WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam-induced energy deposition

  1. Electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum at low landing energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; De Winter, D.A.M.; Mulders, J.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum from methylcyclopentadienyl-platinum-trimethyl was performed with a focused electron beam at low landing energies, down to 10 eV. The deposition growth rate is maximal at 140 eV, with the process being over ten times more efficient than at 20 kV. No signi

  2. Focused helium-ion-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkemade, P.F.A.; Miro, H. [Delft University of Technology, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    The recent introduction of the helium ion microscope (HIM) offers new possibilities for materials modification and fabrication with spatial resolution below 10 nm. In particular, the specific interaction of He{sup +} ions in the tens of keV energy range with materials - i.e., minimal deflection and mainly energy loss via electronic excitations - renders the HIM a special tool for ion-beam-induced deposition. In this work, an overview is given of all studies of helium-ion-beam-induced deposition (He-IBID) that appeared in the literature before summer 2014. Continuum models that describe the deposition processes are presented in detail, with emphasis on precursor depletion and replenishment. In addition, a Monte Carlo model is discussed. Basic experimental He-IBID studies are critically examined. They show deposition rates of up to 0.1 nm{sup 3}/ion. Analysis by means of a continuum model yields the precursor diffusion constant and the cross sections for beam-induced precursor decomposition and beam-induced desorption. Moreover, it is shown that deposition takes place only in a small zone around the beam impact point. Furthermore, the characterization of deposited materials is discussed in terms of microstructure and resistivity. It is shown that He-IBID material resembles more electron-beam-induced-deposition (EBID) material than Ga-ion-beam-induced-deposition (Ga-IBID) material. Nevertheless, the spatial resolution for He-IBID is in general better than for EBID and Ga-IBID; in particular, proximity effects are minimal. (orig.)

  3. The role of low-energy electrons in focused electron beam induced deposition: four case studies of representative precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Thorman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID is a single-step, direct-write nanofabrication technique capable of writing three-dimensional metal-containing nanoscale structures on surfaces using electron-induced reactions of organometallic precursors. Currently FEBID is, however, limited in resolution due to deposition outside the area of the primary electron beam and in metal purity due to incomplete precursor decomposition. Both limitations are likely in part caused by reactions of precursor molecules with low-energy (3, Pt(PF34, Co(CO3NO, and W(CO6. Through these case studies, it is evident that this combination of studies can provide valuable insight into potential mechanisms governing deposit formation in FEBID. Although further experiments and new approaches are needed, these studies are an important stepping-stone toward better understanding the fundamental physics behind the deposition process and establishing design criteria for optimized FEBID precursors.

  4. Beam-induced energy deposition issues in the Very Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N V; Foster, G W

    2001-01-01

    Energy deposition issues are extremely important in the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) with huge energy stored in its 20 TeV (Stage-1) and 87.5 TeV (Stage-2) beams. The status of the VLHC design on these topics, and possible solutions of the problems are discussed. Protective measures are determined based on the operational and accidental beam loss limits for the prompt radiation dose at the surface, residual radiation dose, ground water activation, accelerator components radiation damage and quench stability. The beam abort and beam collimation systems are designed to protect accelerator from accidental and operational beam losses, IP region quadrupoles from irradiation by the products of beam-beam collisions, and to reduce the accelerator-induced backgrounds in the detectors. (7 refs).

  5. Technology basis and perspectives on focused electron beam induced deposition and focused ion beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rius, Gemma, E-mail: rius.gemma@nitech.ac.jp

    2014-12-15

    The main characteristics of focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) and focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID) are presented. FEBID and FIBID are two nanopatterning techniques that allow the fabrication of submicron patterns with nanometer resolution on selected locations of any kind of substrate, even on highly structured supports. The process consists of mask less serial deposition and can be applied to a wide variety of materials, depending strictly on the precursor material source used. The basic mechanism of FEBID and FIBID is the adsorption of volatile precursor molecules onto the sample surface and decomposition of the molecules induced by the energetic electron and ion focused beams. The essential similarities of the two techniques are presented and especial emphasis is dedicated to highlighting their main differences, such as aspects related to resolution, deposition rate, deposits purity, substrate integrity, etc. In both cases, the factors interplay and complex mechanisms are still understood in a qualitative basis, so much work can still be done in terms of modeling and simulating the processes involved in FEBID and FIBID. Current work on FEBID and FIBID is presented through examples of achievements, interesting results and novel approaches.

  6. Focused electron beam induced deposition: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID is a direct-writing technique with nanometer resolution, which has received strongly increasing attention within the last decade. In FEBID a precursor previously adsorbed on a substrate surface is dissociated in the focus of an electron beam. After 20 years of continuous development FEBID has reached a stage at which this technique is now particularly attractive for several areas in both, basic and applied research. The present topical review addresses selected examples that highlight this development in the areas of charge-transport regimes in nanogranular metals close to an insulator-to-metal transition, the use of these materials for strain- and magnetic-field sensing, and the prospect of extending FEBID to multicomponent systems, such as binary alloys and intermetallic compounds with cooperative ground states.Results: After a brief introduction to the technique, recent work concerning FEBID of Pt–Si alloys and (hard-magnetic Co–Pt intermetallic compounds on the nanometer scale is reviewed. The growth process in the presence of two precursors, whose flux is independently controlled, is analyzed within a continuum model of FEBID that employs rate equations. Predictions are made for the tunability of the composition of the Co–Pt system by simply changing the dwell time of the electron beam during the writing process. The charge-transport regimes of nanogranular metals are reviewed next with a focus on recent theoretical advancements in the field. As a case study the transport properties of Pt–C nanogranular FEBID structures are discussed. It is shown that by means of a post-growth electron-irradiation treatment the electronic intergrain-coupling strength can be continuously tuned over a wide range. This provides unique access to the transport properties of this material close to the insulator-to-metal transition. In the last part of the review, recent developments in mechanical

  7. Proximity effect in ion-beam-induced deposition of nanopillars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, P.; Salemink, H.W.M.; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Ion-beam-induced deposition (IBID) is a powerful technique for prototyping three-dimensional nanostructures. To study its capability for this purpose, the authors investigate the proximity effect in IBID of nanopillars. In particular, the changes in shape and dimension of pillars are studied when a

  8. Fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures with electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, H.

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was shaped by the goal---coming up new approaches to fabricate plasmonic materials with electron beam induced deposition (EBID). One-step, bottom-up and direct-write are typical adjectives that are used to indicate the advantageous properties of this technique. Thes

  9. Electron-stimulated purification of platinum nanostructures grown via focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett B. Lewis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Platinum–carbon nanostructures deposited via electron beam induced deposition from MeCpPt(IVMe3 are purified during a post-deposition electron exposure treatment in a localized oxygen ambient at room temperature. Time-dependent studies demonstrate that the process occurs from the top–down. Electron beam energy and current studies demonstrate that the process is controlled by a confluence of the electron energy loss and oxygen concentration. Furthermore, the experimental results are modeled as a 2nd order reaction which is dependent on both the electron energy loss density and the oxygen concentration. In addition to purification, the post-deposition electron stimulated oxygen purification process enhances the resolution of the EBID process due to the isotropic carbon removal from the as-deposited materials which produces high-fidelity shape retention.

  10. Investigation of chemical vapour deposition diamond detectors by X- ray micro-beam induced current and X-ray micro-beam induced luminescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Olivero, P; Vittone, E; Fizzotti, F; Paolini, C; Lo Giudice, A; Barrett, R; Tucoulou, R

    2004-01-01

    Tracking detectors have become an important ingredient in high-energy physics experiments. In order to survive the harsh detection environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), trackers need to have special properties. They must be radiation hard, provide fast collection of charge, be as thin as possible and remove heat from readout electronics. The unique properties of diamond allow it to fulfill these requirements. In this work we present an investigation of the charge transport and luminescence properties of "detector grade" artificial chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond devices developed within the CERN RD42 collaboration, performed by means of X-ray micro-beam induced current collection (XBICC) and X-ray micro- beam induced luminescence (XBIL) techniques. XBICC technique allows quantitative estimates of the transport parameters of the material to be evaluated and mapped with micrometric spatial resolution. In particular, the high resolution and sensitivity of the technique has allowed a quantitati...

  11. Focused electron beam induced deposition of magnetic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Teresa, Jose M.

    2011-03-01

    Nanopatterning strategies of magnetic materials normally rely on standard techniques such as electron-beam lithography using electron-sensitive resists. Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is currently being investigated as an alternative single-step route to produce functional magnetic nanostructures. Thus, Co-based and Fe-based precursors have been recently investigated for the growth of magnetic nanostructures by FEBID. In the present contribution, I will give an overview of the existing literature on magnetic nanostructures by FEBID and I will focus on the growth of Co nanostructures by FEBID using Co 2 (CO)8 as precursor gas. The Co content in the nanostructures can reach 95%. Magnetotransport experiments indicate that full metallic behaviour is displayed with relatively low residual resistivity and standard anisotropic magnetoresistance (0.8%). The coercive field of nanowires with changing aspect ratio has been determined in nanowires with width down to 150 nm by means of Magneto-optical Kerr Effect and the magnetization reversal has been imaged by means of Magnetic Force Microscopy, Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy as well as Lorentz Microscopy experiments. Nano-Hall probes have been grown with remarkable minimum detectable magnetic flux. Noticeably, it has been found that the domain-wall propagation field is lower than the domain-wall nucleation field in L-shaped nanowires, with potential applications in magnetic logic, sensing and storage. The spin polarization of these Co nanodeposits has been determined through Andreev-Reflection experiments in ferromagnetic-superconducting nanocontacts and amounts to 35%. Recent results obtained in Fe-based nanostructures by FEBID using Fe 2 (CO)9 precursor will be also presented. I acknowledge the collaboration in this field with A. Fernandez-Pacheco, R. Cordoba, L. Serrano, S. Sangiao, L.A. Rodriguez, C. Magen, E. Snoeck, L. Morellon, M.R. Ibarra.

  12. Nanopillar growth by focused helium ion-beam-induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, P.; Veldhoven, E. van; Sanford, C.A.; Salemink, H.W.M.; Maas, D.J.; Smith, D.A.; Rack, P.D.; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    A 25 keV focused helium ion beam has been used to grow PtC nanopillars on a silicon substrate by beam-induced decomposition of a (CH3) 3Pt(CPCH3) precursor gas. The ion beam diameter was about 1 nm. The observed relatively high growth rates suggest that el

  13. Nitrogen as a carrier gas for regime control in focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachter Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID using a custom built gas injection system (GIS equipped with nitrogen as a gas carrier. We have deposited cobalt from Co2(CO8, which is usually achieved by a heated GIS. In contrast to a heated GIS, our strategy allows avoiding problems caused by eventual temperature gradients along the GIS. Moreover, the use of the gas carrier enables a high control over process conditions and consequently the properties of the synthesized nanostructures. Chemical composition and growth rate are investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and atomic force microscopy (AFM, respectively. We demonstrate that the N2 flux is strongly affecting the deposit growth rate without the need of heating the precursor in order to increase its vapour pressure. Particularly, AFM volume estimation of the deposited structures showed that increasing the nitrogen resulted in an enhanced deposition rate. The wide range of achievable precursor fluxes allowed to clearly distinguish between precursor- and electron-limited regime. With the carrier-based GIS an optimized deposition procedure with regards to the desired deposition regime has been enabled

  14. Synthesis of nanowires via helium and neon focused ion beam induced deposition with the gas field ion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H M; Stern, L A; Chen, J H; Huth, M; Schwalb, C H; Winhold, M; Porrati, F; Gonzalez, C M; Timilsina, R; Rack, P D

    2013-05-03

    The ion beam induced nanoscale synthesis of platinum nanowires using the trimethyl (methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV) (MeCpPt(IV)Me3) precursor is investigated using helium and neon ion beams in the gas field ion microscope. The He(+) beam induced deposition resembles material deposited by electron beam induced deposition with very small platinum nanocrystallites suspended in a carbonaceous matrix. The He(+) deposited material composition was estimated to be 16% Pt in a matrix of amorphous carbon with a large room-temperature resistivity (∼3.5 × 10(4)-2.2 × 10(5) μΩ cm) and temperature-dependent transport behavior consistent with a granular material in the weak intergrain tunnel coupling regime. The Ne(+) deposited material has comparable composition (17%), however a much lower room-temperature resistivity (∼600-3.0 × 10(3) μΩ cm) and temperature-dependent electrical behavior representative of strong intergrain coupling. The Ne(+) deposited nanostructure has larger platinum nanoparticles and is rationalized via Monte Carlo ion-solid simulations which show that the neon energy density deposited during growth is much larger due to the smaller ion range and is dominated by nuclear stopping relative to helium which has a larger range and is dominated by electronic stopping.

  15. Roles of secondary electrons and sputtered atoms in ion-beam-induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, P.; Salemink, H.W.M.; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the results of investigating two models for ion-beam-induced deposition (IBID). These models describe IBID in terms of the impact of secondary electrons and of sputtered atoms, respectively. The yields of deposition, sputtering, and secondary electron emission, as well as the ener

  16. Fe:O:C grown by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition: magnetic and electric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrijsen, R; Schoenaker, F J; Ellis, T H; Barcones, B; Kohlhepp, J T; Swagten, H J M; Koopmans, B [Department of Applied Physics, Center for NanoMaterials and COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Cordoba, R; Ibarra, M R [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); De Teresa, J M; Magen, C [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Trompenaars, P; Mulders, J J L, E-mail: r.lavrijsen@tue.nl, E-mail: deteresa@unizar.es [FEI Electron Optics, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-01-14

    We systematically study the effect of oxygen content on the magneto-transport and microstructure of Fe:O:C nanowires deposited by focused-electron-beam-induced (FEBID) deposition. The Fe/O ratio can be varied with an Fe content varying between {approx} 50 and 80 at.% with overall low C content ({approx}16 {+-} 3 at.%) by adding H{sub 2}O during the deposition while keeping the beam parameters constant as measured by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The room-temperature magnetic properties for deposits with an Fe content of 66-71 at.% are investigated using the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and electric magneto-transport measurements. The nanostructure of the deposits is investigated through cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging, allowing us to link the observed magneto-resistance and resistivity to the transport mechanism in the deposits. These results demonstrate that functional magnetic nanostructures can be created, paving the way for new magnetic or even spintronics devices.

  17. Cobalt-based magnetic nanostructures grown by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begun, Evgeniya; Schwenk, Johannes; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The fabrication of magnetic nanostructures by means of the direct-writing technique focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) is an alternative to more conventional lithographic methods. We have grown magnetic cobalt structures by FEBID using the precursor dicobaltoctacarbonyl Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}. The obtained structures have a large metal content of about 85 at.% as compared to other metal-based deposits grown by the same technique, such as tungsten-based structures with 34 at.% maximum tungsten content and platin-based structures with about 24 at.% maximum platin content. We present a growth strategy for cobalt structures with tunable metal content. In particular, we show the influence of different combinations of electron-beam energy and current, the dwell time and the refresh time on the deposit composition, which was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) at 5 keV. First results of magnetotransport measurements on these cobalt-based structures are presented.

  18. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm structure

  19. Three-dimensional Nanostructures Fabricated by Ion-Beam-Induced Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, P.

    2010-01-01

    The direct writing technology known as ion-beam-induced deposition (IBID) has been attracting attention mainly because of its high degree of flexibility of locally prototyping three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures. These high-resolution nanostructures have various research applications. However, no

  20. Investigation of morphological changes in platinum-containing nanostructures created by electron-beam-induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; Hesselberth, M.; Mulders, J.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Focused electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) allows the rapid fabrication of three-dimensional nanodevices and metallic wiring of nanostructures, and is a promising technique for many applications in nanoresearch. The authors present two topics on platinum-containing nanostructures created by EBI

  1. Creating pure nanostructures from electron-beam-induced deposition using purification techniques: a technology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; Mulders, J.J.L.; Hagen, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    The creation of functional nanostructures by electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is becoming more widespread. The benefits of the technology include fast ‘point-and-shoot’ creation of three-dimensional nanostructures at predefined locations directly within a scanning electron microscope. One sig

  2. Charging effects during focused electron beam induced deposition of silicon oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Sanne K.; van Dorp, Willem F.; De Hosson, Jeff Th. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concentrates on focused electron beam induced deposition of silicon oxide. Silicon oxide pillars are written using 2, 4, 6, 8, 10-pentamethyl-cyclopenta-siloxane (PMCPS) as precursor. It is observed that branching of the pillar occurs above a minimum pillar height. The branching is attrib

  3. The role of electron-stimulated desorption in focused electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, Willem F.; Hansen, Thomas W.; Wagner, Jakob B.; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of our study about the deposition rate of focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) as a function of the substrate temperature with the substrate being an electron-transparent amorphous carbon membrane. When W(CO)(6) is used as a precursor it is observed that the growth

  4. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm structures after 2013, as described by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), or can be used for rapid prototyping in research applications. The key point is to combine the throughp...

  5. Lateral resolution in focused electron beam-induced deposition: scaling laws for pulsed and static exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek, Aleksandra [Empa, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Thun (Switzerland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Szmyt, Wojciech; Kapusta, Czeslaw [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Utke, Ivo [Empa, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Thun (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, we review the single-adsorbate time-dependent continuum model for focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID). The differential equation for the adsorption rate will be expressed by dimensionless parameters describing the contributions of adsorption, desorption, dissociation, and the surface diffusion of the precursor adsorbates. The contributions are individually presented in order to elucidate their influence during variations in the electron beam exposure time. The findings are condensed into three new scaling laws for pulsed exposure FEBID (or FEB-induced etching) relating the lateral resolution of deposits or etch pits to surface diffusion and electron beam exposure dwell time for a given adsorbate depletion state. (orig.)

  6. In situ growth optimization in focused electron-beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Weirich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of an evolutionary genetic algorithm for the in situ optimization of nanostructures that are prepared by focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID. It allows us to tune the properties of the deposits towards the highest conductivity by using the time gradient of the measured in situ rate of change of conductance as the fitness parameter for the algorithm. The effectiveness of the procedure is presented for the precursor W(CO6 as well as for post-treatment of Pt–C deposits, which were obtained by the dissociation of MeCpPt(Me3. For W(CO6-based structures an increase of conductivity by one order of magnitude can be achieved, whereas the effect for MeCpPt(Me3 is largely suppressed. The presented technique can be applied to all beam-induced deposition processes and has great potential for a further optimization or tuning of parameters for nanostructures that are prepared by FEBID or related techniques.

  7. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO3NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Vollnhals

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM, including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO5. Co(CO3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures.

  8. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO)3NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollnhals, Florian; Drost, Martin; Tu, Fan; Carrasco, Esther; Späth, Andreas; Fink, Rainer H; Steinrück, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA) is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO)3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO)5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID) and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO)3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO)5. Co(CO)3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO)5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO)3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures. PMID:25161851

  9. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO)3NO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollnhals, Florian; Drost, Martin; Tu, Fan; Carrasco, Esther; Späth, Andreas; Fink, Rainer H; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Marbach, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA) is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO)3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO)5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID) and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO)3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO)5. Co(CO)3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO)5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO)3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures.

  10. NanoSQUID magnetometry of individual cobalt nanoparticles grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, M. J.; Müller, B.; Schwebius, D.; Korinski, D.; Kleiner, R.; Sesé, J.; Koelle, D.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the operation of low-noise nano superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) based on the high critical field and high critical temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) as ultra-sensitive magnetometers for single magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The nanoSQUIDs exploit the Josephson behavior of YBCO grain boundaries and have been patterned by focused ion beam milling. This allows us to precisely define the lateral dimensions of the SQUIDs so as to achieve large magnetic coupling between the nanoloop and individual MNPs. By means of focused electron beam induced deposition, cobalt MNPs with a typical size of several tens of nm have been grown directly on the surface of the sensors with nanometric spatial resolution. Remarkably, the nanoSQUIDs are operative over extremely broad ranges of applied magnetic field (-1 T \\lt {μ }0H\\lt 1 T) and temperature (0.3 K \\lt T\\lt 80 K). All these features together have allowed us to perform magnetization measurements under different ambient conditions and to detect the magnetization reversal of individual Co MNPs with magnetic moments (1-30) × {10}6 {μ }{{B}}. Depending on the dimensions and shape of the particles we have distinguished between two different magnetic states yielding different reversal mechanisms. The magnetization reversal is thermally activated over an energy barrier, which has been quantified for the (quasi) single-domain particles. Our measurements serve to show not only the high sensitivity achievable with YBCO nanoSQUIDs, but also demonstrate that these sensors are exceptional magnetometers for the investigation of the properties of individual nanomagnets.

  11. Towards a single step process to create high purity gold structures by electron beam induced deposition at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, C.; Mehendale, S.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Trompenaars, P. H. F.

    2016-10-01

    Highly pure metallic structures can be deposited by electron beam induced deposition and they have many important applications in different fields. The organo-metallic precursor is decomposed and deposited under the electron beam, and typically it is purified with post-irradiation in presence of O2. However, this approach limits the purification to the surface of the deposit. Therefore, ‘in situ’ purification during deposition using simultaneous flows of both O2 and precursor in parallel with two gas injector needles has been tested and verified. To simplify the practical arrangements, a special concentric nozzle has been designed allowing deposition and purification performed together in a single step. With this new device metallic structures with high purity can be obtained more easily, while there is no limit on the height of the structures within a practical time frame. In this work, we summarize the first results obtained for ‘in situ’ Au purification using this concentric nozzle, which is described in more detail, including flow simulations. The operational parameter space is explored in order to optimize the shape as well as the purity of the deposits, which are evaluated through scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements, respectively. The observed variations are interpreted in relation to other variables, such as the deposition yield. The resistivity of purified lines is also measured, and the influence of additional post treatments as a last purification step is studied.

  12. Direct-write deposition and focused-electron-beam-induced purification of gold nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belić, Domagoj; Shawrav, Mostafa M; Gavagnin, Marco; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Wanzenboeck, Heinz D; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2015-02-04

    Three-dimensional gold (Au) nanostructures offer promise in nanoplasmonics, biomedical applications, electrochemical sensing and as contacts for carbon-based electronics. Direct-write techniques such as focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) can provide such precisely patterned nanostructures. Unfortunately, FEBID Au traditionally suffers from a high nonmetallic content and cannot meet the purity requirements for these applications. Here we report exceptionally pure pristine FEBID Au nanostructures comprising submicrometer-large monocrystalline Au sections. On the basis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy results and Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories in the deposited nanostructures, we propose a curing mechanism that elucidates the observed phenomena. The in situ focused-electron-beam-induced curing mechanism was supported by postdeposition ex situ curing and, in combination with oxygen plasma cleaning, is utilized as a straightforward purification method for planar FEBID structures. This work paves the way for the application of FEBID Au nanostructures in a new generation of biosensors and plasmonic nanodevices.

  13. Highly conductive and pure gold nanostructures grown by electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawrav, Mostafa M.; Taus, Philipp; Wanzenboeck, Heinz D.; Schinnerl, M.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Schwarz, S.; Steiger-Thirsfeld, A.; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2016-09-01

    This work introduces an additive direct-write nanofabrication technique for producing extremely conductive gold nanostructures from a commercial metalorganic precursor. Gold content of 91 atomic % (at. %) was achieved by using water as an oxidative enhancer during direct-write deposition. A model was developed based on the deposition rate and the chemical composition, and it explains the surface processes that lead to the increases in gold purity and deposition yield. Co-injection of an oxidative enhancer enabled Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID)—a maskless, resistless deposition method for three dimensional (3D) nanostructures—to directly yield pure gold in a single process step, without post-deposition purification. Gold nanowires displayed resistivity down to 8.8 μΩ cm. This is the highest conductivity achieved so far from FEBID and it opens the possibility of applications in nanoelectronics, such as direct-write contacts to nanomaterials. The increased gold deposition yield and the ultralow carbon level will facilitate future applications such as the fabrication of 3D nanostructures in nanoplasmonics and biomolecule immobilization.

  14. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yingge; Zhang, Hongliang; Varga, Tamas; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-08-08

    Reduction of transition metal oxides can greatly change their physical and chemical properties. Using deposition of WO3 as a case study, we demonstrate that reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), a surface-sensitive tool widely used to monitor thin-film deposition processes, can significantly affect the cation valence and physical properties of the films through electron-beam induced sample reduction. The RHEED beam is found to increase film smoothness during epitaxial growth of WO3, as well as change the electronic properties of the film through preferential removal of surface oxygen.

  15. Strain-dependent conductivity of granular metals prepared by focused particle beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Christina; Baranowski, Markus; Huth, Michael [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Voelklein, Friedemann [Institut fuer Mikrotechnologien, Hochschule RheinMain, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We report on the strain-dependence of the electrical conductivity of granular metals prepared by focused particle beam induced deposition. The samples were prepared in a dual-beam electron / Ga ion scanning microscope using selected precursors, such as W(CO){sub 6}. Stripe-like deposits were fabricated on dedicated cantilevers pre-patterned with contact pads made from Cr/Au. The cantilever deflection was induced in-situ by means of a four axes nano-manipulator and the conductivity change was recorded by lock-in technique employing a Wheatstone resistance bridge. Current-voltage characteristics and strain-dependence were measured for samples of various thicknesses and composition. For selected samples time-dependent conductivity data were taken as the samples were slowly exposed to air.

  16. Three-dimensional core-shell ferromagnetic nanowires grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo-Navarro, Javier; Magén, César; María de Teresa, José

    2016-07-01

    Functional nanostructured materials often rely on the combination of more than one material to confer the desired functionality or an enhanced performance of the device. Here we report the procedure to create nanoscale heterostructured materials in the form of core-shell nanowires by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) technologies. In our case, three-dimensional (3D) nanowires (nanostructures to demonstrate that the morphology of the shell is conserved during Pt coating, the surface oxidation is suppressed or confined to the Pt layer, and the average magnetization of the core is strengthened up to 30%. The proposed approach paves the way to the fabrication of 3D FEBID nanostructures based on the smart alternate deposition of two or more materials combining different physical properties or added functionalities.

  17. Pulsed Helium Ion Beam Induced Deposition: A Means to High Growth Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkemade, Paul F. A. [Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands; Miro, Hozanna [Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands; Van Veldhoven, Emile [TNO Van Leeuwenhoek Laboratory; Maas, Diederick [TNO Van Leeuwenhoek Laboratory; Smith, Daryl [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rack, P. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    The sub-nanometer beam of a helium ion microscope was used to study and optimize helium-ion beam induced deposition of PtC nanopillars with the (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Pt(CPCH{sub 3}) precursor. The beam current, beam dwell time, precursor refresh time, and beam focus have been independently varied. Continuous beam exposure resulted in narrow but short pillars, while pulsed exposure resulted in thinner and higher ones. Furthermore, at short dwell times the deposition efficiency was very high, especially for a defocused beam. Efficiencies were measured up to 20 times the value for continuous exposure conditions. The interpretation of the experimental data was aided by a Monte Carlo simulation of the deposition. The results indicate that two regimes are operational in ion beam induced deposition (IBID). In the first one, the adsorbed precursor molecules originally present in the beam interaction region decompose. After the original precursor layer is consumed, further depletion is averted and growth continues by the supply of molecules via adsorption and surface diffusion. Depletion around the beam impact site can be distinguished from depletion on the flanges of the growing pillars. The Monte Carlo simulations for low precursor surface coverage reproduce measured growth rates, but predict considerably narrower pillars, especially at short dwell times. Both the experiments and the simulations show that the pillar width rapidly increases with increasing beam diameter. Optimal writing strategy, good beam focusing, and rapid beam positioning are needed for efficient and precise fabrication of extended and complex nanostructures by He-IBID.

  18. Spatial chemistry evolution during focused electron beam-induced deposition: origins and workarounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Robert; Geier, Barbara [Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, Graz (Austria); Plank, Harald [Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, Graz (Austria); Graz University of Technology, Institute for Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    The successful application of functional nanostructures, fabricated via focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID), is known to depend crucially on its chemistry as FEBID tends to strong incorporation of carbon. Hence, it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms which finally determine the elemental composition after fabrication. In this study we focus on these processes from a fundamental point of view by means of (1) varying electron emission on the deposit surface; and (2) changing replenishment mechanism, both driven by the growing deposit itself. First, we revisit previous results concerning chemical variations in nanopillars (with a quasi-1D footprint) depending on the process parameters. In a second step we expand the investigations to deposits with a 3D footprint which are more relevant in the context of applications. Then, we demonstrate how technical setups and directional gas fluxes influence final chemistries. Finally, we put the findings in a bigger context with respect to functionalities which demonstrates the crucial importance of carefully set up fabrication processes to achieve controllable, predictable and reproducible chemistries for FEBID deposits as a key element for industrially oriented applications. (orig.)

  19. Purity and resistivity improvements for electron-beam-induced deposition of Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, J.J.L. [FEI Company, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) of platinum is used by many researchers. Its main application is the formation of a protective layer and the ''welding material'' for making a TEM lamella with a focused ion beam thinning process. For this application, the actual composition of the deposition is less relevant, and in practice, both the mechanical strength and the conductivity are sufficient. Another important application is the creation of an electrical connection to nanoscale structures such as nano-wires and graphene. To serve as an electrical contact, the resistivity of the Pt deposited structure has to be sufficiently low. Using the commonly used precursor MeCpPtMe{sub 3} for deposition, the resistivity as created by the basic process is 10{sup +5}-10{sup +6} higher than the value for bulk Pt, which is 10.6 μΩ cm. The reason for this is the high abundance of carbon in the deposition. To improve the deposition process, much attention has been given by the research community to parameter optimization, to ex situ or in situ removal of carbon by anneal steps, to prevention of carbon deposition by use of a carbon-free precursor, to electron beam irradiation under a high flux of oxygen and to the combination with other techniques such as atomic layer deposition (ALD). In the latter technique, the EBID structures are used as a 1-nm-thick seed layer only, while the ALD is used to selectively add pure Pt. These techniques have resulted in a low resistivity, today approaching the 10-150 μΩ cm, while the size and shape of the structure are preserved. Therefore, now, the technique is ready for application in the field of contacting nano-wires. (orig.)

  20. Single-crystal nanowires grown via electron-beam-induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, K. L.; Randolph, S. J.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Allard, L. F.; Meyer, H. M., III; Simpson, M. L.; Rack, P. D.

    2008-08-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a useful technique for direct-writing of three-dimensional dielectric, semiconductor, and metallic materials with nanoscale precision and resolution. The EBID process, however, has been limited in many cases because precursor byproducts (typically from organic precursors like W(CO)6) are incorporated into the deposited material resulting in contaminated and amorphous structures. In this work, we have investigated the structure and composition of EBID tungsten nanostructures as-deposited from a tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) precursor. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron spectroscopy were employed to determine the effects that the electron beam scanning conditions have on the deposit characteristics. The results show that slow, one-dimensional lateral scanning produces textured β-tungsten nanowire cores surrounded by an oxide secondary layer, while stationary vertical growth leads to single-crystal [100]-oriented W3O nanowires. Furthermore we correlate how the growth kinetics affect the resultant nanowire structure and composition.

  1. Single-crystal nanowires grown via electron-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, K L; Randolph, S J; Simpson, M L; Rack, P D [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, 434 Dougherty Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Fowlkes, J D [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Allard, L F; III, H M Meyer [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)], E-mail: prack@utk.edu

    2008-08-27

    Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a useful technique for direct-writing of three-dimensional dielectric, semiconductor, and metallic materials with nanoscale precision and resolution. The EBID process, however, has been limited in many cases because precursor byproducts (typically from organic precursors like W(CO){sub 6}) are incorporated into the deposited material resulting in contaminated and amorphous structures. In this work, we have investigated the structure and composition of EBID tungsten nanostructures as-deposited from a tungsten hexafluoride (WF{sub 6}) precursor. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron spectroscopy were employed to determine the effects that the electron beam scanning conditions have on the deposit characteristics. The results show that slow, one-dimensional lateral scanning produces textured {beta}-tungsten nanowire cores surrounded by an oxide secondary layer, while stationary vertical growth leads to single-crystal [100]-oriented W{sub 3}O nanowires. Furthermore we correlate how the growth kinetics affect the resultant nanowire structure and composition.

  2. A comparison of neon versus helium ion beam induced deposition via Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Rajendra; Smith, Daryl A; Rack, Philip D

    2013-03-22

    The ion beam induced nanoscale synthesis of PtCx (where x ∼ 5) using the trimethyl (methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV) (MeCpPt(IV)Me3) precursor is investigated by performing Monte Carlo simulations of helium and neon ions. The helium beam leads to more lateral growth relative to the neon beam because of its larger interaction volume. The lateral growth of the nanopillars is dominated by molecules deposited via secondary electrons in both the simulations. Notably, the helium pillars are dominated by SE-I electrons whereas the neon pillars are dominated by SE-II electrons. Using a low precursor residence time of 70 μs, resulting in an equilibrium coverage of ∼4%, the neon simulation has a lower deposition efficiency (3.5%) compared to that of the helium simulation (6.5%). At larger residence time (10 ms) and consequently larger equilibrium coverage (85%) the deposition efficiencies of helium and neon increased to 49% and 21%, respectively; which is dominated by increased lateral growth rates leading to broader pillars. The nanoscale growth is further studied by varying the ion beam diameter at 10 ms precursor residence time. The study shows that total SE yield decreases with increasing beam diameters for both the ion types. However, helium has the larger SE yield as compared to that of neon in both the low and high precursor residence time, and thus pillars are wider in all the simulations studied.

  3. High-purity 3D nano-objects grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Sharma, Nidhi; Kölling, Sebastian; Koenraad, Paul M.; Koopmans, Bert

    2016-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of current electronics, a specific challenge for the next generation of memory, sensing and logic devices is to find suitable strategies to move from two- to three-dimensional (3D) architectures. However, the creation of real 3D nano-objects is not trivial. Emerging non-conventional nanofabrication tools are required for this purpose. One attractive method is focused-electron-beam induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write process of 3D nano-objects. Here, we grow 3D iron and cobalt nanopillars by FEBID using diiron nonacarbonyl Fe2(CO)9, and dicobalt octacarbonyl Co2(CO)8, respectively, as starting materials. In addition, we systematically study the composition of these nanopillars at the sub-nanometer scale by atom probe tomography, explicitly mapping the homogeneity of the radial and longitudinal composition distributions. We show a way of fabricating high-purity 3D vertical nanostructures of ˜50 nm in diameter and a few micrometers in length. Our results suggest that the purity of such 3D nanoelements (above 90 at% Fe and above 95 at% Co) is directly linked to their growth regime, in which the selected deposition conditions are crucial for the final quality of the nanostructure. Moreover, we demonstrate that FEBID and the proposed characterization technique not only allow for growth and chemical analysis of single-element structures, but also offers a new way to directly study 3D core-shell architectures. This straightforward concept could establish a promising route to the design of 3D elements for future nano-electronic devices.

  4. High aspect ratio AFM Probe processing by helium-ion-beam induced deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Keiko; Guo, Hongxuan; Nagano, Syoko; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    A Scanning Helium Ion Microscope (SHIM) is a high resolution surface observation instrument similar to a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) since both instruments employ finely focused particle beams of ions or electrons [1]. The apparent difference is that SHIMs can be used not only for a sub-nanometer scale resolution microscopic research, but also for the applications of very fine fabrication and direct lithography of surfaces at the nanoscale dimensions. On the other hand, atomic force microscope (AFM) is another type of high resolution microscopy which can measure a three-dimensional surface morphology by tracing a fine probe with a sharp tip apex on a specimen's surface.In order to measure highly uneven and concavo-convex surfaces by AFM, the probe of a high aspect ratio with a sharp tip is much more necessary than the probe of a general quadrangular pyramid shape. In this paper we report the manufacture of the probe tip of the high aspect ratio by ion-beam induced gas deposition using a nanoscale helium ion beam of SHIM.Gas of platinum organic compound was injected into the sample surface neighborhood in the vacuum chamber of SHIM. The decomposition of the gas and the precipitation of the involved metal brought up a platinum nano-object in a pillar shape on the normal commercial AFM probe tip. A SHIM system (Carl Zeiss, Orion Plus) equipped with the gas injection system (OmniProbe, OmniGIS) was used for the research. While the vacuum being kept to work, we injected platinum organic compound ((CH3)3(CH3C5H4)Pt) into the sample neighborhood and irradiated the helium ion beam with the shape of a point on the apex of the AFM probe tip. It is found that we can control the length of the Pt nano-pillar by irradiation time of the helium ion beam. The AFM probe which brought up a Pt nano-pillar is shown in Figure 1. It is revealed that a high-aspect-ratio Pt nano-pillar of ∼40nm diameter and up to ∼2000 nm length can be grown. In addition, for possible heating

  5. Electron postgrowth irradiation of platinum-containing nanostructures grown by electron-beam-induced deposition from Pt(PF3)4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; Hagen, C.W.; Li, J.; Thiel, B.L.; Dunn, K.A.; Mulders, J.J.L.; Randolph, S.; Toth, M.

    2009-01-01

    The material grown in a scanning electron microscope by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) using Pt(PF3)4 precursor is shown to be electron beam sensitive. The effects of deposition time and postgrowth electron irradiation on the microstructure and resistivity of the deposits were assessed by t

  6. Plasmonic Gold Helices for the visible range fabricated by oxygen plasma purification of electron beam induced deposits

    CERN Document Server

    Haverkamp, Caspar; Jäckle, Sara; Manzoni, Anna; Christiansen, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) currently provides the only direct writing technique for truly three-dimensional nanostructures with geometrical features below 50 nm. Unfortunately, the depositions from metal-organic precursors suffer from a substantial carbon content. This hinders many applications, especially in plasmonics where the metallic nature of the geometric surfaces is mandatory. To overcome this problem a post-deposition treatment with oxygen plasma at room temperature was investigated for the purification of gold containing EBID structures. Upon plasma treatment, the structures experience a shrinkage in diameter of about 18 nm but entirely keep their initial shape. The proposed purification step results in a core-shell structure with the core consisting of mainly unaffected EBID material and a gold shell of about 20 nm in thickness. These purified structures are plasmonically active in the visible wavelength range as shown by dark field optical microscopy on helical nanostructures. Most no...

  7. On the magnetic properties of iron nanostructures fabricated via focused electron beam induced deposition and autocatalytic growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, F.; Drost, M.; Vollnhals, F.; Späth, A.; Carrasco, E.; Fink, R. H.; Marbach, H.

    2016-09-01

    We employ Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) in combination with autocatalytic growth (AG) processes to fabricate magnetic nanostructures with controllable shapes and thicknesses. Following this route, different Fe deposits were prepared on silicon nitride membranes under ultra-high vacuum conditions and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microspectroscopy (STXM). The originally deposited Fe nanostructures are composed of pure iron, especially when fabricated via autocatalytic growth processes. Quantitative near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was employed to derive information on the thickness dependent composition. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in STXM was used to derive the magnetic properties of the EBID prepared structures. STXM and XMCD analysis evinces the existence of a thin iron oxide layer at the deposit-vacuum interface, which is formed during exposure to ambient conditions. We were able to extract magnetic hysteresis loops for individual deposits from XMCD micrographs with varying external magnetic field. Within the investigated thickness range (2-16 nm), the magnetic coercivity, as evaluated from the width of the hysteresis loops, increases with deposit thickness and reaches a maximum value of ˜160 Oe at around 10 nm. In summary, we present a viable technique to fabricate ferromagnetic nanostructures in a controllable way and gain detailed insight into their chemical and magnetic properties.

  8. Growth of doped silicon nanowires by pulsed laser deposition and their analysis by electron beam induced current imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, B; Berger, A; Christiansen, S [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Zhang, D; Clavel, R [Laboratory of Robotic Systems, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Michler, J, E-mail: bjoern.eisenhawer@ipht-jena.de [Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures Laboratory, EMPA-Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2011-02-18

    Doped silicon nanowires (NWs) were epitaxially grown on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition following a vapour-liquid-solid process, in which dopants together with silicon atoms were introduced into the gas phase by laser ablation of lightly and highly doped silicon target material. p-n or p{sup ++}-p junctions located at the NW-silicon substrate interfaces were thus realized. To detect these junctions and visualize them the electron beam induced current technique and two-point probe current-voltage measurements were used, based on nanoprobing individual silicon NWs in a scanning electron microscope. Successful silicon NW doping by pulsed laser deposition of doped target material could experimentally be demonstrated. This doping strategy compared to the commonly used doping from the gas phase during chemical vapour deposition is evaluated essentially with a view to potentially overcoming the limitations of chemical vapour deposition doping, which shows doping inhomogeneities between the top and bottom of the NW as well as between the core and shell of NWs and structural lattice defects, especially when high doping levels are envisaged. The pulsed laser deposition doping technique yields homogeneously doped NWs and the doping level can be controlled by the choice of the target material. As a further benefit, this doping procedure does not require the use of poisonous gases and may be applied to grow not only silicon NWs but also other kinds of doped semiconductor NWs, e.g. group III nitrides or arsenides.

  9. Unveiling the optical properties of a metamaterial synthesized by electron-beam-induced deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Woźniak, Paweł; Brönstrup, Gerald; Banyer, Peter; Christiansen, Silke; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The direct writing using a focused electron beam allows for fabricating truly three-dimensional structures of sub-wavelength dimensions in the visible spectral regime. The resulting sophisticated geometries are perfectly suited for studying light-matter interaction at the nanoscale. Their overall optical response will strongly depend not only on geometry but also on the optical properties of the deposited material. In case of the typically used metal-organic precursors, the deposits show a substructure of metallic nanocrystals embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. Since gold-containing precursor media are especially interesting for optical applications, we experimentally determine the effective permittivity of such an effective material. Our experiment is based on spectroscopic measurements of planar deposits. The retrieved permittivity shows a systematic dependence on the gold particle density and cannot be sufficiently described using the common Maxwell-Garnett approach for effective medium.

  10. Nanoscale Soldering of Positioned Carbon Nanotubes using Highly Conductive Electron Beam Induced Gold Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Mølhave, Kristian; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ method for controlled positioning of carbon nanotubes followed by highly conductive contacting of the nanotubes, using electron beam assisted deposition of gold. The positioning and soldering process takes place inside an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E...

  11. Ion Beam Induced Surface Modulations from Nano to Pico: Optimizing Deposition During Erosion and Erosion During Deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MoberlyChan, W J; Schalek, R

    2007-11-08

    Ion beams of sufficient energy to erode a surface can lead to surface modulations that depend on the ion beam, the material surface it impinges, and extrinsic parameters such as temperature and geometric boundary conditions. Focused Ion Beam technology both enables site-specific placement of these modulations and expedites research through fast, high dose and small efficient use of material. The DualBeam (FIB/SEM) enables in situ metrology, with movies observing ripple formation, wave motion, and the influence of line defects. Nanostructures (ripples of >400nm wavelength to dots spaced <40nm) naturally grow from atomically flat surfaces during erosion, however, a steady state size may or may not be achieved as a consequence of numerous controlled parameters: temperature, angle, energy, crystallography. Geometric factors, which can be easily invoked using a FIB, enable a controlled component of deposition (and/or redeposition) to occur during erosion, and conversely allow a component of etching to be incurred during (ion-beam assisted) deposition. High angles of ion beam inclination commonly lead to 'rougher' surfaces, however, the extreme case of 90.0{sup o} etching enables deposition of organized structures 1000 times smaller than the aforementioned, video-recorded nanostructures. Orientation and position of these picostructures (naturally quantized by their atomic spacings) may be controlled by the same parameters as for nanostructures (e.g. ion inclination and imposed boundary conditions, which are flexibly regulated by FIB). Judicious control of angles during FIB-CVD growth stimulates erosion with directionality that produces surface modulations akin to those observed for sputtering. Just as a diamond surface roughens from 1-D ripples to 2-D steps with increasing angle of ion sputtering, so do ripples and steps appear on carbon-grown surfaces with increase in angle of FIB-CVD. Ion beam processing has been a stalwart of the microelectronics industry

  12. The role of electron-stimulated desorption in focused electron beam induced deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dorp, Willem F.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;

    2013-01-01

    rate is lower at higher substrate temperatures. From Arrhenius plots we calculated the activation energy for desorption, Edes, of W(CO)6. We found an average value for Edes of 20.3 kJ or 0.21 eV, which is 2.5–3.0 times lower than literature values. This difference between estimates for Edes from FEBIP...

  13. Superconductivity and metallic behavior in Pb{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub δ} structures prepared by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winhold, M., E-mail: winhold@Physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Weirich, P. M.; Schwalb, C. H.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    Focused electron beam induced deposition as a direct-write approach possesses great potential to meet the demands for superconducting nanostructure fabrication especially regarding its 3D patterning capabilities combined with the high resolution in the nanometer regime. So far, however, it was not possible to fabricate superconducting structures with this technique. In this work, we present a lead-based superconductor prepared by focused electron beam induced deposition by dissociation of the precursor tetraethyllead. The as-grown structures exhibit metallic behavior and a minimum resistivity in the normal state of ρ = 16 μΩcm at T = 9 K followed by a superconducting transition at T{sub c} = 7.2 K.

  14. Electrically conducting, ultra-sharp, high aspect-ratio probes for AFM fabricated by electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jason, E-mail: jason.brown@physics.ox.ac.uk [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kocher, Paul; Ramanujan, Chandra S; Sharp, David N [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Torimitsu, Keiichi [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, 243-0198 (Japan); Ryan, John F [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    We report on the fabrication of electrically conducting, ultra-sharp, high-aspect ratio probes for atomic force microscopy by electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum. Probes of 4.0 ±1.0 nm radius-of-curvature are routinely produced with high repeatability and near-100% yield. Contact-mode topographical imaging of the granular nature of a sputtered gold surface is used to assess the imaging performance of the probes, and the derived power spectral density plots are used to quantify the enhanced sensitivity as a function of spatial frequency. The ability of the probes to reproduce high aspect-ratio features is illustrated by imaging a close-packed array of nanospheres. The electrical resistance of the probes is measured to be of order 100 kΩ. - Highlights: • Electrically conducting, ultra-sharp, high aspect-ratio probes for AFM with radius-of-curvature 4.0±±1.0 nm. • AFM probe fabrication by electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum. • Enhanced spatial resolution demonstrated through AFM of sputtered gold grains. • AFM imaging of deep clefts and recesses on a close-packed array of nanospheres.

  15. Graphene crystal growth by thermal precipitation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon precursor via patterned-iron thin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rius Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, relevant advances on graphene as a building block of integrated circuits (ICs have been demonstrated. Graphene growth and device fabrication related processing has been steadily and intensively powered due to commercial interest; however, there are many challenges associated with the incorporation of graphene into commercial applications which includes challenges associated with the synthesis of this material. Specifically, the controlled deposition of single layer large single crystal graphene on arbitrary supports, is particularly challenging. Previously, we have reported the first demonstration of the transformation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon (FIBID-C into patterned graphitic layers by metal-assisted thermal treatment (Ni foils. In this present work, we continue exploiting the FIBID-C approach as a route for graphene deposition. Here, thin patterned Fe layers are used for the catalysis of graphenization and graphitization. We demonstrate the formation of high quality single and few layer graphene, which evidences, the possibility of using Fe as a catalyst for graphene deposition. The mechanism is understood as the minute precipitation of atomic carbon after supersaturation of some iron carbides formed under a high temperature treatment. As a consequence of the complete wetting of FIBID-C and patterned Fe layers, which enable graphene growth, the as-deposited patterns do not preserve their original shape after the thermal treatment

  16. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-06-15

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  17. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L. D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-06-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  18. Low energy ion beam induced changes in structural and thermal properties of polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheem, A. M. Abdel; Atta, A.; Maksoud, M. I. A. Abdel

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study is extended for obtaining relation between the collision of ion beam with polycarbonate polymer (PC) and the introduced modification of technological applications. Polycarbonate films are irradiated by a 6 keV argon ion beam extracted from locally design cold cathode ion source with different ion fluences. The films are characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Mechanical tester, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The increase in ion beam irradiation leads to an increase in the tensile strength and reduction in elongation at break for PC. TGA Analysis shows that the thermal decomposition temperature of irradiated polycarbonate changes with ion fluence. The DSC graphs show improvements in thermal stability with increase in the activation energy after ion beam irradiation. Ion penetration depths and distributions of scattered atoms are calculated using SRIM Monte Carlo simulation programs.

  19. Microstructural analysis and Transport Properties of MoO and MoC nanostructures prepared by focused electron beam-induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makise, Kazumasa; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Shimojo, Masayuki; Shinozaki, Bunju

    2014-07-01

    By electron-beam-induced deposition, we have succeeded in the direct fabrication of nanowires of molybdenum oxide (MoOx) and molybdenum carbide (MoC) on a SiO2 substrate set in a scanning electron microscope. In order to prepare MoOx specimens of high purity, a precursor gas of molybdenum hexacarbonyl [Mo(CO)6] is used, mixed with oxygen gas. On the other hand, MoC is grown by mixing H2O gas with the precursor gas. The electrical transport properties of the nanowires are investigated by the DC four-terminal method. A highly resistive MoOx nanowire prepared from an as-deposited specimen by annealing in air shows nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and a high photoconductivity. The resistivity ρ of an as-deposited amorphous MoC (a-MoC) nanowire takes its maximum at a temperature T ~ 10 K and decreases to ~ 0 with decreasing temperature. This behavior of ρ(T) indicates the possible occurrence of superconductivity in a-MoC nanowires. The characteristic of ρ(T) below the superconducting transition temperature Tc ~ 4 K can be well explained by the quantum phase-slip model with a coherence length ξ(0) ~ 8 nm at T = 0.

