energy into electrons and nuclei, triggering the succeeding dynamics as the primary stage of the light-molecule interaction. We experimentally explore the electron-nuclear sharing of the absorbed photon energy in above-threshold multiphoton single ionization of multielectron molecules. Using CO as a prototype, vibrational and orbital resolved electron-nuclear sharing of the photon energy is observed. Different from the simplest one- or two-electron systems, the participation of the multiple orbitals and the coupling of various electronic states in the strong-field ionization and dissociation processes alter the photon energy deposition dynamics of the multielectron molecule. The population of numerous vibrational states of the molecular cation as the energy reservoir in the ionization process plays an important role in photon energy sharing between the emitted electron and the nuclear fragments.

  19. Photon Energy Deposition in Strong-Field Single Ionization of Multielectron Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Zhichao; Lu, Peifen; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Lin, Kang; Ma, Junyang; He, Feng; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Molecules exposed to strong laser fields may coherently absorb multiple photons and deposit the energy into electrons and nuclei, triggering the succeeding dynamics as the primary stage of the light-molecule interaction. We experimentally explore the electron-nuclear sharing of the absorbed photon energy in above-threshold multiphoton single ionization of multielectron molecules. Using CO as a prototype, vibrational and orbital resolved electron-nuclear sharing of the photon energy is observed. Different from the simplest one- or two-electron systems, the participation of the multiple orbitals and the coupling of various electronic states in the strong-field ionization and dissociation processes alter the photon energy deposition dynamics of the multielectron molecule. The population of numerous vibrational states of the molecular cation as the energy reservoir in the ionization process plays an important role in photon energy sharing between the emitted electron and the nuclear fragments.

  20. Deposition of luminescent thin films for solar energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, M.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices are a widely available, long lasting means of generating sustainable energy. Unfortunately, the integration of such devices into society is to date still limited. This is in part due to the much less than optimal efficiency of conversion of sunlight to electricity, but also by t

  1. Particle production and energy deposition studies for the Neutrino Factory target station

    CERN Document Server

    Back, John J

    2013-01-01

    We present FLUKA and MARS simulation studies of the pion production and energy deposition in the Neutrino Factory baseline target station, which consists of a 4 MW proton beam interacting with a liquid mercury jet target within a 20 T solenoidal magnetic field. We show that a substantial increase in the shielding is needed to protect the superconducting coils from too much energy deposition. Investigations reveal that it is possible to reduce the magnetic field in the solenoid capture system without adversely affecting the pion production efficiency. We show estimates of the amount of concrete shielding that will be required to protect the environment from the high radiation doses generated by the target station facility. We also present yield and energy deposition results for alternative targets: gallium liquid jet, tungsten powder jet and solid tungsten bars.

  2. Particle production and energy deposition studies for the neutrino factory target station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, John J.; Densham, Chris; Edgecock, Rob; Prior, Gersende

    2013-02-01

    We present FLUKA and MARS simulation studies of the pion production and energy deposition in the Neutrino Factory baseline target station, which consists of a 4 MW proton beam interacting with a liquid mercury jet target within a 20 T solenoidal magnetic field. We show that a substantial increase in the shielding is needed to protect the superconducting coils from too much energy deposition. Investigations reveal that it is possible to reduce the magnetic field in the solenoid capture system without adversely affecting the pion production efficiency. We show estimates of the amount of concrete shielding that will be required to protect the environment from the high radiation doses generated by the target station facility. We also present yield and energy deposition results for alternative targets: gallium liquid jet, tungsten powder jet, and solid tungsten bars.

  3. Energy deposition at the bone-tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy nucleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Wilson, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The transport of nuclear fragmentation recoils produced by high-energy nucleons in the region of the bone-tissue interface is considered. Results for the different flux and absorbed dose for recoils produced by 1 GeV protons are presented in a bidirectional transport model. The energy deposition in marrow cavities is seen to be enhanced by recoils produced in bone. Approximate analytic formulae for absorbed dose near the interface region are also presented for a simplified range-energy model.

  4. A study of the energy dependence of the mean, truncated mean, and most probable energy deposition of high-energy muons in sampling calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchincloss, P.S.; De Barbaro, P.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Pillai, M.; Qun, F.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schumm, B.; Bolton, T.; Arroyo, C.; Bachmann, K.T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Blair, R.E.; Foudas, C.; King, B.J.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.B.; Schellman, H.; Yovanovitch, D.; Kinnel, T.S.; Sandler, P.; Smith, W.H. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States) Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States) Dept. of Physics, Columbia Univ. New York, NY (United States) Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States) Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))

    1994-04-11

    We have extracted the momentum dependence of the mean, the truncated mean and the most probable value of the energy deposited in a segmented, iron-scintillator, hadron calorimeter by high-energy muons. Data were drawn from a sample of momentum-analyzed, high-energy muons produced in charged-current neutrino interactions. The truncated mean energy deposition of high-energy muons traversing 20 calorimeter segments increases by approximately 16% per 100 GeV/c increase in muon momentum over the range 25-125 GeV/c; the most probable energy deposition increases by approximately 7%. These results are important for experiments at high-energy colliders (e.g., Tevatron, SSC and LHC) which use the dE/dx of high-energy muons to calibrate the response of electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters with tower geometry. The data are in qualitative agreement with GEANT3 (v3.15/308a) simulations. (orig.)

  5. Energy deposition and thermal effects of runaway electrons in ITER-FEAT plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The profile of energy deposited by runaway electrons (RAEs) of 10 or 50 MeV in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-Fusion Energy Advanced Tokamak (ITER-FEAT) plasma facing components (PFCs) and the subsequent temperature pattern have been calculated by using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA and the finite element heat conduction code ANSYS. The RAE energy deposition density was assumed to be 50 MJ/m2 and both 10 and 100 ms deposition times were considered. Five different configurations of PFCs were investigated: primary first wall armoured with Be, with and without protecting CFC poloidal limiters, both port limiter first wall options (Be flat tile and CFC monoblock), divertor baffle first wall, armoured with W. The analysis has outlined that for all the configurations but one (port limiter with Be flat tile) the heat sink and the cooling tube beneath the armour are well protected for both RAE energies and for both energy deposition times. On the other hand large melting (W, Be) or sublimation (C) of the surface layer occurs, eventually affecting the PFCs lifetime

  6. Monte Carlo calculation of the energy deposited in the KASCADE GRANDE detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy deposited by protons, electrons and positrons in the KASCADE GRANDE detectors is calculated with a simple and fast Monte Carlo method. The KASCADE GRANDE experiment (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany), based on an array of plastic scintillation detectors, has the aim to study the energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays around and above the 'knee' region of the spectrum. The reconstruction of the primary spectrum is achieved by comparing the data collected by the detectors with simulations of the development of the extensive air shower initiated by the primary particle combined with detailed simulations of the detector response. The simulation of the air shower development is carried out with the CORSIKA Monte Carlo code. The output file produced by CORSIKA is further processed with a program that estimates the energy deposited in the detectors by the particles of the shower. The standard method to calculate the energy deposit in the detectors is based on the Geant package from the CERN library. A new method that calculates the energy deposit by fitting the Geant based distributions with simpler functions is proposed in this work. In comparison with the method based on the Geant package this method is substantially faster. The time saving is important because the number of particles involved is large. (author)

  7. Experimental investigation on the energy deposition and expansion rate under the electrical explosion of aluminum wire in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Kun; Shi, Yuanjie; Wu, Jian; Han, Ruoyu [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-12-28

    Experimental investigations on the electrical explosion of aluminum wire using negative polarity current in vacuum are presented. Current pulses with rise rates of 40 A/ns, 80 A/ns, and 120 A/ns are generated for investigating the influence of current rise rate on energy deposition. Experimental results show a significant increase of energy deposition into the wire before the voltage breakdown with the increase of current rise rate. The influence of wire dimension on energy deposition is investigated as well. Decreasing the wire length allows more energy to be deposited into the wire. The energy deposition of a 0.5 cm-long wire explosion is ∼2.5 times higher than the energy deposition of a 2 cm-long wire explosion. The dependence of the energy deposition on wire diameter demonstrates a maximum energy deposition of 2.7 eV/atom with a diameter of ∼18 μm. Substantial increase in energy deposition is observed in the electrical explosion of aluminum wire with polyimide coating. A laser probe is applied to construct the shadowgraphy, schlieren, and interferometry diagnostics. The morphology and expansion trajectory of exploding products are analyzed based on the shadowgram. The interference phase shift is reconstructed from the interferogram. Parallel dual wires are exploded to estimate the expansion velocity of the plasma shell.

  8. Strain and Cohesive Energy of TiN Deposit on Al(001) Surface: Density Functional Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Liu, Xuejie

    2016-07-01

    To apply the high hardness of TiN film to soft and hard multilayer composite sheets, we constructed a new type of composite structural material with ultra-high strength. The strain of crystal and cohesive energy between the atoms in the eight structures of N atom, Ti atom, 2N2Ti island and TiN rock salt deposited on the Al(001) surface were calculated with the first-principle ultra-soft pseudopotential approach of the plane wave based on the density functional theory. The calculations of the cohesive energy showed that N atoms could be deposited in the face-centered-cubic vacancy position of the Al(001) surface and results in a cubic structure AlN surface. The TiN film could be deposited on the interface of β-AlN. The calculations of the strains showed that the strain in the TiN film deposited on the Al(001) surface was less than that in the 2N2Ti island deposited on the Al(001) surface. The diffusion behavior of interface atom N was investigated by a nudged elastic band method. Diffusion energy calculation showed that the N atom hardly diffused to the substrate Al layer.

  9. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, Michael E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); UCL Energy Institute, Central House, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom); Binions, Russell, E-mail: r.binions@qmul.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research. - Graphical abstract: Schematic demonstration of the effect of thermochromic glazing on solar radiation (red arrow represents IR radiation, black arrow represents all other solar radiation). - Highlights: • Vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing. • Reviews chemical vapour deposition techniques. • Latest results for thin film deposition for vanadium dioxide.

  10. Energy bandgap variation in oblique angle-deposited indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyurin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Cho, Jaehee, E-mail: jcho@chonbuk.ac.kr [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Semiconductor Physics Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Jong Kyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Fred Schubert, E. [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2016-01-25

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited using the oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique exhibit a strong correlation between structural and optical properties, especially the optical bandgap energy. The microstructural properties of ITO thin films are strongly influenced by the tilt angle used during the OAD process. When changing the tilt angle, the refractive index, porosity, and optical bandgap energy of ITO films also change due to the existence of a preferential growth direction at the interface between ITO and the substrate. Experiments reveal that the ITO film's optical bandgap varies from 3.98 eV (at normal incident deposition) to 3.87 eV (at a 60° tilt angle)

  11. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-07-18

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  12. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-01-01

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface. PMID:25034006

  13. Evaluation of eruptive energy of a pyroclastic deposit applying fractal geometry to fragment size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Marino, Joali; Morgavi, Daniele; Di Vito, Mauro; de Vita, Sandro; Sansivero, Fabio; Perugini, Diego

    2016-04-01

    Fractal fragmentation theory has been applied to characterize the particle size distribution of pyroclastic deposits generated by volcanic explosions. Recent works have demonstrated that fractal dimension on grain size distributions can be used as a proxy for estimating the energy associated with volcanic eruptions. In this work we seek to establish a preliminary analytical protocol that can be applied to better characterize volcanic fall deposits and derive the potential energy for fragmentation that was stored in the magma prior/during an explosive eruption. The methodology is based on two different techniques for determining the grain-size distribution of the pyroclastic samples: 1) dry manual sieving (particles larger than 297μm), and 2) automatic grain size analysis via a CamSizer-P4®device, the latter measure the distribution of projected area, obtaining a cumulative distribution based on volume fraction for particles up to 30mm. Size distribution data have been analyzed by applying the fractal fragmentation theory estimating the value of Df, i.e. the fractal dimension of fragmentation. In order to test our protocol we studied the Cretaio eruption, Ischia island, Italy. Results indicate that size distributions of pyroclastic fall deposits follow a fractal law, indicating that the fragmentation process of these deposits reflects a scale-invariant fragmentation mechanism. Matching the results from manual and automated techniques allows us to obtain a value of the "fragmentation energy" from the explosive eruptive events that generate the Cretaio deposits. We highlight the importance of these results, based on fractal statistics, as an additional volcanological tool for addressing volcanic risk based on the analyses of grain size distributions of natural pyroclastic deposits. Keywords: eruptive energy, fractal dimension of fragmentation, pyroclastic fallout.

  14. Analysis of CRRES PHA Data for Low-Energy-Deposition Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, P. J.; Hardage, Donna

    2004-01-01

    This effort analyzed the low-energy deposition Pulse Height Analyzer (PHA) data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). The high-energy deposition data had been previously analyzed and shown to be in agreement with spallation reactions predicted by the Clemson University Proton Interactions in Devices (CUPID) simulation model and existing environmental and orbit positioning models (AP-8 with USAF B-L coordinates). The scope of this project was to develop and improve the CUPID model by increasing its range to lower incident particle energies, and to expand the modeling to include contributions from elastic interactions. Before making changes, it was necessary to identify experimental data suitable for benchmarking the codes; then, the models to the CRRES PHA data could be applied. It was also planned to test the model against available low-energy proton or neutron SEU data obtained with mono-energetic beams.

  15. Energy deposition characteristics of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators: Influence of dielectric material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correale, G.; Winkel, R.; Kotsonis, M.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study aimed at the characterization of energy deposition of nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators was carried out. Special attention was given on the effect of the thickness and material used for dielectric barrier. The selected materials for this study we

  16. Effect of forage energy intake and supplementation on marbling deposition in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose is the primary carbon source for fatty acid synthesis in intramuscular fat, whereas, acetate is primarily utilized by subcutaneous fat. Our objective was to examine the effect of forage energy intake and type of fermentation on marbling deposition by stocker cattle grazing dormant native ra...

  17. Universal lateral distribution of energy deposit in air showers and its application to shower reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Gora, D; Heck, D; Homola, P; Klages, H; Pekala, J; Risse, M; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H

    2006-01-01

    The light intensity distribution in a shower image and its implications to the primary energy reconstructed by the fluorescence technique are studied. Based on detailed CORSIKA energy deposit simulations, a universal analytical formula is derived for the lateral distribution of light in the shower image and a correction factor is obtained to account for the fraction of shower light falling into outlying pixels in the detector. The expected light profiles and the corresponding correction of the primary shower energy are illustrated for several typical event geometries. This correction of the shower energy can exceed 10%, depending on shower geometry.

  18. Universal lateral distribution of energy deposit in air showers and its application to shower reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Gora, D.; Engel, R.; Heck, D.; Homola, P.; Klages, H.; Pekala, J.; Risse, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2005-01-01

    The light intensity distribution in a shower image and its implications to the primary energy reconstructed by the fluorescence technique are studied. Based on detailed CORSIKA energy deposit simulations, a universal analytical formula is derived for the lateral distribution of light in the shower image and a correction factor is obtained to account for the fraction of shower light falling into outlying pixels in the detector. The expected light profiles and the corresponding correction of th...

  19. Watching adsorption and electron beam induced decomposition on the model system Mo(CO){sub 6}/Cu(1 1 1) by X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paufert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.paufert@u-bourgogne.fr [ICB, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France); Fonda, Emiliano [Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP48, St Aubin, 91192 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Li, Zheshen [ISA, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Domenichini, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.domenichini@u-bourgogne.fr [ICB, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France); Bourgeois, Sylvie [ICB, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France)

    2013-11-01

    An in-depth study of the first steps of electron beam assisted growth of Mo from molybdenum hexacarbonyl on Cu(1 1 1) has been carried out exploiting the complementarity of X-ray photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Frank van der Merwe (2D) growth mode has been observed for the completion of the two first monolayers of adsorbed molecules through a simple physisorption process. Irradiation of the Mo(CO){sub 6} deposit by 1 keV electron beam induces a modification of molybdenum coordination, the average number of C-neighbors decreasing from 6 to 3. Decomposed molecules remain on the surface after annealing at 520 K and organize themselves, the molybdenum atoms moving in Cu(1 1 1) surface fcc hollow sites. After annealing at 670 K, metallic molybdenum growth begins, if the total amount of adsorbed Mo atoms exceeds 1.2 monolayers.

  20. Watching adsorption and electron beam induced decomposition on the model system Mo(CO)6/Cu(1 1 1) by X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paufert, Pierre; Fonda, Emiliano; Li, Zheshen; Domenichini, Bruno; Bourgeois, Sylvie

    2013-11-01

    An in-depth study of the first steps of electron beam assisted growth of Mo from molybdenum hexacarbonyl on Cu(1 1 1) has been carried out exploiting the complementarity of X-ray photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Frank van der Merwe (2D) growth mode has been observed for the completion of the two first monolayers of adsorbed molecules through a simple physisorption process. Irradiation of the Mo(CO)6 deposit by 1 keV electron beam induces a modification of molybdenum coordination, the average number of C-neighbors decreasing from 6 to 3. Decomposed molecules remain on the surface after annealing at 520 K and organize themselves, the molybdenum atoms moving in Cu(1 1 1) surface fcc hollow sites. After annealing at 670 K, metallic molybdenum growth begins, if the total amount of adsorbed Mo atoms exceeds 1.2 monolayers.

  1. STUDY OF THE BEAM INDUCED RADIATION IN THE CMS DETECTOR AT THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Amandeep P; Mokhov, Nikolai; Beri, Suman Bala

    2009-01-01

    point, are most vulnerable to beam-induced radiation. We have recently carried out extensive monte carlo simulation studies using MARS program to estimate particle fluxes and radiation dose in the CMS silicon pixel and strip trackers from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt s $=14 TeV and from machine induced background such as beam-gas interactions and beam-halo. We will present results on radiation dose, particle fluxes and spectra from these studies and discuss implications for radiation damage and performance of the CMS silicon tracker detec...

  2. Spectroscopic Evidence for Exceptional Thermal Contribution to Electron-Beam Induced Fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Marissa A.; Haynor, Ben; Aloni, Shaul; Ogletree, D. Frank; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.

    2010-11-16

    While electron beam induced fragmentation (EBIF) has been reported to result in the formation of nanocrystals of various compositions, the physical forces driving this phenomenon are still poorly understood. We report EBIF to be a much more general phenomenon than previously appreciated, operative across a wide variety of metals, semiconductors and insulators. In addition, we leverage the temperature dependent bandgap of several semiconductors to quantify -- using in situ cathodoluminescence spectroscopy -- the thermal contribution to EBIF, and find extreme temperature rises upwards of 1000K.

  3. Ion beam induced luminescence of germano-silicate optical fiber preform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyunkyu; Kim, Jongyeol; Lee, Namho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngwoong; Han, Wontaek [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Markovic, Nikola; Jaksic, Milko [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagred (Croatia)

    2014-05-15

    When an optical fiber is exposed to radiation, the attenuation (RIA, Radiation Induced Attenuation) in the optical fiber (OF) is increased because of the color centers which deteriorate the transmission property and generate the absorption loss. In order to understand the radiation induced defect, Ion Beam induced luminescence (IBIL) was introduced to investigate it. IBIL technique is to analyze IR/VIS/UV luminescence related to ion beam interaction with outer shell electrons involved in chemical bonds and structure defects of target atoms. So IBIL is sensitive to its chemical composition and has been used in analysis of material characterization, geological samples and cultural heritage objects. In silica material, four O atoms are surrounding one Si atom in tetrahedral coordination. In this study, the influence of Copper (Cu) and Cerium (Ce) dopants to germano silica core optical fibers were investigated under proton irradiation at RBI using Ion Beam induced luminescence (IBIL) method. To understand the radiation induced defect of optical fibers, IBIL were tested to a germano-silica core fiber under 2 MeV proton irradiation. Although a Cu or Ce dopant was not detected by IBIL technique, the relation between the amount of radiation and luminescence can be established. This experiment showed a potential technique of studying the effects and behavior of additive elements for silica core fiber. To increase the radiation resistance of optical fibers, further investigations are needed, i. e. the proper additives and its contents and an interaction mechanism between Ge-related defects and additives.

  4. Ion beam induced luminescence of germano-silicate optical fiber preform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an optical fiber is exposed to radiation, the attenuation (RIA, Radiation Induced Attenuation) in the optical fiber (OF) is increased because of the color centers which deteriorate the transmission property and generate the absorption loss. In order to understand the radiation induced defect, Ion Beam induced luminescence (IBIL) was introduced to investigate it. IBIL technique is to analyze IR/VIS/UV luminescence related to ion beam interaction with outer shell electrons involved in chemical bonds and structure defects of target atoms. So IBIL is sensitive to its chemical composition and has been used in analysis of material characterization, geological samples and cultural heritage objects. In silica material, four O atoms are surrounding one Si atom in tetrahedral coordination. In this study, the influence of Copper (Cu) and Cerium (Ce) dopants to germano silica core optical fibers were investigated under proton irradiation at RBI using Ion Beam induced luminescence (IBIL) method. To understand the radiation induced defect of optical fibers, IBIL were tested to a germano-silica core fiber under 2 MeV proton irradiation. Although a Cu or Ce dopant was not detected by IBIL technique, the relation between the amount of radiation and luminescence can be established. This experiment showed a potential technique of studying the effects and behavior of additive elements for silica core fiber. To increase the radiation resistance of optical fibers, further investigations are needed, i. e. the proper additives and its contents and an interaction mechanism between Ge-related defects and additives

  5. Electron beam induced synthesis of uranium dioxide nanoparticles: Effect of solvent composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, M. C.; Keny, S. J.; Naik, D. B.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of various compositions of solvents was investigated on the electron beam induced synthesis of uranium dioxide, UO2 nanoparticles. The synthesis was carried out at different pHs from 2 to 7 in the aqueous solutions containing 10 mM uranyl nitrate and 10% 2-propanol. The formation of UO2 nanoparticles was found to occur only in the pH range from 2.5 to 3.7. Experiments were also carried out in the aqueous solutions containing various other alcohols (10% v/v) such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol or tert-butanol as well as in solutions containing 10 mM sodium formate at pH 3.4. The formation of UO2 nanoparticles in the aqueous solutions was found to occur only in the presence of ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol or 1-butanol. It is therefore confirmed that the electron beam induced synthesis of UO2 nanoparticles strongly depends on the solvent compositions as well as the pH of the medium.

  6. Simulation of beam-induced plasma for the mitigation of beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Yu, K.; Litvinenko, V.

    2015-05-03

    One of the main challenges in the increase of luminosity of circular colliders is the control of the beam-beam effect. In the process of exploring beam-beam mitigation methods using plasma, we evaluated the possibility of plasma generation via ionization of neutral gas by proton beams, and performed highly resolved simulations of the beam-plasma interaction using SPACE, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The process of plasma generation is modelled using experimentally measured cross-section coefficients and a plasma recombination model that takes into account the presence of neutral gas and beam-induced electromagnetic fields. Numerically simulated plasma oscillations are consistent with theoretical analysis. In the beam-plasma interaction process, high-density neutral gas reduces the mean free path of plasma electrons and their acceleration. A numerical model for the drift speed as a limit of plasma electron velocity was developed. Simulations demonstrate a significant reduction of the beam electric field in the presence of plasma. Preliminary simulations using fully-ionized plasma have also been performed and compared with the case of beam-induced plasma.

  7. Two-Photon Optical Beam-Induced Current Microscopy of Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godofredo Bautista Jr.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate two-photon optical beam-induced current (2P-OBIC microscopy of light-emitting diodes (LEDs. We utilized a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser source operating at 800 nm to derive the 2P-OBIC signal from a 605 nm band-gap LED. The spatial confinement of free carrier generation only at the focus and the quadratic dependence of the 2P-OBIC signal on excitation power are the key principles in two-photon excitation. As a consequence, superior image quality evident in the 2P-OBIC images of LEDs are obtained. These features decrease the linear absorption and wide-angle scattering effects plaguing single-photon optical beam-induced current (1P-OBIC technique, thereby increasing the resolution of the imaging system in the axial and lateral directions. Thus, the attainment of good axial discrimination in the LED samples is obtained even without a confocal pinhole. In addition, 2P-OBIC images reveal local variations in free carrier densities which are not evident in the single-photon excitation.

  8. The Energy Deposition for No-air-gap Design of the TESLA Beam Dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the linear electron- positron collider project TESLA, the beam dump designed as a water tank is working in a very special regime. Each pulse of the electron or positron beam should, after crossing the interaction region, be dumped in a cylindrical 10-m long water dump. The mean power to be absorbed is important being 8 MW for 250 GeV beam energy (intensity 2.04 * 1014 electrons/s) and for 400 GeV case it will be 12 MW and 2.8*1014 electrons/s. The initial project was providing a 20-cm wide air gap between the titanium vessel containing water and the concentrate outer shield. Energy deposition calculations using FLUKA code showed that the energy deposited in and thus temperature rise of the concrete shield were very high. Additional solid inner shield made of aluminium (or iron) has to be placed just behind the titanium vessel. The important production of radioactive nuclei in the air has prompted the designers to minimize the air gap. Realistically, this minimal size of the air gap was assessed to be a 2-cm wide. Also new thickness of the inner shield has been proposed - 60 cm for aluminium and 20 cm for iron. These changes called for a new set of calculations for energy deposition in both the concentrate and aluminum iron) shields. (author)

  9. Laser energy density, structure and properties of pulsed-laser deposited zinc oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoutsouva, M.G.; Panagopoulos, C.N. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, Athens 15780 (Greece); Kompitsas, M., E-mail: mcomp@eie.gr [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, Vasileos Konstantinou Ave. 48, Athens 11635 (Greece)

    2011-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition in an oxygen-reactive atmosphere at 20 Pa and a constant substrate temperature at 300 deg. C. A pulsed KrF excimer laser, operated at 248 nm with pulse duration 10 ns, was used to ablate the ceramic zinc oxide target. The structure, the optical and electrical properties of the as-deposited films were studied in dependence of the laser energy density in the 1.2-2.8 J/cm{sup 2} range, with the aid of X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscope, Transmission Spectroscopy techniques, and the Van der Pauw method, respectively. The results indicated that the structural and optical properties of the zinc oxide films were improved by increasing the laser energy density of the ablating laser. The surface roughness of the zinc oxide film increased with the decrease of laser energy density and both the optical bang gap and the electrical resistivity of the film were significantly affected by the laser energy density.

  10. Background and Energy Deposition Studies for the CLIC Post-Collision Line

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B; Deacon, L C; Gschwendtner, E

    2011-01-01

    After the interaction point, the 1.5 TeV, 14MW CLIC electron/positron beams must be transported safely to the main beam dump. In designing the CLIC post-collision line detailed simulations must be carried out in order to ensure that losses are kept within reasonable limits. Results for back-scattered photon flux arriving at the detector are recalculated after updates and enhancements to the geometry description used in the study presented in [1]. Initial results of neutron fluxes are presented. Additionally, energy deposition calculations are carried out, showing that, when the full electromagnetic showers are included, in the current design the standard magnet coils would have a short lifetime due to radiation damage to conventional insulation material. Changing the magnet mask material from graphite to iron and lengthening the intermediate dump by 2m of iron are shown to substantially lessen the energy deposition in the magnet coils and thereby extend magnet lifetimes.

  11. Characteristic properties of the Casimir free energy for metal films deposited on metallic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Casimir free energy and pressure of thin metal films deposited on metallic plates are considered using the Lifshitz theory and the Drude and plasma model approaches to the role of conduction electrons. The bound electrons are taken into account by using the complete optical data of film and plate metals. It is shown that for films of several tens of nanometers thickness the Casimir free energy and pressure calculated using these approaches differ by hundreds and thousands percent and can be easily discriminated experimentally. According to our results, the free energy of a metal film does not vanish in the limiting case of ideal metal if the Drude model approach is used in contradiction with the fact that the fluctuating field cannot penetrate in its interior. Numerical computations of the Casimir free energy and pressure of Ag and Au films deposited on Cu and Al plates have been performed using both theoretical approaches. It is shown that the free energy of a film can be both negative and positive depending on the metals used. For a Au film on a Ag plate and vice versa the Casimir energy of a film changes its sign with increasing film thickness. Applications of the obtained results for resolving the Casimir puzzle and the problem of stability of thin films are discussed.

  12. Energy Deposition in Magnetic Cloud and High Speed Stream Driven Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E. J.; Turner, N. E.

    2004-12-01

    The solar wind couples a large amount of energy into the magnetosphere-ionosphere system; this energy is released in the form of geomagnetic storms. While the precise mechanism for this coupling and release is yet unclear, it is well established that different solar wind conditions create different responses within the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We are examining the impact of high speed stream-driven and magnetic cloud-driven storms on the global redistribution of energy throughout the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Data are used from ACE, WIND, and ground magnetometers. We estimate the energy input and output for multiple geomagnetic storms spanning from1995 to 1998. The comparison of storms reveals high speed stream-driven storms deposit less energy per second, but over longer durations. The comparison further reveals magnetic cloud-driven storms have deeper Dst* depressions but with shorter durations. Our results suggest magnetic cloud-driven storms with similar input parameters as high speed stream-driven storms produce an overall lower energy deposition.

  13. Simulation of air shower image in fluorescence light based on energy deposits derived from CORSIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Gora, D.; Heck, D.; Homola, P.; Klages, H.; Pekala, J.; Risse, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2004-01-01

    Spatial distributions of energy deposited by an extensive air shower in the atmosphere through ionization, as obtained from the CORSIKA simulation program, are used to find the fluorescence light distribution in the optical image of the shower. The shower image derived in this way is somewhat smaller than that obtained from the NKG lateral distribution of particles in the shower. The size of the image shows a small dependence on the primary particle type.

  14. Body composition and deposition efficiency of protein and energy in grazing young bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Marcos Inácio Marcondes; Isabela Fernanda Teixeira Dias

    2014-01-01

    The effects of supplementation with different protein: carbohydrate ratios on body composition, carcass characteristics and protein and energy deposition efficiency of young were assessed. Twenty-four Nellorecalves (132.5 ± 5.5 kgand 90-150 days of age) were kept on pasture for a 430 day experimental period. The treatments were: Control = mineral mixture only; HPHC = high-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; HPLC = high-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement; LPHC = low-protein and high...

  15. Comparison of energy deposition calculations by the LAHET Code System with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, C.A.; Lisowski, P.W.; Russell, G.J.; Waters, L.S.

    1993-08-01

    A comparison was performed between the energy deposition predicted by the LAHET Code System (LCS) with experimental values determined by Belyakov-Bodin et al. for 800, 1000, and 1200 MeV protons on targets composed of lead, bismuth, beryllium, carbon, and aluminum. The lead and bismuth showed agreement within approximately 10% at locations throughout the targets, and the agreement of the total energy deposited over the axial length of the targets ranged from 1% to 25%. For the lead and bismuth cases, the LCS predictions were always greater than the experimental results. For the lighter materials, the agreement at locations throughout the target only agreed within approximately 20%. No definable trend could be determined for the lighter materials since some LCS predictions were greater than the experimental results, some were less than the experimental results, and some showed very good agreement. The total energy deposited over the axial length of the targets was not compared for the lighter materials since it was not explicitly given with the experimental data.

  16. Simulation of submarine gas hydrate deposits as a sustainable energy source and CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, G.; Hennig, T.; Schlüter, S.; Deerberg, G.

    2012-04-01

    Being aware that conventionally exploitable natural gas resources are limited, research concentrates on the development of new technologies for the extraction of methane from gas hydrate deposits in subsea sediments. The quantity of methane stored in hydrate form is considered to be a promising means to overcome future shortages in energy resources. In combination with storing carbon dioxide (CO2) as hydrates in the deposits chances for sustainable energy supply systems are given. The combustion of hydrate-based natural gas can contribute to the energy supply, but the coupled CO2 emissions cause climate change effects. At present, the possible options to capture and subsequently store CO2 (CCS-Technology) become of particular interest. To develop a sustainable hydrate-based energy supply system, the production of natural gas from hydrate deposits has to be coupled with the storage of CO2. Hence, the simultaneous storage of CO2 in hydrate deposits has to be developed. Decomposition of methane hydrate in combination with CO2 sequestration appears to be promising because CO2 hydrate is stable within a wider range of pressure and temperature than methane hydrate. As methane hydrate provides structural integrity and stability in its natural formation, incorporating CO2 hydrate as substitute for methane hydrate will help to preserve the natural sediments' stability. Regarding the technological implementation, many problems have to be overcome. Especially heat and mass transfer in the deposits are limiting factors causing very long process times. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like

  17. Energy deposition of heavy ions in the regime of strong beam-plasma correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, D O; Schlanges, M

    2003-03-01

    The energy loss of highly charged ions in dense plasmas is investigated. The applied model includes strong beam-plasma correlation via a quantum T-matrix treatment of the cross sections. Dynamic screening effects are modeled by using a Debye-like potential with a velocity dependent screening length that guarantees the known low and high beam velocity limits. It is shown that this phenomenological model is in good agreement with simulation data up to very high beam-plasma coupling. An analysis of the stopping process shows considerably longer ranges and a less localized energy deposition if strong coupling is treated properly.

  18. Energy deposition of heavy ions in the regime of strong beam-plasma correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, D O; Schlanges, M

    2003-03-01

    The energy loss of highly charged ions in dense plasmas is investigated. The applied model includes strong beam-plasma correlation via a quantum T-matrix treatment of the cross sections. Dynamic screening effects are modeled by using a Debye-like potential with a velocity dependent screening length that guarantees the known low and high beam velocity limits. It is shown that this phenomenological model is in good agreement with simulation data up to very high beam-plasma coupling. An analysis of the stopping process shows considerably longer ranges and a less localized energy deposition if strong coupling is treated properly. PMID:12689203

  19. Energy deposition model for low-energy electrons (10-10 000 eV) in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An energy deposition model for electrons in air that can be useful in microdosimetric applications is presented in this study. The model is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the single electron scattering processes that can take place with the molecular constituents of the air in the energy range 10-10 000 eV. The input parameters for this procedure have been the electron scattering cross sections, both differential and integral. These parameters were calculated using a model potential method which describes the electron scattering with the molecular constituent of air. The reliability of the calculated integral cross section values has been evaluated by comparison with direct total electron scattering cross-section measurements performed by us in a transmission beam experiment. Experimental energy loss spectra for electrons in air have been used as probability distribution functions to define the electron energy loss in single collision events. The resulting model has been applied to simulate the electron transport through a gas cell containing air at different pressures and the results have been compared with those observed in the experiments. Finally, as an example of its applicability to dosimetric issues, the energy deposition of 10 000 eV by means of successive collisions in a free air chamber has been simulated

  20. Low-Energy Plasma Spray (LEPS) Deposition of Hydroxyapatite/Poly-ɛ-Caprolactone Biocomposite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Diana; Parco, Maria; Stokes, Joseph; Looney, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Thermal spraying is widely employed to deposit hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-based biocomposites on hip and dental implants. For thick HA coatings (>150 μm), problems are generally associated with the build-up of residual stresses and lack of control of coating crystallinity. HA/polymer composite coatings are especially interesting to improve the pure HA coatings' mechanical properties. For instance, the polymer may help in releasing the residual stresses in the thick HA coatings. In addition, the selection of a bioresorbable polymer may enhance the coatings' biological behavior. However, there are major challenges associated with spraying ceramic and polymeric materials together because of their very different thermal properties. In this study, pure HA and HA/poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) thick coatings were deposited without significant thermal degradation by low-energy plasma spraying (LEPS). PCL has never been processed by thermal spraying, and its processing is a major achievement of this study. The influence of selected process parameters on microstructure, composition, and mechanical properties of HA and HA/PCL coatings was studied using statistical design of experiments (DOE). The HA deposition rate was significantly increased by the addition of PCL. The average porosity of biocomposite coatings was slightly increased, while retaining or even improving in some cases their fracture toughness and microhardness. Surface roughness of biocomposites was enhanced compared with HA pure coatings. Cell culture experiments showed that murine osteoblast-like cells attach and proliferate well on HA/PCL biocomposite deposits.