  20. Electron Induced Surface Reactions of cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2: A Route to Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition of Pure Pt Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julie A; Wu, Yung-Chien; McElwee-White, Lisa; Fairbrother, D Howard

    2016-07-27

    Using mechanistic data from surface science studies on electron-induced reactions of organometallic precursors, cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2 (1) was designed specifically for use in focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of Pt nanostructures. Electron induced decomposition of adsorbed 1 under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions proceeds through initial CO loss as determined by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Although the Pt-Cl bonds remain intact during the initial decomposition step, larger electron doses induce removal of the residual chloride through an electron-stimulated desorption process. FEBID structures created from cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2 under steady state deposition conditions in an Auger spectrometer were determined to be PtCl2, free of carbon and oxygen. Coupled with the electron stimulated removal of chlorine demonstrated in the UHV experiments, the Auger deposition data establish a route to FEBID of pure Pt. Results from this study demonstrate that structure-activity relationships can be used to design new precursors specifically for FEBID.

  1. Superconductivity in the system Mo{sub x}C{sub y}Ga{sub z}O{sub δ} prepared by focused ion beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, P. M., E-mail: p.weirich@Physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Schwalb, C. H.; Winhold, M.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-05-07

    We have prepared the new amorphous superconductor Mo{sub x}C{sub y}Ga{sub z}O{sub δ} with a maximum critical temperature T{sub c} of 3.8 K by the direct-write nano-patterning technique of focused (gallium) ion beam induced deposition (FIBID) using Mo(CO){sub 6} as precursor gas. From a detailed analysis of the temperature-dependent resistivity and the upper critical field, we found clear evidence for proximity of the samples to a disorder-induced metal-insulator transition. We observed a strong dependence of T{sub c} on the deposition parameters and identified clear correlations between T{sub c}, the localization tendency visible in the resistance data and the sample composition. By an in-situ feedback-controlled optimization process in the FIB-induced growth, we were able to identify the beam parameters which lead to samples with the largest T{sub c}-value and sharpest transition into the superconducting state.

  2. Influence of the shape and surface oxidation in the magnetization reversal of thin iron nanowires grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron nanostructures grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID are promising for applications in magnetic sensing, storage and logic. Such applications require a precise design and determination of the coercive field (HC, which depends on the shape of the nanostructure. In the present work, we have used the Fe2(CO9 precursor to grow iron nanowires by FEBID in the thickness range from 10 to 45 nm and width range from 50 to 500 nm. These nanowires exhibit an Fe content between 80 and 85%, thus giving a high ferromagnetic signal. Magneto-optical Kerr characterization indicates that HC decreases for increasing thickness and width, providing a route to control the magnetization reversal field through the modification of the nanowire dimensions. Transmission electron microscopy experiments indicate that these wires have a bell-type shape with a surface oxide layer of about 5 nm. Such features are decisive in the actual value of HC as micromagnetic simulations demonstrate. These results will help to make appropriate designs of magnetic nanowires grown by FEBID.

  3. SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} thin films with variable refractive index prepared by ion beam induced and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla) and Dpt. Q. Inorganica, Avda. Americo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Yubero, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla) and Dpt. Q. Inorganica, Avda. Americo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Holgado, J.P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla) and Dpt. Q. Inorganica, Avda. Americo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Espinos, J.P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla) and Dpt. Q. Inorganica, Avda. Americo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla) and Dpt. Q. Inorganica, Avda. Americo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: arge@icmse.csic.es; Girardeau, T. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique de Poitiers, UMR 6630 CNRS, Bat SP2MI BP 30179, 86962-Futuroscope-Chasseneuil Cedex (France)

    2006-04-03

    SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} optical thin films with variable compositions have been prepared by ion beam induced and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (IBICVD and PECVD). While the films obtained by IBICVD were very compact, the PECVD ones with a high content of Ti presented a columnar microstructure. The formation of Si-O-Ti bonds and a change in the environment around titanium from four- to six-coordinated has been proved by vibrational and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. The refractive index increased with the titanium content from 1.45 to 2.46 or 2.09 for, respectively, the IBICVD and PECVD films. Meanwhile, the band gap decreased, first sharply and then more smoothly up to the value of pure TiO{sub 2}. It is concluded that the optical properties of SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} thin films can be properly tailored by using these two procedures.

  4. Fundamental edge broadening effects during focused electron beam induced nanosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Schmied

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores lateral broadening effects of 3D structures fabricated through focused electron beam induced deposition using MeCpPt(IVMe3 precursor. In particular, the scaling behavior of proximity effects as a function of the primary electron energy and the deposit height is investigated through experiments and validated through simulations. Correlated Kelvin force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy measurements identified conductive and non-conductive proximity regions. It was determined that the highest primary electron energies enable the highest edge sharpness while lower energies contain a complex convolution of broadening effects. Moreover, it is demonstrated that intermediate energies lead to even more complex proximity effects that significantly reduce lateral edge sharpness and thus should be avoided if desiring high lateral resolution.

  5. Beam-induced quench test of LHC main quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Holzer, E B; Kurfuerst, C; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Steckert, J; Verweij, A; Zamantzas, C

    2011-01-01

    Unexpected beam loss might lead to a transition of the accelerator superconducting magnet to a normal conducting state. The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system is designed to abort the beam before the energy deposited in the magnet coils reach a quench-provoking level. In order to verify the threshold settings generated by simulation, a series of beam-induced quench tests at various beam energies has been performed. The beam losses are generated by means of an orbital bump peaked in one of main quadrupole magnets (MQ). The analysis includes not only BLM data but also the quench protection system (QPS) and cryogenics data. The measurements are compared to Geant4 simulations of energy deposition inside the coils and corresponding BLM signal outside the cryostat.

  6. Energy deposition of thermal tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, E.

    2015-12-01

    The main role of vertically propagating waves in the general circulation is to transfer pseudo momentum from the region of generation to the region of wave breaking. The most prominent examples in atmospheric dynamics are planetary Rossby waves forced in the troposphere, which drive a poleward residual circulation in the winter stratosphere, and mesoscale gravity waves with tropospheric origin, which drive a summer-to-winter-pole circulation in the mesopasue region. In addition, the role of energy deposition by gravity waves has long been recognized to contribute substantially to the energy budget above the stratopause. In atmospheric circulation models, gravity waves are usually parameterized. Their energy deposition can be computed along with the momentum deposition and the turbulent diffusivity associated with wave breaking. In particular, the energy deposition is expressed in terms of secondary moments of the parameterized waves. Therefore, one is tempted to assume that the energy deposition of waves that are resolved in circulation models, e.g., Rossby waves and thermal tides, is automatically taken into account. This assumption is, however, flawed. We show that the energy deposition by resolved waves corresponds to the shear production (frictional heating) of the subgrid-scale turbulence model by which these waves are damped. Computational results from an atmospheric circulation model with energetically consistent treatment of momentum diffusion and frictional heating show that the energy deposition of thermal tides is substantial above the mesopause. This effect is either incomplete or even ignored in conventional atmospheric models that resolve the mesopause region. An idealized sensitivity experiment furthermore shows that thermal tides lead to a significant downward shift of gravity-wave breaking in the upper mesosphere.

  7. Testing beam-induced quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchmann, B.; Baer, T.; Bednarek, M.; Bellodi, G.; Bracco, C.; Bruce, R.; Cerutti, F.; Chetvertkova, V.; Dehning, B.; Granieri, P. P.; Hofle, W.; Holzer, E. B.; Lechner, A.; Nebot Del Busto, E.; Priebe, A.; Redaelli, S.; Salvachua, B.; Sapinski, M.; Schmidt, R.; Shetty, N.; Skordis, E.; Solfaroli, M.; Steckert, J.; Valuch, D.; Verweij, A.; Wenninger, J.; Wollmann, D.; Zerlauth, M.

    2015-06-01

    In the years 2009-2013 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been operated with the top beam energies of 3.5 and 4 TeV per proton (from 2012) instead of the nominal 7 TeV. The currents in the superconducting magnets were reduced accordingly. To date only seventeen beam-induced quenches have occurred; eight of them during specially designed quench tests, the others during injection. There has not been a single beam-induced quench during normal collider operation with stored beam. The conditions, however, are expected to become much more challenging after the long LHC shutdown. The magnets will be operating at near nominal currents, and in the presence of high energy and high intensity beams with a stored energy of up to 362 MJ per beam. In this paper we summarize our efforts to understand the quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets. We describe beam-loss events and dedicated experiments with beam, as well as the simulation methods used to reproduce the observable signals. The simulated energy deposition in the coils is compared to the quench levels predicted by electrothermal models, thus allowing one to validate and improve the models which are used to set beam-dump thresholds on beam-loss monitors for run 2.

  8. Beam-Induced Effects and Radiological Issues in High-Intensity High-Energy Fixed Target Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N V; Drozhdin, A I; Pronskikh, V S; Reitzner, D; Tropin, I S; Vaziri, K

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of accelerators for Megawatt proton and heavy-ion beams moves us into a completely new domain of extreme specific energies of up to 0.1 MJ/g (Megajoule/gram) and specific power up to 1 TW/g (Terawatt/gram) in beam interactions with matter. This paper is focused on deleterious effects of controlled and uncontrolled impacts of high-intensity beams on components of beam-lines, target stations, beam absorbers, shielding and environment. Two new experiments at Fermilab are taken as an example. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will explore the interactions and transformations of the world's highest-intensity neutrino beam by sending it from Fermilab more than 1,000 kilometers through the Earth's mantle to a large liquid argon detector. The Mu2e experiment is devoted to studies of the conversion of a negative muon to electron in the field of a nucleus without emission of neutrinos.

  9. Electrical characteristics of mixed Zr-Si oxide thin films prepared by ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, F.J., E-mail: fjferrer@us.e [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CSIC - U. Sevilla), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Frutos, F. [E.T.S. de Ingenieria Informatica, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CSIC - U. Sevilla), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jimenez, C. [Laboratoire de Materiaux et de Genie Physique, BP 257 - INPGrenoble Minatec - 3 parvis Louis Neel - 38016 Grenoble (France); Yubero, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC - U. Sevilla), c/ Americo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-07-31

    Mixed Zr-Si oxide thin films have been prepared at room temperature by ion beam decomposition of organometallic volatile precursors. The films were flat and amorphous. They did not present phase segregation of the pure single oxides. A significant amount of impurities (-C-, -CH{sub x}, -OH, and other radicals coming from partially decomposed precursors) remained incorporated in the films after the deposition process. This effect is minimized if the Ar content in the O{sub 2}/Ar bombarding gas is maximized. Static permittivity and breakdown electrical field of the films were determined by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage electrical measurements. It is found that the static permittivity increases non-linearly from {approx} 4 for pure SiO{sub 2} to {approx} 15 for pure ZrO{sub 2}. Most of the dielectric failures in the films were due to extrinsic breakdown failures. The maximum breakdown electrical field decreases from {approx} 10.5 MV/cm for pure SiO{sub 2} to {approx} 45 MV/cm for pure ZrO{sub 2}. These characteristics are justified by high impurity content of the thin films. In addition, the analysis of the conduction mechanisms in the formed dielectrics is consistent to Schottky and Poole-Frenkel emission for low and high electric fields applied, respectively.

  10. Helium ion beam induced growth of hammerhead AFM probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanda, G.; Veldhoven, E. van; Maas, D.J.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the direct-write growth of hammerhead atomic force microscope (AFM) probes by He+ beam induced deposition of platinum-carbon. In order to grow a thin nanoneedle on top of a conventional AFM probe, the authors move a focused He+ beam during exposure to a PtC precursor gas. In the f

  11. Ion-beam induced structure modifications in amorphous germanium; Ionenstrahlinduzierte Strukturmodifikationen in amorphem Germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Tobias

    2012-05-03

    Object of the present thesis was the systematic study of ion-beam induced structure modifications in amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers due to low- (LEI) and high-energetic (SHI) ion irradiation. The LEI irradiation of crystalline Ge (c-Ge) effects because the dominating nuclear scattering of the ions on the solid-state atoms the formation of a homogeneous a-Ge Layer. Directly on the surface for fluences of two orders of magnitude above the amorphization fluence the formation of stable cavities independently on the irradiation conditions was observed. For the first time for the ion-beam induced cavity formation respectively for the steady expansion of the porous layer forming with growing fluence a linear dependence on the energy {epsilon}{sub n} deposed in nuclear processes was detected. Furthermore the formation of buried cavities was observed, which shows a dependence on the type of ions. While in the c-Ge samples in the range of the high electronic energy deposition no radiation defects, cavities, or plastic deformations were observed, the high electronic energy transfer in the 3.1 {mu}m thick pre-amorphized a-Ge surface layers leads to the formation of randomly distributed cavities. Basing on the linear connection between cavity-induced vertical volume expansion and the fluence determined for different energy transfers for the first time a material-specific threshold value of {epsilon}{sub e}{sup HRF}=(10.5{+-}1.0) kev nm{sup -1} was determined, above which the ion-beam induced cavity formation in a-Ge sets on. The anisotropic plastic deformation of th a-Ge layer superposed at inclined SHI irradiation on the cavity formation was very well described by an equation derived from the viscoelastic Maxwell model, but modified under regardment of the experimental results. The positive deformation yields determined thereby exhibit above a threshold value for the ion-beam induced plastic deformation {epsilon}{sub e}{sup S{sub a}}=(12{+-}2) keV nm{sup -1} for the first

  12. Flux threshold of He-ion-beam induced nano-fuzz growth on hot tungsten below and above the displacement damage threshold energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Hussein; Bannister, Mark E.; Parish, Chad M.; Meyer, Harry M., III; Meyer, Fred W.

    2014-10-01

    Measurements of nano-fuzz growth on linear plasma devices have shown that below the displacement damage energy threshold, a minimum He-ion flux is required for nano-fuzz formation. We report comparative measurements of nano-fuzz flux thresholds below and above the displacement damage energy threshold using well characterized He ion beams at the ORNL MIRF. He-ion-beam flux distributions were optimized and measured at 218 and 2000 eV prior to ion beam impact on W coupons heated to about 1000 deg. C. After exposure times ranging from 4200 to 7200 seconds, the beam spots were examined by SEM over a 0.5 mm×0.5 mm grid, which was spatially correlated to the measured flux distributions. In this manner, we were able to obtain, in a single ion beam exposure, the flux dependence of the observed surface morphology changes at each of the two energies. At 218 eV, for fluxes below 1.5×1016/cm2s, ordered surface structures are observed, with great grain-to-grain variability, together with blisters and pinholes, while above this flux value, individual grain characteristics disappear, and nano-fuzz growth is observed. At 2 keV, very similar surface morphologies are observed, but the flux threshold for nano-fuzz formation has almost doubled, to 2.5 -- 3×1016/cm2s. Possible reasons for this increase will be discussed. Research sponsored by the LDRD Program of ORNL, managed by UT Battelle, LLC, for the US DOE.

  13. Beam-Induced Multipactoring and Electron-Cloud Effects in Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Scandale, Walter; Zimmermann, F

    2009-01-01

    In the beam pipe of high-energy proton or positron accelerators an “electron cloud” can be generated by a variety of processes, e.g. by residual-gas ionization, by photoemission from synchrotron radiation, and, most importantly, by secondary emission via a beam-induced multipactoring process. The electron cloud commonly leads to a degradation of the beam vacuum by several orders of magnitude, to fast beam instabilities, to beam-size increases, and to fast or slow beam losses. At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the cloud electrons could also give rise to an additional heat load inside cold superconducting magnets. In addition to the direct heat deposition from incoherently moving electrons, a potential “magnetron effect” has been conjectured, where electrons would radiate coherently when moving in a strong magnetic field under the simultaneous influence of a beam-induced electric “wake” field that may become resonant with the cyclotron frequency. Electron-cloud effects are already being observed w...

  14. Recent developments of ion beam induced luminescence: radiation hardness study of thin film plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alberto

    2005-10-01

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) measurements have been performed on thin film scintillators based on polyvinyltoluene (PVT) and 6FDA-DAD and BPDA-3F polyimides with H+ (1.85 MeV) and He+ (1.8-2.2 MeV) ion beams. The radiation hardness of the undoped polymers has been verified to depend mainly on the deposited energy density, polyimides exhibiting a higher resistance with respect to PVT. In PVT a new fluorescence band, attributed to the radical precursors of the network crosslinking, has been observed. The efficiency of doped polymers degradates with a higher rate, depending on the dye intrinsic lability. At high radiation fluences, the relative efficiency to NE102 of doped polyimides scintillators increases owing to the intrinsic host improved resistance.

  15. Electron beam induced surface activation of oxide surfaces for nanofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollnhals, Florian; Seiler, Steffen; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Steinrueck, Hans-Peter; Marbach, Hubertus [Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalische Chemie II and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials (ICMM), Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Woolcot, Tom; Thornton, Geoff [London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The controlled fabrication of structures on the nanoscale is a major challenge in science and engineering. Direct-write techniques like Electron Beam Induced Deposition (EBID) were shown to be suitable tools in this context. Recently, Electron Beam Induced Surface Activation (EBISA) has been introduced as a new focused electron beam technique. In EBISA, a surface, e.g. SiO{sub 2}, is irradiated by a focused electron beam, resulting in an activation of the exposed area. The activated area can then react and decompose precursor gases like iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO){sub 5}. This leads to a primary deposit, which continues to grow autocatalytically as long as Fe(CO){sub 5} is supplied, resulting in pure (> 90 % at.), crystalline iron nanostructures. We expand the use of this concept by exploring EBISA to produce metallic nanostructures on TiO{sub 2}(110) in UHV; atomistic insight into the process is obtained via Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and chemical insight via Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES).

  16. Ion beam induced luminescence characterisation of CVD diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Gonon, P.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The characterisation of the band structure properties of materials and devices by ion microprobe techniques has been made possible at the Melbourne MeV ion microprobe facility with the development of Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL). A number of diamond films grown by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapour Deposition (MPCVD) on silicon substrates are analysed. A preliminary study of the luminescence properties of these samples has revealed information not previously obtainable via traditional microprobe techniques. The optical effects of incorporating dopants during the deposition process is determined using IBIL. The presence of trace element impurities introduced during growth is examined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), and a measurement of the film thickness is made using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). 7 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Acetone and the precursor ligand acetylacetone : distinctly different electron beam induced decomposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warneke, Jonas; Van Dorp, Willem F.; Rudolf, Petra; Stano, Michal; Papp, Peter; Matejcik, Stefan; Borrmann, Tobias; Swiderek, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) acetylacetone plays a role as a ligand in metal acetylacetonate complexes. As part of a larger effort to understand the chemical processes in FEBID, the electron-induced reactions of acetylacetone were studied both in condensed layers and in the ga

  18. Energy Deposition and Quench Level Calculations for Millisecond and Steady-State Quench Tests of LHC Arc Quadrupoles at 4 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Shetty, N V; Chetvertkova, V; Lechner, A; Priebe, A; Sapinski, M; Verweij, A; Wollmann, D

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, beam-induced quench tests with 4 TeV protons were performed to probe the quench level of LHC arc quadrupole magnets at timescales corresponding to millisecond beam losses and steady-state losses. As the energy deposition in magnet coils cannot be measured directly, this study presents corresponding FLUKA simulations as well as estimates of quench levels derived with the QP3 code. Furthermore, beam loss monitor (BLM) signals were simulated and benchmarked against the measurements. Simulated and measured BLM signals are generally found to agree within 30 percent.

  19. Testing beam-induced quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, B; Bednarek, M; Bellodi, G; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Cerutti, F; Chetvertkova, V; Dehning, B; Granieri, P P; Hofle, W; Holzer, E B; Lechner, A; Del Busto, E Nebot; Priebe, A; Redaelli, S; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shetty, N; Skordis, E; Solfaroli, M; Steckert, J; Valuch, D; Verweij, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2015-01-01

    In the years 2009-2013 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been operated with the top beam energies of 3.5 TeV and 4 TeV per proton (from 2012) instead of the nominal 7 TeV. The currents in the superconducting magnets were reduced accordingly. To date only seventeen beam-induced quenches have occurred; eight of them during specially designed quench tests, the others during injection. There has not been a single beam- induced quench during normal collider operation with stored beam. The conditions, however, are expected to become much more challenging after the long LHC shutdown. The magnets will be operating at near nominal currents, and in the presence of high energy and high intensity beams with a stored energy of up to 362 MJ per beam. In this paper we summarize our efforts to understand the quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets. We describe beam-loss events and dedicated experiments with beam, as well as the simulation methods used to reproduce the observable signals. The simulated energy depositio...

  20. Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Bertucci, Cesar; Coates, Andrew; Cravens, Tom; Dandouras, Iannis; Shemansky, Don

    2008-01-01

    Most of Titan's atmospheric organic and nitrogen chemistry, aerosol formation, and atmospheric loss are driven from external energy sources such as Solar UV, Saturn's magnetosphere, solar wind and galactic cosmic rays. The Solar UV tends to dominate the energy input at lower altitudes of approximately 1100 km but which can extend down to approximately 400 km, while the plasma interaction from Saturn's magnetosphere, Saturn's magnetosheath or solar wind are more important at higher altitudes of approximately 1400 km, but the heavy ion plasma [O(+)] of approximately 2 keV and energetic ions [H(+)] of approximately 30 keV or higher from Saturn's magnetosphere can penetrate below 950km. Cosmic rays with energies of greater than 1 GeV can penetrate much deeper into Titan's atmosphere with most of its energy deposited at approximately 100 km altitude. The haze layer tends to dominate between 100 km and 300 km. The induced magnetic field from Titan's interaction with the external plasma can be very complex and will tend to channel the flow of energy into Titan's upper atmosphere. Cassini observations combined with advanced hybrid simulations of the plasma interaction with Titan's upper atmosphere show significant changes in the character of the interaction with Saturn local time at Titan's orbit where the magnetosphere displays large and systematic changes with local time. The external solar wind can also drive sub-storms within the magnetosphere which can then modify the magnetospheric interaction with Titan. Another important parameter is solar zenith angle (SZA) with respect to the co-rotation direction of the magnetospheric flow. Titan's interaction can contribute to atmospheric loss via pickup ion loss, scavenging of Titan's ionospheric plasma, loss of ionospheric plasma down its induced magnetotail via an ionospheric wind, and non-thermal loss of the atmosphere via heating and sputtering induced by the bombardment of magnetospheric keV ions and electrons. This

  1. High-resolution electron-beam-induced-current study of the defect structure in GaN epilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Shmidt, N M; Usikov, A S; Yakimov, E B; Zavarin, E E

    2002-01-01

    Electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) investigations of GaN structures grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition on (0001) sapphire substrates have been carried out. It is shown that the widths of the EBIC profiles for individual extended defects can be as small as about 100 nm. This width is observed to decrease with decreasing diffusion length and/or with increasing electron beam energy. The high spatial resolution is explained by the small diffusion length in the samples under study. The diffusion length is small even in structures with dislocation densities of about 10 sup 8 cm sup - sup 3 and carrier mobilities of about 600 cm sup 2 V sup - sup 1 s sup - sup 1 at 300 K and 1800 cm sup 2 V sup - sup 1 s sup - sup 1 at 125 K.

  2. Study of the beam-induced neutron flux and required shielding for DIANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Andreas, E-mail: abest1@nd.edu [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Couder, Manoel [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Famiano, Michael [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Lemut, Alberto [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wiescher, Michael [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Low energy accelerators in underground locations have emerged as a powerful tool for the measurement of critical nuclear reactions for the study of energy production and element synthesis in astrophysics. While cosmic ray induced background is substantially reduced, beam induced background on target impurities and depositions on target and collimator materials remain a matter of serious concern. The Dual Ion Accelerator for Nuclear Astrophysics (DIANA) is proposed to operate as a low-level background facility in an underground location. One of the main goals of DIANA is the study of neutron sources in stellar helium burning. For these experiments DIANA is a neutron radiation source which may affect other nearby low background level experiments. We therefore investigated the required laboratory layout to attenuate the neutron flux generated in a worst-case scenario to a level below the natural background in the underground environment. Detailed Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron propagation in the laboratory show that a neutron flux many orders of magnitude above expected values gets attenuated below the natural background rate using a 1 m thick water-shielded door as well as an emergency access/egress maze.

  3. Ionizing Energy Depositions After Fast Neutron Interactions in Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Caicedo, Ivan; Kierstead, James; Takai, Helio; Frojdh, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present the ionizing energy depositions in a 300 μm thick silicon layer after fast neutron impact. With the Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique, the ionizing energy deposition spectra of recoil silicons and secondary charged particles were assigned to (quasi-)monoenergetic neutron energies in the range from 180 keV to hundreds of MeV. We show and interpret representative measured energy spectra. By separating the ionizing energy losses of the recoil silicon from energy depositions by products of nuclear reactions, the competition of ionizing (IEL) and non-ionizing energy losses (NIEL) of a recoil silicon within the silicon lattice was investigated. The data give supplementary information to the results of a previous measurement and are compared with different theoretical predictions.

  4. Asteroid fragmentation approaches for modeling atmospheric energy deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Paul J.; Mathias, Donovan L.; Wheeler, Lorien F.

    2017-03-01

    During asteroid entry, energy is deposited in the atmosphere through thermal ablation and momentum-loss due to aerodynamic drag. Analytic models of asteroid entry and breakup physics are used to compute the energy deposition, which can then be compared against measured light curves and used to estimate ground damage due to airburst events. This work assesses and compares energy deposition results from four existing approaches to asteroid breakup modeling, and presents a new model that combines key elements of those approaches. The existing approaches considered include a liquid drop or "pancake" model where the object is treated as a single deforming body, and a set of discrete fragment models where the object breaks progressively into individual fragments. The new model incorporates both independent fragments and aggregate debris clouds to represent a broader range of fragmentation behaviors and reproduce more detailed light curve features. All five models are used to estimate the energy deposition rate versus altitude for the Chelyabinsk meteor impact, and results are compared with an observationally derived energy deposition curve. Comparisons show that four of the five approaches are able to match the overall observed energy deposition profile, but the features of the combined model are needed to better replicate both the primary and secondary peaks of the Chelyabinsk curve.

  5. A nuclear fragmentation energy deposition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, D. M.; Wilson, J. W.; Fogarty, T. N.; Buck, W. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    A formalism for target fragment transport is presented with application to energy loss spectra in thin silicon devices. A nuclear data base is recommended that agrees well with the measurements of McNulty et al. using surface barrier detectors. High-energy events observed by McNulty et al., which are not predicted by intranuclear cascade models, are well represented by the present work.

  6. Effect of layer thickness setting on deposition characteristics in direct energy deposition (DED) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Do-Sik; Baek, Gyeong-Yun; Seo, Jin-Seon; Shin, Gwang-Yong; Kim, Kee-Poong; Lee, Ki-Yong

    2016-12-01

    Direct energy deposition is an additive manufacturing technique that involves the melting of metal powder with a high-powered laser beam and is used to build a variety of components. In laser-assisted metal deposition, the mechanical and metallurgical properties achieved are influenced by many factors. This paper addresses methods for selecting an appropriate layer thickness setting, which is an important parameter in layer-by-layer deposition manufacturing. A new procedure is proposed for determining the layer thickness setting for use in slicing of a part based on the single-layer height for a given depositing condition. This procedure was compared with a conventional method that uses an empirically determined layer thickness and with a feedback control method. The micro-hardness distribution, location of the melting pool, and microstructures of the deposited layers after deposition of a simple target shape were investigated for each procedure. The experimental results show that even though the feedback control method is the most effective method for obtaining the desired geometry, the deposited region was characterized by inhomogeneity of micro-hardness due to the time-variable depositing conditions involved. The largest dimensional error was associated with the conventional deposition procedure, which produced a rise in the melting zone due to over-deposition with respect to the slicing thickness, especially at the high laser power level considered. In contrast, the proposed procedure produced a stable melting zone position during deposition, which resulted in the deposited part having reasonable dimensional accuracy and uniform micro-hardness throughout the deposited region.

  7. Energy deposition model for I-125 photon radiation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, M.C.; Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Munoz, A.; Oller, J.C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Limao-Vieira, P. [Laboratorio de Colisoes Atomicas e Moleculares, Departamento de Fisica, CEFITEC, FCT-Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Williart, A.; Garcia, G. [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain); Huerga, C.; Tellez, M. [Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, an electron-tracking Monte Carlo algorithm developed by us is combined with established photon transport models in order to simulate all primary and secondary particle interactions in water for incident photon radiation. As input parameters for secondary electron interactions, electron scattering cross sections by water molecules and experimental energy loss spectra are used. With this simulation, the resulting energy deposition can be modelled at the molecular level, yielding detailed information about localization and type of single collision events. The experimental emission spectrum of I-125 seeds, as used for radiotherapy of different tumours, was used for studying the energy deposition in water when irradiating with this radionuclide. (authors)

  8. GEANT4 simulation of electron energy deposition in extended media

    CERN Document Server

    Kadri, O; Gharbi, F; Trabelsi, A

    2007-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that GEANT4 yields a consistent description of electron transport processes in semi-infinite homogeneous and heterogeneous extended media. This comparison covers the e− energy deposition profiles in a range of elements from aluminum to tantalum through molybdenum at source energies from 0.3 to 1.0 MeV and at incident angles from 0° to 60°. The good agreement between simulation results and data confirms that the Monte Carlo used code is capable of accurate electron beam energy deposition calculation even under such conditions.

  9. Spectrum of energy depositions in the Auger Water Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Humberto

    1999-08-01

    The measured spectrum of energy depositions in a Water Cherenkov Detector (WCD) prototype for the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. A WCD (area 10 m2 )is located in the Puebla University campus at a depth of 800 g/cm2 (2200 m above sea level). Differential and integral spectra in a wide energy deposition range (0.5 - 150 of vertical equivalent muons) are presented. The problem of the WCD "self calibration" procedure (by rate of the muon events) is discussed. The characteristic change of the slopes of the differential spectrum at the transition from single muon signals to EAS signals is also discussed. The measured energy deposition spectrum at extreme signals is used to estimate the linearity of the response of the WCD PMTs. Key words: Auger array, water Cherenkov detector, extensive air showers

  10. ION-BEAM INDUCED GENERATION OF CU ADATOMS ON CU(100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREEMAN, M; BOERMA, DO

    1992-01-01

    Low-energy ion scattering was used to study on-beam induced adatom generation during irradiation of a Cu(100) surface with 6 keV Ne ions at a sample temperature of 60 K. It was found that the number of adatoms produced per incoming ion decreases from an average of 3.5 to a saturation level of 1.8 af

  11. Electron-Beam Induced Transformations of Layered Tin Dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, E; Huang, Y; Komsa, H-P; Ghorbani-Asl, M; Krasheninnikov, A V; Sutter, P

    2016-07-13

    By combining high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and associated analytical methods with first-principles calculations, we study the behavior of layered tin dichalcogenides under electron beam irradiation. We demonstrate that the controllable removal of chalcogen atoms due to electron irradiation, at both room and elevated temperatures, gives rise to transformations in the atomic structure of Sn-S and Sn-Se systems so that new phases with different properties can be induced. In particular, rhombohedral layered SnS2 and SnSe2 can be transformed via electron beam induced loss of chalcogen atoms into highly anisotropic orthorhombic layered SnS and SnSe. A striking dependence of the layer orientation of the resulting SnS-parallel to the layers of ultrathin SnS2 starting material, but slanted for transformations of thicker few-layer SnS2-is rationalized by a transformation pathway in which vacancies group into ordered S-vacancy lines, which convert via a Sn2S3 intermediate to SnS. Absence of a stable Sn2Se3 intermediate precludes this pathway for the selenides, hence SnSe2 always transforms into basal plane oriented SnSe. Our results provide microscopic insights into the transformation mechanism and show how irradiation can be used to tune the properties of layered tin chalcogenides for applications in electronics, catalysis, or energy storage.

  12. Beam-induced backgrounds in detectors at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Adrian

    2008-11-15

    There is general consensus in the high-energy physics community that the next particle collider to be built should be a linear electron-positron accelerator. Such a machine, colliding point-like particles with a well-defined initial state, would be an ideal complement to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and would allow high-precision measurements of the new physics phenomena that are likely to be discovered at the TeV energy scale. The most advanced project in that context is the International Linear Collider (ILC), aiming for a centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV and a luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in its first stage. One of the detector concepts that are currently being developed and studied is the so-called International Large Detector (ILD). A prime feature of the ILD concept is the usage of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) as the main tracker, which allows to reach the required momentum resolution, but which also has excellent particle identification capabilities and a highly robust and efficient tracking. The beam-beam interaction of the strongly focused particle bunches at the ILC will produce beamstrahlung photons, which can in turn scatter to electron-positron pairs. These pairs are a major source of detector backgrounds. This thesis explains the methods to study the effects of beam-induced electron-positron pair backgrounds with Mokka, a full detector simulation for the ILC that is based on Geant4, and it presents the simulation results for different detector configurations and various small modifications. The main focus of the simulations and their analysis is on the vertex detector and the TPC, but results for the inner silicon trackers and the hadronic calorimeters are shown as well. (orig.)

  13. Energy deposition from focused terawatt laser pulses in air

    CERN Document Server

    Point, Guillaume; Mysyrowicz, André; Houard, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    Laser filamentation is responsible for the deposition of a significant part of the laser pulse energy in the propagation medium. We found that using terawatt laser pulses and relatively tight focusing conditions in air, resulting in a bundle of co-propagating multifilaments, more than 50 % of the pulses energy is transferred to the medium, eventually degrading into heat. This results in a strong hydrodynamic reaction of air with the generation of shock waves and associated underdense channels for each short-scale filament. In the focal zone, where filaments are close to each other, these discrete channels eventually merge to form a single cylindrical low-density tube over a $\\sim 1~ \\mu\\mathrm{s}$ timescale. We measured the maximum lineic deposited energy to be more than 1 J/m.

  14. Ion beam induced stress formation and relaxation in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, T., E-mail: Tobias.Steinbach@uni-jena.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Reupert, A.; Schmidt, E.; Wesch, W. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Ion irradiation of crystalline solids leads not only to defect formation and amorphization but also to mechanical stress. In the past, many investigations in various materials were performed focusing on the ion beam induced damage formation but only several experiments were done to investigate the ion beam induced stress evolution. Especially in microelectronic devices, mechanical stress leads to several unwanted effects like cracking and peeling of surface layers as well as changing physical properties and anomalous diffusion of dopants. To study the stress formation and relaxation process in semiconductors, crystalline and amorphous germanium samples were irradiated with 3 MeV iodine ions at different ion fluence rates. The irradiation induced stress evolution was measured in situ with a laser reflection technique as a function of ion fluence, whereas the damage formation was investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The investigations show that mechanical stress builds up at low ion fluences as a direct consequence of ion beam induced point defect formation. However, further ion irradiation causes a stress relaxation which is attributed to the accumulation of point defects and therefore the creation of amorphous regions. A constant stress state is reached at high ion fluences if a homogeneous amorphous surface layer was formed and no further ion beam induced phase transition took place. Based on the results, we can conclude that the ion beam induced stress evolution seems to be mainly dominated by the creation and accumulation of irradiation induced structural modification.

  15. Calculation of the energy deposition in a water beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Schönbacher, Helmut

    1975-01-01

    The energy deposition per interacting proton in GeV/cm/sup 3/ and the star density in star/cm/sup 3/ have been calculated in a water cylinder with a Monte Carlo computer program. These calculations permit the estimation of the temperature rise, induced radioactivity, etc., in beam dumps of high energy accelerator and storage rings. The calculation assumed a cylinder of different diameters and lengths and an incident proton beam energy of 20, 200, 300 and 400 GeV. (5 refs).

  16. Nanostructured Electrodes Via Electrostatic Spray Deposition for Energy Storage System

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, C.

    2014-10-02

    Energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors are extremely important in today’s society, and have been widely used as the energy and power sources for portable electronics, electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles. A lot of research has focused on improving their performance; however, many crucial challenges need to be addressed to obtain high performance electrode materials for further applications. Recently, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique has attracted great interest to satisfy the goals. Due to its many advantages, the ESD technique shows promising prospects compared to other conventional deposition techniques. In this paper, our recent research outcomes related to the ESD derived anodes for Li-ion batteries and other applications is summarized and discussed.

  17. Energy Deposition in the Triplet and TAS Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Broggi, F

    2008-01-01

    Energy and power deposition in the low-beta insertion magnets may be the limiting factor in the choiche and/or performance for luminosity upgrade configuration for LHC. In this paper, after a general review of the problem about the type and properties of the secondary particles, the effect of the Target Secondary Absorber (TAS), for different distance l* of the insertion from the Interaction Point (I.P.) in various configurations is reported. Then the effect of the magnetic sequence of the quadrupoles for the two crossing plane, horizontal and vertical (H,V) is evaluated. Moreover the effect of the magnetic field of the solenoid is computed. All theese parametric studies tend to have a scaling law of the energy deposition in the insertion magnets vs. all the parametrs involved.

  18. Imprint reduction in rotating heavy ions beam energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A., E-mail: antoineclaude.bret@uclm.es [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); ETSI Industriales, Universidad Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Piriz, A.R., E-mail: Roberto.Piriz@uclm.es [ETSI Industriales, Universidad Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Tahir, N.A., E-mail: n.tahir@gsi.de [GSI Darmstadt, Plankstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The compression of a cylindrical target by a rotating heavy ions beam is contemplated in certain inertial fusion schemes or in heavy density matter experiments. Because the beam has its proper temporal profile, the energy deposition is asymmetric and leaves an imprint which can have important consequences for the rest of the process. In this paper, the Fourier components of the deposited ion density are computed exactly in terms of the beam temporal profile and its rotation frequency Ω. We show that for any beam profile of duration T, there exist an infinite number of values of ΩT canceling exactly any given harmonic. For the particular case of a parabolic profile, we find possible to cancel exactly the first harmonic and nearly cancel every other odd harmonics. In such case, the imprint amplitude is divided by 4 without any increase of Ω.

  19. Gamma-ray transfer and energy deposition in supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, D A; Harkness, R P; Swartz, Douglas A; Sutherland, Peter G; Harkness, Robert P

    1995-01-01

    Solutions to the energy-independent (gray) radiative transfer equations are compared to results of Monte Carlo simulations of the \\Ni\\ and \\Co\\ radioactive decay \\GR\\ energy deposition in supernovae. The comparison shows that an effective, purely absorptive, gray opacity, \\KG\\ \\sim (0.06 \\pm 0.01)Y_e cm^2 g^{-1}, where Y_e is the total number of electrons per baryon, accurately describes the interaction of \\GRs\\ with the cool supernova gas and the local \\GR\\ energy deposition within the gas. The nature of the \\GR\\ interaction process (dominated by Compton scattering in the relativistic regime) creates a weak dependence of \\KG\\ on the optical thickness of the (spherically symmetric) supernova atmosphere: The maximum value of \\KG\\ applies during optically thick conditions when individual \\GRs\\ undergo multiple scattering encounters and the lower bound is reached at the phase characterized by a total Thomson optical depth to the center of the atmosphere \\te\\ \\LA\\ 1. Our results quantitatively confirm that the qu...

  20. Energy deposition and radiological studies for the LBNF Hadron Absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Rakhno, I L; Tropin, I S; Eidelman, Y I

    2015-01-01

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition and radiological studies performed for the LBNF hadron absorber with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system - all with corresponding radiation shielding - was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable design options.

  1. Ion beam induced luminescence of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, R

    2001-01-01

    luminescence dead zone at the domain walls. Neodymium-yttrium-aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) was examined and the spectra measured as a function of temperature to show the evolution of intensity of the narrow line emission from the Nd rare earth. Shifts and changes in the intrinsic UV band in the YAG material were also apparent. Thin films of alumina grown on silica on a silicon substrate, along with some that contained copper nanoclusters were also examined. TRIM software was used to model the rate of excitation within the different layers of the material for the various implant energies and to identify the source of the luminescence profile observed in each case. Evidence of thin film interference fringes was apparent in the spectra by fringe patterns modulated onto the luminescence signal as a function of wavelength and film thickness. Analysis of an alkali feldspar material using IBL, and combined with work done using RL and CL experiments, showed a shift towards lower wavelengths of the main red/IR band with ...

  2. Atomic Layer Deposition of Bismuth Vanadates for Solar Energy Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Morgan

    2016-07-07

    The fabrication of porous nanocomposites is key to the advancement of energy conversion and storage devices that interface with electrolytes. Bismuth vanadate, BiVO4 , is a promising oxide for solar water splitting where the controlled fabrication of BiVO4 layers within porous, conducting scaffolds has remained a challenge. Here, the atomic layer deposition of bismuth vanadates is reported from BiPh3 , vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide, and water. The resulting films have tunable stoichiometry and may be crystallized to form the photoactive scheelite structure of BiVO4 . A selective etching process was used with vanadium-rich depositions to enable the synthesis of phase-pure BiVO4 after spinodal decomposition. BiVO4 thin films were measured for photoelectrochemical performance under AM 1.5 illumination. The average photocurrents were 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode using a hole-scavenging sulfite electrolyte. The capability to deposit conformal bismuth vanadates will enable a new generation of nanocomposite architectures for solar water splitting.

  3. Study of ion beam induced depolymerization using positron annihilation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, O. E-mail: opuglisi@dipchi.unict.it; Fragala, M.E.; Lynn, K.G.; Petkov, M.; Weber, M.; Somoza, A.; Dupasquier, A.; Quasso, F

    2001-04-01

    Ion beam induced depolymerization of polymers is a special class of ion beam induced chemical reaction which gives rise to catastrophic 'unzipping' of macromolecules with production of large amounts of the monomer, of the order of many hundreds monomer molecules per each macromolecule. The possible modification of the density at microscopic level prompted us to undertake a study of this effect utilizing positron annihilation techniques in Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) before and after bombardment with He{sup +} 300 keV ions at 200 deg. C. Preliminary results shown here indicate that before bombardment there is a reproducible dependence of nano-hole distribution on the sample history. Moreover at 200 deg. C we do not detect formation of new cavities as a consequence of the strong depolymerization that occurs under the ion beam. The possible correlation of these findings with transport properties of PMMA at temperature higher than the glass transition temperature will be discussed.

  4. Modeling Planetary Atmospheric Energy Deposition By Energetic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Christopher; Bougher, Stephen; Gronoff, Guillaume; Barthelemy, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    The structure, dynamics, chemistry, and evolution of planetary upper atmospheres are in large part determined by the available sources of energy. In addition to the solar EUV flux, the solar wind and solar energetic particle (SEP) events are also important sources. Both of these particle populations can significantly affect an atmosphere, causing atmospheric loss and driving chemical reactions. Attention has been paid to these sources from the standpoint of the radiation environment for humans and electronics, but little work has been done to evaluate their impact on planetary atmospheres. At unmagnetized planets or those with crustal field anomalies, in particular, the solar wind and SEPs of all energies have direct access to the atmosphere and so provide a more substantial energy source than at planets having protective global magnetic fields. Additionally, solar wind and energetic particle fluxes should be more significant for planets orbiting more active stars, such as is the case in the early history of the solar system for paleo-Venus and Mars. Therefore quantification of the atmospheric energy input from the solar wind and SEP events is an important component of our understanding of the processes that control their state and evolution. We have applied a full Lorentz motion particle transport model to study the effects of particle precipitation in the upper atmospheres of Mars and Venus. Such modeling has been previously done for Earth and Mars using a guiding center precipitation model. Currently, this code is only valid for particles with small gyroradii in strong uniform magnetic fields. There is a clear necessity for a Lorentz formulation, hence, a systematic study of the ionization, excitation, and energy deposition has been conducted, including a comparison of the influence relative to other energy sources (namely EUV photons). The result is a robust examination of the influence of energetic ion transport on the Venus and Mars upper atmosphere which

  5. Effect of Energy Input on the Characteristic of AISI H13 and D2 Tool Steels Deposited by a Directed Energy Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun; Lee, Min-Gyu; Sung, Ji Hyun; Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Da Hye

    2016-05-01

    Among the many additive manufacturing technologies, the directed energy deposition (DED) process has attracted significant attention because of the application of metal products. Metal deposited by the DED process has different properties than wrought metal because of the rapid solidification rate, the high thermal gradient between the deposited metal and substrate, etc. Additionally, many operating parameters, such as laser power, beam diameter, traverse speed, and powder mass flow rate, must be considered since the characteristics of the deposited metal are affected by the operating parameters. In the present study, the effect of energy input on the characteristics of H13 and D2 steels deposited by a direct metal tooling process based on the DED process was investigated. In particular, we report that the hardness of the deposited H13 and D2 steels decreased with increasing energy input, which we discuss by considering microstructural observations and thermodynamics.

  6. Photon beam convolution using polyenergetic energy deposition kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoban, P.W.; Murray, D.C.; Round, W.H. (Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand). Dept. of Physics)

    1994-04-01

    In photon beam convolution calculations where polyenergetic energy deposition kernels (EDKs) are used, the primary photon energy spectrum should be correctly accounted for in Monte Carlo generation of EDKs. This requires the probability of interaction, determined by the linear attenuation coefficient, [mu], to be taken into account when primary photon interactions are forced to occur at the EDK origin. The use of primary and scattered EDKs generated with a fixed photon spectrum can give rise to an error in the dose calculation due to neglecting the effects of beam hardening with depth. The proportion of primary photon energy that is transferred to secondary electrons increases with depth of interaction, due to the increase in the ratio [mu][sub ab]/[mu] as the beam hardens. Convolution depth-dose curves calculated using polyenergetic EDKs generated for the primary photon spectra which exist at depths of 0, 20 and 40 cm in water, show a fall-off which is too steep when compared with EGS4 Monte Carlo results. A beam hardening correction factor applied to primary and scattered 0 cm EDKs, based on the ratio of kerma to terma at each depth, gives primary, scattered and total dose in good agreement with Monte Carlo results. (Author).

  7. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Rakhno, Igor L; Tropin, Igor S

    2015-01-01

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system -- all with corresponding radiation shielding -- was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options.

  8. Energy deposition study of low-energy cosmic radiation at sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Pushpa

    In this dissertation work, a computer simulation model based on the Geant4 simulation package has been designed and developed to study the energy deposition and track structures of cosmic muons and their secondary electrons in tissue-like materials. The particle interactions in a cubic water volume were first simulated. To analyze the energy deposition and tracks in small structures, with the intention of studying the energy localization in nanometric structures such as DNA, the chamber was sliced in three dimentions. Validation studies have been performed by comparing the results with experimental, theoretical, and other simulation results to test the accuracy of the simulation model. A human body phantom in sea-level muon environment was modeled to measure the yearly dose to a human from cosmic muons. The yearly dose in this phantom is about 22 millirems. This is close to the accepted value for the yearly dose from cosmic radiation at sea level. Shielding cosmic muons with a concrete slab from 0 to 2 meters increased the dose received by the body. This dissertation presents an extensive study on the interactions of secondary electrons created by muons in water. Index words. Radiation Dosimetry Simulation, Track Structures, Sea-Level muon Flux, Energy Deposition

  9. Gas-assisted electron-beam-induced nanopatterning of high-quality titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazanova, A. V.; Costanzi, B. N.; Aristov, A. I.; Rikers, Y. G. M.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Kabashin, A. V.; Dahlberg, E. Dan; Belova, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition of titanium oxide nanopatterns is described. The precursor is titanium tetra-isopropoxide, delivered to the deposition point through a needle and mixed with oxygen at the same point via a flow through a separate needle. The depositions are free of residual carbon and have an EDX determined stoichiometry of TiO2.2. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal an amorphous structure of the fabricated titanium oxide. Ellipsometric characterization of the deposited material reveals a refractive index of 2.2-2.4 RIU in the spectral range of 500-1700 nm and a very low extinction coefficient (lower than 10-6 in the range of 400-1700 nm), which is consistent with high quality titanium oxide. The electrical resistivity of the titanium oxide patterned with this new process is in the range of 10-40 GΩ cm and the measured breakdown field is in the range of 10-70 V μm-1. The fabricated nanopatterns are important for a variety of applications, including field-effect transistors, memory devices, MEMS, waveguide structures, bio- and chemical sensors.

  10. High Energy Radial Deposition of Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Suschke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC coatings were deposited with a new direct ion deposition system using a novel 360 degree ion source operating at acceleration voltage between 4 and 8 kV. Cross-sectional TEM images show that the coatings have a three layered structure which originates from changes in the deposition parameters taking into account ion source condition, ion current density, deposition angles, ion sputtering and ion source movement. Varying structural growth conditions can be achieved by tailoring the deposition parameters. The coatings show good promise for industrial use due to their high hardness, low friction and excellent adhesion to the surface of the samples.

  11. The penetration, diffusion and energy deposition of high-energy photon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗正明; 勾成俊; WolframLaub

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory for calculating the transport of high-energy photons and their secondary charged particles. We call this new algorithm characteristic line method, which is completely analytic. Using this new method we cannot only accurately calculate the transport behaviour of energetic photons, but also precisely describes the transport behaviour and energy deposition of secondary electrons, photoelectrons, Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs. Its calculation efficiency is much higher than that of the Monte Carlo method. The theory can be directly applied to layered media situation and obtain a pencil-beam-modelled solution. Therefore, it may be applied to clinical applications for radiation therapy.

  12. The penetration, diffusion and energy deposition of high-energy photon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zheng-Ming(罗正明); Gou Cheng-Jun(勾成俊); Wolfram Laub

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory for calculating the transport of high-energy photons and their secondary chargedparticles. We call this new algorithm characteristic line method, which is completely analytic. Using this new method wecannot only accurately calculate the transport behaviour of energetic photons, but also precisely describes the transportbehaviour and energy deposition of secondary electrons, photoelectrons, Compton recoil electrons and positron-electronpairs. Its calculation efficiency is much higher than that of the Monte Carlo method. The theory can be directlyapplied to layered media situation and obtain a pencil-beam-modelled solution. Therefore, it may be applied to clinicalapplications for radiation therapy.