  1. High energy conversion efficiency in laser-proton acceleration by controlling laser-energy deposition onto thin foil targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, C. M. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Robinson, A. P. L.; Markey, K.; Scott, R. H. H.; Lancaster, K. L.; Musgrave, I. O.; Spindloe, C.; Winstone, T.; Wyatt, D.; Neely, D. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Rosinski, M.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Deppert, O. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Batani, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Universita di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milan (Italy); Davies, J. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Fusion Science Center for Extreme States of Matter, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Hassan, S. M.; Tatarakis, M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Centre for Plasma Physics and Lasers, 73133 Chania, 74100 Rethymno, Crete (Greece); and others

    2014-02-24

    An all-optical approach to laser-proton acceleration enhancement is investigated using the simplest of target designs to demonstrate application-relevant levels of energy conversion efficiency between laser and protons. Controlled deposition of laser energy, in the form of a double-pulse temporal envelope, is investigated in combination with thin foil targets in which recirculation of laser-accelerated electrons can lead to optimal conditions for coupling laser drive energy into the proton beam. This approach is shown to deliver a substantial enhancement in the coupling of laser energy to 5–30 MeV protons, compared to single pulse irradiation, reaching a record high 15% conversion efficiency with a temporal separation of 1 ps between the two pulses and a 5 μm-thick Au foil. A 1D simulation code is used to support and explain the origin of the observation of an optimum pulse separation of ∼1 ps.

  2. Practical Framework for an Electron Beam Induced Current Technique Based on a Numerical Optimization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hideshi; Soeda, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    A practical framework for an electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique has been established for conductive materials based on a numerical optimization approach. Although the conventional EBIC technique is useful for evaluating the distributions of dopants or crystal defects in semiconductor transistors, issues related to the reproducibility and quantitative capability of measurements using this technique persist. For instance, it is difficult to acquire high-quality EBIC images throughout continuous tests due to variation in operator skill or test environment. Recently, due to the evaluation of EBIC equipment performance and the numerical optimization of equipment items, the constant acquisition of high contrast images has become possible, improving the reproducibility as well as yield regardless of operator skill or test environment. The technique proposed herein is even more sensitive and quantitative than scanning probe microscopy, an imaging technique that can possibly damage the sample. The new technique is expected to benefit the electrical evaluation of fragile or soft materials along with LSI materials.

  3. Ion beam induced luminescence from diamond using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Allen, M.G. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Analysis of the luminescence induced by a MeV ion beam offers the potential to provide useful information about the chemical properties of atoms in crystals to complement the information provided by more traditional Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), ion channeling and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Furthermore, the large penetration depth of the MeV ion beam offers several advantages over the relatively shallow penetration of keV electrons typically employed in cathodoluminescence. An Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) detection system was developed for the Melbourne microprobe that allows the spatial mapping of the luminescence signal along with the signals from RBS and PIXE. Homoepitaxial diamond growth has been studied and remarkable shifts in the characteristic blue luminescence of diamond towards the green were observed in the overgrowth. This has been tentatively identified as being due to transition metal inclusions in the epitaxial layers. 8 refs., 2 refs.

  4. Analysis of art objects by means of ion beam induced luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, A.; Dran, J. C.; Salomon, J.; Pivin, J. C.; Vomiero, A.; Tonezzer, M.; Maggioni, G.; Carturan, S.; Della Mea, G.

    2006-05-01

    The impact of energetic ions on solid samples gives rise to the emission of visible light owing to the electronic excitation of intrinsic defects or extrinsic impurities. The intensity and position of the emission features provide information on the nature of the luminescence centers and on their chemical environments. This makes ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) a useful complement to other ion beam analyses, like PIXE, in the cultural heritage field in characterizing the composition and the provenience of art objects. In the present paper, IBIL measurements have been performed on inorganic pigments for underlying the complementary role played by IBIL in the analysis of artistic works. Some blue and red pigment has been presented as case study.

  5. Analysis of art objects by means of ion beam induced luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of energetic ions on solid samples gives rise to the emission of visible light owing to the electronic excitation of intrinsic defects or extrinsic impurities. The intensity and position of the emission features provide information on the nature of the luminescence centers and on their chemical environments. This makes ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) a useful complement to other ion beam analyses, like PIXE, in the cultural heritage field in characterizing the composition and the provenience of art objects. In the present paper, IBIL measurements have been performed on inorganic pigments for underlying the complementary role played by IBIL in the analysis of artistic works. Some blue and red pigment has been presented as case study

  6. Analysis of energy flux deposition and sheath transmission factors during ergodic divertor operation on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costanzo, L. E-mail: costanzo@drfc.cad.cea.fr; Gunn, J.P.; Loarer, T.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Reichle, R.; Roche, H.; Vallet, J.C

    2001-03-01

    The magnetic deflection of field lines to dedicated wall components in the ergodic divertor of Tore Supra generates complex patterns of power deposition. In this paper, we analyze the energy flux deposition on neutralizer plates as measured by infrared cameras and Langmuir probes. Three important features will be discussed: (1) The energy deposition during helium shots is as much as twice that for deuterium shots, for a given input power level. (2) The sheath heat transmission factor, deduced experimentally by comparison between probes and infrared measurements, increases with input power independently of the working gas from {approx}7.5 (P{sub TOT}=1 MW) to {approx}10-11 for P{sub TOT}=5 MW). In ohmic discharges, the standard value of 7 is recovered except specific cases in helium where {gamma} can decrease to 2 or 3. (3) These anomalous values put in doubt the validity of edge temperature measurements by Langmuir probes in detached plasmas and have led to the development of a promising 'infrared' degree of detachment (Dod)

  7. Magnetic field effects on the energy deposition spectra of MV photon radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, C; Stanescu, T; Fallone, B G

    2009-01-21

    Several groups worldwide have proposed various concepts for improving megavoltage (MV) radiotherapy that involve irradiating patients in the presence of a magnetic field-either for image guidance in the case of hybrid radiotherapy-MRI machines or for purposes of introducing tighter control over dose distributions. The presence of a magnetic field alters the trajectory of charged particles between interactions with the medium and thus has the potential to alter energy deposition patterns within a sub-cellular target volume. In this work, we use the MC radiation transport code PENELOPE with appropriate algorithms invoked to incorporate magnetic field deflections to investigate electron energy fluence in the presence of a uniform magnetic field and the energy deposition spectra within a 10 microm water sphere as a function of magnetic field strength. The simulations suggest only very minor changes to the electron fluence even for extremely strong magnetic fields. Further, calculations of the dose-averaged lineal energy indicate that a magnetic field strength of at least 70 T is required before beam quality will change by more than 2%.

  8. Particle shape and size distribution of fragmented fuel in high energy deposition conditions under an RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuels irradiated by a high energy deposition under an RIA condition fragment into fine particles due to melting of fuel pellets following mechanical energy generation by the interaction between the fragmented fuels and coolant. In order to clarify the mechanism of fuel fragmentation and mechanical energy generation, detailed observation of fragmented fuels and particle size distribution measurement were carried out for the fuels used in the NSRR test. It was verified that the particles of fragmented fuels become fine as increasing deposited energy, subcooling temperature and fuel/coolant volume ratio. Appearance of the fragmented fuels is characterized as follows; (1) spherical particles, (2) rubble type particles, (3) porous particles, and (4) shell type particles. The spherical particle has a large hollow inside the particle with 60 to 80 % in void ratio. Most of the rubble type particle has longitudinal transverse cracks on the surface. The porous particle has many porosities on the surface. The shell type particle is a curved thin-plate type particle with rusterless surface. (author)

  9. Magnetic field effects on the energy deposition spectra of MV photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several groups worldwide have proposed various concepts for improving megavoltage (MV) radiotherapy that involve irradiating patients in the presence of a magnetic field-either for image guidance in the case of hybrid radiotherapy-MRI machines or for purposes of introducing tighter control over dose distributions. The presence of a magnetic field alters the trajectory of charged particles between interactions with the medium and thus has the potential to alter energy deposition patterns within a sub-cellular target volume. In this work, we use the MC radiation transport code PENELOPE with appropriate algorithms invoked to incorporate magnetic field deflections to investigate electron energy fluence in the presence of a uniform magnetic field and the energy deposition spectra within a 10 μm water sphere as a function of magnetic field strength. The simulations suggest only very minor changes to the electron fluence even for extremely strong magnetic fields. Further, calculations of the dose-averaged lineal energy indicate that a magnetic field strength of at least 70 T is required before beam quality will change by more than 2%.

  10. Effect of impinging ion energy on the substrates during deposition of SiO{sub x} films by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, A.J. [Material Science Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati - 781035, Assam (India); Barve, S.A. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai - 400085 (India); Chutia, Joyanti, E-mail: joyanti_c@sify.com [Material Science Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati - 781035, Assam (India); Kakati, H.; Pal, A.R. [Material Science Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati - 781035, Assam (India); Jagannath; Mithal, N. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai - 400085 (India); Kishore, R. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai - 400085 (India); Pandey, M. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai - 400085 (India); Patil, D.S. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2011-09-01

    Radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process is used for deposition of SiO{sub x} films on bell metal substrates using Ar/hexamethyldisiloxane/O{sub 2} glow discharge. The DC self-bias voltage developed on the substrates is observed to be varied from - 35 V to - 115 V depending on the RF power applied to the plasma. Plasma potential measurements during film deposition process are carried out by self-compensated emissive probe. The deposited films are characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nanoindentation, nano-scratch test and thermogravimetric analysis. The characterization results show strong dependency of the SiO{sub x} films properties on the energy of the ions impinging on the substrates during deposition. Analysis of Raman spectra indicates an increase in vitreous silica content and reduction in defective Si-O-Si chemical structure in the deposited SiO{sub x} films with increasing ion energy impinging on the substrates. The increase in inorganic (Si and O) content in the SiO{sub x} films is further confirmed from XPS analysis. The growth of SiO{sub x} films with more inorganic content and defect free chemical structure apparently contribute to the increase in their hardness and scratch resistance behavior. The films show higher thermal stability as the energy of the ions arriving at substrates increases with DC self-bias voltage. The possibility of using SiO{sub x} films for surface protection of bell metal is also explored.

  11. Measurement of the energy deposition profile for 238U ions with specific energy 500 and 950 MeV/u in stainless steel and copper targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of precision measurements of the total stopping range and energy deposition function of 238U ions with specific energies E = 500 and 950 MeV/u in stainless steel and copper targets. The experiment was performed at the SIS-18 facility (GSI Darmstadt) in the experimental area Cave A in September 2004-May 2005. The measured energy deposition profiles are compared with calculations using the codes ATIMA, PHITS, SHIELD and SRIM

  12. General Relativistic Ray-Tracing Method for Estimating the Energy and Momentum Deposition by Neutrino Pair Annihilation in Collapsars

    CERN Document Server

    Harikae, Seiji; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Sekiguchi, Yu-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Bearing in mind the application to the collapsar models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we develop a numerical scheme and code for estimating the deposition of energy and momentum due to the neutrino pair annihilation ($\

  13. Study on the bias-dependent effects of proton-induced damage in CdZnTe radiation detectors using ion beam induced charge microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yaxu; Jie, Wanqi; Rong, Caicai; Xu, Lingyan; Xu, Yadong; Lv, Haoyan; Shen, Hao; Du, Guanghua; Guo, Na; Guo, Rongrong; Zha, Gangqiang; Wang, Tao; Xi, Shouzhi

    2016-09-01

    The influence of damage induced by 2MeV protons on CdZnTe radiation detectors is investigated using ion beam induced charge (IBIC) microscopy. Charge collection efficiency (CCE) in irradiated region is found to be degraded above a fluence of 3.3×10(11)p/cm(2) and the energy spectrum is severely deteriorated with increasing fluence. Moreover, CCE maps obtained under the applied biases from 50V to 400V suggests that local radiation damage results in significant degradation of CCE uniformity, especially under low bias, i. e., 50V and 100V. The CCE nonuniformity induced by local radiation damage, however, can be greatly improved by increasing the detector applied bias. This bias-dependent effect of 2MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe detectors is attributed to the interaction of electron cloud and radiation-induced displacement defects. PMID:27399802

  14. Electron-beam induced disorder effects in optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobornik, I.; Berger, H.; Pavuna, D.; Margaritondo, G.; Forro, L.; Grioni, M.; Rullier-Albenque, F.; Onellion, M.; EPFL Collaboration; Laboratoire Des Solides Irradiés Collaboration

    2000-03-01

    We report on the effects of electron-beam induced disorder in optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystal samples, measured with angle-resolved photoemission. In the superconducting state, the disorder fills in the gap, without changing the binding energy or the width of the narrow coherent feature.[1] In the normal state, disorder leads to an anisotropic pseudogap in angle-resolved photoemission, with the largest pseudogap near the (0,p) point and no pseudogap in the direction.[2,3] We discuss implications of these data. 1. I. Vobornik et.al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 , 3128 (1999). 2. I. Vobornik, Ph.D. thesis, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, October, 1999. 3. I. Vobornik et.al., unpublished.

  15. Neutron energy spectrum adjustment using deposited metal films on Teflon in the miniature neutron source reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, L; Abdallah, B; Omar, H; Sarheel, A; Alsomel, N; Ghazi, N

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article was on the experimental estimation of the neutron energy spectrum in the inner irradiation site of the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR), using, for the first time, a selected set of deposited metal films on Teflon (DMFTs) neutron detectors. Gold, copper, zinc, titanium, aluminum, nickel, silver, and chromium were selected because of the dependence of their neutron cross-sections on neutron energy. Emphasis was placed on the usability of this new type of neutron detectors in the total neutron energy spectrum adjustment. The measured saturation activities per target nucleus values of the DMFTs, and the calculated neutron spectrum in the inner irradiation site using the MCNP-4C code were used as an input for the STAY'SL computer code during the adjustment procedure. The agreement between the numerically calculated and experimentally adjusted spectra results was discussed. PMID:26562448

  16. Transmission of electrons through insulating PET foils: Dependence on charge deposition, tilt angle and incident energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthisinghe, D.; Dassanayake, B. S.; Wickramarachchi, S. J.; Stolterfoht, N.; Tanis, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Transmission of electrons through insulating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocapillaries was observed as a function of charge deposition, angular and energy dependence. Two samples with capillary diameters 100 and 200 nm and pore densities 5 × 108/cm2 and 5 × 107/cm2, respectively, were studied for incident electron energies of 300, 500 and 800 eV. Transmission and steady state of the electrons were attained after a time delay during which only a few electron counts were observed. The transmission through the capillaries depended on the tilt angle with both elastic and inelastic electrons going through. The guiding ability of electrons was found to increase with the incident energy in contrast to previous measurements in our laboratory for a similar PET foil.

  17. Solar energy deposition rates in the mesosphere derived from airglow measurements: Implications for the ozone model deficit problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Roble, Raymond G.; Hagan, Maura

    2000-07-01

    We derive rates of energy deposition in the mesosphere due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone. The rates are derived directly from measurements of the 1.27-μm oxygen dayglow emission, independent of knowledge of the ozone abundance, the ozone absorption cross sections, and the ultraviolet solar irradiance in the ozone Hartley band. Fifty-six months of airglow data taken between 1982 and 1986 by the near-infrared spectrometer on the Solar-Mesosphere Explorer satellite are analyzed. The energy deposition rates exhibit altitude-dependent annual and semi-annual variations. We also find a positive correlation between temperatures and energy deposition rates near 90 km at low latitudes. This correlation is largely due to the semiannual oscillation in temperature and ozone and is consistent with model calculations. There is also a suggestion of possible tidal enhancement of this correlation based on recent theoretical and observational analyses. The airglow-derived rates of energy deposition are then compared with those computed by multidimensional numerical models. The observed and modeled deposition rates typically agree to within 20%. This agreement in energy deposition rates implies the same agreement exists between measured and modeled ozone volume mixing ratios in the mesosphere. Only in the upper mesosphere at midlatitudes during winter do we derive energy deposition rates (and hence ozone mixing ratios) consistently and significantly larger than the model calculations. This result is contrary to previous studies that have shown a large model deficit in the ozone abundance throughout the mesosphere. The climatology of solar energy deposition and heating presented in this paper is available to the community at the Middle Atmosphere Energy Budget Project web site at http://heat.budget.gats.inc.com.

  18. Solar Energy Deposition Rates in the Mesosphere Derived from Airglow Measurements: Implications for the Ozone Model Deficit Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Roble, Raymond G.; Hagan, Maura

    2000-01-01

    We derive rates of energy deposition in the mesosphere due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone. The rates are derived directly from measurements of the 1.27-microns oxygen dayglow emission, independent of knowledge of the ozone abundance, the ozone absorption cross sections, and the ultraviolet solar irradiance in the ozone Hartley band. Fifty-six months of airglow data taken between 1982 and 1986 by the near-infrared spectrometer on the Solar-Mesosphere Explorer satellite are analyzed. The energy deposition rates exhibit altitude-dependent annual and semi-annual variations. We also find a positive correlation between temperatures and energy deposition rates near 90 km at low latitudes. This correlation is largely due to the semiannual oscillation in temperature and ozone and is consistent with model calculations. There is also a suggestion of possible tidal enhancement of this correlation based on recent theoretical and observational analyses. The airglow-derived rates of energy deposition are then compared with those computed by multidimensional numerical models. The observed and modeled deposition rates typically agree to within 20%. This agreement in energy deposition rates implies the same agreement exists between measured and modeled ozone volume mixing ratios in the mesosphere. Only in the upper mesosphere at midlatitudes during winter do we derive energy deposition rates (and hence ozone mixing ratios) consistently and significantly larger than the model calculations. This result is contrary to previous studies that have shown a large model deficit in the ozone abundance throughout the mesosphere. The climatology of solar energy deposition and heating presented in this paper is available to the community at the Middle Atmosphere Energy Budget Project web site at http://heat-budget.gats-inc.com.

  19. Energy deposition by a 106Ru/106Rh eye applicator simulated using LEPTS, a low-energy particle track simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study introduces LEPTS, an event-by-event Monte Carlo programme, for simulating an ophthalmic 106Ru/106Rh applicator relevant in brachytherapy of ocular tumours. The distinctive characteristics of this code are the underlying radiation-matter interaction models that distinguish elastic and several kinds of inelastic collisions, as well as the use of mostly experimental input data. Special emphasis is placed on the treatment of low-energy electrons for generally being responsible for the deposition of a large portion of the total energy imparted to matter. - Highlights: → We present the Monte Carlo code LEPTS, a low-energy particle track simulation. → Carefully selected input data from 10 keV to 1 eV. → Application to an electron emitting Ru-106/Rh-106 plaque used in brachytherapy.

  20. Ion assisted deposition with low-energy ions for applications in modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, M

    1999-01-01

    realised by a process adaptation with UV-absorbing films. A further focal point are antireflective coatings on alkali halides optics for high-power CO sub 2 -lasers. Ion assisted deposition of NaF-films at extremely low ion energies (E sub i sub o sub n approx 5 eV) qualifies antireflective coatings with minimal absorption (alpha approx 1.5 cm sup - sup 1), high short-pulse damage threshold (50%-LIDT approx 60J/cm sup 2) and improved degradational stability. Main objective of this work is the development of ion assisted deposition processes without additional substrate heating for applications in precision and laser optics. New low-energy ion sources with ion energies below 100 eV were employed for the research work. Starting point of the process development are basic investigations on the ion assisted evaporation of fluoride and oxide thin film materials. The optimisation of the coating processes is primary done with the help of optical characterisation methods (spectral photometry, laser calorimetry, measur...

  1. Molecular dynamics study of structural changes versus deposited energy dose in a sodium borosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, G.; Delaye, J.M.; Peuget, S. [DEN/DTCD/SECM, CEA Marcoule, BP 17171, Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex, 30207 (France); Calas, G. [IMPMC, 140 rue de Lourmel, Paris, 75015 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Assessing the long-term behavior of nuclear glass implies evaluating the impact of cumulative alpha decay induced by the minor actinides it contains. When subjected to alpha decay ({sup 244}Cm-doped glass specimens) or to external ion irradiation, some macroscopic properties vary appreciably with the dose. Above a given dose level, the properties do not evolve any more. To improve our understanding of these modifications, studies are carried out on simplified glass compositions (three oxides SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O), modeled by molecular dynamics in which irradiation effects are simulated by accelerating uranium projectiles. Accumulation of displacements cascades have been performed up to 4.5*10{sup 20} keV/cm{sup 3} nuclear energy deposited in the glass. The density variations observed in actinide-doped materials is qualitatively reproduced. At high doses, the swelling tends to stabilize. Marples model is used to fit the glass swelling versus the deposited energy dose, giving the volume damaged per projectile. This volume approximates the cascade core volume, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of volume expansion are contained in the cascade core and are thus related to the highest energy events: atom ejection and thermal quenching. On the contrary, the volumetric parameter of the Marples model applied to the other structural properties is related to a volume corresponding to the core + periphery of the cascades. (authors)

  2. The influence of different {sup 192}Ir sources geometries to the energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Paulo Eduardo; Perini, Ana Paula; Neves, Lucio Pereira, E-mail: lucio.neves@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (INFIS/UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Santos, William de Souza; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Belinato, Walmir [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, various simplifications of the HDR source Varian VariSource Classic model, in which {sup 192}Ir as a radionuclide is used, were compared. These simplifications were carried out by the simulation of Monte Carlo, using the MCNPX code. The different sources were compared through a distribution of energy deposition in a water phantom. Our results indicated that small simplifications will present no influence on the source response, and the removal of the entire capsule surrounding the radionuclide will present a difference of just 0.51% in the final response. (author)

  3. The influence of different 192Ir sources geometries to the energy deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, various simplifications of the HDR source Varian VariSource Classic model, in which 192Ir as a radionuclide is used, were compared. These simplifications were carried out by the simulation of Monte Carlo, using the MCNPX code. The different sources were compared through a distribution of energy deposition in a water phantom. Our results indicated that small simplifications will present no influence on the source response, and the removal of the entire capsule surrounding the radionuclide will present a difference of just 0.51% in the final response. (author)

  4. Energy deposition in selected-mammalian cell for several-MeV single-proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, K.; Yu, Z.

    2007-05-01

    The phenomena resulting from interaction between ion beam and mammalian cell pose important problems for biological applications. Classic Bethe-Bloch theory utilizing attached V79 mammalian cell has been conducted in order to establish the stopping powers of the mammalian cell for several-MeV single-proton microbeam. Based on the biological structure of the mammalian cell, a physical model is proposed which presumes that the attached cell is simple MWM model. According to this model and Monte Carlo simulation, we studied the energy deposition and its ratio on the selected attached mammalian cell for MeV proton implantation.

  5. Sensing for directed energy deposition and powder bed fusion additive manufacturing at Penn State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Abdalla R.; Reutzel, Edward W.; Brown, Stephen W.; Morgan, John P.; Morgan, Jacob P.; Natale, Donald J.; Tutwiler, Rick L.; Feck, David P.; Banks, Jeffery C.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing of metal components through directed energy deposition or powder bed fusion is a complex undertaking, often involving hundreds or thousands of individual laser deposits. During processing, conditions may fluctuate, e.g. material feed rate, beam power, surrounding gas composition, local and global temperature, build geometry, etc., leading to unintended variations in final part geometry, microstructure and properties. To assess or control as-deposited quality, researchers have used a variety of methods, including those based on sensing of melt pool and plume emission characteristics, characteristics of powder application, and layer-wise imaging. Here, a summary of ongoing process monitoring activities at Penn State is provided, along with a discussion of recent advancements in the area of layer-wise image acquisition and analysis during powder bed fusion processing. Specifically, methods that enable direct comparisons of CAD model, build images, and 3D micro-tomographic scan data will be covered, along with thoughts on how such analyses can be related to overall process quality.

  6. Ash deposit characterisation in a large-scale municipal waste-to-energy incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition of ash - combustion residues - on superheaters and heat exchanger surfaces reduce their efficiency; this phenomenon was investigated for a large-scale waste-to-energy incineration facility. Over a period of six months, ash samples were collected from the plant, which included the bottom ash and deposits from the superheater, as well as flyash from the convective heat exchanger, the economiser and fabric filters. These were analysed for particle size, unburned carbon, elemental composition and surface morphology. Element partitioning was evident in the different combustion residues, as volatile metals, such as cadmium, antimony and arsenic, were found to be depleted in the bottom ash by the high combustion temperatures (1000+oC) and concentrated/enriched in the fabric filter ash (transferred by evaporation). Non-volatile elements by contrast were distributed equally in all locations (transported by particle entrainment). The heat exchanger deposits and fabric filter ash had elevated levels of alkali metals. 82% of flyash particles from the fabric filter were in the submicron range.

  7. Angular distribution of species in pulsed energy beam deposition of oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nistor, M., E-mail: mnistor@infim.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasmas and Radiation Physics, L22 P.O. Box MG-36, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Gherendi, F.; Mandache, N.B. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasmas and Radiation Physics, L22 P.O. Box MG-36, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thickness profiles of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} thin films were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between pulsed laser (PLD) and pulsed electron beam deposition (PED). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film thicknesses profile of PED has a slightly broader shape than that of PLD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film stoichiometry is preserved at all angles. - Abstract: Pulsed energy beam deposition methods like pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) or pulsed-electron beam deposition (PED) allow the formation of smooth, dense and crystalline oxide thin films. The angular distribution of the ablated flux from the target and the thin film thickness profile were extensively studied for PLD for a wide range of materials and growth conditions. In the case of complex oxide compounds, the angular distribution of the various species emitted by the target will determine the precise composition of the films. In this work we report on the determination of the angular distributions of the species emitted from a Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (BST) target. A comparison between these results obtained by PED and PLD methods is presented and discussed in the frame of Anisimov's model. A slightly broader shape of the angular distribution for PED than that for PLD is explained taking into account the differences in the spot size and fluence between the pulsed electron beam and laser beam and a small collisional broadening of the angular distribution in the case of PED. The stoichiometry is preserved at all angles.

  8. Athermal Energy Loss from X-rays Deposited in Thin Superconducting Films on Solid Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozorezov, Alexander G.; Lambert, Colin J.; Bandler, Simon R.; Balvin, Manuel A.; Busch, Sarah E.; Sagler, Peter N.; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Smith, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Sadleir, John E.

    2013-01-01

    When energy is deposited in a thin-film cryogenic detector, such as from the absorption of an X-ray, an important feature that determines the energy resolution is the amount of athermal energy that can be lost to the heat bath prior to the elementary excitation systems coming into thermal equilibrium. This form of energy loss will be position-dependent and therefore can limit the detector energy resolution. An understanding of the physical processes that occur when elementary excitations are generated in metal films on dielectric substrates is important for the design and optimization of a number of different types of low temperature detector. We have measured the total energy loss in one relatively simple geometry that allows us to study these processes and compare measurements with calculation based upon a model for the various di.erent processes. We have modeled the athermal phonon energy loss in this device by finding an evolving phonon distribution function that solves the system of kinetic equations for the interacting system of electrons and phonons. Using measurements of device parameters such as the Debye energy and the thermal di.usivity we have calculated the expected energy loss from this detector geometry, and also the position-dependent variation of this loss. We have also calculated the predicted impact on measured spectral line-shapes, and shown that they agree well with measurements. In addition, we have tested this model by using it to predict the performance of a number of other types of detector with di.erent geometries, where good agreement is also found.

  9. On the energy deposition by electrons in air and the accurate determination of the air-fluorescence yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arqueros F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty in the absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield still puts a severe limit on the accuracy in the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The precise measurement of this parameter in laboratory is in turn conditioned by a careful evaluation of the energy deposited in the experimental collision chamber. In this work we discuss on the calculation of the energy deposition and its accuracy. Results from an upgraded Monte Carlo algorithm that we have developed are compared with those obtained using Geant4, showing excellent agreement. These updated calculations of energy deposition are used to apply some corrections to the available measurements of the absolute fluorescence yield, allowing us to obtain a reliable world average of this important parameter.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of energy-deposit clustering for ions of the same LET in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Z; Incerti, S; Ivanchenko, V; Champion, C; Karamitros, M; Bernal, M A; El Bitar, Z

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a Monte Carlo study of energy depositions due to protons, alpha particles and carbon ions of the same linear-energy-transfer (LET) in liquid water. The corresponding track structures were generated using the Geant4-DNA toolkit, and the energy deposition spatial distributions were analyzed using an adapted version of the DBSCAN clustering algorithm. Combining the Geant4 simulations and the clustering algorithm it was possible to compare the quality of the different radiation types. The ratios of clustered and single energy depositions are shown versus particle LET and frequency-mean lineal energies. The estimated effect of these types of radiation on biological tissues is then discussed by comparing the results obtained for different particles with the same LET.

  11. Energy and nutrient deposition and excretion in the reproducing sow: model development and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2014-01-01

    Air and nutrient emissions from swine operations raise environmental concerns. During the reproduction phase, sows consume and excrete large quantities of nutrients. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to describe energy and nutrient partitioning and predict manure...... production, and maternal growth with body tissue losses constrained within biological limits. Global sensitivity analysis showed that nonlinearity in the parameters was small. The model outputs considered were the total protein and fat deposition, average urinary and fecal N excretion, average methane...... excretion and composition and methane emissions on a daily basis. The model was structured to contain gestation and lactation modules, which can be run separately or sequentially, with outputs from the gestation module used as inputs to the lactation module. In the gestating module, energy and protein...

  12. Studies on high electronic energy deposition in transparent conducting indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Gudage, Y G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Ghosh, A [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Vyas, J C [Technical and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (MS) (India); Singh, F [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Tripathi, A [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Ramphal [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India)

    2008-02-07

    We have examined the effect of swift heavy ions using 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ions on the electrical properties of transparent, conducting indium tin oxide polycrystalline films with resistivity of 0.58 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and optical transmission greater than 78% (pristine). We report on the modifications occurring after high electronic energy deposition. With the increase in fluency, x-ray line intensity of the peaks corresponding to the planes (1 1 0), (4 0 0), (4 4 1) increased, while (3 3 1) remained constant. Surface morphological studies showed a pomegranate structure of pristine samples, which was highly disturbed with a high dose of irradiation. For the high dose, there was a formation of small spherical domes uniformly distributed over the entire surface. The transmittance was seen to be decreasing with the increase in ion fluency. At higher doses, the resistivity and photoluminescence intensity was seen to be decreased. In addition, the carrier concentration was seen to be increased, which was in accordance with the decrease in resistivity. The observed modifications after high electronic energy deposition in these films may lead to fruitful device applications.

  13. Studies on high electronic energy deposition in transparent conducting indium tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the effect of swift heavy ions using 100 MeV Au8+ ions on the electrical properties of transparent, conducting indium tin oxide polycrystalline films with resistivity of 0.58 x 10-4 Ω cm and optical transmission greater than 78% (pristine). We report on the modifications occurring after high electronic energy deposition. With the increase in fluency, x-ray line intensity of the peaks corresponding to the planes (1 1 0), (4 0 0), (4 4 1) increased, while (3 3 1) remained constant. Surface morphological studies showed a pomegranate structure of pristine samples, which was highly disturbed with a high dose of irradiation. For the high dose, there was a formation of small spherical domes uniformly distributed over the entire surface. The transmittance was seen to be decreasing with the increase in ion fluency. At higher doses, the resistivity and photoluminescence intensity was seen to be decreased. In addition, the carrier concentration was seen to be increased, which was in accordance with the decrease in resistivity. The observed modifications after high electronic energy deposition in these films may lead to fruitful device applications

  14. Initial studies of Bremsstrahlung energy deposition in small-bore superconducting undulator structures in linac environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the more promising technologies for developing minimal-length insertion devices for linac-driven, single-pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray range is based on the use of superconducting (SC) materials. In recent FEL simulations, for example, a bifilar helical SC device with a 2 cm period and 1.8 T field was found to require a 30 m saturation length for operation at 1.5{Angstrom} on a 15 GeV linac, more than 40% shorter than an alternative hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM) undulator. AT the same time, however, SC technology is known to present characteristic difficulties for insertion device design, both in engineering detail and in operation. Perhaps the most critical problem, as observed, e.g., by Madey and co-workers in their initial FEL experiments, was the frequent quenching induced by scattered electrons upstream of their (bifilar) device. Postulating that this quenching was precipitated by directly-scattered or bremsstrahlung-induced particle energy deposited into the SC material or into material contiguous with it, the importance of numerical and experimental characterizations of this phenomenon for linac-based, user-facility SC undulator design becomes evident. In this paper we discuss selected prior experimental results and report on initial EGS4 code studies of scattered and bremsstrahlung induced particle energy deposition into SC structures with geometries comparable to a small-bore bifilar helical undulator.

  15. Monte-Carlo study of energy deposition by heavy charged particles in sub-cellular volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed-history Monte-Carlo code is used to study the energy deposition from proton and alpha particle tracks at the sub-cellular level. Inelastic cross sections for both the vapour and liquid phases of water have been implemented into the code in order to explore the influence of non-linear density effects associated with the condensed-phase cellular environment. Results of energy deposition and its straggling for 0.5 to 5 MeV amu-1 protons and alpha particles traversing or passing near spherical volumes of 2-200 nm in diameter relevant to DNA- and chromosome-size targets are presented. It is shown that the explicit account of δ-ray transport reduces the dose by as much as 10-60%, whereas stochastic fluctuations lead to a relative uncertainty ranging from 20% to more than 100%. Protons and alpha particles of the same velocity exhibit a similar δ-ray effect, whereas the relative uncertainty of the alphas is almost half that of protons. The effect of the phase is noticeable (10-15%) mainly through differences on the transport of δ-rays, which in liquid water have higher penetration distances. It is expected that the implementation of such results into multi-scale biophysical models of radiation effects will lead to a more realistic predictions on the efficacy of new radiotherapeutic modalities that employ either external proton beam irradiation or internal alpha-emitting radionuclides. (authors)

  16. Development and deposition of resilin in energy stores for locust jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Malcolm

    2016-08-15

    Locusts jump by using a catapult mechanism in which energy produced by slow contractions of the extensor tibiae muscles of the hind legs is stored in distortions of the exoskeleton, most notably (1) the two semi-lunar processes at each knee joint and (2) the tendons of the extensor muscles themselves. The energy is then suddenly released from these stores to power the rapid, propulsive movements of the hind legs. The reliance on the mechanical storage of energy is likely to impact on jumping because growth occurs by a series of five moults, at each of which the exoskeleton is replaced by a new one. All developmental stages (instars) nevertheless jump as a means of forward locomotion, or as an escape movement. Here, I show that in each instar, resilin is added to the semi-lunar processes and to the core of the extensor tendons so that their thickness increases. As the next moult approaches, a new exoskeleton forms within the old one, with resilin already present in the new semi-lunar processes. The old exoskeleton, the tendons and their resilin are discarded at moulting. The resilin of the semi-lunar processes and tendons of the new instar is initially thin, but a similar pattern of deposition results in an increase of their thickness. In adults, resilin continues to be deposited so that at 4 weeks old the thickness in the semi-lunar processes has increased fourfold. These changes in the energy stores accompany changes in jumping ability and performance during each moulting cycle. PMID:27259374

  17. Electrode surface engineering by atomic layer deposition: A promising pathway toward better energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2016-04-29

    Research on electrochemical energy storage devices including Li ion batteries (LIBs), Na ion batteries (NIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs) has accelerated in recent years, in part because developments in nanomaterials are making it possible to achieve high capacities and energy and power densities. These developments can extend battery life in portable devices, and open new markets such as electric vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage. It is well known that surface reactions largely determine the performance and stability of electrochemical energy storage devices. Despite showing impressive capacities and high energy and power densities, many of the new nanostructured electrode materials suffer from limited lifetime due to severe electrode interaction with electrolytes or due to large volume changes. Hence control of the surface of the electrode material is essential for both increasing capacity and improving cyclic stability of the energy storage devices.Atomic layer deposition (ALD) which has become a pervasive synthesis method in the microelectronics industry, has recently emerged as a promising process for electrochemical energy storage. ALD boasts excellent conformality, atomic scale thickness control, and uniformity over large areas. Since ALD is based on self-limiting surface reactions, complex shapes and nanostructures can be coated with excellent uniformity, and most processes can be done below 200. °C. In this article, we review recent studies on the use of ALD coatings to improve the performance of electrochemical energy storage devices, with particular emphasis on the studies that have provided mechanistic insight into the role of ALD in improving device performance. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Ultrafast triggered transient energy storage by atomic layer deposition into porous silicon for integrated transient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Share, Keith; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics.Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (i) Experimental details for ALD and material fabrication, ellipsometry film thickness, preparation of gel electrolyte and separator, details for electrochemical measurements, HRTEM image of VOx coated porous silicon, Raman spectroscopy for VOx as-deposited as well as annealed in air for 1 hour at 450 °C, SEM and transient behavior dissolution tests of uniformly coated VOx on

  19. Radiation damage mechanisms in CsI(Tl) studied by ion beam induced luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, Alberto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali - DIMTI, Universita di Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)], E-mail: quaranta@ing.unitn.it; Gramegna, Fabiana; Kravchuk, Vladimir [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Scian, Carlo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali - DIMTI, Universita di Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been used to study the kinetics of defect production under ion beam irradiation in CsI(Tl) crystals with different Tl{sup +} concentrations (250, 560, 3250 and 6500 ppm). The crystals have been irradiated with H{sup +} and {sup 4}He{sup +} at 1.8 MeV. Both the scintillator spectra after irradiation and the intensity decrease at different wavelengths as a function of the fluence have been measured. The emission bands shift to higher wavelengths after irradiation, and the light decrease has been interpolated following a saturation model for the point defect concentration. Crystals with low Tl{sup +} concentrations present the UV emission peak of pure CsI at 300 nm whose intensity during H{sup +} irradiation and reaches a maximum under He{sup +} irradiation. At low Tl{sup +} concentrations the damage rate depends on the ion stopping power, while at higher concentrations it depends on the activator concentration. The results can be interpreted by assuming that the defects affecting the light emission are point defects nearby Tl{sup +} ions.

  20. Radiation response of multi-quantum well solar cells: Electron-beam-induced current analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maximenko, S. I., E-mail: sergey.maximenko@nrl.navy.mil; Scheiman, D. A.; Jenkins, P. P.; Walters, R. J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lumb, M. P.; Hoheisel, R. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Gonzalez, M. [Sotera Defense Solutions, Herndon, Virginia 20171 (United States); Messenger, S. R. [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Tibbits, T. N. D. [QuantaSol Ltd, Kingston-upon-Thames KT1 3GZ (United Kingdom); Imaizumi, M. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Ohshima, T.; Sato, S. I. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2015-12-28

    Solar cells utilizing multi-quantum well (MQW) structures are considered promising candidate materials for space applications. An open question is how well these structures can resist the impact of particle irradiation. The aim of this work is to provide feedback about the radiation response of In{sub 0.01}Ga{sub 0.99}As solar cells grown on Ge with MQWs incorporated within the i-region of the device. In particular, the local electronic transport properties of the MQW i-regions of solar cells subjected to electron and proton irradiation were evaluated experimentally using the electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique. The change in carrier collection distribution across the MQW i-region was analyzed using a 2D EBIC diffusion model in conjunction with numerical modeling of the electrical field distribution. Both experimental and simulated findings show carrier removal and type conversion from n- to p-type in MQW i-region at a displacement damage dose as low as ∼6.06–9.88 × 10{sup 9} MeV/g. This leads to a redistribution of the electric field and significant degradation in charge carrier collection.

  1. Methods of optimising ion beam induced charge collection of polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witham, L.C.G.; Jamieson, D.N.; Bardos, R.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics, Microanalytical Research Centre

    1998-06-01

    Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) is a valuable method for the mapping of charge carrier transport and recombination in silicon solar cells. However performing IBIC analysis of polycrystalline silicon solar cells is problematic in a manner unlike previous uses of IBIC on silicon-based electronic devices. Typical solar cells have a surface area of several square centimeters and a p-n junction thickness of only few microns. This means the cell has a large junction capacitance in the many nanoFarads range which leads to a large amount of noise on the preamplifier inputs which typically swamps the transient IBIC signal. The normal method of improving the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio by biasing the junction is impractical for these cells as the low-quality silicon used leads to a large leakage current across the device. We present several experimental techniques which improve the S/N ratio which when used together should make IBIC analysis of many low crystalline quality devices a viable and reliable procedure. (authors). Extended abstract. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Lateral particle density reconstruction from the energy deposits of particles in the KASCADE-Grande detector stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of primary cosmic rays with energies greater than 1014 eV is done mostly by indirect observation techniques such as the study of Extensive Air Showers (EAS). In the much larger framework effort of inferring data on the mass and energy of the primaries from EAS observables, the present study aims at delivering a versatile method and software tool that will be used to reconstruct lateral particle densities from the energy deposits of particles in the KASCADE-Grande detector stations. The study has been performed on simulated events, by taking into account the interaction of the EAS components with the detector array (energy deposits). The energy deposits have been parametrized for different incident energies and angles. Thus it is possible to reconstruct the particle densities in detectors from the energy deposits. A correlation between lateral particle density and primary mass and primary energy (at ∼ 600 m from shower core) has been established. The study puts great emphasis on the quality of reconstruction and also on the speed of the technique. The data obtained from the study on simulated events will be used soon on real events detected by the KASCADE-Grande array. (authors)

  3. Influence of Energy and Temperature in Cluster Coalescence Induced by Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Jiménez-Sáez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence induced by deposition of different Cu clusters on an epitaxial Co cluster supported on a Cu(001 substrate is studied by constant-temperature molecular dynamics simulations. The degree of epitaxy of the final system increases with increasing separation between the centres of mass of the projectile and target clusters during the collision. Structure, roughness, and epitaxial order of the supported cluster also influence the degree of epitaxy. The effect of energy and temperature is determinant on the epitaxial condition of the coalesced cluster, especially both factors modify the generation, growth and interaction among grains. A higher temperature favours the epitaxial growth for low impact parameters. A higher energy contributes to the epitaxial coalescence for any initial separation between the projectile and target clusters. The influence of projectile energy is notably greater than the influence of temperature since higher energies allow greater and instantaneous atomic reorganizations, so that the number of arisen grains just after the collision becomes smaller. The appearance of grain boundary dislocations is, therefore, a decisive factor in the epitaxial growth of the coalesced cluster.

  4. Lightning driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: regional and global estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine energetic electron precipitation fluxes driven by lightning, in order to determine the global distribution of energy deposited into the middle atmosphere. Previous studies using lightning-driven precipitation burst rates have estimated losses from the inner radiation belts. In order to confirm the reliability of those rates and the validity of the conclusions drawn from those studies, we have analyzed New Zealand data to test our global understanding of troposphere to magnetosphere coupling. We examine about 10000h of AbsPAL recordings made from 17 April 2003 through to 26 June 2004, and analyze subionospheric very-low frequency (VLF perturbations observed on transmissions from VLF transmitters in Hawaii (NPM and western Australia (NWC. These observations are compared with those previously reported from the Antarctic Peninsula. The perturbation rates observed in the New Zealand data are consistent with those predicted from the global distribution of the lightning sources, once the different experimental configurations are taken into account. Using lightning current distributions rather than VLF perturbation observations we revise previous estimates of typical precipitation bursts at L~2.3 to a mean precipitation energy flux of ~1×10-3 ergs cm-2s-1. The precipitation of energetic electrons by these bursts in the range L=1.9-3.5 will lead to a mean rate of energy deposited into the atmosphere of 3×10-4 ergs cm-2min-1, spatially varying from a low of zero above some ocean regions to highs of ~3-6×10-3 ergs cm-2min-1 above North America and its conjugate region.

  5. Volatile-rich Crater Interior Deposits on Mars: An Energy Balance Model of Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Patrick S.; Head, James W.; Hecht, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Several craters on Mars are partially filled by material emplaced by post-impact processes. Populations of such craters include those in the circumsouth polar cap region, in Arabia Terra, associated with the Medusae Fossae Formation, and in the northern lowlands proximal to the north polar cap. In this study, crater fill material refers to an interior mound, generally separated from the interior walls of the crater by a trough that may be continuous along the crater s circumference (i.e. a ring-shaped trough), or may only partially contact the crater walls (i.e. a crescent-shaped trough). The fill deposit is frequently off-center from the crater center and may be asymmetric, (i.e. not circular) in plan view shape. Here we test the hypothesis that asymmetries in volatile fill shape, profile, and center-location within a crater result from asymmetries in local energy balance within the crater due mainly to variation of solar insolation and radiative effects of the crater walls over the crater interior. We first focus on Korolev crater in the northern lowlands. We can then apply this model to other craters in different regions. If asymmetry in morphology and location of crater fill are consistent with radiative-dominated asymmetries in energy budget within the crater, then 1) the volatile-rich composition of the fill is supported (this process should not be effective at shaping volcanic or sedimentary deposits), and 2) the dominant factor determining the observed shape of volatile-rich crater fill is the local radiative energy budget within the crater (and erosive processes such as eolian deflation are not necessary).

  6. Chemical composition, morphology and optical properties of zinc sulfide coatings deposited by low-energy electron beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research determines the features of formation, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of the coatings deposited by the method, proposed for the first time, of the exposure of mechanical mixture of zinc and sulfur powders to low-energy electron beam evaporation. The findings show that the deposited coatings are characterized by high chemical and structural homogeneity in thickness. The study considers the influence of substrate temperature and thickness of the deposited layer on the morphology and the width of the formed ZnS thin layers band gap. Also was shown the possibility to form ZnS coatings with this method using the mixture of zinc and copper sulfide powders.

  7. Chemical composition, morphology and optical properties of zinc sulfide coatings deposited by low-energy electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragachev, A.V. [International Chinese-Belorussian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, 104, Sovetskaya Street, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Yarmolenko, M.A., E-mail: simmak79@mail.ru [International Chinese-Belorussian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, 104, Sovetskaya Street, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Rogachev, A.A. [International Chinese-Belorussian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, 104, Sovetskaya Street, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Gorbachev, D.L. [Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, 104, Sovetskaya Street, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Zhou, Bing [International Chinese-Belorussian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2014-06-01

    The research determines the features of formation, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of the coatings deposited by the method, proposed for the first time, of the exposure of mechanical mixture of zinc and sulfur powders to low-energy electron beam evaporation. The findings show that the deposited coatings are characterized by high chemical and structural homogeneity in thickness. The study considers the influence of substrate temperature and thickness of the deposited layer on the morphology and the width of the formed ZnS thin layers band gap. Also was shown the possibility to form ZnS coatings with this method using the mixture of zinc and copper sulfide powders.

  8. Characterisation and mitigation of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the 2011 proton-proton run

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruce, Roderik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dressnandt, Nandor; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernandez, Carlos Medina; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector and discusses methods to tag and remove background contaminated events in data. Trigger-rate based monitoring of beam-related backgrounds is presented. The correlations of backgrounds with machine conditions, such as residual pressure in the beam-pipe, are discussed. Results from dedicated beam-background simulations are shown, and their qualitative agreement with data is evaluated. Data taken during the passage of unpaired, i.e. non-colliding, proton bunches is used to obtain background-enriched data samples. These are used to identify characteristic features of beam-induced backgrounds, which then are exploited to develop dedicated background tagging tools. These tools, based on observables in the Pixel detector, the muon spectrometer and the calorimeters, are described in detail and their efficiencies are evaluated. Finally an example of an application of these techniques to a monojet analysis is given, which demonstra...

  9. Fast electron transport and spatial energy deposition in imploded fast ignition cone-in-shell targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, Leonard

    2014-10-01

    We report on the first experimental observation and model validation of the spatial energy deposition of fast electrons into the imploded, high-density core of integrated cone-in-shell fast ignition experiments on OMEGA. Spatial energy deposition was characterized via fast electron produced K α fluorescence from a Cu tracer added to the CD shell. 2-D images of the Cu K α fluorescence were obtained using a spherically bent Bragg crystal imager. 54 of the 60 OMEGA beams (18 kJ) were used for fuel assembly, and the high intensity EP beam (10 ps, 0.5--1.5 kJ, Ip >1019 W/cm2) , was focused onto the inner cone tip to produce fast electrons. Cu K α emission from a 300 μm region surrounding the cone tip correlated well with the predicted core size from radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the shell implosion. The emission also emanated from as far back as 100 μm from the cone tip, indicative of an electron source position with a large standoff distance from the cone tip, consistent with the presence of an extended pre-plasma from the EP pre-pulse. We observed a simultaneous increase in both K α yield (up to 70%) and thermal neutron number (up to 2×) with increasing EP beam energy. K α yield data also show an improved energy coupling using the high contrast EP pulse. Comprehensive simulations of the electron production within the cone and subsequent transport into the imploded core have been performed using the implicit PIC code LSP and the hybrid-PIC code ZUMA. These simulations explain the observed K α shape and yield trends and identify parameters that constrain energy coupling into the compressed core. This work was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE under Contracts DE-FC02-04ER54789 (FSC), DE-FG02-05ER54834 (ACE) and DE-NA0000854 (NLUF).

  10. Kinetic mechanisms of the in situ electron beam-induced self-organization of gold nanoclusters in SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M. G.; Giannazzo, F.; Roccaforte, F.; Raineri, V.; Bongiorno, C.; Spinella, C.

    2009-04-01

    Gold nanoclusters (NCs) were produced in thin SiO2 film by a sequential sputtering deposition procedure. In situ time-lapse studies of the NCs size distribution and morphology under 200 keV electron-beam irradiation have been performed using a transmission electron microscopy. Such a study has revealed the microscopic kinetic mechanisms of the NCs growth. In the 0-1620 s irradiation time range, the NCs growth process was found to be formed by two stages: in the 0-720 s time range, the main growth mechanism is demonstrated to be an electron beam-induced ripening of three-dimensional particles controlled by the Au diffusion in the SiO2 matrix. The application of the classical ripening theoretical model allowed us to derive the room-temperature Au diffusion coefficient in SiO2 under the electron-beam irradiation. In the 900-1620 s time range, the main growth mechanism is found to be a particle sintering in which neighbouring NCs form necks, by a partial deformation of their surfaces, through which the Au atomic diffusion occurs from the smaller NCs to the larger one. About the NCs morphology, three main classes of NCs were identified on the basis of their internal atomic structure, as a function of the irradiation time: FCC crystal structure, icosahedral-defect free structure and decahedral multi-twinned structure.

  11. Body composition and deposition efficiency of protein and energy in grazing young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementation with different protein: carbohydrate ratios on body composition, carcass characteristics and protein and energy deposition efficiency of young were assessed. Twenty-four Nellorecalves (132.5 ± 5.5 kgand 90-150 days of age were kept on pasture for a 430 day experimental period. The treatments were: Control = mineral mixture only; HPHC = high-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; HPLC = high-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement; LPHC = low-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; LPLC = low-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement. Four animals at begning and 20 animal at end of experiment were slaughtered to evaluate the carcass composition. Control bulls had the lowest (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls (13 Mcal day-1. Although non-supplemented bulls had less (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls. High-carbohydrate supplements were associated with more (p 0.05 in the energy efficiency between the groups. Therefore, supplementation increases the intake and retention of protein and energy without changing the retention efficiency.

  12. Super-Eddington Stellar Winds Driven by Near-Surface Energy Deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Quataert, Eliot; Kasen, Daniel; Klion, Hannah; Paxton, Bill

    2015-01-01

    We develop analytic and numerical models of the properties of super-Eddington stellar winds, motivated by phases in stellar evolution when super-Eddington energy deposition (via, e.g., unstable fusion, wave heating, or a binary companion) heats a region near the stellar surface. This appears to occur in luminous blue variables (LBVs), Type IIn supernovae progenitors, classical novae, and X-ray bursts. We show that when the wind kinetic power exceeds Eddington, the photons are trapped and behave like a fluid. Convection does not play a significant role in the wind energy transport. The wind properties depend on the ratio of a characteristic speed in the problem vc ~ (Edot G)^{1/5} (where Edot is the heating rate) to the stellar escape speed near the heating region vesc(r_h). For vc > vesc(r_h) the wind kinetic power at large radii Edot_w ~ Edot. For vc < vesc(r_h), most of the energy is used to unbind the wind material and thus Edot_w < Edot. Multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations without radiation di...

  13. Non-linear, non-monotonic effect of nano-scale roughness on particle deposition in absence of an energy barrier: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Emelko, Monica B.

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of colloidal- and nano-scale particles on surfaces is critical to numerous natural and engineered environmental, health, and industrial applications ranging from drinking water treatment to semi-conductor manufacturing. Nano-scale surface roughness-induced hydrodynamic impacts on particle deposition were evaluated in the absence of an energy barrier to deposition in a parallel plate system. A non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between deposition surface roughness and particle deposition flux was observed and a critical roughness size associated with minimum deposition flux or “sag effect” was identified. This effect was more significant for nanoparticles (surface roughness on particle deposition by unifying hydrodynamic forces (using the most current approaches for describing flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation effects) with appropriately modified expressions for DLVO interaction energies, and gravity forces in one model and 2) a foundation for further describing the impacts of more complicated scales of deposition surface roughness on particle deposition.

  14. Energy deposition and non-equilibrium infared radiation of energetic auroral electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yadong; Gao, Bo; Zhu, Guangsheng; Li, Ziguang

    2016-07-01

    Infrared radiation caused by energetic auroral electrons plays an important role in the thermospheric hear budget, and may be seen as background by infrared surveillance sensors. The auroral electron deposition leads to the ionization, excitation, and dissociation of neutral species(N2,O2,and O), and initiates a series of chemical reaction in the upper atmosphere, finally causes the optical emission of infared excited emitters. In this study, the whole progress from the initial auroral electrons energy deposition to the final infrared emissions has been modeled, which including space plasma, atmospheric physical chemistry, and radiative transfer. The initial atmosphere parameters before auroral disturbing are given by MSIS00 model. The primary electron flux at the top of atmosphere is given by a statistical fitting with the sum of three distribution terms, a power law, a Maxwellian and a Guassian. A semi-emprical model is used in the calculation of energy depositon of single primary electron. The total integral ion pairs production rate is obtained after combining with the initial primary electron flux. The production rate and flux of secondary electrons are modeled with a continuous slow down approximation, using different excitation, ionization, dissociation cross sections of N2, O2, and O to electrons. The photochemical reactions with auroral disturbance is analysed, and its calculation model is established. A "three-step" calculation method is created to obtain number densities of eleven species in the hight between 90-160 km, which containing N2+, O2+, O+, O2+(a4Π), O+(2D), O+(2P), N2(A3Σ), N(2D), N(4S), NO+, and N+. Number densities of different vibraional levels of NO and NO+ are got with steady state assumption, considering 1-12 vibrational levels of NO and 1-14 vibrational levels of NO+. The infared emissions and the spectral lines of the two radiating bodies are calculated with a fuzzy model of spectral band.

  15. Time-specific measurements of energy deposition from radiation fields in simulated sub-micron tissue volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Famiano, M.A.

    1997-07-07

    A tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter is used with a modified amplifier system to measure specific energy deposited from a uniform radiation field for short periods of time ({approximately}1 {micro}s to seconds) in order to extrapolate to dose in sub-micron tissue volumes. The energy deposited during these time intervals is compared to biological repair processes occurring within the same intervals after the initial energy deposition. The signal is integrated over a variable collection time which is adjusted with a square-wave pulse. Charge from particle passages is collected on the anode during the period in which the integrator is triggered, and the signal decays quickly to zero after the integrator feedback switch resets; the process repeats for every triggering pulse. Measurements of energy deposited from x rays, {sup 137}Cs gamma rays, and electrons from a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source for various time intervals are taken. Spectral characteristics as a function of charge collection time are observed and frequency plots of specific energy and collection time-interval are presented. In addition, a threshold energy flux is selected for each radiation type at which the formation of radicals (based on current measurements) in mammalian cells equals the rate at which radicals are repaired.

  16. Time-specific measurements of energy deposition from radiation fields in simulated sub-micron tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter is used with a modified amplifier system to measure specific energy deposited from a uniform radiation field for short periods of time (∼1 micros to seconds) in order to extrapolate to dose in sub-micron tissue volumes. The energy deposited during these time intervals is compared to biological repair processes occurring within the same intervals after the initial energy deposition. The signal is integrated over a variable collection time which is adjusted with a square-wave pulse. Charge from particle passages is collected on the anode during the period in which the integrator is triggered, and the signal decays quickly to zero after the integrator feedback switch resets; the process repeats for every triggering pulse. Measurements of energy deposited from x rays, 137Cs gamma rays, and electrons from a 90Sr/90Y source for various time intervals are taken. Spectral characteristics as a function of charge collection time are observed and frequency plots of specific energy and collection time-interval are presented. In addition, a threshold energy flux is selected for each radiation type at which the formation of radicals (based on current measurements) in mammalian cells equals the rate at which radicals are repaired

  17. Energy level alignment in polymer organic solar cells at donor-acceptor planar junction formed by electrospray vacuum deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), we have measured the energy level offset at the planar interface between poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). Gradual deposition of PCBM onto spin-coated P3HT in high vacuum was made possible by using electrospray vacuum deposition (EVD). The UPS measurement of EVD-prepared planar interface resulted in the energy level offset of 0.91 eV between P3HT HOMO and PCBM LUMO, which is considered as the upper limit of Voc of the organic photovoltaic cells

  18. Energy level alignment in polymer organic solar cells at donor-acceptor planar junction formed by electrospray vacuum deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Hong, Jong-Am; Kwon, Dae-Gyeon; Seo, Jaewon; Park, Yongsup, E-mail: parky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-21

    Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), we have measured the energy level offset at the planar interface between poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and C{sub 61}-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). Gradual deposition of PCBM onto spin-coated P3HT in high vacuum was made possible by using electrospray vacuum deposition (EVD). The UPS measurement of EVD-prepared planar interface resulted in the energy level offset of 0.91 eV between P3HT HOMO and PCBM LUMO, which is considered as the upper limit of V{sub oc} of the organic photovoltaic cells.

  19. A mechanism of wave drag reduction in the thermal energy deposition experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markhotok, A.

    2015-06-01

    Many experimental studies report reduced wave drag when thermal energy is deposited in the supersonic flow upstream of a body. Though a large amount of research on this topic has been accumulated, the exact mechanism of the drag reduction is still unknown. This paper is to fill the gap in the understanding connecting multiple stages of the observed phenomena with a single mechanism. The proposed model provides an insight on the origin of the chain of subsequent transformations in the flow leading to the reduction in wave drag, such as typical deformations of the front, changes in the gas pressure and density in front of the body, the odd shapes of the deflection signals, and the shock wave extinction in the plasma area. The results of numerical simulation based on the model are presented for three types of plasma parameter distribution. The spherical and cylindrical geometry has been used to match the data with the experimental observations. The results demonstrate full ability of the model to exactly explain all the features observed in the drag reduction experiments. Analytical expressions used in the model allow separating out a number of adjustment parameters that can be used to optimize thermal energy input and thus achieve fundamentally lower drag values than that of conventional approaches.

  20. Estimation of the energy deposited on the CNGS magnetic horn and reflector

    CERN Document Server

    Sarchiapone, L; Lorenzo-Sentis, M

    2006-01-01

    In the CNGS (Cern Neutrino to Gran Sasso) installation two magnetic lenses, namely the horn and the reflector, focus the secondary beam generated in the target station. The gap between the horn and reflector is chosen to optimize a wide-band high-energy muon-neutrino beam. These two focusing elements are two coaxial lenses: the outer conductor has a cylindrical shape whereas the inner conductor consists of a sequence of conical shapes to optimize the focusing capacity. The evaluation of the heat load on the support structures is crucial since modifications in the elements around the horn and reflector are under way and the support structures can be adapted to the heat load found. Furthermore, the heat load in the whole horn area has been evaluated to optimize the cooling-ventilation system. The energy deposited on the horn and reflector as well as on their adjacent elements has been estimated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo package and results are presented in this paper. The FLUKA geometry input of the horn and ...

  1. Incident energy and charge deposition dependences of electron transmission through a microsized tapered glass capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramarachchi, S. J.; Ikeda, T.; Dassanayake, B. S.; Keerthisinghe, D.; Tanis, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    An experimental study of electron transmission and guiding through a tapered glass capillary has been performed. Electrons were transmitted for tilt angles up to ∼6.5° and ∼9.5° (laboratory angles) for incident energies of 500 and 1000 eV, respectively. It is found that elastic and inelastic contributions give rise to distinguishable peaks in the transmitted profile. For 500 eV elastic transmission dominates the profile, while for 1000 eV both elastic and inelastic contributions are present. The transmission for both energies was studied as a function of the charge (time) deposition and found to be strongly dependent. Results suggest fundamental differences between 500 and 1000 eV incident electrons. For 500 eV the transmission slowly increases suggesting charge up of the capillary wall, reaching relative stability with infrequent breakdowns for all angles investigated. For 1000 eV for tilt angles near zero degrees the time dependent profile shows oscillations in the transmission, which never reached a stable condition, while for the larger angle investigated the transmission reached near equilibrium. Inelastic processes dominated the transmission for 1000 eV even at very small tilt angles, but was generally elastic (due to Coulomb deflection) for 500 eV even for the largest tilt angle measured.

  2. Energy Balance, Evapo-transpiration and Dew deposition in the Dead Sea Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is a terminal hypersaline lake, located at the lowest point on earth with a lake level of currently -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). It is located in a transition zone of semiarid to arid climate conditions, which makes it highly sensible to climate change (Alpert1997, Smiatek2011). The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. At the moment the most prominent environmental change is the lake level decline of approximately 1 m / year due to anthropogenic interferences (Gertman, 2002). This leads to noticeable changes in the fractions of the existing terrestrial surfaces - water, bare soil and vegetated areas - in the valley. Thus, the partitioning of the net radiation in the valley changes as well. To thoroughly study the atmospheric and hydrological processes in the Dead Sea valley, which are driven by the energy balance components, sound data of the energy fluxes of the different surfaces are necessary. Before DESERVE no long-term monitoring network simultaneously measuring the energy balance components of the different surfaces in the Dead Sea valley was available. Therefore, three energy balance stations were installed at three characteristic sites at the coast-line, over bare soil, and within vegetation, measuring all energy balance components by using the eddy covariance method. The results show, that the partitioning of the energy into sensible and latent heat flux on a diurnal scale is totally different at the three sites. This results in gradients between the sites, which are e.g. responsible for the typical diurnal wind systems at the Dead Sea. Furthermore, driving forces of evapo-transpiration at the sites were identified and a detailed analysis of the daily evaporation and dew deposition rates

  3. Effect of the interplanetary magnetic field orientation and intensity in the mass and energy deposition on the Hermean surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, J.; Pantellini, F.; Moncuquet, M.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to simulate the interaction between the solar wind and the Hermean magnetosphere. We use the MHD code PLUTO in spherical coordinates with an axisymmetric multipolar expansion of the Hermean magnetic field, to perform a set of simulations with different interplanetary magnetic field orientations and intensities. We fix the hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind to study the distortions driven by the interplanetary magnetic field in the topology of the Hermean magnetosphere, leading to variations of the mass and energy deposition distributions, the integrated mass deposition, the oval aperture, the area covered by open magnetic field lines and the regions of efficient particle sputtering on the planet surface. The simulations show a correlation between the reconnection regions and the local maxima of plasma inflow and energy deposition on the planet surface.

  4. Effect of the interplanetary magnetic field orientation and intensity in the mass and energy deposition on the Hermean surface

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, J; Moncuquet, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to simulate the interaction between the solar wind and the Hermean magnetosphere. We use the MHD code PLUTO in spherical coordinates with an axisymmetric multipolar expansion of the Hermean magnetic field, to perform a set of simulations with different interplanetary magnetic field orientations and intensities. We fix the hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind to study the distortions driven by the interplanetary magnetic field in the topology of the Hermean magnetosphere, leading to variations of the mass and energy deposition distributions, the integrated mass deposition, the oval aperture, the area covered by open magnetic field lines and the regions of efficient particle sputtering on the planet surface. The simulations show a correlation between the reconnection regions and the local maxima of plasma inflow and energy deposition on the planet surface.

  5. Super-Eddington stellar winds driven by near-surface energy deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quataert, Eliot; Fernández, Rodrigo; Kasen, Daniel; Klion, Hannah; Paxton, Bill

    2016-05-01

    We develop analytic and numerical models of the properties of super-Eddington stellar winds, motivated by phases in stellar evolution when super-Eddington energy deposition (via, e.g. unstable fusion, wave heating, or a binary companion) heats a region near the stellar surface. This appears to occur in the giant eruptions of luminous blue variables (LBVs), Type IIn supernovae progenitors, classical novae, and X-ray bursts. We show that when the wind kinetic power exceeds Eddington, the photons are trapped and behave like a fluid. Convection does not play a significant role in the wind energy transport. The wind properties depend on the ratio of a characteristic speed in the problem v_crit˜ (dot{E} G)^{1/5} (where dot{E} is the heating rate) to the stellar escape speed near the heating region vesc(rh). For vcrit ≳ vesc(rh), the wind kinetic power at large radii dot{E}_w ˜ dot{E}. For vcrit ≲ vesc(rh), most of the energy is used to unbind the wind material and thus dot{E}_w ≲ dot{E}. Multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations without radiation diffusion using FLASH and one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with radiation diffusion using MESA are in good agreement with the analytic predictions. The photon luminosity from the wind is itself super-Eddington but in many cases the photon luminosity is likely dominated by `internal shocks' in the wind. We discuss the application of our models to eruptive mass-loss from massive stars and argue that the wind models described here can account for the broad properties of LBV outflows and the enhanced mass-loss in the years prior to Type IIn core-collapse supernovae.

  6. Interaction of protons with the C60 molecule: calculation of deposited energies and electronic stopping cross sections (v≤5 au)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy deposited by a proton in a C60 molecule is calculated over a broad collision velocity range from 0.1 to 5 au, using the free-electron gas model of Lindhard and Winther (1964 Mat. Fys. Medd. K Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. 34) and the C60 electron density distribution calculated by Puska and Nieminen. The energy lost by the proton is maximum near 1.8 au collision velocity in contrast with the saturation found in the low-velocity regime, in the 0.25-0.5 au velocity range, by Kunert and Schmidt. From the impact parameter dependence we deduce the distributions of deposited energies, the averaged energy losses and the C60 electronic stopping cross sections. It is found that the C60 molecule behaves as a carbon foil giving very similar absolute stopping cross sections per atom. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  7. Hypervelocity dust impact craters on photovoltaic devices imaged by ion beam induced charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypervelocity dust has a speed of greater than 5 km/s and is a significant problem for equipment deployed in space such as satellites because of impacts that damage vulnerable components. Photovoltaic (PV) arrays are especially vulnerable because of their large surface area and the performance can be degraded owing to the disruption of the structure of the junction in the cells making up the array. Satellite PV arrays returned to Earth after service in orbit reveal a large number of craters larger than 5 μm in diameter arising from hypervelocity dust impacts. Extensive prior work has been done on the analysis of the morphology of craters in PV cells to understand the origin of the micrometeoroid that caused the crater and to study the corresponding mechanical damage to the structure of the cell. Generally, about half the craters arise from natural micrometeoroids, about one third from artificial Al-rich debris, probably from solid rocket exhausts, and the remainder from miscellaneous sources both known and unknown. However to date there has not been a microscopic study of the degradation of the electrical characteristics of PV cells exposed to hypervelocity dust impacts. Here we present an ion beam induced charge (IBIC) pilot study by a 2 MeV He microbeam of craters induced on a Hamamatsu PIN diode exposed to artificial hypervelocity Al dust from a dust accelerator. Numerous 5–30 μm diameter craters were identified and the charge collection efficiency of the crater and surrounds mapped with IBIC with bias voltages between 0 and 20 V. At highest bias, it was found the efficiency of the crater had been degraded by about 20% compared to the surrounding material. The speed distribution achieved in the Al dust accelerator was peaked at about 4 km/s compared to 11–68 km/s for dust encountered in low Earth orbit. We are able to extrapolate the charge collection efficiency degradation rate of unbiased cells in space based on our current measurements and the

  8. Hypervelocity dust impact craters on photovoltaic devices imaged by ion beam induced charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Changyi [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Wu, Yiyong; Lv, Gang [National Key Laboratory of Materials Behavior and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Rubanov, Sergey [Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Jamieson, David N., E-mail: d.jamieson@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2015-04-01

    Hypervelocity dust has a speed of greater than 5 km/s and is a significant problem for equipment deployed in space such as satellites because of impacts that damage vulnerable components. Photovoltaic (PV) arrays are especially vulnerable because of their large surface area and the performance can be degraded owing to the disruption of the structure of the junction in the cells making up the array. Satellite PV arrays returned to Earth after service in orbit reveal a large number of craters larger than 5 μm in diameter arising from hypervelocity dust impacts. Extensive prior work has been done on the analysis of the morphology of craters in PV cells to understand the origin of the micrometeoroid that caused the crater and to study the corresponding mechanical damage to the structure of the cell. Generally, about half the craters arise from natural micrometeoroids, about one third from artificial Al-rich debris, probably from solid rocket exhausts, and the remainder from miscellaneous sources both known and unknown. However to date there has not been a microscopic study of the degradation of the electrical characteristics of PV cells exposed to hypervelocity dust impacts. Here we present an ion beam induced charge (IBIC) pilot study by a 2 MeV He microbeam of craters induced on a Hamamatsu PIN diode exposed to artificial hypervelocity Al dust from a dust accelerator. Numerous 5–30 μm diameter craters were identified and the charge collection efficiency of the crater and surrounds mapped with IBIC with bias voltages between 0 and 20 V. At highest bias, it was found the efficiency of the crater had been degraded by about 20% compared to the surrounding material. The speed distribution achieved in the Al dust accelerator was peaked at about 4 km/s compared to 11–68 km/s for dust encountered in low Earth orbit. We are able to extrapolate the charge collection efficiency degradation rate of unbiased cells in space based on our current measurements and the

  9. Theoretical Investigation into the Feasibility to Deposit RF Energy Centrally in the Head-and-Neck Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, M.M.; Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Rhoon, G.C. van

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the ability to deposit radiofrequency energy centrally in the neck as a function of antenna positions, number of antennas, and operating frequency. Methods and Materials: Power absorption (PA) distributions in a realistic model of the head-and-neck anatomy are calculated in w

  10. Theoretical Investigation of the Feasibility to Deposit RF Energy Centrally in the Head-and-Neck Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Paulides (Margarethus); S.H.J.A. Vossen; A.P.M. Zwamborn; G.C. van Rhoon (Gerard)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To investigate the ability to deposit radiofrequency energy centrally in the neck as a function of antenna positions, number of antennas, and operating frequency. Methods and Materials: Power absorption (PA) distributions in a realistic model of the head-and-neck anatomy are cal

  11. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Gruel

    Full Text Available Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This

  12. A Complete Reporting of MCNP6 Validation Results for Electron Energy Deposition in Single-Layer Extended Media for Source Energies <= 1-MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry Grady [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-04

    In this paper, we expand on previous validation work by Dixon and Hughes. That is, we present a more complete suite of validation results with respect to to the well-known Lockwood energy deposition experiment. Lockwood et al. measured energy deposition in materials including beryllium, carbon, aluminum, iron, copper, molybdenum, tantalum, and uranium, for both single- and multi-layer 1-D geometries. Source configurations included mono-energetic, mono-directional electron beams with energies of 0.05-MeV, 0.1-MeV, 0.3- MeV, 0.5-MeV, and 1-MeV, in both normal and off-normal angles of incidence. These experiments are particularly valuable for validating electron transport codes, because they are closely represented by simulating pencil beams incident on 1-D semi-infinite slabs with and without material interfaces. Herein, we include total energy deposition and energy deposition profiles for the single-layer experiments reported by Lockwood et al. (a more complete multi-layer validation will follow in another report).