  13. Buoyancy Driven Mixing with Continuous Volumetric Energy Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtor, Adam J.; Jebrail, Farzaneh F.; Dennisen, Nicholas A.; Andrews, Malcolm J.; Gore, Robert A.

    2014-11-01

    An experiment involving a miscible fluid pair is presented which transitioned from a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) stable to RT unstable configuration through continuous volumetric energy deposition (VED) by microwave radiation. Initially a light, low microwave absorbing fluid rested above a heavier, more absorbing fluid. The alignment of the density gradient with gravity made the system stable, and the Atwood number (At) for the initial setup was approximately -0.12. Exposing the fluid pair to microwave radiation preferentially heated the bottom fluid, and caused its density to drop due to thermal expansion. As heating of the bottom fluid continued, the At varied from negative to positive, and after the system passed through the neutral stability point, At = 0, buoyancy driven mixing ensued. Continuous VED caused the At to continue increasing and further drive the mixing process. Successful VED mixing required careful design of the fluid pair used in the experiment. Therefore, fluid selection is discussed, along with challenges and limitations of data collection using the experimental microwave facility. Experimental and model predictions of the neutral stability point, and onset of buoyancy driven mixing, are compared, and differences with classical, constant At RT driven turbulence are discussed.

  14. Focused electron beam induced etching of titanium with XeF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenaker, F J; Cordoba, R; Fernandez-Pacheco, R; Magen, C; Zuriaga-Monroy, C; Ibarra, M R [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Stephan, O [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS UMR 8502, Universite Paris Sud XI, Batiment 510, F-91405 Orsay (France); De Teresa, J M, E-mail: deteresa@unizar.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    Titanium is a relevant technological material due to its extraordinary mechanical and biocompatible properties, its nanopatterning being an increasingly important requirement in many applications. We report the successful nanopatterning of titanium by means of focused electron beam induced etching using XeF{sub 2} as a precursor gas. Etch rates up to 1.25 x 10{sup -3} {mu}m{sup 3} s{sup -1} and minimum pattern sizes of 80 nm were obtained. Different etching parameters such as beam current, beam energy, dwell time and pixel spacing are systematically investigated, the etching process being optimized by decreasing both the beam current and the beam energy. The etching mechanism is investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Potential applications in nanotechnology are discussed.

  15. Origin of the Difference in the Resistivity of As-Grown Focused-Ion- and Focused-Electron-Beam-Induced Pt Nanodeposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. De Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the origin of the strong difference in the resistivity of focused-electron- and focused-Ga-ion-beam-induced deposition (FEBID and FIBID, resp. of Pt performed in a dual beam equipment using (CH33Pt(CpCH3 as the precursor gas. We have performed in-situ and ex-situ resistance measurements in both types of nanodeposits, finding that the resistivity of Pt by FEBID is typically four orders of magnitude higher than Pt by FIBID. In the case of Pt by FEBID, the current-versus-voltage dependence is nonlinear and the resistance-versus-temperature behavior is strongly semiconducting, whereas Pt by FIBID shows linear current-versus-voltage dependence and only slight temperature dependence. The microstructure, as investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, consists in all cases of Pt single crystals with size about 3 nm embedded in an amorphous carbonaceous matrix. Due to the semiconducting character of the carbon matrix, which is the main component of the deposit, we propose that the transport results can be mapped onto those obtained in semiconducting materials with different degrees of doping. The different transport properties of Pt by FEBID and FIBID are attributed to the higher doping level in the case of FIBID, as given by composition measurements obtained with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

  16. Damage evaluation in metal structures subjected to high energy deposition due to particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Peroni, L; Dallocchio, A

    2011-01-01

    The unprecedented energy intensities of modern hadron accelerators yield special problems with the materials that are placed close to or into the high intensity beams. The energy stored in a single beam of LHC particle accelerator is equivalent to about 80 kg of TNT explosive, stored in a transverse beam area with a typical value of 0.2 mm×0.2 mm. The materials placed close to the beam are used at, or even beyond, their damage limits. However, it is very difficult to predict structural efficiency and robustness accurately: beam-induced damage for high energy and high intensity occurs in a regime where practical experience does not exist. The interaction between high energy particle beams and metals induces a sudden non uniform temperature increase. This provokes a dynamic response of the structure entailing thermal stress waves and thermally induced vibrations or even the failure of the component. This study is performed in order to estimate the damage on a copper component due to the impact with a 7 TeV pro...

  17. Track structure and energy deposition distribution of heavy ions in liquid water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 卫增泉

    1996-01-01

    Progress in theoretical research into track structure and energy deposition distribution of heavy ions in introduced,and some research results are given,such as a Monte Carlo model of heavy ion track structure calculation,frequency distribution of energy deposition inside a electron track and radial dose distribution around a heavy ion path.Moreover,research direction in future is also analysed.

  18. Environmental TEM Study of Electron Beam Induced Electrochemistry of Pr0.64Ca0.36MnO3 Catalysts for Oxygen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mildner, Stephanie; Beleggia, Marco; Mierwaldt, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEVI) studies offer great potential for gathering atomic scale information on the electronic state of electrodes in contact with reactants. It also poses big challenges due to the impact of the high energy electron beam. In this article, we present...... of beam induced potentials is an important step for future controlled electrochemical experiments in an ETEM....

  19. Influence of deposited energy on shock wave induced by underwater pulsed current discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Dong; Liu, Yi; Liu, Si-Wei; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Zhou, Gu-Yue; Li, Hua; Lin, Fu-Chang; Pan, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated experimental system is established to study the influence of deposited energy on the intensity of the shock wave induced by underwater pulse discharge. Considering the time varying behavior of the arc, the calculation methods of the deposited energy into the plasma channel and the average arc resistance are proposed and presented. The effect of the breakdown process on the deposited energy and the shock wave is analyzed. It can be concluded that the shock wave intensity can be improved by depositing more energy in the first half oscillation period and increasing the arc resistance. It is also found that the energy deposition and the shock wave intensity are significantly influenced by the breakdown time delay and the shape of the initial plasma channel.

  20. Semiconductor characterization by scanning ion beam induced charge (IBIC) microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vittone, E; Olivero, P; Manfredotti, C; Jaksic, M; Giudice, A Lo; Fizzotti, F; Colombo, E

    2016-01-01

    The acronym IBIC (Ion Beam Induced Charge) was coined in early 1990's to indicate a scanning microscopy technique which uses MeV ion beams as probes to image the basic electronic properties of semiconductor materials and devices. Since then, IBIC has become a widespread analytical technique to characterize materials for electronics or for radiation detection, as testified by more than 200 papers published so far in peer-reviewed journals. Its success stems from the valuable information IBIC can provide on charge transport phenomena occurring in finished devices, not easily obtainable by other analytical techniques. However, IBIC analysis requires a robust theoretical background to correctly interpret experimental data. In order to illustrate the importance of using a rigorous mathematical formalism, we present in this paper a benchmark IBIC experiment aimed to test the validity of the interpretative model based on the Gunn's theorem and to provide an example of the analytical capability of IBIC to characteriz...

  1. Alloying of metal nanoparticles by ion-beam induced sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magudapathy, P.; Srivastava, S. K.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Amirthapandian, S.; Saravanan, K.; Das, A.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2017-01-01

    Ion-beam sputtering technique has been utilized for controlled synthesis of metal alloy nanoparticles of compositions that can be tuned. Analysis of various experimental results reveals the formation of Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles on a silica substrate. Surface-plasmon optical resonance positions and observed shifts of Ag Bragg angles in X-ray diffraction pattern particularly confirm formation of alloy nanoparticles on glass samples. Sputtering induced nano-alloying mechanism has been discussed and compared with thermal mixing of Ag and Cu thin films on glass substrates. Compositions and sizes of alloy nanoparticles formed during ion-beam induced sputtering are found to exceed far from the values of thermal mixing.

  2. Ion beam induced luminescence analysis of painting pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, A. [Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e, delle Tecnologie Inustriali (DIMTI), via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via Universita 2, I-35020, Legnaro, Padova (Italy); E-mail: quaranta@ing.unitn.it; Salomon, J. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, CNRS UMR 171, rue des Pyramides, 75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.C. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, CNRS UMR 171, rue des Pyramides, 75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Tonezzer, M. [Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e, delle Tecnologie Inustriali (DIMTI), via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via Universita 2, I-35020, Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Della Mea, G. [Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e, delle Tecnologie Inustriali (DIMTI), via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via Universita 2, I-35020, Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2007-01-15

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been exploited for the first time in the analysis of inorganic painting pigments. The elemental constituents of the different compounds have been determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The acquisition time of each spectrum ranges from 100 ms to a few seconds, depending on the luminescence intensity. The luminescence features are fingerprints of the different compounds, thus identifying the provenience of pigments of the same nominal composition. Organic varnish layers do not affect the IBIL features, allowing the identification of pigments, like lapis-lazuli, whose identification with PIXE is hindered by the varnish. IBIL proved to be a technique complementary to PIXE in the archeometry and cultural heritage analysis fields.

  3. History and modern applications of nano-composite materials carrying GA/cm2 current density due to a Bose-Einstein Condensate at room temperature produced by Focused Electron Beam Induced Processing for many extraordinary novel technical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Hans W. P.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Focused Electron Beam Induced Processing and early applications of this technology led to the possible use of a novel nanogranular material “Koops-GranMat®” using Pt/C and Au/C material. which carries at room temperature a current density > 50 times the current density which high TC superconductors can carry. The explanation for the characteristics of this novel material is given. This fact allows producing novel products for many applications using Dual Beam system having a gas supply and X.Y.T stream data programming and not using GDSII layout pattern control software. Novel products are possible for energy transportation. -distribution.-switching, photon-detection above 65 meV energy for very efficient energy harvesting, for bright field emission electron sources used for vacuum electronic devices like amplifiers for HF electronics, micro-tubes, 30 GHz to 6 THz switching amplifiers with signal to noise ratio >10(!), THz power sources up to 1 Watt, in combination with miniaturized vacuum pumps, vacuum gauges, IR to THz detectors, EUV- and X-Ray sources. Since focusing electron beam induced deposition works also at low energy, selfcloning multibeam-production machines for field emitter lamps, displays, multi-beam - lithography, - imaging, and - inspection, energy harvesting, and power distribution with switches controlling field-emitter arrays for KA of currents but with < 100 V switching voltage are possible. Finally the replacement of HTC superconductors and its applications by the Koops-GranMat® having Koops-Pairs at room temperature will allow the investigation devices similar to Josephson Junctions and its applications now called QUIDART (Quantum interference devices at Room Temperature). All these possibilities will support a revolution in the optical, electric, power, and electronic technology.

  4. Swift Heavy Ion Beam-induced Recrystallisation of Buried Silicon Nitride Layer (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Som

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on MeV heavy ion beam-induced epitaxial crystallisation of a buried silicon nitride layer are reported. Transmission electron micrographs and selected area diffraction patterns have been used to study the recrystallisation of an ion beam-synthesised layer. Complete recrystallisation of the silicon nitride layer having good quality interfaces with the top- and the substrate-Si has been obsorved. Recrystallisation is achieved at significantly lower temperatures of 100 and 200OC for oxygen and silver ions, respectively. The fact that recrystallisation is achieved at the lowest temperature for the oxygen ions is discussed on the basis of energy loss processes.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(4, pp.351-355, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1533

  5. Beam Induced Hydrodynamic Tunneling in the Future Circular Collider Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    A future circular collider (FCC) has been proposed as a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator, to explore particle physics in unprecedented energy ranges. The FCC is a circular collider in a tunnel with a circumference of 80-100 km. The FCC study puts an emphasis on proton-proton high-energy and electron-positron high-intensity frontier machines. A proton-electron interaction scenario is also examined. According to the nominal FCC parameters, each of the 50 TeV proton beams will carry an amount of 8.5 GJ energy that is equivalent to the kinetic energy of an Airbus A380 (560 t) at a typical speed of 850 km /h . Safety of operation with such extremely energetic beams is an important issue, as off-nominal beam loss can cause serious damage to the accelerator and detector components with a severe impact on the accelerator environment. In order to estimate the consequences of an accident with the full beam accidently deflected into equipment, we have carried out numerical simulations of interaction of a FCC beam with a solid copper target using an energy-deposition code (fluka) and a 2D hydrodynamic code (big2) iteratively. These simulations show that, although the penetration length of a single FCC proton and its shower in solid copper is about 1.5 m, the full FCC beam will penetrate up to about 350 m into the target because of the "hydrodynamic tunneling." These simulations also show that a significant part of the target is converted into high-energy-density matter. We also discuss this interesting aspect of this study.

  6. Monte Carlo calculation of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, Chen; Shuming, Peng; Dan, Meng; Yuehong, He; Heyi, Wang

    2014-10-01

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements has been theoretically studied using Monte Carlo code MCNP 5. The influence of many factors, including carrier gas, chamber size, wall materials and gas pressure, has been evaluated in the simulations. It is found that β rays emitted by tritium deposit much more energy into chambers flowing through with argon than with deuterium in them, as much as 2.7 times higher at pressure 100 Pa. As chamber size gets smaller, energy deposition decreases sharply. For an ionization chamber of 1 mL, β rays deposit less than 1% of their energy at pressure 100 Pa and only 84% even if gas pressure is as high as 100 kPa. It also indicates that gold plated ionization chamber results in the highest deposition ratio while aluminum one leads to the lowest. In addition, simulations were validated by comparison with experimental data. Results show that simulations agree well with experimental data.

  7. Biological characterization of low-energy ions with high-energy deposition on human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wilson, Paul; Thieberger, Peter; Lowenstein, Derek; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-09-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiation that is comprised of high-energy nuclear particles. Cancer patients are also exposed to high-energy nuclear particles when treated with proton and carbon beams. Nuclear interactions from high-energy particles traversing shielding materials and tissue produce low-energy (energy (HZE) particles and low-energy secondary ions of similar LET will have distinct biological effects for cellular and tissue damage endpoints. We investigated the biological effects of low-energy ions of high LET utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and compared these to experiments with HZE particles, that mimic the space environment produced at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL. Immunostaining for DNA damage response proteins was carried out after irradiation with 5.6 MeV/n boron (LET 205 keV/μm), 5.3 MeV/n silicon (LET 1241 keV/μm), 600 MeV/n Fe (LET 180 keV/μm) and 77 MeV/n oxygen (LET 58 keV/μm) particles. Low-energy ions caused more persistent DNA damage response (DDR) protein foci in irradiated human fibroblasts and esophageal epithelial cells compared to HZE particles. More detailed studies comparing boron ions to Fe particles, showed that boron-ion radiation resulted in a stronger G2 delay compared to Fe-particle exposure, and boron ions also showed an early recruitment of Rad51 at double-strand break (DSB) sites, which suggests a preference of homologous recombination for DSB repair in low-energy albeit high-LET particles. Our experiments suggest that the very high-energy radiation deposition by low-energy ions, representative of galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event secondary radiation, generates massive but localized DNA damage leading to delayed DSB repair, and distinct cellular responses from HZE particles. Thus, low-energy heavy ions provide a valuable probe for studies of homologous recombination repair in radiation responses.

  8. Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Johan Petur; Birger Morillon, Melanie; Lambrechtsen, Jess;

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa......Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa...

  9. Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Johan Petur; Birger Morillon, Melanie; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa......Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa...

  10. Evolution of Wave Energy Deposition Profile in HT-7 Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德; 石跃江; 匡光力; 刘岳修; 沈慰慈; 丁伯江

    2001-01-01

    Lower hybrid waves (LHWs) with a selected n‖ spectrum have been used to control the energy deposition profiles, and then the wave driven current profiles effectively in tokamak discharges. In our lower hybrid current drive experiment in the HT-7 tokamak, it was found that the set-up of the wave energy deposition profile is a graduation process. In the beginning phase of the wave injection duration, the waves (with different n‖ spectra)deposit almost all their energy in the central region of the plasma column, even if their n‖ are very different. Up to around one hundred milliseconds, the wave energy deposition profiles can only take their corresponding shapes according to the n‖ spectra of LHWs. It also shown that this evolution process is affected obviously by the LHW driven current profile, which has been formed early.

  11. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  12. Beam induced vacuum measurement error in BEPC II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    When the beam in BEPCII storage ring aborts suddenly, the measured pressure of cold cathode gauges and ion pumps will drop suddenly and decrease to the base pressure gradually. This shows that there is a beam induced positive error in the pressure measurement during beam operation. The error is the difference between measured and real pressures. Right after the beam aborts, the error will disappear immediately and the measured pressure will then be equal to real pressure. For one gauge, we can fit a non-linear pressure-time curve with its measured pressure data 20 seconds after a sudden beam abortion. From this negative exponential decay pumping-down curve, real pressure at the time when the beam starts aborting is extrapolated. With the data of several sudden beam abortions we have got the errors of that gauge in different beam currents and found that the error is directly proportional to the beam current, as expected. And a linear data-fitting gives the proportion coefficient of the equation, which we derived to evaluate the real pressure all the time when the beam with varied currents is on.

  13. Laser energy deposition and its dynamic uniformity for direct-drive capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yan; Wu, SiZhong; Zheng, WuDi [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2015-04-15

    The total laser energy deposition of multi-laser-beam irradiation is not only associated with the dynamic behavior of capsule but also the time-dependent angular distribution of the energy deposition of each beam around its axis. The dynamic behavior of laser energy deposition does not linearly respond to the dynamic behavior of laser irradiation. The laser energy deposition uniformity determines the symmetry of implosion. The dynamic behavior of laser energy deposition non-uniformity in OMEGA for laser with square beam shape intensity profile is investigated. In the case of smaller laser spot, the initial non-uniformity caused by laser beam overlap is very high. The shell asymmetry caused by the high initial laser irradiation non-uniformity is estimated by the extent of distortion of shock front which is not as severe as expected before the shock driven by main pulse arrives. This suggests that the large initial non-uniformity due to smaller laser spot is one of the elements that seed disturbance before the main pulse. The rms of laser energy deposition during the main pulse remains above 2%. Since the intensity of main driving pulse usually is several times higher than that of picket pulses, the non-uniformity in main pulse period may jeopardize the symmetrical implosion. When dynamic behavior of capsule is considered, the influence of beam pointing error, the target positioning error, and beam-to-beam power unbalance is quite different for the case of static capsule.

  14. Energy deposition characteristics of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators: Influence of dielectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, G.; Winkel, R.; Kotsonis, M.

    2015-08-01

    An experimental study aimed at the characterization of energy deposition of nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators was carried out. Special attention was given on the effect of the thickness and material used for dielectric barrier. The selected materials for this study were polyimide film (Kapton), polyamide based nylon (PA2200), and silicone rubber. Schlieren measurements were carried out in quiescent air conditions in order to observe density gradients induced by energy deposited. Size of heated area was used to qualify the energy deposition coupled with electrical power measurements performed using the back-current shunt technique. Additionally, light intensity measurements showed a different nature of discharge based upon the material used for barrier, for a fixed thickness and frequency of discharge. Finally, a characterisation study was performed for the three tested materials. Dielectric constant, volume resistivity, and thermal conductivity were measured. Strong trends between the control parameters and the energy deposited into the fluid during the discharge were observed. Results indicate that efficiency of energy deposition mechanism relative to the thickness of the barrier strongly depends upon the material used for the dielectric barrier itself. In general, a high dielectric strength and a low volumetric resistivity are preferred for a barrier, together with a high heat capacitance and a low thermal conductivity coefficient in order to maximize the efficiency of the thermal energy deposition induced by an ns-DBD plasma actuator.

  15. Energy deposition dynamics of femtosecond pulses in water

    CERN Document Server

    Minardi, Stefano; Gopal, Amrutha; Tamošauskas, Gintaras; Milián, Carles; Couairon, Arnaud; Pertsch, Thomas; Dubietis, Audrius

    2014-01-01

    We exploit inverse Raman scattering and solvated electron absorption to perform a quantitative characterization of the energy loss and ionization dynamics in water with tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond pulses. A comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations suggests that the ionization energy of water is 8 eV, rather than the commonly used value of 6.5 eV.

  16. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  17. Direct-Write Fabrication of Cellulose Nano-Structures via Focused Electron Beam Induced Nanosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganner, Thomas; Sattelkow, Jürgen; Rumpf, Bernhard; Eibinger, Manuel; Reishofer, David; Winkler, Robert; Nidetzky, Bernd; Spirk, Stefan; Plank, Harald

    2016-09-01

    In many areas of science and technology, patterned films and surfaces play a key role in engineering and development of advanced materials. Here, we introduce a new generic technique for the fabrication of polysaccharide nano-structures via focused electron beam induced conversion (FEBIC). For the proof of principle, organosoluble trimethylsilyl-cellulose (TMSC) thin films have been deposited by spin coating on SiO2 / Si and exposed to a nano-sized electron beam. It turns out that in the exposed areas an electron induced desilylation reaction takes place converting soluble TMSC to rather insoluble cellulose. After removal of the unexposed TMSC areas, structured cellulose patterns remain on the surface with FWHM line widths down to 70 nm. Systematic FEBIC parameter sweeps reveal a generally electron dose dependent behavior with three working regimes: incomplete conversion, ideal doses and over exposure. Direct (FT-IR) and indirect chemical analyses (enzymatic degradation) confirmed the cellulosic character of ideally converted areas. These investigations are complemented by a theoretical model which suggests a two-step reaction process by means of TMSC → cellulose and cellulose → non-cellulose material conversion in excellent agreement with experimental data. The extracted, individual reaction rates allowed the derivation of design rules for FEBIC parameters towards highest conversion efficiencies and highest lateral resolution.

  18. Hypersonic wave drag reduction performance of cylinders with repetitive laser energy depositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J; Hong, Y J; Li, Q; Huang, H, E-mail: fangjuan314@163.com [Academy of Equipment Command and Technology, Post Box 3380-86, Huairou Dis. Beijing 101416 (China)

    2011-02-01

    It has been widely research that wave drag reduction on hypersonic vehicle by laser energy depositions. Using laser energy to reduce wave drag can improve vehicle performance. A second order accurate scheme based on finite-difference method and domain decomposition of structural grid is used to compute the drag performance of cylinders in a hypersonic flow of Mach number 2 at altitude of 15km with repetitive energy depositions. The effects of frequency on drag reduction are studied. The calculated results show: the recirculation zone is generated due to the interaction between bow shock over the cylinder and blast wave produced by energy deposition, and a virtual spike which is supported by an axis-symmetric recirculation, is formed in front of the cylinder. By increasing the repetitive frequency, the drag is reduced and the oscillation of the drag is decreased; however, the energy efficiency decreases by increasing the frequency.

  19. A study of the energy dependence of the mean, truncated mean, and most probable energy deposition of high-energy muons in sampling calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchincloss, P.S.; De Barbaro, P.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Pillai, M.; Qun, F.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schumm, B.; Bolton, T.; Arroyo, C.; Bachmann, K.T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Blair, R.E.; Foudas, C.; King, B.J.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.B.; Schellman, H.; Yovanovitch, D.; Kinnel, T.S.; Sandler, P.; Smith, W.H. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States) Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States) Dept. of Physics, Columbia Univ. New York, NY (United States) Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States) Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))

    1994-04-11

    We have extracted the momentum dependence of the mean, the truncated mean and the most probable value of the energy deposited in a segmented, iron-scintillator, hadron calorimeter by high-energy muons. Data were drawn from a sample of momentum-analyzed, high-energy muons produced in charged-current neutrino interactions. The truncated mean energy deposition of high-energy muons traversing 20 calorimeter segments increases by approximately 16% per 100 GeV/c increase in muon momentum over the range 25-125 GeV/c; the most probable energy deposition increases by approximately 7%. These results are important for experiments at high-energy colliders (e.g., Tevatron, SSC and LHC) which use the dE/dx of high-energy muons to calibrate the response of electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters with tower geometry. The data are in qualitative agreement with GEANT3 (v3.15/308a) simulations. (orig.)

  20. High energy high rate pulsed power processing of materials by powder consolidation and by railgun deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, C.; Marcus, H. L.; Weldon, W. F.

    1987-03-01

    This exploratory research program was initiated to investigate the potential of using pulse power sources for powder consolidation, deposition and other High Energy High Rate Processing. The characteristics of the High Energy High Rate (1MJ/s) powder consolidation using megampere current pulses from a Homopolar Generator, have been defined. Molybdenum Alloy TZM, A Nickel based metallic glass, Copper graphite composites, and P/M Aluminum Alloy X7091 have been investigated. The powder consolidation process produced high densification rates. Density values of 80% to 99% could be obtained with sub second high temperature exposure. Specific energy input and applied pressure were controlling process parameters. Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) concepts underpin a fundamental understanding of pulsed power processing. Deposition experiments were conducted using an exploding foil device (EFD) providing an armature feed to railgun mounted in a vacuum chamber. The material to be deposited - in plasma, gas, liquid or solid state - was accelerated electromagnetically in the railgun and deposited on a substrate.

  1. Energy deposition at the bone-tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy nucleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Wilson, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The transport of nuclear fragmentation recoils produced by high-energy nucleons in the region of the bone-tissue interface is considered. Results for the different flux and absorbed dose for recoils produced by 1 GeV protons are presented in a bidirectional transport model. The energy deposition in marrow cavities is seen to be enhanced by recoils produced in bone. Approximate analytic formulae for absorbed dose near the interface region are also presented for a simplified range-energy model.

  2. Energy deposition dynamics of femtosecond pulses in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minardi, Stefano, E-mail: stefano@stefanominardi.eu; Pertsch, Thomas [Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Milián, Carles; Couairon, Arnaud [Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS, École Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Majus, Donatas; Tamošauskas, Gintaras; Dubietis, Audrius [Department of Quantum Electronics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9, bldg. 3, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gopal, Amrutha [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    We exploit inverse Raman scattering and solvated electron absorption to perform a quantitative characterization of the energy loss and ionization dynamics in water with tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond pulses. A comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations suggests that the ionization energy of water is 8 eV, rather than the commonly used value of 6.5 eV. We also introduce an equation for the Raman gain valid for ultra-short pulses that validates our experimental procedure.

  3. Deposition of luminescent thin films for solar energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, M.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices are a widely available, long lasting means of generating sustainable energy. Unfortunately, the integration of such devices into society is to date still limited. This is in part due to the much less than optimal efficiency of conversion of sunlight to electricity, but also by t

  4. Application of microdosimetric methods for the determination of energy deposition distributions by inhaled actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubineau-Laniece, I.; Castellan, G.; Caswell, R.S.; Guezingar, F.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Li, W.B.; Pihet, P

    1998-07-01

    The respiratory tract dosimetry model of ICRP Publication 66 takes into account the morphometry of lung tissues for the determination of average energy deposited by {alpha} emitters. However, it assumes a uniform distribution of radioactive material. The statistical fluctuations in frequency of cells hit and of energy deposited in individual target cells depends significantly on the real distribution of radioactive material, including possible high local concentrations. This paper is aimed at investigating the application of two established analytic methods, which have been combined to determine single and multi-event energy deposition distributions in epithelial cells of bronchiolar airway exposed to 5.15 MeV {alpha} particles ({sup 239}Pu). The relative importance of multi-event occurrence on the shape of the specific energy distributions is discussed. (author)

  5. Large Storm Energy Deposition and Solar Wind Drivers: A Study of Geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N. E.; Lopez, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    We examine the role of solar wind driving conditions in the deposition of large amounts of energy in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Our database consists of eight storms ranging in size, including especially the October and November 2003 superstorms. We estimate energy deposition into the ring current, ionospheric Joule heating, and auroral precipitation for each event and compare with relevant solar wind data. Results suggest that the magnetosonic Mach number of the solar wind may be a useful parameter in identifying the potential for large amounts of energy deposition, possibly because of the role of the bow shock in modulating the magnetosheath field, and therefore its influence of reconnection rates. We use Dst, ionospheric indices, and MHD simulation results where available to investigate the magnetospheric response to different types of solar wind energy input. Our results are examined with a focus on superstorms and the driving conditions observed in connection with them.

  6. Towards fast femtosecond laser micromachining of fused silica: The effect of deposited energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Sheeba; Bellouard, Yves

    2010-09-27

    Femtosecond laser micromachining of glass material using low-energy, sub-ablation threshold pulses find numerous applications in the fields of integrated optics, lab-on-a-chips and microsystems in general. In this paper, we study the influence of the laser-deposited energy on the performance of the micromachining process. In particular, we show that the energy deposited in the substrate affects its etching rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal energy deposition value. These results are not only important from an industrial point-of-view but also provide new evidences supporting the essential role of densification and consequently stress-generation as the main driving factor promoting enhanced etching rate following laser exposure.

  7. Controlling electron beam-induced structure modifications and cation exchange in cadmium sulfide–copper sulfide heterostructured nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Haimei [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sadtler, Bryce; Habenicht, Carsten [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Freitag, Bert [FEI Company, P.O. Box 80066, KA 5600 Eindhoven (Netherlands); Alivisatos, A. Paul [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kisielowski, Christian, E-mail: CFKisielowski@lbl.gov [National Center for Electron Microcopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The atomic structure and interfaces of CdS/Cu{sub 2}S heterostructured nanorods are investigated with the aberration-corrected TEAM 0.5 electron microscope operated at 80 kV and 300 kV applying in-line holography and complementary techniques. Cu{sub 2}S exhibits a low-chalcocite structure in pristine CdS/Cu{sub 2}S nanorods. Under electron beam irradiation the Cu{sub 2}S phase transforms into a high-chalcocite phase while the CdS phase maintains its wurtzite structure. Time-resolved experiments reveal that Cu{sup +}–Cd{sup 2+} cation exchange at the CdS/Cu{sub 2}S interfaces is stimulated by the electron beam and proceeds within an undisturbed and coherent sulfur sub-lattice. A variation of the electron beam current provides an efficient way to control and exploit such irreversible solid-state chemical processes that provide unique information about system dynamics at the atomic scale. Specifically, we show that the electron beam-induced copper–cadmium exchange is site specific and anisotropic. A resulting displacement of the CdS/Cu{sub 2}S interfaces caused by beam-induced cation interdiffusion equals within a factor of 3–10 previously reported Cu diffusion length measurements in heterostructured CdS/Cu{sub 2}S thin film solar cells with an activation energy of 0.96 eV. - Highlights: • Heterostructured nanorods were investigated at atomic resolution showing that they are free of extended defects. • Beam–sample interactions are controlled by current and voltage variations to provide pristine crystal structures. • Beam-induced migration of heterointerfaces are measured time-resolved and compared with Cu diffusion coefficients. • Beam–sample interaction overwrite possible signal improvements that can be expected by sample cooling.

  8. Simulation calculation for the energy deposition profile and the transmission fraction of intense pulsed electron beam at various incident angles

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Hai Liang; Zhang Jia Sheng; Huang Jian Jun; Sun Jian Feng

    2002-01-01

    The incident angles have a heavy effect on the intense pulsed electron beam energy deposition profile, energy deposition fraction and beam current transmission fraction in material. The author presents electron beam energy deposition profile and energy deposition fraction versus electron energy (0.5-2.0 MeV), at various incident angles for three aluminum targets of various thickness via theoretical calculation. The intense pulsed electron beam current transmission fractions versus electron energy (0.4-1.4 MeV) at various incident angles for three thickness of carbon targets were also theoretically calculated. The calculation results indicate that the deposition energy in unit mass of material surface layer increase with the rise of electron beam incident angle, and electron beam with low incident angle (closer to normal incident angle) penetrates deeper into the target material. The electron beams deposit more energy in unit mass of material surface layer at 60 degree-70 degree incident angle

  9. Photon Energy Deposition in Strong-Field Single Ionization of Multielectron Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Zhichao; Lu, Peifen; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Lin, Kang; Ma, Junyang; He, Feng; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Molecules exposed to strong laser fields may coherently absorb multiple photons and deposit the energy into electrons and nuclei, triggering the succeeding dynamics as the primary stage of the light-molecule interaction. We experimentally explore the electron-nuclear sharing of the absorbed photon energy in above-threshold multiphoton single ionization of multielectron molecules. Using CO as a prototype, vibrational and orbital resolved electron-nuclear sharing of the photon energy is observed. Different from the simplest one- or two-electron systems, the participation of the multiple orbitals and the coupling of various electronic states in the strong-field ionization and dissociation processes alter the photon energy deposition dynamics of the multielectron molecule. The population of numerous vibrational states of the molecular cation as the energy reservoir in the ionization process plays an important role in photon energy sharing between the emitted electron and the nuclear fragments.

  10. Optimization of Energy Scope for Titanium Nitride Films Grown by Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; MA Zhong-Quan; WANG Ye; WANG De-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The deposited energy during film growth with ion bombardment, correlated to the atomic displacement on the surface monolayer and the underlying bulk, has been calculated by a simplified ion-solid interaction model under binary collision approximation. The separated damage energies caused by Ar ion, different for the surface and the bulk, have been determined under the standard collision cross section and a well-defined surface and bulk atom displacement threshold energy of titanium nitride (TiN). The optimum energy scope shows that the incident energy of Ar+ around 110eV for TiN (111) and 80eV for TiN (200) effectively enhances the mobility of adatom on surface but excludes the damage in underlying bulk. The theoretical prediction and the experimental result are in good agreement in low energy ion beam-assisted deposition.

  11. Calculation of energy deposition, photon and neutron production in proton therapy of thyroid gland using MCNPX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Fornasie, Maria Rosa; de Denaro, Mario

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the MCNPX code has been used to simulate a proton therapy in thyroid gland, in order to calculate the proton energy deposition in the target region. As well as, we have calculated the photon and neutron production spectra due to proton interactions with the tissue. We have considered all the layers of tissue, from the skin to the thyroid gland, and an incident high energy pencil proton beam. The results of the simulation show that the best proton energy interval, to cover completely the thyroid tissue, is from 42 to 54 MeV, assuming that the thyroid gland has a 14 mm thickness and is located 11.2mm under the skin surface. The most percentage of deposited energy (78%) is related to the 54 MeV proton energy beam. Total photon and neutron production are linear and polynomial second order functions of the proton energy, respectively.

  12. Advancement in additive manufacturing & numerical modelling considerations of direct energy deposition process

    OpenAIRE

    Quanren Zeng; Zhenhai Xu; Yankang Tian; Yi Qin

    2016-01-01

    The development speed and application range of the additive manufacturing (AM) processes, such as selective laser melting (SLM), laser metal deposition (LMD) or laser-engineering net shaping (LENS), are ever-increasing in modern advanced manufacturing field for rapid manufacturing, tooling repair or surface enhancement of the critical metal components. LMD is based on a kind of directed energy deposition (DED) technology which ejects a strand of metal powders into a moving molten pool caused ...

  13. Surface energy evaluation of unhydrogenated DLC thin film deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladoiu, R.; Dinca, V.; Musa, G.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this paper is concerned with the surface energy evaluation by contact angle measurements of DLC films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) on different substrates: glass plate, zinc foil, stainless steel and alumina foil. TVA is an original method based on a combination of the evaporation by electron bombardment and anodic arc. The evaluation of the surface free energy has been carried out by surface energy evaluation system (SEE System). The influence of the experimental conditions is also investigated.

  14. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-07-18

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  15. Effect of Mach number on the efficiency of microwave energy deposition in supersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkov, V. A.; Karpenko, A. G.; Khoronzhuk, R. S.; Mashek, I. Ch.

    2016-05-01

    The article is devoted to experimental and numerical studies of the efficiency of microwave energy deposition into a supersonic flow around the blunt cylinder at different Mach numbers. Identical conditions for energy deposition have been kept in the experiments, thus allowing to evaluate the pure effect of varying Mach number on the pressure drop. Euler equations are solved numerically to model the corresponding unsteady flow compressed gas. The results of numerical simulations are compared to the data obtained from the physical experiments. It is shown that the momentum, which the body receives during interaction of the gas domain modified by microwave discharge with a shock layer before the body, increases almost linearly with rising of Mach number and the efficiency of energy deposition also rises.

  16. Particle production and energy deposition studies for the Neutrino Factory target station

    CERN Document Server

    Back, John J

    2013-01-01

    We present FLUKA and MARS simulation studies of the pion production and energy deposition in the Neutrino Factory baseline target station, which consists of a 4 MW proton beam interacting with a liquid mercury jet target within a 20 T solenoidal magnetic field. We show that a substantial increase in the shielding is needed to protect the superconducting coils from too much energy deposition. Investigations reveal that it is possible to reduce the magnetic field in the solenoid capture system without adversely affecting the pion production efficiency. We show estimates of the amount of concrete shielding that will be required to protect the environment from the high radiation doses generated by the target station facility. We also present yield and energy deposition results for alternative targets: gallium liquid jet, tungsten powder jet and solid tungsten bars.

  17. Particle production and energy deposition studies for the neutrino factory target station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, John J.; Densham, Chris; Edgecock, Rob; Prior, Gersende

    2013-02-01

    We present FLUKA and MARS simulation studies of the pion production and energy deposition in the Neutrino Factory baseline target station, which consists of a 4 MW proton beam interacting with a liquid mercury jet target within a 20 T solenoidal magnetic field. We show that a substantial increase in the shielding is needed to protect the superconducting coils from too much energy deposition. Investigations reveal that it is possible to reduce the magnetic field in the solenoid capture system without adversely affecting the pion production efficiency. We show estimates of the amount of concrete shielding that will be required to protect the environment from the high radiation doses generated by the target station facility. We also present yield and energy deposition results for alternative targets: gallium liquid jet, tungsten powder jet, and solid tungsten bars.

  18. Beam-induced radiation in the compact muon solenoid tracker at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Singh; P C Bhat; N V Mokhov; S Beri

    2010-05-01

    The intense radiation environment at the Large Hadron Collider, CERN at a design energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 14$ TeV and a luminosity of 1034 cm−2S−1 poses unprecedented challenges for safe operation and performance quality of the silicon tracker detectors in the CMS and ATLAS experiments. The silicon trackers are crucial for the physics at the LHC experiments, and the inner layers, being situated only a few centimeters from the interaction point, are most vulnerable to beam-induced radiation. We have recently carried out extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies using MARS program to estimate particle fluxes and radiation dose in the CMS silicon pixel and strip trackers from proton–proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 14$ TeV and from machine-induced background such as beam–gas interactions and beam halo. We will present results on radiation dose, particle fluxes and spectra from these studies and discuss implications for radiation damage and performance of the CMS silicon tracker detectors.

  19. Electron Beam Induced Artifacts During in situ TEM Deformation of Nanostructured Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rohit; Rentenberger, Christian; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan

    2015-11-01

    A critical assumption underlying in situ transmission electron microscopy studies is that the electron beam (e-beam) exposure does not fundamentally alter the intrinsic deformation behavior of the materials being probed. Here, we show that e-beam exposure causes increased dislocation activation and marked stress relaxation in aluminum and gold films spanning a range of thicknesses (80-400 nanometers) and grain sizes (50-220 nanometers). Furthermore, the e-beam induces anomalous sample necking, which unusually depends more on the e-beam diameter than intensity. Notably, the stress relaxation in both aluminum and gold occurs at beam energies well below their damage thresholds. More remarkably, the stress relaxation and/or sample necking is significantly more pronounced at lower accelerating voltages (120 kV versus 200 kV) in both the metals. These observations in aluminum and gold, two metals with highly dissimilar atomic weights and properties, indicate that e-beam exposure can cause anomalous behavior in a broad spectrum of nanostructured materials, and simultaneously suggest a strategy to minimize such artifacts.

  20. Room Temperature Ion-Beam-Induced Recrystallization and Large Scale Nanopatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpati, Biswarup; Ghosh, Tanmay

    2015-02-01

    We have studied ion-induced effects in the near-surface region of two eutectic systems. Gold and Silver nanodots on Silicon (100) substrate were prepared by thermal evaporation under high vacuum condition at room temperature (RT) and irradiated with 1.5 MeV Au2+ ions at flux ~1.25 x 10(11) ions cm-2 s-1 also at RT. These samples were characterized using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and associated techniques. We have observed that gold act as catalysis in the recrystallization process of ion-beam-induced amorphous Si at room temperature and also large mass transport up to a distance of about 60 nm into the substrate. Mass transport is much beyond the size (~ 6-20 nm) of these Au nanodots. Ag nanoparticles with diameter 15-45 nm are half-way embedded into the Si substrate and does not stimulate in recrystallization. In case of Au nanoparticles upon ion irradiation, mixed phase formed only when the local composition and transient temperature during irradiation is sufficient to cause mixing in accordance with the Au-Si stable phase diagram. Spectroscopic imaging in the scanning TEM using spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy provides one of the few ways to measure the real-space nanoscale mixing.

  1. Evidence against a universal electron-beam-induced virtual temperature in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Pia; Kaiser, Ute; Lehtinen, Ossi

    2016-04-01

    The continuous electron bombardment of a sample during transmission electron microscopy (TEM) drives atomic-scale transformations. In earlier studies the transformations appeared to proceed as if the sample was held at an elevated temperature, and, indeed, the hypothesis of an electron-beam-induced virtual temperature has gained traction in the scientific community. However, the sample is not significantly heated by the electron beam, meaning the processes are not activated by thermal vibrations. Instead, individual collisions between the electrons and the target atoms, and/or excitations of the electronic system, lead to the observed transformations. It is not a priori clear what virtual temperature can be assigned to the conditions under the electron irradiation, or even if such a temperature can be defined at all. Here, we attempt to measure the virtual temperature, specific to this system, by comparing the relative population of the three different divacancy defect states in single-layer graphene to the Boltzmann distribution using calculated energy levels of the defect states. The experiment is conducted using aberration-corrected high-resolution TEM at an acceleration voltage of 80 kV. Atomistic simulations are used to learn about the energetics of the defects. We find that the measured populations cannot be fitted to the Boltzmann distribution, and consequently no universal virtual temperature can be assigned to the system.

  2. Strain and Cohesive Energy of TiN Deposit on Al(001) Surface: Density Functional Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Liu, Xuejie

    2016-07-01

    To apply the high hardness of TiN film to soft and hard multilayer composite sheets, we constructed a new type of composite structural material with ultra-high strength. The strain of crystal and cohesive energy between the atoms in the eight structures of N atom, Ti atom, 2N2Ti island and TiN rock salt deposited on the Al(001) surface were calculated with the first-principle ultra-soft pseudopotential approach of the plane wave based on the density functional theory. The calculations of the cohesive energy showed that N atoms could be deposited in the face-centered-cubic vacancy position of the Al(001) surface and results in a cubic structure AlN surface. The TiN film could be deposited on the interface of β-AlN. The calculations of the strains showed that the strain in the TiN film deposited on the Al(001) surface was less than that in the 2N2Ti island deposited on the Al(001) surface. The diffusion behavior of interface atom N was investigated by a nudged elastic band method. Diffusion energy calculation showed that the N atom hardly diffused to the substrate Al layer.

  3. Focused-electron-beam-induced processing (FEBIP) for emerging applications in carbon nanoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, Andrei G. [Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias [Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kulkarni, Dhaval; Tsukruk, Vladimir V. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-07-27

    Focused-electron-beam-induced processing (FEBIP), a resist-free additive nanomanufacturing technique, is an actively researched method for ''direct-write'' processing of a wide range of structural and functional nanomaterials, with high degree of spatial and time-domain control. This article attempts to critically assess the FEBIP capabilities and unique value proposition in the context of processing of electronics materials, with a particular emphasis on emerging carbon (i.e., based on graphene and carbon nanotubes) devices and interconnect structures. One of the major hurdles in advancing the carbon-based electronic materials and device fabrication is a disjoint nature of various processing steps involved in making a functional device from the precursor graphene/CNT materials. Not only this multi-step sequence severely limits the throughput and increases the cost, but also dramatically reduces the processing reproducibility and negatively impacts the quality because of possible between-the-step contamination, especially for impurity-susceptible materials such as graphene. The FEBIP provides a unique opportunity to address many challenges of carbon nanoelectronics, especially when it is employed as part of an integrated processing environment based on multiple ''beams'' of energetic particles, including electrons, photons, and molecules. This avenue is promising from the applications' prospective, as such a multi-functional (electron/photon/molecule beam) enables one to define shapes (patterning), form structures (deposition/etching), and modify (cleaning/doping/annealing) properties with locally resolved control on nanoscale using the same tool without ever changing the processing environment. It thus will have a direct positive impact on enhancing functionality, improving quality and reducing fabrication costs for electronic devices, based on both conventional CMOS and emerging carbon (CNT/graphene) materials. (orig.)

  4. Energy distribution of secondary particles in ion beam deposition process of Ag: experiment, calculation and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundesmann, C.; Feder, R.; Lautenschlaeger, T.; Neumann, H. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Ion beam sputter deposition allows tailoring the properties of the film-forming, secondary particles (sputtered target particles and backscattered primary particles) and, hence, thin film properties by changing ion beam (ion energy, ion species) and geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle, polar emission angle). In particular, the energy distribution of secondary particles and their influence on the ion beam deposition process of Ag was studied in dependence on process parameters. Energy-selective mass spectrometry was used to measure the energy distribution of sputtered and backscattered ions. The energy distribution of the sputtered particles shows, in accordance with theory, a maximum at low energy and an E{sup -2} decay for energies above the maximum. If the sum of incidence angle and polar emission angle is larger than 90 , additional contributions due to direct sputtering events occur. The energy distribution of the backscattered primary particles can show contributions by scattering at target particles and at implanted primary particles. The occurrence of these contributions depends again strongly on the scattering geometry but also on the primary ion species. The energy of directly sputtered and backscattered particles was calculated using equations based on simple two-particle-interaction whereas the energy distribution was simulated using the well-known Monte Carlo code TRIM.SP. In principal, the calculation and simulation data agree well with the experimental findings. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Experimental investigation on the energy deposition and expansion rate under the electrical explosion of aluminum wire in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Kun; Shi, Yuanjie; Wu, Jian; Han, Ruoyu [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-12-28

    Experimental investigations on the electrical explosion of aluminum wire using negative polarity current in vacuum are presented. Current pulses with rise rates of 40 A/ns, 80 A/ns, and 120 A/ns are generated for investigating the influence of current rise rate on energy deposition. Experimental results show a significant increase of energy deposition into the wire before the voltage breakdown with the increase of current rise rate. The influence of wire dimension on energy deposition is investigated as well. Decreasing the wire length allows more energy to be deposited into the wire. The energy deposition of a 0.5 cm-long wire explosion is ∼2.5 times higher than the energy deposition of a 2 cm-long wire explosion. The dependence of the energy deposition on wire diameter demonstrates a maximum energy deposition of 2.7 eV/atom with a diameter of ∼18 μm. Substantial increase in energy deposition is observed in the electrical explosion of aluminum wire with polyimide coating. A laser probe is applied to construct the shadowgraphy, schlieren, and interferometry diagnostics. The morphology and expansion trajectory of exploding products are analyzed based on the shadowgram. The interference phase shift is reconstructed from the interferogram. Parallel dual wires are exploded to estimate the expansion velocity of the plasma shell.

  6. Energy bandgap variation in oblique angle-deposited indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyurin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Cho, Jaehee, E-mail: jcho@chonbuk.ac.kr [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Semiconductor Physics Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Jong Kyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Fred Schubert, E. [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2016-01-25

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited using the oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique exhibit a strong correlation between structural and optical properties, especially the optical bandgap energy. The microstructural properties of ITO thin films are strongly influenced by the tilt angle used during the OAD process. When changing the tilt angle, the refractive index, porosity, and optical bandgap energy of ITO films also change due to the existence of a preferential growth direction at the interface between ITO and the substrate. Experiments reveal that the ITO film's optical bandgap varies from 3.98 eV (at normal incident deposition) to 3.87 eV (at a 60° tilt angle)

  7. Evaluation of eruptive energy of a pyroclastic deposit applying fractal geometry to fragment size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Marino, Joali; Morgavi, Daniele; Di Vito, Mauro; de Vita, Sandro; Sansivero, Fabio; Perugini, Diego

    2016-04-01

    Fractal fragmentation theory has been applied to characterize the particle size distribution of pyroclastic deposits generated by volcanic explosions. Recent works have demonstrated that fractal dimension on grain size distributions can be used as a proxy for estimating the energy associated with volcanic eruptions. In this work we seek to establish a preliminary analytical protocol that can be applied to better characterize volcanic fall deposits and derive the potential energy for fragmentation that was stored in the magma prior/during an explosive eruption. The methodology is based on two different techniques for determining the grain-size distribution of the pyroclastic samples: 1) dry manual sieving (particles larger than 297μm), and 2) automatic grain size analysis via a CamSizer-P4®device, the latter measure the distribution of projected area, obtaining a cumulative distribution based on volume fraction for particles up to 30mm. Size distribution data have been analyzed by applying the fractal fragmentation theory estimating the value of Df, i.e. the fractal dimension of fragmentation. In order to test our protocol we studied the Cretaio eruption, Ischia island, Italy. Results indicate that size distributions of pyroclastic fall deposits follow a fractal law, indicating that the fragmentation process of these deposits reflects a scale-invariant fragmentation mechanism. Matching the results from manual and automated techniques allows us to obtain a value of the "fragmentation energy" from the explosive eruptive events that generate the Cretaio deposits. We highlight the importance of these results, based on fractal statistics, as an additional volcanological tool for addressing volcanic risk based on the analyses of grain size distributions of natural pyroclastic deposits. Keywords: eruptive energy, fractal dimension of fragmentation, pyroclastic fallout.

  8. Energy deposition characteristics of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators: Influence of dielectric material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correale, G.; Winkel, R.; Kotsonis, M.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study aimed at the characterization of energy deposition of nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators was carried out. Special attention was given on the effect of the thickness and material used for dielectric barrier. The selected materials for this study we

  9. Recent Development of Advanced Electrode Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2016-10-01

    Electrode materials play a decisive role in almost all electrochemical energy storage devices, determining their overall performance. Proper selection, design and fabrication of electrode materials have thus been regarded as one of the most critical steps in achieving high electrochemical energy storage performance. As an advanced nanotechnology for thin films and surfaces with conformal interfacial features and well controllable deposition thickness, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been successfully developed for deposition and surface modification of electrode materials, where there are considerable issues of interfacial and surface chemistry at atomic and nanometer scale. In addition, ALD has shown great potential in construction of novel nanostructured active materials that otherwise can be hardly obtained by other processing techniques, such as those solution-based processing and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. This review focuses on the recent development of ALD for the design and delivery of advanced electrode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, where typical examples will be highlighted and analyzed, and the merits and challenges of ALD for applications in energy storage will also be discussed.

  10. Modeling reaction pathways of low energy particle deposition on thiophene via ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Jasmine D.; Phillpot, Simon R.; Iordanova, Nedialka; Sinnott, Susan B.

    2011-07-01

    Chemical reactions of thiophene with organic molecules are of interest to modify thermally deposited coatings of conductive polymers. Here, energy barriers for reactions involving thiophene and small hydrocarbon radicals are identified. Enthalpies of formation involving reactants are also calculated using the B3LYP, BMK, and B98 hybrid functionals within the G AUSSIAN03 program. Experimental values, G3, and CBS-QB3 calculations are used as standards, due to their accurate thermochemistry parameters. The BMK functional is found to perform best for the selected organic molecules. These results provide insights into the reactivity of several polymerization and deposition processes.

  11. Study of Energy Deposition and Activation for the LINAC4 Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, F; Mauro, E; Mereghetti, A; Silari, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    This document provides estimates of energy deposition and activation for the dump of the future LINAC4 accelerator. Detailed maps of power density deposited in the dump are given, allowing to perform further thermo mechanical studies. Residual dose rates at a few cooling times for different irradiation scenarios have been calculated. Moreover, the air activation has been evaluated and doses to the reference population group and to a worker intervening in the cave at the shutdown have been predicted. Calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo particle transport and interaction code FLUKA.

  12. Lime-mud layers in high-energy tidal channels: a record of hurricane deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, E.A.; Steinen, R.P.; Dill, R.F.; Major, R.

    1993-01-01

    During or immediately following the transit of Hurricane Andrew (August 23-24, 1992) across the northern part of the Great Bahama Bank, thin laminated beds of carbonate mud were deposited in high-energy subtidal channels (4 m depth) through the ooid shoals of south Cat Cay and Joulters Cays. Thicker, more cohesive (and therefore older) mud beds and angular mud fragments associated with ooids from Joulters Cays have similar characteristics but lack fresh plant fragments. We infer that these older beds were similarly deposited and thus record the passage of previous hurricanes or tropical storms. -from Authors

  13. Electron-Beam-Induced Antiphase Boundary Reconstructions in a ZrO2-LSMO Pillar-Matrix System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Sigle, Wilfried; Kelsch, Marion; Habermeier, Hanns-Ulrich; van Aken, Peter A

    2016-09-14

    The availability of aberration correctors for the probe-forming lenses makes simultaneous modification and characterization of materials down to atomic scale inside a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) realizable. In this work, we report on the electron-beam-induced reconstructions of three types of antiphase boundaries (APBs) in a probe-aberration-corrected TEM. With the utilization of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), annular bright-field STEM, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, the motion of both heavy element Mn and light element O atomic columns under moderate electron beam irradiation are revealed at atomic resolution. Besides, Mn segregated in the APBs was observed to have reduced valence states which can be directly correlated with oxygen loss. Charge states of the APBs are finally discussed on the basis of these experimental results. This study provides support for the design of radiation-engineering solid-oxide fuel cell materials.

  14. Laser energy density, structure and properties of pulsed-laser deposited zinc oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoutsouva, M.G.; Panagopoulos, C.N. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, Athens 15780 (Greece); Kompitsas, M., E-mail: mcomp@eie.gr [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, Vasileos Konstantinou Ave. 48, Athens 11635 (Greece)

    2011-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition in an oxygen-reactive atmosphere at 20 Pa and a constant substrate temperature at 300 deg. C. A pulsed KrF excimer laser, operated at 248 nm with pulse duration 10 ns, was used to ablate the ceramic zinc oxide target. The structure, the optical and electrical properties of the as-deposited films were studied in dependence of the laser energy density in the 1.2-2.8 J/cm{sup 2} range, with the aid of X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscope, Transmission Spectroscopy techniques, and the Van der Pauw method, respectively. The results indicated that the structural and optical properties of the zinc oxide films were improved by increasing the laser energy density of the ablating laser. The surface roughness of the zinc oxide film increased with the decrease of laser energy density and both the optical bang gap and the electrical resistivity of the film were significantly affected by the laser energy density.

  15. High energy conversion efficiency in laser-proton acceleration by controlling laser-energy deposition onto thin foil targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, C. M. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Robinson, A. P. L.; Markey, K.; Scott, R. H. H.; Lancaster, K. L.; Musgrave, I. O.; Spindloe, C.; Winstone, T.; Wyatt, D.; Neely, D. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Rosinski, M.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Deppert, O. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Batani, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Universita di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milan (Italy); Davies, J. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Fusion Science Center for Extreme States of Matter, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Hassan, S. M.; Tatarakis, M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Centre for Plasma Physics and Lasers, 73133 Chania, 74100 Rethymno, Crete (Greece); and others

    2014-02-24

    An all-optical approach to laser-proton acceleration enhancement is investigated using the simplest of target designs to demonstrate application-relevant levels of energy conversion efficiency between laser and protons. Controlled deposition of laser energy, in the form of a double-pulse temporal envelope, is investigated in combination with thin foil targets in which recirculation of laser-accelerated electrons can lead to optimal conditions for coupling laser drive energy into the proton beam. This approach is shown to deliver a substantial enhancement in the coupling of laser energy to 5–30 MeV protons, compared to single pulse irradiation, reaching a record high 15% conversion efficiency with a temporal separation of 1 ps between the two pulses and a 5 μm-thick Au foil. A 1D simulation code is used to support and explain the origin of the observation of an optimum pulse separation of ∼1 ps.

  16. Energy Deposition and Condition of the Metal Core in Exploding Wire Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Rosenthal, S. E.; Struve, K. W.; McDaniel, D. H.; Waisman, E. M.; Sasorov, P. V.

    2002-11-01

    Measurements of the Joule energy deposition into exploding wire and its relation with condition of the expanding wire core are presented. Wires of nine different metals with diameters of 10-30 microns, have been exploded by fast 150A/ns and slow 20A/ns pulses, in vacuum and in air. It has been shown by interferometry and light emission that expanding wire core has different conditions. The substances with small atomization enthalpy (Ag, Al, Cu, Au) demonstrate full vaporization of the wire core. The refractory metals (Ti, Pt, Mo, W) demonstrates that core consists from vapor and small and hot microparticles. In this case we observe "firework effect" when large radiation from the wire exceed the energy deposition time in a three order of magnitude. For non-refractory metals radiation dropping fast in 100 ns time scale due to effective adiabatic cooling. It is possible if main part of the metal core was vaporized. The interferometrical investigation of the refraction coefficient of expanding metal core is proof this conclusion. It has been shown that energy deposition before surface breakdown dependent strongly from current rate, surface coatings, environment, wire diameter and radial electric field. The regime of wire explosion in vacuum without shunting plasma shell has been realized for fast exploding mode. In this case we observe anomaly high energy deposition in to the wire core exceeding regular value in almost 20 times. The experimental results for Al wire have been compared with ALEGRA 2D MHD simulations. *Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  17. Characteristic properties of the Casimir free energy for metal films deposited on metallic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Casimir free energy and pressure of thin metal films deposited on metallic plates are considered using the Lifshitz theory and the Drude and plasma model approaches to the role of conduction electrons. The bound electrons are taken into account by using the complete optical data of film and plate metals. It is shown that for films of several tens of nanometers thickness the Casimir free energy and pressure calculated using these approaches differ by hundreds and thousands percent and can be easily discriminated experimentally. According to our results, the free energy of a metal film does not vanish in the limiting case of ideal metal if the Drude model approach is used in contradiction with the fact that the fluctuating field cannot penetrate in its interior. Numerical computations of the Casimir free energy and pressure of Ag and Au films deposited on Cu and Al plates have been performed using both theoretical approaches. It is shown that the free energy of a film can be both negative and positive depending on the metals used. For a Au film on a Ag plate and vice versa the Casimir energy of a film changes its sign with increasing film thickness. Applications of the obtained results for resolving the Casimir puzzle and the problem of stability of thin films are discussed.

  18. Energy Deposition in Magnetic Cloud and High Speed Stream Driven Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E. J.; Turner, N. E.

    2004-12-01

    The solar wind couples a large amount of energy into the magnetosphere-ionosphere system; this energy is released in the form of geomagnetic storms. While the precise mechanism for this coupling and release is yet unclear, it is well established that different solar wind conditions create different responses within the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We are examining the impact of high speed stream-driven and magnetic cloud-driven storms on the global redistribution of energy throughout the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Data are used from ACE, WIND, and ground magnetometers. We estimate the energy input and output for multiple geomagnetic storms spanning from1995 to 1998. The comparison of storms reveals high speed stream-driven storms deposit less energy per second, but over longer durations. The comparison further reveals magnetic cloud-driven storms have deeper Dst* depressions but with shorter durations. Our results suggest magnetic cloud-driven storms with similar input parameters as high speed stream-driven storms produce an overall lower energy deposition.

  19. Background and Energy Deposition Studies for the CLIC Post-Collision Line

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B; Deacon, L C; Gschwendtner, E

    2011-01-01

    After the interaction point, the 1.5 TeV, 14MW CLIC electron/positron beams must be transported safely to the main beam dump. In designing the CLIC post-collision line detailed simulations must be carried out in order to ensure that losses are kept within reasonable limits. Results for back-scattered photon flux arriving at the detector are recalculated after updates and enhancements to the geometry description used in the study presented in [1]. Initial results of neutron fluxes are presented. Additionally, energy deposition calculations are carried out, showing that, when the full electromagnetic showers are included, in the current design the standard magnet coils would have a short lifetime due to radiation damage to conventional insulation material. Changing the magnet mask material from graphite to iron and lengthening the intermediate dump by 2m of iron are shown to substantially lessen the energy deposition in the magnet coils and thereby extend magnet lifetimes.

  20. Energy Deposition Studies for the Betatron Cleaning Insertion (IR7) of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Santana-Leitner, Mario; Ferrari, Alfredo; Magistris, Matteo; Tsoulou, A; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2005-01-01

    Two insertions (IR3, IR7) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are dedicated to beam cleaning with the design goals of absorbing part of the primary beam halo and of the secondary radiation. The tertiary halo which escapes the collimation system in IR7 may heat the cold magnets at unacceptable levels, if no additional absorber is used. In order to assess the energy deposition in sensitive components, extensive simulations were run with the Monte Carlo cascade code FLUKA. The straight section and the dispersion suppressors (DS) of IR7 were fully implemented. A modular approach in the geometry definition and an extensive use of user-written programs allowed the implementation of all magnets and collimators with high precision, including flanges, steel supports and magnetic field. This paper provides the number and location of additional absorbers needed to keep the energy deposition in the coils of the magnets below the quenching limit.

  1. Energy Deposited in the High Luminosity Inner Triplets of the LHC by Collision Debris

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Hoa, C; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Mokhov, N V

    2008-01-01

    The 14 TeV center of mass proton-proton collisions in the LHC produce not only debris interesting for physics but also showers of particles ending up in the accelerator equipment, in particular in the superconducting magnet coils. Evaluations of this contribution to the heat, that has to be transported by the cryogenic system, have been made to guarantee that the energy deposition in the superconducting magnets does not exceed limits for magnet quenching and the capacity of the cryogenic system. The models of the LHC base-line are detailed and include description of, for energy deposition, essential elements like beam-pipes and corrector magnets. The evaluations made using the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA are compared to previous studies using MARS. For the comparison and consolidation of the calculations, a dedicated study of code comparison for a reduced setup was made.

  2. Beam Induced Hydrodynamic Tunneling in the Future Circular Collider Components

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, Naeem Ahmad; Schmidt, Rudiger; Shutov, A; Wollmann, Daniel; Piriz, A

    2016-01-01

    A future circular collider (FCC) has been proposed as a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator, to explore particle physics in unprecedented energy ranges. The FCC is a circular collider in a tunnel with a circumference of 80–100 km. The FCC study puts an emphasis on proton-proton high-energy and electron-positron high-intensity frontier machines. A proton-electron interaction scenario is also examined. According to the nominal FCC parameters, each of the 50 TeV proton beams will carry an amount of 8.5 GJ energy that is equivalent to the kinetic energy of an Airbus A380 (560 t) at a typical speed of 850  km/h . Safety of operation with such extremely energetic beams is an important issue, as off-nominal beam loss can cause serious damage to the accelerator and detector components with a severe impact on the accelerator environment. In order to estimate the consequences of an accident with the full beam accidently deflected into equipment, we have carried out numerical simulations of interaction of a FCC...

  3. Focused helium and neon ion beam induced etching for advanced extreme ultraviolet lithography mask repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, Carlos M.; Timilsina, Rajendra; Li, Guoliang; Duscher, Gerd; Rack, Philip D.; Slingenbergh, Winand; van Dorp, Willem F.; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.; Klein, Kate L.; Wu, Huimeng M.; Stern, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    The gas field ion microscope was used to investigate helium and neon ion beam induced etching of nickel as a candidate technique for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography mask editing. No discernable nickel etching was observed for room temperature helium exposures at 16 and 30 keV in the dose range

  4. Electron beam induced electronic transport in alkyl amine-intercalated VOx nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dwyer, C.; Lavayen, V.; Clavijo-Cedeno, C.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The electron beam induced electronic transport in primary alkyl amine-intercalated V2O5 nanotubes is investigated where the organic amine molecules are employed as molecular conductive wires to an aminosilanized substrate surface and contacted to Au interdigitated electrode contacts. The results dem

  5. Ultrahigh resolution focused electron beam induced processing : the effect of substrate thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, W. F.; Lazic, I.; Beyer, A.; Goelzhaeuser, A.; Wagner, J. B.; Hansen, T. W.; Hagen, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    It is often suggested that the growth in focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) is caused not only by primary electrons, but also (and even predominantly) by secondary electrons (SEs). If that is true, the growth rate for FEBIP can be changed by modifying the SE yield. Results from our Mon

  6. Ion beam induced optical and surface modification in plasmonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udai B., E-mail: udaibhansingh123@gmail.com; Gautam, Subodh K.; Kumar, Sunil; Hooda, Sonu; Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-15

    In present work, ion irradiation induced nanostructuring has been exploited as an efficient and effective tool for synthesis of coupled plasmonics nanostructures by using 1.2 MeV Xe ions on Au/ZnO/Au system deposited on glass substrate. The results are correlated on the basis of their optical absorption, surface morphologies and enhanced sensitivity of evolved phonon modes by using UV Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. Optical absorbance spectra of plasmonic nanostructures (NSs) show a decrease in band gap, which may be ascribed to the formation of defects with ion irradiation. The surface morphology reveals the formation of percolated NSs upon ion irradiation and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) study clearly shows the formation of multilayer system. Furthermore, RS measurements on samples are studied to understand the enhanced sensitivity of ion irradiation induced phonon mode at 573 cm{sup −1} along with other modes. As compared to pristine sample, a stronger and pronounced evolution of these phonon modes is observed with further ion irradiation, which indicates localized surface plasmon results with enhanced intensity of phonon modes of Zinc oxide (ZnO) material. Thus, such plasmonic NSs can be used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates.

  7. Inter-comparison of MARS and FLUKA: Predictions on Energy Deposition in LHC IR Quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoa, C; Cerutti, F; Ferrai, A

    2008-01-01

    Detailed modellings of the LHC insertion regions (IR) have earlier been performed to evaluate energy deposition in the IR superconducting magnets [1-4]. Proton-proton collisions at 14 TeV in the centre of mass lead to debris, depositing energy in the IR components. To evaluate uncertainties in those simulations and gain further confidence in the tools and approaches used, inter-comparison calculations have been performed with the latest versions of the FLUKA (2006.3b) [5, 6] and MARS15 [7, 8] Monte Carlo codes. These two codes, used worldwide for multi particle interaction and transport in accelerator, detector and shielding components, have been thoroughly benchmarked by the code authors and the user community (see, for example, recent [9, 10]). In the study described below, a better than 5% agreement was obtained for energy deposition calculated with these two codes - based on different independent physics models - for the identical geometry and initial conditions of a simple model representing the IR5 and ...

  8. Argon ion beam induced surface pattern formation on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofsäss, H.; Bobes, O.; Zhang, K. [2nd Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, University Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-01-21

    The development of self-organized surface patterns on Si due to noble gas ion irradiation has been studied extensively in the past. In particular, Ar ions are commonly used and the pattern formation was analyzed as function of ion incidence angle, ion fluence, and ion energies between 250 eV and 140 keV. Very few results exist for the energy regime between 1.5 keV and 10 keV and it appears that pattern formation is completely absent for these ion energies. In this work, we present experimental data on pattern formation for Ar ion irradiation between 1 keV and 10 keV and ion incidence angles between 50° and 75°. We confirm the absence of patterns at least for ion fluences up to 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}. Using the crater function formalism and Monte Carlo simulations, we calculate curvature coefficients of linear continuum models of pattern formation, taking into account contribution due to ion erosion and recoil redistribution. The calculations consider the recently introduced curvature dependence of the erosion crater function as well as the dynamic behavior of the thickness of the ion irradiated layer. Only when taking into account these additional contributions to the linear theory, our simulations clearly show that that pattern formation is strongly suppressed between about 1.5 keV and 10 keV, most pronounced at 3 keV. Furthermore, our simulations are now able to predict whether or not parallel oriented ripple patterns are formed, and in case of ripple formation the corresponding critical angles for the whole experimentally studied energies range between 250 eV and 140 keV.

  9. Energy deposition of heavy ions in the regime of strong beam-plasma correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, D O; Schlanges, M

    2003-03-01

    The energy loss of highly charged ions in dense plasmas is investigated. The applied model includes strong beam-plasma correlation via a quantum T-matrix treatment of the cross sections. Dynamic screening effects are modeled by using a Debye-like potential with a velocity dependent screening length that guarantees the known low and high beam velocity limits. It is shown that this phenomenological model is in good agreement with simulation data up to very high beam-plasma coupling. An analysis of the stopping process shows considerably longer ranges and a less localized energy deposition if strong coupling is treated properly.

  10. Monte Carlo calculations of the energy deposited in biological samples and shielding materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar Tarim, U.; Gurler, O.; Ozmutlu, E. N.; Yalcin, S.

    2014-03-01

    The energy deposited by gamma radiation from the Cs-137 isotope into body tissues (bone and muscle), tissue-like medium (water), and radiation shielding materials (concrete, lead, and water), which is of interest for radiation dosimetry, was obtained using a simple Monte Carlo algorithm. The algorithm also provides a realistic picture of the distribution of backscattered photons from the target and the distribution of photons scattered forward after several scatterings in the scatterer, which is useful in studying radiation shielding. The presented method in this work constitutes an attempt to evaluate the amount of energy absorbed by body tissues and shielding materials.

  11. Beam induced electron cloud resonances in dipole magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvey, J. R.; Hartung, W.; Makita, J.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple of bunch spacing. Both resonances have been studied directly in dipole fields using retarding field analyzers installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. These measurements are supported by both analytical models and computer simulations.

  12. Limits for Beam-Induced Damage: Reckless or too Cautious?

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Accidental events implying direct beam impacts on collimators are of the utmost importance as they may lead to serious limitations of the overall LHC Performance. In order to assess damage threshold of components impacted by high energy density beams, entailing changes of phase and extreme pressures, state-of-the-art numerical simulation methods are required. In this paper, a review of the different dynamic response regimes induced by particle beams is given along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each regime. Particular attention is paid to the most critical case, that of shock waves, for which standard Finite Element codes are totally unfit. A novel category of numerical tools, named Hydrocodes, has been adapted and used to analyse the consequences of an asynchronous beam abort on Phase 1 Tertiary Collimators (TCT). A number of simulations has been carried out with varying beam energy, number of bunches and bunch sizes allowing to identify different damage levels for the TCT up to catastr...

  13. Limits for Beam Induced Damage: Reckless or too Cautious?

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Accidental events implying direct beam impacts on collimators are of the utmost importance as they may lead to serious limitations of the overall LHC Performance. In order to assess damage threshold of components impacted by high energy density beams, entailing changes of phase and extreme pressures, state-of-the-art numerical simulation methods are required. In this paper, a review of the different dynamic response regimes induced by particle beams is given along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each regime. Particular attention is paid to the most critical case, that of shock waves, for which standard Finite Element codes are totally unfit. A novel category of numerical tools, named Hydrocodes, has been adapted and used to analyse the consequences of an asynchronous beam abort on Phase 1 Tertiary Collimators (TCT). A number of simulations has been carried out with varying beam energy, number of bunches and bunch sizes allowing to identify different damage levels for the TCT up to catastr...

  14. Measuring the extent and width of internal energy deposition in ion activation using nanocalorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, William A; Williams, Evan R

    2010-04-01

    The recombination energies resulting from electron capture by a positive ion can be accurately measured using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry in which the internal energy deposition is obtained from the number of water molecules lost from the reduced cluster. The width of the product ion distribution in these experiments is predominantly attributable to the distribution of energy that partitions into the translational and rotational modes of the water molecules that are lost. These results are consistent with a singular value for the recombination energy. For large clusters, the width of the energy distribution is consistent with rapid energy partitioning into internal vibrational modes. For some smaller clusters with high recombination energies, the measured product ion distribution is narrower than that calculated with a statistical model. These results indicate that initial water molecule loss occurs on the time scale of, or faster than energy randomization. This could be due to inherently slow internal conversion or it could be due to a multi-step process, such as initial ion-electron pair formation followed by reduction of the ion in the cluster. These results provide additional evidence for the accuracy with which condensed phase thermochemical values can be deduced from gaseous nanocalorimetry experiments.

  15. Ion beam induced luminescence: Relevance to radiation induced bystander effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.B., E-mail: ahmad.rabilal@gmail.com [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McNeill, F.E., E-mail: fmcneill@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Byun, S.H., E-mail: soohyun@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Prestwich, W.V., E-mail: prestwic@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Seymour, C., E-mail: seymouc@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Mothersill, C.E., E-mail: mothers@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is quantify the light emitted as a result of charged particle interaction in materials which may be of relevance to radiation induced 'bystander effects' studies. We have developed a system which employs single photon counting to measure the light emitted from samples irradiated under vacuum by a charged particle beam. The system uses a fast photomultiplier tube with a peak cathode response at 420 nm. It has been tested in a proof-of-principle experiment using polystyrene targets. Light output, as a result of irradiation, was measured. The luminescence yield appears to have a non-linear behavior with the incident ion fluence: it rises exponentially to an asymptotic value. The target was irradiated with beam energies varying from 1 to 2 MeV and showed saturation at or before an incident fluence rate of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} H{sup +}/cm{sup 2} s. The average saturation value for the photon output was found to be 40 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cps. Some measurements were performed using filters to study the emission at specific wavelengths. In the case of filtered light measurements, the photon output was found to saturate at 28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3}, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6}, and 35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cps for wavelengths of 280 {+-} 5 nm, 320 {+-} 5 nm and 340 {+-} 5 nm respectively. The light output reaches a maximum value because of damage induced in the polymer. Our measurements indicate a 'damage cross section' of the order of 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}. The average radiant intensity was found to increase at wavelengths of 280 and 320 nm when the proton energy was increased. This was not found to occur at 340 nm. In conclusion, the light emission at specific wavelengths was found to depend upon the incident proton fluence and the proton energy. The wavelengths of the emitted light measured in this study have significance for the understanding of radiation induced bystander effects.

  16. Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljeva, I.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: radiant@skylink.spb.ru; Mjakin, S.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Makarov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krasovsky, A.N. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Varlamov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15

    Electron beam processing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films is found to promote significant changes in the melting heat, intrinsic viscosity and polymer film-liquid (water, isooctane and toluene) boundary surface tension. These properties are featured with several maximums depending on the absorbed dose and correlating with the modification of PET surface functionality. Studies using adsorption of acid-base indicators and IR-spectroscopy revealed that the increase of PET surface hydrophilicity is determined by the oxidation of methylene and methyne groups. Electron beam treatment of PET films on the surface of N-vinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution provided graft copolymerization with this comonomer at optimum process parameters (energy 700 keV, current 1 mA, absorbed dose 50 kGy)

  17. Magnetic field effects on the energy deposition spectra of MV photon radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, C; Stanescu, T; Fallone, B G

    2009-01-21

    Several groups worldwide have proposed various concepts for improving megavoltage (MV) radiotherapy that involve irradiating patients in the presence of a magnetic field-either for image guidance in the case of hybrid radiotherapy-MRI machines or for purposes of introducing tighter control over dose distributions. The presence of a magnetic field alters the trajectory of charged particles between interactions with the medium and thus has the potential to alter energy deposition patterns within a sub-cellular target volume. In this work, we use the MC radiation transport code PENELOPE with appropriate algorithms invoked to incorporate magnetic field deflections to investigate electron energy fluence in the presence of a uniform magnetic field and the energy deposition spectra within a 10 microm water sphere as a function of magnetic field strength. The simulations suggest only very minor changes to the electron fluence even for extremely strong magnetic fields. Further, calculations of the dose-averaged lineal energy indicate that a magnetic field strength of at least 70 T is required before beam quality will change by more than 2%.

  18. Robust population transfer in atomic beams induced by Doppler shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unanyan, R. G.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of photon momentum recoil on adiabatic population transfer in an atomic three-level lambda system is studied. It is shown that the Doppler frequency shifts, due to atomic motion, can play an important role in adiabatic population transfer processes of atomic internal states by a pair of laser fields. For the limiting case of slow atoms (Doppler shift much smaller than the photon recoil energy), the atoms occupy the same target state regardless of the order of switching of laser fields, while for the case of fast atoms interacting with the intuitive sequence of pulses, the target state is the intermediate atomic state. Furthermore, it is shown that this novel technique for adiabatic population transfer is related to a level crossing in the bright-intermediate state basis (rather than in the original atomic basis). It is shown that these processes are robust with respect to parameter fluctuations, such as the laser pulse area and the relative spatial offset (delay) of the laser beams. The obtained results can be used for the control of temporal evolution of atomic populations in cold atomic beams by externally adjustable Doppler shifts.

  19. Energy deposition in a thin copper target downstream and off-axis of a proton-radiography target

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, G A; Snead, C L; Hanson, A L; Murray, M M

    2002-01-01

    A series of proton energy-deposition experiments was conducted to measure the energy deposited in a copper target located downstream and off-axis of a high-energy proton-radiography target. The proton/target interactions involved low-intensity bunches of protons at 24 GeV/c onto a spherical target consisting of concentric shells of tungsten and copper. The energy-deposition target was placed at five locations downstream of the proton-radiography target, off-axis of the primary beam transport, and was either unshielded or shielded by 5 or 10 cm of lead. Maximum temperature rises measured in the energy-deposition target due to single bunches of 5x10 sup 1 sup 0 protons on the proton-radiography target were approximately 20 mK per bunch. The data indicated that the scattered radiation was concentrated close to the primary transport axis of the beam line. The energy deposited in the energy-deposition target was reduced by moving the target radially away from the primary transport axis. Placing lead shielding in f...

  20. The Distortion of Energy Deposit Distribution of 12C Ions in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉收; 颜强; 井田; 席印印; 刘辉兰

    2012-01-01

    The transport process of 12C ions in water was studied with SRIM code and Geant4 toolkit. The SRIM results indicate that the transverse diffusion of 12C ion beam causes distortion of energy deposit along the beam direction. The distortion becomes more notable as the transverse diffusion increases. The simulation results of Geant4 indicate that the influence of secondary fragments on energy deposit distribution would be the main factor causing the distortion in higher energy range. In the region adjacent to the beam line where the contribution from 12C ions domi- nates, the contributions from secondary fragments are ignorable. The further from the beam axis the region locates, the larger the contributions from secondary fragments, until the contributions from secondary fragments are ignorable. The further from the beam axis the region locates, the larger the contributions from secondary fragments, until the contributions from secondary frag- ments exceed that of 12C. Among all the secondary fragments, the contributions of H, He and B ions are mostly notable. It is also found that some positron-emitting secondary fragments could be very useful for position emitting tomography (PET).

  1. Ion assisted deposition with low-energy ions for applications in modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, M

    1999-01-01

    realised by a process adaptation with UV-absorbing films. A further focal point are antireflective coatings on alkali halides optics for high-power CO sub 2 -lasers. Ion assisted deposition of NaF-films at extremely low ion energies (E sub i sub o sub n approx 5 eV) qualifies antireflective coatings with minimal absorption (alpha approx 1.5 cm sup - sup 1), high short-pulse damage threshold (50%-LIDT approx 60J/cm sup 2) and improved degradational stability. Main objective of this work is the development of ion assisted deposition processes without additional substrate heating for applications in precision and laser optics. New low-energy ion sources with ion energies below 100 eV were employed for the research work. Starting point of the process development are basic investigations on the ion assisted evaporation of fluoride and oxide thin film materials. The optimisation of the coating processes is primary done with the help of optical characterisation methods (spectral photometry, laser calorimetry, measur...

  2. Energy Deposition in the LHC Insertion Regions IR1 and IR5

    CERN Document Server

    Hoa, C; Wildner, E

    2008-01-01

    Proton-proton collision debris coming out from the Interaction Point (IP) impacts the superconducting magnets of the insertion region and induces energy deposition in the coils. This is a critical aspect to evaluate regarding quench limit in the superconducting magnets. The study presents an estimation of the energy deposition in the insertion regions IR1 (ATLAS) and IR5 (CMS) for version 6.5 of the LHC layout, with a baseline nominal luminosity of L=1034 s-1 cm-2 for proton-proton collisions at 14 TeV center of mass energy. All essential components in the insertion regions up to 60 m from the interaction point have been implemented with a detailed description of their geometry, material and magnetic field. Total heat loads and power density distributions are evaluated in the components of the inner triplet, including also the TAS absorbers and the corrector magnets. The results are obtained using FLUKA, a Monte Carlo code modelling particle interaction and transport [1-2].

  3. The influence of different 192Ir sources geometries to the energy deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, W. S.; Gonalves, P. E.; Belinato, W.; Caldas, L. V. E.; Perini, A. P.; Neves, L. P.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, various simplifications of the HDR source Varian VariSource Classic model, in which 192Ir as a radionuclide is used, were compared. These simplifications were carried out by Monte Carlo simulations, using the MCNPX 2.7.0 code. The different sources were compared through a distribution of energy deposition in a water phantom. Our results indicated that small simplifications will present no influence on the source response, and the removal of the entire capsule surrounding the radionuclide will present a difference of just 0.53% in the final response.

  4. The influence of different {sup 192}Ir sources geometries to the energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Paulo Eduardo; Perini, Ana Paula; Neves, Lucio Pereira, E-mail: lucio.neves@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (INFIS/UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Santos, William de Souza; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Belinato, Walmir [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, various simplifications of the HDR source Varian VariSource Classic model, in which {sup 192}Ir as a radionuclide is used, were compared. These simplifications were carried out by the simulation of Monte Carlo, using the MCNPX code. The different sources were compared through a distribution of energy deposition in a water phantom. Our results indicated that small simplifications will present no influence on the source response, and the removal of the entire capsule surrounding the radionuclide will present a difference of just 0.51% in the final response. (author)

  5. Athermal Energy Loss from X-rays Deposited in Thin Superconducting Films on Solid Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozorezov, Alexander G.; Lambert, Colin J.; Bandler, Simon R.; Balvin, Manuel A.; Busch, Sarah E.; Sagler, Peter N.; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Smith, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Sadleir, John E.

    2013-01-01

    When energy is deposited in a thin-film cryogenic detector, such as from the absorption of an X-ray, an important feature that determines the energy resolution is the amount of athermal energy that can be lost to the heat bath prior to the elementary excitation systems coming into thermal equilibrium. This form of energy loss will be position-dependent and therefore can limit the detector energy resolution. An understanding of the physical processes that occur when elementary excitations are generated in metal films on dielectric substrates is important for the design and optimization of a number of different types of low temperature detector. We have measured the total energy loss in one relatively simple geometry that allows us to study these processes and compare measurements with calculation based upon a model for the various di.erent processes. We have modeled the athermal phonon energy loss in this device by finding an evolving phonon distribution function that solves the system of kinetic equations for the interacting system of electrons and phonons. Using measurements of device parameters such as the Debye energy and the thermal di.usivity we have calculated the expected energy loss from this detector geometry, and also the position-dependent variation of this loss. We have also calculated the predicted impact on measured spectral line-shapes, and shown that they agree well with measurements. In addition, we have tested this model by using it to predict the performance of a number of other types of detector with di.erent geometries, where good agreement is also found.

  6. Ion beam induced charge characterisation of a silicon microdosimeter using a heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Iwan; Siegele, Rainer; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Cohen, David D.

    2002-05-01

    An ion beam induced charge (IBIC) facility has been added to the existing capabilities of the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe and the results of the first measurements are presented. Silicon on insulator (SOI) diode arrays with microscopic junction sizes have recently been proposed as microdosimeters for hadron therapy. A 20 MeV carbon beam was used to perform IBIC imaging of a 10 μm thick SOI device.

  7. Radiation hardness of polysiloxane scintillators analyzed by ion beam induced luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, A., E-mail: quaranta@ing.unitn.i [University of Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali - DIMTI, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Carturan, S. [Universita di Padova, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Marchi, T.; Antonaci, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Scian, C. [Universita di Padova, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Kravchuk, V.L. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica, Viale Carlo Berti Pichat 6, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Degerlier, M.; Gramegna, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Maggioni, G. [Universita di Padova, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2010-10-01

    The radiation hardness of polysiloxane based scintillators has been measured by ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL). The light intensity as a function of the irradiation fluence with an He{sup +} beam at 1.8 MeV (1.0 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) has been measured on undoped polymers synthesized with different amounts of phenyl units and on polysiloxanes doped with two different dye molecules (BBOT and Lumogen Violet) sensitizing the scintillation yield.

  8. A database of frequency distributions of energy depositions in small-size targets by electrons and ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjoo, H; Uehara, S; Emfietzoglou, D; Pinsky, L

    2011-02-01

    Linear energy transfer (LET) is an average quantity, which cannot display the stochastics of the interactions of radiation tracks in the target volume. For this reason, microdosimetry distributions have been defined to overcome the LET shortcomings. In this paper, model calculations of frequency distributions for energy depositions in nanometre size targets, diameters 1-100 nm, and for a 1 μm diameter wall-less TEPC, for electrons, protons, alpha particles and carbon ions are reported. Frequency distributions for energy depositions in small-size targets with dimensions similar to those of biological molecules are useful for modelling and calculations of DNA damage. Monte Carlo track structure codes KURBUC and PITS99 were used to generate tracks of primary electrons 10 eV to 1 MeV, and ions 1 keV µm(-1) to 300 MeV µm(-1) energies. Distribution of absolute frequencies of energy depositions in volumes with diameters of 1-100 nm randomly positioned in unit density water irradiated with 1 Gy of the given radiation was obtained. Data are presented for frequency of energy depositions and microdosimetry quantities including mean lineal energy, dose mean lineal energy, frequency mean specific energy and dose mean specific energy. The modelling and calculations presented in this work are useful for characterisation of the quality of radiation beam in biophysical studies and in radiation therapy.

  9. Electrode surface engineering by atomic layer deposition: A promising pathway toward better energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2016-04-29

    Research on electrochemical energy storage devices including Li ion batteries (LIBs), Na ion batteries (NIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs) has accelerated in recent years, in part because developments in nanomaterials are making it possible to achieve high capacities and energy and power densities. These developments can extend battery life in portable devices, and open new markets such as electric vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage. It is well known that surface reactions largely determine the performance and stability of electrochemical energy storage devices. Despite showing impressive capacities and high energy and power densities, many of the new nanostructured electrode materials suffer from limited lifetime due to severe electrode interaction with electrolytes or due to large volume changes. Hence control of the surface of the electrode material is essential for both increasing capacity and improving cyclic stability of the energy storage devices.Atomic layer deposition (ALD) which has become a pervasive synthesis method in the microelectronics industry, has recently emerged as a promising process for electrochemical energy storage. ALD boasts excellent conformality, atomic scale thickness control, and uniformity over large areas. Since ALD is based on self-limiting surface reactions, complex shapes and nanostructures can be coated with excellent uniformity, and most processes can be done below 200. °C. In this article, we review recent studies on the use of ALD coatings to improve the performance of electrochemical energy storage devices, with particular emphasis on the studies that have provided mechanistic insight into the role of ALD in improving device performance. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Energy and nutrient deposition and excretion in the reproducing sow: model development and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2014-01-01

    Air and nutrient emissions from swine operations raise environmental concerns. During the reproduction phase, sows consume and excrete large quantities of nutrients. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to describe energy and nutrient partitioning and predict manure...... excretion and composition and methane emissions on a daily basis. The model was structured to contain gestation and lactation modules, which can be run separately or sequentially, with outputs from the gestation module used as inputs to the lactation module. In the gestating module, energy and protein...... production, and maternal growth with body tissue losses constrained within biological limits. Global sensitivity analysis showed that nonlinearity in the parameters was small. The model outputs considered were the total protein and fat deposition, average urinary and fecal N excretion, average methane...

  11. Deposition of silicon oxynitride films by low energy ion beam assisted nitridation at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youroukov, S.; Kitova, S.; Danev, G.

    2008-05-01

    The possibility is studied of growing thin silicon oxynitride films by e-gun evaporation of SiO and SiO2 together with concurrent bombardment with low energy N2+ ions from a cyclotron resonance (ECR) source at room temperature of substrates. The degree of nitridation and oxidation of the films is investigated by means of X-ray spectroscopy. The optical characteristics of the films, their environmental stability and adhesion to different substrates are examined. The results obtained show than the films deposited are transparent. It is found that in the case of SiO evaporation with concurrent N2+ ion bombardment, reactive implantation of nitrogen within the films takes place at room temperature of the substrate with the formation of a new silicon oxynitride compound even at low ion energy (150-200 eV).

  12. On the energy deposition by electrons in air and the accurate determination of the air-fluorescence yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arqueros F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty in the absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield still puts a severe limit on the accuracy in the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The precise measurement of this parameter in laboratory is in turn conditioned by a careful evaluation of the energy deposited in the experimental collision chamber. In this work we discuss on the calculation of the energy deposition and its accuracy. Results from an upgraded Monte Carlo algorithm that we have developed are compared with those obtained using Geant4, showing excellent agreement. These updated calculations of energy deposition are used to apply some corrections to the available measurements of the absolute fluorescence yield, allowing us to obtain a reliable world average of this important parameter.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of energy-deposit clustering for ions of the same LET in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Z; Incerti, S; Ivanchenko, V; Champion, C; Karamitros, M; Bernal, M A; El Bitar, Z

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a Monte Carlo study of energy depositions due to protons, alpha particles and carbon ions of the same linear-energy-transfer (LET) in liquid water. The corresponding track structures were generated using the Geant4-DNA toolkit, and the energy deposition spatial distributions were analyzed using an adapted version of the DBSCAN clustering algorithm. Combining the Geant4 simulations and the clustering algorithm it was possible to compare the quality of the different radiation types. The ratios of clustered and single energy depositions are shown versus particle LET and frequency-mean lineal energies. The estimated effect of these types of radiation on biological tissues is then discussed by comparing the results obtained for different particles with the same LET.

  14. Development and deposition of resilin in energy stores for locust jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Malcolm

    2016-08-15

    Locusts jump by using a catapult mechanism in which energy produced by slow contractions of the extensor tibiae muscles of the hind legs is stored in distortions of the exoskeleton, most notably (1) the two semi-lunar processes at each knee joint and (2) the tendons of the extensor muscles themselves. The energy is then suddenly released from these stores to power the rapid, propulsive movements of the hind legs. The reliance on the mechanical storage of energy is likely to impact on jumping because growth occurs by a series of five moults, at each of which the exoskeleton is replaced by a new one. All developmental stages (instars) nevertheless jump as a means of forward locomotion, or as an escape movement. Here, I show that in each instar, resilin is added to the semi-lunar processes and to the core of the extensor tendons so that their thickness increases. As the next moult approaches, a new exoskeleton forms within the old one, with resilin already present in the new semi-lunar processes. The old exoskeleton, the tendons and their resilin are discarded at moulting. The resilin of the semi-lunar processes and tendons of the new instar is initially thin, but a similar pattern of deposition results in an increase of their thickness. In adults, resilin continues to be deposited so that at 4 weeks old the thickness in the semi-lunar processes has increased fourfold. These changes in the energy stores accompany changes in jumping ability and performance during each moulting cycle.

  15. Initial studies of Bremsstrahlung energy deposition in small-bore superconducting undulator structures in linac environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the more promising technologies for developing minimal-length insertion devices for linac-driven, single-pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray range is based on the use of superconducting (SC) materials. In recent FEL simulations, for example, a bifilar helical SC device with a 2 cm period and 1.8 T field was found to require a 30 m saturation length for operation at 1.5{Angstrom} on a 15 GeV linac, more than 40% shorter than an alternative hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM) undulator. AT the same time, however, SC technology is known to present characteristic difficulties for insertion device design, both in engineering detail and in operation. Perhaps the most critical problem, as observed, e.g., by Madey and co-workers in their initial FEL experiments, was the frequent quenching induced by scattered electrons upstream of their (bifilar) device. Postulating that this quenching was precipitated by directly-scattered or bremsstrahlung-induced particle energy deposited into the SC material or into material contiguous with it, the importance of numerical and experimental characterizations of this phenomenon for linac-based, user-facility SC undulator design becomes evident. In this paper we discuss selected prior experimental results and report on initial EGS4 code studies of scattered and bremsstrahlung induced particle energy deposition into SC structures with geometries comparable to a small-bore bifilar helical undulator.

  16. Use of energy deposition spectrometer Liulin for individual monitoring of aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploc, O; Pachnerová Brabcová, K; Spurny, F; Malušek, A; Dachev, T

    2011-03-01

    Silicon energy deposition spectrometer Liulin was primarily developed for cosmic radiation monitoring onboard spacecrafts. Nowadays, Liulin type detectors are also used to characterise radiation field on board aircraft, at alpine observatories and behind the shielding of heavy ion accelerators. In this work, experiments and calibrations performed in these radiation fields are presented and the method developed for calculation of ambient dose equivalent H*(10) on board aircraft is described. Since 2001, a simple method employing the energy deposition spectra had been used to determine H*(10) on board aircraft but, in 2004, it became clear that the resulting values were strongly biased at locations close to Earth's equator. An improved method for the determination of H*(10) on board aircraft using the Liulin detector was developed. It took into account the composition of the radiation field via the ratio of absorbed doses D(low) and D(neut) reflecting the contributions from low-LET particles and neutrons, respectively. It resulted in much better agreement with the EPCARD computer code for all aircraft locations; relative differences were within 11 % for low-LET and 20 % for neutron components of H*(10).

  17. Nanostructure of PDMS–TEOS–PrZr hybrids prepared by direct deposition of gamma radiation energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancastre, Joana J.H., E-mail: jlancastre@ctn.ist.utl.pt [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Falcão, António N. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Margaça, Fernanda M.A., E-mail: fmargaca@ctn.ist.utl.pt [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Ferreira, Luís M. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Miranda Salvado, Isabel M. [CICECO & Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais e Cerâmica, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Almásy, László [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, PO Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Casimiro, Maria H. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Meiszterics, Anikó [Gedeon Richter Ltd., PO Box 27, H-1475 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Hybrid materials were prepared by direct energy deposition. • The influence of the catalyst content (PrZr) was investigated. • The developed oxide network was found to be strongly dependent on the PrZr content. • A model is proposed for the development of the oxide network in these materials. - Abstract: Organic–inorganic materials have been the object of intense research due to their wide range of properties and therefore innumerous applications. We prepared organic–inorganic hybrid materials by direct energy deposition on a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane silanol terminated (33 wt% fixed content), tetraethylorthosilicate and a minor content of zirconium propoxide that varied from 1 to 5 wt% using gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. The samples, dried in air at room temperature, are bulk, flexible and transparent. Their nanostructure was investigated by small angle neutron scattering. It was found that the inorganic oxide network has fractal structure, which becomes denser as the zirconium propoxide content decreases. The results suggest that oxide nanosized regions grow from the OH terminal group of PDMS which are the condensation seeds. Their number and position remains unaltered with the variation of zirconium propoxide content that only affects their microstructure. A model is proposed for the nanostructure of the oxide network that develops in the irradiation processed hybrid materials.

  18. Studies on high electronic energy deposition in transparent conducting indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Gudage, Y G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Ghosh, A [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Vyas, J C [Technical and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (MS) (India); Singh, F [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Tripathi, A [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Ramphal [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India)

    2008-02-07

    We have examined the effect of swift heavy ions using 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ions on the electrical properties of transparent, conducting indium tin oxide polycrystalline films with resistivity of 0.58 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and optical transmission greater than 78% (pristine). We report on the modifications occurring after high electronic energy deposition. With the increase in fluency, x-ray line intensity of the peaks corresponding to the planes (1 1 0), (4 0 0), (4 4 1) increased, while (3 3 1) remained constant. Surface morphological studies showed a pomegranate structure of pristine samples, which was highly disturbed with a high dose of irradiation. For the high dose, there was a formation of small spherical domes uniformly distributed over the entire surface. The transmittance was seen to be decreasing with the increase in ion fluency. At higher doses, the resistivity and photoluminescence intensity was seen to be decreased. In addition, the carrier concentration was seen to be increased, which was in accordance with the decrease in resistivity. The observed modifications after high electronic energy deposition in these films may lead to fruitful device applications.

  19. Ultrafast triggered transient energy storage by atomic layer deposition into porous silicon for integrated transient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Share, Keith; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics.Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (i) Experimental details for ALD and material fabrication, ellipsometry film thickness, preparation of gel electrolyte and separator, details for electrochemical measurements, HRTEM image of VOx coated porous silicon, Raman spectroscopy for VOx as-deposited as well as annealed in air for 1 hour at 450 °C, SEM and transient behavior dissolution tests of uniformly coated VOx on

  20. Controlled fabrication of advanced functional structures on the nanoscale by means of electron beam-induced processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sebastian W.; Foucher, Johann; Penzkofer, Christian; Irmer, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    The controlled deposition of materials by means of electron beam induced processing (EBIP) is a well-established patterning method, which allows for the fabrication of nanostructures with high spatial resolution in a highly precise and flexible manner. Applications range from the production of ultrathin coatings and nanoscaled conductivity probes to super sharp atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips, to name but a few. The latter are typically deposited at the very end of silicon or silicon-nitride tips, which are fabricated with MEMS technologies. EBIP therefore provides the unique ability to converge MEMS to NEMS in a highly controllable way, and thus represents an encouraging opportunity to refine or even develop further MEMS-based features with advanced functionality and applicability. In this paper, we will present and discuss exemplary application solutions, where we successfully applied EBIP to overcome dimensional and/or functional limitations. We therefore show the fabrication stability and accuracy of "T-like-shaped" AFM tips made from high density, diamond-like carbon (HDC/DLC) for the investigation of undercut structures on the base of CDR30-EBD tips. Such aggressive CD-AFM tip dimensions are mandatory to fulfill ITRS requirements for the inspection of sub-28nm nodes, but are unattainable with state-of-art Si-based MEMS technologies today. In addition to that, we demonstrate the ability of EBIP to realize field enhancement in sensor applications and the fabrication of cold field emitters (CFE). For example: applying the EBIP approach allows for the production of CFEs, which are characterized by considerably enhanced imaging resolution compared to standard thermal field emitters and stable operation properties at room temperature without the need for periodic cathode flashing - unlike typical CFEs. Based on these examples, we outline the strong capabilities of the EBIP approach to further downscale functional structures in order to meet future demands in the

  1. Energy deposition of quasi-two temperature relativistic electrons in fast-shock ignition scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Seyed Abolfazl; Farahbod, Amir Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Previous calculations from Solodov et al. (2008) indicate that classical stopping and scattering dominate electrons energy deposition and transport when the electrons reach the dense plasma in FSI inertial confinement fusion concept [1]. Our calculations show that, by using quasi- two temperature electrons energy distribution function [2] in comparison with exponential [3] or monoenergetic distribution function and also increasing fast electrons energy to about 7 MeV, the ratio of beam blooming to straggling definitely decreases. Our analytical analysis shows that for fuel mass more than 1 mg and for fast ignitor wavelength λif > 0.53 μ m, straggling and beam blooming increases. Meanwhile, by reducing fast ignitor wavelength from 0.53 to 0.35 micron, and for fuel mass about 2 mg, electron penetration into the dense fuel slightly increases. Therefore, reduction of scattering (blooming and straggling) of electrons and enhancement of electron penetration into the dense fuel, can be obtained in relativistic regime with high energy fast electrons of the order of 5 Mev and more. Such derivations can be used in theoretical studies of the ignition conditions and PIC simulations of the electron transport in fast ignition scenario.