  13. A Complete Reporting of MCNP6 Validation Results for Electron Energy Deposition in Single-Layer Extended Media for Source Energies <= 1-MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry Grady [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-04

    In this paper, we expand on previous validation work by Dixon and Hughes [1]. That is, we present a more complete suite of validation results with respect to to the well-known Lockwood energy deposition experiment [2]. Lockwood et al. measured energy deposition in materials including beryllium, carbon, aluminum, iron, copper, molybdenum, tantalum, and uranium, for both single- and multi-layer 1-D geometries. Source configurations included mono-energetic, mono-directional electron beams with energies of 0.05-MeV, 0.1-MeV, 0.3- MeV, 0.5-MeV, and 1-MeV, in both normal and off-normal angles of incidence. These experiments are particularly valuable for validating electron transport codes, because they are closely represented by simulating pencil beams incident on 1-D semi-infinite slabs with and without material interfaces. Herein, we include total energy deposition and energy deposition profiles for the single-layer experiments reported by Lockwood et al. (a more complete multi-layer validation will follow in another report).

  14. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota

  15. Foliar Shielding: How Non-Meteoric Water Deposition Helps Leaves Survive Drought by Reducing Incoming Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Sinkler, C. J.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The uptake of water from the surface of the leaves, called foliar uptake, is common when rainfall is scarce and non-meteoric water (dew or fog) is the only source of water. However, many species have very water repellent leaves. Past studies have not differentiated between the uptake of water and the impact of the droplets on the energy balance of the leaf, which we call 'foliar shielding'. Leaves of the hydrophobic Colocasia esculenta were misted with isotopically enriched water in order to mimic non-meteoric water deposition. The leaf water potential and water isotopes were monitored for different water-stress conditions. A new protocol was developed for the fast analysis of leaf water isotopes using the Picarro induction module coupled to a laser spectrometer. Comparing the isotopic composition of the bulk leaf water at the end of the experiment, the misted leaves exhibit a d-excess higher by c. 63‰ than the control ones (P < 0.001). Low d-excess values are commonly associated with a high transpiration rate. Linking isotopic enrichment with leaf transpiration rate, we find a c. 30% decrease in transpiration rate for the treated leaves compared to the control (P < 0.001). Water-stressed leaves that were misted regularly exhibit a c. 64% smaller decline in water potential than water-stressed leaves that did not get misted (P < 0.05). Three possible mechanisms are proposed for the interaction of water droplets with the leaf energy and water balance. Comparing three previous foliar uptake studies to our results, we conclude that foliar shielding has a comparable yet opposite effect to foliar uptake on leaf water isotopes and that it is necessary to consider both processes when estimating foliar uptake of fog water.

  16. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota.

  17. Ion beam induced charge collection (IBICC) from integrated circuit test structures using a 10 MeV carbon microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, B.N.; Bouanani, M.E.; Duggan, J.L.; McDaniel, F.D. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States); Doyle, B.L.; Walsh, D.S. [Ion Beam Materials Research Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, MS 1056, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] Aton, T.J. [Silicon Technology Development, Texas Instruments Inc., PO Box 650311, MS 3704, Dallas, Texas 75265 (United States)

    1999-06-01

    As feature sizes of Integrated Circuits (ICs) continue to shrink, the sensitivity of these devices, particularly SRAMs and DRAMs, to natural radiation is increasing. In this paper, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique is utilized to simulate neutron-induced Si recoil effects in ICs. The IBICC measurements, conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories, employed a 10 MeV carbon microbeam with 1{mu}m diameter spot to scan test structures on specifically designed ICs. With the aid of IC layout information, an analysis of the charge collection efficiency from different test areas is presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. High-energy wave deposits at the eastern shore of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; Willershäuser, T.; Bolten, A.; Brückner, H.; Daut, G.; Wennrich, V.; Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, A.; Scheffers, S. R.; Schäbitz, F.

    2009-04-01

    The island of Bonaire is part of the Leeward Netherlands Antilles and lies 90 km off the Venezuelan coast. It mainly consists of two upper cretaceous cores of basalt, andesite, and dacite, fringed by a sequence of Quaternary marine limestone terraces. These well-defined platforms formed by in-situ growth of coral reefs and deposition of coral debris during high stands of sea level and subsequent exposure due to slow tectonic uplift. Bonaire has a semi-arid climate with an average annual precipitation of less than 500 mm, though large year-to-year variation occurs. Due to its peripheral position within the Caribbean hurricane belt the island rarely experiences severe storm events. Nevertheless, along the eastern windward coast several high-energy wave impacts of mid- to late Holocene age have created a well-diversified sedimentary record. Broad ramparts of imbricated coral rubble north of Lac Bai are 4 m high, proceed up to 400 m inland, and follow the shore over a distance of 12 km. Reef communities of the island's eastern sublittoral obviously never regenerated after their destruction during extreme wave events. Furthermore, massive boulders of up to 260 tons are distributed over the broad elevated Pleistocene reef platform deriving from the foreshore zone (Scheffers et al., 2008). The windward nearshore morphological depressions provide excellent conditions for preserving sedimentary inputs of exceptionally large wave impacts. We carried out numerous vibracorings and gravity corings inside shallow sinkholes on the Pleistocene terrace north of Lac Bai and the landward floodplain of the Lagun embayment at Washikemba. Several vibracorings of up to 5 m below surface at Lagun show multiple interruptions of continuous sedimentation patterns by poorly-sorted shell hash within a carbonate-rich matrix of marine origin. The lowermost bioclastic unit dates back before 6000 BP. Within a superimposed layer of pure mangrove peat another cluster of shells, partly broken, is

  19. Ion beam-induced amorphization in MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. Part 1. Experimental and theoretical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.X.; Wang, L.M.; Ewing, R.C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Doremus, R.H. [Materials Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12181 (United States)

    1998-09-15

    Ion beam-induced, crystalline-to-amorphous transition was studied for crystalline MgO (periclase), {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (corundum), SiO{sub 2} (quartz), MgSiO{sub 3} (enstatite), Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (sillimanite, andalusite, kyanite), 3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}2SiO{sub 2} (mullite), Mg{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12} (pyrope), and Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 4}Si{sub 5}O{sub 18} (cordierite). Samples were irradiated with 1.5MeV Xe{sup +} at temperatures from 15 to 1023K, and the dose required for amorphization was determined by in situ transmission electron microscopy. Results suggest a parallel between the susceptibility to ion beam irradiation-induced amorphization and the ease of glass formation. The critical amorphization doses of ion irradiation for the crystalline phases are related to the viscosities of melts of equivalent compositions through the activation energies of both processes. Doses required for amorphization have a negative correlation with viscosities at melting temperatures

  20. Spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic method for in-situ evaluation of mechanical properties during the growth of a C - Pt composite nanowire

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Banerjee; Banerjee, S S

    2014-01-01

    A core-shell type C-Pt composite nanowire is fabricated using focused ion and electron beam induced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Using information from spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectra, we detect the resonance vibration in the C-Pt composite nanowire. We use this method to measure the Young's moduli of the constituents (C, Pt) of the composite nanowire and also estimate the density of the FEB CVD grown Pt shell surrounding the C core. By measuring the resonance char...

  1. Results of the studies on energy deposition in IR6 superconducting magnets from continuous beam loss on the TCDQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Presland, A; Redaelli, S; Sarchiapone, L; Weiler, T

    2007-01-01

    A single sided mobile graphite diluter block TCDQ, in combination with a two-sided secondary collimator TCS and an iron shield TCDQM, will be installed in front of the superconducting quadrupole Q4 magnets in IR6, in order to protect it and other downstream LHC machine elements from destruction in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the abort gap. The TCDQ will be positioned close to the beam, and will intercept the particles from the secondary halo during low beam lifetime. Previous studies (1-4) have shown that the energy deposited in the Q4 magnet coils can be close to or above the quench limit. In this note the results of the latest FLUKA energy deposition simulations for Beam 2 are described, including an upgrade possibility for the TCDQ system with an additional shielding device. The results are discussed in the context of the expected performance levels for the different phases of LHC operation.

  2. An effective model for entropy deposition in high-energy pp, pA, and AA collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Moreland, J Scott; Bass, Steffen A

    2014-01-01

    We introduce TRENTO, a new initial condition model for high-energy nuclear collisions based on eikonal entropy deposition via a "reduced thickness" function. The model simultaneously predicts the shapes of experimental proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus multiplicity distributions, and generates nucleus-nucleus eccentricity harmonics consistent with experimental flow constraints. In addition, the model provides a possible resolution to the "knee" puzzle in ultra-central uranium-uranium collisions.

  3. Stability analysis of the LHC cables for transient heat depositions

    OpenAIRE

    Granieri, Pier Paolo; Calvi, M.; Xydi, P.; Bocian, D.; Bottura, L.; Breschi, M.; Siemko, A.(CERN, CH-1211, Geneva-23, Switzerland)

    2008-01-01

    The commissioning and the exploitation of the LHC require a good knowledge of the stability margins of the superconducting magnets with respect to beam induced heat depositions. Previous studies showed that simple numerical models are suitable to carry out stability calculations of multi-strands cables, and highlighted the relevance of the heat transfer model with the surrounding helium. In this paper we present a systematic scan of the stability margin of all types of LHC cables working at 1...

  4. Modelling energy deposition in nanoscintillators to predict the efficiency of the X-ray-induced photodynamic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulin, Anne-Laure; Vasil'Ev, Andrey; Belsky, Andrei; Amans, David; Ledoux, Gilles; Dujardin, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    Scintillating nanoparticles (NPs) in combination with X-ray or γ-radiation have a great potential for deep-tissue cancer therapy because they can be used to locally activate photosensitizers and generate singlet oxygen in tumours by means of the photodynamic effect. To understand the complex spatial distribution of energy deposition in a macroscopic volume of water loaded with nanoscintillators, we have developed a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo program. We thus obtain estimates of the maximum expected efficiency of singlet oxygen production for various materials coupled to PS, X-ray energies, NP concentrations and NP sizes. A new parameter, ηnano, is introduced to quantify the fraction of energy that is deposited in the NPs themselves, which is crucial for the efficiency of singlet oxygen production but has not been taken into account adequately so far. We furthermore emphasise the substantial contribution of primary interactions taking place in water, particularly under irradiation with high energy photons. The interplay of all these contributions to the photodynamic effect has to be taken into account in order to optimize nanoscintillators for therapeutic applications.Scintillating nanoparticles (NPs) in combination with X-ray or γ-radiation have a great potential for deep-tissue cancer therapy because they can be used to locally activate photosensitizers and generate singlet oxygen in tumours by means of the photodynamic effect. To understand the complex spatial distribution of energy deposition in a macroscopic volume of water loaded with nanoscintillators, we have developed a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo program. We thus obtain estimates of the maximum expected efficiency of singlet oxygen production for various materials coupled to PS, X-ray energies, NP concentrations and NP sizes. A new parameter, ηnano, is introduced to quantify the fraction of energy that is deposited in the NPs themselves, which is crucial for the efficiency of singlet oxygen production but

  5. Performance of metallic and carbon-based materials under the influence of intense transient energy deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense energy is deposited on localized areas of the plasma facing materials under transient thermal loads such as edge localized modes (ELMS), plasma disruptions or vertical displacement events (VDEs) in a magnetic confined fusion reactor. Crack formation, thermal erosion and redeposition mainly take place under these conditions and may cause catastrophic damage in the materials. Dust formation associated with evaporation and liquid or solid particles emission are also serious issues to influence plasma contamination. In order to estimate the lifetime of the components during above mentioned events (ELMS, disruptions, VDEs), the thermal erosion mechanisms and performance of carbon-based and high Z materials have been investigated using energetic electron beam facilities. Moreover, a thorough calibration of an electron beam in the high heat flux facility JUDITH was done. For the evaluation of erosion data obtained in different test facilities several factors have to be taken into account. Different material erosion processes at identical heat loads induced by different facilities take place due to different beam generation and beam modes (static/scanned beam). The different degradation processes were created by different surface tensions and vapor recoil pressures at local spots in the loaded area. Molten and re-solidified material remained within the loaded area by fast scanning of the electron beam in JUDITH, which leaded to a rippling surface. Erosion scenarios have been elucidated on pure W and carbon-based materials. For W, the thermal erosion is initiated by convection of melt, strong evaporation or boiling processes. Moreover the formation of a vapor cloud was observed in the simulation experiments indicating vapor shielding on the surface. From screening tests on different high Z materials, pure W was found to show the highest resistance against thermal shock under plasma disruption conditions and are suitable for the components in Tokamak fusion reactors

  6. Biological Effects of Particles with Very High Energy Deposition on Mammalian Cells Utilizing the Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wang, Minli

    2013-01-01

    High LET radiation from GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) consisting mainly of high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei and secondary protons and neutrons, and secondaries from protons in SPE (Solar Particle Event) pose a major health risk to astronauts due to induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Experiments with high energy particles mimicking the space environment for estimation of radiation risk are being performed at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL. Experiments with low energy particles comparing to high energy particles of similar LET are of interest for investigation of the role of track structure on biological effects. For this purpose, we report results utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at BNL. The primary objective of our studies is to elucidate the influence of high vs low energy deposition on track structure, delta ray contribution and resulting biological responses. These low energy ions are of special relevance as these energies may occur following absorption through the spacecraft and shielding materials in human tissues and nuclear fragments produced in tissues by high energy protons and neutrons. This study will help to verify the efficiency of these low energy particles and better understand how various cell types respond to them.

  7. Effects of implantation temperature and thermal annealing on the Ga{sup +} ion beam induced optical contrast formation in a-SiC:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkova, T., E-mail: tania_tsvetkova@yahoo.co.uk [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Harrison Building, North Park Rd, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom); Wright, C.D. [University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Harrison Building, North Park Rd, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom); Kitova, S. [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 109 Acad. G. Bontchev St., 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Bischoff, L. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Zuk, J. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodovska University, Pl. M.Curie-Sklodovskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2013-07-15

    The effects of implantation temperature and post-implantation thermal annealing on the Ga{sup +} ion beam induced optical contrast formation in hydrogenated silicon–carbon alloy films have been studied. As a result of the implantation a well-expressed “darkening” effect (i.e. absorption edge shift to the longer-wavelength/lower-photon-energy region) has been registered. It is accompanied by a remarkable increase of the absorption coefficient up to 2 orders of magnitude in the measured photon energy range (1.5–3.1 eV). The optical contrast thus obtained (between implanted and unimplanted regions of the film material) has been made use of in the form of optical pattern formation by computer-operated Ga{sup +}-focused ion beam. Possible applications of this effect in the area of submicron lithography and high-density optical data storage have been suggested with regard to the most widely spread focused micro-beam systems based on Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion sources. The fact that Ga has a very low melting point (T{sub m} = 29.8 °C) and an unusual feature of volume contraction on melting are factors which favour Ga incorporation upon ion-implantation as dispersed clusters, or small nanoparticles. It has been previously noted that Ga precipitation into nanoparticles can vary dramatically (in terms of particle size) with Ga concentration and small changes in surface implant temperature, thus affecting the optical properties of the target. The precise role of implantation temperature effects, i.e. the target temperature during Ga{sup +} ion irradiation, on the optical contrast obtainable, has been therefore a key part of this study. Appropriate post-implantation annealing treatments were also studied, since these are expected to offer further benefits in reducing the required ion dose and enhancing contrast, thus increasing the cost-effectiveness of the bit-writing method.

  8. Measurements of the Energy Deposition Profile for 238U Ions with Energy 500 and 950 MEV/U in Stainless Steel and Copper Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, Edil; Gnutov, A; Golubev, Alexander; Hofmann, Ingo; Kantsyrev, Alexei; Kunin, Andrey; Latysheva, Ludmila N; Luckjashin, Victor; Panova, Yulia; Schardt, Dieter; Sobolevskiy, Nikolai; Vatulin, Vladimir; Weyrich, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Sub-millimeter wall thickness is foreseen for the vacuum tubes in the magnets of the superconducting dipoles of the SIS100 and SIS300 of the FAIR Project. The Bragg peak of the energy deposition by the U ions in these walls may lie dangerously close to the superconducting cables. Thus the precise knowledge of the dE/dx profile is essential for estimating the heat load by the lost ions in the vicinity of the superconducting wires. Here we present the results of the measurement of the U ion beam energy deposition profile in Cu and stainless steel targets and compare the measured data with the Monte-Carlo simulation using the SHIELD code.

  9. Improving photoresponse characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells: application to the laser beam-induced current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photocurrent response of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to light excitation from focused and non-focused laser beams is investigated. We observe that part of the photocurrent is produced by the activation of the irradiated area, whereas another part is generated by the previously photoexcited area. A mathematical algorithm has been devised to describe the rise and decay processes. The application of this algorithm leads to a significant improvement in the surface photoresponse and quantum yield measurements in DSSCs by means of the laser beam-induced current (LBIC) technique. This algorithm enhances the quality and definition of the LBIC images and opens the way to use this technique to cope with the biphasic features of these photovoltaic devices and extracting key properties for device performance such as internal quantum efficiencies and electron diffusion lengths

  10. Imaging interfacial electrical transport in graphene-MoS2 heterostructures with electron-beam-induced-currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, E. R.; Kerelsky, Alexander; Hubbard, William A.; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; Mecklenburg, Matthew; Regan, B. C.

    2015-11-01

    Heterostructure devices with specific and extraordinary properties can be fabricated by stacking two-dimensional crystals. Cleanliness at the inter-crystal interfaces within a heterostructure is crucial for maximizing device performance. However, because these interfaces are buried, characterizing their impact on device function is challenging. Here, we show that electron-beam induced current (EBIC) mapping can be used to image interfacial contamination and to characterize the quality of buried heterostructure interfaces with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. We applied EBIC and photocurrent imaging to map photo-sensitive graphene-MoS2 heterostructures. The EBIC maps, together with concurrently acquired scanning transmission electron microscopy images, reveal how a device's photocurrent collection efficiency is adversely affected by nanoscale debris invisible to optical-resolution photocurrent mapping.

  11. Laser-beam-induced current mapping evaluation of porous silicon-based passivation in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabha, M. Ben; Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Nanomateriaux et des Systemes pour l' Energie, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie - Technopole de Borj-Cedria BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Dimassi, W.; Bouaicha, M.; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de photovoltaique, des semiconducteurs et des nanostructures, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie - Technopole de Borj-Cedria BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    In the present work, we report on the effect of introducing a superficial porous silicon (PS) layer on the performance of polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) solar cells. Laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) mapping shows that the PS treatment on the emitter of pc-Si solar cells improves their quantum response and reduce the grain boundaries (GBs) activity. After the porous silicon treatment, mapping investigation shows an enhancement of the LBIC and the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), due to an improvement of the minority carrier diffusion length and the passivation of recombination centers at the GBs as compared to the reference substrate. It was quantitatively shown that porous silicon treatment can passivate both the grains and GBs. (author)

  12. Development of electrostatic supercapacitors by atomic layer deposition on nanoporous anodic aluminium oxides for energy harvesting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia eIglesias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials can provide innovative solutions for solving the usual energy harvesting and storage drawbacks that take place in conventional energy storage devices based on batteries or electrolytic capacitors, because they are not fully capable for attending the fast energy demands and high power densities required in many of present applications. Here, we report on the development and characterization of novel electrostatic supercapacitors made by conformal Atomic Layer Deposition on the high open surface of nanoporous anodic alumina membranes employed as templates. The structure of the designed electrostatic supercapacitor prototype consists of successive layers of Aluminium doped Zinc Oxide, as the bottom and top electrodes, together Al2O3 as the intermediate dielectric layer. The conformality of the deposited conductive and dielectric layers, together with their composition and crystalline structure have been checked by XRD and electron microscopy techniques. Impedance measurements performed for the optimized electrostatic supercapacitor device give a high capacitance value of 200 µF/cm2 at the frequency of 40 Hz, which confirms the theoretical estimations for such kind of prototypes, and the leakage current reaches values around of 1.8 mA/cm2 at 1 V. The high capacitance value achieved by the supercapacitor prototype together its small size turns these devices in outstanding candidates for using in energy harvesting and storage applications.

  13. Detection and characterization of stacking faults by light beam induced current mapping and scanning infrared microscopy in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vève-Fossati, C.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1998-08-01

    Non destructive techniques like scanning infrared microscopy and light beam induced current mapping are used to reveal the presence of stacking faults in heat treated Czochralski grown silicon wafers. In oxidized or contaminated samples, scanning infrared microscopy reveals that stacking faults grow around oxygen precipitates. This could be due to an aggregation of silicon self-interstitials emitted by the growing precipitates in the (111) plane. Light beam induced current maps show that the dislocations which surround the stacking faults are the main source of recombination centers, especially when they are decorated by a fast diffuser like copper. Des techniques non destructives telles que la microscopie infrarouge à balayage et la cartographie de photocourant induit par un spot lumineux ont été utilisées pour révéler la présence de fautes d'empilement après traitements thermiques, dans des plaquettes de silicium préparées par tirage Czochralski. Dans des échantillons oxydés ou contaminés, la microscopie infrarouge à balayage révèle des fautes d'empilement qui se développent autour des précipités d'oxygène. Cela peut être dû à la formation d'un agglomérat d'auto-interstitiels de silicium émis par la croissance des précipités dans les plans (111). Les cartographies de photocourant montrent que les dislocations qui entourent les fautes d'empilement sont la principale source de centres de recombinaison, et cela tout particulièrement quand ces fautes sont décorées par un diffuseur rapide tel que le cuivre.

  14. Facile and Cost-Effective Synthesis and Deposition of a YBCO Superconductor on Copper Substrates by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Abdul Hai; Assad, Mhd Adel; Aokal, Camilia

    2016-09-01

    The article investigates the synthesis and deposition of YBCO on a copper substrate for various functional purposes. The superconductor is first prepared by mechanically alloying elemental components (yttrium, barium, and copper) for 50 hours in a high-energy ball mill with subsequent protocol of heat treatment in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to arrive at stoichiometric ratios of YBa2Cu3O7. The material is then deposited on a thin copper substrate also by ball milling under various parameters of rotational speed and deposition time to select the best and most homogenous substrate coverage. Atomic force microscopy has confirmed the desired results, and other microstructural, thermal, and electrical techniques are used to characterize the obtained material. High-energy ball milling proved to be a versatile means to synthesize and deposit the material in a straightforward manner and controllable parameters for different deposit thicknesses and coverages.

  15. Optimization of laser energy deposition for single-shot high aspect-ratio microstructuring of thick BK7 glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzillo, Valerio; Jukna, Vytautas; Couairon, Arnaud; Grigutis, Robertas; Di Trapani, Paolo; Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the generation of high aspect ratio microstructures across 0.7 mm thick glass by means of single shot Bessel beam laser direct writing. We study the effect on the photoinscription of the cone angle, as well as of the energy and duration of the ultrashort laser pulse. The aim of the study is to optimize the parameters for the writing of a regular microstructure due to index modification along the whole sample thickness. By using a spectrally resolved single pulse transmission diagnostics at the output surface of the glass, we correlate the single shot material modification with observations of the absorption in different portions of the retrieved spectra, and with the absence or presence of spectral modulation. Numerical simulations of the evolution of the Bessel pulse intensity and of the energy deposition inside the sample help us interpret the experimental results that suggest to use picosecond pulses for an efficient and more regular energy deposition. Picosecond pulses take advantage of nonlinear plasma absorption and avoid temporal dynamics effects which can compromise the stationarity of the Bessel beam propagation.

  16. Electromagnetic energy deposition rate in the polar upper thermosphere derived from the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS Finland radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fujiwara

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available From simultaneous observations of the European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR and the Cooperative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System (CUTLASS Finland radar on 9 March 1999, we have derived the height distributions of the thermospheric heating rate at the F region height in association with electromagnetic energy inputs into the dayside polar cap/cusp region. The ESR and CUTLASS radar observations provide the ionospheric parameters with fine time-resolutions of a few minutes. Although the geomagnetic activity was rather moderate (Kp=3+~4, the electric field obtained from the ESR data sometimes shows values exceeding 40 mV/m. The estimated passive energy deposition rates are also larger than 150 W/kg in the upper thermosphere over the ESR site during the period of the enhanced electric field. In addition, enhancements of the Pedersen conductivity also contribute to heating the upper thermosphere, while there is only a small contribution for thermospheric heating from the direct particle heating due to soft particle precipitation in the dayside polar cap/cusp region. In the same period, the CUTLASS observations of the ion drift show the signature of poleward moving pulsed ionospheric flows with a recurrence rate of about 10–20 min. The estimated electromagnetic energy deposition rate shows the existence of the strong heat source in the dayside polar cap/cusp region of the upper thermosphere in association with the dayside magnetospheric phenomena of reconnections and flux transfer events.

  17. Athermal Energy Loss from X-Rays Deposited in Thin Superconducting Bilayers on Solid Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon R.; Kozorezov, Alexander; Balvin, Manuel A.; Busch, Sarah E.; Nagler, Peter N.; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Smith, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Sadleir, John E.; Seidel, George M.

    2012-01-01

    An important feature that determines the energy resolution of any type of thin film microcalorimeter is the fraction of athermal energy that can be lost to the heat bath prior to the device coming into thermal equilibrium.

  18. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  19. Ge-rich islands grown on patterned Si substrates by low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollani, M; Fedorov, A [CNISM and L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Polo Regionale di Como, Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Chrastina, D; Sordan, R [L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Polo Regionale di Como, Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Picco, A; Bonera, E, E-mail: monica.bollani@mater.unimib.it [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, and L-NESS, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy)

    2010-11-26

    Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} islands grown on Si patterned substrates have received considerable attention during the last decade for potential applications in microelectronics and optoelectronics. In this work we propose a new methodology to grow Ge-rich islands using a chemical vapour deposition technique. Electron-beam lithography is used to pre-pattern Si substrates, creating material traps. Epitaxial deposition of thin Ge films by low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition then leads to the formation of Ge-rich Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} islands (x > 0.8) with a homogeneous size distribution, precisely positioned with respect to the substrate pattern. The island morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy, and the Ge content and strain in the islands was studied by {mu}Raman spectroscopy. This characterization indicates a uniform distribution of islands with high Ge content and low strain: this suggests that the relatively high growth rate (0.1 nm s{sup -1}) and low temperature (650 deg. C) used is able to limit Si intermixing, while maintaining a long enough adatom diffusion length to prevent nucleation of islands outside pits. This offers the novel possibility of using these Ge-rich islands to induce strain in a Si cap.

  20. Modelling the geometry of a moving laser melt pool and deposition track via energy and mass balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The additive manufacturing technique of laser direct metal deposition allows multiple tracks of full density metallic material to be built to form complex parts for rapid tooling and manufacture. Practical results and theoretical models have shown that the geometries of the tracks are governed by multiple factors. Original work with single layer cladding identified three basic clad profiles but, so far, models of multiple layer, powder-feed deposition have been based on only two of them. At higher powder mass flow rates, experimental results have shown that a layer's width can become greater than the melt pool width at the substrate surface, but previous analytical models have not been able to accommodate this. In this paper, a model based on this third profile is established and experimentally verified. The model concentrates on mathematical analysis of the melt pool and establishes mass and energy balances based on one-dimensional heat conduction to the substrate. Deposition track limits are considered as arcs of circles rather than of ellipses, as used in most established models, reflecting the dominance of surface tension forces in the melt pool, and expressions for elongation of the melt pool with increasing traverse speed are incorporated. Trends in layer width and height with major process parameters are captured and predicted layer dimensions correspond well to the experimental values

  1. The energy dependence on microstructure of (Ti-Al-V) nitrides deposited by dual ion beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebler, R.; Tentardini, E.K.; Blando, E. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Teixeira, S.R.; Vasconcellos, M.Z.; Soares, M. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 90619900, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Kamijo, E.; Fujiwara, M. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Ryokoku University, Seta, Otsu (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloys and their nitrides are of wide interest in technological applications because of their exceptional properties. The structure and composition of these alloys are strongly dependent on the deposition conditions. In this work, we report the influence of the ion energy on the film characteristics. We have used a dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS) equipment where the reactive ion (N{sub 2}) acceleration voltage was changed in the range of 200 to 400 V. The film structure was studied by means of an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and the chemical composition and nitration degree were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by a microprobe spectrometer. Coating hardness was checked using an ultramicrohardness tester equipped with a Vickers' indentor, and the corrosion resistance power was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry. The substrates used here were stainless steel ISO 316, the same used in most femoral prosthesis, and silicon monocrystals for the analytical tests. We compare the results of the coatings deposited by DIBS with films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. (orig.)

  2. Focused electron beam induced processing and the effect of substrate thickness revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dorp, W. F.; Beyer, A.; Mainka, M.;

    2013-01-01

    with Monte Carlo simulations for SE emission. The results suggest that SEs are dominant in the dissociation of W(CO)6 on thin membranes. The best agreement between simulations and experiment is obtained for SEs with energies between 3 and 6 eV.With this work we revisit earlier experiments, working...

  3. Cryogenic Beam Screens for High-Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Tavian, L; van Weelderen, R

    2013-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key enabling technology for high-energy particle accelerators, thus making them large helium cryogenic systems operating at very low temperature. The circulation of high-intensity particle beams in these machines generates energy deposition in the first wall through different processes. For thermodynamic efficiency, it is advisable to intercept these beam-induced heat loads, which may be large in comparison with cryostat heat in-leaks, at higher temperature than that of the superconducting magnets of the accelerator, by means of beam screens located in the magnet apertures. Beam screens may also be used as part of the ultra-high vacuum system of the accelerator, by sheltering the gas molecules cryopumped on the beam pipe from impinging radiation and thus avoiding pressure runaway. Space being extremely tight in the magnet apertures, cooling of the long, slender beam screens also raises substantial problems in cryogenic heat transfer and fluid flow. We present sizing rule...

  4. Studies of Beam Induced Electron Cloud Resonances in Dipole Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Calvey, J. R.; Hartung, W.; Makita, J.; Venturini, M.

    2016-01-01

    The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple...

  5. Effect of magnetic field strength on deposition rate and energy flux in a dc magnetron sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in the magnetic field strongly affect the plasma parameters in a magnetron sputtering system. This in turn affects the throughput as well as the energy flux to the substrate. The variation in the magnetic field in this study, for a dc magnetron process, is achieved by shifting the magnet assembly slightly away from the target. Measurements of the plasma parameters show that while the electron density at the substrate increases with decrease in magnetic field, the electron temperature decreases. The cooling of the electron temperature is consistent with results reported elsewhere. The deposition rate per input magnetron power is found to increase slightly with the decrease in magnetic field for the process conditions considered in this study. Results suggest that the energy flux to the substrate tends to show a general decrease with the shift in the magnet assembly.

  6. Effect of post-deposition treatment on energy conversion efficiency of nanostructured CdS/Cu2S thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present manuscript we report about synthesis of nanostructured CdS/Cu2S thin films by economically viable soft chemical route and effect of post deposition treatments such as annealing in air and swift heavy ion irradiation on solar energy conversion efficiency of the heterojunction device. These as grown, annealed and irradiated thin films are characterized for structural, morphological, optical and I-V properties. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) represents structural as well as crystallite modifications, atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows improvement in surface appearance of the materials. The solar energy conversion efficiency calculated from I-V exhibited increase in conversion efficiency i. e. 0.09, 0.24 and 0.48 % for as grown, annealed and SHI irradiated thin films.

  7. Energy deposition measurements of a large-diameter, intense relativistic electron beam for high-power gas laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of electron-beam (e-beam) energy deposition in gaseous medium by a segmented totally stopping calorimeter and a pressure jump method are described, both of which gave the same values. Typical e-beam parameters are 2 MV, 80 kA, and 65 ns (FWHM). The e-beam cross-sectional area is 10 cm in diameter. First, the radial distribution of the e-beam current generated from the field-emission diode as a function of the axial magnetic field was measured. Next, for applications to longitudinal excitation of the high-power gas lasers, the e-beam energy deposition characteristics are measured in N2 for the propagation distance up to 2.3 m in terms of the axial magnetic field, the N2 gas pressure, and the radial e-beam distribution. As a result, the axial field equivalent to the self-magnetic field of the electron beam can acceptably control the e-beam generation and propagation uniformities

  8. Experimental investigation on the energy deposition and morphology of the electrical explosion of copper wire in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zongqian; Shi, Yuanjie; Wang, Kun; Jia, Shenli

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the electrical explosion of copper wires in vacuum using negative nanosecond-pulsed current with magnitude of 1-2 kA. The 20 μm-diameter copper wires with different lengths are exploded with three different current rates. A laser probe is applied to construct the shadowgraphy and interferometry diagnostics to investigate the distribution and morphology of the exploding product. The interference phase shift is reconstructed from the interferogram, by which the atomic density distribution is calculated. Experimental results show that there exist two voltage breakdown modes depending on the amount of the specific energy deposition. For the strong-shunting mode, shunting breakdown occurs, leading to the short-circuit-like current waveform. For the weak-shunting mode with less specific energy deposition, the plasma generated during the voltage breakdown is not enough to form a conductive plasma channel, resulting in overdamped declining current waveform. The influence of the wire length and current rate on the characteristics of the exploding wires is also analyzed.

  9. Theoretical analysis of ion kinetic energies and DLC film deposition by CH4+Ar (He) dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yan-Hong; Zhang Jia-Liang; Ma Teng-Cai; Li Jian; Liu Dong-Ping

    2007-01-01

    The kinetic energy of ions in dielectric barrier discharge plasmas are analysed theoretically using the model of binary collisions between ions and gas molecules. Langevin equation for ions in other gases, Blanc law for ions in mixed gases, and the two-temperature model for ions at higher reduced field are used to determine the ion mobility. The kinetic energies of ions in CH4 + Ar(He) dielectric barrier discharge plasma at a fixed total gas pressure and various Ar (He)concentrations are calculated. It is found that with increasing Ar (He) concentration in CH4 + Ar (He) from 20% to 83%,the CH4+ kinetic energy increases from 69.6 (43.9) to 92.1 (128.5)eV, while the Ar+ (He+) kinetic energy decreases from 97 (145.2) to 78.8 (75.5)eV. The increase of CH4+ kinetic energy is responsible for the increase of hardness of diamond-like carbon films deposited by CH4 + Ar (He) dielectric barrier discharge without bias voltage over substrates.

  10. Energy deposition by a {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh eye applicator simulated using LEPTS, a low-energy particle track simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, M.C. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Munoz, A.; Oller, J.C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avenida Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Williart, A. [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Limao-Vieira, P. [Laboratorio de Colisoes Atomicas e Moleculares, Departamento de Fisica, CEFITEC, FCT-Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Borge, M.J.G.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Huerga, C.; Tellez, M. [Hospital Universitario La Paz, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G., E-mail: g.garcia@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    The present study introduces LEPTS, an event-by-event Monte Carlo programme, for simulating an ophthalmic {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh applicator relevant in brachytherapy of ocular tumours. The distinctive characteristics of this code are the underlying radiation-matter interaction models that distinguish elastic and several kinds of inelastic collisions, as well as the use of mostly experimental input data. Special emphasis is placed on the treatment of low-energy electrons for generally being responsible for the deposition of a large portion of the total energy imparted to matter. - Highlights: > We present the Monte Carlo code LEPTS, a low-energy particle track simulation. > Carefully selected input data from 10 keV to 1 eV. > Application to an electron emitting Ru-106/Rh-106 plaque used in brachytherapy.

  11. Studies of Beam Induced Electron Cloud Resonances in Dipole Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Calvey, J R; Makita, J; Venturini, M

    2016-01-01

    The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple of bunch spacing. Both resonances have been studied directly in dipole fields using retarding field analyzers installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). These measurements are supported by both analytical models and computer simulations.

  12. Focus ion beam-induced mechanical stress switching in an ultra-fast resistive switching device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    The Mo/Si3N4:Pt/Pt nanometallic resistive switching devices with ultra-fast write/erase speed (meta-stable state, while LRS (detrapping state) is a stable state. Strong mechanical stress facilitates local bond distortion in dielectric films and thus lowers the energy barrier between HRS and LRS, eventually leading to a barrier-less state transition. A quantitative model based on stress-mediated parallel conduction paths were established to provide a more accurate description of the resistive switching devices.

  13. Nano crystalline high energy milled 5083 Al powder deposited using cold spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron microscopy and nanoindentation are used to investigate the relationship between microstructure and nanohardness of a non-cryomilled, nanocrystalline 5083 Al alloy powder before and after being deposited by cold spray. Microstructural investigations observed the presence of nano grains in the powder microstructure, ranging from 20 to 80 nm and with a typical grain size of 40–50 nm. It was also revealed that the nanocrystalline structure of the powder is retained after cold spraying. As a result, almost no change in nanohardness was indicated between the powder and the particles interior in the cold sprayed layer. However, hardness was substantially higher in some regions in the cold sprayed layer, which was attributed to the particle–particle interfaces or other areas with very small nano grain size. The presence of some un-joined particle remnant lines was also found in the deposition and explained through Critical Velocity Ratio (CVR) of powder particles. Although cold spray is a high deformation process, there is little evidence of dislocations within the nanograins of the cold sprayed layer. The latter observation is rationalized through intragranular dislocation slip and recovery mechanisms.

  14. Nano crystalline high energy milled 5083 Al powder deposited using cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, M.R., E-mail: mohammadreza.rokni@mines.sdsmt.edu [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Widener, C.A. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Nardi, A.T. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Champagne, V.K. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Electron microscopy and nanoindentation are used to investigate the relationship between microstructure and nanohardness of a non-cryomilled, nanocrystalline 5083 Al alloy powder before and after being deposited by cold spray. Microstructural investigations observed the presence of nano grains in the powder microstructure, ranging from 20 to 80 nm and with a typical grain size of 40–50 nm. It was also revealed that the nanocrystalline structure of the powder is retained after cold spraying. As a result, almost no change in nanohardness was indicated between the powder and the particles interior in the cold sprayed layer. However, hardness was substantially higher in some regions in the cold sprayed layer, which was attributed to the particle–particle interfaces or other areas with very small nano grain size. The presence of some un-joined particle remnant lines was also found in the deposition and explained through Critical Velocity Ratio (CVR) of powder particles. Although cold spray is a high deformation process, there is little evidence of dislocations within the nanograins of the cold sprayed layer. The latter observation is rationalized through intragranular dislocation slip and recovery mechanisms.

  15. Zakharov simulations of beam-induced turbulence in the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, H.; Guio, P.; Hirsch, M. A.; Semeter, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Recent detections of strong incoherent scatter radar echoes from the auroral F region, which have been explained as the signature of naturally produced Langmuir turbulence, have motivated us to revisit the topic of beam-generated Langmuir turbulence via simulation. Results from one-dimensional Zakharov simulations are used to study the interaction of ionospheric electron beams with the background plasma at the F region peak. A broad range of beam parameters extending by more than 2 orders of magnitude in average energy and electron number density is considered. A range of wave interaction processes, from a single parametric decay, to a cascade of parametric decays, to formation of stationary density cavities in the condensate region, and to direct collapse at the initial stages of turbulence, is observed as we increase the input energy to the system. The effect of suprathermal electrons, produced by collisional interactions of auroral electrons with the neutral atmosphere, on the dynamics of Langmuir turbulence is also investigated. It is seen that the enhanced Landau damping introduced by the suprathermal electrons significantly weakens the turbulence and truncates the cascade of parametric decays.

  16. Energy Deposition in the TESLA Water Dump As a Function of its Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water dump of the future electron-positron collider TESLA has a very special regime. Each pulse of the electron or positron beam should, after crossing the interaction zone, be dumped in a cylindrical water dump. There is a quite important energy to be absorbed by the dump i.e. 8 MW for 250 GeV energy of the beam and 12 MW if the energy of the electrons is raised to 400 GeV. We should be prepared for an intensity of 2.04x1014 electrons/s for 250 GeV and 2.8x1014 electrons/s for 400 GeV case. The energy to be absorbed is important, therefore we tried to calculate the energy losses by all surfaces of the cylindrical water dump as a function of its size. (author)

  17. Comparison on heat flux deposition between carbon and tungsten wall – Investigations on energy recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufferand, H., E-mail: hugo.bufferand@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bucalossi, J.; Ciraolo, G.; Fedorczak, N. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Genesio, P. [PIIM, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille (France); Ghendrih, Ph.; Gunn, J. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Marandet, Y.; Martin, C.; Mellet, N. [PIIM, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille (France); Serre, E. [M2P2, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13451 Marseille (France); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    The influence of the plasma facing components material on the scrape-off layer plasma is investigated. In particular, the energy recycling is found to be more pronounced for tungsten wall compared with carbon wall. Edge plasma simulations performed with the transport code SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE show that this enhanced energy recycling in the tungsten case leads to an increase of the scrape-off layer temperature. Moreover, the energy recycling depends on the ion angle of incidence with the wall. A PIC code has been used to model the ion acceleration in the magnetic pre-sheath and determine the later angle of incidence. These simulations show that ions mostly impact the wall with rather shallow incident angles leading to a further increase of the energy recycling.

  18. Comparison on heat flux deposition between carbon and tungsten wall – Investigations on energy recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the plasma facing components material on the scrape-off layer plasma is investigated. In particular, the energy recycling is found to be more pronounced for tungsten wall compared with carbon wall. Edge plasma simulations performed with the transport code SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE show that this enhanced energy recycling in the tungsten case leads to an increase of the scrape-off layer temperature. Moreover, the energy recycling depends on the ion angle of incidence with the wall. A PIC code has been used to model the ion acceleration in the magnetic pre-sheath and determine the later angle of incidence. These simulations show that ions mostly impact the wall with rather shallow incident angles leading to a further increase of the energy recycling

  19. Energy-Deposition to Reduce Skin Friction in Supersonic Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has drawn attention to an impending need to improve energy-efficiency in low supersonic (M<~3) platforms. Aerodynamic efficiency is the foundation of...

  20. Propagation and energy deposition of cosmic rays' muons on terrestrial environments

    CERN Document Server

    Marinho, Franciole; Galante, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Earth is constantly struck by radiation coming from the interstellar medium. The very low energy end of the spectrum is shielded by the geomagnetic field but charged particles with energies higher than the geomagnetic cutoff will penetrate the atmosphere and are likely to interact, giving rise to secondary particles. Some astrophysical events, such as gamma ray bursts and supernovae, when happening at short distances, may affect the planet's biosphere due to the temporary enhanced radiation flux. Muons are abundantly produced by high energy cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. These particles, due to their low cross section, are able to penetrate deep underground and underwater, with the possibility of affecting biological niches normally considered shielded from radiation. We investigate the interaction of muons produced by high energy cosmic rays on Earth's atmosphere using the Geant4 toolkit. We analyze penetration power in water and crust and also the interaction effects within bacteria-like material ac...

  1. Nonlinear Optimal Filter Technique For Analyzing Energy Depositions In TES Sensors Driven Into Saturation

    CERN Document Server

    Shank, B; Cabrera, B; Kreikebaum, J M; Moffatt, R; Redl, P; Young, B A; Brink, P L; Cherry, M; Tomada, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed thermal and electrical model of superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) connected to quasiparticle (qp) traps, such as the W TESs connected to Al qp traps used for CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) Ge and Si detectors. We show that this improved model, together with a straightforward time-domain optimal filter, can be used to analyze pulses well into the nonlinear saturation region and reconstruct absorbed energies with optimal energy resolution.

  2. Processes of energy deposition by heavy-particle and electron impact. Final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in three areas of reasearch during the present period: K-shell ionization in high energy collisions of heavy ions with light target atoms using the sudden (Magnus) approximation, K-L level matching phenomena associated with K-shell vacancy production in heavy-ion collisions, and studies of low energy collisions of electrons with molecules using semi-classical perturbation theory. A brief discussion of each of these activities is given

  3. Correlation between energy deposition and molecular damage from Auger electrons: A case study of ultra-low energy (5–18 eV) electron interactions with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaee, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Rezaee@USherbrooke.ca; Hunting, Darel J.; Sanche, Léon [Groupe en Sciences des Radiations, Département de Médecine Nucléaire et Radiobiologie, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The present study introduces a new method to establish a direct correlation between biologically related physical parameters (i.e., stopping and damaging cross sections, respectively) for an Auger-electron emitting radionuclide decaying within a target molecule (e.g., DNA), so as to evaluate the efficacy of the radionuclide at the molecular level. These parameters can be applied to the dosimetry of Auger electrons and the quantification of their biological effects, which are the main criteria to assess the therapeutic efficacy of Auger-electron emitting radionuclides. Methods: Absorbed dose and stopping cross section for the Auger electrons of 5–18 eV emitted by{sup 125}I within DNA were determined by developing a nanodosimetric model. The molecular damages induced by these Auger electrons were investigated by measuring damaging cross section, including that for the formation of DNA single- and double-strand breaks. Nanoscale films of pure plasmid DNA were prepared via the freeze-drying technique and subsequently irradiated with low-energy electrons at various fluences. The damaging cross sections were determined by employing a molecular survival model to the measured exposure–response curves for induction of DNA strand breaks. Results: For a single decay of{sup 125}I within DNA, the Auger electrons of 5–18 eV deposit the energies of 12.1 and 9.1 eV within a 4.2-nm{sup 3} volume of a hydrated or dry DNA, which results in the absorbed doses of 270 and 210 kGy, respectively. DNA bases have a major contribution to the deposited energies. Ten-electronvolt and high linear energy transfer 100-eV electrons have a similar cross section for the formation of DNA double-strand break, while 100-eV electrons are twice as efficient as 10 eV in the induction of single-strand break. Conclusions: Ultra-low-energy electrons (<18 eV) substantially contribute to the absorbed dose and to the molecular damage from Auger-electron emitting radionuclides; hence, they should

  4. High speed, intermediate resolution, large area laser beam induced current imaging and laser scribing system for photovoltaic devices and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Adam B.; Song, Zhaoning; DeWitt, Jonathan L.; Stone, Jon M.; Krantz, Patrick W.; Royston, John M.; Zeller, Ryan M.; Mapes, Meghan R.; Roland, Paul J.; Dorogi, Mark D.; Zafar, Syed; Faykosh, Gary T.; Ellingson, Randy J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm2) can be produced in a ˜40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors. The system can also be used in a scribing mode by increasing the diode current and decreasing the repetition rate. In either mode, the instrument can accommodate samples ranging in size from laboratory scale (few cm2) to full modules (1 m2). Customized LabVIEW programs were developed to control the components and acquire, display, and manipulate the data in imaging mode.

  5. Evaluation of radioprotective efficacy of pyrimidine-5- carboxylate derivative on electron beam induced oxidative stress using Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, inducing oxygen depletion, ant ioxidants and modulators of immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. In the present study the radioprotective efficacy of Ethyl 4-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro pyrimidine-5-carboxylate on electron beam induced oxidative stress was evaluated using Drosophila melanogaster (Oregon K). Initially the molecule was tested for in vitro antioxidant activity and it showed moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity and good hydroxyl radical scavenging activity compared to standard glutathione. Hence, this compound was screened for its radioprotective activity. The compound was supplied to flies in the form of diet. The electron beam irradiated flies were assayed for oxidative stress markers name Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), enzymatic and Non-enzymatic antioxidants. The pyrimidinone showed modulator effect on the oxidative stress markers caused by e-beam radiation. (author)

  6. Studies on in vivo radioprotective efficacy of triazole-3-thione derivative against electron beam induced oxidative stress on Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,2,4-triazole derived molecules have received much attention in the field of medicinal chemistry due to their versatile biological properties including antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiproliferative properties. They are also used as starting materials for the synthesis of biologically active N-bridged heterocycles. Triazole derivatives with sulfhydryl group are known for radioprotective activity. In the present study we have evaluated the radioprotective efficacy of 4-amino-5-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2, 4-dihydro-3H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-thione against electron beam induced oxidative stress on Drosophila melanogaster. The compound was synthesized by green approach using solvent free fusion of thiocarbohydrazide and p-Chloro phenyl acetic acid and was characterized on the basis of analytical and spectral data . The synthesized molecule showed good DPPH radical scavenging activity. Hence this compound was screened for radioprotective activity. The electron beam irradiated flies were assayed for oxidative stress markers namely, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), Hydroperoxide (HP), enzymatic antioxidants namely Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione-S-transferase and Non enzymatic antioxidants such as Glutathione (GSH). The results showed that the molecule has potent radioprotective activity. (author)

  7. In situ ion-beam-induced luminescence analysis for evaluating a micrometer-scale radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Shunsuke; Kada, Wataru; Parajuli, Raj Kumar; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Sakai, Makoto; Miura, Kenta; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Yamada, Naoto; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Hanaizumi, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    Micrometer-scale responses of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters to focused ionized particle radiation were evaluated by combining ion-beam-induced luminescence (IBIL) and proton beam writing (PBW) using a 3 MeV focused proton microbeam. RPL phosphate glass dosimeters doped with ionic Ag or Cu activators at concentrations of 0.2 and 0.1% were fabricated, and their scintillation intensities were evaluated by IBIL spectroscopy under a PBW micropatterning condition. Compared with the Ag-doped dosimeter, the Cu-doped dosimeter was more tolerant of the radiation, while the peak intensity of its luminescence was lower, under the precise dose control of the proton microprobe. Proton-irradiated areas were successfully recorded using these dosimeters and their RPL centers were visualized under 375 nm ultraviolet light. The reproduction of the irradiated region by post-RPL imaging suggests that precise estimation of irradiation dose using microdosimeters can be accomplished by optimizing RPL glass dosimeters for various proton microprobe applications in organic material analysis and in micrometer-scale material modifications.

  8. Preliminary results on time-resolved ion beam induced luminescence applied to the provenance study of lapis lazuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czelusniak, C.; Palla, L.; Massi, M.; Carraresi, L.; Giuntini, L.; Re, A.; Lo Giudice, A.; Pratesi, G.; Mazzinghi, A.; Ruberto, C.; Castelli, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Liccioli, L.; Gueli, A.; Mandò, P. A.; Taccetti, F.

    2016-03-01

    This work will present preliminary results concerning the use of time-resolved ion beam induced luminescence applied to provenance studies of lapis lazuli. Measurements were performed at the pulsed beam facility at LABEC laboratory in Florence. Lapis lazuli is a semi-precious gemstone, used as ornament since the early civilizations that can be found in few places on Earth. The importance of this work lies in understanding the origin of various samples of lapis lazuli, from which it may be possible to gain insight into trade routes from ancient times. The samples studied in this work originated from Chile, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Myanmar, and Siberia. The stones were irradiated with 3 MeV protons and the resulting luminescence was detected by a photomultiplier tube, whose output was acquired using a sampling digitizer VME module (CAEN/V1720). Wavelength discrimination was performed at 430 nm utilizing a range of beam currents. The results showed that, by changing the beam current intensity, one can study different features of lapis lazuli, and this may aid in distinguishing lapis lazuli from different provenances.

  9. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) from Integrated Circuit Test Structures Using a 10 MeV Carbon Microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aton, T.J.; Doyle, B.L.; Duggan, J.L.; El Bouanani, M.; Guo, B.N.; McDaniel, F.D.; Renfrow, S.N.; Walsh, D.S.

    1998-11-18

    As future sizes of Integrated Circuits (ICs) continue to shrink the sensitivity of these devices, particularly SRAMs and DRAMs, to natural radiation is increasing. In this paper, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique is utilized to simulate neutron-induced Si recoil effects in ICS. The IBICC measurements, conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories employed a 10 MeV carbon microbeam with 1pm diameter spot to scan test structures on specifically designed ICS. With the aid of layout information, an analysis of the charge collection efficiency from different test areas is presented. In the present work a 10 MeV Carbon high-resolution microbeam was used to demonstrate the differential charge collection efficiency in ICS with the aid of the IC design Information. When ions strike outside the FET, the charge was only measured on the outer ring, and decreased with strike distance from this diode. When ions directly strike the inner and ring diodes, the collected charge was localized to these diodes. The charge for ions striking the gate region was shared between the inner and ring diodes. I The IBICC measurements directly confirmed the interpretations made in the earlier work.

  10. Temperature behaviour of photoluminescence and electron-beam-induced current recombination behaviour of extended defects in solar grade silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Arguirov, T; Kittler, M; Reif, J

    2002-01-01

    The temperature dependence of D-band and band-to-band (BB) luminescence was measured in EFG samples between 80 K and room temperature for defects/dislocations presenting different amounts of contamination. The contamination density was estimated from the temperature behaviour of the electron-beam-induced current contrast, ranging between about 10 sup 4 and 10 sup 6 impurities cm sup - sup 1 dislocation length. The D1 line became already visible at room temperature but its intensity was found to exhibit a maximum at about 150 K. D2, D3 and D4 start to show up at about 250, 190 and 170 K, respectively, and increase their intensities upon lowering temperature. At room temperature the width of the D1 line is broad and becomes narrower upon lowering the temperature. D2 shows the opposite behaviour. The intensities of D1 and D2 were observed to show strong variations across the sample, whereas this was not observed for the pair D4/D3. In particular, the origin of the lines D1 and D2 is still far from being understo...

  11. Electron beam induced modifications in conductivity and dielectric property of polymer electrolyte film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the effect of 8 MeV of electron beam (EB) energy irradiation on the electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of sodium fluoride NaF-doped polyethylene oxide (PEO) film. The structural and chemical characterizations were employed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques respectively before and after irradiation. The morphology study carried out using Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) analysis. The DC electrical conductivity showed increases with dose and temperature and was consistent with Arrhenius behavior. The maximum conductivity of 1.1 × 10−5 S/cm and minimum activation energy of 0.25 eV were obtained at 25 kGy, 338 K; further increases in the dose resulted in a reduction in conductivity. The real (ε′) and imaginary (ε″) part of the dielectric constant suddenly decreased in a low frequency region (40–640 Hz), subsequently independent at higher frequency. The AC conductivity showed increases with frequency and temperature for all films. The dielectric constant and AC conductivity increased at the 25 kGy dose due to chain scission. Further increases in dose such as 50 and 75 kGy, resulted in a decrease in dielectric constant and AC conductivity due to cross-linking. The electric modulus approach was used to calculate the dielectric relaxation time (τ), which decreased at 25 kGy and then increased at 50 and 75 kGy doses. The modulus data were fitted using a non-exponential Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts (KWW) function ϕ (t), and the results indicate the existence of a non-Debye relaxation. - Highlights: • Film is exposed to 8 MeV Electron Beam with the doses of 25, 50, and 75 kGy. • Morphology changes of the film conformed from Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). • AC conductivity shows increases with frequency as well as electron fluence. • The dielectric constant was satisfying the universal law of dielectric constant. • The dielectric relaxation time (τ) decreases

  12. Electron beam induced oxygen in YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin foils of bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) superconductors were subjected to electron irradiation in a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The resulting disordering of the oxygen atoms and vacancies in the Cu-O planes was monitored by measuring the splitting of the (110) diffraction spots in the [001] diffraction pattern. Samples were irradiated at 83K with 100, 150, 200 and 300kV electrons. The 100kV electrons did not cause any disordering, even after prolonged irradiation. The results of the higher energy irradiations showed an excellent fit to a disordering model, indicating a lack of radiation assisted ordering at 83K. This was further confirmed by the insensitivity of the disordering to the dose rate of 300kV electrons at 83K. However, at 300K, an increase in the dose rate of 300kV electrons increased the disordering rate, indicating that radiation assisted reordering was occurring at that temperature. 7 refs., 4 figs

  13. Tailoring Si(100) substrate surfaces for GaP growth by Ga deposition: A low-energy electron microscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienäcker, Michael; Borkenhagen, Benjamin, E-mail: b.borkenhagen@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Lilienkamp, Gerhard; Daum, Winfried [TU Clausthal, Institut für Energieforschung und Physikalische Technologien, Leibnizstraße 4, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2015-08-07

    For GaP-on-Si(100) heteroepitaxy, currently considered as a model system for monolithic integration of III–V semiconductors on Si(100), the surface steps of Si(100) have a major impact on the quality of the GaP film. Monoatomic steps cause antiphase domains in GaP with detrimental electronic properties. A viable route is to grow the III–V epilayer on single-domain Si(100) with biatomic steps, but preferably not at the expense of reduced terrace widths introduced by miscut substrates. We have performed in situ investigations of the influence of Ga deposition on the kinetics of surface steps and terraces of Si(100) at substrate temperatures above 600 °C by low-energy electron microscopy. Starting from nearly equally distributed T{sub A} and T{sub B} terraces of a two-domain Si(100) surface, submonolayer deposition of Ga results in a transformation into a surface dominated by T{sub A} terraces and biatomic D{sub A} steps. This transformation is reversible, and Si(100) with monoatomic steps is recovered upon termination of the Ga flux. Under conditions of higher coverages (but still below 0.25 monolayer), we observe restructuring into a surface with T{sub B} dominance, similar to the findings of Hara et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083515 (2005)]. The occurrence and mutual transformations of surface structures with different terrace and step structures in a narrow range of temperatures and Ga deposition rates is discussed.

  14. Ion-beam-induced modifications in the structural and electrical properties of copper oxide selenite nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Pallavi, E-mail: prana.phy@gmail.com; Chauhan, R.P.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Nanowires were synthesized via template-assisted electrodeposition method. •Copper oxide selenite nanowires were irradiated with 160 MeV, Ni{sup +12} ion beam. •XRD confirmed no change in phase of irradiated nanowires. •Electrical resistivity of nanowires was found to decrease with the ion fluence. -- Abstract: Irradiation with swift heavy ions (SHIs) with energy in the MeV range is a unique tool for engineering the properties of materials. In this context, the objective of the present work is to study the conduction of charge carriers in pre- and post-ion-irradiated semiconducting nanowires. Copper oxide selenite nanowires were synthesized using a template-assisted electrodeposition technique from an aqueous solution of 0.8 M CuSO{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O and 8 mM SeO{sub 2}. The synthesized nanowires were observed to have a monoclinic structure with linear I–V characteristics (IVC). The effect of irradiation with 160 MeV Ni{sup +12} ions on the properties of the copper oxide selenite nanowires was investigated for fluences varying from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. XRD spectra confirmed no change in the phase of the swift-heavy-ion-irradiated nanowires, but a modification in the orientation of the planes was observed that depended on the ion fluence. The electrical resistivity of the semiconducting nanowires also varied with the ion fluence. Simultaneous irradiation-induced modifications to the electro-chemical potential gradient and the granular properties of the material may have been the origin of the alteration in the structural and electrical properties of the nanowires.

  15. CHANG-ES VI: Probing Supernova Energy Deposition in Spiral Galaxies Through Multi-Wavelength Relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Dettmar, Ralf-Jurgen; Heald, George; Irwin, Judith; Johnson, Megan; Kepley, Amanda A; Krause, Marita; Murphy, E J; Orlando, Elena; Rand, Richard J; Strong, A W; Vargas, Carlos J; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    How a galaxy regulates its SNe energy into different interstellar/circumgalactic medium components strongly affects galaxy evolution. Based on the JVLA D-configuration C- (6 GHz) and L-band (1.6 GHz) continuum observations, we perform statistical analysis comparing multi-wavelength properties of the CHANG-ES galaxies. The high-quality JVLA data and edge-on orientation enable us for the first time to include the halo into the energy budget for a complete radio-flux-limited sample. We find tight correlations of $L_{\\rm radio}$ with the mid-IR-based SFR. The normalization of our $I_{\\rm 1.6GHz}/{\\rm W~Hz^{-1}}-{\\rm SFR}$ relation is $\\sim$2-3 times of those obtained for face-on galaxies, probably a result of enhanced IR extinction at high inclination. We also find tight correlations between $L_{\\rm radio}$ and the SNe energy injection rate $\\dot{E}_{\\rm SN(Ia+CC)}$, indicating the energy loss via synchrotron radio continuum accounts for $\\sim0.1\\%$ of $\\dot{E}_{\\rm SN}$, comparable to the energy contained in CR ...

  16. Thorium Deposits of the United States - Energy Resources for the Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Gillerman, Virginia S.; Armbrustmacher, Theodore J.

    2009-01-01

    Many nations are exploring new ways to meet their growing energy supply needs, with a particular focus upon methods that produce lower carbon dioxide emissions compared to traditional oil, natural gas, and coal power plants. As a result, thorium-based nuclear power has experienced renewed attention as a potential energy source. Thus, it benefits the United States and other countries to identify and evaluate their indigenous thorium resources. This report describes the geology and resources of the principal thorium districts of the United States.

  17. Properties of e-beam deposited Pt nano-interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkina, Lolita

    2003-03-01

    Connecting nano-objects to macroscopic leads is a tough technical problem of nanotechnology. In this work direct electron beam induced deposition of Pt from metal-organic precursor has been used to form nano-interconnects. For example, nanotubes and nanowires, silicide needle-like islands, all-oxide semiconducting nanocrystals and other nanostructures have been wired to metal leads to perform transport measurements. Material properties of deposited nano-interconnects are in focus of this study. Chemical composition of deposit has been studied by Auger spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Content of the deposited material was shown to be independent on the beam current. The content was contingent on the rate of pumping-out of decomposed precursor residue. Conductivity of the nano-interconnects have been improved dramatically by annealing in low-pressure neutral atmosphere. Structural and material properties of deposit, annealed in the temperature range 100 to 400 C, were studied.

  18. Energy deposition by heavy ions: Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.Y.; Grygiel, C.; Dufour, C; J. R. Sun; Wang, Z.G.; Zhao, Y. T.; G. Q. Xiao; Cheng, R.; Zhou, X. M.; Ren, J. R.; Liu, S. D.; Lei, Y.; Sun, Y. B.; Ritter, R.; E. Gruber

    2014-01-01

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe22+ to Xe30+) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshol...

  19. Technique for the estimation of surface temperatures from embedded temperature sensing for rapid, high energy surface deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2014-07-01

    Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, highenergy surface deposition process can be di cult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves tting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature 20 C.

  20. Control of the Radial Energy Deposition Profile in an Open Magnetic Trap During Electron Cyclotron Plasma Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodchikov, E. D.; Smolyakova, O. B.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a method for controlling the radial profile of electron cyclotron plasma heating in an axisymmetric magnetic mirror by using minor perturbations of the magnetic field of the mirror. The method is based on the analysis of the ray trajectories behavior near the surface of the electron cyclotron resonance. A way to produce such perturbations by supplementing the system with an additional "quadrupole" pair of magnetic coils is also proposed. The possibility to improve the coupling of radiation with the plasma in an open trap is demonstrated, as well as the possibility to control the energy deposition profile by means of small variations of the current in the additional coils for two basic scenarios of electron cyclotron plasma heating, specifically, longitudinal launching of microwave radiation to the magnetic mirror region and trapping of obliquely launched radiation by the inhomogeneous magnetized-plasma column.

  1. Morphological and optical properties changes in nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) deposited on porous aluminum nanostructures by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for Solar energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghrib, M., E-mail: mondherghrib@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Gaidi, M.; Ghrib, T.; Khedher, N. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Salam, M. [L3M, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to determine the electrical band gap of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) deposited by plasma enhancement chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on porous alumina structure by fitting the experimental spectra using a model based on the quantum confinement of electrons in Si nanocrystallites having spherical and cylindrical forms. This model permits to correlate the PL spectra to the microstructure of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) structure. The microstructure of aluminum surface layer and nc-Si films was systematically studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the structure of the nanocrystalline silicon layer (NSL) is dependent of the porosity (void) of the porous alumina layer (PAL) substrate. This structure was performed in two steps, namely the PAL substrate was prepared using sulfuric acid solution attack on an Al foil and then the silicon was deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on it. The optical constants (n and k as a function of wavelength) of the deposited films were obtained using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the UV-vis-NIR regions. The SE spectrum of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) was modeled as a mixture of void, crystalline silicon and aluminum using the Cauchy model approximation. The specific surface area (SSA) was estimated and was found to decrease linearly when porosity increases. Based on this full characterization, it is demonstrated that the optical characteristics of the films are directly correlated to their micro-structural properties.

  2. Single-walled carbon nanotubes and nanocrystalline graphene reduce beam-induced movements in high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy of ice-embedded biological samples

    CERN Document Server

    Rhinow, Daniel; Turchanin, Andrey; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Kühlbrandt, Werner; 10.1063/1.3645010

    2011-01-01

    For single particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM), contrast loss due to beam-induced charging and specimen movement is a serious problem, as the thin films of vitreous ice spanning the holes of a holey carbon film are particularly susceptible to beam-induced movement. We demonstrate that the problem is at least partially solved by carbon nanotechnology. Doping ice-embedded samples with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in aqueous suspension or adding nanocrystalline graphene supports, obtained by thermal conversion of cross-linked self-assembled biphenyl precursors, significantly reduces contrast loss in high-resolution cryoEM due to the excellent electrical and mechanical properties of SWNTs and graphene.

  3. Acetylene - Argon Plasmas Measured at a Biased Substrate Electrode for Diamond-Like Carbon Deposition. Part 2: Ion Energy Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Baby, A; Lemoine, P; Maguire, P D

    2008-01-01

    Ion energy distributions have been determined at the rf-bias electrode in an inductively-coupled acetylene-argon plasma for various substrate bias voltages and frequencies under conditions suitable for film deposition. These are compared with those obtained at the grounded wall of a capacitively coupled plasma. In the former, for pressures up to 25 mTorr, the IEDs exhibit bimodal structures with peak separation values that follow the expected dependence on voltage and frequency. At higher pressures, 120 mTorr, the bimodal structure is replaced by a single peak. For all conditions, the dominant ion is Ar+ or ArH+ despite a set C2H2:Ar flow ratio of 2:1, and this can be attributed to the high electron dissociation of the parent molecule. Diamond-like carbon films indicate a peak hardness at an ion energy of around 90 eV and a very sharp fall in hardness is noted beyond this value. This is similar to the observed bombardment energy relationship for sp3 bond formation in hydrogen-free tetragonal amorphous carbon ...

  4. Study of Straggling and Extreme Cases of Energy Deposition in Micron Scale Silicon Volumes using the DEPFET Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, Fabian; Schwenker, Benjamin

    The Depleted P-channel Field-Effect Transistor detector is a pixel detector type currently under development. In high energy physics, pixel detectors measure space points along the trajectory of charged particles. They determine the spatial position by measuring the charges created as a result of interactions with the passing particle. Thus the detector’s signals can be used to determine the energy deposited by the particle in single pixels of a pixel matrix. The development of a new detector raises the question whether our simulation models can accurately describe the physical processes – like ionisation and scattering – taking place during operation. The thesis aims to validate one of the current Monte-Carlo simulations (based on the Geant4 simulation package) of high energy straggling processes using experimental data of a test beam run of DEPFET modules. This is done by calculating the spatial distribution of the electron/hole pairs created in extreme cases of ionisation and using this distribution ...

  5. CHANG-ES - VI. Probing Supernova energy deposition in spiral galaxies through multiwavelength relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Beck, Rainer; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Heald, George; Irwin, Judith; Johnson, Megan; Kepley, Amanda A.; Krause, Marita; Murphy, E. J.; Orlando, Elena; Rand, Richard J.; Strong, A. W.; Vargas, Carlos J.; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2016-02-01

    How a galaxy regulates its supernovae (SNe) energy into different interstellar/circumgalactic medium components strongly affects galaxy evolution. Based on the JVLA D-configuration C- (6 GHz) and L-band (1.6 GHz) continuum observations, we perform statistical analysis comparing multiwavelength properties of the Continuum Haloes in Nearby Galaxies - an EVLA Survey galaxies. The high-quality JVLA data and edge-on orientation enable us for the first time to include the halo into the energy budget for a complete radio-flux-limited sample. We find tight correlations of Lradio with the mid-IR-based star formation rate (SFR). The normalization of our I1.6 GHz/W Hz-1-SFR relation is ˜2-3times of those obtained for face-on galaxies, probably a result of enhanced IR extinction at high inclination. We also find tight correlations between Lradio and the SNe energy injection rate dot{E}_SN(Ia+CC), indicating the energy loss via synchrotron radio continuum accounts for ˜1 of dot{E}_SN, comparable to the energy contained in cosmic ray electrons. The integrated C-to-L-band spectral index is α ˜ 0.5-1.1 for non-active galactic nucleus galaxies, indicating a dominance by the diffuse synchrotron component. The low-scatter Lradio-SFR/L_radio-dot{E}_{SN (Ia+CC)} relationships have superlinear logarithmic slopes at ˜2σ in L band (1.132 ± 0.067/1.175 ± 0.102) while consistent with linear in C band (1.057 ± 0.075/1.100 ± 0.123). The superlinearity could be naturally reproduced with non-calorimeter models for galaxy discs. Using Chandra halo X-ray measurements, we find sublinear LX-Lradio relations. These results indicate that the observed radio halo of a starburst galaxy is close to electron calorimeter, and a galaxy with higher SFR tends to distribute an increased fraction of SNe energy into radio emission (than X-ray).

  6. Low-energy ion beam-based deposition of gallium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, M R; Wada, M

    2016-02-01

    An ion source with a remote plasma chamber excited by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency power was used for low-energy broad ion beam extraction. Optical emission spectral analyses showed the sputtering and postionization of a liquid gallium (Ga) target placed in a chamber separated from the source bombarded by argon (Ar) plasma guided by a bent magnetic field. In addition, an E × B probe successfully showed the extraction of low-energy Ga and Ar ion beams using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. By introducing dilute amounts of nitrogen gas into the system, formation of thin Ga-based films on a silicon substrate was demonstrated as determined from X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity studies. PMID:26932113

  7. Low-energy ion beam-based deposition of gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M. R., E-mail: mrvasquez@coe.upd.edu.ph [Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    An ion source with a remote plasma chamber excited by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency power was used for low-energy broad ion beam extraction. Optical emission spectral analyses showed the sputtering and postionization of a liquid gallium (Ga) target placed in a chamber separated from the source bombarded by argon (Ar) plasma guided by a bent magnetic field. In addition, an E × B probe successfully showed the extraction of low-energy Ga and Ar ion beams using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. By introducing dilute amounts of nitrogen gas into the system, formation of thin Ga-based films on a silicon substrate was demonstrated as determined from X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity studies.