  2. Influence of Energy and Temperature in Cluster Coalescence Induced by Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Jiménez-Sáez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence induced by deposition of different Cu clusters on an epitaxial Co cluster supported on a Cu(001 substrate is studied by constant-temperature molecular dynamics simulations. The degree of epitaxy of the final system increases with increasing separation between the centres of mass of the projectile and target clusters during the collision. Structure, roughness, and epitaxial order of the supported cluster also influence the degree of epitaxy. The effect of energy and temperature is determinant on the epitaxial condition of the coalesced cluster, especially both factors modify the generation, growth and interaction among grains. A higher temperature favours the epitaxial growth for low impact parameters. A higher energy contributes to the epitaxial coalescence for any initial separation between the projectile and target clusters. The influence of projectile energy is notably greater than the influence of temperature since higher energies allow greater and instantaneous atomic reorganizations, so that the number of arisen grains just after the collision becomes smaller. The appearance of grain boundary dislocations is, therefore, a decisive factor in the epitaxial growth of the coalesced cluster.

  3. Lightning driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: regional and global estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine energetic electron precipitation fluxes driven by lightning, in order to determine the global distribution of energy deposited into the middle atmosphere. Previous studies using lightning-driven precipitation burst rates have estimated losses from the inner radiation belts. In order to confirm the reliability of those rates and the validity of the conclusions drawn from those studies, we have analyzed New Zealand data to test our global understanding of troposphere to magnetosphere coupling. We examine about 10000h of AbsPAL recordings made from 17 April 2003 through to 26 June 2004, and analyze subionospheric very-low frequency (VLF perturbations observed on transmissions from VLF transmitters in Hawaii (NPM and western Australia (NWC. These observations are compared with those previously reported from the Antarctic Peninsula. The perturbation rates observed in the New Zealand data are consistent with those predicted from the global distribution of the lightning sources, once the different experimental configurations are taken into account. Using lightning current distributions rather than VLF perturbation observations we revise previous estimates of typical precipitation bursts at L~2.3 to a mean precipitation energy flux of ~1×10-3 ergs cm-2s-1. The precipitation of energetic electrons by these bursts in the range L=1.9-3.5 will lead to a mean rate of energy deposited into the atmosphere of 3×10-4 ergs cm-2min-1, spatially varying from a low of zero above some ocean regions to highs of ~3-6×10-3 ergs cm-2min-1 above North America and its conjugate region.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of AlSi10Mg Alloy Using Direct Energy Deposition: Microstructure and Hardness Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidani, M.; Arreguin-Zavala, J.; Danovitch, J.; Tian, Y.; Brochu, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to study the manufacturing of the AlSi10Mg alloy with direct energy deposition (DED) process. Following fabrication, the macro- and microstructural evolution of the as-processed specimens was initially investigated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Columnar dendritic structure was the dominant solidification feature of the deposit; nevertheless, detailed microstructural analysis revealed cellular morphology near the substrate and equiaxed dendrites at the top end of the deposit. Moreover, the microstructural morphology in the melt pool boundary of the deposit differed from the one in the core of the layers. The remaining porosity of the deposit was evaluated by Archimedes' principle and by image analysis of the polished surface. Crystallographic texture in the deposit was also assessed using electron backscatter diffraction and x-ray diffraction analysis. The dendrites were unidirectionally oriented at an angle of 80° to the substrate. EPMA line scans were performed to evaluate the compositional variation and elemental segregation in different locations. Eventually, microhardness (HV) tests were conducted in order to study the hardness gradient in the as-DED-processed specimen along the deposition direction. The presented results, which exhibited a deposit with an almost defect free structure, indicate that the DED process can suitable for the deposition of Al-Si-based alloys with a highly consolidated structure.

  5. Chemically deposited thin films of sulfides and selenides of antimony and bismuth as solar energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M. T. S.; Nair, Padmanabhan K.; Garcia, Victor M.; Pena, Y.; Arenas, O. L.; Garcia, J. C.; Gomez-Daza, O.

    1997-10-01

    Chemical bath deposition techniques for bismuth sulfide, bismuth selenide, antimony sulfide, and antimony selenide thin films of about 0.20 - 0.25 micrometer thickness are reported. All these materials may be considered as solar absorber films: strong optical absorption edges, with absorption coefficient, (alpha) , greater than 104 cm-1, are located at 1.31 eV for Bi2Se3, 1.33 eV for Bi2S3, 1.8 eV for Sb2S3, and 1.35 eV for Sb2Se3. As deposited, all the films are nearly amorphous. However, well defined crystalline peaks matching bismuthinite (JCPDS 17- 0320), paraguanajuatite (JCPDS 33-0214), and stibnite (JCPDS 6-0474) and antimony selenide (JCPDS 15-0861) for Bi2S3, Bi2Se3, Sb2S3 and Sb2Se3 respectively, are observed when the films are annealed in nitrogen at 300 degrees Celsius. This is accompanied by a substantial modification of the electrical conductivity in the films: from 10-7 (Omega) -1 cm-1 (in as prepared films) to 10 (Omega) -1 cm-1 in the case of bismuth sulfide and selenide films, and enhancement of photosensitivity in the case of antimony sulfide films. The chemical deposition of a CuS/CuxSe film on these Vx- VIy films and subsequent annealing at 300 degrees Celsius for 1 h at 1 torr of nitrogen leads to the formation of p-type films (conductivity of 1 - 100 (Omega) -1 cm-1) of multinary composition. Among these, the formation of Cu3BiS3 (JCPDS 9-0488) and Cu3SbS4 (JCPDS 35- 0581), CuSbS2 (JCPDS 35-0413) have been clearly detected. Solar energy applications of these films are suggested.

  6. Watching adsorption and electron beam induced decomposition on the model system Mo(CO){sub 6}/Cu(1 1 1) by X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paufert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.paufert@u-bourgogne.fr [ICB, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France); Fonda, Emiliano [Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP48, St Aubin, 91192 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Li, Zheshen [ISA, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Domenichini, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.domenichini@u-bourgogne.fr [ICB, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France); Bourgeois, Sylvie [ICB, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France)

    2013-11-01

    An in-depth study of the first steps of electron beam assisted growth of Mo from molybdenum hexacarbonyl on Cu(1 1 1) has been carried out exploiting the complementarity of X-ray photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Frank van der Merwe (2D) growth mode has been observed for the completion of the two first monolayers of adsorbed molecules through a simple physisorption process. Irradiation of the Mo(CO){sub 6} deposit by 1 keV electron beam induces a modification of molybdenum coordination, the average number of C-neighbors decreasing from 6 to 3. Decomposed molecules remain on the surface after annealing at 520 K and organize themselves, the molybdenum atoms moving in Cu(1 1 1) surface fcc hollow sites. After annealing at 670 K, metallic molybdenum growth begins, if the total amount of adsorbed Mo atoms exceeds 1.2 monolayers.

  7. Watching adsorption and electron beam induced decomposition on the model system Mo(CO)6/Cu(1 1 1) by X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paufert, Pierre; Fonda, Emiliano; Li, Zheshen; Domenichini, Bruno; Bourgeois, Sylvie

    2013-11-01

    An in-depth study of the first steps of electron beam assisted growth of Mo from molybdenum hexacarbonyl on Cu(1 1 1) has been carried out exploiting the complementarity of X-ray photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Frank van der Merwe (2D) growth mode has been observed for the completion of the two first monolayers of adsorbed molecules through a simple physisorption process. Irradiation of the Mo(CO)6 deposit by 1 keV electron beam induces a modification of molybdenum coordination, the average number of C-neighbors decreasing from 6 to 3. Decomposed molecules remain on the surface after annealing at 520 K and organize themselves, the molybdenum atoms moving in Cu(1 1 1) surface fcc hollow sites. After annealing at 670 K, metallic molybdenum growth begins, if the total amount of adsorbed Mo atoms exceeds 1.2 monolayers.

  8. First Investigations on the Energy Deposited in a D0 early separation scheme Dipole for the LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hoa, C

    2007-01-01

    This note gives the first results of energy deposition calculation on a simplified model for an early scheme separation dipole D0, located at 3.5 m from the IP. The Monte Carlo code FLUKA version 2006.3 has been used for modelling the multi-particle interactions and energy transport. After a short introduction to particle interaction with matter and power deposition processes, the FLUKA modelling is described with bench marked power deposition calculation on the TAS, the absorber located in front of the triplet quadrupoles. The power deposition results for the D0 early scheme are then discussed in details, with the averaged and peak power density, and the variations of the total heat load in the dipole with the longitudinal position and with the aperture diameter.

  9. High-performance energy harvester fabricated with aerosol deposited PMN-PT material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. T.; Lin, S. C.; Lin, T. K.; Wu, W. J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports a high-performance piezoelectric energy harvester (EH) fabricated with xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-(l-x)PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) by aerosol deposition method. The result indicates that PMN-PT based EH owns 1.8 times output power which is higher than traditional PbZrxTi1- xO3 (PZT) based EH. In order to compare the output performance of EH fabricated with PMN- PT compared with PZT, the similar thickness of PMN-PT and PZT thin film is deposited on stainless steel subtracted. The experimental results show that PZT-based EH had a maximum output power of 4.65 μW with 1.11 Vp-p output voltage excited at 94.4 Hz under 0.5g base excitation, while the PMN-PT based device has a maximum output power of 8.42 μW with 1.49 Vp-p output voltage at a vibration frequency of 94.8 Hz and the same base excitation level. The volumetric power density was 82.95 μW/mm3 and 48.05 μW/mm3 for the device based on PMN- PT and PZT materials, respectively. All the results demonstrate that PMN-PT has better output performance than PZT.

  10. Super-Eddington Stellar Winds Driven by Near-Surface Energy Deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Quataert, Eliot; Kasen, Daniel; Klion, Hannah; Paxton, Bill

    2015-01-01

    We develop analytic and numerical models of the properties of super-Eddington stellar winds, motivated by phases in stellar evolution when super-Eddington energy deposition (via, e.g., unstable fusion, wave heating, or a binary companion) heats a region near the stellar surface. This appears to occur in luminous blue variables (LBVs), Type IIn supernovae progenitors, classical novae, and X-ray bursts. We show that when the wind kinetic power exceeds Eddington, the photons are trapped and behave like a fluid. Convection does not play a significant role in the wind energy transport. The wind properties depend on the ratio of a characteristic speed in the problem vc ~ (Edot G)^{1/5} (where Edot is the heating rate) to the stellar escape speed near the heating region vesc(r_h). For vc > vesc(r_h) the wind kinetic power at large radii Edot_w ~ Edot. For vc < vesc(r_h), most of the energy is used to unbind the wind material and thus Edot_w < Edot. Multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations without radiation di...

  11. Body composition and deposition efficiency of protein and energy in grazing young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementation with different protein: carbohydrate ratios on body composition, carcass characteristics and protein and energy deposition efficiency of young were assessed. Twenty-four Nellorecalves (132.5 ± 5.5 kgand 90-150 days of age were kept on pasture for a 430 day experimental period. The treatments were: Control = mineral mixture only; HPHC = high-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; HPLC = high-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement; LPHC = low-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; LPLC = low-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement. Four animals at begning and 20 animal at end of experiment were slaughtered to evaluate the carcass composition. Control bulls had the lowest (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls (13 Mcal day-1. Although non-supplemented bulls had less (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls. High-carbohydrate supplements were associated with more (p 0.05 in the energy efficiency between the groups. Therefore, supplementation increases the intake and retention of protein and energy without changing the retention efficiency.

  12. Energy Deposition Studies for the LHC Insertion Region Upgrade Phase-I

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Mereghetti, A; Wildner, E

    2010-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is starting operation with beam, aiming to achieve nominal performance in the shortest term, the upgrade of the LHC interaction regions is actively pursued in order to enhance the physics reach of the machine. Its first phase, with the target of increasing the LHC luminosity to 2-3 1034cm-2s-1, relies on the mature Nb-Ti superconducting magnet technology and is intended to maximize the use of the existing infrastructure. The impact of the increased power of the collision debris has been investigated through detailed energy deposition studies, considering the new aperture requirements for the low-ß quadrupoles and a number of other elements in the insertions. Effective solutions in terms of shielding options and design/layout optimization have been envisaged and the crucial factors have been pointed out.

  13. Energy deposition and non-equilibrium infared radiation of energetic auroral electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yadong; Gao, Bo; Zhu, Guangsheng; Li, Ziguang

    2016-07-01

    Infrared radiation caused by energetic auroral electrons plays an important role in the thermospheric hear budget, and may be seen as background by infrared surveillance sensors. The auroral electron deposition leads to the ionization, excitation, and dissociation of neutral species(N2,O2,and O), and initiates a series of chemical reaction in the upper atmosphere, finally causes the optical emission of infared excited emitters. In this study, the whole progress from the initial auroral electrons energy deposition to the final infrared emissions has been modeled, which including space plasma, atmospheric physical chemistry, and radiative transfer. The initial atmosphere parameters before auroral disturbing are given by MSIS00 model. The primary electron flux at the top of atmosphere is given by a statistical fitting with the sum of three distribution terms, a power law, a Maxwellian and a Guassian. A semi-emprical model is used in the calculation of energy depositon of single primary electron. The total integral ion pairs production rate is obtained after combining with the initial primary electron flux. The production rate and flux of secondary electrons are modeled with a continuous slow down approximation, using different excitation, ionization, dissociation cross sections of N2, O2, and O to electrons. The photochemical reactions with auroral disturbance is analysed, and its calculation model is established. A "three-step" calculation method is created to obtain number densities of eleven species in the hight between 90-160 km, which containing N2+, O2+, O+, O2+(a4Π), O+(2D), O+(2P), N2(A3Σ), N(2D), N(4S), NO+, and N+. Number densities of different vibraional levels of NO and NO+ are got with steady state assumption, considering 1-12 vibrational levels of NO and 1-14 vibrational levels of NO+. The infared emissions and the spectral lines of the two radiating bodies are calculated with a fuzzy model of spectral band.

  14. Nano-electron beam induced current and hole charge dynamics through uncapped Ge nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, A.; El Hdiy, A.; Troyon, M. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Nanosciences, Bat. 6, case no 15, UFR Sciences, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Amiard, G.; Ronda, A.; Berbezier, I. [IM2NP, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Campus de Saint Jerome - Case 142, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2012-04-16

    Dynamics of hole storage in spherical Ge nanocrystals (NCs) formed by a two step dewetting/nucleation process on an oxide layer grown on an n-doped <001> silicon substrate is studied using a nano-electron beam induced current technique. Carrier generation is produced by an electron beam irradiation. The generated current is collected by an atomic force microscope--tip in contact mode at a fixed position away from the beam spot of about 0.5 {mu}m. This distance represents the effective diffusion length of holes. The time constants of holes charging are determined and the effect of the NC size is underlined.

  15. STUDY OF THE BEAM INDUCED RADIATION IN THE CMS DETECTOR AT THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Amandeep P; Mokhov, Nikolai; Beri, Suman Bala

    2009-01-01

    point, are most vulnerable to beam-induced radiation. We have recently carried out extensive monte carlo simulation studies using MARS program to estimate particle fluxes and radiation dose in the CMS silicon pixel and strip trackers from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt s $=14 TeV and from machine induced background such as beam-gas interactions and beam-halo. We will present results on radiation dose, particle fluxes and spectra from these studies and discuss implications for radiation damage and performance of the CMS silicon tracker detec...

  16. Spectroscopic Evidence for Exceptional Thermal Contribution to Electron-Beam Induced Fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Marissa A.; Haynor, Ben; Aloni, Shaul; Ogletree, D. Frank; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.

    2010-11-16

    While electron beam induced fragmentation (EBIF) has been reported to result in the formation of nanocrystals of various compositions, the physical forces driving this phenomenon are still poorly understood. We report EBIF to be a much more general phenomenon than previously appreciated, operative across a wide variety of metals, semiconductors and insulators. In addition, we leverage the temperature dependent bandgap of several semiconductors to quantify -- using in situ cathodoluminescence spectroscopy -- the thermal contribution to EBIF, and find extreme temperature rises upwards of 1000K.

  17. Time-specific measurements of energy deposition from radiation fields in simulated sub-micron tissue volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Famiano, M.A.

    1997-07-07

    A tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter is used with a modified amplifier system to measure specific energy deposited from a uniform radiation field for short periods of time ({approximately}1 {micro}s to seconds) in order to extrapolate to dose in sub-micron tissue volumes. The energy deposited during these time intervals is compared to biological repair processes occurring within the same intervals after the initial energy deposition. The signal is integrated over a variable collection time which is adjusted with a square-wave pulse. Charge from particle passages is collected on the anode during the period in which the integrator is triggered, and the signal decays quickly to zero after the integrator feedback switch resets; the process repeats for every triggering pulse. Measurements of energy deposited from x rays, {sup 137}Cs gamma rays, and electrons from a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source for various time intervals are taken. Spectral characteristics as a function of charge collection time are observed and frequency plots of specific energy and collection time-interval are presented. In addition, a threshold energy flux is selected for each radiation type at which the formation of radicals (based on current measurements) in mammalian cells equals the rate at which radicals are repaired.

  18. Energy deposition onto HL-2A divertor plates in ELMy H-mode discharges using infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J.M., E-mail: gaojm@swip.ac.cn; Li, W.; Liu, Y.; Ji, X.Q.; Cheng, J.; Dong, Y.B.; Chen, C.Y.; Feng, B.B.; Lu, J.; Yi, P.; Yang, Q.W.

    2015-08-15

    Using infrared (IR) thermography, power loads onto the divertor plates have been investigated in ELMy H-mode plasmas on HL-2A. In the ELMy H-mode discharges, ELMs are the largest contributors to the divertor target energy load. Analysis of energy balance shows that up to 45% of the energy losses are deposited onto the divertor targets during ELMs and about 30% are found as plasma radiation. Moreover, divertor heat flux mitigation has been achieved during an ELMy H-mode phase by using Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI), characterized by a sharp increase of ELM frequency and a reduction in peak heat flux. The increased plasma radiation energy losses, especially the doubled plasma radiation in the divertor region, should be responsible for the reduction of integrated energy deposition onto divertor targets.

  19. Point-by-point near-field optical energy deposition around plasmonic nanospheres in absorbing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R K; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2015-08-01

    Here we investigate the effects of absorbing media on plasmon-enhanced near-field optical energy deposition. We find that increasing absorption by the medium results in increased particle scattering at the expense of particle absorption, and that much of this increased particle scattering is absorbed by the medium close to the particle surface. We present an analytical method for evaluating the spatial distribution of near-field enhanced absorption surrounding plasmonic metal nanospheres in absorbing media using a new point-by-point method. We propose criteria to define relevant near-field boundaries and calculate the properties of the local absorption enhancement, which redistributes absorption to the near-field and decays asymptotically as a function of the distance from the particle to background levels. Using this method, we performed a large-scale parametric study to understand the effect of particle size and wavelength on the near-field absorption for gold nanoparticles in aqueous media and silicon, and identified conditions that are relevant to enhanced local infrared absorption in silicon. The presented approach provides insight into the local energy transfer around plasmonic nanoparticles for predicting near-field effects for advanced concepts in optical sensing, thin-film solar cells, nonlinear imaging, and photochemical applications.

  20. A mechanism of wave drag reduction in the thermal energy deposition experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markhotok, A.

    2015-06-01

    Many experimental studies report reduced wave drag when thermal energy is deposited in the supersonic flow upstream of a body. Though a large amount of research on this topic has been accumulated, the exact mechanism of the drag reduction is still unknown. This paper is to fill the gap in the understanding connecting multiple stages of the observed phenomena with a single mechanism. The proposed model provides an insight on the origin of the chain of subsequent transformations in the flow leading to the reduction in wave drag, such as typical deformations of the front, changes in the gas pressure and density in front of the body, the odd shapes of the deflection signals, and the shock wave extinction in the plasma area. The results of numerical simulation based on the model are presented for three types of plasma parameter distribution. The spherical and cylindrical geometry has been used to match the data with the experimental observations. The results demonstrate full ability of the model to exactly explain all the features observed in the drag reduction experiments. Analytical expressions used in the model allow separating out a number of adjustment parameters that can be used to optimize thermal energy input and thus achieve fundamentally lower drag values than that of conventional approaches.

  1. Energy Balance, Evapo-transpiration and Dew deposition in the Dead Sea Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is a terminal hypersaline lake, located at the lowest point on earth with a lake level of currently -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). It is located in a transition zone of semiarid to arid climate conditions, which makes it highly sensible to climate change (Alpert1997, Smiatek2011). The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. At the moment the most prominent environmental change is the lake level decline of approximately 1 m / year due to anthropogenic interferences (Gertman, 2002). This leads to noticeable changes in the fractions of the existing terrestrial surfaces - water, bare soil and vegetated areas - in the valley. Thus, the partitioning of the net radiation in the valley changes as well. To thoroughly study the atmospheric and hydrological processes in the Dead Sea valley, which are driven by the energy balance components, sound data of the energy fluxes of the different surfaces are necessary. Before DESERVE no long-term monitoring network simultaneously measuring the energy balance components of the different surfaces in the Dead Sea valley was available. Therefore, three energy balance stations were installed at three characteristic sites at the coast-line, over bare soil, and within vegetation, measuring all energy balance components by using the eddy covariance method. The results show, that the partitioning of the energy into sensible and latent heat flux on a diurnal scale is totally different at the three sites. This results in gradients between the sites, which are e.g. responsible for the typical diurnal wind systems at the Dead Sea. Furthermore, driving forces of evapo-transpiration at the sites were identified and a detailed analysis of the daily evaporation and dew deposition rates

  2. Electron beam induced synthesis of uranium dioxide nanoparticles: Effect of solvent composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, M. C.; Keny, S. J.; Naik, D. B.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of various compositions of solvents was investigated on the electron beam induced synthesis of uranium dioxide, UO2 nanoparticles. The synthesis was carried out at different pHs from 2 to 7 in the aqueous solutions containing 10 mM uranyl nitrate and 10% 2-propanol. The formation of UO2 nanoparticles was found to occur only in the pH range from 2.5 to 3.7. Experiments were also carried out in the aqueous solutions containing various other alcohols (10% v/v) such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol or tert-butanol as well as in solutions containing 10 mM sodium formate at pH 3.4. The formation of UO2 nanoparticles in the aqueous solutions was found to occur only in the presence of ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol or 1-butanol. It is therefore confirmed that the electron beam induced synthesis of UO2 nanoparticles strongly depends on the solvent compositions as well as the pH of the medium.

  3. Simulation of beam-induced plasma for the mitigation of beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Yu, K.; Litvinenko, V.

    2015-05-03

    One of the main challenges in the increase of luminosity of circular colliders is the control of the beam-beam effect. In the process of exploring beam-beam mitigation methods using plasma, we evaluated the possibility of plasma generation via ionization of neutral gas by proton beams, and performed highly resolved simulations of the beam-plasma interaction using SPACE, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The process of plasma generation is modelled using experimentally measured cross-section coefficients and a plasma recombination model that takes into account the presence of neutral gas and beam-induced electromagnetic fields. Numerically simulated plasma oscillations are consistent with theoretical analysis. In the beam-plasma interaction process, high-density neutral gas reduces the mean free path of plasma electrons and their acceleration. A numerical model for the drift speed as a limit of plasma electron velocity was developed. Simulations demonstrate a significant reduction of the beam electric field in the presence of plasma. Preliminary simulations using fully-ionized plasma have also been performed and compared with the case of beam-induced plasma.

  4. Ion beam induced luminescence of germano-silicate optical fiber preform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyunkyu; Kim, Jongyeol; Lee, Namho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngwoong; Han, Wontaek [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Markovic, Nikola; Jaksic, Milko [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagred (Croatia)

    2014-05-15

    When an optical fiber is exposed to radiation, the attenuation (RIA, Radiation Induced Attenuation) in the optical fiber (OF) is increased because of the color centers which deteriorate the transmission property and generate the absorption loss. In order to understand the radiation induced defect, Ion Beam induced luminescence (IBIL) was introduced to investigate it. IBIL technique is to analyze IR/VIS/UV luminescence related to ion beam interaction with outer shell electrons involved in chemical bonds and structure defects of target atoms. So IBIL is sensitive to its chemical composition and has been used in analysis of material characterization, geological samples and cultural heritage objects. In silica material, four O atoms are surrounding one Si atom in tetrahedral coordination. In this study, the influence of Copper (Cu) and Cerium (Ce) dopants to germano silica core optical fibers were investigated under proton irradiation at RBI using Ion Beam induced luminescence (IBIL) method. To understand the radiation induced defect of optical fibers, IBIL were tested to a germano-silica core fiber under 2 MeV proton irradiation. Although a Cu or Ce dopant was not detected by IBIL technique, the relation between the amount of radiation and luminescence can be established. This experiment showed a potential technique of studying the effects and behavior of additive elements for silica core fiber. To increase the radiation resistance of optical fibers, further investigations are needed, i. e. the proper additives and its contents and an interaction mechanism between Ge-related defects and additives.

  5. Ion-beam induced atomic mixing in isotopically controlled silicon multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radek, M.; Bracht, H.; Liedke, B.; Böttger, R.; Posselt, M.

    2016-11-01

    Implantation of germanium (Ge), gallium (Ga), and arsenic (As) into crystalline and preamorphized isotopically controlled silicon (Si) multilayer structures at temperatures between 153 K and 973 K was performed to study the mechanisms mediating ion-beam induced atomic mixing. Secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry was applied to determine concentration-depth profiles of the stable isotopes before and after ion implantation. The intermixing is analytically described by a depth-dependent displacement function. The maximum displacement is found to depend not only on temperature and microstructure but also on the doping type of the implanted ion. Molecular dynamics calculations evaluate the contribution of cascade mixing, i.e., thermal-spike mixing, to the overall observed atomic mixing. Calculated and experimental results on the temperature dependence of ion-beam mixing in the amorphous and crystalline structures provide strong evidence for ion-beam induced enhanced crystallization and enhanced self-diffusion, respectively. On the other hand, the former process is confirmed by channeling Rutherford backscattering analyses of the amorphous layer thickness remaining after implantation, the latter process is consistently attributed to the formation of highly mobile Si di-interstitials formed under irradiation and in the course of damage annealing. The observed ion-beam mixing in Si is compared to recent results on ion-beam mixing of Ge isotope multilayers that, in contrast to Si, are fully described by thermal-spike mixing only.

  6. Study of deposited energy in lung tissue from radon's progeny calculated by Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Espinosa, G. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    Because the deposited {sup 222}Rn progeny distribution in lung airways, these sources can contribute hardly to critical cells absorbed dose in neighbourhood of a alpha track by the alpha particles from {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po. According to epidemiological data, lung cancers are primarily bronchogenic and mainly originate in the first five airway generations of the bronchial tree. Generally for deposited energy calculations, uniform deposit in source layers and the whole layers as sources has been considerate d too. Discretion al point deposits in the different and most important bronqui (B B) and bronchial (b b) layers for main generations is a more realistic case. Because that facts we have calculated the average deposited energy by Monte Carlo in the most important different target cell layers for the main B B and b b branch generations considering the radioactive {sup 222}Rn progeny punctual deposit in the source epithelium walls, from this location. It irradiate the neighbor cells in all directions. (Author)

  7. Non-linear, non-monotonic effect of nano-scale roughness on particle deposition in absence of an energy barrier: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Emelko, Monica B.

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of colloidal- and nano-scale particles on surfaces is critical to numerous natural and engineered environmental, health, and industrial applications ranging from drinking water treatment to semi-conductor manufacturing. Nano-scale surface roughness-induced hydrodynamic impacts on particle deposition were evaluated in the absence of an energy barrier to deposition in a parallel plate system. A non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between deposition surface roughness and particle deposition flux was observed and a critical roughness size associated with minimum deposition flux or “sag effect” was identified. This effect was more significant for nanoparticles (surface roughness on particle deposition by unifying hydrodynamic forces (using the most current approaches for describing flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation effects) with appropriately modified expressions for DLVO interaction energies, and gravity forces in one model and 2) a foundation for further describing the impacts of more complicated scales of deposition surface roughness on particle deposition.

  8. Peat Deposits at Bijoynagar Upazila, Brahmanbaria District, Bangladesh : A Potential Local Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nazwanul Haque

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh with about 160 million people in land of 147,570 square km which is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. With the increase of population and diversifying of economic activities, Bangladesh has become an energy hunger country. Presently, 80% peoples depend on non commercial energy sources living in the rural area. Peat exploration at Bijoynagar Upazila, Brahmanbaria district. Bangladesh has been carried out for reserve estimation and its economic aspect evaluation. Total peat exploration area is about 4000 hectare. In explored area, nine peat bearing locations are identified in which peat deposits are observed from 0.152 to 3.0 meters below the surface. Total reserves are about 32.61 million tons in wet condition and 13.044 million tons in dry conditions. The peat is grayish brown to grayish black, fibrous, less to medium compacted and water content is about 60-80 % in wet condition. Chemical analyses of the peat shows that fixed carbon content is 15-25 %, Sulfur is 0.1 to 0.8 % and calorific value of the peat is 3000-7000 BTU. The peat of the area is medium to good quality. The peat may be extracted by open peat mining because of its surface to near surface position. This peat can be conveniently used for small industrial and domestic purpose as briquette and compressed tablet form to meet the growing energy demand of the area. But most of the people of Bijoynagar area live on agriculture. So, peat extraction and related geo-environmental degradation may change living style of the people. Proper land use planning, environmental management and policy should be taken before peat extraction.

  9. Super-Eddington stellar winds driven by near-surface energy deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quataert, Eliot; Fernández, Rodrigo; Kasen, Daniel; Klion, Hannah; Paxton, Bill

    2016-05-01

    We develop analytic and numerical models of the properties of super-Eddington stellar winds, motivated by phases in stellar evolution when super-Eddington energy deposition (via, e.g. unstable fusion, wave heating, or a binary companion) heats a region near the stellar surface. This appears to occur in the giant eruptions of luminous blue variables (LBVs), Type IIn supernovae progenitors, classical novae, and X-ray bursts. We show that when the wind kinetic power exceeds Eddington, the photons are trapped and behave like a fluid. Convection does not play a significant role in the wind energy transport. The wind properties depend on the ratio of a characteristic speed in the problem v_crit˜ (dot{E} G)^{1/5} (where dot{E} is the heating rate) to the stellar escape speed near the heating region vesc(rh). For vcrit ≳ vesc(rh), the wind kinetic power at large radii dot{E}_w ˜ dot{E}. For vcrit ≲ vesc(rh), most of the energy is used to unbind the wind material and thus dot{E}_w ≲ dot{E}. Multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations without radiation diffusion using FLASH and one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with radiation diffusion using MESA are in good agreement with the analytic predictions. The photon luminosity from the wind is itself super-Eddington but in many cases the photon luminosity is likely dominated by `internal shocks' in the wind. We discuss the application of our models to eruptive mass-loss from massive stars and argue that the wind models described here can account for the broad properties of LBV outflows and the enhanced mass-loss in the years prior to Type IIn core-collapse supernovae.

  10. Simulation of the secondary electrons energy deposition produced by proton beams in PMMA: influence of the target electronic excitation description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapor, Maurizio; Abril, Isabel; de Vera, Pablo; Garcia-Molina, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    We have studied the radial dependence of the energy deposition of the secondary electron generated by swift proton beams incident with energies T = 50 keV-5 MeV on poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA). Two different approaches have been used to model the electronic excitation spectrum of PMMA through its energy loss function (ELF), namely the extended-Drude ELF and the Mermin ELF. The singly differential cross section and the total cross section for ionization, as well as the average energy of the generated secondary electrons, show sizeable differences at T ⩽ 0.1 MeV when evaluated with these two ELF models. In order to know the radial distribution around the proton track of the energy deposited by the cascade of secondary electrons, a simulation has been performed that follows the motion of the electrons through the target taking into account both the inelastic interactions (via electronic ionizations and excitations as well as electron-phonon and electron trapping by polaron creation) and the elastic interactions. The radial distribution of the energy deposited by the secondary electrons around the proton track shows notable differences between the simulations performed with the extended-Drude ELF or the Mermin ELF, being the former more spread out (and, therefore, less peaked) than the latter. The highest intensity and sharpness of the deposited energy distributions takes place for proton beams incident with T ~ 0.1-1 MeV. We have also studied the influence in the radial distribution of deposited energy of using a full energy distribution of secondary electrons generated by proton impact or using a single value (namely, the average value of the distribution); our results show that differences between both simulations become important for proton energies larger than ~0.1 MeV. The results presented in this work have potential applications in materials science, as well as hadron therapy (due to the use of PMMA as a tissue phantom) in order to properly consider the

  11. Deposition of Chromium Thin Films on Stainless Steel-304 Substrates Using a Low Energy Plasma Focus Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Hojabri, A.; Habibi, M.; Hosseinnejad, M. T.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we study thin films of chromium deposited on stainless steel-304 substrates using a low energy (1.6 kJ) plasma focus device. The films of chromium are likewise deposited with 25 focus shots each at various axial distances from the top of the anode (3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 cm). We also consider different angular positions with respect to the anode axis (0°, 15° and 30°) at a distance of 5 cm from the anode tip to deposit the chromium films on the stainless steel substrates. To characterize the structural properties of the films, we benefit from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are applied as well to study the surface morphology of these deposited films. Furthermore, we make use of Vicker's micro-hardness measurements to investigate the mechanical properties of chromium thin films. The XRD results show that the degree of crystallinity of chromium thin films depends on the substrate axial and angular positions. The AFM images illustrate that the film deposited at the distance of 5 cm and the angular position of 0° has quite a uniform surface with homogeneous distribution of grains on the film surface. From the hardness results, we observe that the sample deposited at the axial distance of 5 cm from the anode tip and at the angle of 0° with respect to the anode axis, is harder than the other deposited films.

  12. A Complete Reporting of MCNP6 Validation Results for Electron Energy Deposition in Single-Layer Extended Media for Source Energies <= 1-MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry Grady [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-04

    In this paper, we expand on previous validation work by Dixon and Hughes. That is, we present a more complete suite of validation results with respect to to the well-known Lockwood energy deposition experiment. Lockwood et al. measured energy deposition in materials including beryllium, carbon, aluminum, iron, copper, molybdenum, tantalum, and uranium, for both single- and multi-layer 1-D geometries. Source configurations included mono-energetic, mono-directional electron beams with energies of 0.05-MeV, 0.1-MeV, 0.3- MeV, 0.5-MeV, and 1-MeV, in both normal and off-normal angles of incidence. These experiments are particularly valuable for validating electron transport codes, because they are closely represented by simulating pencil beams incident on 1-D semi-infinite slabs with and without material interfaces. Herein, we include total energy deposition and energy deposition profiles for the single-layer experiments reported by Lockwood et al. (a more complete multi-layer validation will follow in another report).

  13. Effect of the interplanetary magnetic field orientation and intensity in the mass and energy deposition on the Hermean surface

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, J; Moncuquet, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to simulate the interaction between the solar wind and the Hermean magnetosphere. We use the MHD code PLUTO in spherical coordinates with an axisymmetric multipolar expansion of the Hermean magnetic field, to perform a set of simulations with different interplanetary magnetic field orientations and intensities. We fix the hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind to study the distortions driven by the interplanetary magnetic field in the topology of the Hermean magnetosphere, leading to variations of the mass and energy deposition distributions, the integrated mass deposition, the oval aperture, the area covered by open magnetic field lines and the regions of efficient particle sputtering on the planet surface. The simulations show a correlation between the reconnection regions and the local maxima of plasma inflow and energy deposition on the planet surface.

  14. Nanostructured Thin Film Synthesis by Aerosol Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Tandeep S.

    Renewable energy sources offer a viable solution to the growing energy demand while mitigating concerns for greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. This has led to a tremendous momentum towards solar and wind-based energy harvesting technologies driving efficiencies higher and costs lower. However, the intermittent nature of these energy sources necessitates energy storage technologies, which remain the Achilles heel in meeting the renewable energy goals. This dissertation focusses on two approaches for addressing the needs of energy storage: first, targeting direct solar to fuel conversion via photoelectrochemical water-splitting and second, improving the performance of current rechargeable batteries by developing new electrode architectures and synthesis processes. The aerosol chemical vapor deposition (ACVD) process has emerged as a promising single-step approach for nanostructured thin film synthesis directly on substrates. The relationship between the morphology and the operating parameters in the process is complex. In this work, a simulation based approach has been developed to understand the relationship and acquire the ability of predicting the morphology. These controlled nanostructured morphologies of TiO2 , compounded with gold nanoparticles of various shapes, are used for solar water-splitting applications. Tuning of light absorption in the visible-light range along with reduced electron-hole recombination in the composite structures has been demonstrated. The ACVD process is further extended to a novel single-step synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 electrodes directly on the current collector for applications as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, mainly for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The effect of morphology of the nanostructures has been investigated via experimental studies and electrochemical transport modelling. Results demonstrate the exceptional performance of the single crystal one-dimensional nanostructures over granular

  15. Foliar Shielding: How Non-Meteoric Water Deposition Helps Leaves Survive Drought by Reducing Incoming Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Sinkler, C. J.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The uptake of water from the surface of the leaves, called foliar uptake, is common when rainfall is scarce and non-meteoric water (dew or fog) is the only source of water. However, many species have very water repellent leaves. Past studies have not differentiated between the uptake of water and the impact of the droplets on the energy balance of the leaf, which we call 'foliar shielding'. Leaves of the hydrophobic Colocasia esculenta were misted with isotopically enriched water in order to mimic non-meteoric water deposition. The leaf water potential and water isotopes were monitored for different water-stress conditions. A new protocol was developed for the fast analysis of leaf water isotopes using the Picarro induction module coupled to a laser spectrometer. Comparing the isotopic composition of the bulk leaf water at the end of the experiment, the misted leaves exhibit a d-excess higher by c. 63‰ than the control ones (P < 0.001). Low d-excess values are commonly associated with a high transpiration rate. Linking isotopic enrichment with leaf transpiration rate, we find a c. 30% decrease in transpiration rate for the treated leaves compared to the control (P < 0.001). Water-stressed leaves that were misted regularly exhibit a c. 64% smaller decline in water potential than water-stressed leaves that did not get misted (P < 0.05). Three possible mechanisms are proposed for the interaction of water droplets with the leaf energy and water balance. Comparing three previous foliar uptake studies to our results, we conclude that foliar shielding has a comparable yet opposite effect to foliar uptake on leaf water isotopes and that it is necessary to consider both processes when estimating foliar uptake of fog water.

  16. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota.

  17. Nanostructure of PDMS-TEOS-PrZr hybrids prepared by direct deposition of gamma radiation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancastre, Joana J. H.; Falcão, António N.; Margaça, Fernanda M. A.; Ferreira, Luís M.; Miranda Salvado, Isabel M.; Almásy, László; Casimiro, Maria H.; Meiszterics, Anikó

    2015-10-01

    Organic-inorganic materials have been the object of intense research due to their wide range of properties and therefore innumerous applications. We prepared organic-inorganic hybrid materials by direct energy deposition on a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane silanol terminated (33 wt% fixed content), tetraethylorthosilicate and a minor content of zirconium propoxide that varied from 1 to 5 wt% using gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. The samples, dried in air at room temperature, are bulk, flexible and transparent. Their nanostructure was investigated by small angle neutron scattering. It was found that the inorganic oxide network has fractal structure, which becomes denser as the zirconium propoxide content decreases. The results suggest that oxide nanosized regions grow from the OH terminal group of PDMS which are the condensation seeds. Their number and position remains unaltered with the variation of zirconium propoxide content that only affects their microstructure. A model is proposed for the nanostructure of the oxide network that develops in the irradiation processed hybrid materials.

  18. High-energy wave deposits at the eastern shore of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; Willershäuser, T.; Bolten, A.; Brückner, H.; Daut, G.; Wennrich, V.; Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, A.; Scheffers, S. R.; Schäbitz, F.

    2009-04-01

    The island of Bonaire is part of the Leeward Netherlands Antilles and lies 90 km off the Venezuelan coast. It mainly consists of two upper cretaceous cores of basalt, andesite, and dacite, fringed by a sequence of Quaternary marine limestone terraces. These well-defined platforms formed by in-situ growth of coral reefs and deposition of coral debris during high stands of sea level and subsequent exposure due to slow tectonic uplift. Bonaire has a semi-arid climate with an average annual precipitation of less than 500 mm, though large year-to-year variation occurs. Due to its peripheral position within the Caribbean hurricane belt the island rarely experiences severe storm events. Nevertheless, along the eastern windward coast several high-energy wave impacts of mid- to late Holocene age have created a well-diversified sedimentary record. Broad ramparts of imbricated coral rubble north of Lac Bai are 4 m high, proceed up to 400 m inland, and follow the shore over a distance of 12 km. Reef communities of the island's eastern sublittoral obviously never regenerated after their destruction during extreme wave events. Furthermore, massive boulders of up to 260 tons are distributed over the broad elevated Pleistocene reef platform deriving from the foreshore zone (Scheffers et al., 2008). The windward nearshore morphological depressions provide excellent conditions for preserving sedimentary inputs of exceptionally large wave impacts. We carried out numerous vibracorings and gravity corings inside shallow sinkholes on the Pleistocene terrace north of Lac Bai and the landward floodplain of the Lagun embayment at Washikemba. Several vibracorings of up to 5 m below surface at Lagun show multiple interruptions of continuous sedimentation patterns by poorly-sorted shell hash within a carbonate-rich matrix of marine origin. The lowermost bioclastic unit dates back before 6000 BP. Within a superimposed layer of pure mangrove peat another cluster of shells, partly broken, is

  19. Ion beam induced luminescence from diamond using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Allen, M.G. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Analysis of the luminescence induced by a MeV ion beam offers the potential to provide useful information about the chemical properties of atoms in crystals to complement the information provided by more traditional Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), ion channeling and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Furthermore, the large penetration depth of the MeV ion beam offers several advantages over the relatively shallow penetration of keV electrons typically employed in cathodoluminescence. An Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) detection system was developed for the Melbourne microprobe that allows the spatial mapping of the luminescence signal along with the signals from RBS and PIXE. Homoepitaxial diamond growth has been studied and remarkable shifts in the characteristic blue luminescence of diamond towards the green were observed in the overgrowth. This has been tentatively identified as being due to transition metal inclusions in the epitaxial layers. 8 refs., 2 refs.

  20. Multivariate analysis of Ion Beam Induced Luminescence spectra of irradiated silver ion-exchanged silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Quaranta, Alberto; Cattaruzza, Elti; Gonella, Francesco; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    A multivariate analysis is used for the identification of the spectral features in Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) spectra of soda-lime silicate glasses doped with silver by Ag+-Na+ ion exchange. Both Principal Component Analysis and multivariate analysis were used to characterize time-evolving IBIL spectra of Ag-doped glasses, by means of the identification of the number and of the wavelength positions of the main luminescent features and the study of their evolution during irradiation. This method helps to identify the spectral features of the samples spectra, even when partially overlapped or less intense. This analysis procedure does not require additional input such as the number of peaks.

  1. Solar cell evaluation using electron beam induced current with the large chamber scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Tara; Kintzel, Edward; Marienhoff, Peter; Klein, Martin

    2012-02-01

    An initial study using electron beam induced current (EBIC) to evaluate solar cells has been carried out with the large chamber scanning electron microscope (LC-SEM) at the Western Kentucky University Nondestructive Analysis Center. EBIC is a scanning electron microscope technique used for the characterization of semiconductors. To facilitate our studies, we developed a Solar Amplification System (SASY) for analyzing current distribution and defects within a solar cell module. Preliminary qualitative results will be shown for a solar cell module that demonstrates the viability of the technique using the LC-SEM. Quantitative EBIC experiments will be carried out to analyze defects and minority carrier properties. Additionally, a well-focused spot of light from an LED mounted at the side of the SEM column will scan the same area of the solar cell using the LC-SEM positioning system. SASY will then output the solar efficiency to be compared with the minority carrier properties found using EBIC.

  2. Microbeam Studies of Diffusion Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection from Stripe-Like Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUO,B.N.; BOUANANI,M.E.; RENFROW,S.N.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; ATON,T.J.; SMITH,E.B.; BAUMANN,R.C.; DUGGAN,J.L.; MCDANIEL,F.D.

    2000-06-14

    To design more radiation tolerant Integrated Circuits (ICs), it is essential to create and test accurate models of ionizing radiation induced charge collection dynamics within microcircuits. A new technique, Diffusion Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (DTRIBICC), is proposed to measure the average arrival time of the diffused charge at the junction. Specially designed stripe-like junctions were experimentally studied using a 12 MeV carbon microbeam with a spot size of 1 {micro}m. The relative arrival time of ion-generated charge is measured along with the charge collection using a multiple parameter data acquisition system. The results show the importance of the diffused charge collection by junctions, which is especially significant in accounting for Multiple Bit Upset (MBUs) in digital devices.

  3. Electron-beam induced disorder effects in optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobornik, I.; Berger, H.; Pavuna, D.; Margaritondo, G.; Forro, L.; Grioni, M.; Rullier-Albenque, F.; Onellion, M.; EPFL Collaboration; Laboratoire Des Solides Irradiés Collaboration

    2000-03-01

    We report on the effects of electron-beam induced disorder in optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystal samples, measured with angle-resolved photoemission. In the superconducting state, the disorder fills in the gap, without changing the binding energy or the width of the narrow coherent feature.[1] In the normal state, disorder leads to an anisotropic pseudogap in angle-resolved photoemission, with the largest pseudogap near the (0,p) point and no pseudogap in the direction.[2,3] We discuss implications of these data. 1. I. Vobornik et.al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 , 3128 (1999). 2. I. Vobornik, Ph.D. thesis, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, October, 1999. 3. I. Vobornik et.al., unpublished.

  4. Energy deposition in small-scale targets of liquid water using the very low energy electromagnetic physics processes of the Geant4 toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, S.; Champion, C.; Tran, H. N.; Karamitros, M.; Bernal, M.; Francis, Z.; Ivanchenko, V.; Mantero, A.; Members of Geant4-DNA Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    In the perspective of building an open source simulation platform dedicated to the modelling of early biological molecular damages due to ionising radiation at the DNA scale, the general-purpose Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit has been recently extended with specific very low energy electromagnetic physics processes for liquid water medium. These processes - also called “Geant4-DNA” processes - simulate the physical interactions induced by electrons, hydrogen and helium atoms of different charge states. The present work reports on the energy deposit distributions obtained for incident electrons, protons and alpha particles in nanometre-size volumes comparable to those present in the genetic material of mammalian cells. The frequency distributions of the energy deposition obtained for three typical geometries of nanometre-size cylindrical targets placed in a spherical phantom are found to be in reasonable agreement with prior works. Furthermore, we present a combination of the Geant4-DNA processes with a simplified geometrical model of a cellular nucleus allowing the evaluation of energy deposits in volumes of biological interest.

  5. Monte Carlo study of radial energy deposition from primary and secondary particles for narrow and large proton beamlet source models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Christopher R; Titt, Uwe

    2012-06-21

    In spot-scanning intensity-modulated proton therapy, numerous unmodulated proton beam spots are delivered over a target volume to produce a prescribed dose distribution. To accurately model field size-dependent output factors for beam spots, the energy deposition at positions radial to the central axis of the beam must be characterized. In this study, we determined the difference in the central axis dose for spot-scanned fields that results from secondary particle doses by investigating energy deposition radial to the proton beam central axis resulting from primary protons and secondary particles for mathematical point source and distributed source models. The largest difference in the central axis dose from secondary particles resulting from the use of a mathematical point source and a distributed source model was approximately 0.43%. Thus, we conclude that the central axis dose for a spot-scanned field is effectively independent of the source model used to calculate the secondary particle dose.

  6. Results of the studies on energy deposition in IR6 superconducting magnets from continuous beam loss on the TCDQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Presland, A; Redaelli, S; Sarchiapone, L; Weiler, T

    2007-01-01

    A single sided mobile graphite diluter block TCDQ, in combination with a two-sided secondary collimator TCS and an iron shield TCDQM, will be installed in front of the superconducting quadrupole Q4 magnets in IR6, in order to protect it and other downstream LHC machine elements from destruction in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the abort gap. The TCDQ will be positioned close to the beam, and will intercept the particles from the secondary halo during low beam lifetime. Previous studies (1-4) have shown that the energy deposited in the Q4 magnet coils can be close to or above the quench limit. In this note the results of the latest FLUKA energy deposition simulations for Beam 2 are described, including an upgrade possibility for the TCDQ system with an additional shielding device. The results are discussed in the context of the expected performance levels for the different phases of LHC operation.

  7. An effective model for entropy deposition in high-energy pp, pA, and AA collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Moreland, J Scott; Bass, Steffen A

    2014-01-01

    We introduce TRENTO, a new initial condition model for high-energy nuclear collisions based on eikonal entropy deposition via a "reduced thickness" function. The model simultaneously predicts the shapes of experimental proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus multiplicity distributions, and generates nucleus-nucleus eccentricity harmonics consistent with experimental flow constraints. In addition, the model provides a possible resolution to the "knee" puzzle in ultra-central uranium-uranium collisions.

  8. Biological Effects of Particles with Very High Energy Deposition on Mammalian Cells Utilizing the Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wang, Minli

    2013-01-01

    High LET radiation from GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) consisting mainly of high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei and secondary protons and neutrons, and secondaries from protons in SPE (Solar Particle Event) pose a major health risk to astronauts due to induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Experiments with high energy particles mimicking the space environment for estimation of radiation risk are being performed at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL. Experiments with low energy particles comparing to high energy particles of similar LET are of interest for investigation of the role of track structure on biological effects. For this purpose, we report results utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at BNL. The primary objective of our studies is to elucidate the influence of high vs low energy deposition on track structure, delta ray contribution and resulting biological responses. These low energy ions are of special relevance as these energies may occur following absorption through the spacecraft and shielding materials in human tissues and nuclear fragments produced in tissues by high energy protons and neutrons. This study will help to verify the efficiency of these low energy particles and better understand how various cell types respond to them.