  8. A Monte Carlo study of energy deposition at the sub-cellular level for application to targeted radionuclide therapy with low-energy electron emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emfietzoglou, D. [Medical Physics Laboratory, University of Ioannina Medical School, Ioannina 451 10 (Greece); Bousis, C. [Medical Physics Laboratory, University of Ioannina Medical School, Ioannina 451 10 (Greece); Hindorf, C. [Joint Department of Physics, The Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Fotopoulos, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Ioannina Medical School, Ioannina 451 10 (Greece); Pathak, A. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Kostarelos, K. [Nanomedicine Laboratory, Centre for Drug Delivery Research, School of Pharmacy, University of London, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: kostas.kostarelos@pharmacy.ac.uk

    2007-03-15

    Optimizing targeted radionuclide therapy for patients with circulating malignant cells (e.g. blood-related cancers) or a micrometastatic spread requires quantification of various dosimetric parameters at the single-cell level. We present results on the energy deposition of monoenergetic electrons of initial energy from 100 eV to 20 keV - relevant to Auger emitting radionuclides - distributed either uniformly or at the surface of spherical volumes of radii from 10 nm to 1 {mu}m which correspond to critical sub-cellular targets. Calculations have been carried out by our detailed-history Monte Carlo (MC) code which simulates event-by-event the complete slowing down (to 1 Ry) of both the primary and all subsequent generations of electrons, as well as, by the continuous-slowing-down-approximation (CSDA) using analytic range-energy relationships. The latter method has been adopted by the MIRD committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine for dosimetry at the cellular level (>1 {mu}m). Differences between the MC and CSDA results are up to {approx}50% and are expected to be even larger at higher energies and/or smaller volumes. They are attributed to the deficiencies of the CSDA method associated with the neglect of straggling and {delta}-ray transport. The results are particularly relevant to targeted radiotherapy at the genome level by Auger emitters.

  9. 4{pi} studies of the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He+{sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions. I. Energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, K.B.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Bracken, D.S.; Renshaw Foxford, E. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Legrain, R.; Pollacco, E.C.; Volant, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Korteling, R.G. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Breuer, H. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; Brzychczyk, J. [Jagellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics

    1996-01-01

    The 4{pi} detector ISiS has been used to measure light-charged particles and intermediate-mass-fragments emitted in the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He+{sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions. Ejectile multiplicity and total event kinetic energy distribution scale systematically with projectile energy and target mass, except for the {sup nat}Ag target at 3.6 and 4.8 GeV. For this system, a saturation in deposition energy is indicated by the data, suggesting the upper projectile energy for stopping has been reached. Maximum deposition energies of {approx}950 MeV for the {sup nat}Ag target and {approx}1600 MeV for the {sup 197}Au target are inferred from the data. Comparison of the experimental distributions with intranuclear cascade predictions shows qualitative agreement. (author). Submitted to Physical Review, C (US); 46 refs.

  10. ENERGY PECULIAR FEATURES PERTAINING TO NANO- TECHNOLOGY OF COATING DEPOSITION USING MIXED MATRICES FOR AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ivashko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic analysis of factors that influence on the processes of  protective coating formation based on mixed matrices has been presented in the paper. The paper demonstrates a significant role of energy parameters of modifier drop-phase dispersed particles formed in the process of pneumatic spraying  and surface layer of a metal substrate on the mechanisms pertaining to formation of coating structure with optimal characteristics. Compositions of anticorrosive and tribological coatings for application in the designs of higher resource automotive components  have been proposed in the paper.

  11. Films of Mn12-acetate deposited by low-energy laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Means, J.; Meenakshi, V.; Srivastava, R. V. A.; Teizer, W.; Kolomenskii, Al. A.; Schuessler, H. A.; Zhao, H.; Dunbar, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate, [Mn12 O12(CH3COO)16 (H2O)4] 2CH3COOH 4H2O, have been prepared using a laser ablation technique with a nitrogen laser at low laser energies of 0.8 and 2 mJ. Chemical and magnetic characterizations show that the Mn12-acetate cores remain intact and the films show similar magnetic properties to those of the parent molecular starting material. In addition, the magnetic data exhibit a peak in the magnetization at 27 K indicating the creation of an a...

  12. Photoluminescence spectroscopy and energy-level analysis of metal-organic-deposited Ga2O3:Cr3+ films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokida, Yoshinori; Adachi, Sadao

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study are (i) to demonstrate the synthesis of Cr3+-activated β-Ga2O3 films by metal-organic deposition and (ii) to report the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of such films from 20 to 300 K. An activation energy of ˜0.9 eV for the Cr3+ ions in β-Ga2O3 is determined from a plot of PL intensity vs calcination temperature. The red-line emission doublet R1 and R2 at ˜1.8 eV and the broad emission band with a peak at ˜1.7 eV are ascribed to the Cr3+ ions in the β-Ga2O3 host. The energies of the excited states, i.e., 2E, 4T2, 2T2, 4T1, and 4T1, in Cr3+ are determined from the experimental PL and PL excitation spectra using a newly developed analysis model. The high-energy luminescence tail of the broad 4T2 → 4A2 emission band can be explained by the hot-carrier effect of the photoexcited electrons in the 4T2 state. The relative intensities of the R-line emission doublet can also be explained very well by the population and depopulation of the electron numbers in the E¯ (R1) and 2A¯ (R2) states. PL properties, such as the temperature-dependent PL intensity, peak energy, and spectral width, are analyzed in detail.

  13. Mass Deposition, Etching and Sputtering Effects of Low-Energy N+ Ion Irradiation on Solid Fly Ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fly ash is an industrial waste created when coal is burned to generate electrical power. In the present study, we used low-energy nitrogen ion implantation on fly ash to improve its surface properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were used to study the changes of physical and chemical properties of fly ash after N+ ion implantation, and the mechanism of fly ash modified by ion implantation. In the optimal implantation with energy of 5 keV and dose of 15D0, the ion beam could effectively increase the specific surface area (approximately 150% increase) of the fly ash. Lots of scratches were generated in the surface of the fly ash after N+ ion implantation, therefore it is good for enhancing the specific surface area. Experimental results show that the ion implantation could open the chemical bonds of Si-O, Si-Al and Al-O, and deposit nitrogen ions on the surface of fly ash. (plasma technology)

  14. Theoretical investigation into the feasibility to deposit RF energy centrally in the head-and-neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the ability to deposit radiofrequency energy centrally in the neck as a function of antenna positions, number of antennas, and operating frequency. Methods and Materials: Power absorption (PA) distributions in a realistic model of the head-and-neck anatomy are calculated in which the head model is irradiated by an array of dipole antennas. The relative PA distributions corresponding to different setups are visualized and analyzed using the ratio of the average PA (aPA) in the target and neck region. Results: Both the PA distributions and aPA ratios indicate an optimal focusing ability of the setups (i.e., the ability to direct energy efficiently into the target region), between 400 and 600 MHz. In this frequency band, the focusing ability depends only moderately on the size of the neck. Finally, it is found that the focusing ability at 433 MHz is increased significantly by increasing the number of antenna elements. Conclusions: The optimal frequency is found to be highly dependent on the size of the target volume; thus, a single optimum is hard to define. However, future clinical research will focus on 433 MHz based on the optimal range of frequencies, as found in this study

  15. Electron energy deposition to the fusion target core for fast ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W M; Sheng, Z M; Li, Y T; Hao, B; Zhang, J [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Norreys, P A; Sherlock, M; Trines, R; Robinson, A P L, E-mail: hbwwml@aphy.iphy.ac.e, E-mail: tzmsheng@sjtu.edu.c [Central Laser Facility, CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    Heating of the target core for fast ignition by electron beams is investigated by two-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that the electron beams emitted from the core surface with the initial energy of 1.4MeV, 2.4MeV, and 4.2MeV can heat most efficiently the core with {rho}r = 0.75g/cm{sup 2}, 1.5g/cm{sup 2}, and 3g/cm{sup 2}, respectively, when taking {rho} = 300g/cm{sup 3}, where {rho} and r are the mass density and radius of the core, respectively.

  16. Eliminating galling of high-alloy tubular threads by high-energy ion deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galling is a form of adhesive wear that typically occurs in the presence of relatively high stresses. The worst-case result is actual seizure and cold welding of mating parts. This may occur very early in the life of parts, in many cases at original assembly. Threaded components have been the traditional sites for galling failure. With the increased use of high-alloy materials to combat corrosive effects of sour service, the tendency of threads to gall has become severe. A method of high-energy metal implanting has been developed to protect threads of all the various alloys from galling by disrupting the basic mechanism that leads to galling. This method of ion plating has been applied successfully to sliding surfaces in general

  17. Monte carlo computation of the energy deposited by protons in water, bone and adipose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçer, Rahmi; Küçer, Nermin; Türemen, Görkem

    2013-02-01

    Protons are most suitable for treating deeply-seated tumors due to their unique depth dose distribution. The maximum dose of protons is a pronounced peak, called the Bragg peak, with zero dose behind the peak. The objective of radiation therapy with protons is to deliver the dose to the target volume by using this type of distribution. This is achieved with a finite number of Bragg peaks at the depth of the target volume. The location of the peak in terms of depth depends on the energy of the protons. Simulations are used to determine the depth dose distribution of proton beams passing through tissue, so it is important that experimental data agree with the simulation data. In this study, we used the FLUKA computer code to determine the correct position of the Bragg peak for proton beams passing through water, bone and adipose, and the results were compared with experimental data.

  18. Ti+C+N FILM PREPARATION AND ITS PROPERTIES BY LOW ENERGY CO-DEPOSITION ON STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Z.Yi; X.Zhang; T.H.Zhang; Z.S.Xiao

    2002-01-01

    The Ti+C+N film was co-deposited on H13 steel by Filtered Vacuum Arc PlasmaDeposition (FVAPD) operated with a modified cathode. The co-deposited layer waseffective for the improvement of surface hardness and corrosion resistance. The nano-hardness value of the co-deposited film is 1.3 times more than that of undepositedsample. The corrosion behavior measurement shows that the corrosion resistance foracid corrosion and pitting corrosion was improved greatly. It is owing to the formationof the new ternary ceramic phase TiCo.7 No.3 in the co-deposited layer. The mechanismof property improvement is discussed.

  19. Recent progress on micro-piezoelectric energy harvesters fabricated with aerosol deposition method and the interfacing circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, S. P.; Wang, L. T.; Wang, Y. J.; Lin, S. C.; Shih, Y. S.; Wu, W. J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a system integration of micro-piezoelectric energy harvester (MPEH) system based on MPEHs fabricated with an aero-deposited PZT technique, including both the device and the interface circuit design. An in depth look at the deposition method known as aerosol deposition is analyzed. Secondly, various structural designs throughout the years will be introduced and discussed. Thirdly, the non-linear synchronized switching technique interfacing circuit was designed to boost the harvested power in comparison to standard rectifying circuits. The boosting effect in comparison to theoretical expectations will also be presented. The power dissipation effects of self-powered SSHI under low current has also been discussed. Experimental results show that the device based on silicon substrate showed a maximum output power of 21 μW with the output voltage of 2.2 Vrms, excited at 215 Hz under a 1.5 g vibrating source. In comparison, the device based on stainless steel substrate, driven under the same acceleration, had a maximum output power of 34 μW with 1.8 Vrms at the resonant frequency of 202 Hz. The power densities were 4.7 μW mm-2 and 7.6 μW mm-2 for the silicon substrate and the stainless steel substrate based devices, each. The cantilever structured MPEG was later improved to the power output of 200.28 μW. To further improve the output characteristic, the device was tested under vacuumed circumstance, which then gave the output power of 241.60μW, with a 6.02 Vrms under 1.5 g, 104.4Hz. The power boosting circuit gave a power gain of 2.03 times, as the overall system outputs 91.4 μW using the self-powered nonlinear technique under 0.75 g with a similar device. The overall system, using only the standard rectifying circuit was able to light a low consumption red- colored SMD-0805 packaged LED in a duty ratio of approximately 25%.

  20. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M B

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  1. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M. B.

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  2. Evaluation of Beam Loss and Energy Depositions for a Possible Phase II Design for LHC Collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lari, L.; /EPFL-ISIC, Lausanne /CERN; Assmann, R.; /CERN; Bracco, C.; /EPFL-ISIC, Lausanne /CERN; Brugger, M.; /CERN; Cerutti, F.; /CERN; Doyle, E.; /SLAC; Ferrari, A.; /CERN; Keller, L.; Lundgren, S.; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; /SLAC; Mauri, M.; Redaelli, S.; Sarchiapone, L.; /CERN; Smith, J.; /SLAC; Vlachoudis, V.; Weiler, T.; /CERN

    2011-11-07

    The LHC beams are designed to have high stability and to be stored for many hours. The nominal beam intensity lifetime is expected to be of the order of 20h. The Phase II collimation system has to be able to handle particle losses in stable physics conditions at 7 TeV in order to avoid beam aborts and to allow correction of parameters and restoration to nominal conditions. Monte Carlo simulations are needed in order to evaluate the behavior of metallic high-Z collimators during operation scenarios using a realistic distribution of losses, which is a mix of the three limiting halo cases. Moreover, the consequences in the IR7 insertion of the worst (case) abnormal beam loss are evaluated. The case refers to a spontaneous trigger of the horizontal extraction kicker at top energy, when Phase II collimators are used. These studies are an important input for engineering design of the collimation Phase II system and for the evaluation of their effect on adjacent components. The goal is to build collimators that can survive the expected conditions during LHC stable physics runs, in order to avoid quenches of the SC magnets and to protect other LHC equipments.

  3. Evaluation of Beam Losses And Energy Deposition for a Possible Phase II Design for LHC Collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lari, L.; Assmann, R.W.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Mauri, M.; Redaelli, S.; Sarchiapone, L.; Vlachoudis, Vasilis; Weiler, Th.; /CERN; Doyle, J.E.; Keller, L.; Lundgren, S.A.; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Smith, J.C.; /SLAC; Lari, L.; /LPHE, Lausanne

    2011-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beams are designed to have high stability and to be stored for many hours. The nominal beam intensity lifetime is expected to be of the order of 20h. The Phase II collimation system has to be able to handle particle losses in stable physics conditions at 7 TeV in order to avoid beam aborts and to allow correction of parameters and restoration to nominal conditions. Monte Carlo simulations are needed in order to evaluate the behavior of metallic high-Z collimators during operation scenarios using a realistic distribution of losses, which is a mix of the three limiting halo cases. Moreover, the consequences in the IR7 insertion of the worst (case) abnormal beam loss are evaluated. The case refers to a spontaneous trigger of the horizontal extraction kicker at top energy, when Phase II collimators are used. These studies are an important input for engineering design of the collimation Phase II system and for the evaluation of their effect on adjacent components. The goal is to build collimators that can survive the expected conditions during LHC stable physics runs, in order to avoid quenches of the SC magnets and to protect other LHC equipments.

  4. Dosimetry for synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy: from a macroscopic approach to microscopic energy deposits consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous therapeutic strategies are currently being evaluated to find a curative treatment for high grade glioma. Among them, radiation therapy is partially effective but limited by the insufficient differential effect that can be reached between the dose delivered to the tumor compared to the one received by the healthy tissues. Synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy aims at increasing this differential effect with a localized dose boost obtained by low energy x-rays stereotactic irradiations (≤ 100 keV) in presence of heavy elements restricted to the target area. This PhD work takes place in the general context of the future clinical trials foreseen at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The first objective was to optimize the dose delivery to the target, at a macroscopic scale. We have demonstrated in particular that an even number of weighted beams was required to homogenize the tumor dose distribution. Microdosimetry studies were then performed to evaluate the dose delivered at the cellular level, taking into account the fine high-Z element distribution. These theoretical results have been compared to in vitro studies. Cell survival studies were performed using either a 3D glioma model (spheroids) or cells irradiated in suspension in an iodinated medium. (author)

  5. Energy deposition of ions in materials, and numerical simulations of compression, ignition, and burn of ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article various aspects of ion beam inertial confinement fusion are discussed. In particular a very thorough discussion of aspects of energy deposition of ions in hot plasmas and cold materials is given. Using energy deposition profiles given by these calculations, computer simulations of the compression, ignition and burn phases have been carried out for a single shell, pusher-tamper-DT fuel, multi-layered spherical pellet, suitable for use in a fusion reactor. The gain of this pellet was calculated to be 97 for an input energy of 7.38 MJ and an output energy of 715 MJ. This pellet has several other attractive features, including being environmentally attractive because of minimal radioactivity production and being insensitive to pusher-fuel instabilities. (orig.)

  6. Ion-beam-induced ferromagnetism in Mn-doped PrFeO{sub 3} thin films grown on Si (100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultan, Khalid; Ikram, M.; Mir, Sajad Ahmad; Habib, Zubida; Aarif ul Islam, Shah [National Institute of Technology, Solid State Physics Lab. Department of Physics, Srinagar, J and K (India); Ali, Yasir [Saint Longwal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sangrur, Punjab (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Materials Science Division, New Delhi (India)

    2016-01-15

    The present study shows that the ion beam irradiation induces room-temperature ferromagnetic ordering in pulsed laser-deposited Mn-doped PrFeO{sub 3} thin films on Si (100) apart from change in the morphological, structural and electrical properties. Dense electronic excitation produced by high-energy 120 MeV Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiation causes change in surface roughness, crystallinity and strain. It is also evident that these excitations induce the magnetic ordering in this system. The observed modifications are due to the large electronic energy deposited by swift heavy ions irradiation. The appearance of ferromagnetism at 300 K in these samples after irradiation may be attributed to the canting of the antiferromagnetically ordered spins due to the structural distortion. (orig.)

  7. Computational study of transport and energy deposition of intense laser-accelerated proton beams in solid density matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; McGuffey, C.; Qiao, B.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Grabowski, P. E.

    2015-11-01

    With intense proton beams accelerated by high power short pulse lasers, solid targets are isochorically heated to become partially-ionized warm or hot dense matter. In this regime, the thermodynamic state of the matter significantly changes, varying the proton stopping power where both bound and free electrons contribute. Additionally, collective beam-matter interaction becomes important to the beam transport. We present self-consistent hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results of proton beam transport and energy deposition in solid-density matter, where the individual proton stopping and the collective effects are taken into account simultaneously with updates of stopping power in the varying target conditions and kinetic motions of the beam in the driven fields. Broadening of propagation range and self-focusing of the beam led to unexpected target heating by the intense proton beams, with dependence on the beam profiles and target conditions. The behavior is specifically studied for the case of an experimentally measured proton beam from the 1.25 kJ, 10 ps OMEGA EP laser transporting through metal foils. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contracts No. DE-NA0002034 and No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by the U.S. AFOSR under Contract FA9550-14-1-0346.

  8. The distribution of urate deposition within the extremities in gout: a review of 148 dual-energy CT cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallinson, Paul I. [Vancouver General Hospital, Radiology Department, Vancouver (Canada); Vancouver General Hospital, Clinical Fellow in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Reagan, Adrian C.; Munk, Peter L.; Ouellette, Hugue; Nicolaou, Savvas [Vancouver General Hospital, Radiology Department, Vancouver (Canada); Coupal, Tyler [McMaster University, De Groote School of Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Clinical detection of gout can be difficult due to co-existent and mimicking arthropathies and asymptomatic disease. Understanding of the distribution of urate within the body can aid clinical diagnosis and further understanding of the resulting pathology. Our aim was to determine this distribution of urate within the extremities in patients with gout. All patients who underwent a four-limb dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scan for suspected gout over a 2-year period were identified (n = 148, 121 male, 27 female, age range, 16-92 years, mean = 61.3 years, median = 63 years). The reports of the positive cases were retrospectively analyzed and the locations of all urate deposition recorded and classified by anatomical location. A total of 241 cases met the inclusion criteria, of which 148 cases were positive. Of these, 101 (68.2 %) patients had gout in the foot, 81 (56.1 %) in the knee, 79 (53.4 %) in the ankle, 41 (27.7 %) in the elbow, 25 (16.9 %) in the hand, and 25 (16.9 %) in the wrist. The distribution was further subcategorized for each body part into specific bone and soft tissue structures. In this observational study, we provide for the first time a detailed analysis of extremity urate distribution in gout, which both supports and augments to the current understanding based on clinical and microscopic findings. (orig.)

  9. Role of atomic hydrogen density and energy in low power chemical vapor deposition synthesis of diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline diamond films were synthesized on silicon substrates without diamond seeding by a very low power (∼40-80 W) microwave plasma continuous vapor deposition reaction of a mixture of helium-hydrogen-methane (48.2/48.2/3.6%) or argon-hydrogen-methane (17.5/80/2.5%). However, predominantly graphitic carbon films or no films formed when neon, krypton, or xenon was substituted for helium or argon. The films were characterized by time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It is proposed that each of He+ and Ar+ served as a catalyst with atomic hydrogen to form an energetic plasma since only plasmas having these ions in the presence of atomic hydrogen showed significantly broadened H α lines corresponding to an average hydrogen atom temperature of >100 eV as reported previously. It was found that not only the energy, but also the H density uniquely increases in He-H2 and Ar-H2 plasmas. Bombardment of the carbon surface by highly energetic hydrogen formed by the catalysis reaction may play a role in the formation of diamond. Then, by this novel pathway, the relevance of the CO tie line is eliminated along with other stringent conditions and complicated and inefficient techniques which limit broad application of the versatility and superiority of diamond thin film technology

  10. Value of Dual Energy Computed Tomography for detection of myocardial iron deposition in Thalassaemia patients: Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazirolan, Tuncay; Akpinar, Burcu [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Unal, Sule; Guemruek, Fatma [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, Ankara (Turkey); Haliloglu, Mithat [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Alibek, Sedat [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Radiology Institute, University of Erlangen/Nurnberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: sedat.alibek@uk-erlangen.de

    2008-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to compare the value of cardiac DECT (cDECT) for detection of myocardial iron deposition to T2*w cardiac MRI (cMRI). Material and methods: Nineteen patients with clinical history of Thalassaemia underwent T2*-weighted cardiac MRI (cMRI) with a 1.5 T MR scanner (MAGNETOM Symphony, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) and cardiac dual energy CT (cDECT) with a DSCT scanner (SOMATOM Definition, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) on the same day. HU values obtained from cDECT scans and T2*-values from cMRI were statistically correlated to calculate significance levels. Table times were measured for both cDECT and cMRI and compared. Patients were asked to grade their subjective comfort during the examination. Results: In all patients cDECT scans were successfully acquired. HU values of septal muscle correlated strongly with T2*-values, whereas no correlation was found for paraspinal muscle. Table time was significantly shorter for cDECT compared to cMRI (mean: 3.7 min vs. 11.2 min) and subjective patient comfort was rated comfortable for cDECT and average to poor for cMRI. Mean radiation dose was 0.71 mSv. Conclusion: cDECT scans seem to be possible for evaluation of myocardial iron load in pediatric Thalassaemia patients.

  11. Value of Dual Energy Computed Tomography for detection of myocardial iron deposition in Thalassaemia patients: Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to compare the value of cardiac DECT (cDECT) for detection of myocardial iron deposition to T2*w cardiac MRI (cMRI). Material and methods: Nineteen patients with clinical history of Thalassaemia underwent T2*-weighted cardiac MRI (cMRI) with a 1.5 T MR scanner (MAGNETOM Symphony, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) and cardiac dual energy CT (cDECT) with a DSCT scanner (SOMATOM Definition, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) on the same day. HU values obtained from cDECT scans and T2*-values from cMRI were statistically correlated to calculate significance levels. Table times were measured for both cDECT and cMRI and compared. Patients were asked to grade their subjective comfort during the examination. Results: In all patients cDECT scans were successfully acquired. HU values of septal muscle correlated strongly with T2*-values, whereas no correlation was found for paraspinal muscle. Table time was significantly shorter for cDECT compared to cMRI (mean: 3.7 min vs. 11.2 min) and subjective patient comfort was rated comfortable for cDECT and average to poor for cMRI. Mean radiation dose was 0.71 mSv. Conclusion: cDECT scans seem to be possible for evaluation of myocardial iron load in pediatric Thalassaemia patients

  12. Energy Deposition and DPA in the Superconducting Links for the HILUMI LHC Project at the LHC Interaction Points

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2092158; Broggi, Francesco; Santini, C; Ballarino, Amalia; Cerutti, Francesco; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the upgrade of the LHC machine, the powering of the LHC magnets foresees the removal of the power converters and distribution feedboxes from the tunnel and its location at the surface[1]. The Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) connecting lines in the tunnel will be exposed to the debris from 7+7 TeV p-p interaction. The Superconducting (SC) Links will arrive from the surface to the tunnel near the separation dipole, at about 80 m from the Interaction Point at IP1 and IP5. The Connection Box (where the cables of the SC Links are connected to the NbTi bus bar) will be close to the beam pipe. The debris and its effect on the MgB2 SC links in the connection box (energy deposition and displacement per atom) are presented. The effect of thermal neutrons on the Boron consumption and the contribution of the lithium nucleus and the alpha particle on the DPA are evaluated. The results are normalized to an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, value that represents the LHC High Luminosity lifetime. The dose de...

  13. Pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy: fast gas heating and active particle production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    The results of a numerical study on kinetic processes initiated by a pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy, when the dissociation degree of oxygen molecules is high, are presented. The calculations of the temporal dynamics of the electron concentration, density of atomic oxygen, vibrational distribution function of nitrogen molecules, and gas temperature agree with the experimental data. It is shown that quenching of electronically excited states of nitrogen N2(B3Πg), N2(C3Πu), N2(a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) by oxygen molecules leads to the dissociation of O2. This conclusion is based on the comparison of calculated dynamics of atomic oxygen in air, excited by a pulsed nanosecond discharge, with experimental data. In air plasma at a high dissociation degree of oxygen molecules ([O]/[O2] > 10%), relaxation of the electronic energy of atoms and molecules in reactions with O atoms becomes extremely important. Active production of NO molecules and fast gas heating in the discharge plasma due to the quenching of electronically excited N2(B3Πg, C3Πu, a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) molecules by oxygen atoms is notable. Owing to the high O atom density, electrons are effectively detached from negative ions in the discharge afterglow. As a result, the decay of plasma in the afterglow is determined by electron-ion recombination, and the electron density remains relatively high between the pulses. An increase in the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules at the periphery of the plasma channel at time delay t = 1-30 μs after the discharge is obtained. This is due to intense gas heating and, as a result, gas-dynamic expansion of a hot gas channel. Vibrationally excited N2(v) molecules produced near the discharge axis move from the axial region to the periphery. Consequently, at the periphery the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules is increased.

  14. Lightning-driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: implications for ionisation-levels and neutral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Lightning-generated whistlers lead to coupling between the troposphere, the Van Allen radiation belts and the lower-ionosphere through Whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP. Lightning produced whistlers interact with cyclotron resonant radiation belt electrons, leading to pitch-angle scattering into the bounce loss cone and precipitation into the atmosphere. Here we consider the relative significance of WEP to the lower ionosphere and atmosphere by contrasting WEP produced ionisation rate changes with those from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR and solar photoionisation. During the day, WEP is never a significant source of ionisation in the lower ionosphere for any location or altitude. At nighttime, GCR is more significant than WEP at altitudes <68 km for all locations, above which WEP starts to dominate in North America and Central Europe. Between 75 and 80 km altitude WEP becomes more significant than GCR for the majority of spatial locations at which WEP deposits energy. The size of the regions in which WEP is the most important nighttime ionisation source peaks at ~80 km, depending on the relative contributions of WEP and nighttime solar Lyman-α. We also used the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC model to consider the atmospheric consequences of WEP, focusing on a case-study period. Previous studies have also shown that energetic particle precipitation can lead to large-scale changes in the chemical makeup of the neutral atmosphere by enhancing minor chemical species that play a key role in the ozone balance of the middle atmosphere. However, SIC modelling indicates that the neutral atmospheric changes driven by WEP are insignificant due to the short timescale of the WEP bursts. Overall we find that WEP is a significant energy input into some parts of the lower ionosphere, depending on the latitude/longitude and altitude, but does not play a significant role in the neutral chemistry of the mesosphere.

  15. Lightning-driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: implications for ionisation-levels and neutral chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, C. J.; Enell, C.-F.; Turunen, E.; Clilverd, M. A.; Thomson, N. R.; Verronen, P. T.

    2007-08-01

    Lightning-generated whistlers lead to coupling between the troposphere, the Van Allen radiation belts and the lower-ionosphere through Whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP). Lightning produced whistlers interact with cyclotron resonant radiation belt electrons, leading to pitch-angle scattering into the bounce loss cone and precipitation into the atmosphere. Here we consider the relative significance of WEP to the lower ionosphere and atmosphere by contrasting WEP produced ionisation rate changes with those from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and solar photoionisation. During the day, WEP is never a significant source of ionisation in the lower ionosphere for any location or altitude. At nighttime, GCR is more significant than WEP at altitudes WEP starts to dominate in North America and Central Europe. Between 75 and 80 km altitude WEP becomes more significant than GCR for the majority of spatial locations at which WEP deposits energy. The size of the regions in which WEP is the most important nighttime ionisation source peaks at ~80 km, depending on the relative contributions of WEP and nighttime solar Lyman-α. We also used the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC) model to consider the atmospheric consequences of WEP, focusing on a case-study period. Previous studies have also shown that energetic particle precipitation can lead to large-scale changes in the chemical makeup of the neutral atmosphere by enhancing minor chemical species that play a key role in the ozone balance of the middle atmosphere. However, SIC modelling indicates that the neutral atmospheric changes driven by WEP are insignificant due to the short timescale of the WEP bursts. Overall we find that WEP is a significant energy input into some parts of the lower ionosphere, depending on the latitude/longitude and altitude, but does not play a significant role in the neutral chemistry of the mesosphere.

  16. Role of low-energy ion irradiation in the formation of an aluminum germanate layer on a germanium substrate by radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Yukio, E-mail: y-fukuda@rs.suwa.tus.ac.jp; Yamada, Daichi; Yokohira, Tomoya; Yanachi, Kosei [Tokyo University of Science, Suwa, 5000-1 Toyohira, Chino, Nagano 391-0292 (Japan); Yamamoto, Chiaya; Yoo, Byeonghak; Sato, Tetsuya [University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Yamanaka, Junji [University of Yamanashi, 7-32 Miyamae, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Takamatsu, Toshiyuki [SST Inc., 989-6 Shimadadai, Yachiyo, Chiba 276-0004 (Japan); Okamoto, Hiroshi [Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition uses oxygen radicals generated by a remote microwave-induced plasma as an oxidant to change the surface reactions of the alternately supplied trimethylaluminum precursor and oxygen radicals on a Ge substrate, which leads to the spontaneous formation of an aluminum germanate layer. In this paper, the effects that low-energy ions, supplied from a remote microwave plasma to the substrate along with the oxygen radicals, have on the surface reactions were studied. From a comparative study of aluminum oxide deposition under controlled ion flux irradiation on the deposition surface, it was found that the ions enhance the formation of the aluminum germanate layer. The plasma potential measured at the substrate position by the Langmuir probe method was 5.4 V. Assuming that the kinetic energy of ions arriving at the substrate surface is comparable to that gained by this plasma potential, such ions have sufficient energy to induce exchange reactions of surface-adsorbed Al atoms with the underlying Ge atoms without causing significant damage to the substrate. This ion-induced exchange reaction between Al and Ge atoms is inferred to be the background kinetics of the aluminum germanate formation by radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition.

  17. On the differentiability of depth distribution function of deposited energy, momentum and ion range--a reply to Dr L. G. Glazov

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竹林

    2002-01-01

    Based on the translational invariance of a medium, a new theorem has been proposed and proved rigorously: the depth distributions of the deposited energy, momentum and ion range must be infinitely differentiable functions in amorphous or polycrystalline infinite targets by ion bombardment, if these functions exist. The origin of the "discontinuity",derived by Dr Glazov in 1995 in J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 7 6365, has been analysed in detail. For the power cross section, neglecting electronic stopping, the linear transport equations determining the depth distribution functions of the deposited energy and momentum (by taking the threshold energy into account) have been solved asymptotically. An important formula derived by Dr Glazov has been confirmed and generalized. The results agree with the new theorem.

  18. Measurement of fragment production DDX of 72 and 144 MeV 12C beam induced reaction on carbon using Bragg Curve Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double differential cross section (DDX) data of fragment production for 72 (6 MeV/nucleon) and 144 MeV (12 MeV/nucleon) 12C beam induced reaction on carbon were measured using a Bragg Curve Counter (BCC). The DDX data were obtained for fragments of He, Li, Be, B, C, N and O at 30 degree emission angle. Theoretical calculation using PHITS code with QMD+GEM model represents the DDX well except for components from reactions of direct process and α particle clustering process. (author)

  19. Fabrication of PZT MEMS energy harvester based on silicon and stainless-steel substrates utilizing an aerosol deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a series of the processes for fabricating lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) energy harvester based on silicon and stainless-steel substrates is presented. The aerosol deposition method was used to fabricate the high-quality PZT layers on substrates for the PZT MEMS energy harvesters in this study. A special lift-off process for patterning very thick PZT film (5–10 µm) for high-aspect ratio structures with almost vertical sidewalls at room temperature is presented and adopted here to fabricate the MEMS energy harvesters. To achieve excellent ferroelectric properties of the PZT layer, an annealing process was applied. These two devices were both fabricated by using standard MEMS processes with a chip area of 3000 × 1500 µm2. Our experimental results show that the device based on silicon substrate had a maximum output power of 21 µW with 2.2 Vrms output voltage excited at 215 Hz under a 1.5 g vibrating source. The device based on stainless-steel substrate had a maximum output power of 34 µW with 1.8 Vrms output voltage at a vibration frequency of 202 Hz at 1.5 g acceleration. The areal power densities were 4.7 and 7.6 µW mm−2 for the devices based on silicon substrate and the device based on stainless-steel substrate, respectively. The power output, effective volume power density, area power density, normalized power density and the lifetime under high acceleration excitations of the two devices on different substrates are discussed and also compared with the previous published devices. The results shows that the device fabricated on stainless steel has higher power output, area power density and also more reliable to sustain for much longer time under high acceleration excitations. (paper)

  20. Energy deposition of H and He ion beams in hydroxyapatite films: A study with implications for ion-beam cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limandri, Silvina; de Vera, Pablo; Fadanelli, Raul C.; Nagamine, Luiz C. C. M.; Mello, Alexandre; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Behar, Moni; Abril, Isabel

    2014-02-01

    Ion-beam cancer therapy is a promising technique to treat deep-seated tumors; however, for an accurate treatment planning, the energy deposition by the ions must be well known both in soft and hard human tissues. Although the energy loss of ions in water and other organic and biological materials is fairly well known, scarce information is available for the hard tissues (i.e., bone), for which the current stopping power information relies on the application of simple additivity rules to atomic data. Especially, more knowledge is needed for the main constituent of human bone, calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), which constitutes 58% of its mass composition. In this work the energy loss of H and He ion beams in HAp films has been obtained experimentally. The experiments have been performed using the Rutherford backscattering technique in an energy range of 450-2000 keV for H and 400-5000 keV for He ions. These measurements are used as a benchmark for theoretical calculations (stopping power and mean excitation energy) based on the dielectric formalism together with the MELF-GOS (Mermin energy loss function-generalized oscillator strength) method to describe the electronic excitation spectrum of HAp. The stopping power calculations are in good agreement with the experiments. Even though these experimental data are obtained for low projectile energies compared with the ones used in hadron therapy, they validate the mean excitation energy obtained theoretically, which is the fundamental quantity to accurately assess energy deposition and depth-dose curves of ion beams at clinically relevant high energies. The effect of the mean excitation energy choice on the depth-dose profile is discussed on the basis of detailed simulations. Finally, implications of the present work on the energy loss of charged particles in human cortical bone are remarked.

  1. Thickness-Dependent Binding Energy Shift in Few-Layer MoS2 Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Chen, Ruei-San; Chou, Tsu-Chin; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yang-Fang; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2016-08-31

    The thickness-dependent surface states of MoS2 thin films grown by the chemical vapor deposition process on the SiO2-Si substrates are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy suggest the thicknesses of MoS2 films to be ranging from 3 to 10 layers. Both the core levels and valence band edges of MoS2 shift downward ∼0.2 eV as the film thickness increases, which can be ascribed to the Fermi level variations resulting from the surface states and bulk defects. Grainy features observed from the atomic force microscopy topographies, and sulfur-vacancy-induced defect states illustrated at the valence band spectra imply the generation of surface states that causes the downward band bending at the n-type MoS2 surface. Bulk defects in thick MoS2 may also influence the Fermi level oppositely compared to the surface states. When Au contacts with our MoS2 thin films, the Fermi level downshifts and the binding energy reduces due to the hole-doping characteristics of Au and easy charge transfer from the surface defect sites of MoS2. The shift of the onset potentials in hydrogen evolution reaction and the evolution of charge-transfer resistances extracted from the impedance measurement also indicate the Fermi level varies with MoS2 film thickness. The tunable Fermi level and the high chemical stability make our MoS2 a potential catalyst. The observed thickness-dependent properties can also be applied to other transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and facilitates the development in the low-dimensional electronic devices and catalysts. PMID:27488185

  2. Thickness-Dependent Binding Energy Shift in Few-Layer MoS2 Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Chen, Ruei-San; Chou, Tsu-Chin; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yang-Fang; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2016-08-31

    The thickness-dependent surface states of MoS2 thin films grown by the chemical vapor deposition process on the SiO2-Si substrates are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy suggest the thicknesses of MoS2 films to be ranging from 3 to 10 layers. Both the core levels and valence band edges of MoS2 shift downward ∼0.2 eV as the film thickness increases, which can be ascribed to the Fermi level variations resulting from the surface states and bulk defects. Grainy features observed from the atomic force microscopy topographies, and sulfur-vacancy-induced defect states illustrated at the valence band spectra imply the generation of surface states that causes the downward band bending at the n-type MoS2 surface. Bulk defects in thick MoS2 may also influence the Fermi level oppositely compared to the surface states. When Au contacts with our MoS2 thin films, the Fermi level downshifts and the binding energy reduces due to the hole-doping characteristics of Au and easy charge transfer from the surface defect sites of MoS2. The shift of the onset potentials in hydrogen evolution reaction and the evolution of charge-transfer resistances extracted from the impedance measurement also indicate the Fermi level varies with MoS2 film thickness. The tunable Fermi level and the high chemical stability make our MoS2 a potential catalyst. The observed thickness-dependent properties can also be applied to other transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and facilitates the development in the low-dimensional electronic devices and catalysts.

  3. Parametric study of the energy deposition inside the calorimeter measuring the nuclear heating in Material Testing Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amharrak, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Carette, M.; Brun, J.; De Vita, C.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.-F.

    2015-11-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material and two calorimetric cells. Then these measurements are used for other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present simulations with MCNP5 Monte-Carlo transport code (using ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library) to evaluate the nuclear heating inside the calorimeter during irradiation campaigns of the CARMEN-1P mock-up inside OSIRIS reactor periphery (MTR based on Saclay, France). The whole complete geometry of the sensor has been considered. The calculation method corresponds to a calculation in two steps. Consequently, we used as an input source in the model, the neutron and photon spectra calculated in various experimental locations tested during the irradiation campaign (H9, H10, H11, D9). After a description of the differential calorimeter sensor, the MCNP5 model used for the calculations of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements is introduced by two quantities: KERMA and energy deposition rate per mass unit. The Charged Particle Equilibrium (CPE) inside the calorimeter elements is studied. The contribution of prompt gamma and neutron is determined. A comparison between this total nuclear heating calculation and the experimental results in a graphite sample will be made. Then parametric studies performed on the influence of the various calorimeter components on the nuclear heating are presented and discussed. The studies of the influence of the nature of materials, the sensor jacket, the source type and the comparison of the results obtained for the two calorimetric cells leads to some proposals for the sensor improvement.

  4. Pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy: fast gas heating and active particle production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    The results of a numerical study on kinetic processes initiated by a pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy, when the dissociation degree of oxygen molecules is high, are presented. The calculations of the temporal dynamics of the electron concentration, density of atomic oxygen, vibrational distribution function of nitrogen molecules, and gas temperature agree with the experimental data. It is shown that quenching of electronically excited states of nitrogen N2(B3Πg), N2(С3Πu), N2(a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) by oxygen molecules leads to the dissociation of O2. This conclusion is based on the comparison of calculated dynamics of atomic oxygen in air, excited by a pulsed nanosecond discharge, with experimental data. In air plasma at a high dissociation degree of oxygen molecules ([O]/[O2]  >  10%), relaxation of the electronic energy of atoms and molecules in reactions with O atoms becomes extremely important. Active production of NO molecules and fast gas heating in the discharge plasma due to the quenching of electronically excited N2(B3Πg, C3Πu, a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) molecules by oxygen atoms is notable. Owing to the high O atom density, electrons are effectively detached from negative ions in the discharge afterglow. As a result, the decay of plasma in the afterglow is determined by electron–ion recombination, and the electron density remains relatively high between the pulses. An increase in the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules at the periphery of the plasma channel at time delay t  =  1–30 μs after the discharge is obtained. This is due to intense gas heating and, as a result, gas-dynamic expansion of a hot gas channel. Vibrationally excited N2(v) molecules produced near the discharge axis move from the axial region to the periphery. Consequently, at the periphery the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules is increased.

  5. Ion beam-induced amorphization in MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. Part 2. Empirical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.X.; Wang, L.M.; Ewing, R.C. [Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Doremus, R.H. [Materials Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12181 (United States)

    1998-09-15

    Ion beam-induced, crystalline-to-amorphous transition was studied for crystalline MgO (periclase), {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (corundum), SiO{sub 2} (quartz), MgSiO{sub 3} (enstatite), Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (sillimanite, andalusite, kyanite), 3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}2SiO{sub 2} (mullite), Mg{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12} (pyrope), and Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 4}Si{sub 5}O{sub 18} (cordierite). A model for ion-beam induced amorphization is proposed based on the theory of glass formation. In this model, a quantitative parameter of glass-forming ability,S, is developed. The calculation of S is based on geometric constraints, bonding, and phase transition temperature. S reflects the resistance to crystallization and correctly predicts the relative susceptibility to radiation-induced amorphization

  6. The effect of deposition energy of energetic atoms on the growth and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N

    2014-05-16

    The growth and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The second-generation reactive-empirical-bond-order potential was used to model atomic interactions. Films with different structures were simulated by varying the deposition energy of carbon atoms in the range of 1-120 eV. Intrinsic film characteristics (e.g. density and internal stress) were determined after the system reached equilibrium. Short- and intermediate-range carbon atom ordering is examined in the context of atomic hybridization and ring connectivity simulation results. It is shown that relatively high deposition energy (i.e., 80 eV) yields a multilayer film structure consisting of an intermixing layer, bulk film and surface layer, consistent with the classical subplantation model. The highest film density (3.3 g cm-3), sp3 fraction (∼43%), and intermediate-range carbon atom ordering correspond to a deposition energy of ∼80 eV, which is in good agreement with experimental findings. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Global atmospheric energy deposition by energetic electrons - Quantitative spatial and temporal characteristics inferred from the Atmospheric X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (PEM/AXIS) on UARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenette, D. L.; Datlowe, D. W.; Robinson, R. M.; Schumaker, T. L.; Vondrak, R. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Sharber, J. R.; Winningham, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    The primary purpose of PEM/AXIS is to provide a global monitor of the energy input to the upper atmosphere due to energetic electrons. The design, development, and calibration of AXIS are described and an assessment of its excellent on-orbit performance is presented. The unique capabilities of X-ray imaging spectrometers to monitor the global patterns of electron energy deposition in the atmosphere are shown through an analysis of some specific cases during the first year of the UARS mission.

  8. Study of the energy deposition in LiF by heavy charged particle irradiation and its relation to the thermoluminescent efficiency of the material

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, O; Brandan, M E

    1999-01-01

    The initial energy deposition stage of the thermoluminescent (TL) process is investigated. A coupled ion-electron Monte Carlo (MC) transport code developed for LiF considering its solid-state nature is used to obtain radial dose distributions for incident proton and helium ions at several energies. Models which relate the initial energy deposition to the final TL light emission are used to predict TL efficiencies. Track structure theory (TST) efficiency calculations using the MC radial dose distributions and target sizes of 50, 100 and 150 A were performed for the total signal of LiF. Comparison with recent high linear energy transfer (LET) efficiency measurements suggests a value for the target size within the interval 50-100 A. Modified TST (MTST) proton-to-gamma and helium-to-gamma relative TL efficiency calculations were performed with the MC radial dose distributions and 8.1 keV x-rays as test radiation. It is found that both theories show good agreement with the data, though both predict an energy depen...

  9. Estimation of the spatial energy deposition in CA1 pyramidal neurons under exposure to 12C and 56Fe ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munkhbaatar Batmunkh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to heavy charged particles represents a significant risk to the central nervous system. In experiments with rodents, the irradiation with heavy ions induces a prolonged deficit in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. The exact nature of these violations remains mostly unclear. In this regard, the estimation of radiation effects at the level of single neurons is of our special interest. The present study demonstrates the results of comparative calculations that are performed to clarify the early physical events in single neurons under the exposure to accelerated 12C and 56Fe ions with different parameters. Using the Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations, the radiation effects are considered in terms of energy and dose deposition. The spatial patterns of energy and dose depositions within a single neural cell are produced. As additional characteristics, the spectra of the specific energy and energy imparted are estimated. Our results show that the cell morphology is an important factor determining the accumulation of radiation dose in neurons under the exposure to heavy ions. The data obtained suggest a possibility of radiation damage to synapses that are considered to play an important role in radiation-induced violations of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory.

  10. Observation Of Electron-beam-induced Phase Evolution Mimicking The Effect Of Charge-discharge Cycle In Li-rich Layered Cathode Materials Used For Li-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ping; Yan, Pengfei; Romero, Eric; Spoerke, Erik D.; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-02-24

    Capacity loss, and voltage fade upon electrochemical charge-discharge cycling observed in lithium-rich layered cathode oxides (Li[LixMnyTM1-x-y]O2 , TM = Ni, Co or Fe) have recently been identified to be correlated to the gradual phase transformation, featuring the formation of a surface reconstructed layer (SRL) that evolves from a thin (<2 nm), defect spinel layer upon the first charge, to a relatively thick (~5 nm), spinel or rock-salt layer upon continuous charge-discharge cycling. Here we report observations of a SRL and structural evolution of the SRL on the Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LMR) particles, which are identical to those reported due to the charge-discharge cycle but are a result of electron-beam irradiation during scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging. Sensitivity of the lithium-rich layered oxides to high-energy electrons leads to the formation of thin, defect spinel layer on surfaces of the particles when exposed to a 200 kV electron beam for as little as 30 seconds under normal high-resolution STEM imaging conditions. Further electron irradiation produces a thicker layer of the spinel phase, ultimately producing a rock-salt layer at a higher electron exposure. Atomic-scale chemical mapping by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in STEM indicates the electron-beam-induced SRL formation on LMR is accomplished by migration of the transition metal ions to the Li sites without breaking down the lattice. This study provides an insight for understanding the mechanism of forming the SRL and also possibly a mean to study structural evolution in the Li-rich layered oxides without involving the electrochemistry.

  11. Metagenomic evidence for sulfur lithotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria as the major energy source for primary productivity in a sub-aerial arctic glacial deposit, Borup Fiord Pass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Wright

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We combined free energy calculations and metagenomic analyses of an elemental sulfur (S0 deposit on the surface of Borup Fiord Pass Glacier in the Canadian High Arctic to investigate whether the energy available from different redox reactions in an environment predicts microbial metabolism. Many S, C, Fe, As, Mn and NH4+ oxidation reactions were predicted to be energetically feasible in the deposit, and aerobic oxidation of S0 was the most abundant chemical energy source. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequence data showed that the dominant phylotypes were Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum, both Epsilonproteobacteria known to be capable of sulfur lithotrophy. Sulfur redox genes were abundant in the metagenome, but sox genes were significantly more abundant than reverse dsr genes. Interestingly, there appeared to be habitable niches that were unoccupied at the depth of genome coverage obtained. Photosynthesis and NH4+ oxidation should both be energetically favorable, but we found few or no functional genes for oxygenic or anoxygenic photosynthesis, or for NH4+ oxidation by either oxygen (nitrification or nitrite (anammox. The free energy, SSU rRNA gene and quantitative functional gene data are all consistent with the hypothesis that sulfur-based chemolithoautotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria (Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum is the main form of primary productivity at this site, instead of photosynthesis. This is despite the presence of 24-hour sunlight, and the fact that photosynthesis is not known to be inhibited by any of the environmental conditions present. This is the first time that Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum have been shown to dominate a sub-aerial environment, rather than anoxic or sulfidic settings. We also found that Flavobacteria dominate the surface of the sulfur deposits. We hypothesize that this aerobic heterotroph uses enough oxygen to create a microoxic environment in the sulfur below, where the Epsilonproteobacteria can

  12. Protein and lipid deposition rates in male broiler chickens : separate responses to amino acids and protein-free energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Stoutjesdijk, P.; Greef, de K.H.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments of similar design were conducted with male broiler chickens over two body weight ranges, 200 to 800 g in Experiment 1 and 800 to 1,600 g in Experiment 2. The data were used to test the hypothesis that protein deposition rate increases (linearly) with increasing amino acid intake, unt

  13. Novel signal inversion of laser beam induced current for femtosecond-laser-drilling-induced junction on vacancy-doped p-type HgCdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, experimental results of temperature-dependent signal inversion of laser beam induced current (LBIC) for femtosecond-laser-drilling-induced junction on vacancy-doped p-type HgCdTe are reported. LBIC characterization shows that the traps induced by femtosecond laser drilling are sensitive to temperature. Theoretical models for trap-related p-n junction transformation are proposed and demonstrated using numerical simulations. The simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effects of traps and mixed conduction are possibly the main reasons that result in the novel signal inversion of LBIC microscope at room temperature. The research results provide a theoretical guide for practical applications of large-scale array HgCdTe infrared photovoltaic detectors formed by femtosecond laser drilling, which may act as a potential new method for fabricating HgCdTe photodiodes.

  14. Influence of ion energies on the structure, composition, and properties of multilayer Ti-Al-Si-N ion-plasma-deposited coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkov, I. V.; Volkhonskii, A. O.; Belov, D. S.; Sergevnin, V. S.; Chernogor, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    It is established that the energy of deposited particles influences the structure, composition, and properties of multilayer nitride coatings consisting of alternating layers of nanocrystalline TiN and amorphous Si3N4 phases with inclusions of nanocrystalline hexagonal AlN formed at energies of titanium, aluminum, and silicon ions exceeding ~317 × 10-19, 267 × 10-19, and 230 × 10-19 J, respectively. As the energy of titanium ions bombarding the substrate increases above ~512 × 10-19 J, the phase transition from disordered TiN x to Ti3N2 and the appearance of 2- to 3-nm-thick sublayers in 15-nm-thick nanocrystalline TiN x layers take place in the coating. The maximum hardness of such coatings reaches a level of ~54 GPa.

  15. Future monitoring of charged particle energy deposition into the upper atmosphere and comments on possible relationships between atmospheric phenomena and solar and/or geomagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.; Grubb, R. N.; Evans, D. S.; Sauer, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Monitoring of earth's atmosphere was conducted for several years utilizing the ITOS series of low-altitude, polar-orbiting weather satellites. A space environment monitoring package was included in these satellites to perform measurements of a portion of earth's charged particle environment. The charged particle observations proposed for the low-altitude weather satellite TIROS N, are described which will provide the capability of routine monitoring of the instantaneous total energy deposition into the upper atmosphere by the precipitation of charged particles from higher altitudes. Such observations may be of use in future studies of the relationships between geomagnetic activity and atmospheric weather pattern developments. Estimates are given to assess the potential importance of this type of energy deposition. Discussion and examples are presented illustrating the importance of distinguishing between solar and geomagnetic activity as possible causative sources. Such differentiation is necessary because of the widely different spatial and time scales involved in the atmospheric energy input resulting from these various sources of activity.

  16. Diagnostic and Impact Estimation of Nuclear Data Inconsistencies on Energy Deposition Calculations in Coupled Neutron-Photon Monte-Carlo Simulation, with TRIPOLI-4®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, A.; Malouch, F.; Zoia, A.; Diop, C. M.

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear heating evaluation by Monte-Carlo simulation requires coupled neutron-photon calculation so as to take into account the contribution of secondary photons. Nuclear data are essential for a good calculation of neutron and photon energy deposition and for secondary photon generation. However, a number of isotopes of the most common nuclear data libraries happen to be affected by energy and/or momentum conservation errors concerning the photon production or inaccurate thresholds for photon emission sections. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive survey of the three evaluations JEFF3.1.1, JEFF3.2T2 (beta version) and ENDF/B-VII.1, over 142 isotopes. The aim of this survey is, on the one hand, to check the existence of photon production data by neutron reaction and, on the other hand, to verify the consistency of these data using the kinematic limits method recently implemented in the TRIPOLI-4 Monte-Carlo code, developed by CEA (Saclay center). Then, the impact of these inconsistencies affecting energy deposition scores has been estimated for two materials using a specific nuclear heating calculation scheme in the context of the OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor (CEA/Saclay).

  17. Stability Analysis of the LHC Cables for Transient Heat Depositions

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Xydi, P; Baudouy, B; Bocian, D; Bottura, L; Breschi, M; Siemko, A

    2008-01-01

    The commissioning and the exploitation of the LHC require a good knowledge of the stability margins of the superconducting magnets with respect to beam induced heat depositions. Previous studies showed that simple numerical models are suitable to carry out stability calculations of multi-strands cables, and highlighted the relevance of the heat transfer model with the surrounding helium. In this paper we present a systematic scan of the stability margin of all types of LHC cables working at 1.9 Kagainst transient heat depositions. We specifically discuss the dependence of the stability margin on the parameters of the model, which provide an estimate of the uncertainty of the values quoted. The stability margin calculations have been performed using a zero-dimensional (0-D) numerical model, and a cooling model taking into account the relevant helium phases which may appear during a stability experiment: it includes Kapitza thermal resistance in superfluid He, boundary layer formation and heat transfer in He I,...

  18. Effect of sulphurisation on the activation energy of spray deposited kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Neha; Kumar, Anuj; Dutta, Viresh

    2016-05-01

    Spray deposited kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4) thin films were annealed in a controlled sulphur environment at 500˚C for one hour. Temperature dependence measurement of the electrical conductivity indicated two types of conduction are present: (i) at low temperatures due to nearest neighbor hooping (NNH) and (ii) at high temperatures due to hole excitation into the conduction. The as deposited films showed both the conduction mechanisms, but on annealing the CZTS film, the conduction takes place only due to hole excitation into the conduction band. The absence of NNH conduction is indicative of the effect of annealing in removing the defect levels which can be important for improving the device performance.

  19. Spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic method for in-situ evaluation of mechanical properties during the growth of a C - Pt composite nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Amit; Banerjee, S. S., E-mail: satyajit@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, 208016 (India)

    2014-05-15

    A core-shell type C-Pt composite nanowire is fabricated using focused ion and electron beam induced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Using information from spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectra, we detect the resonance vibration in the C-Pt composite nanowire. We use this method to measure the Young's moduli of the constituents (C, Pt) of the composite nanowire and also estimate the density of the FEB CVD grown Pt shell surrounding the C core. By measuring the resonance characteristics of the composite nanowire we estimate a Pt shell growth rate of ∼0.9 nms{sup −1}. The study is analyzed to suggest that the Pt shell growth mechanism is primarily governed by the sticking coefficient of the organometallic vapor on the C nanowire core.

  20. Towards high-energy and durable lithium-ion batteries via atomic layer deposition: elegantly atomic-scale material design and surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targeted at fueling future transportation and sustaining smart grids, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are undergoing intensive investigation for improved durability and energy density. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling uniform and conformal nanofilms, has recently made possible many new advances for superior LIBs. The progress was summarized by Liu and Sun in their latest review [1], offering many insightful views, covering the design of nanostructured battery components (i.e., electrodes and solid electrolytes), and nanoscale modification of electrode/electrolyte interfaces. This work well informs peers of interesting research conducted and it will also further help boost the applications of ALD in next-generation LIBs and other advanced battery technologies. (viewpoint)

  1. Modeling of the topology of energy deposits created by ionizing radiation on a nano-metric scale in cell nuclei in relation to radiation-induced early events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations are known to induce critical damages on biological matter and especially on DNA. Among these damages, DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are considered as key precursor of lethal effects of ionizing radiations. Understand and predict how DNA double and simple strand breaks are created by ionizing radiation and repaired in cell nucleus is nowadays a major challenge in radiobiology research. This work presents the results on the simulation of the DNA double strand breaks produced from the energy deposited by the irradiation at the intracellular level. At the nano-metric scale, the only method to accurately simulate the topological details of energy deposited on the biological matter is the use of Monte Carlo codes. In this work, we used the Geant4 Monte Carlo code and, in particular, the low energy electromagnetic package extensions, referred as Geant4-DNA processes.In order to evaluate DNA radio-induced damages, the first objective of this work consisted in implementing a detailed geometry of the DNA on the Monte Carlo simulations. Two types of cell nuclei, representing a fibroblast and an endothelium, were described in order to evaluate the influence of the DNA density on the topology of the energy deposits contributing to strand breaks. Indeed, the implemented geometry allows the selection of energy transfer points that can lead to strand breaks because they are located on the backbone. Then, these energy transfer points were analysed with a clustering algorithm in order to reveal groups of aggregates and to study their location and complexity. In this work, only the physical interactions of ionizing radiations are simulated. Thus, it is not possible to achieve an absolute number of strand breaks as the creation and transportation of radical species which could lead to indirect DNA damages is not included. Nevertheless, the aim of this work was to evaluate the relative dependence of direct DNA damages with the DNA density, radiation quality, cell

  2. Mechanism of Electron Beam Induced Oxide Layer Thickening on Iron–Iron Oxide Core–Shell Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You

    2015-04-16

    Materials exposed to radiation show structural changes and damages, especially in the nanoscale range. The characterizing equipment involving electron beam (e-beam) radiation for a nanosize imaging process, such as a transmission electron microscope, is no exception, in which the most prominent behavior of native oxide layer thickening has been widely studied. In this paper, we describe the physics behind the growth mechanism of the oxide layer in a core–shell iron/iron oxide nanoparticle (NP) under the impact of e-beam radiation. The particles studied were synthesized via a cluster deposition system. Due to the impact of the e-beam, these particles were observed to grow inward and outward resulting in a total increase of NP size. The theory is connected with experimental evidence to reveal the oxide layer thickening of the NP, which is favored and enhanced by vacancy formation, surface oxidation, and diffusion/void nucleation under the impact of a 200 keV e-beam.

  3. The structural transition from epitaxial Fe/Pt multilayers to an ordered FePt film using low energy ion beam sputtering deposition with no buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epitaxial L10 FePt thin film grown from an [Fe(10 Å)/Pt(10 Å)]15 multilayer with the orientation of (001) was prepared by an ion beam sputtering deposition method without buffer layer. From the measurement data of X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity, the multilayer structure was totally disappeared and a uniform FePt alloy thin film was formed at temperatures higher than 600 °C. For the as-deposited thin film grown at 100 °C, the multilayer already possesses an epitaxial structure. The epitaxial relation is FePt(001)[100]//MgO(001)[100] and this epitaxial relation persists after sequential high temperature annealing. An epitaxial L10 ordered FePt(001) film with order parameter of 0.95 was obtained when the annealing temperature reached 650 °C. The ordered FePt(001) thin film has a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a squareness of 0.95 ± 0.03 on the magnetic hysteresis loop. This experiment demonstrates that the low energy ion beam sputtering deposition will preserve the epitaxial relation with no buffer layer between multilayer and substrate. - Highlights: • The Fe/Pt films using ion sputtering deposition with no buffer layer is epitaxial. • Multilayer structure was totally disappeared at temperatures higher than 600 °C. • Order parameter reach 0.95 after annealing at 650 °C. • Interfacial epitaxial FePt alloy already formed at 100 °C

  4. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102406 Chen Gang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Li Fengming Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Yuquanshan Graphite Deposit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,27(4),2009,p.325-329,4 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)Key words:graphite deposit,XinjiangYuquanshan graphite deposit of Xinjiang occurs in mica-quartz schist of Xingeer Information which belongs to Xinditate Group of Lower Pt in Kuluketage Block of Tarim paleo-continent,and experiences two mineralizing periods of

  5. Pulsed laser deposition of cluster-assembled films for catalysis and the photocatalysis relevant to energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles (NPs) catalysts are under intense investigation in the catalysis community due to their exceptional activity and selective nature in catalytic processes as compared to the corresponding bulk counterpart, especially because of their large surface-to-volume atomic ratio, size- and shape-dependent properties, and high concentration of low-coordinated active surface sites. However, there is no general strategy to synthesize NPs of various materials with narrow size distribution, tailored properties, and desired morphologies. The development of a technique able to prepare NPs is thus a goal of great importance to avoid present trial and error approaches. Here we report on selected examples where pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique greatly contributes toward NPs synthesis. Co NPs embedded in B matrix films have been synthesized by PLD technique by taking advantage of the phase explosion process of superheated liquid where a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets leave the irradiated target surface and get deposited on the substrate. The deposited NPs exhibit catalytic properties comparable to that of precious metals in hydrogen production by hydrolysis of NaBH4 and NH3BH3. These NPs, when supported on rough carbon film prepared by PLD, show about 30% increase in catalytic activity for H2 production as compared to unsupported NPs. Co3O4 NPs assembled coating has been produced by reactive PLD in oxygen atmosphere at various substrate temperatures from room temperature to 250 °C. It was proved that the Co3O4 NPs can be obtained in a single step at low temperatures with mixed disordered-nanocrystalline phase that is a relevant feature for catalysis. The Co3O4 NPs assembled thin coating, employed in degradation of methylene blue solution, in water, via photo Fenton reaction in presence of H2O2, exhibits significantly higher activity as compared to the corresponding homogeneous catalyst.

  6. Oxidation of nanostructured Ti films produced by low energy cluster beam deposition: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Monica de, E-mail: desimone@tasc.infm.it [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Snidero, Elena [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Coreno, Marcello [CNR-IMIP, c/o Laboratorio TASC Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Bongiorno, Gero [Fondazione Filarete, v.le Ortles 22/4, 20139 Milano (Italy); Giorgetti, Luca [Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Dip. di Oncologia Sperimentale, Via Adamello 16, 20139, Milano (Italy); Amati, Matteo [Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    We used in-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to study the oxidation process of a cluster-assembled metallic titanium film exposed to molecular oxygen at room temperature. The nanostructured film has been grown on a Si(111) substrate, in ultra high vacuum conditions, by coupling a supersonic cluster beam deposition system with an XPS experimental chamber. Our results show that upon in-situ oxygen exposure Ti{sup 3+} is the first oxidation state observed, followed by Ti{sup 4+}, whereas Ti{sup 2+} is practically absent during the whole process. Our results compare well with the existing literature on Ti films produced using other techniques.

  7. Determination of the fission barrier height in fission of heavy radioactive beams induced by the (d,p)-transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    A theoretical framework is described, allowing to determine the fission barrier height using the observed cross sections of fission induced by the (d,p)-transfer with accuracy, which is not achievable in another type of low-energy fission of neutron-deficient nuclei, the $\\beta$-delayed fission. The primary goal is to directly determine the fission barrier height of proton-rich fissile nuclei, preferably using the radio-active beams of isotopes of odd elements, and thus confirm or exclude the low values of fission barrier heights, typically extracted using statistical calculations in the compound nucleus reactions at higher excitation energies. Calculated fission cross sections in transfer reactions of the radioactive beams show sufficient sensitivity to fission barrier height. In the probable case that fission rates will be high enough, mass asymmetry of fission fragments can be determined. Results will be relevant for nuclear astrophysics and for production of super-heavy nuclei. Transfer induced fission of...

  8. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140876 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550025,China);Yang Ruidong Study on the Strontium Isotopic Composition of Large Devonian Barite Deposits from Zhenning,Guizhou Province(Geochimica,

  9. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122457 Cai Jianshe ( Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Drawing,Fuzhou 350011,China ) On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Longtangsi Fluorite Deposit in Pucheng County,Fujian Province ( Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080 / P,30 ( 4 ), 2011,p.301-306,3illus.,1table,6 refs.,with English abstract ) Key words:fluorspar deposit,Fujian Province

  10. Analyzing the Impact of Increasing Mechanical Index and Energy Deposition on Shear Wave Speed Reconstruction in Human Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yufeng; Palmeri, Mark L; Rouze, Ned C; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2015-07-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) has found success in liver fibrosis staging. This work evaluates hepatic SWEI measurement success as a function of push pulse energy using two mechanical index (MI) values (1.6 and 2.2) over a range of pulse durations. Shear wave speed (SWS) was measured in the livers of 26 study subjects with known or potential chronic liver diseases. Each measurement consisted of eight SWEI sequences, each with different push energy configurations. The rate of successful SWS estimation was linearly proportional to the push energy. SWEI measurements with higher push energy were successful in patients for whom standard push energy levels failed. The findings also suggest that liver capsule depth could be used prospectively to identify patients who would benefit from elevated output. We conclude that there is clinical benefit to using elevated acoustic output for hepatic SWS measurement in patients with deeper livers.

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of cluster-assembled films for catalysis and the photocatalysis relevant to energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miotello, A., E-mail: miotello@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Patel, N. [Department of Physics, University of Trento, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) catalysts are under intense investigation in the catalysis community due to their exceptional activity and selective nature in catalytic processes as compared to the corresponding bulk counterpart, especially because of their large surface-to-volume atomic ratio, size- and shape-dependent properties, and high concentration of low-coordinated active surface sites. However, there is no general strategy to synthesize NPs of various materials with narrow size distribution, tailored properties, and desired morphologies. The development of a technique able to prepare NPs is thus a goal of great importance to avoid present trial and error approaches. Here we report on selected examples where pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique greatly contributes toward NPs synthesis. Co NPs embedded in B matrix films have been synthesized by PLD technique by taking advantage of the phase explosion process of superheated liquid where a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets leave the irradiated target surface and get deposited on the substrate. The deposited NPs exhibit catalytic properties comparable to that of precious metals in hydrogen production by hydrolysis of NaBH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}. These NPs, when supported on rough carbon film prepared by PLD, show about 30% increase in catalytic activity for H{sub 2} production as compared to unsupported NPs. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs assembled coating has been produced by reactive PLD in oxygen atmosphere at various substrate temperatures from room temperature to 250 °C. It was proved that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs can be obtained in a single step at low temperatures with mixed disordered-nanocrystalline phase that is a relevant feature for catalysis. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs assembled thin coating, employed in degradation of methylene blue solution, in water, via photo Fenton reaction in presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, exhibits significantly higher activity as compared to the corresponding homogeneous catalyst.

  12. Response Of Plasma Facing Components In Tokamaks Due To Intense Energy Deposition Using Particle-In-Cell(pic) Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Genco, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The co...

  13. Compensation of decreased ion energy by increased hydrogen dilution in plasma deposition of thin film silicon solar cells at low substrate temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Verkerk; M.M. de Jong; J.K. Rath; M. Brinza; R.E.I. Schropp; W.J. Goedheer; V.V. Krzhizhanovskaya; Y.E. Gorbachev; K.E. Orlov; E.M. Khilkevitch; A.S. Smirnov

    2008-01-01

    In order to deposit thin film silicon solar cells on plastics and papers, the deposition process needs to be adapted for low deposition temperatures. In a very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) process, both the gas phase and the surface processes are affected by l

  14. Electron beam induced modifications of bismuth sulphide (Bi2S3) thin films: Structural and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of Bi2S3 prepared by electrodeposition method are subjected to electron beam irradiation for different doses from 0 to 100 kGy in steps of 20 kGy in air at room temperature. The changes in structural, surface morphological and optical properties that occurred before and after irradiation in Bi2S3 thin films are studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. It is shown that electron irradiation can be used as a tool to decrease the crystallite size of the irradiated films from 418 to 285 A as the dose varies from 20 to 100 kGy. The decrease in crystallinity of the films leading to the band gap energy of the films get blue shifted from unirradiated films. These results are explained in the light of thermal spike model.

  15. Conformal Coating of Three-Dimensional Nanostructures via Atomic Layer Deposition for Development of Advanced Energy Storage Devices and Plasmonic Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Gary A.

    Due to the prodigious amount of electrical energy consumed throughout the world, there exists a great demand for new and improved methods of generating electrical energy in a clean and renewable manner as well as finding more effective ways to store it. This enormous task is of great interest to scientists and engineers, and much headway is being made by utilizing three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured materials. This work explores the application of two types of 3D nanostructured materials toward fabrication of advanced electrical energy storage and conversion devices. The first nanostructured material consists of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers. This three-dimensional structure is opaque, electrically conducting, and contains active sites along the outside of each fiber that are conducive to chemical reactions. Therefore, they make the perfect 3D conducting nanostructured substrate for advanced energy storage devices. In this work, the details for transforming vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays into core-shell structures via atomic layer deposition as well as into a mesoporous manganese oxide coated supercapacitor electrode are given. Another unique type of three-dimensional nanostructured substrate is nanotextured glass, which is transparent but non-conducting. Therefore, it can be converted to a 3D transparent conductor for possible application in photovoltaics if it can be conformally coated with a conducting material. This work details that transformation as well as the addition of plasmonic gold nanoparticles to complete the transition to a 3D plasmonic transparent conductor.

  16. Ultra-low-energy (<10 eV/u) ion beam bombardment effect on naked DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Decelerated ultra-low energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. • DNA form change induced by ion bombardment was investigated. • N-ion bombardment at 32 eV induced DNA single and double strand breaks. • Ar-ion bombardment at a-few-hundreds eV induced DNA single strand break. - Abstract: Since ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range, it is very interesting to know effects from ultra-low-energy ion interaction with DNA for understanding ion-beam-induced genetic mutation. Tens-keV Ar- and N-ion beams were decelerated to ultra-low energy ranging from 20 to 100 eV, or only a few to 10 eV/u, to bombard naked plasmid DNA. The bombarded DNA was analyzed using gel electrophoresis for DNA form changes. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks after bombarded by tens-eV ion beam. N-ion beam was found more effective in inducing DNA change and mutation than Ar-ion beam. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was able to break DNA strands and thus potentially to cause genetic modification of biological cells. The experimental results were discussed in terms of direct atomic collision between the ions and DNA atoms.

  17. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110947 Chen Xinglong(Guizhou Bureau of Nonferrous Metal and Nuclear Geology,Guiyang 550005,China);Gong Heqiang Endowment Factors and Development & Utilization Strategy of Bauxite Resource in North Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(2),2010,p.106-110,6 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province20110948 Dang Yanxia(Mineral Resource & Reservoir Evaluation Center,Urumiq 830000,China);Fan Wenjun Geological Features and a Primary Study of Metallogenesis of the Wucaiwang Zeolite Deposit,Fuyun County(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(2),2010,p.167-170,2 illus.,1 table,5 refs.)Key words:zeolite deposit,Xinjiang Nearly all zeolite deposits in the world result from low-temperature-alteration of glass-bearing volcanic rocks.The southern slope of the Kalamali Mountain is one of the regions where medium to acid volcanics are major lithological type,thus it is a preferred area to look for zeolite deposit.The Wucaiwang zeolite ore district consists of mainly acid volcanic-clastic rocks.