  9. Toward sensitive graphene nanoribbon-nanopore devices by preventing electron beam-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puster, Matthew; Rodríguez-Manzo, Julio A; Balan, Adrian; Drndić, Marija

    2013-12-23

    Graphene-based nanopore devices are promising candidates for next-generation DNA sequencing. Here we fabricated graphene nanoribbon-nanopore (GNR-NP) sensors for DNA detection. Nanopores with diameters in the range 2-10 nm were formed at the edge or in the center of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), with widths between 20 and 250 nm and lengths of 600 nm, on 40 nm thick silicon nitride (SiN(x)) membranes. GNR conductance was monitored in situ during electron irradiation-induced nanopore formation inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) operating at 200 kV. We show that GNR resistance increases linearly with electron dose and that GNR conductance and mobility decrease by a factor of 10 or more when GNRs are imaged at relatively high magnification with a broad beam prior to making a nanopore. By operating the TEM in scanning TEM (STEM) mode, in which the position of the converged electron beam can be controlled with high spatial precision via automated feedback, we were able to prevent electron beam-induced damage and make nanopores in highly conducting GNR sensors. This method minimizes the exposure of the GNRs to the beam before and during nanopore formation. The resulting GNRs with unchanged resistances after nanopore formation can sustain microampere currents at low voltages (∼50 mV) in buffered electrolyte solution and exhibit high sensitivity, with a large relative change of resistance upon changes of gate voltage, similar to pristine GNRs without nanopores.

  10. Radiation damage mechanisms in CsI(Tl) studied by ion beam induced luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, Alberto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali - DIMTI, Universita di Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)], E-mail: quaranta@ing.unitn.it; Gramegna, Fabiana; Kravchuk, Vladimir [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Scian, Carlo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali - DIMTI, Universita di Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been used to study the kinetics of defect production under ion beam irradiation in CsI(Tl) crystals with different Tl{sup +} concentrations (250, 560, 3250 and 6500 ppm). The crystals have been irradiated with H{sup +} and {sup 4}He{sup +} at 1.8 MeV. Both the scintillator spectra after irradiation and the intensity decrease at different wavelengths as a function of the fluence have been measured. The emission bands shift to higher wavelengths after irradiation, and the light decrease has been interpolated following a saturation model for the point defect concentration. Crystals with low Tl{sup +} concentrations present the UV emission peak of pure CsI at 300 nm whose intensity during H{sup +} irradiation and reaches a maximum under He{sup +} irradiation. At low Tl{sup +} concentrations the damage rate depends on the ion stopping power, while at higher concentrations it depends on the activator concentration. The results can be interpreted by assuming that the defects affecting the light emission are point defects nearby Tl{sup +} ions.

  11. Effects of electrons on the shape of nanopores prepared by focused electron beam induced etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebes, Yael; Hadad, Binyamin; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2011-07-01

    The fabrication of nanometric pores with controlled size is important for applications such as single molecule detection. We have recently suggested the use of focused electron beam induced etching (FEBIE) for the preparation of such nanopores in silicon nitride membranes. The use of a scanning probe microscope as the electron beam source makes this technique comparably accessible, opening the way to widespread fabrication of nanopores. Since the shape of the nanopores is critically important for their performance, in this work we focus on its analysis and study the dependence of the nanopore shape on the electron beam acceleration voltage. We show that the nanopore adopts a funnel-like shape, with a central pore penetrating the entire membrane, surrounded by an extended shallow-etched region at the top of the membrane. While the internal nanopore size was found to depend on the electron acceleration voltage, the nanopore edges extended beyond the primary electron beam spot size due to long-range effects, such as radiolysis and diffusion. Moreover, the size of the peripheral-etched region was found to be less dependent on the acceleration voltage. We also found that chemical etching is the rate-limiting step of the process and is only slightly dependent on the acceleration voltage. Furthermore, due to the chemical etch process the chemical composition of the nanopore rims was found to maintain the bulk membrane composition.

  12. The controlled fabrication of nanopores by focused electron-beam-induced etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, M.; Hadad, B.; Liebes, Y.; Goldner, A.; Ashkenasy, N.

    2009-06-01

    The fabrication of nanometric holes within thin silicon-based membranes is of great importance for various nanotechnology applications. The preparation of such holes with accurate control over their size and shape is, thus, gaining a lot of interest. In this work we demonstrate the use of a focused electron-beam-induced etching (FEBIE) process as a promising tool for the fabrication of such nanopores in silicon nitride membranes and study the process parameters. The reduction of silicon nitride by the electron beam followed by chemical etching of the residual elemental silicon results in a linear dependence of pore diameter on electron beam exposure time, enabling accurate control of nanopore size in the range of 17-200 nm in diameter. An optimal pressure of 5.3 × 10-6 Torr for the production of smaller pores with faster process rates, as a result of mass transport effects, was found. The pore formation process is also shown to be dependent on the details of the pulsed process cycle, which control the rate of the pore extension, and its minimal and maximal size. Our results suggest that the FEBIE process may play a key role in the fabrication of nanopores for future devices both in sensing and nano-electronics applications.

  13. The controlled fabrication of nanopores by focused electron-beam-induced etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemini, M; Ashkenasy, N [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Hadad, B; Goldner, A [The Weiss Family Laboratory for Nano-Scale Systems, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Liebes, Y [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653 Beer-Sheva (Israel)], E-mail: nurita@bgu.ac.il

    2009-06-17

    The fabrication of nanometric holes within thin silicon-based membranes is of great importance for various nanotechnology applications. The preparation of such holes with accurate control over their size and shape is, thus, gaining a lot of interest. In this work we demonstrate the use of a focused electron-beam-induced etching (FEBIE) process as a promising tool for the fabrication of such nanopores in silicon nitride membranes and study the process parameters. The reduction of silicon nitride by the electron beam followed by chemical etching of the residual elemental silicon results in a linear dependence of pore diameter on electron beam exposure time, enabling accurate control of nanopore size in the range of 17-200 nm in diameter. An optimal pressure of 5.3 x 10{sup -6} Torr for the production of smaller pores with faster process rates, as a result of mass transport effects, was found. The pore formation process is also shown to be dependent on the details of the pulsed process cycle, which control the rate of the pore extension, and its minimal and maximal size. Our results suggest that the FEBIE process may play a key role in the fabrication of nanopores for future devices both in sensing and nano-electronics applications.

  14. Effects of electrons on the shape of nanopores prepared by focused electron beam induced etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebes, Yael; Ashkenasy, Nurit [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Hadad, Binyamin, E-mail: nurita@bgu.ac.il [The Ilze Kaz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653 Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    The fabrication of nanometric pores with controlled size is important for applications such as single molecule detection. We have recently suggested the use of focused electron beam induced etching (FEBIE) for the preparation of such nanopores in silicon nitride membranes. The use of a scanning probe microscope as the electron beam source makes this technique comparably accessible, opening the way to widespread fabrication of nanopores. Since the shape of the nanopores is critically important for their performance, in this work we focus on its analysis and study the dependence of the nanopore shape on the electron beam acceleration voltage. We show that the nanopore adopts a funnel-like shape, with a central pore penetrating the entire membrane, surrounded by an extended shallow-etched region at the top of the membrane. While the internal nanopore size was found to depend on the electron acceleration voltage, the nanopore edges extended beyond the primary electron beam spot size due to long-range effects, such as radiolysis and diffusion. Moreover, the size of the peripheral-etched region was found to be less dependent on the acceleration voltage. We also found that chemical etching is the rate-limiting step of the process and is only slightly dependent on the acceleration voltage. Furthermore, due to the chemical etch process the chemical composition of the nanopore rims was found to maintain the bulk membrane composition.

  15. Development of electrostatic supercapacitors by atomic layer deposition on nanoporous anodic aluminium oxides for energy harvesting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia eIglesias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials can provide innovative solutions for solving the usual energy harvesting and storage drawbacks that take place in conventional energy storage devices based on batteries or electrolytic capacitors, because they are not fully capable for attending the fast energy demands and high power densities required in many of present applications. Here, we report on the development and characterization of novel electrostatic supercapacitors made by conformal Atomic Layer Deposition on the high open surface of nanoporous anodic alumina membranes employed as templates. The structure of the designed electrostatic supercapacitor prototype consists of successive layers of Aluminium doped Zinc Oxide, as the bottom and top electrodes, together Al2O3 as the intermediate dielectric layer. The conformality of the deposited conductive and dielectric layers, together with their composition and crystalline structure have been checked by XRD and electron microscopy techniques. Impedance measurements performed for the optimized electrostatic supercapacitor device give a high capacitance value of 200 µF/cm2 at the frequency of 40 Hz, which confirms the theoretical estimations for such kind of prototypes, and the leakage current reaches values around of 1.8 mA/cm2 at 1 V. The high capacitance value achieved by the supercapacitor prototype together its small size turns these devices in outstanding candidates for using in energy harvesting and storage applications.

  16. Analytical model of ionization and energy deposition by proton beams in subcellular compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, Pablo; Surdutovich, Eugene; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2014-04-01

    We present an analytical model to evaluate in a fast, simple and effective manner the energy delivered by proton beams moving through a cell model made of nucleus and cytoplasm, taking into account the energy carried by the secondary electrons generated along the proton tracks. The electronic excitation spectra of these subcellular compartments have been modelled by means of an empirical parameterization of their dielectric properties. The energy loss rate and target ionization probability induced by swift protons are evaluated by means of the dielectric formalism. With the present model we have quantified the energy delivered, the specific energy, and the number of ionizations produced per incoming ion in a typical human cell by a typical hadrontherapy proton beam having energies usually reached around the Bragg peak (below 20 MeV). We find that the specific energy per incoming ion delivered in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm are rather similar for all the proton energy range analyzed.

  17. Athermal Energy Loss from X-Rays Deposited in Thin Superconducting Bilayers on Solid Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon R.; Kozorezov, Alexander; Balvin, Manuel A.; Busch, Sarah E.; Nagler, Peter N.; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Smith, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Sadleir, John E.; Seidel, George M.

    2012-01-01

    An important feature that determines the energy resolution of any type of thin film microcalorimeter is the fraction of athermal energy that can be lost to the heat bath prior to the device coming into thermal equilibrium.

  18. Controlling size, amount, and crystalline structure of nanoparticles deposited on graphenes for highly efficient energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Park, Ho Seok

    2012-04-01

    A facilitated electrochemical reaction at the surface of electrodes is crucial for highly efficient energy conversion and storage. Herein, various nanoparticles (NPs) including Au, Pt, Pd, Ru, and RuO(2), were synthesized in situ and directly deposited on the ionic liquid (IL)-functionalized reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) in a controlled manner. The size, amount, and crystalline structures of discrete NPs were readily controlled, giving rise to enhanced methanol oxidation and pseudocapacitance. The well-defined nanostructure of decorated NPs and the favorable interaction between ILs and RGOs (or NPs) facilitated the electrochemical reaction, where NPs acted as electrocatalysts for energy conversion and played the role of redox-active electrodes for energy storage.

  19. Characterisation and mitigation of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the 2011 proton-proton run

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruce, Roderik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dressnandt, Nandor; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernandez, Carlos Medina; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector and discusses methods to tag and remove background contaminated events in data. Trigger-rate based monitoring of beam-related backgrounds is presented. The correlations of backgrounds with machine conditions, such as residual pressure in the beam-pipe, are discussed. Results from dedicated beam-background simulations are shown, and their qualitative agreement with data is evaluated. Data taken during the passage of unpaired, i.e. non-colliding, proton bunches is used to obtain background-enriched data samples. These are used to identify characteristic features of beam-induced backgrounds, which then are exploited to develop dedicated background tagging tools. These tools, based on observables in the Pixel detector, the muon spectrometer and the calorimeters, are described in detail and their efficiencies are evaluated. Finally an example of an application of these techniques to a monojet analysis is given, which demonstra...

  20. Energy deposition by a {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh eye applicator simulated using LEPTS, a low-energy particle track simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, M.C. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Munoz, A.; Oller, J.C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avenida Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Williart, A. [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Limao-Vieira, P. [Laboratorio de Colisoes Atomicas e Moleculares, Departamento de Fisica, CEFITEC, FCT-Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Borge, M.J.G.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Huerga, C.; Tellez, M. [Hospital Universitario La Paz, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G., E-mail: g.garcia@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    The present study introduces LEPTS, an event-by-event Monte Carlo programme, for simulating an ophthalmic {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh applicator relevant in brachytherapy of ocular tumours. The distinctive characteristics of this code are the underlying radiation-matter interaction models that distinguish elastic and several kinds of inelastic collisions, as well as the use of mostly experimental input data. Special emphasis is placed on the treatment of low-energy electrons for generally being responsible for the deposition of a large portion of the total energy imparted to matter. - Highlights: > We present the Monte Carlo code LEPTS, a low-energy particle track simulation. > Carefully selected input data from 10 keV to 1 eV. > Application to an electron emitting Ru-106/Rh-106 plaque used in brachytherapy.

  1. Kinetic mechanisms of the in situ electron beam-induced self-organization of gold nanoclusters in SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffino, F; Grimaldi, M G [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy) and MATIS CNR-INFM (Italy); Giannazzo, F; Roccaforte, F; Raineri, V; Bongiorno, C; Spinella, C [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR-IMM) VIII Strada 5, I-95121 Catania (Italy)

    2009-04-07

    Gold nanoclusters (NCs) were produced in thin SiO{sub 2} film by a sequential sputtering deposition procedure. In situ time-lapse studies of the NCs size distribution and morphology under 200 keV electron-beam irradiation have been performed using a transmission electron microscopy. Such a study has revealed the microscopic kinetic mechanisms of the NCs growth. In the 0-1620 s irradiation time range, the NCs growth process was found to be formed by two stages: in the 0-720 s time range, the main growth mechanism is demonstrated to be an electron beam-induced ripening of three-dimensional particles controlled by the Au diffusion in the SiO{sub 2} matrix. The application of the classical ripening theoretical model allowed us to derive the room-temperature Au diffusion coefficient in SiO{sub 2} under the electron-beam irradiation. In the 900-1620 s time range, the main growth mechanism is found to be a particle sintering in which neighbouring NCs form necks, by a partial deformation of their surfaces, through which the Au atomic diffusion occurs from the smaller NCs to the larger one. About the NCs morphology, three main classes of NCs were identified on the basis of their internal atomic structure, as a function of the irradiation time: FCC crystal structure, icosahedral-defect free structure and decahedral multi-twinned structure.

  2. Kinetic mechanisms of the in situ electron beam-induced self-organization of gold nanoclusters in SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M. G.; Giannazzo, F.; Roccaforte, F.; Raineri, V.; Bongiorno, C.; Spinella, C.

    2009-04-01

    Gold nanoclusters (NCs) were produced in thin SiO2 film by a sequential sputtering deposition procedure. In situ time-lapse studies of the NCs size distribution and morphology under 200 keV electron-beam irradiation have been performed using a transmission electron microscopy. Such a study has revealed the microscopic kinetic mechanisms of the NCs growth. In the 0-1620 s irradiation time range, the NCs growth process was found to be formed by two stages: in the 0-720 s time range, the main growth mechanism is demonstrated to be an electron beam-induced ripening of three-dimensional particles controlled by the Au diffusion in the SiO2 matrix. The application of the classical ripening theoretical model allowed us to derive the room-temperature Au diffusion coefficient in SiO2 under the electron-beam irradiation. In the 900-1620 s time range, the main growth mechanism is found to be a particle sintering in which neighbouring NCs form necks, by a partial deformation of their surfaces, through which the Au atomic diffusion occurs from the smaller NCs to the larger one. About the NCs morphology, three main classes of NCs were identified on the basis of their internal atomic structure, as a function of the irradiation time: FCC crystal structure, icosahedral-defect free structure and decahedral multi-twinned structure.

  3. Internal energy deposition for low energy, femtosecond laser vaporization and nanospray post-ionization mass spectrometry using thermometer ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Paul M; Shi, Fengjian; Archer, Jieutonne J; Levis, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    The internal energy of p-substituted benzylpyridinium ions after laser vaporization using low energy, femtosecond duration laser pulses of wavelengths 800 and 1042 nm was determined using the survival yield method. Laser vaporization of dried benzylpyridinium ions from metal slides into a buffered nanospray with 75 μJ, 800 nm laser pulses resulted in a higher extent of fragmentation than conventional nanospray due to the presence of a two-photon resonance fragmentation pathway. Using higher energy 800 nm laser pulses (280 and 505 μJ) led to decreased survival yields for the four different dried benzylpyridinium ions. Analyzing dried thermometer ions with 46.5 μJ, 1042 nm pulse-bursts resulted in little fragmentation and mean internal energy distributions equivalent to nanospray, which is attributable to the absence of a two-photon resonance that occurs with higher energy, 800 nm laser pulses. Vaporization of thermometer ions from solution with either 800 nm or 1042 nm laser pulses resulted in comparable internal energy distributions to nanospray ionization.

  4. Optimization of laser energy deposition for single-shot high aspect-ratio microstructuring of thick BK7 glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzillo, Valerio; Jukna, Vytautas; Couairon, Arnaud; Grigutis, Robertas; Di Trapani, Paolo; Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the generation of high aspect ratio microstructures across 0.7 mm thick glass by means of single shot Bessel beam laser direct writing. We study the effect on the photoinscription of the cone angle, as well as of the energy and duration of the ultrashort laser pulse. The aim of the study is to optimize the parameters for the writing of a regular microstructure due to index modification along the whole sample thickness. By using a spectrally resolved single pulse transmission diagnostics at the output surface of the glass, we correlate the single shot material modification with observations of the absorption in different portions of the retrieved spectra, and with the absence or presence of spectral modulation. Numerical simulations of the evolution of the Bessel pulse intensity and of the energy deposition inside the sample help us interpret the experimental results that suggest to use picosecond pulses for an efficient and more regular energy deposition. Picosecond pulses take advantage of nonlinear plasma absorption and avoid temporal dynamics effects which can compromise the stationarity of the Bessel beam propagation.

  5. Electromagnetic energy deposition rate in the polar upper thermosphere derived from the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS Finland radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fujiwara

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available From simultaneous observations of the European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR and the Cooperative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System (CUTLASS Finland radar on 9 March 1999, we have derived the height distributions of the thermospheric heating rate at the F region height in association with electromagnetic energy inputs into the dayside polar cap/cusp region. The ESR and CUTLASS radar observations provide the ionospheric parameters with fine time-resolutions of a few minutes. Although the geomagnetic activity was rather moderate (Kp=3+~4, the electric field obtained from the ESR data sometimes shows values exceeding 40 mV/m. The estimated passive energy deposition rates are also larger than 150 W/kg in the upper thermosphere over the ESR site during the period of the enhanced electric field. In addition, enhancements of the Pedersen conductivity also contribute to heating the upper thermosphere, while there is only a small contribution for thermospheric heating from the direct particle heating due to soft particle precipitation in the dayside polar cap/cusp region. In the same period, the CUTLASS observations of the ion drift show the signature of poleward moving pulsed ionospheric flows with a recurrence rate of about 10–20 min. The estimated electromagnetic energy deposition rate shows the existence of the strong heat source in the dayside polar cap/cusp region of the upper thermosphere in association with the dayside magnetospheric phenomena of reconnections and flux transfer events.

  6. Determination of deposited flux and energy of sputtered tungsten atoms on every stages of transport in HiPIMS discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desecures, M.; de Poucques, L.; Bougdira, J.

    2017-02-01

    A time-resolved tunable diode-laser (DL) induced fluorescence (TR-TDLIF) technique has been used to identify different populations of atoms (on different stages of transport) to determine their corresponding deposited energy and flux. The temporal dimension permits the splitting of the processes of sputtering during the discharge and particles transport in the post-discharge where atoms and flux velocity distribution functions (AVDF, FVDF) of each population were measured varying the discharge parameters (power, voltage, pressure, and distance from target). Tungsten (W) was chosen, being an interesting case in terms of sputtered atom transport, considering its weight which implies weak changes of directivity or energy transfer after collisions with the buffer gas. The high temporal and spectral resolutions of TR-TDLIF are the keys for the distinction of the atoms populations and the stage corresponding to the transition from the ballistic to diffusive regime of transport was observed for the first time and named quasi-diffusive regime. Thus, the ability to dissociate populations of atoms and to determine their deposited flux and energy may be of great interest to adjust film properties as desired for applications.

  7. An Ideal System for Analysis and Interpretation of Ion Beam Induced Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. D.; Crespillo, M. L.

    Luminescence is produced during ion beam implantation or ion-solid interaction for most insulators, and contains rich information. Surprisingly, the information extracted is often far from optimum. Rather than summarizing literature work, the focus here is to design an optimized and feasible target chamber that could offer far more information than what has currently been obtained. Such an improved and multi-probe approach opens a range of options to simultaneously record luminescence spectra generated by the ion beam, explore transient and excited state signals via probes of secondary excitation methods (such as ionisation or photo-stimulation). In addition, one may monitor optical absorption, reflectivity and lifetime dependent features, plus stress and polarization factors. A particularly valuable addition to conventional measurements is to have the ability to modulate both the ion beam and the probes. These features allow separation of transient lifetimes, as well as sensing intermediate steps in the defect formation and/or relaxation, and growth of new phases and nanoparticle inclusions. While luminescence methods are the most sensitive probes of defect and imperfection sites in optically active materials, less work has been performed at controlled low and high temperatures. Measurement with controlled cooling or heating of the samples is effective to reveal phase transitions (both of host and inclusions). Furthermore, simultaneous excitations (e.g. ions and photons) at different temperatures may lead to different end-phase or stale structure under extreme ionization conditions and enable fabrication of unique material structures. References to the existing literature will underline that the overall benefits of studying ion beam induced luminescence can be far more fruitful than that has normally been considered.

  8. High resolution laser beam induced current images under trichromatic laser radiation: approximation to the solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, F J; Alcántara, R; Fernández-Lorenzo, C; Martín-Calleja, J

    2010-03-01

    A laser beam induced current (LBIC) map of a photoactive surface is a very useful tool when it is necessary to study the spatial variability of properties such as photoconverter efficiency or factors connected with the recombination of carriers. Obtaining high spatial resolution LBIC maps involves irradiating the photoactive surface with a photonic beam with Gaussian power distribution and with a low dispersion coefficient. Laser emission fulfils these characteristics, but against it is the fact that it is highly monochromatic and therefore has a spectral distribution different to solar emissions. This work presents an instrumental system and procedure to obtain high spatial resolution LBIC maps in conditions approximating solar irradiation. The methodology developed consists of a trichromatic irradiation system based on three sources of laser excitation with emission in the red, green, and blue zones of the electromagnetic spectrum. The relative irradiation powers are determined by either solar spectrum distribution or Planck's emission formula which provides information approximate to the behavior of the system if it were under solar irradiation. In turn, an algorithm and a procedure have been developed to be able to form images based on the scans performed by the three lasers, providing information about the photoconverter efficiency of photovoltaic devices under the irradiation conditions used. This system has been checked with three photosensitive devices based on three different technologies: a commercial silicon photodiode, a commercial photoresistor, and a dye-sensitized solar cell. These devices make it possible to check how the superficial quantum efficiency has areas dependent upon the excitation wavelength while it has been possible to measure global incident photon-to-current efficiency values approximating those that would be obtained under irradiation conditions with sunlight.

  9. Deposition and optical properties of optimised ZnS/Ag/ZnS thin films for energy saving applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leftheriotis, G.; Yianoulis, P.; Patrikios, D. [Patras Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Physics

    1997-08-28

    Dielectric/Metal/Dielectric (D/M/D) thin films deposited on glass offer the possibility of significant energy savings in buildings and can find other applications as components of advanced materials design. In an effort to reduce the complexity and cost of production of D/M/D films, physical vapour deposition was used for the laboratory manufacture of ZnS/Ag/ZnS films on glass. ZnS was used because of its high refractive index, ease of deposition and low cost; Ag was used because of its low absorption in the visible spectrum. The films produced were of good quality, with luminous transmittance as high as 83.9%, IR reflectance above 90% and total hemispherical emittance equal to 6%. The ZnS layers were found not only to antireflect the Ag layer, but also to stabilise the ZnS/Ag/ZnS film, improve its adherence on glass and increase the film thermal resistance up to 240 C. A multipurpose computational optics tool based on the characteristic matrix formulation has been developed for the design and optimisation of the D/M/D films: The optimum thickness of each dielectric layer required to maximise the film luminous transmittance for a given metal layer thickness was established. The optical properties of the films designed were also predicted and the most suitable materials were identified. The optical properties of the films produced were measured and were found to compare favourably with the theoretical predictions. (orig.) 29 refs.

  10. Modelling the geometry of a moving laser melt pool and deposition track via energy and mass balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.; Li, Lin

    2004-07-01

    The additive manufacturing technique of laser direct metal deposition allows multiple tracks of full density metallic material to be built to form complex parts for rapid tooling and manufacture. Practical results and theoretical models have shown that the geometries of the tracks are governed by multiple factors. Original work with single layer cladding identified three basic clad profiles but, so far, models of multiple layer, powder-feed deposition have been based on only two of them. At higher powder mass flow rates, experimental results have shown that a layer's width can become greater than the melt pool width at the substrate surface, but previous analytical models have not been able to accommodate this. In this paper, a model based on this third profile is established and experimentally verified. The model concentrates on mathematical analysis of the melt pool and establishes mass and energy balances based on one-dimensional heat conduction to the substrate. Deposition track limits are considered as arcs of circles rather than of ellipses, as used in most established models, reflecting the dominance of surface tension forces in the melt pool, and expressions for elongation of the melt pool with increasing traverse speed are incorporated. Trends in layer width and height with major process parameters are captured and predicted layer dimensions correspond well to the experimental values.

  11. Correlation between energy deposition and molecular damage from Auger electrons: A case study of ultra-low energy (5–18 eV) electron interactions with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaee, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Rezaee@USherbrooke.ca; Hunting, Darel J.; Sanche, Léon [Groupe en Sciences des Radiations, Département de Médecine Nucléaire et Radiobiologie, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The present study introduces a new method to establish a direct correlation between biologically related physical parameters (i.e., stopping and damaging cross sections, respectively) for an Auger-electron emitting radionuclide decaying within a target molecule (e.g., DNA), so as to evaluate the efficacy of the radionuclide at the molecular level. These parameters can be applied to the dosimetry of Auger electrons and the quantification of their biological effects, which are the main criteria to assess the therapeutic efficacy of Auger-electron emitting radionuclides. Methods: Absorbed dose and stopping cross section for the Auger electrons of 5–18 eV emitted by{sup 125}I within DNA were determined by developing a nanodosimetric model. The molecular damages induced by these Auger electrons were investigated by measuring damaging cross section, including that for the formation of DNA single- and double-strand breaks. Nanoscale films of pure plasmid DNA were prepared via the freeze-drying technique and subsequently irradiated with low-energy electrons at various fluences. The damaging cross sections were determined by employing a molecular survival model to the measured exposure–response curves for induction of DNA strand breaks. Results: For a single decay of{sup 125}I within DNA, the Auger electrons of 5–18 eV deposit the energies of 12.1 and 9.1 eV within a 4.2-nm{sup 3} volume of a hydrated or dry DNA, which results in the absorbed doses of 270 and 210 kGy, respectively. DNA bases have a major contribution to the deposited energies. Ten-electronvolt and high linear energy transfer 100-eV electrons have a similar cross section for the formation of DNA double-strand break, while 100-eV electrons are twice as efficient as 10 eV in the induction of single-strand break. Conclusions: Ultra-low-energy electrons (<18 eV) substantially contribute to the absorbed dose and to the molecular damage from Auger-electron emitting radionuclides; hence, they should

  12. Facile and Cost-Effective Synthesis and Deposition of a YBCO Superconductor on Copper Substrates by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Abdul Hai; Assad, Mhd Adel; Aokal, Camilia

    2016-12-01

    The article investigates the synthesis and deposition of YBCO on a copper substrate for various functional purposes. The superconductor is first prepared by mechanically alloying elemental components (yttrium, barium, and copper) for 50 hours in a high-energy ball mill with subsequent protocol of heat treatment in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to arrive at stoichiometric ratios of YBa2Cu3O7. The material is then deposited on a thin copper substrate also by ball milling under various parameters of rotational speed and deposition time to select the best and most homogenous substrate coverage. Atomic force microscopy has confirmed the desired results, and other microstructural, thermal, and electrical techniques are used to characterize the obtained material. High-energy ball milling proved to be a versatile means to synthesize and deposit the material in a straightforward manner and controllable parameters for different deposit thicknesses and coverages.

  13. Facile and Cost-Effective Synthesis and Deposition of a YBCO Superconductor on Copper Substrates by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Abdul Hai; Assad, Mhd Adel; Aokal, Camilia

    2016-09-01

    The article investigates the synthesis and deposition of YBCO on a copper substrate for various functional purposes. The superconductor is first prepared by mechanically alloying elemental components (yttrium, barium, and copper) for 50 hours in a high-energy ball mill with subsequent protocol of heat treatment in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to arrive at stoichiometric ratios of YBa2Cu3O7. The material is then deposited on a thin copper substrate also by ball milling under various parameters of rotational speed and deposition time to select the best and most homogenous substrate coverage. Atomic force microscopy has confirmed the desired results, and other microstructural, thermal, and electrical techniques are used to characterize the obtained material. High-energy ball milling proved to be a versatile means to synthesize and deposit the material in a straightforward manner and controllable parameters for different deposit thicknesses and coverages.

  14. Theoretical analysis of ion kinetic energies and DLC film deposition by CH4+Ar (He) dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yan-Hong; Zhang Jia-Liang; Ma Teng-Cai; Li Jian; Liu Dong-Ping

    2007-01-01

    The kinetic energy of ions in dielectric barrier discharge plasmas are analysed theoretically using the model of binary collisions between ions and gas molecules. Langevin equation for ions in other gases, Blanc law for ions in mixed gases, and the two-temperature model for ions at higher reduced field are used to determine the ion mobility. The kinetic energies of ions in CH4 + Ar(He) dielectric barrier discharge plasma at a fixed total gas pressure and various Ar (He)concentrations are calculated. It is found that with increasing Ar (He) concentration in CH4 + Ar (He) from 20% to 83%,the CH4+ kinetic energy increases from 69.6 (43.9) to 92.1 (128.5)eV, while the Ar+ (He+) kinetic energy decreases from 97 (145.2) to 78.8 (75.5)eV. The increase of CH4+ kinetic energy is responsible for the increase of hardness of diamond-like carbon films deposited by CH4 + Ar (He) dielectric barrier discharge without bias voltage over substrates.

  15. Thin and flexible Ni-P based current collectors developed by electroless deposition for energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoran; Susanto, Amelia; Lian, Keryn

    2017-02-01

    A PET film metalized by electroless nickel deposition was demonstrated as thin and flexible current collector for energy storage devices. The resultant nickel-on-PET film (Ni-PET) can be used both as current collector for electrochemical capacitors and as electrode for thin film batteries. The composition of Ni-PET was characterized by EDX and XPS. The electrochemical performance of the Ni-PET current collector was similar to Ni foil but with less hydrogen evolution at low potential. The Ni-PET film exhibited better flexibility than a metallic Ni foil. Carbon nanotubes were coated on a Ni-PET substrate to form an electrochemical capacitor electrode which exhibited high chemical stability in both liquid and solid electrolytes, showing strong promise for solid energy storage devices.

  16. Nano crystalline high energy milled 5083 Al powder deposited using cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, M.R., E-mail: mohammadreza.rokni@mines.sdsmt.edu [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Widener, C.A. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Nardi, A.T. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Champagne, V.K. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Electron microscopy and nanoindentation are used to investigate the relationship between microstructure and nanohardness of a non-cryomilled, nanocrystalline 5083 Al alloy powder before and after being deposited by cold spray. Microstructural investigations observed the presence of nano grains in the powder microstructure, ranging from 20 to 80 nm and with a typical grain size of 40–50 nm. It was also revealed that the nanocrystalline structure of the powder is retained after cold spraying. As a result, almost no change in nanohardness was indicated between the powder and the particles interior in the cold sprayed layer. However, hardness was substantially higher in some regions in the cold sprayed layer, which was attributed to the particle–particle interfaces or other areas with very small nano grain size. The presence of some un-joined particle remnant lines was also found in the deposition and explained through Critical Velocity Ratio (CVR) of powder particles. Although cold spray is a high deformation process, there is little evidence of dislocations within the nanograins of the cold sprayed layer. The latter observation is rationalized through intragranular dislocation slip and recovery mechanisms.

  17. Energy-Deposition to Reduce Skin Friction in Supersonic Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has drawn attention to an impending need to improve energy-efficiency in low supersonic (M<~3) platforms. Aerodynamic efficiency is the foundation of...

  18. Comparison on heat flux deposition between carbon and tungsten wall – Investigations on energy recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufferand, H., E-mail: hugo.bufferand@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bucalossi, J.; Ciraolo, G.; Fedorczak, N. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Genesio, P. [PIIM, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille (France); Ghendrih, Ph.; Gunn, J. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Marandet, Y.; Martin, C.; Mellet, N. [PIIM, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille (France); Serre, E. [M2P2, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13451 Marseille (France); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    The influence of the plasma facing components material on the scrape-off layer plasma is investigated. In particular, the energy recycling is found to be more pronounced for tungsten wall compared with carbon wall. Edge plasma simulations performed with the transport code SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE show that this enhanced energy recycling in the tungsten case leads to an increase of the scrape-off layer temperature. Moreover, the energy recycling depends on the ion angle of incidence with the wall. A PIC code has been used to model the ion acceleration in the magnetic pre-sheath and determine the later angle of incidence. These simulations show that ions mostly impact the wall with rather shallow incident angles leading to a further increase of the energy recycling.

  19. Propagation and energy deposition of cosmic rays' muons on terrestrial environments

    CERN Document Server

    Marinho, Franciole; Galante, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Earth is constantly struck by radiation coming from the interstellar medium. The very low energy end of the spectrum is shielded by the geomagnetic field but charged particles with energies higher than the geomagnetic cutoff will penetrate the atmosphere and are likely to interact, giving rise to secondary particles. Some astrophysical events, such as gamma ray bursts and supernovae, when happening at short distances, may affect the planet's biosphere due to the temporary enhanced radiation flux. Muons are abundantly produced by high energy cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. These particles, due to their low cross section, are able to penetrate deep underground and underwater, with the possibility of affecting biological niches normally considered shielded from radiation. We investigate the interaction of muons produced by high energy cosmic rays on Earth's atmosphere using the Geant4 toolkit. We analyze penetration power in water and crust and also the interaction effects within bacteria-like material ac...

  20. Nonlinear optimal filter technique for analyzing energy depositions in TES sensors driven into saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shank

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed thermal and electrical model of superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs connected to quasiparticle (qp traps, such as the W TESs connected to Al qp traps used for CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Ge and Si detectors. We show that this improved model, together with a straightforward time-domain optimal filter, can be used to analyze pulses well into the nonlinear saturation region and reconstruct absorbed energies with optimal energy resolution.

  1. Nonlinear Optimal Filter Technique For Analyzing Energy Depositions In TES Sensors Driven Into Saturation

    CERN Document Server

    Shank, B; Cabrera, B; Kreikebaum, J M; Moffatt, R; Redl, P; Young, B A; Brink, P L; Cherry, M; Tomada, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed thermal and electrical model of superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) connected to quasiparticle (qp) traps, such as the W TESs connected to Al qp traps used for CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) Ge and Si detectors. We show that this improved model, together with a straightforward time-domain optimal filter, can be used to analyze pulses well into the nonlinear saturation region and reconstruct absorbed energies with optimal energy resolution.

  2. Calculation of electron trajectory and energy deposition in no screening region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: m_r_kia@aut.ac.ir; Noshad, Houshyar, E-mail: hnoshad@aut.ac.ir

    2016-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) of energy for inelastic collision is obtained by solving the integro-differential form of the quantity equation with the Bhabha differential cross section for particles with spin 1/2. Hence, the total PDF in no screening region is determined by folding theory with the following two assumptions: (1) the electron loses energy by collision and radiation and (2) the electron velocity does not change with a thin absorber. Therefore, a set of coupled stochastic differential equations based on the deviation and energy loss PDFs for electron is presented to obtain the electron trajectory inside the target. The energy PDFs for an electron beam with incident energy of 15.7 MeV inside aluminum and copper are calculated. Besides, the dose distributions for an electron beam with incident energies of 20, 10.2, 6, and 0.5 MeV in water are obtained. The results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  3. Monte Carlo Evaluation of Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN) Direct Energy Conversion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Iβ shows that 12.5% of the betas are ~2.5 keV. The median energy is 6.1 keV. The β spectrum of Fig. 1 is used as input for the MCNPX calculation , as...described in the source definition section of the Appendix. 3 3. Results The electron flux is calculated in MCNPX , and then compared to a model...the physical quantity. Radial Distance(cm) 7 3.4 Comparison of Electron Range The MCNPX calculation described in Section 3.3 provides more

  4. CHANG-ES VI: Probing Supernova Energy Deposition in Spiral Galaxies Through Multi-Wavelength Relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Dettmar, Ralf-Jurgen; Heald, George; Irwin, Judith; Johnson, Megan; Kepley, Amanda A; Krause, Marita; Murphy, E J; Orlando, Elena; Rand, Richard J; Strong, A W; Vargas, Carlos J; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    How a galaxy regulates its SNe energy into different interstellar/circumgalactic medium components strongly affects galaxy evolution. Based on the JVLA D-configuration C- (6 GHz) and L-band (1.6 GHz) continuum observations, we perform statistical analysis comparing multi-wavelength properties of the CHANG-ES galaxies. The high-quality JVLA data and edge-on orientation enable us for the first time to include the halo into the energy budget for a complete radio-flux-limited sample. We find tight correlations of $L_{\\rm radio}$ with the mid-IR-based SFR. The normalization of our $I_{\\rm 1.6GHz}/{\\rm W~Hz^{-1}}-{\\rm SFR}$ relation is $\\sim$2-3 times of those obtained for face-on galaxies, probably a result of enhanced IR extinction at high inclination. We also find tight correlations between $L_{\\rm radio}$ and the SNe energy injection rate $\\dot{E}_{\\rm SN(Ia+CC)}$, indicating the energy loss via synchrotron radio continuum accounts for $\\sim0.1\\%$ of $\\dot{E}_{\\rm SN}$, comparable to the energy contained in CR ...

  5. Characterising the energy deposition events produced by trapped protons in low earth orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbush, L W; Braby, L A; Anderson, G A

    1989-01-01

    Men and equipment in space vehicles in low earth orbit are exposed to a wide variety of radiations, but the majority of the dose is due to trapped protons, which have energies of the order of 100 MeV and are low LET particles. These high energy particles produce nuclear fragmentation with high LET secondaries that may be responsible for a significant fraction of dose equivalent. In order to understand better the biological effectiveness of this radiation environment, a portable tissue equivalent proportional counter spectrometer has been developed that automatically records the distribution of energy in a small tissue-like site as a function of time. This instrument weighs about 700 g and will be flown on a number of future space shuttle flights.

  6. Cryogenic Beam Screens for High-Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Tavian, L; van Weelderen, R

    2013-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key enabling technology for high-energy particle accelerators, thus making them large helium cryogenic systems operating at very low temperature. The circulation of high-intensity particle beams in these machines generates energy deposition in the first wall through different processes. For thermodynamic efficiency, it is advisable to intercept these beam-induced heat loads, which may be large in comparison with cryostat heat in-leaks, at higher temperature than that of the superconducting magnets of the accelerator, by means of beam screens located in the magnet apertures. Beam screens may also be used as part of the ultra-high vacuum system of the accelerator, by sheltering the gas molecules cryopumped on the beam pipe from impinging radiation and thus avoiding pressure runaway. Space being extremely tight in the magnet apertures, cooling of the long, slender beam screens also raises substantial problems in cryogenic heat transfer and fluid flow. We present sizing rule...

  7. Thorium Deposits of the United States - Energy Resources for the Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Gillerman, Virginia S.; Armbrustmacher, Theodore J.

    2009-01-01

    Many nations are exploring new ways to meet their growing energy supply needs, with a particular focus upon methods that produce lower carbon dioxide emissions compared to traditional oil, natural gas, and coal power plants. As a result, thorium-based nuclear power has experienced renewed attention as a potential energy source. Thus, it benefits the United States and other countries to identify and evaluate their indigenous thorium resources. This report describes the geology and resources of the principal thorium districts of the United States.

  8. A study of the energy deposition profile of proton beams in materials of hadron therapeutic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; de Vera, Pablo; Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    The energy delivered by a swift proton beam in materials of interest to hadron therapy (liquid water, polymethylmethacrylate or polystyrene) is investigated. An explicit condensed-state description of the target excitation spectrum based on the dielectric formalism is used to calculate the energy-loss rate of the beam in the irradiated materials. This magnitude is the main input in the simulation code SEICS (Simulation of Energetic Ions and Clusters through Solids) used to evaluate the dose as a function of the penetration depth and radial distance from the beam axis.

  9. CHANG-ES - VI. Probing Supernova energy deposition in spiral galaxies through multiwavelength relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Beck, Rainer; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Heald, George; Irwin, Judith; Johnson, Megan; Kepley, Amanda A.; Krause, Marita; Murphy, E. J.; Orlando, Elena; Rand, Richard J.; Strong, A. W.; Vargas, Carlos J.; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2016-02-01

    How a galaxy regulates its supernovae (SNe) energy into different interstellar/circumgalactic medium components strongly affects galaxy evolution. Based on the JVLA D-configuration C- (6 GHz) and L-band (1.6 GHz) continuum observations, we perform statistical analysis comparing multiwavelength properties of the Continuum Haloes in Nearby Galaxies - an EVLA Survey galaxies. The high-quality JVLA data and edge-on orientation enable us for the first time to include the halo into the energy budget for a complete radio-flux-limited sample. We find tight correlations of Lradio with the mid-IR-based star formation rate (SFR). The normalization of our I1.6 GHz/W Hz-1-SFR relation is ˜2-3times of those obtained for face-on galaxies, probably a result of enhanced IR extinction at high inclination. We also find tight correlations between Lradio and the SNe energy injection rate dot{E}_SN(Ia+CC), indicating the energy loss via synchrotron radio continuum accounts for ˜1 of dot{E}_SN, comparable to the energy contained in cosmic ray electrons. The integrated C-to-L-band spectral index is α ˜ 0.5-1.1 for non-active galactic nucleus galaxies, indicating a dominance by the diffuse synchrotron component. The low-scatter Lradio-SFR/L_radio-dot{E}_{SN (Ia+CC)} relationships have superlinear logarithmic slopes at ˜2σ in L band (1.132 ± 0.067/1.175 ± 0.102) while consistent with linear in C band (1.057 ± 0.075/1.100 ± 0.123). The superlinearity could be naturally reproduced with non-calorimeter models for galaxy discs. Using Chandra halo X-ray measurements, we find sublinear LX-Lradio relations. These results indicate that the observed radio halo of a starburst galaxy is close to electron calorimeter, and a galaxy with higher SFR tends to distribute an increased fraction of SNe energy into radio emission (than X-ray).

  10. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of iron disulfide and its use for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Vogel, Ralf; Giersig, M.; Weller, Horst; Tributsch, Helmut

    1992-12-01

    Thin polycrystalline films of iron disulfide have been grown on different substrates by chemical vapour deposition. The films were characterized using optical absorption and TEM. RBS and EDAX analysis has been used to explore the chemical stoichiometry. XRD and FTIR allowed the identification of both FeS2 phases pyrite and marcasite. A novel method for sensitization of highly porous Ti02 elecrodes with ultra thin (10-20 nm) polycrystalline films of FeS2 (pyrite) is presented. Photoelectrochemical solar cell using the above electrode generated high photovoltage of up to 600mV compared with single crystalline electrode (200 mV). In this device the semiconductor with a small band gap and high absorption coefficient (FeS2 pyrite; EG = 0.9 eV; a = 6 x 105 cm-1) absorbs the light and injects electrons into the conduction band the wide band gap semiconductor (Ti02 anatase; EG = 3.2 eV). Regeneration of holes is taking place by electron transfer from redox system in the electrolyte.

  11. Intense laser-driven proton beam energy deposition in compressed and uncompressed Cu foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, Christopher; Krauland, C. M.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Habara, H.; Noma, S.; Ohtsuki, T.; Tsujii, A.; Yahata, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Uematsu, Y.; Nakaguchi, S.; Morace, A.; Yogo, A.; Nagatomo, H.; Tanaka, K.; Arikawa, Y.; Fujioka, S.; Shiraga, H.

    2016-10-01

    We investigated transport of intense proton beams from a petawatt laser in uncompressed or compressed Cu foam. The LFEX laser (1 kJ on target, 1.5 ps, 1053 nm, I >2×1019 W/cm2) irradiated a curved C foil to generate the protons. The foil was in an open cone 500 μm from the tip where the focused proton beam source was delivered to either of two Cu foam sample types: an uncompressed cylinder (1 mm L, 250 µm ϕ) , and a plastic-coated sphere (250 µm ϕ) that was first driven by GXII (9 beams, 330 J/beam, 1.3 ns, 527 nm) to achieve similar ρϕ to the cylinder sample's ρL as predicted by 2D radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Using magnetic spectrometers and a Thomson parabola, the proton spectra were measured with and without the Cu samples. When included, they were observed using Cu K-shell x-ray imaging and spectroscopy. This paper will present comparison of the experimentally measured Cu emission shape and proton spectrum changes due to deposition in the Cu with particle-in-cell simulations incorporating new stopping models. This work was made possible by laser time Awarded by the Japanese NIFS collaboration NIFS16KUGK107 and performed under the auspices of the US AFOSR YIP Award FA9550-14-1-0346.

  12. Systemic staging for urate crystal deposits with dual-energy CT and ultrasound in patients with suspected gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Alexander; Hermann, Kay-Geert A; Diekhoff, Torsten; Wagner, Moritz; Hamm, Bernd; Schmidt, Wolfgang A

    2014-06-01

    Objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy for detecting monosodium urate crystal deposits between dual-energy CT (DECT) and ultrasound (US). Sixty consecutive patients (49 men, mean age 62 years) with clinically suspected gout were included in this case-control study. DECT and US of feet, knees, hands and elbows were performed in all patients. Polarisation microscopy of synovial fluid or a score incorporating serum uric acid level, first MTP joint involvement, gender, previous patient-reported arthritis attack, cardiovascular diseases, joint redness and onset within 1 day was used as standard of reference. Standard of reference classified 39 patients as gout positive. Sixteen patients had gout and a concomitant rheumatic disease. Sensitivities for diagnosis of gout disease were 84.6 % (33/39) for DECT and 100 % (39/39) for US. Specificities were 85.7 % (18/21) for DECT and 76.2 % (16/21) for US. Positive and negative predictive values were 91.7 % (33/36) and 75.0 % (18/24) for DECT, 88.6 % (39/44) and 100 % (16/16) for US, respectively. Urate crystals were detected most frequently in MTP1 joints (DECT 20/78, US 58/78), any other toe joints (DECT 25/78, US 62/78) and knees (DECT 41/78, US 31/78). The volumetry of DECT computed a mean urate crystal deposit load of 2.1 cm(3) (SD 9.6 cm(3)). A mean effective dose of ≤0.5 mSv was estimated. DECT is more specific for the diagnosis of gout than US. However, it fails to detect small urate crystal deposits. It might be particularly useful for patients with ambivalent findings, concomitant rheumatic diseases and with non-conclusive joint aspiration.

  13. Low-energy ion beam-based deposition of gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M. R., E-mail: mrvasquez@coe.upd.edu.ph [Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    An ion source with a remote plasma chamber excited by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency power was used for low-energy broad ion beam extraction. Optical emission spectral analyses showed the sputtering and postionization of a liquid gallium (Ga) target placed in a chamber separated from the source bombarded by argon (Ar) plasma guided by a bent magnetic field. In addition, an E × B probe successfully showed the extraction of low-energy Ga and Ar ion beams using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. By introducing dilute amounts of nitrogen gas into the system, formation of thin Ga-based films on a silicon substrate was demonstrated as determined from X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity studies.

  14. Sensitivity of propagation and energy deposition in femtosecond filamentation to the nonlinear refractive index

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, E W; Jhajj, N; Zahedpour, S; Wahlstrand, J K; Milchberg, H M

    2014-01-01

    The axial dependence of femtosecond filamentation in air is measured under conditions of varying laser pulsewidth, energy, and focusing f-number. Filaments are characterized by the ultrafast z-dependent absorption of energy from the laser pulse and diagnosed by measuring the local single cycle acoustic wave generated. Results are compared to 2D+1 simulations of pulse propagation, whose results are highly sensitive to the instantaneous (electronic) part of the nonlinear response of $N_2$ and $O_2$. We find that recent measurements of the nonlinear refractive index ($n_2$) in [J.K. Wahlstrand et al., Phys. Rev. A. 85, 043820 (2012)] provide the best match and an excellent fit between experiments and simulations.

  15. Low-energy ion beam-based deposition of gallium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, M R; Wada, M

    2016-02-01

    An ion source with a remote plasma chamber excited by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency power was used for low-energy broad ion beam extraction. Optical emission spectral analyses showed the sputtering and postionization of a liquid gallium (Ga) target placed in a chamber separated from the source bombarded by argon (Ar) plasma guided by a bent magnetic field. In addition, an E × B probe successfully showed the extraction of low-energy Ga and Ar ion beams using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. By introducing dilute amounts of nitrogen gas into the system, formation of thin Ga-based films on a silicon substrate was demonstrated as determined from X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity studies.

  16. The angular dependence of an Si energy deposition spectrometer response at several radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Spurny, F; Trompier, F

    2005-01-01

    An MDU-Liulin spectrometer based on an Si-diode was mainly used during the last few years with the goal to use them for measurements onboard aircraft. To investigate its ability to obtain such measurements, the detector was tested in some radiation reference fields, like /sup 60/Co and other photon beams, neutrons of an AmBe and /sup 252/Cf sources and in high-energy radiation fields at CERN. Due to the high geometrical asymmetry of the Si-diode semiconductor, an angular dependence of the response would be expected. This work presents analyses and discusses the results of angular dependence studies obtained at the different radiation sources mentioned. It was found that these angular dependences vary with the type and energy of radiation. The influence of these variations on the use as a dosimeter onboard aircraft is also studied and discussed.

  17. Ongoing characterization of the forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source for the selective production of exotic species facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzolaro, M., E-mail: mattia.manzolaro@lnl.infn.it; Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Vasquez, J.; Corradetti, S.; Calderolla, M.; Prete, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universita’ 2 - 35020 Legnaro, Padova,Italy (Italy); Meneghetti, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1 - 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    An intense research and development activity to finalize the design of the target ion source system for the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility (operating according to the isotope separation on line technique) is at present ongoing at Legnaro National Laboratories. In particular, the characterization of ion sources in terms of ionization efficiency and transversal emittance is currently in progress, and a preliminary set of data is already available. In this work, the off-line ionization efficiency and emittance measurements for the SPES forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source in the case of a stable Ar beam are presented in detail.

  18. Ion beam induced charge collection (IBICC) from integrated circuit test structures using a 10 MeV carbon microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, B.N.; Bouanani, M.E.; Duggan, J.L.; McDaniel, F.D. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States); Doyle, B.L.; Walsh, D.S. [Ion Beam Materials Research Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, MS 1056, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] Aton, T.J. [Silicon Technology Development, Texas Instruments Inc., PO Box 650311, MS 3704, Dallas, Texas 75265 (United States)

    1999-06-01

    As feature sizes of Integrated Circuits (ICs) continue to shrink, the sensitivity of these devices, particularly SRAMs and DRAMs, to natural radiation is increasing. In this paper, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique is utilized to simulate neutron-induced Si recoil effects in ICs. The IBICC measurements, conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories, employed a 10 MeV carbon microbeam with 1{mu}m diameter spot to scan test structures on specifically designed ICs. With the aid of IC layout information, an analysis of the charge collection efficiency from different test areas is presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Study of Straggling and Extreme Cases of Energy Deposition in Micron Scale Silicon Volumes using the DEPFET Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, Fabian; Schwenker, Benjamin

    The Depleted P-channel Field-Effect Transistor detector is a pixel detector type currently under development. In high energy physics, pixel detectors measure space points along the trajectory of charged particles. They determine the spatial position by measuring the charges created as a result of interactions with the passing particle. Thus the detector’s signals can be used to determine the energy deposited by the particle in single pixels of a pixel matrix. The development of a new detector raises the question whether our simulation models can accurately describe the physical processes – like ionisation and scattering – taking place during operation. The thesis aims to validate one of the current Monte-Carlo simulations (based on the Geant4 simulation package) of high energy straggling processes using experimental data of a test beam run of DEPFET modules. This is done by calculating the spatial distribution of the electron/hole pairs created in extreme cases of ionisation and using this distribution ...

  20. Technique for the estimation of surface temperatures from embedded temperature sensing for rapid, high energy surface deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2014-07-01

    Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, highenergy surface deposition process can be di cult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves tting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature 20 C.

  1. Studies for the H0/H− dump for Linac4: energy deposition, induced radioactivity and BLM signal

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, R; Silari, M; Chamizo, R

    2010-01-01

    This note presents an estimate of the energy deposition and activation for the H0/H− dump for Linac4, the new CERN 160 MeV injector linac. Residual dose rates at different cooling times were calculated as well. The aim of the first part of this study was to compare the behavior of three different materials (graphite, boron nitride and aluminum nitride), in order to identify the most suitable for the dump. For the second part, a dedicated study has been done in order to test whether it could be feasible to insert Beam Loss Monitors to check the status of the beam, All calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo particle transport code FLUKA.

  2. Imaging pulsed laser deposition growth of homo-epitaxial SrTiO3 by low-energy electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Torren, A. J. H.; van der Molen, S. J.; Aarts, J.

    2016-12-01

    By combining low-energy electron microscopy with in situ pulsed laser deposition we have developed a new technique for film growth analysis, making use of both diffraction and real-space information. Working at the growth temperature, we can use: the intensity and profile variations of the specular beam to follow the coverage in a layer-by-layer fashion; real-space microscopy to follow e.g. atomic steps at the surface; and electron reflectivity to probe the unoccupied band structure of the grown material. Here, we demonstrate our methodology for homo-epitaxial growth of SrTiO3. Interestingly, the same combination of techniques will also be applicable to hetero-epitaxial oxide growth, largely extending the scope of research possibilities.

  3. Monte-Carlo Simulations of the Nuclear Energy Deposition Inside the CARMEN-1P Differential Calorimeter Irradiated into OSIRIS Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amharrak, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carette, M. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Lemaire, M.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, SPRC, LPN, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Fourmentel, D.; Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, Departement d' Etudes des Reacteurs, Service de Physique Experimentale, Laboratoire Dosimetrie Capteurs Instrumentation, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    calorimeter were carried out. A preliminary analysis shows that the numerical results overestimate the measurements by about 20 %. A new approach has been developed in order to estimate the nuclear heating by two methods (energy deposition or KERMA) by considering the whole complete geometry of the sensor. This new approach will contribute to the interpretation of the irradiation campaign and will be useful to improve the out-of-pile calibration procedure of the sensor and its thermal response during irradiations. The aim of this paper is to present simulations made by using MCNP5 Monte-Carlo transport code (using ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library) for the nuclear heating inside the different parts of the calorimeter (head, rod and base). Calculations into two steps will be realized. We will use as an input source in the model new spectra (neutrons, prompt-photons and delayed-photons) calculated with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4{sup R} inside different experimental channels (water) located into the OSIRIS periphery and used during the CARMEN-1P irradiation campaign. We will consider Neutrons- Photons-Electrons and Photons-Electrons modes. We will begin by a brief description of the differential-calorimeter device geometry. Then the MCNP5 model used for the calculations of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements will be introduced. The energy deposition due to the prompt-gamma, delayed-gamma and neutrons, the neutron-activation of the device will be considered. The different components of the nuclear heating inside the different parts of the calorimeter will be detailed. Moreover, a comparison between KERMA and nuclear energy deposition estimations will be given. Finally, a comparison between this total nuclear heating Calculation and Experiment in graphite sample will be determined. (authors)

  4. Tailoring out-of-plane magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited FePt thin films by changing laser energy fluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Tan, T.L.; Tan, K.S.; Lee, P. [NSSE, NIE, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Liu, Hai; Yadian, Boluo; Hu, Ge; Huang, Yizhong; Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Rawat, R.S., E-mail: rajdeep.rawat@nie.edu.sg [NSSE, NIE, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Laser energy fluence (LEF) effect on composition, microstructure and magnetism. • Enhancing out-of-plane magnetic properties by tailoring LEF on target surface. • Higher LEF results in more energetic plasma species causing vacancy defects. • Formation of vacancy defect in FePt thin films leads to improved magnetic properties. • Best out-of-plane magnetic properties are achieved with medium LEF. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited (PLD) FePt thin films are investigated at three different laser energy fluences of 51, 136 and 182 J/cm{sup 2}. Deposition at lower laser energy fluence (51 J/cm{sup 2}) yields softer out-of-plane coercivity (≤0.4 kG), whereas deposition at higher laser energy fluence (136 and 182 J/cm{sup 2}) results in harder out-of-plane coercivity (≥5.0 kG). The improved coercivity is found to be attributed to the formation of vacancy defects in thin films, which is indicated by stress change from tensile to compressive form with increasing laser energy fluence. Maximum out-of-plane saturated magnetization of 615 emu/cm{sup 3} and remanent squareness ratio of 0.88 are achieved for 16 nm thick FePt thin films deposited at moderate laser energy fluence of 136 J/cm{sup 2}, making them suitable for high density perpendicular data storage applications.

  5. Electron energy deposition to the fusion target core for fast ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W M; Sheng, Z M; Li, Y T; Hao, B; Zhang, J [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Norreys, P A; Sherlock, M; Trines, R; Robinson, A P L, E-mail: hbwwml@aphy.iphy.ac.e, E-mail: tzmsheng@sjtu.edu.c [Central Laser Facility, CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    Heating of the target core for fast ignition by electron beams is investigated by two-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that the electron beams emitted from the core surface with the initial energy of 1.4MeV, 2.4MeV, and 4.2MeV can heat most efficiently the core with {rho}r = 0.75g/cm{sup 2}, 1.5g/cm{sup 2}, and 3g/cm{sup 2}, respectively, when taking {rho} = 300g/cm{sup 3}, where {rho} and r are the mass density and radius of the core, respectively.

  6. Monte carlo computation of the energy deposited by protons in water, bone and adipose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçer, Rahmi; Küçer, Nermin; Türemen, Görkem

    2013-02-01

    Protons are most suitable for treating deeply-seated tumors due to their unique depth dose distribution. The maximum dose of protons is a pronounced peak, called the Bragg peak, with zero dose behind the peak. The objective of radiation therapy with protons is to deliver the dose to the target volume by using this type of distribution. This is achieved with a finite number of Bragg peaks at the depth of the target volume. The location of the peak in terms of depth depends on the energy of the protons. Simulations are used to determine the depth dose distribution of proton beams passing through tissue, so it is important that experimental data agree with the simulation data. In this study, we used the FLUKA computer code to determine the correct position of the Bragg peak for proton beams passing through water, bone and adipose, and the results were compared with experimental data.

  7. Non-rigid image registration to reduce beam-induced blurring of cryo-electron microscopy images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi Nejadasl, Fatemeh; Karuppasamy, Manikandan [Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300RC Leiden (Netherlands); Newman, Emily R.; McGeehan, John E. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY (United Kingdom); Ravelli, Raimond B. G., E-mail: raimond.nl@gmail.com [Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300RC Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy images of vitrified large macromolecular complexes can become blurred due to beam-induced specimen alterations. Exposure series are examined, and rigid and non-rigid image registration schemes are applied to reduce such blurring. The typical dose used to record cryo-electron microscopy images from vitrified biological specimens is so high that radiation-induced structural alterations are bound to occur during data acquisition. Integration of all scattered electrons into one image can lead to significant blurring, particularly if the data are collected from an unsupported thin layer of ice suspended over the holes of a support film. Here, the dose has been fractioned and exposure series have been acquired in order to study beam-induced specimen movements under low dose conditions, prior to bubbling. Gold particles were added to the protein sample as fiducial markers. These were automatically localized and tracked throughout the exposure series and showed correlated motions within small patches, with larger amplitudes of motion vectors at the start of a series compared with the end of each series. A non-rigid scheme was used to register all images within each exposure series, using natural neighbor interpolation with the gold particles as anchor points. The procedure increases the contrast and resolution of the examined macromolecules.

  8. 4{pi} studies of the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He+{sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions. I. Energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, K.B.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Bracken, D.S.; Renshaw Foxford, E. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Legrain, R.; Pollacco, E.C.; Volant, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Korteling, R.G. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Breuer, H. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; Brzychczyk, J. [Jagellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics

    1996-01-01

    The 4{pi} detector ISiS has been used to measure light-charged particles and intermediate-mass-fragments emitted in the 1.8-4.8 GeV {sup 3}He+{sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions. Ejectile multiplicity and total event kinetic energy distribution scale systematically with projectile energy and target mass, except for the {sup nat}Ag target at 3.6 and 4.8 GeV. For this system, a saturation in deposition energy is indicated by the data, suggesting the upper projectile energy for stopping has been reached. Maximum deposition energies of {approx}950 MeV for the {sup nat}Ag target and {approx}1600 MeV for the {sup 197}Au target are inferred from the data. Comparison of the experimental distributions with intranuclear cascade predictions shows qualitative agreement. (author). Submitted to Physical Review, C (US); 46 refs.

  9. Evaluation of Beam Losses and Energy Depositions for a Possible Phase II Design for LHC Collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Doyle, E; Ferrari, A; Keller, L; Lundgren, S; Keller, L; Mauri, M; Redaelli, S; Sarchiapone, L; Smith, J; Vlachoudis, V; Weiler, T

    2008-01-01

    The LHC beams are designed to have high stability and to be stored for many hours. The nominal beam intensity lifetime is expected to be of the order of 20h. The Phase II collimation system has to be able to handle particle losses in stable physics conditions at 7 TeV in order to avoid beam aborts and to allow correction of parameters and restoration to nominal conditions. Monte Carlo simulations are needed in order to evaluate the behavior of metallic high-Z collimators during operation scenarios using a realistic distribution of losses, which is a mix of the three limiting halo cases. Moreover, the consequences in the IR7 insertion of the worst (case) abnormal beam loss are evaluated. The case refers to a spontaneous trigger of the horizontal extraction kicker at top energy, when Phase II collimators are used. These studies are an important input for engineering design of the collimation Phase II system and for the evaluation of their effect on adjacent components. The goal is to build collimators that can ...

  10. Morphological and optical properties changes in nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) deposited on porous aluminum nanostructures by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for Solar energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghrib, M., E-mail: mondherghrib@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Gaidi, M.; Ghrib, T.; Khedher, N. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Salam, M. [L3M, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to determine the electrical band gap of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) deposited by plasma enhancement chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on porous alumina structure by fitting the experimental spectra using a model based on the quantum confinement of electrons in Si nanocrystallites having spherical and cylindrical forms. This model permits to correlate the PL spectra to the microstructure of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) structure. The microstructure of aluminum surface layer and nc-Si films was systematically studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the structure of the nanocrystalline silicon layer (NSL) is dependent of the porosity (void) of the porous alumina layer (PAL) substrate. This structure was performed in two steps, namely the PAL substrate was prepared using sulfuric acid solution attack on an Al foil and then the silicon was deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on it. The optical constants (n and k as a function of wavelength) of the deposited films were obtained using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the UV-vis-NIR regions. The SE spectrum of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) was modeled as a mixture of void, crystalline silicon and aluminum using the Cauchy model approximation. The specific surface area (SSA) was estimated and was found to decrease linearly when porosity increases. Based on this full characterization, it is demonstrated that the optical characteristics of the films are directly correlated to their micro-structural properties.

  11. Residual energy deposition in dental enamel during IR laser ablation at 2.79, 2.94, 9.6, and 10.6 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragadio, Jerome N.; Lee, Christian K.; Fried, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the residual heat deposition during laser ablation at those IR laser wavelengths best suited for the removal of dental caries. The principal factor limiting the rate of laser ablation of dental hard tissue is the risk of excessive heat accumulation in the tooth, which has the potential for causing damage to the pulp. Optimal laser ablation systems minimize the residual energy deposition in the tooth by transferring deposited laser energy to kinetic and internal energy of ejected tissue components. The residual heat deposition in the tooth was measured at laser wavelengths of 2.79, 2.94, 9.6 and 10.6 micrometer and pulse widths of 150 ns - 150 microsecond(s) . The residual energy was at a minimum for fluences well above the ablation threshold where it saturates at values from 25 - 70% depending on pulse duration and wavelength for the systems investigated. The lowest values of the residual energy were measured for short (less than 20 microseconds) CO2 laser pulses at 9.6 micrometer and for Q-switched erbium laser pulses. This work was supported by NIH/NIDCR R29DE12091 and the Center for Laser Applications in Medicine, DOE DEFG0398ER62576.

  12. Reconstructing the energy band electronic structure of pulsed laser deposited CZTS thin films intended for solar cell absorber applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Rajesh; Oulad Elhmaidi, Zakaria; Sekkat, Zouheir; Abd-lefdil, Mohammed; El Khakani, My Ali

    2017-02-01

    We report here on the use of pulsed KrF-laser deposition (PLD) technique for the growth of high-quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films onto Si, and glass substrates without resorting to any post sulfurization process. The PLD-CZTS films were deposited at room temperature (RT) and then subjected to post annealing at different temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C in Argon atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the PLD films crystallize in the characteristic kesterite CZTS structure regardless of their annealing temperature (Ta), but their crystallinity is much improved for Ta ≥ 400 °C. The PLD-CZTS films were found to exhibit a relatively dense morphology with a surface roughness (RMS) that increases with Ta (from ∼14 nm at RT to 70 nm at Ta = 500 °C with a value around 40 nm for Ta = 300-400 °C). The optical bandgap of the PLD-CZTS films, was derived from UV-vis transmission spectra analysis, and found to decrease from 1.73 eV for non-annealed films to ∼1.58 eV for those annealed at Ta = 300 °C. These band gap values are very close to the optimum value needed for an ideal solar cell absorber. In order to achieve a complete reconstruction of the one-dimensional energy band structure of these PLD-CZTS absorbers, we have combined both XPS and UPS spectroscopies to determine their chemical bondings, the position of their valence band maximum (relative to Fermi level), and their work function values. This enabled us to sketch out, as accurately as possible, the band alignment of the heterojunction interface formed between CZTS and both CdS and ZnS buffer layer materials.

  13. Ti+C+N FILM PREPARATION AND ITS PROPERTIES BY LOW ENERGY CO-DEPOSITION ON STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Z.Yi; X.Zhang; T.H.Zhang; Z.S.Xiao

    2002-01-01

    The Ti+C+N film was co-deposited on H13 steel by Filtered Vacuum Arc PlasmaDeposition (FVAPD) operated with a modified cathode. The co-deposited layer waseffective for the improvement of surface hardness and corrosion resistance. The nano-hardness value of the co-deposited film is 1.3 times more than that of undepositedsample. The corrosion behavior measurement shows that the corrosion resistance foracid corrosion and pitting corrosion was improved greatly. It is owing to the formationof the new ternary ceramic phase TiCo.7 No.3 in the co-deposited layer. The mechanismof property improvement is discussed.

  14. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M B

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  15. Structural transitions in electron beam deposited Co–carbonyl suspended nanowires at high electrical current densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Carlo Gazzadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Suspended nanowires (SNWs have been deposited from Co–carbonyl precursor (Co2(CO8 by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID. The SNWs dimensions are about 30–50 nm in diameter and 600–850 nm in length. The as-deposited material has a nanogranular structure of mixed face-centered cubic (FCC and hexagonal close-packed (HCP Co phases, and a composition of 80 atom % Co, 15 atom % O and 5 atom % C, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis and by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, respectively. Current (I–voltage (V measurements with current densities up to 107 A/cm2 determine different structural transitions in the SNWs, depending on the I–V history. A single measurement with a sudden current burst leads to a polycrystalline FCC Co structure extended over the whole wire. Repeated measurements at increasing currents produce wires with a split structure: one half is polycrystalline FCC Co and the other half is graphitized C. The breakdown current density is found at 2.1 × 107 A/cm2. The role played by resistive heating and electromigration in these transitions is discussed.

  16. Structural transitions in electron beam deposited Co-carbonyl suspended nanowires at high electrical current densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Suspended nanowires (SNWs) have been deposited from Co-carbonyl precursor (Co2(CO)8) by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). The SNWs dimensions are about 30-50 nm in diameter and 600-850 nm in length. The as-deposited material has a nanogranular structure of mixed face-centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) Co phases, and a composition of 80 atom % Co, 15 atom % O and 5 atom % C, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, respectively. Current (I)-voltage (V) measurements with current densities up to 10(7) A/cm(2) determine different structural transitions in the SNWs, depending on the I-V history. A single measurement with a sudden current burst leads to a polycrystalline FCC Co structure extended over the whole wire. Repeated measurements at increasing currents produce wires with a split structure: one half is polycrystalline FCC Co and the other half is graphitized C. The breakdown current density is found at 2.1 × 10(7) A/cm(2). The role played by resistive heating and electromigration in these transitions is discussed.

  17. Pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy: fast gas heating and active particle production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    The results of a numerical study on kinetic processes initiated by a pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy, when the dissociation degree of oxygen molecules is high, are presented. The calculations of the temporal dynamics of the electron concentration, density of atomic oxygen, vibrational distribution function of nitrogen molecules, and gas temperature agree with the experimental data. It is shown that quenching of electronically excited states of nitrogen N2(B3Πg), N2(C3Πu), N2(a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) by oxygen molecules leads to the dissociation of O2. This conclusion is based on the comparison of calculated dynamics of atomic oxygen in air, excited by a pulsed nanosecond discharge, with experimental data. In air plasma at a high dissociation degree of oxygen molecules ([O]/[O2] > 10%), relaxation of the electronic energy of atoms and molecules in reactions with O atoms becomes extremely important. Active production of NO molecules and fast gas heating in the discharge plasma due to the quenching of electronically excited N2(B3Πg, C3Πu, a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) molecules by oxygen atoms is notable. Owing to the high O atom density, electrons are effectively detached from negative ions in the discharge afterglow. As a result, the decay of plasma in the afterglow is determined by electron-ion recombination, and the electron density remains relatively high between the pulses. An increase in the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules at the periphery of the plasma channel at time delay t = 1-30 μs after the discharge is obtained. This is due to intense gas heating and, as a result, gas-dynamic expansion of a hot gas channel. Vibrationally excited N2(v) molecules produced near the discharge axis move from the axial region to the periphery. Consequently, at the periphery the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules is increased.

  18. Lightning-driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: implications for ionisation-levels and neutral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Lightning-generated whistlers lead to coupling between the troposphere, the Van Allen radiation belts and the lower-ionosphere through Whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP. Lightning produced whistlers interact with cyclotron resonant radiation belt electrons, leading to pitch-angle scattering into the bounce loss cone and precipitation into the atmosphere. Here we consider the relative significance of WEP to the lower ionosphere and atmosphere by contrasting WEP produced ionisation rate changes with those from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR and solar photoionisation. During the day, WEP is never a significant source of ionisation in the lower ionosphere for any location or altitude. At nighttime, GCR is more significant than WEP at altitudes <68 km for all locations, above which WEP starts to dominate in North America and Central Europe. Between 75 and 80 km altitude WEP becomes more significant than GCR for the majority of spatial locations at which WEP deposits energy. The size of the regions in which WEP is the most important nighttime ionisation source peaks at ~80 km, depending on the relative contributions of WEP and nighttime solar Lyman-α. We also used the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC model to consider the atmospheric consequences of WEP, focusing on a case-study period. Previous studies have also shown that energetic particle precipitation can lead to large-scale changes in the chemical makeup of the neutral atmosphere by enhancing minor chemical species that play a key role in the ozone balance of the middle atmosphere. However, SIC modelling indicates that the neutral atmospheric changes driven by WEP are insignificant due to the short timescale of the WEP bursts. Overall we find that WEP is a significant energy input into some parts of the lower ionosphere, depending on the latitude/longitude and altitude, but does not play a significant role in the neutral chemistry of the mesosphere.

  19. Energy Deposition and DPA in the Superconducting Links for the HILUMI LHC Project at the LHC Interaction Points

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2092158; Broggi, Francesco; Santini, C; Ballarino, Amalia; Cerutti, Francesco; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the upgrade of the LHC machine, the powering of the LHC magnets foresees the removal of the power converters and distribution feedboxes from the tunnel and its location at the surface[1]. The Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) connecting lines in the tunnel will be exposed to the debris from 7+7 TeV p-p interaction. The Superconducting (SC) Links will arrive from the surface to the tunnel near the separation dipole, at about 80 m from the Interaction Point at IP1 and IP5. The Connection Box (where the cables of the SC Links are connected to the NbTi bus bar) will be close to the beam pipe. The debris and its effect on the MgB2 SC links in the connection box (energy deposition and displacement per atom) are presented. The effect of thermal neutrons on the Boron consumption and the contribution of the lithium nucleus and the alpha particle on the DPA are evaluated. The results are normalized to an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, value that represents the LHC High Luminosity lifetime. The dose de...

  20. Interface Energy Alignment of Atomic-Layer-Deposited VOx on Pentacene: an in Situ Photoelectron Spectroscopy Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Gao, Yuanhong; Guo, Zheng; Su, Yantao; Wang, Xinwei

    2017-01-18

    Ultrathin atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) vanadium oxide (VOx) interlayer has recently been demonstrated for remarkably reducing the contact resistance in organic electronic devices (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2016, 26, 4456). Herein, we present an in situ photoelectron spectroscopy investigation (including X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies) of ALD VOx grown on pentacene to understand the role of the ALD VOx interlayer for the improved contact resistance. The in situ photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations allow us to monitor the ALD growth process of VOx and trace the evolutions of the work function, pentacene HOMO level, and VOx defect states during the growth. The initial VOx growth is found to be partially delayed on pentacene in the first ∼20 ALD cycles. The underneath pentacene layer is largely intact after ALD. The ALD VOx is found to contain a high density of defect states starting from 0.67 eV below the Fermi level, and the energy level of these defect states is in excellent alignment with the HOMO level of pentacene, which therefore allows these VOx defect states to provide an efficient hole-injection pathway at the contact interface.

  1. The distribution of urate deposition within the extremities in gout: a review of 148 dual-energy CT cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallinson, Paul I. [Vancouver General Hospital, Radiology Department, Vancouver (Canada); Vancouver General Hospital, Clinical Fellow in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Reagan, Adrian C.; Munk, Peter L.; Ouellette, Hugue; Nicolaou, Savvas [Vancouver General Hospital, Radiology Department, Vancouver (Canada); Coupal, Tyler [McMaster University, De Groote School of Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Clinical detection of gout can be difficult due to co-existent and mimicking arthropathies and asymptomatic disease. Understanding of the distribution of urate within the body can aid clinical diagnosis and further understanding of the resulting pathology. Our aim was to determine this distribution of urate within the extremities in patients with gout. All patients who underwent a four-limb dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scan for suspected gout over a 2-year period were identified (n = 148, 121 male, 27 female, age range, 16-92 years, mean = 61.3 years, median = 63 years). The reports of the positive cases were retrospectively analyzed and the locations of all urate deposition recorded and classified by anatomical location. A total of 241 cases met the inclusion criteria, of which 148 cases were positive. Of these, 101 (68.2 %) patients had gout in the foot, 81 (56.1 %) in the knee, 79 (53.4 %) in the ankle, 41 (27.7 %) in the elbow, 25 (16.9 %) in the hand, and 25 (16.9 %) in the wrist. The distribution was further subcategorized for each body part into specific bone and soft tissue structures. In this observational study, we provide for the first time a detailed analysis of extremity urate distribution in gout, which both supports and augments to the current understanding based on clinical and microscopic findings. (orig.)

  2. Laser-beam-induced current mapping evaluation of porous silicon-based passivation in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabha, M. Ben; Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Nanomateriaux et des Systemes pour l' Energie, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie - Technopole de Borj-Cedria BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Dimassi, W.; Bouaicha, M.; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de photovoltaique, des semiconducteurs et des nanostructures, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie - Technopole de Borj-Cedria BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    In the present work, we report on the effect of introducing a superficial porous silicon (PS) layer on the performance of polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) solar cells. Laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) mapping shows that the PS treatment on the emitter of pc-Si solar cells improves their quantum response and reduce the grain boundaries (GBs) activity. After the porous silicon treatment, mapping investigation shows an enhancement of the LBIC and the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), due to an improvement of the minority carrier diffusion length and the passivation of recombination centers at the GBs as compared to the reference substrate. It was quantitatively shown that porous silicon treatment can passivate both the grains and GBs. (author)

  3. Impurity heterogeneity in natural pyrite and its relation to internal electric fields mapped using remote laser beam induced current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, Jamie S., E-mail: csirojamie@gmail.com [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria (Australia); Large, Ross [Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Ryan, Chris G. [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Regions of band-bending in naturally occurring semiconducting sulfides are thought to drive electrochemical reactions with passing fluids. Metal bearing fluids within the right pH range interact with the electric fields at the surface resulting in precious metal ore genesis, even in under-saturated solutions. Metal reduction at the surface occurs via field assisted electron transfer from the semiconductor bulk to the ion in solution via surface states. Better understanding the role these regions and their texturing play on nucleating ore growth requires imaging of electric field distributions near the sulfide surface and correlation with underlying elemental heterogeneity. In this paper we discuss PIXE measurements made on the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe and correlate elemental maps with laser beam induced current maps of the electric field distribution.

  4. Thon rings from amorphous ice and implications of beam-induced Brownian motion in single particle electron cryo-microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, G; Vinothkumar, K R; Henderson, R

    2015-11-01

    We have recorded dose-fractionated electron cryo-microscope images of thin films of pure flash-frozen amorphous ice and pre-irradiated amorphous carbon on a Falcon II direct electron detector using 300 keV electrons. We observe Thon rings [1] in both the power spectrum of the summed frames and the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. The Thon rings from amorphous carbon images are always more visible in the power spectrum of the summed frames whereas those of amorphous ice are more visible in the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. This difference indicates that while pre-irradiated carbon behaves like a solid during the exposure, amorphous ice behaves like a fluid with the individual water molecules undergoing beam-induced motion. Using the measured variation in the power spectra amplitude with number of electrons per image we deduce that water molecules are randomly displaced by a mean squared distance of ∼1.1 Å(2) for every incident 300 keV e(-)/Å(2). The induced motion leads to an optimal exposure with 300 keV electrons of 4.0 e(-)/Å(2) per image with which to observe Thon rings centred around the strong 3.7 Å scattering peak from amorphous ice. The beam-induced movement of the water molecules generates pseudo-Brownian motion of embedded macromolecules. The resulting blurring of single particle images contributes an additional term, on top of that from radiation damage, to the minimum achievable B-factor for macromolecular structure determination.

  5. Low energy Ne ion beam induced-modifications of magnetic properties in MnAs thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trassinelli, M.; Carlsson, L. Bernard; Cervera, S.; Eddrief, M.; Etgens, V. H.; Gafton, E. V.; Lacaze, E.; Lamour, E.; Lévy, A.; Macé, S.; Prigent, C.; Rozet, J.-P.; Steydli, S.; Marangolo, M.; Vernhet, D.

    2017-02-01

    Investigations of the complex behavior of the magnetization of manganese arsenide thin films due to defects induced by irradiation of slow heavy ions are presented. In addition to the thermal hysteresis suppression already highlighted in Trassinelli et al (2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 081906), we report here on new local magnetic features recorded by a magnetic force microscope at different temperatures close to the characteristic sample phase transition. Complementary measurements of the global magnetization in different conditions (applied magnetic field and temperatures) enable the film characterization to be completed. The obtained results suggest that the ion bombardment produces regions where the local mechanical constraints are significantly different from the average, promoting the local presence of magneto-structural phases far from the equilibrium. These regions could be responsible for the thermal hysteresis suppression previously reported, irradiation-induced defects acting as seeds in the phase transition.

  6. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  7. On the differentiability of depth distribution function of deposited energy, momentum and ion range--a reply to Dr L. G. Glazov

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竹林

    2002-01-01

    Based on the translational invariance of a medium, a new theorem has been proposed and proved rigorously: the depth distributions of the deposited energy, momentum and ion range must be infinitely differentiable functions in amorphous or polycrystalline infinite targets by ion bombardment, if these functions exist. The origin of the "discontinuity",derived by Dr Glazov in 1995 in J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 7 6365, has been analysed in detail. For the power cross section, neglecting electronic stopping, the linear transport equations determining the depth distribution functions of the deposited energy and momentum (by taking the threshold energy into account) have been solved asymptotically. An important formula derived by Dr Glazov has been confirmed and generalized. The results agree with the new theorem.

  8. Role of low-energy ion irradiation in the formation of an aluminum germanate layer on a germanium substrate by radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Yukio, E-mail: y-fukuda@rs.suwa.tus.ac.jp; Yamada, Daichi; Yokohira, Tomoya; Yanachi, Kosei [Tokyo University of Science, Suwa, 5000-1 Toyohira, Chino, Nagano 391-0292 (Japan); Yamamoto, Chiaya; Yoo, Byeonghak; Sato, Tetsuya [University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Yamanaka, Junji [University of Yamanashi, 7-32 Miyamae, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Takamatsu, Toshiyuki [SST Inc., 989-6 Shimadadai, Yachiyo, Chiba 276-0004 (Japan); Okamoto, Hiroshi [Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition uses oxygen radicals generated by a remote microwave-induced plasma as an oxidant to change the surface reactions of the alternately supplied trimethylaluminum precursor and oxygen radicals on a Ge substrate, which leads to the spontaneous formation of an aluminum germanate layer. In this paper, the effects that low-energy ions, supplied from a remote microwave plasma to the substrate along with the oxygen radicals, have on the surface reactions were studied. From a comparative study of aluminum oxide deposition under controlled ion flux irradiation on the deposition surface, it was found that the ions enhance the formation of the aluminum germanate layer. The plasma potential measured at the substrate position by the Langmuir probe method was 5.4 V. Assuming that the kinetic energy of ions arriving at the substrate surface is comparable to that gained by this plasma potential, such ions have sufficient energy to induce exchange reactions of surface-adsorbed Al atoms with the underlying Ge atoms without causing significant damage to the substrate. This ion-induced exchange reaction between Al and Ge atoms is inferred to be the background kinetics of the aluminum germanate formation by radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition.

  9. Atomic layer deposition ultrathin film origami using focused ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, O. D.; Brown, J. J.; Eigenfeld, N. T.; Gertsch, J. C.; Bright, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) micromachining is a powerful tool for maskless lithography and in recent years FIB has been explored as a tool for strain engineering. Ion beam induced deformation can be utilized as a means for folding freestanding thin films into complex 3D structures. FIB of high energy gallium (Ga+) ions induces stress by generation of dislocations and ion implantation within material layers, which create creases or folds upon mechanical relaxation enabled by motion of the material layers. One limitation on such processing is the ability to fabricate flat freestanding thin film structures. This capability is limited by the residual stresses formed during processing and fabrication of the films, which can result in initial curvature and deformation of films upon release from a sacrificial fabrication layer. This paper demonstrates folding in freestanding ultrathin films (1:1000) by ion-induced stress relaxation. The ultrathin flat structures are fabricated using atomic layer deposition on sacrificial polyimide. We have demonstrated vertical folding with 30 keV Ga+ ions in structures with lateral dimensions varying from 10 to 50 μm.

  10. Calculation of the heat deposition and temperature distribution of the target bombarded by high-energy protons using Monte Carlo simulation and finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷雯; 张国锋; 杜建红; 梁九卿

    2003-01-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation and the finite element methods have been used to calculate the heat deposition and temperature distribution in tungsten plate target when the target is bombarded by high-energy protons from the accelerator with nuclear power of 100 kW. The results show that the heat deposition in the target, reflector and shield will be 48 kW, 15 kW and 11 kW, respectively, and the highest temperature in the target plates will be lower than 100 ℃when the surfaces of plates are cooled by water.

  11. Energy deposition of H and He ion beams in hydroxyapatite films: A study with implications for ion-beam cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limandri, Silvina; de Vera, Pablo; Fadanelli, Raul C.; Nagamine, Luiz C. C. M.; Mello, Alexandre; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Behar, Moni; Abril, Isabel

    2014-02-01

    Ion-beam cancer therapy is a promising technique to treat deep-seated tumors; however, for an accurate treatment planning, the energy deposition by the ions must be well known both in soft and hard human tissues. Although the energy loss of ions in water and other organic and biological materials is fairly well known, scarce information is available for the hard tissues (i.e., bone), for which the current stopping power information relies on the application of simple additivity rules to atomic data. Especially, more knowledge is needed for the main constituent of human bone, calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), which constitutes 58% of its mass composition. In this work the energy loss of H and He ion beams in HAp films has been obtained experimentally. The experiments have been performed using the Rutherford backscattering technique in an energy range of 450-2000 keV for H and 400-5000 keV for He ions. These measurements are used as a benchmark for theoretical calculations (stopping power and mean excitation energy) based on the dielectric formalism together with the MELF-GOS (Mermin energy loss function-generalized oscillator strength) method to describe the electronic excitation spectrum of HAp. The stopping power calculations are in good agreement with the experiments. Even though these experimental data are obtained for low projectile energies compared with the ones used in hadron therapy, they validate the mean excitation energy obtained theoretically, which is the fundamental quantity to accurately assess energy deposition and depth-dose curves of ion beams at clinically relevant high energies. The effect of the mean excitation energy choice on the depth-dose profile is discussed on the basis of detailed simulations. Finally, implications of the present work on the energy loss of charged particles in human cortical bone are remarked.

  12. Focused electron beam induced processing and the effect of substrate thickness revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dorp, W. F.; Beyer, A.; Mainka, M.;

    2013-01-01

    with Monte Carlo simulations for SE emission. The results suggest that SEs are dominant in the dissociation of W(CO)6 on thin membranes. The best agreement between simulations and experiment is obtained for SEs with energies between 3 and 6 eV.With this work we revisit earlier experiments, working...

  13. Thickness-Dependent Binding Energy Shift in Few-Layer MoS2 Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Chen, Ruei-San; Chou, Tsu-Chin; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yang-Fang; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2016-08-31

    The thickness-dependent surface states of MoS2 thin films grown by the chemical vapor deposition process on the SiO2-Si substrates are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy suggest the thicknesses of MoS2 films to be ranging from 3 to 10 layers. Both the core levels and valence band edges of MoS2 shift downward ∼0.2 eV as the film thickness increases, which can be ascribed to the Fermi level variations resulting from the surface states and bulk defects. Grainy features observed from the atomic force microscopy topographies, and sulfur-vacancy-induced defect states illustrated at the valence band spectra imply the generation of surface states that causes the downward band bending at the n-type MoS2 surface. Bulk defects in thick MoS2 may also influence the Fermi level oppositely compared to the surface states. When Au contacts with our MoS2 thin films, the Fermi level downshifts and the binding energy reduces due to the hole-doping characteristics of Au and easy charge transfer from the surface defect sites of MoS2. The shift of the onset potentials in hydrogen evolution reaction and the evolution of charge-transfer resistances extracted from the impedance measurement also indicate the Fermi level varies with MoS2 film thickness. The tunable Fermi level and the high chemical stability make our MoS2 a potential catalyst. The observed thickness-dependent properties can also be applied to other transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and facilitates the development in the low-dimensional electronic devices and catalysts.

  14. Parametric study of the energy deposition inside the calorimeter measuring the nuclear heating in Material Testing Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amharrak, H., E-mail: hicham.amharrak@im2np.fr [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Reynard-Carette, C. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Carette, M.; Brun, J.; De Vita, C. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J-F. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-11-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material and two calorimetric cells. Then these measurements are used for other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present simulations with MCNP5 Monte-Carlo transport code (using ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library) to evaluate the nuclear heating inside the calorimeter during irradiation campaigns of the CARMEN-1P mock-up inside OSIRIS reactor periphery (MTR based on Saclay, France). The whole complete geometry of the sensor has been considered. The calculation method corresponds to a calculation in two steps. Consequently, we used as an input source in the model, the neutron and photon spectra calculated in various experimental locations tested during the irradiation campaign (H9, H10, H11, D9). After a description of the differential calorimeter sensor, the MCNP5 model used for the calculations of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements is introduced by two quantities: KERMA and energy deposition rate per mass unit. The Charged Particle Equilibrium (CPE) inside the calorimeter elements is studied. The contribution of prompt gamma and neutron is determined. A comparison between this total nuclear heating calculation and the experimental results in a graphite sample will be made. Then parametric studies performed on the influence of the various calorimeter components on the nuclear heating are presented and discussed. The studies of the influence of the nature of materials, the sensor jacket, the source type and the comparison of the results obtained for the two calorimetric cells leads to some proposals for the sensor improvement.

  15. Ion beam induced single phase nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukade, Deepti A. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400098 (India); Tribedi, L.C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhattacharyya, Varsha, E-mail: varsha.b1.physics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2014-06-15

    Single phase TiO{sub 2} nanostructures are fabricated by oxygen ion implantation (60 keV) at fluence ranging from 1×10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} to 1×10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} in titanium thin films deposited on fused silica substrate and subsequent thermal annealing in argon atmosphere. GAXRD and Raman spectroscopy study reveals formation of single rutile phases of TiO{sub 2}. Particle size is found to vary from 29 nm to 35 nm, establishing nanostructure formation. Nanostructure formation is also confirmed by the quantum confinement effect manifested by the blueshift of the UV–vis absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra show peaks corresponding to TiO{sub 2} rutile phase and reveal the presence of oxygen defects due to implantation. The controlled synthesis of single phase nanostructure is attributed to ion induced defects and post-implantation annealing. It is observed that the size of the nanostructures formed is strongly dependent on the ion fluence.

  16. Calculation of electron-beam induced displacement in thin films by using parameter-reduced formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiang; Chen, Di; Wang, Qingyu; Li, Zhongyu; Shao, Lin

    2017-03-01

    Based on the Mott cross sections of relativistic electron collisions with atoms, we calculate displacement creation by electron beams of arbitrary energies (up to 100 MeV) in thin films of arbitrary atomic numbers (up to Z = 90). In a comparison with Mont Carlo full damage cascade simulations, we find that total number of displacements in a film can be accurately estimated as the product of average displacements created per collision and average collision numbers in the film. To calculate average displacements per electron-atom collision, energy transfer from Mott cross section is combined with NRT model. To calculate collision numbers, mean deflection angles and multi-scattering theory are combined to extract collision number dependence on film thickness. For each key parameter, parameter-reduced formulas are obtained from data fitting. The fitting formulas provide a quick and accurate method to estimate radiation damage caused by electron beams.

  17. High-energy deposits newly recognized in Hawaii Island (South Point): a catastrophic tsunami generated by South Kona or Kalae flank collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    South Kona collapse (ca. 250ka) and the average rate of subsidence (ca. 1 mm/yr), the original deposit likely emplaced at ca. 250 m altitude. This suggests that m3 blocks have been transported at least 250 m upslope by a very high-energy wave. We conclude that the South Point sediments comprise a very high-energy deposit transported upslope by a tsunami generated by a large flank collapse, the nearby large-scale South Kona or Kalae flank collapses, the only known geological process in volcanic islands capable of producing such high-amplitude waves.

  18. Gadolinium released from MR contrast agents is deposited in brain tumors: in situ demonstration using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Daniel; Davis, Richard L.; Crawford, Judith A.; Abraham, Jerrold L. (Dept. of Pathology, SUNY Upstate Medical Univ., Syracuse, NY (United States)), e-mail: abrahamj@upstate.edu

    2010-12-15

    Background: Gadolinium (Gd)-containing MRI contrast agents (GdCA) are widely used in studies of brain tumors, and a number of reports suggest that under certain conditions, such as renal failure, Gd may be released from GdCA into patient's tissues. Whether this may happen in abnormal tissues in the absence of renal failure has not been studied. Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the local retention of GdCA resulting from brain tumor-associated alterations in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may result in the deposition of Gd released from the GdCA, depending on stability. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, 30 selected brain tumor biopsies from 28 patients (taken before and after an institutional switch from a less stable to an intermediate stable GdCA) were searched for Gd-containing deposits using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Relevant histories and laboratory results were obtained through institutional electronic records. Associations between the presence of deposits and other variables were tested for statistical significance using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: Insoluble deposits containing Gd associated with phosphorus and calcium were found in seven biopsies from five patients. These deposits were found in patients with estimated GFRs above 53 ml/min, and were detected more often in those receiving GdCA before the switch from a less stable to an intermediate stable GdCA (P = 0.04), and may be more frequent in patients receiving more than one contrast-enhanced MR scan (P = 0.15). Conclusion: Gd-containing deposits are present in brain tumors following contrast-enhanced MR scans in patients without severe renal disease. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical importance of the deposits we observed and to determine whether they are also found in other conditions that alter the integrity of the BBB

  19. Electron beam induced evolution in Au, Ag, and interfaced heterogeneous Au/Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzi; Sun, Yugang

    2015-08-28

    A sintering process of nanoparticles made of Ag, Au, and interfaced Ag/Au heterodimers was investigated by in situ transmission electron microscopy at room temperature. Such a process is driven by the illumination of a high-energy electron beam accelerated at 200 kV that promotes atom diffusion in the nanoparticles that are in physical contact. Upon electron illumination, adjacent Au nanoparticles gradually merge together to form a larger particle along with the reduction of the surface area despite the fact that orientated attachment is not observed. According to the detailed analysis of the size change of the particles and the contact area, it was found that the nanoparticle fusion process is significantly different from the well-established thermal diffusion mechanism. In addition to the similar fusion process of Au nanoparticles, Ag nanoparticles undergo apparent sublimation induced by knock on damage because the transferred energy from the electron beam to nanoparticles is higher than the surface binding energy of Ag atoms when the electron scattering angle is larger than 112°. The particles with a smaller size diffuse faster. Surface diffusion dominates at the beginning of the fusion process followed by slower lattice diffusion. Electron beam illumination can transform the interfaced Au/Ag dimers to Au@Ag core-shell particles followed by a slow removal of the Ag shells. This process under normal electron beam illumination is a lot faster than the thermally driven process. Both diffusion and sublimation of Ag atoms are dependent on the intensity of the electron beam, i.e., a higher beam intensity is favorable to accelerate both the processes.

  20. State-space approach to vibration of gold nano-beam induced by ramp type heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamdy M Youssef; Khaled A Elsibai

    2010-01-01

    In the nanoscale beam, two effects become domineering. One is the non-Fourier effect in heat conduction and the other is the coupling effect between temperature and strain rate. In the present study, a generalized solution for the generalized thermoelastic vibration of gold nano-beam resonator induced by ramp type heating is developed. The solution takes into account the above two effects. State-space and Laplace transform methods are used to determine the lateral vibration, the temperature, the displacement, the stress and the strain energy of the beam. The effects of the relaxation time and the ramping time parameters have been studied.

  1. Studies of Beam Induced Electron Cloud Resonances in Dipole Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Calvey, J R; Makita, J; Venturini, M

    2016-01-01

    The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple of bunch spacing. Both resonances have been studied directly in dipole fields using retarding field analyzers installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). These measurements are supported by both analytical models and computer simulations.

  2. Focus ion beam-induced mechanical stress switching in an ultra-fast resistive switching device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    The Mo/Si3N4:Pt/Pt nanometallic resistive switching devices with ultra-fast write/erase speed (meta-stable state, while LRS (detrapping state) is a stable state. Strong mechanical stress facilitates local bond distortion in dielectric films and thus lowers the energy barrier between HRS and LRS, eventually leading to a barrier-less state transition. A quantitative model based on stress-mediated parallel conduction paths were established to provide a more accurate description of the resistive switching devices.

  3. Characterizing a multi-MeV e-beam induced plasma through visible spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Thierry; Ribiere, Maxime; Maisonny, Rémi; Ritter, Sandra; Plouhinec, Damien; Auriel, Gérard

    2016-10-01

    High energy electrons interaction and propagation mechanisms in solid targets have a broad range of applications in high energy density physics. The latter include fast ignition for inertial fusion research, production of ultra-high mechanical stress levels, plasma interactions with e-beam particles in electron diodes, radiative hydrodynamic models...This paper presents the results from recent experiments conducted on the multi-MeV generator ASTERIX operated at CEA-Gramat. This high flux density electron beam was launched from an aluminum cathode onto an aluminum-tantalum target for voltage and current of 2.4 MeV and 55 kA, respectively. A set of optical diagnostics were fielded in all of the experiments, including a UV-visible spectrometers and a fast imaging. The imaging data obtained during the experiment allowed for the ablated species velocity to be determined. based on spectroscopic analysis, the light emission was attributed to aluminum and tantalum excited atoms and ions. The analysis of this time-integrated spectrum based on radiative transfer model clearly unveiled two distinct regions of the plasma over its expansion: a hot core surrounded by a cold vapor. A quantitative analysis of these results is presented.

  4. Zakharov simulations of beam-induced turbulence in the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, H.; Guio, P.; Hirsch, M. A.; Semeter, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Recent detections of strong incoherent scatter radar echoes from the auroral F region, which have been explained as the signature of naturally produced Langmuir turbulence, have motivated us to revisit the topic of beam-generated Langmuir turbulence via simulation. Results from one-dimensional Zakharov simulations are used to study the interaction of ionospheric electron beams with the background plasma at the F region peak. A broad range of beam parameters extending by more than 2 orders of magnitude in average energy and electron number density is considered. A range of wave interaction processes, from a single parametric decay, to a cascade of parametric decays, to formation of stationary density cavities in the condensate region, and to direct collapse at the initial stages of turbulence, is observed as we increase the input energy to the system. The effect of suprathermal electrons, produced by collisional interactions of auroral electrons with the neutral atmosphere, on the dynamics of Langmuir turbulence is also investigated. It is seen that the enhanced Landau damping introduced by the suprathermal electrons significantly weakens the turbulence and truncates the cascade of parametric decays.