  18. Electron-beam-induced current measurements with applied bias provide insight to locally resolved acceptor concentrations at p-n junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Ras, D., E-mail: daniel.abou-ras@helmholtz-berlin.de; Schäfer, N.; Baldaz, N.; Brunken, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Boit, C. [Technische Universität Berlin, Department of Semiconductor Devices, Einsteinufer 19, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements have been employed for the investigation of the local electrical properties existing at various types of electrical junctions during the past decades. In the standard configuration, the device under investigation is analyzed under short-circuit conditions. Further insight into the function of the electrical junction can be obtained when applying a bias voltage. The present work gives insight into how EBIC measurements at applied bias can be conducted at the submicrometer level, at the example of CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells. From the EBIC profiles acquired across ZnO/CdS/CuInSe{sub 2}/Mo stacks exhibiting p-n junctions with different net doping densities in the CuInSe{sub 2} layers, values for the width of the space-charge region, w, were extracted. For all net doping densities, these values decreased with increasing applied voltage. Assuming a linear relationship between w{sup 2} and the applied voltage, the resulting net doping densities agreed well with the ones obtained by means of capacitance-voltage measurements.

  19. Beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton running period

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arduini, Gianluigi; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruce, Roderik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muskinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palm, Marcus; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses various observations on beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton run. Building on published results based on 2011 data, the correlations between background and residual pressure of the beam vacuum are revisited. Ghost charge evolution over 2012 and its role for backgrounds are evaluated. New methods to monitor ghost charge with beam-gas rates are presented and observations of LHC abort gap population by ghost charge are discussed in detail. Fake jets from colliding bunches and from ghost charge are analysed with improved methods, showing that ghost charge in individual radio-frequency buckets of the LHC can be resolved. Some results of two short periods of dedicated cosmic-ray background data-taking are shown; in particular cosmic-ray muon induced fake jet rates are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and to the fake jet rates from beam background. A thorough analysis of a particular LHC fill, where abnormally high background was obse...

  20. Electron beam-induced structural transformations of MoO{sub 3} and MoO{sub 3-x} crystalline nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Droguett, D. E., E-mail: dodiaz@fis.puc.cl [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica (Chile); Zuniga, A. [Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas (Chile); Solorzano, G. [PUC-RIO, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia, DCMM (Brazil); Fuenzalida, V. M. [Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas (Chile)

    2012-01-15

    Electron beam-induced damage and structural changes in MoO{sub 3} and MoO{sub 3-x} single crystalline nanostructures were revealed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination (at 200 kV) after few minutes of concentrating the electron beam onto small areas (diameters between 25 and 200 nm) of the samples. The damage was evaluated recording TEM images, while the structural changes were revealed acquiring selected area electron diffraction patterns and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images after different irradiation times. The as-received nanostructures of orthorhombic MoO{sub 3} were transformed to a Magneli's phase of the oxide ({gamma}-Mo{sub 4}O{sub 11}) after {approx}10 min of electron beam irradiation. The oxygen loss from the oxide promoted structural changes. HRTEM observations showed that, in the first stage of the reduction, oxygen vacancies generated by the electron beam are accommodated by forming crystallographic shear planes. At a later stage of the reduction process, a polycrystalline structure was developed with highly oxygen-deficient grains. The structural changes can be attributed to the local heating of the irradiated zone combined with radiolysis.

  1. Diallyl disulfide enhances carbon ion beams-induced apoptotic cell death in cervical cancer cells through regulating Tap73 /ΔNp73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Cuixia; Sun, Chao; Li, Hongyan; Si, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Han, Lu; Zhao, Qiuyue; Liu, Yang; Liu, Bin; Miao, Guoying; Gan, Lu; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), extracted from crushed garlic by steam-distillation, has been reported to provide the anticancer activity in several cancer types. However, the effect of DADS on high-LET carbon beams - induced cell death remains unknown. Therefore, we used human cervical cancer cells to elucidate the molecular effects of this diallyl sulfide. Radiotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, especially in advanced cervical cancer and there is still space to improve the radiosensitivity to reduce radiation dosage. In this study, we found that radiation effects evoked by high-LET carbon beam was marked by inhibition of cell viability, cell cycle arrest, significant rise of apoptotic cells, regulation of transcription factor, such as p73, as well as alterations of crucial mediator of the apoptosis pathway. We further demonstrated that pretreatment of 10 µM DADS in HeLa cells exposed to radiation resulted in decrease in cell viability and increased radiosensitivity. Additionally, cells pretreated with DADS obviously inhibited the radiation-induced G2/M phase arrest, but promoted radiation-induced apoptosis. Moreover, combination DADS and the radiation exacerbated the activation of apoptosis pathways through up-regulated ration of pro-apoptotic Tap73 to anti-apoptotic ΔNp73, and its downstream proteins, such as FASLG, and APAF1. Taken together, these results suggest that DADS is a potential candidate as radio sensitive agent for cervical cancer. PMID:26505313

  2. Electron-beam-induced current measurements with applied bias provide insight to locally resolved acceptor concentrations at p-n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Ras, D.; Schäfer, N.; Baldaz, N.; Brunken, S.; Boit, C.

    2015-07-01

    Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements have been employed for the investigation of the local electrical properties existing at various types of electrical junctions during the past decades. In the standard configuration, the device under investigation is analyzed under short-circuit conditions. Further insight into the function of the electrical junction can be obtained when applying a bias voltage. The present work gives insight into how EBIC measurements at applied bias can be conducted at the submicrometer level, at the example of CuInSe2 solar cells. From the EBIC profiles acquired across ZnO/CdS/CuInSe2/Mo stacks exhibiting p-n junctions with different net doping densities in the CuInSe2 layers, values for the width of the space-charge region, w, were extracted. For all net doping densities, these values decreased with increasing applied voltage. Assuming a linear relationship between w2 and the applied voltage, the resulting net doping densities agreed well with the ones obtained by means of capacitance-voltage measurements.

  3. Beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton running period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arduini, G.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruce, R.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses various observations on beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton run. Building on published results based on 2011 data, the correlations between background and residual pressure of the beam vacuum are revisited. Ghost charge evolution over 2012 and its role for backgrounds are evaluated. New methods to monitor ghost charge with beam-gas rates are presented and observations of LHC abort gap population by ghost charge are discussed in detail. Fake jets from colliding bunches and from ghost charge are analysed with improved methods, showing that ghost charge in individual radio-frequency buckets of the LHC can be resolved. Some results of two short periods of dedicated cosmic-ray background data-taking are shown; in particular cosmic-ray muon induced fake jet rates are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and to the fake jet rates from beam background. A thorough analysis of a particular LHC fill, where abnormally high background was observed, is presented. Correlations between backgrounds and beam intensity losses in special fills with very high β* are studied.

  4. Electrical characterization of electron beam induced damage on sub-10 nm n-channel MOS transistors using nano-probing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jonghyuk; Lee, Sungho; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2016-11-01

    Electron beam induced damage on sub-10 nm n-channel MOS transistors was evaluated using an atomic force microscopy-based nano-probing technique. After electron beam irradiation, all the device parameters shifted including threshold voltage (V th), saturation current, sub-threshold slope and transistor leakage current. A negative shift in V th occurred at low electron beam acceleration voltage (V acc) because of the increase in oxide trapped holes generated by excited plasmons. At high V acc, however, a positive V th shift was observed because of an increased contribution of interface trap generation caused by the deeper electron penetration depth. In addition, interface trap generation not only degraded the sub-threshold slope due to the additional capacitance from the generated interface traps, but also increased transistor leakage current due to changes in junction characteristics. Our studies show that it is critical to avoid electron beam exposure before electrical characterization on sub-10 nm devices even in the range of less than 1.0 kV of V acc using nano-probe systems.

  5. Electron beam induced water-soluble silk fibroin nanoparticles as a natural antioxidant and reducing agent for a green synthesis of gold nanocolloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkrongsak, Soraya; Tangthong, Theeranan; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2016-01-01

    The research proposes a novel water-soluble silk fibroin nanoparticles (WSSF-NPs) created by electron beam irradiation. In this report, we demonstrate the effects of electron beam irradiation doses ranging from 1 to 30 kGy on the molecular weight (MW), nanostructure formation, antioxidant activity and reducing power of the WSSF-NPs. Electron beam-induced degradation of SF causing MW reduction from 250 to 37 kDa. Chemical characteristic functions of SF still remained after exposing to electron beam. The WSSF-NPs with the MW of 37 kDa exhibited spherical morphology with a nanoscaled size of 40 nm. Antioxidant activities and reducing powers were investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhryl free radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively. The WSSF-NPs showed greater antioxidant activity and reducing power than non-irradiated SF. By increasing their antioxidant and reducing power efficiencies, WSSF-NPs potentially created gold nanocolloid. WSSF-NPs produced by electron beam irradiation would be a great merit for the uses as a natural antioxidant additive and a green reducing agent in biomedical, cosmetic and food applications.

  6. Electron-beam-induced current measurements with applied bias provide insight to locally resolved acceptor concentrations at p-n junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abou-Ras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC measurements have been employed for the investigation of the local electrical properties existing at various types of electrical junctions during the past decades. In the standard configuration, the device under investigation is analyzed under short-circuit conditions. Further insight into the function of the electrical junction can be obtained when applying a bias voltage. The present work gives insight into how EBIC measurements at applied bias can be conducted at the submicrometer level, at the example of CuInSe2 solar cells. From the EBIC profiles acquired across ZnO/CdS/CuInSe2/Mo stacks exhibiting p-n junctions with different net doping densities in the CuInSe2 layers, values for the width of the space-charge region, w, were extracted. For all net doping densities, these values decreased with increasing applied voltage. Assuming a linear relationship between w2 and the applied voltage, the resulting net doping densities agreed well with the ones obtained by means of capacitance-voltage measurements.

  7. Electron-beam-induced current at absorber back surfaces of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavalakkatt, J.; Abou-Ras, D., E-mail: daniel.abou-ras@helmholtz-berlin.de; Nichterwitz, M.; Caballero, R.; Rissom, T.; Unold, T.; Scheer, R.; Schock, H. W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz. 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Haarstrich, J.; Ronning, C. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich Schiller Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-01-07

    The present work reports on investigations of the influence of the microstructure on electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin-film solar cells. For this purpose, ZnO/CdS/CIGSe stacks of these solar cells were lifted off the Mo-coated glass substrates. The exposed CIGSe backsides of these stacks were investigated by means of electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements as well as by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). EBIC and CL profiles across grain boundaries (GBs), which were identified by EBSD, do not show any significant changes at Σ3 GBs. Across non-Σ3 GBs, on the other hand, the CL signals exhibit local minima with varying peak values, while by means of EBIC, decreased and also increased short-circuit current values are measured. Overall, EBIC and CL signals change across non-Σ3 GBs always differently. This complex situation was found in various CIGSe thin films with different [Ga]/([In]+[Ga]) and [Cu]/([In]+[Ga]) ratios. A part of the EBIC profiles exhibiting reduced signals across non-Σ3 GBs can be approximated by a simple model based on diffusion of generated charge carriers to the GBs.

  8. Effect of the thermionic emission on the recombination and electron beam induced current contrast at the interface of a metallic precipitate embedded in a semiconductor matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-J. Tarento

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The barrier height and the recombination velocity at the interface between a metallic precipitate and a semiconductor matrix are investigated with a new self consistent procedure based both on the analysis of the recombination and emission balance rates for electrons and holes and on the determination of the size-dependent electronic structure of the embedded precipitate. In the present work, the precipitate is modeled within the spherical well potential framework. The main result is the dependence of the recombination features on the electronic structure of the metal precipitate unlike the models based only on the Shockley-Read-Hall theory. The behaviors of the surface charge density on the metallic precipitate and the barrier height versus the precipitate size are similar to our previous studies. Unlike previous works, the recombination velocity reaches a constant non-zero value for sizes smaller than a critical size which is dependent on the defect concentration at the interface. The new dependencies of the recombination parameters are illustrated by the calculation of the electron beam induced current (EBIC contrast at the interface.

  9. Simulation of single-event energy-deposition spreading in a hybrid pixellated detector for gamma imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Manach, E

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the Medipix2 Collaboration, a new photon-counting chip is being developed made of a 256x256 array of 55 mu m-side square pixels. Although the chip was primarily developed for semiconductor X-ray imagers, we think that this type of device could be used in applications such as decommissioning of nuclear facilities where typical sources have gamma-ray energies in the range of a few hundred keV. In order to enhance the detection efficiency in this energy range, we envisage connecting the Medipix2 chip to a CdTe or CdZnTe substrate (at least 1 mm thick). The small pixel size, the thickness of the Cd(Zn)Te substrate and the high photon energy motivate us to estimate first the spatial energy spreading following a photon interaction inside the detector. Estimations were made using the MCNP Monte Carlo package by simulating the individual energy distribution for each primary photon interaction. As an illustration of our results, simulating a 660 keV gamma source, we found that there are two pixels ...

  10. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091594 Bao Yafan(The Third Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Siping 136000,China);Liu Yanjun Relations between Bashenerxi Granite,West Dongkunlun and Baiganhu Tungsten-Tin Deposit(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27(3),2008,p.56-59,67,5 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:tungsten ores,tin ores,monzogranite,Kunlun Mountains20091595 Chen Fuwen(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Yichang 443003,China);Dai Pingyun Metallogenetic and Isotopic Chronological Study on the Shenjiaya Gold Deposit in Xuefeng Mountains,Hunan Province(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,82(7),2008,p.906-911,3 illus.,2 tables,30 refs.)Key words:gold ores,HunanThe Shenjiaya gold deposit is a representative one

  11. Effects of Electrodeposition Mode and Deposition Cycle on the Electrochemical Performance of MnO2-NiO Composite Electrodes for High-Energy-Density Supercapacitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusi

    Full Text Available Nanostructured network-like MnO2-NiO composite electrodes were electrodeposited onto stainless steel substrates via different electrodeposition modes, such as chronopotentiometry, chronoamperometry, and cyclic voltammetry, and then subjected to heat treatment at 300°C for metal oxide conversion. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the crystalline natures and morphologies of the deposited films. The electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge tests. The results revealed that the electrochemical performance of the as-obtained composite electrodes depended on the electrodeposition mode. The electrochemical properties of MnO2-NiO composite electrodes prepared using cyclic voltammetry exhibited the highest capacitance values and were most influenced by the deposition cycle number. The optimum specific capacitance was 3509 Fg-1 with energy and power densities of 1322 Wh kg-1 and 110.5 kW kg-1, respectively, at a current density of 20 Ag-1 in a mixed KOH/K3Fe(CN6 electrolyte.

  12. Effects of Electrodeposition Mode and Deposition Cycle on the Electrochemical Performance of MnO2-NiO Composite Electrodes for High-Energy-Density Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusi; Majid, S R

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured network-like MnO2-NiO composite electrodes were electrodeposited onto stainless steel substrates via different electrodeposition modes, such as chronopotentiometry, chronoamperometry, and cyclic voltammetry, and then subjected to heat treatment at 300°C for metal oxide conversion. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the crystalline natures and morphologies of the deposited films. The electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge tests. The results revealed that the electrochemical performance of the as-obtained composite electrodes depended on the electrodeposition mode. The electrochemical properties of MnO2-NiO composite electrodes prepared using cyclic voltammetry exhibited the highest capacitance values and were most influenced by the deposition cycle number. The optimum specific capacitance was 3509 Fg-1 with energy and power densities of 1322 Wh kg-1 and 110.5 kW kg-1, respectively, at a current density of 20 Ag-1 in a mixed KOH/K3Fe(CN)6 electrolyte. PMID:27182595

  13. Effects of Electrodeposition Mode and Deposition Cycle on the Electrochemical Performance of MnO2-NiO Composite Electrodes for High-Energy-Density Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusi; Majid, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured network-like MnO2-NiO composite electrodes were electrodeposited onto stainless steel substrates via different electrodeposition modes, such as chronopotentiometry, chronoamperometry, and cyclic voltammetry, and then subjected to heat treatment at 300°C for metal oxide conversion. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the crystalline natures and morphologies of the deposited films. The electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge tests. The results revealed that the electrochemical performance of the as-obtained composite electrodes depended on the electrodeposition mode. The electrochemical properties of MnO2-NiO composite electrodes prepared using cyclic voltammetry exhibited the highest capacitance values and were most influenced by the deposition cycle number. The optimum specific capacitance was 3509 Fg−1 with energy and power densities of 1322 Wh kg−1 and 110.5 kW kg−1, respectively, at a current density of 20 Ag−1 in a mixed KOH/K3Fe(CN)6 electrolyte. PMID:27182595

  14. Simulation of dose deposition in heterogeneities in the human body, using the Penelope code for photons beams of energies of a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress in cancer treatment systems in heterogeneities of human body has had obstacles by the lack of a suitable experimental model test. The only option is to develop simulated theoretical models that have the same properties in interfaces similar to human tissues, to know the radiation behavior in the interaction with these materials. In this paper we used the Monte Carlo method by Penelope code based solely on studies for the cancer treatment as well as for the calibration of beams and their various interactions in mannequins. This paper also aims the construction, simulation and characterization of an equivalent object to the tissues of the human body with various heterogeneities, we will later use to control and plan experientially doses supplied in treating tumors in radiotherapy. To fulfill the objective we study the ionizing radiation and the various processes occurring in the interaction with matter; understanding that to calculate the dose deposited in tissues interfaces (percentage depth dose) must be taken into consideration aspects such as the deposited energy, irradiation fields, density, thickness, tissue sensitivity and other items. (Author)

  15. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111705 An Junbo(Team 603,Bureau of Nonferrous Metals Geological Exploration of Jilin Province,Hunchun 133300,China);Xu Renjie Geological Features and Ore Genesis of Baishilazi Scheelite Deposit in Yanbian Area(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,29(3),2010,p.39-43,2 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.)Key words:tungsten ores,Jilin ProvinceThe Baishilazi scheelite deposit is located in contacting zone between the marble of the Late Palaeozoic Qinglongcun Group and the Hercynian biotite granite.The vein and lenticular major ore body is obviously controlled by NE-extending faults and con

  16. Heavy Ion Beams Induce Survivin Expression in Human Hepatoma SMMC-7721 Cells More Effectively than X-rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li GONG; Xiaodong JIN; Qiang LI; Jiangtao LIU; Lizhe AN

    2007-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion radiation is more effective in inducing biological damage than low-LET X-rays or γ-rays. Heavy ion beam provides good dose localization (Bragg peak) in critical cancer tissue and gives higher relative biological effectiveness in cell killing across the dose peak, so high-LET heavy ion beam is superior to low-LET radiation in cancer treatment. Survivin, as a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, might help cancerous cells to overcome the G2/M apoptotic checkpoint and favor the aberrant progression of transformed cells through mitosis. Survivin expression in the human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cell line after exposure to low-LET X-ray and high-LET carbon ion irradiation was investigated in this study. Compared with X-ray irradiation, the carbon ion beam clearly caused G2/M arrest and promoted the expression of the survivin gene in a dose-dependent manner. Clonogenic survival assay showed that SMMC-7721 cells were more radiosensitive to the high-LET carbon ions than to the X-rays, and the radiosensitivity was promoted after treatment with specific survivin short interfering RNA. Differential survivin expression at both transcriptional and translational levels was found for SMMC-7721 cells following low- and high-LET irradiation. The overexpression of survivin in SMMC-7721 cells is probably an important reason why the cancerous cells have radioresistance to strong stimulus such as dense ionizing high-LET radiation. However, the direct killing effect on cancerous cells by high-LET radiation might be more significant than the apoptosis inhibition through the overexpression of survivin following heavy ion irradiation.

  17. Electron beam induced grafting of N-isopropylacrylamide to a poly(ethylene-terephthalate) membrane for rapid cell sheet detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intact sheets of human prostate epithelium cells were successfully detached from a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) membrane radiolytically grafted to poly(ethlylene-terephthalate (PET) culture dishes. The detachment process took less than 20 min without damaging the sheet structure. The grafting was performed using a high-energy electron beam to covalently bond NIPAM to the surface of PET culture dishes. This work demonstrates that the optimal conditions for uniform grafting can be achieved by adding argon-saturated solutions of NIPAM monomer onto pre-irradiated, surface-activated PET membranes. The solutions and the membranes were then irradiated under anaerobic conditions to a total absorbed dose of 25 kGy. This grafting method involves producing carbon-centered free radicals NIPAM· and PET· from both NIPAM and PET, respectively. An investigation of the kinetics of the early stages of polymerization of NIPAM was performed through electron beam pulse radiolysis with optical detection. The pulse radiolysis experiments of anaerobic NIPAM methanol solutions show that the esol·- reacts very rapidly with NIPAM producing NIPAM·- anions with a reaction rate constant of 1.4x109±10% L mol-1 s-1. The NIPAM·- anions then undergo a protonation reaction producing the initiation free radical (NIPAM·) with a reaction rate constant of 9x102 L mol-1 s-1. Along with pulse radiolysis, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements show that the radiolytically produced carbon-centered free radicals of the PET, PET·, decay following an overall observed pseudo-first-order reaction with rate constants of k=2.0x10-4 and 7.0x10-4 s-1 produced in argon and in air, respectively. The overall observed decay reaction involve PET·+PET· cross-linking, PET·+O2, PET+HO2·, and PET+H-atoms, since these EPR measurements were conducted under aerobic conditions.

  18. Effect of Specific Energy Input on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nickel-Base Intermetallic Alloy Deposited by Laser Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Reena; Kumar, Santosh; Chandra, Kamlesh; Vishwanadh, B.; Kishore, R.; Viswanadham, C. S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G. K.

    2012-12-01

    This article describes the microstructural features and mechanical properties of nickel-base intermetallic alloy laser-clad layers on stainless steel-316 L substrate, with specific attention on the effect of laser-specific energy input (defined as the energy required per unit of the clad mass, kJ/g) on the microstructure and properties of the clad layer, keeping the other laser-cladding parameters same. Defect-free clad layers were observed, in which various solidified zones could be distinguished: planar crystallization near the substrate/clad interface, followed by cellular and dendritic morphology towards the surface of the clad layer. The clad layers were characterized by the presence of a hard molybdenum-rich hexagonal close-packed (hcp) intermetallic Laves phase dispersed in a relatively softer face-centered cubic (fcc) gamma solid solution or a fine lamellar eutectic phase mixture of an intermetallic Laves phase and gamma solid solution. The microstructure and properties of the clad layers showed a strong correlation with the laser-specific energy input. As the specific energy input increased, the dilution of the clad layer increased and the microstructure changed from a hypereutectic structure (with a compact dispersion of characteristic primary hard intermetallic Laves phase in eutectic phase mixture) to near eutectic or hypoeutectic structure (with reduced fraction of primary hard intermetallic Laves phase) with a corresponding decrease in the clad layer hardness.

  19. 铜丝水中电爆炸能量沉积特性%Characteristics of energy deposition in underwater electrical explosion of copper wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆; 张乔根; 张俊; 赵军平; 庞磊; 王虎; 常家森

    2012-01-01

    对μs脉冲电压作用下铜丝水中电爆炸的能量沉积过程进行了实验研究,利用自积分Rogowski线圈和电阻分压器分别测量铜丝电爆炸时的电流和电压.利用测量电压波形确定了熔融起始、熔融结束、汽化起始和击穿时刻点,将铜丝电爆炸划分成熔融、液态和汽化3个阶段.通过数学方法计算了3个阶段和击穿前的沉积总能量.通过实验和计算,分析了电路参数,包括放电电压和回路电感,以及铜丝特性,包括铜丝长度和直径,对铜丝电爆炸过程中3个阶段和击穿前沉积总能量的影响.结果表明:在μs脉冲电压作用下,放电电压、回路电感、铜丝长度和直径对熔融阶段能量沉积影响较小,但对液态和汽化阶段能量沉积影响较大,通过调节电路参数提高电流上升速率,可以显著提高汽化和击穿前的沉积能量.%he energy deposition of underwater electrical explosion of a copper wire was investigated with pulsed voltage in the time scale of a few microseconds. A self-integrating Rogowski coil and a voltage divider were used for the measurements of the current and voltage on the wire load, respectively. Three stages of melting, liquid state and vaporization were defined by the definition of four critical time points, I. E. The beginning of melting, the end of melting, the beginning of vaporization and the beginning of breakdown. The deposited energy in the three stages and before breakdown was calculated by mathematical method. Theeffects of circuit parameters, including applied voltage and circuit inductance, and the properties of copper wire consisting of the length and diameter on deposited energy in the three stages and before breakdown were analyzed by experiment and calculation. The influence of circuit parameters and properties of copper wire is in significant in the melting stage, and obvious in the stages of liquid state and vaporization. By adjusting circuit parameters, the deposited

  20. GORGON - a computer code for the calculation of energy deposition and the slowing down of ions in cold materials and hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code GORGON, which calculates the energy deposition and slowing down of ions in cold materials and hot plasmas is described, and analyzed in this report. This code is in a state of continuous development but an intermediate stage has been reached where it is considered useful to document the 'state of the art' at the present time. The GORGON code is an improved version of a code developed by Zinamon et al. as part of a more complex program system for studying the hydrodynamic motion of plane metal targets irradiated by intense beams of protons. The improvements made in the code were necessary to improve its usefulness for problems related to the design and burn of heavy ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion targets. (orig./GG)

  1. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131565 Cai Lianyou(No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China);Weng Wangfei Geological Characteristics and Genesis Analysis of Guocun Navajoite Deposit in South Anhui Province(Mineral Resources and Geology,

  2. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102341 Bao Peisheng(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Science,Beijing 100037,China)Further Discussion on the Genesis of the Podiform Chromite Deposits in the Ophiolites-Questioning about the Rock:Melt Interaction Metallogeny(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,28(12),2009,p.1741-1761

  3. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131601 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550003,China);Yang Ruidong Hydrothermal Venting-Flowing Sedimentation Characteristics of Devonian Barite Deposits from Leji,Zhenning County,Guizhou Province(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,30(3),

  4. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150904An Fang(State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics,Department of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an 710069,China);Wang Juli Skarn Mineral Assemblage in Representative Ore Districts of Sayak Copper Orefield,Kazakhstan,and Its Genetic Implications(Mineral Deposits,ISSN0258-7106,CN11-1965/P,33(3),2014,p.521-540,

  5. Calculation of the energy deposition in nanovolumes by protons and HZE particles: geometric patterns of initial distributions of DNA repair foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2013-09-01

    The biological effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation are different from those caused by low-LET radiation due to the difference in the patterns of energy deposition in cells. In this work, we studied the role of the track structure in the spatial distribution of radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). In the first part, the irradiation of a cubic volume of 12 µm of side by 300 MeV protons (LET ˜0.3 keV µm-1) and by 1 GeV/amu iron ion particles (LET˜150 keV µm-1) was simulated with the Monte Carlo code RITRACKS (relativistic ion tracks) and the dose was calculated in voxels of different sizes. In the second part, dose calculations were combined with chromosomes simulated by a random walk (RW) model to assess the formation of DSBs. The number of DSBs was calculated as a function of the dose and particle fluence for 1 GeV protons, 293 MeV/u carbon, and 1 GeV/u iron particles. Finally, the DSB yield was obtained as a function of the LET for protons, helium, and carbon. In general, the number and distribution of calculated DSBs were similar to experimental DNA repair foci data. From this study, we concluded that a stochastic model combining nanoscopic dose calculations and chromosomes simulated by RWs is a useful approach to study radiation-induced DSBs.

  6. Spatially resolved electron density and electron energy distribution function in Ar magnetron plasmas used for sputter-deposition of ZnO-based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaloul, L.; Gangwar, R. K.; Morel, S.; Stafford, L., E-mail: luc.stafford@umontreal.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Langmuir probe and trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy were used to analyze the spatial structure of the electron density and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a cylindrical Ar magnetron plasma reactor used for sputter-deposition of ZnO-based thin films. While a typical Bessel (zero order) diffusion profile was observed along the radial direction for the number density of charged particles at 21 cm from the ZnO target, a significant rise of these populations with respect to the Bessel function was seen in the center of the reactor at 4 cm from the magnetron surface. As for the EEDF, it was found to transform from a more or less Maxwellian far from the target to a two-temperature Maxwellian with a depletion of high-energy electrons where magnetic field confinement effects become important. No significant change in the behavior of the electron density and EEDF across a wide range of pressures (5–100 mTorr) and self-bias voltages (115–300 V) was observed during magnetron sputtering of Zn, ZnO, and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets. This indicates that sputtering of Zn, In, and O atoms do not play a very significant role on the electron particle balance and electron heating dynamics, at least over the range of experimental conditions investigated.

  7. Optical and adhesive properties of dust deposits on solar mirrors and their effects on specular reflectivity and electrodynamic cleaning for mitigating energy-yield loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Malay; Yellowhair, Julius; Stark, Jeremy; Heiling, Calvin; Hudelson, John; Hao, Fang; Gibson, Hannah; Horenstein, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale solar plants are mostly installed in semi-arid and desert areas. In those areas, dust layer buildup on solar collectors becomes a major cause for energy yield loss. Development of transparent electrodynamic screens (EDS) and their applications for self-cleaning operation of solar mirrors are presented with a primary focus on the removal dust particles smaller than 30 µm in diameter while maintaining specular reflection efficiency propels the dust layer off of the collector's surface by a traveling wave. The cleaning process takes less than 2 minutes; needs energy less than 1 Wh/m2 without requiring any water or manual labor. The reflection efficiency can be restored > 95% of the original clean-mirror efficiency. We briefly present (1) loss of specular reflection efficiency as a function of particle size distribution of deposited dust, and (2) the effects of the electrode design and materials used for minimizing initial loss of specular reflectivity in producing EDS-integrated solar mirrors. Optimization of EDS by using a figure of merit defined by the ratio of dust removal efficiency to the initial loss of specular reflection efficiency is discussed.

  8. Electrostatic spray deposition of Li4Ti5O12 based anode with enhanced rate capability and energy density for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhui; Agrawal, Richa; Wang, Chunlei

    2016-05-01

    Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is one of the most promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its excellent cyclability and extraordinary structure stability during lithium-ion intercalation and deintercalation. However, LTO suffers from the low electronic conductivity and low theoretical capacity, which results in poor rate capability and low energy density. The present work reviews the latest achievement on improving both energy and power density of LTO based anode materials for LIBs. In addition, our recent results on electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) derived LTO electrode is also discussed. Electrochemical test shows that the resulting LTO has a large specific capacity of 293 mAh g-1 under a current density of 0.15 A g-1 and high rate capacity of 73 mAh g-1 under 3 A g-1. As compared with commercial LTO nano-particle electrode, the improved electrochemical performance of ESD-LTO could be attributed to the structure advantages generate from ESD which could lead to reduced diffusion length for lithium ions and electrons.

  9. Calculation of energy deposited and stopping range through deuterium ignition beam and dynamical studies on the energy gain in D-3He mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinimotlagh, S. N.; Jahedi, M.; Kianafraz, S.; Ghaderi, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    The fast ignition approach to ICF consists in first compressing the fuel to high density by a suitable driver and then creating the hot spot required for ignition by means of a second external pulse. If the ignition beam is composed of deuterons, an additional energy is delivered to the target with increased energy gain. Therefore ,in this innovative suggestion ,we consider deuterium  beams for fast ignition in D+3He mixture and solve the dynamical  balance equations under the available  physi...

  10. Response of plasma facing components in Tokamaks due to intense energy deposition using Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Filippo

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The consequences of these high energetic dumps with energy fluxes ranging from 10 MJ/m2 up to 200 MJ/m 2 applied in very short periods (0.1 to 5 ms) can be catastrophic both for safety and economic reasons. Those phenomena can cause a) large temperature increase in the target material b) consequent melting, evaporation and erosion losses due to the extremely high heat fluxes c) possible structural damage and permanent degradation of the entire bulk material with probable burnout of the coolant tubes; d) plasma contamination, transport of target material into the chamber far from where it was originally picked. The modeling of off-normal events such as Disruptions and ELMs requires the simultaneous solution of three main problems along time: a) the heat transfer in the plasma facing component b) the interaction of the produced vapor from the surface with the incoming plasma particles c) the transport of the radiation produced in the vapor-plasma cloud. In addition the moving boundaries problem has to be considered and solved at the material surface. Considering the carbon divertor as target, the moving boundaries are two since for the given conditions, carbon doesn't melt: the plasma front and the moving eroded material surface. The current solution methods for this problem use finite differences and moving coordinates system based on the Crank-Nicholson method and Alternating Directions Implicit Method (ADI). Currently Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods are widely used for solving

  11. Theoretical investigation of energy deposition and electron capture cross-sections for helium ion impact on formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R. [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States); Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 62251 (Mexico); Sabin, John R. [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States)]. E-mail: sabin@qtp.ufl.edu; Deumens, Erik [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States); Ohrn, Yngve [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The subject of the work presented here is related to damage caused by energetic, charged particle radiation such as electrons, protons, and alpha particles to prebiotic matter such as that found in interstellar space. The calculations are carried out using an all electron, all nuclei, scheme that explicitly treats the electron-nuclear coupling. We present results for the no-capture, as well as the single and double electron capture probabilities, as well as for the 1s and 2l (l = s, p) contributions to the electron capture cross-sections of {sup 3}He{sup 2+} projectiles on formaldehyde molecules. We find that the summed cross-section peaks at 10 keV/amu, and has a plateau between 0.1 and 1 keV/amu. We also present preliminary results for the nuclear, ro-vibrational and electronic stopping cross-section. We find a large contribution to the electronic stopping cross-section and a maximum shifted towards higher energies in the nuclear stopping cross-section, when compared to SRIM results. We interpret this to be a consequence of molecular bonding.

  12. Theoretical investigation of energy deposition and electron capture cross-sections for helium ion impact on formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of the work presented here is related to damage caused by energetic, charged particle radiation such as electrons, protons, and alpha particles to prebiotic matter such as that found in interstellar space. The calculations are carried out using an all electron, all nuclei, scheme that explicitly treats the electron-nuclear coupling. We present results for the no-capture, as well as the single and double electron capture probabilities, as well as for the 1s and 2l (l = s, p) contributions to the electron capture cross-sections of 3He2+ projectiles on formaldehyde molecules. We find that the summed cross-section peaks at 10 keV/amu, and has a plateau between 0.1 and 1 keV/amu. We also present preliminary results for the nuclear, ro-vibrational and electronic stopping cross-section. We find a large contribution to the electronic stopping cross-section and a maximum shifted towards higher energies in the nuclear stopping cross-section, when compared to SRIM results. We interpret this to be a consequence of molecular bonding

  13. Energy Deposition in the Body from External Sources to Chemically Trigger Cellular Responses in Desired Localized Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Stuart Duncan

    One of the major challenges of modern chemotherapy is to deliver a therapeutic dose of active drug to the tumor tissue without causing systemic exposure. The realization of this goal could considerably reduce the negative side effects experienced by patients. The work conducted in this thesis looks at two different approaches to trigger drug activation with the use of external energy sources. This avoids the challenges of relying solely on biochemical and environmental differences as triggers. The two triggers used were low intensity focused ultrasound and 365 nm light delivered with a custom designed needle UV LED fiber optic system. Both can be localized within the body to spatially highlight just the tumor tissue creating a stark differentiation between it and the healthy tissue. The 365nm light based delivery scheme developed here was the first demonstration of a photoactivatable doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug called DOX-PCB. DOX-PCB was shown to be 200 times less toxic than DOX and could be activated to a fully therapeutic form upon exposure to 365nm light. The pharmacokinetics showed a circulation half life comparable to that of DOX and stability against in vivo metabolic degradation. The 365 nm light was shown to adequately irradiate a centimeter of tumor tissue and cause localized activation. In vivo tumors exposed to the light had significantly higher doses of DOX than unexposed control tumors in the same individual. The second delivery scheme made use of focused ultrasound to activate echogenic drug delivery vehicles. These vehicles were the first demonstration of encapsulating microbubbles within liposomes. Specially designed optical equipment documented that the microbubble was ultrasound responsive. The microbubble was shown to violently cavitate and rupture the outer liposome membrane releasing the payload contents. The three dimensional localization of activation was demonstrated in tissue phantoms. The strengths of these two delivery schemes could

  14. Energetic deposition of thin metal films