  5. Fabrication of SiGe quantum devices by electron-beam induced damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph M.; Broers, Alec N.; Paul, Douglas J.; Pepper, Michael; Whall, Terry E.; Fernández, Juan M.; Joyce, Bruce A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation damage has been investigated in Si/SiGe heterostructures. The damage to SiGe two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) was measured as a function of accelerating voltage and electron dose. For 40 keV electrons at a dose of 2 Cm-2(typical PMMA resist values), the material properties were not significantly altered. For 100 keV and higher energy electrons, the irradiated material became more resistive at 300 K as the electron energies were increased. The material became highly resistive at low temperatures and froze out at between 20 and 30 K. The 2DHGs also became more resistive at 300 K when the irradiation dose was increased. A number of narrow channel devices were fabricated on high mobility SiGe two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) using the damage technique and gated using Schottky gates. Plateaux were observed in the conductance as a function of gate voltage. Random telegraph signals (RTSs) were observed from a 10μm-wide Hall bar irradiated with 300 keV electrons at a dose of105C m-2

  6. Evaluation of the effect of consuming an energy drink on the concentration of glucose and triacylglycerols and on fatty tissue deposition. A model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. The animal model study was aimed at evaluating the effect of diet composition and energy drink intake on body weight, accumulation and distribution of deposited fatty tissue, and concentrations of glucose and triacylglycerols in blood plasma. Material and methods. The experiment was carried out on 30 male rats. The animals were sorted into three groups, fed on group I – standard feed, groups II and III – modified feed, in which part of whole wheat and corn grains were isocalorically substituted with wheat flour and saccharose. Animals from groups I and II were receiving settled tap water for drinking, whereas these from group III were administered 3 ml of an energy drink, and then were provided drinking water. Results. In analysing the results obtained it was stated that the addition of the energy drink to diet affected diminished body weight gains of the animals (per energy unit in the diet as compared to the group of animals fed modified diet. The animals receiving the energy drink were additionally characterised by a lower content of peri-intestinal and intramuscular fatty tissue, whereas were found to deposit significantly higher amounts of peri-cardiac fatty tissue. Samples of blood plasma of these animals were found to contain a significantly higher concentration of glucose, compared to those of the animals fed modified diet. In turn, the concentration of triacylglycerols was comparable in all groups of animals. Conclusions. The analysis of results achieved enabled concluding that the addition of energy drink to diet was significantly modifying the rate and tendency of metabolic changes, which was manifested in: increased glucose concentration in blood plasma, diminished body weight gains of the animals and deposition of peri-cardial fat.  

  7. A three-dimensional methodology for the assessment of neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition in graphite components of advanced gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D.O.; Robinson, A.T.; Allen, D.A.; Picton, D.J.; Thornton, D.A. [TCS, Serco, Rutherford House, Olympus Park, Quedgeley, Gloucester, Gloucestershire GL2 4NF (United Kingdom); Shaw, S.E. [EDF Energy, Barnet Way, Barnwood, Gloucester GL4 3RS (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional methodology for the assessment of neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition (or nuclear heating) throughout the graphite cores of the UK's Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors. Advances in the development of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCBEND have enabled the efficient production of detailed fully three-dimensional models that utilise three-dimensional source distributions obtained from Core Follow data supplied by the reactor physics code PANTHER. The calculational approach can be simplified to reduce both the requisite number of intensive radiation transport calculations, as well as the quantity of data output. These simplifications have been qualified by comparison with explicit calculations and they have been shown not to introduce significant systematic uncertainties. Simple calculational approaches are described that allow users of the data to address the effects on neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition predictions of the feedback resulting from the mutual dependencies of graphite weight loss and nuclear energy deposition. (authors)

  8. The effect of deposition energy of energetic atoms on the growth and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N

    2014-05-16

    The growth and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The second-generation reactive-empirical-bond-order potential was used to model atomic interactions. Films with different structures were simulated by varying the deposition energy of carbon atoms in the range of 1-120 eV. Intrinsic film characteristics (e.g. density and internal stress) were determined after the system reached equilibrium. Short- and intermediate-range carbon atom ordering is examined in the context of atomic hybridization and ring connectivity simulation results. It is shown that relatively high deposition energy (i.e., 80 eV) yields a multilayer film structure consisting of an intermixing layer, bulk film and surface layer, consistent with the classical subplantation model. The highest film density (3.3 g cm-3), sp3 fraction (∼43%), and intermediate-range carbon atom ordering correspond to a deposition energy of ∼80 eV, which is in good agreement with experimental findings. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Global atmospheric energy deposition by energetic electrons - Quantitative spatial and temporal characteristics inferred from the Atmospheric X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (PEM/AXIS) on UARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenette, D. L.; Datlowe, D. W.; Robinson, R. M.; Schumaker, T. L.; Vondrak, R. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Sharber, J. R.; Winningham, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    The primary purpose of PEM/AXIS is to provide a global monitor of the energy input to the upper atmosphere due to energetic electrons. The design, development, and calibration of AXIS are described and an assessment of its excellent on-orbit performance is presented. The unique capabilities of X-ray imaging spectrometers to monitor the global patterns of electron energy deposition in the atmosphere are shown through an analysis of some specific cases during the first year of the UARS mission.

  10. High speed, intermediate resolution, large area laser beam induced current imaging and laser scribing system for photovoltaic devices and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Adam B.; Song, Zhaoning; DeWitt, Jonathan L.; Stone, Jon M.; Krantz, Patrick W.; Royston, John M.; Zeller, Ryan M.; Mapes, Meghan R.; Roland, Paul J.; Dorogi, Mark D.; Zafar, Syed; Faykosh, Gary T.; Ellingson, Randy J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm2) can be produced in a ˜40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors. The system can also be used in a scribing mode by increasing the diode current and decreasing the repetition rate. In either mode, the instrument can accommodate samples ranging in size from laboratory scale (few cm2) to full modules (1 m2). Customized LabVIEW programs were developed to control the components and acquire, display, and manipulate the data in imaging mode.

  11. Measurements of the luminosity and normalised beam-induced background using the CMS Fast Beam Condition Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Odell, Nathaniel Jay

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring system (BRM) is installed to protect the CMS detector from high beam losses and to provide feedback to the LHC and CMS on the beam conditions. The Fast Beam Condition Monitor (BCM1F), one of the sub-detectors in the BRM system, is installed inside the pixel volume close to the beam pipe and consists of two planes of 4 modules each located 1.8 m away from the IP, on both ends. It uses single-crystal CVD diamond sensors, radiation hard front-end electronics and an optical transmission of the signal. It is designed for single particle rate measurements, detecting both machine induced beam background and collision products on a bunch-by-bunch basis. Presented is the implementation of the normalized online beam-induced background measurement and the online instantaneous luminosity measurement. The method for determining the luminosity from the measured rates, including the absolute calibration using the Van der Meer scan, and the measurement performance will be d...

  12. Preliminary results on time-resolved ion beam induced luminescence applied to the provenance study of lapis lazuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czelusniak, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Massi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L.; Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Re, A.; Lo Giudice, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino & INFN Sezione di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pratesi, G. [Museo di Storia Naturale, Università di Firenze, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Ruberto, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); and others

    2016-03-15

    This work will present preliminary results concerning the use of time-resolved ion beam induced luminescence applied to provenance studies of lapis lazuli. Measurements were performed at the pulsed beam facility at LABEC laboratory in Florence. Lapis lazuli is a semi-precious gemstone, used as ornament since the early civilizations that can be found in few places on Earth. The importance of this work lies in understanding the origin of various samples of lapis lazuli, from which it may be possible to gain insight into trade routes from ancient times. The samples studied in this work originated from Chile, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Myanmar, and Siberia. The stones were irradiated with 3 MeV protons and the resulting luminescence was detected by a photomultiplier tube, whose output was acquired using a sampling digitizer VME module (CAEN/V1720). Wavelength discrimination was performed at 430 nm utilizing a range of beam currents. The results showed that, by changing the beam current intensity, one can study different features of lapis lazuli, and this may aid in distinguishing lapis lazuli from different provenances.

  13. High speed, intermediate resolution, large area laser beam induced current imaging and laser scribing system for photovoltaic devices and modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Adam B; Song, Zhaoning; DeWitt, Jonathan L; Stone, Jon M; Krantz, Patrick W; Royston, John M; Zeller, Ryan M; Mapes, Meghan R; Roland, Paul J; Dorogi, Mark D; Zafar, Syed; Faykosh, Gary T; Ellingson, Randy J; Heben, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm(2)) can be produced in a ∼40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors. The system can also be used in a scribing mode by increasing the diode current and decreasing the repetition rate. In either mode, the instrument can accommodate samples ranging in size from laboratory scale (few cm(2)) to full modules (1 m(2)). Customized LabVIEW programs were developed to control the components and acquire, display, and manipulate the data in imaging mode.

  14. In situ ion-beam-induced luminescence analysis for evaluating a micrometer-scale radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Shunsuke; Kada, Wataru; Parajuli, Raj Kumar; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Sakai, Makoto; Miura, Kenta; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Yamada, Naoto; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Hanaizumi, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    Micrometer-scale responses of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters to focused ionized particle radiation were evaluated by combining ion-beam-induced luminescence (IBIL) and proton beam writing (PBW) using a 3 MeV focused proton microbeam. RPL phosphate glass dosimeters doped with ionic Ag or Cu activators at concentrations of 0.2 and 0.1% were fabricated, and their scintillation intensities were evaluated by IBIL spectroscopy under a PBW micropatterning condition. Compared with the Ag-doped dosimeter, the Cu-doped dosimeter was more tolerant of the radiation, while the peak intensity of its luminescence was lower, under the precise dose control of the proton microprobe. Proton-irradiated areas were successfully recorded using these dosimeters and their RPL centers were visualized under 375 nm ultraviolet light. The reproduction of the irradiated region by post-RPL imaging suggests that precise estimation of irradiation dose using microdosimeters can be accomplished by optimizing RPL glass dosimeters for various proton microprobe applications in organic material analysis and in micrometer-scale material modifications.

  15. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) from Integrated Circuit Test Structures Using a 10 MeV Carbon Microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aton, T.J.; Doyle, B.L.; Duggan, J.L.; El Bouanani, M.; Guo, B.N.; McDaniel, F.D.; Renfrow, S.N.; Walsh, D.S.

    1998-11-18

    As future sizes of Integrated Circuits (ICs) continue to shrink the sensitivity of these devices, particularly SRAMs and DRAMs, to natural radiation is increasing. In this paper, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique is utilized to simulate neutron-induced Si recoil effects in ICS. The IBICC measurements, conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories employed a 10 MeV carbon microbeam with 1pm diameter spot to scan test structures on specifically designed ICS. With the aid of layout information, an analysis of the charge collection efficiency from different test areas is presented. In the present work a 10 MeV Carbon high-resolution microbeam was used to demonstrate the differential charge collection efficiency in ICS with the aid of the IC design Information. When ions strike outside the FET, the charge was only measured on the outer ring, and decreased with strike distance from this diode. When ions directly strike the inner and ring diodes, the collected charge was localized to these diodes. The charge for ions striking the gate region was shared between the inner and ring diodes. I The IBICC measurements directly confirmed the interpretations made in the earlier work.

  16. A Novel Contactless Method for Characterization of Semiconductors: Surface Electron Beam Induced Voltage in Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世秋; E.I.RAU; 杨富华; 郑厚植

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel contactless and nondestructive method called the surface electron beam induced voltage (SEBIV) method for characterizing semiconductor materials and devices. The SEBIV method is based on the detection of the surface potential induced by electron beams of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The core part of the SEBIV detection set-up is a circular metal detector placed above the sample surface. The capacitance between the circular detector and whole surface of the sample is estimated to be about 0.64pf. It is large enough for the detection of the induced surface potential. The irradiation mode of electron beam (e-beam) influences the signal generation. When the e-beam irradiates on the surface of semiconductors continuously, a differential signal is obtained. The real distribution of surface potentials can be obtained when a pulsed e-beam with a fixed frequency is used for irradiation and a lock-in amplifier is employed for detection. The polarity of induced potential depends on the structure of potential barriers and surface states of samples. The contrast of SEBIV images in SEM changes with irradiation time and e-beam intensity.

  17. Preliminary results on time-resolved ion beam induced luminescence applied to the provenance study of lapis lazuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czelusniak, C.; Palla, L.; Massi, M.; Carraresi, L.; Giuntini, L.; Re, A.; Lo Giudice, A.; Pratesi, G.; Mazzinghi, A.; Ruberto, C.; Castelli, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Liccioli, L.; Gueli, A.; Mandò, P. A.; Taccetti, F.

    2016-03-01

    This work will present preliminary results concerning the use of time-resolved ion beam induced luminescence applied to provenance studies of lapis lazuli. Measurements were performed at the pulsed beam facility at LABEC laboratory in Florence. Lapis lazuli is a semi-precious gemstone, used as ornament since the early civilizations that can be found in few places on Earth. The importance of this work lies in understanding the origin of various samples of lapis lazuli, from which it may be possible to gain insight into trade routes from ancient times. The samples studied in this work originated from Chile, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Myanmar, and Siberia. The stones were irradiated with 3 MeV protons and the resulting luminescence was detected by a photomultiplier tube, whose output was acquired using a sampling digitizer VME module (CAEN/V1720). Wavelength discrimination was performed at 430 nm utilizing a range of beam currents. The results showed that, by changing the beam current intensity, one can study different features of lapis lazuli, and this may aid in distinguishing lapis lazuli from different provenances.

  18. Investigation of focused ion beam induced damage in single crystal diamond tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Zhen [Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture & Engineering Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ (United Kingdom); Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Luo, Xichun, E-mail: Xichun.Luo@strath.ac.uk [Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture & Engineering Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • The FIB-induced damage layer should be paid enough attention when shaping the cutting edges of nanoscale diamond tools. • During FIB processing cutting tools made of natural single crystal diamond, the Ga{sup +} collision will create a damage layer around tool tips. • The thicknesses of damaged layer and the level for amorphization of diamond significantly increase with beam energy. • The FIB-induced doping and defects during tool fabrication are responsible for the early detection of tool wear of nanoscale diamond tools. - Abstract: In this work, transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to characterise the focused ion beam (FIB) induced damage layer in a single crystal diamond tool under different FIB processing voltages. The results obtained from the experiments and the simulations are in good agreement. The results indicate that during FIB processing cutting tools made of natural single crystal diamond, the energetic Ga{sup +} collision will create an impulse-dependent damage layer at the irradiated surface. For the tested beam voltages in a typical FIB system (from 8 kV to 30 kV), the thicknesses of the damaged layers formed on a diamond tool surface increased from 11.5 nm to 27.6 nm. The dynamic damage process of FIB irradiation and ion–solid interactions physics leading to processing defects in FIB milling were emulated by MD simulations. The research findings from this study provide the in-depth understanding of the wear of nanoscale multi-tip diamond tools considering the FIB irradiation induced doping and defects during the tool fabrication process.

  19. Ion-beam-induced modifications in the structural and electrical properties of copper oxide selenite nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Pallavi, E-mail: prana.phy@gmail.com; Chauhan, R.P.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Nanowires were synthesized via template-assisted electrodeposition method. •Copper oxide selenite nanowires were irradiated with 160 MeV, Ni{sup +12} ion beam. •XRD confirmed no change in phase of irradiated nanowires. •Electrical resistivity of nanowires was found to decrease with the ion fluence. -- Abstract: Irradiation with swift heavy ions (SHIs) with energy in the MeV range is a unique tool for engineering the properties of materials. In this context, the objective of the present work is to study the conduction of charge carriers in pre- and post-ion-irradiated semiconducting nanowires. Copper oxide selenite nanowires were synthesized using a template-assisted electrodeposition technique from an aqueous solution of 0.8 M CuSO{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O and 8 mM SeO{sub 2}. The synthesized nanowires were observed to have a monoclinic structure with linear I–V characteristics (IVC). The effect of irradiation with 160 MeV Ni{sup +12} ions on the properties of the copper oxide selenite nanowires was investigated for fluences varying from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. XRD spectra confirmed no change in the phase of the swift-heavy-ion-irradiated nanowires, but a modification in the orientation of the planes was observed that depended on the ion fluence. The electrical resistivity of the semiconducting nanowires also varied with the ion fluence. Simultaneous irradiation-induced modifications to the electro-chemical potential gradient and the granular properties of the material may have been the origin of the alteration in the structural and electrical properties of the nanowires.

  20. Protein and lipid deposition rates in male broiler chickens : separate responses to amino acids and protein-free energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Stoutjesdijk, P.; Greef, de K.H.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments of similar design were conducted with male broiler chickens over two body weight ranges, 200 to 800 g in Experiment 1 and 800 to 1,600 g in Experiment 2. The data were used to test the hypothesis that protein deposition rate increases (linearly) with increasing amino acid intake, unt

  1. Single-walled carbon nanotubes and nanocrystalline graphene reduce beam-induced movements in high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy of ice-embedded biological samples

    CERN Document Server

    Rhinow, Daniel; Turchanin, Andrey; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Kühlbrandt, Werner; 10.1063/1.3645010

    2011-01-01

    For single particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM), contrast loss due to beam-induced charging and specimen movement is a serious problem, as the thin films of vitreous ice spanning the holes of a holey carbon film are particularly susceptible to beam-induced movement. We demonstrate that the problem is at least partially solved by carbon nanotechnology. Doping ice-embedded samples with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in aqueous suspension or adding nanocrystalline graphene supports, obtained by thermal conversion of cross-linked self-assembled biphenyl precursors, significantly reduces contrast loss in high-resolution cryoEM due to the excellent electrical and mechanical properties of SWNTs and graphene.

  2. Beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton running period

    OpenAIRE

    Onofre, A.; Castro, Nuno Filipe Silva Fernandes; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses various observations on beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton run. Building on published results based on 2011 data, the correlations between background and residual pressure of the beam vacuum are revisited. Ghost charge evolution over 2012 and its role for backgrounds are evaluated. New methods to monitor ghost charge with beam-gas rates are presented and observations of LHC abort gap population by ghost charge a...

  3. Simultaneous Counter-Ion Co-Deposition a Technique Enabling Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy Studies Using Low-Energy Beams of Mass-Selected Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Ryan M.; Moore, David T.

    2014-06-01

    Matrix isolation spectroscopy was first developed in Pimentel's group during the 1950's to facilitate spectroscopic studies of transient species. Cryogenic matrices of condensed rare gases provide an inert chemical environment with facile energy dissipation and are transparent at all wavelengths longer than vacuum UV, making them ideal for studying labile and reactive species such as radicals, weakly bound complexes, and ions. Since frozen rare gases are poor electrolytes, studies of ions require near-equal populations of anions and cations in order to stabilize the number densities required for spectroscopic experiments. Many techniques for generation of ions for using in matrix isolation studies satisfy this criterion intrinsically, however when ion beams generated in external sources are deposited, the counter-ions typically arise via secondary processes that are at best loosely controlled. It has long been recognized that it would be desirable to stabilize deposition of mass-selected ions generated in an external source using simultaneous co-deposition of a beam of counter-ions, however previous attempts to achieve this have been reported as unsuccessful. The Moore group at Lehigh has demonstrated successful experiments of this type, using mass-selected anions generated from a metal cluster source, co-deposited with a balanced current of cations generated in a separate electron ionization source. This talk will focus on the details of the technique, and present some results from proof-of-concept studies on anionic copper carbonyl complexes formed in argon matrices following co-deposition of Cu- with Ar+ or Kr+. Funding support from NSF CAREER Award CHE-0955637 is gratefully acknowledged. Whittle et al., J. Chem. Phys. 22, p.1943 (1954); Becker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 25, p.224 (1956). Godbout et al., J. Chem. Phys. 96, p.2892 (1996). Sabo et al., Appl. Spectrosc. 45, p. 535 (1991).

  4. Lateral features of Cu(In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3})Se{sub 2}-heterodiodes in the {mu}m-scale by confocal luminescence and focused light beam induced currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.H. [Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)]. E-mail: g.h.bauer@uni-oldenburg.de; Guetay, L. [Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2007-05-31

    Polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} films (CIGSe) show substantial local variations of properties not only in regime of 10-100 nm but also in the scale length of few microns. We have analyzed optoelectronic properties of CIGSe heterodiodes by confocal luminescence and focused light beam induced currents (LBIC) versus temperature and excitation level with < 1 {mu}m lateral resolution and we observe a strong dependence of the size of local patterns on excitation flux and a considerable dependence of the yield and the spectral shape of luminescence and of microscopic LBI currents on temperature. From experiments we derive activation energies for rates of non-radiative recombination of (2-7) meV and for minority carrier mobilities of about (60-70) meV. These energies are compared with local variations of band edges resulting from potential fluctuations which are formulated after an approach from literature and which has been fitted to experimental shifts of PL peaks and squeezing of PL spectra versus excitation flux. We estimate tunnel barriers for radiative transitions of trapped electrons of about (30-70) meV. Correlating our different results we attribute the activation energy for minority transport in CIGSe reflecting local variations of the conduction band edge mainly to spatial fluctuations of the optical band gap as a consequence of spatially varying elemental composition, and to variations of splitting of the quasi-Fermi levels introduced by spatially varying defect densities.

  5. A "TEST OF CONCEPT" COMPARISON OF AERODYNAMIC AND MECHANICAL RESUSPENSION MECHANISMS FOR PARTICLES DEPOSITED ON FIELD RYE GRASS (SECALS CERCELE). PART 2. THRESHOLD MECHANICAL ENERGIES FOR RESUSPENSION PARTICLE FLUXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinetic energy from the oscillatory impacts of the grass stalk against a stationary object was measured with a kinetic energy measuring device. These energy inputs were measured as part of a resuspension experiment of uniform latex microspheres deposited on a single rye grass see...

  6. Future monitoring of charged particle energy deposition into the upper atmosphere and comments on possible relationships between atmospheric phenomena and solar and/or geomagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.; Grubb, R. N.; Evans, D. S.; Sauer, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Monitoring of earth's atmosphere was conducted for several years utilizing the ITOS series of low-altitude, polar-orbiting weather satellites. A space environment monitoring package was included in these satellites to perform measurements of a portion of earth's charged particle environment. The charged particle observations proposed for the low-altitude weather satellite TIROS N, are described which will provide the capability of routine monitoring of the instantaneous total energy deposition into the upper atmosphere by the precipitation of charged particles from higher altitudes. Such observations may be of use in future studies of the relationships between geomagnetic activity and atmospheric weather pattern developments. Estimates are given to assess the potential importance of this type of energy deposition. Discussion and examples are presented illustrating the importance of distinguishing between solar and geomagnetic activity as possible causative sources. Such differentiation is necessary because of the widely different spatial and time scales involved in the atmospheric energy input resulting from these various sources of activity.

  7. Influence of the ion energy on generation and properties of thin barrier layers deposited in a microwave plasma process

    OpenAIRE

    Ramisch, Evelyn Christine

    2012-01-01

    The demand for environment-friendly energy sources increases more and more, which is not only caused by the energy turnaround initialized by the Federal Government. In this context, the focus is set mainly on the development of wind power and solar energy with competitive production costs. Above all, this is a problem for solar cells, which, today, are mainly fabricated out of crystalline silicon and, therefore, are in competition with semiconductor industry. Hence, the development of solar c...

  8. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemically vapor deposited a-C:H films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Kazmerski, L.L.; Wager, J.F.

    1989-05-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has been applied to the analysis of a-C:H films grown on various substrates by a unique low-temperature (<100 /sup 0/C) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process using ethylene and hydrogen gases. EELS data are used to characterize the relative amounts of fourfold coordinated sp/sup 3/ carbon bonding to threefold coordinated sp/sup 2/ carbon bonding as well as the relative order/disorder due to substrate effects. Ellipsometric and transmission measurements provide optical constants for the PECVD a-C:H films.

  9. Analyzing the Impact of Increasing Mechanical Index and Energy Deposition on Shear Wave Speed Reconstruction in Human Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yufeng; Palmeri, Mark L; Rouze, Ned C; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2015-07-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) has found success in liver fibrosis staging. This work evaluates hepatic SWEI measurement success as a function of push pulse energy using two mechanical index (MI) values (1.6 and 2.2) over a range of pulse durations. Shear wave speed (SWS) was measured in the livers of 26 study subjects with known or potential chronic liver diseases. Each measurement consisted of eight SWEI sequences, each with different push energy configurations. The rate of successful SWS estimation was linearly proportional to the push energy. SWEI measurements with higher push energy were successful in patients for whom standard push energy levels failed. The findings also suggest that liver capsule depth could be used prospectively to identify patients who would benefit from elevated output. We conclude that there is clinical benefit to using elevated acoustic output for hepatic SWS measurement in patients with deeper livers.

  10. Oxidation of nanostructured Ti films produced by low energy cluster beam deposition: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Monica de, E-mail: desimone@tasc.infm.it [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Snidero, Elena [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Coreno, Marcello [CNR-IMIP, c/o Laboratorio TASC Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Bongiorno, Gero [Fondazione Filarete, v.le Ortles 22/4, 20139 Milano (Italy); Giorgetti, Luca [Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Dip. di Oncologia Sperimentale, Via Adamello 16, 20139, Milano (Italy); Amati, Matteo [Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    We used in-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to study the oxidation process of a cluster-assembled metallic titanium film exposed to molecular oxygen at room temperature. The nanostructured film has been grown on a Si(111) substrate, in ultra high vacuum conditions, by coupling a supersonic cluster beam deposition system with an XPS experimental chamber. Our results show that upon in-situ oxygen exposure Ti{sup 3+} is the first oxidation state observed, followed by Ti{sup 4+}, whereas Ti{sup 2+} is practically absent during the whole process. Our results compare well with the existing literature on Ti films produced using other techniques.

  11. Ion-beam-induced ferromagnetism in Mn-doped PrFeO{sub 3} thin films grown on Si (100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultan, Khalid; Ikram, M.; Mir, Sajad Ahmad; Habib, Zubida; Aarif ul Islam, Shah [National Institute of Technology, Solid State Physics Lab. Department of Physics, Srinagar, J and K (India); Ali, Yasir [Saint Longwal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sangrur, Punjab (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Materials Science Division, New Delhi (India)

    2016-01-15

    The present study shows that the ion beam irradiation induces room-temperature ferromagnetic ordering in pulsed laser-deposited Mn-doped PrFeO{sub 3} thin films on Si (100) apart from change in the morphological, structural and electrical properties. Dense electronic excitation produced by high-energy 120 MeV Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiation causes change in surface roughness, crystallinity and strain. It is also evident that these excitations induce the magnetic ordering in this system. The observed modifications are due to the large electronic energy deposited by swift heavy ions irradiation. The appearance of ferromagnetism at 300 K in these samples after irradiation may be attributed to the canting of the antiferromagnetically ordered spins due to the structural distortion. (orig.)

  12. The structural transition from epitaxial Fe/Pt multilayers to an ordered FePt film using low energy ion beam sputtering deposition with no buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chih-Hao, E-mail: chlee@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Sheng [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China); Liu, Li-Jung [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Huang, J.C.A. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    An epitaxial L1{sub 0} FePt thin film grown from an [Fe(10 Å)/Pt(10 Å)]{sub 15} multilayer with the orientation of (001) was prepared by an ion beam sputtering deposition method without buffer layer. From the measurement data of X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity, the multilayer structure was totally disappeared and a uniform FePt alloy thin film was formed at temperatures higher than 600 °C. For the as-deposited thin film grown at 100 °C, the multilayer already possesses an epitaxial structure. The epitaxial relation is FePt(001)[100]//MgO(001)[100] and this epitaxial relation persists after sequential high temperature annealing. An epitaxial L1{sub 0} ordered FePt(001) film with order parameter of 0.95 was obtained when the annealing temperature reached 650 °C. The ordered FePt(001) thin film has a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a squareness of 0.95 ± 0.03 on the magnetic hysteresis loop. This experiment demonstrates that the low energy ion beam sputtering deposition will preserve the epitaxial relation with no buffer layer between multilayer and substrate. - Highlights: • The Fe/Pt films using ion sputtering deposition with no buffer layer is epitaxial. • Multilayer structure was totally disappeared at temperatures higher than 600 °C. • Order parameter reach 0.95 after annealing at 650 °C. • Interfacial epitaxial FePt alloy already formed at 100 °C.

  13. Evaluation of the combined betatron and momentum cleaning in point 3 in terms of cleaning efficiency and energy deposition for the LHC Collimation upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Rossi, A; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A

    2011-01-01

    The Phase I LHC Collimation System Upgrade could include moving part of the Betatron Cleaning from LHC Point 7 to Point 3 to improve both operation flexibility and intensity reach. In addition, the partial relocation of beam losses from the current Betatron cleaning region at Point 7 will mitigate the risks of Single Event Upsets to equipment installed in adjacent and partly not sufficient shielded areas. The combined Betatron and Momentum Cleaning at Point 3 implies that new collimators have to be added as well as to implement a new collimator aperture layout. This paper shows the whole LHC Collimator Efficiency variation with the new layout at different beam energies. As part of the evaluation, energy deposition distribution in the IR3 region give indications about the effect of this new implementations not only on the collimators themselves but also on the other beam line elements as well as in the IR3 surrounding areas.

  14. Conformal Coating of Three-Dimensional Nanostructures via Atomic Layer Deposition for Development of Advanced Energy Storage Devices and Plasmonic Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Gary A.

    Due to the prodigious amount of electrical energy consumed throughout the world, there exists a great demand for new and improved methods of generating electrical energy in a clean and renewable manner as well as finding more effective ways to store it. This enormous task is of great interest to scientists and engineers, and much headway is being made by utilizing three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured materials. This work explores the application of two types of 3D nanostructured materials toward fabrication of advanced electrical energy storage and conversion devices. The first nanostructured material consists of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers. This three-dimensional structure is opaque, electrically conducting, and contains active sites along the outside of each fiber that are conducive to chemical reactions. Therefore, they make the perfect 3D conducting nanostructured substrate for advanced energy storage devices. In this work, the details for transforming vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays into core-shell structures via atomic layer deposition as well as into a mesoporous manganese oxide coated supercapacitor electrode are given. Another unique type of three-dimensional nanostructured substrate is nanotextured glass, which is transparent but non-conducting. Therefore, it can be converted to a 3D transparent conductor for possible application in photovoltaics if it can be conformally coated with a conducting material. This work details that transformation as well as the addition of plasmonic gold nanoparticles to complete the transition to a 3D plasmonic transparent conductor.

  15. Internal energy deposition and ion fragmentation in atmospheric-pressure mid-infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Peter; Huang, Hehua; Vertes, Akos

    2012-02-21

    Mid-infrared laser ablation of water-rich targets at the maximum of the 2.94 μm absorption band is a two-step process initiated by phase explosion followed by recoil pressure induced material ejection. Particulates and/or droplets ejected by this high temperature high pressure process can be ionized for mass spectrometry by charged droplets from an electrospray. In order to gauge the internal energy introduced in this laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI®) process, we apply the survival yield method and compare the results with electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). The results indicate that LAESI yields ions with internal energies indistinguishable from those produced by ESI. This finding is consistent with the recoil pressure induced ejection of low micrometre droplets that does not significantly change the internal energy of solute molecules.

  16. Stroboscopic image capture: Reducing the dose per frame by a factor of 30 does not prevent beam-induced specimen movement in paraffin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Typke, Dieter [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gilpin, Christopher J. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Downing, Kenneth H. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glaeser, Robert M. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States) and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: rmglaeser@lbl.gov

    2007-02-15

    Beam-induced specimen movement may be the major factor that limits the quality of high-resolution images of organic specimens. One of the possible measures to improve the situation that was proposed by Henderson and Glaeser [Ultramicroscopy 16 (1985) 139-150], which we refer to here as 'stroboscopic image capture', is to divide the normal exposure into many successive frames, thus reducing the amount of electron exposure-and possibly the amount of beam-induced movement-per frame. The frames would then be aligned and summed. We have performed preliminary experiments on stroboscopic imaging using a 200-kV electron microscope that was equipped with a high dynamic range Charge-coupled device (CCD) camera for image recording and a liquid N{sub 2}-cooled cryoholder. Single-layer paraffin crystals on carbon film were used as a test specimen. The ratio F(g)/F(0) of paraffin reflections, calculated from the images, serves as our criterion for the image quality. In the series that were evaluated, no significant improvement of the F {sub image}(g)/F {sub image}(0) ratio was found, even though the electron exposure per frame was reduced by a factor of 30. A frame-to-frame analysis of image distortions showed that considerable beam-induced movement had still occurred during each frame. In addition, the paraffin crystal lattice was observed to move relative to the supporting carbon film, a fact that cannot be explained as being an electron-optical effect caused by specimen charging. We conclude that a significant further reduction of the dose per frame (than was possible with this CCD detector) will be needed in order to test whether the frame-to-frame changes ultimately become small enough for stroboscopic image capture to show its potential.

  17. Compensation of decreased ion energy by increased hydrogen dilution in plasma deposition of thin film silicon solar cells at low substrate temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Verkerk; M.M. de Jong; J.K. Rath; M. Brinza; R.E.I. Schropp; W.J. Goedheer; V.V. Krzhizhanovskaya; Y.E. Gorbachev; K.E. Orlov; E.M. Khilkevitch; A.S. Smirnov

    2008-01-01

    In order to deposit thin film silicon solar cells on plastics and papers, the deposition process needs to be adapted for low deposition temperatures. In a very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) process, both the gas phase and the surface processes are affected by l

  18. Spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic method for in-situ evaluation of mechanical properties during the growth of a C - Pt composite nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Amit; Banerjee, S. S., E-mail: satyajit@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, 208016 (India)

    2014-05-15

    A core-shell type C-Pt composite nanowire is fabricated using focused ion and electron beam induced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Using information from spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectra, we detect the resonance vibration in the C-Pt composite nanowire. We use this method to measure the Young's moduli of the constituents (C, Pt) of the composite nanowire and also estimate the density of the FEB CVD grown Pt shell surrounding the C core. By measuring the resonance characteristics of the composite nanowire we estimate a Pt shell growth rate of ∼0.9 nms{sup −1}. The study is analyzed to suggest that the Pt shell growth mechanism is primarily governed by the sticking coefficient of the organometallic vapor on the C nanowire core.

  19. Chicken lines divergent for low or high abdominal fat deposition: a relevant model to study the regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Le Bihan-Duval, E

    2013-06-01

    Divergent selection of chickens for low or high abdominal fat (AF) but similar BW at 63 days of age was undertaken in 1977. The selection programme was conducted over seven successive generations. The difference between lines was then maintained constant at about twice the AF in the fat line as in the lean line. The aims of the first studies on these divergent chicken lines were to describe the growth, body composition and reproductive performance in young and adult birds. The lines were then used to improve the understanding of the relationship between fatness and energy and protein metabolism in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues, as well as the regulation of such metabolism at hormonal, gene and hypothalamic levels. The effects on muscle energy metabolism in relation to meat quality parameters were also described. This paper reviews the main results obtained with these lines.

  20. High-energy high-rate pulsed-power processing of materials by powder consolidation and by railgun deposition. Technical report (Final), 10 April 1985-10 February 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Marcus, H.L.; Weldon, W.F.

    1987-03-31

    This exploratory research program was initiated to investigate the potential of using pulse power sources for powder consolidation, deposition and other high-energy high-rate processing. The characteristics of the high-energy-high-rate (1MJ/s) powder consolidation using megampere current pulses from a homopolar generator, were defined. Molybdenum Alloy TZM, a nickel-based metallic glass, copper/graphite composites, and P/M aluminum alloy X7091 were investigated. The powder-consolidation process produced high densification rates. Density values of 80% to 99% could be obtained with subsecond high-temperature exposure. Specific energy input and applied pressure were controlling process parameters. Time temperature transformation (TTT) concepts underpin a fundamental understanding of pulsed power processing. Inherent control of energy input, and time-to-peak processing temperature developed to be held to short times. Deposition experiments were conducted using an exploding-foil device (EFD) providing an armature feed to railgun mounted in a vacuum chamber. The material to be deposited - in plasma, gas, liquid, or solid state - was accelerated electromagnetically in the railgun and deposited on a substrate. Deposits of a wide variety of single- and multi-specie materials were produced on several types of substrates. In a series of ancillary experiments, pulsed-skin-effect heating and self quenching of metallic conductors was discovered to be a new means of surface modification by high-energy high-rate-processing.

  1. Energy deposition limits in a $Nb_{3}Sn$ separation dipole placed in front of the LHC high-luminosity inner triplet

    CERN Document Server

    Kashikhin, V V; Mokhov, N V; Rakhno, I L; Ruggiero, F; Strait, J B; Yadav, S; Zlobin, A V

    2003-01-01

    Interaction region inner triplets are among the systems which may limit the LHC performance. An option for a new higher luminosity IR is a double-bore inner triplet with separation dipoles placed in front of the first quadrupole. The radiation load on the first dipole, resulting from pp-interactions, is a key parameter to determine the feasibility of this approach. Detailed energy deposition calculations were performed with the MARS14 code for two Nb_3Sn dipole designs with no superconductor on the mid-plane. Comparison of peak power densities with those in the baseline LHC IR suggests that it may be possible to develop workable magnets for luminosities up to 10^35 cm^_2 s^_1.

  2. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070291 Gong Ping (Northern Fujian Geological Party, Shaozou 354000) Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Control Factors of the Shimen Au-polymetallic Deposit in Zhenghe County, Fujian Province (Geology of Fujian, ISSN1001-3970, CN38-1080/P, 25(1), 2006, p.18-24, 2 illus., 2 tables, 1 ref.) Key words: gold deposits, polymetallic deposits, Fujian Province

  3. Electrical-field distribution and penetration by microwave energy deposition in a biological tissue for therapeutic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afuwape, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in biological tissue is a function of the characteristics of the biomedium and the excitation frequency of the microwave source thus, a wave model numerically solved by finite element method (FEM), can be utilized as an advance tool to analyze the spatial distribution and the penetration depth of the EM field and the absorption of microwave energy in the biological media. The specific methods employed in this study were: (a) A system of nonhomogeneous Helmholtz (wave) equations was derived from the macroscopic Maxwell's equations with natural boundary conditions which related EM interaction within a discrete biomedium. (b) The system model was solved, (1) by the numerical technique of FEM, (2) by analytical methods using Bessel and Spherical functions, and (3) a physical model (phantom muscle tissue) was experimentally demonstrated using thermographic technique.

  4. Response of plasma facing components in Tokamaks due to intense energy deposition using Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Filippo

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The consequences of these high energetic dumps with energy fluxes ranging from 10 MJ/m2 up to 200 MJ/m 2 applied in very short periods (0.1 to 5 ms) can be catastrophic both for safety and economic reasons. Those phenomena can cause a) large temperature increase in the target material b) consequent melting, evaporation and erosion losses due to the extremely high heat fluxes c) possible structural damage and permanent degradation of the entire bulk material with probable burnout of the coolant tubes; d) plasma contamination, transport of target material into the chamber far from where it was originally picked. The modeling of off-normal events such as Disruptions and ELMs requires the simultaneous solution of three main problems along time: a) the heat transfer in the plasma facing component b) the interaction of the produced vapor from the surface with the incoming plasma particles c) the transport of the radiation produced in the vapor-plasma cloud. In addition the moving boundaries problem has to be considered and solved at the material surface. Considering the carbon divertor as target, the moving boundaries are two since for the given conditions, carbon doesn't melt: the plasma front and the moving eroded material surface. The current solution methods for this problem use finite differences and moving coordinates system based on the Crank-Nicholson method and Alternating Directions Implicit Method (ADI). Currently Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods are widely used for solving

  5. Optical and adhesive properties of dust deposits on solar mirrors and their effects on specular reflectivity and electrodynamic cleaning for mitigating energy-yield loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Malay; Yellowhair, Julius; Stark, Jeremy; Heiling, Calvin; Hudelson, John; Hao, Fang; Gibson, Hannah; Horenstein, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale solar plants are mostly installed in semi-arid and desert areas. In those areas, dust layer buildup on solar collectors becomes a major cause for energy yield loss. Development of transparent electrodynamic screens (EDS) and their applications for self-cleaning operation of solar mirrors are presented with a primary focus on the removal dust particles smaller than 30 µm in diameter while maintaining specular reflection efficiency surface. The electrodes are insulated from each other and are embedded within a thin transparent dielectric film. The electrodes are activated using three-phase high-voltage pulses at low current (electrostatic forces and propels the dust layer off of the collector's surface by a traveling wave. The cleaning process takes less than 2 minutes; needs energy less than 1 Wh/m2 without requiring any water or manual labor. The reflection efficiency can be restored > 95% of the original clean-mirror efficiency. We briefly present (1) loss of specular reflection efficiency as a function of particle size distribution of deposited dust, and (2) the effects of the electrode design and materials used for minimizing initial loss of specular reflectivity in producing EDS-integrated solar mirrors. Optimization of EDS by using a figure of merit defined by the ratio of dust removal efficiency to the initial loss of specular reflection efficiency is discussed.

  6. Theoretical investigation of energy deposition and electron capture cross-sections for helium ion impact on formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R. [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States); Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 62251 (Mexico); Sabin, John R. [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States)]. E-mail: sabin@qtp.ufl.edu; Deumens, Erik [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States); Ohrn, Yngve [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The subject of the work presented here is related to damage caused by energetic, charged particle radiation such as electrons, protons, and alpha particles to prebiotic matter such as that found in interstellar space. The calculations are carried out using an all electron, all nuclei, scheme that explicitly treats the electron-nuclear coupling. We present results for the no-capture, as well as the single and double electron capture probabilities, as well as for the 1s and 2l (l = s, p) contributions to the electron capture cross-sections of {sup 3}He{sup 2+} projectiles on formaldehyde molecules. We find that the summed cross-section peaks at 10 keV/amu, and has a plateau between 0.1 and 1 keV/amu. We also present preliminary results for the nuclear, ro-vibrational and electronic stopping cross-section. We find a large contribution to the electronic stopping cross-section and a maximum shifted towards higher energies in the nuclear stopping cross-section, when compared to SRIM results. We interpret this to be a consequence of molecular bonding.

  7. Energy Deposition in the Body from External Sources to Chemically Trigger Cellular Responses in Desired Localized Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Stuart Duncan

    One of the major challenges of modern chemotherapy is to deliver a therapeutic dose of active drug to the tumor tissue without causing systemic exposure. The realization of this goal could considerably reduce the negative side effects experienced by patients. The work conducted in this thesis looks at two different approaches to trigger drug activation with the use of external energy sources. This avoids the challenges of relying solely on biochemical and environmental differences as triggers. The two triggers used were low intensity focused ultrasound and 365 nm light delivered with a custom designed needle UV LED fiber optic system. Both can be localized within the body to spatially highlight just the tumor tissue creating a stark differentiation between it and the healthy tissue. The 365nm light based delivery scheme developed here was the first demonstration of a photoactivatable doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug called DOX-PCB. DOX-PCB was shown to be 200 times less toxic than DOX and could be activated to a fully therapeutic form upon exposure to 365nm light. The pharmacokinetics showed a circulation half life comparable to that of DOX and stability against in vivo metabolic degradation. The 365 nm light was shown to adequately irradiate a centimeter of tumor tissue and cause localized activation. In vivo tumors exposed to the light had significantly higher doses of DOX than unexposed control tumors in the same individual. The second delivery scheme made use of focused ultrasound to activate echogenic drug delivery vehicles. These vehicles were the first demonstration of encapsulating microbubbles within liposomes. Specially designed optical equipment documented that the microbubble was ultrasound responsive. The microbubble was shown to violently cavitate and rupture the outer liposome membrane releasing the payload contents. The three dimensional localization of activation was demonstrated in tissue phantoms. The strengths of these two delivery schemes could

  8. AES (auger electron spectroscopy) and EELS (electron energy loss spectroscopy) analysis of TlBaCaCuO/sub x/ thin films at 300 K and at 100 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J.; Swartzlander, A.; Kazmerski, L.L.; Kang, J.H.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-10-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy line-shape analysis of the Tl(NOO), Ba(MNN), Ca(LMM), Cu(LMM) and O(KLL) peaks has been performed in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) on magnetron sputter deposited TlBaCaCuO/sub x/ thin films exhibiting a superconducting onset at 110K with zero resistance at 96K. AES and EELS analyses were performed at 300K and at 100K. Changes in the Auger line shapes and in the EELS spectra as the temperature is lowered below the critical point are related to changes in the electronic structure of states in the valence band (VB). Bulk and surface plasmon peaks are identified in the EELS spectra along with features due to core level transitions. Electron beam and ion beam induced effects are also addressed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Pulsed Laser Deposition and Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction studies of epitaxial long range order, nano- and microstructured Ag thin films grown on MgO, Al2 O3 , STO and Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Daniel; Seibert, Rachel; Man, Hamdi; Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    Pulsed Laser Deposition is a state-of-the-art technique that allows for the fine tunability of the deposition rate, highly uniform and epitaxial sample growth, the ability to introduce partial pressures of gases into the experimental chamber for growth of complex materials without interfering with the energy source (laser). An auxiliary in situ technique for growth monitoring, Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction, is a powerful characterization tool for predictability of the surface physical structure both, qualitatively and quantitatively. RHEED patterns during and post deposition of Ag thin films on MgO, Al2O3, Si and STO substrtates are presented and their interpretations are compared with surface imaging techniques (SEM, STM) to evidence the usefulness of the technique.

  10. AFM study of the SIMS beam induced roughness in monocrystalline silicon in presence of initial surface or bulk defects of nanometric size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fares, B. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere (UMR CNRS 5511), INSA de Lyon, 7 Avenue Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: boubker.fares@insa-lyon.fr; Dubois, C. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere (UMR CNRS 5511), INSA de Lyon, 7 Avenue Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gautier, B. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere (UMR CNRS 5511), INSA de Lyon, 7 Avenue Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Dupuy, J.C. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere (UMR CNRS 5511), INSA de Lyon, 7 Avenue Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Cayrel, F. [Universite de Tours, Laboratoire de Micro-Electronique de Puissance, 16 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Gaudin, G. [Universite de Tours, Laboratoire de Micro-Electronique de Puissance, 16 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France)

    2006-07-30

    In this paper, the SIMS beam induced roughness (BIR) in monocrystalline Si in presence of initial surface or bulk defects of nanometric size is studied. We follow the development of the BIR by monitoring the increase of Si{sup 2+} and SiO{sub 2} {sup +} signals during SIMS sputtering. The topography of the crater bottoms is measured at different steps of the evolution of the roughness using an atomic force microscope (AFM). We show that in presence of nanometric sized defects on the surface or in the bulk, the BIR develops far more rapidly than usual. It appears as soon as the crater reaches the defects and, as reported on Si free from any treatment, the same morphology evidencing waves perpendicular to the sputtering beam develops rapidly. This study of the behaviour of the BIR in presence of voluntarily introduced defects allows us to better understand the basic physical phenomena involved in its apparition.

  11. Study of the influence of heat sources on the out-of-pile calibration curve of calorimetric cells used for nuclear energy deposition quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vita, C.; Brun, J.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carette, M.; Amharrak, H. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.F. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    At present the Jules Horowitz Reactor is under construction in Cadarache research center of CEA 'French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission' center located in the south-east of France. This new Material Testing Reactor (MTR) will be operational in late 2019 and will allow the generation of a new experimental potential (up to 20 irradiation devices simultaneously) and new harsh conditions such as higher neutron fluxes (5.10{sup 14} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} for E≥1 MeV), faster material ageing and higher nuclear heating (up to 20 W/g for nominal capacity of 100 MW). In nuclear research field, the control and the measurement of the nuclear heating (energy deposition rate per mass unit induced by the interactions of radiations with matter) is crucial to carry out accurate studies on ageing of materials and on the behavior of nuclear fuels under irradiation. Several experiments need to know precisely this key parameter in order to establish dedicated thermal conditions. The measurement of the nuclear heating inside MTRs is realized by three kinds of sensors: single-cell calorimeter, differential calorimeter and gamma thermometer. One scientific objective of the IN-CORE program, between CEA and Aix-Marseille University in 2009, is to improve the nuclear heating measurement. In this context a new multi-sensor device, called CARMEN, was made. This device contains in particular a differential calorimeter which was designed to measure the nuclear heating in the periphery of OSIRIS reactor (a MTR located at Saclay, France) up to 2 W/g and tested during two irradiation campaigns. Results obtained during these campaigns showed that temperatures reached inside the calorimeter are higher than ones obtained during the preliminary out-of-pile calibration experiments. For instance for 1.74 W/g, the in-pile temperature of the calorimeter rod is equal to 305 deg. C against 225 deg. C in laboratory conditions by simulating the nuclear heating by Joule Effect

  12. General relativistic ray-tracing algorithm for the determination of the electron-positron energy deposition rate from neutrino pair annihilation around rotating neutron and quark stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Z.; Harko, T.

    2011-11-01

    We present a full general relativistic numerical code for estimating the energy-momentum deposition rate (EMDR) from neutrino pair annihilation (?). The source of the neutrinos is assumed to be a neutrino-cooled accretion disc around neutron and quark stars. We calculate the neutrino trajectories by using a ray-tracing algorithm with the general relativistic Hamilton's equations for neutrinos and derive the spatial distribution of the EMDR due to the annihilations of neutrinos and antineutrinos around rotating neutron and quark stars. We obtain the EMDR for several classes of rotating neutron stars, described by different equations of state of the neutron matter, and for quark stars, described by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model equation of state and in the colour-flavour-locked (CFL) phase. The distribution of the total annihilation rate of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs around rotating neutron and quark stars is studied for isothermal discs and accretion discs in thermodynamical equilibrium. We demonstrate both the differences in the equations of state for neutron and quark matter and rotation with the general relativistic effects significantly modify the EMDR of the electrons and positrons generated by the neutrino-antineutrino pair annihilation around compact stellar objects, as measured at infinity.

  13. Stability Analysis of the LHC Cables for Transient Heat Depositions

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Xydi, P; Baudouy, B; Bocian, D; Bottura, L; Breschi, M; Siemko, A

    2008-01-01

    The commissioning and the exploitation of the LHC require a good knowledge of the stability margins of the superconducting magnets with respect to beam induced heat depositions. Previous studies showed that simple numerical models are suitable to carry out stability calculations of multi-strands cables, and highlighted the relevance of the heat transfer model with the surrounding helium. In this paper we present a systematic scan of the stability margin of all types of LHC cables working at 1.9 Kagainst transient heat depositions. We specifically discuss the dependence of the stability margin on the parameters of the model, which provide an estimate of the uncertainty of the values quoted. The stability margin calculations have been performed using a zero-dimensional (0-D) numerical model, and a cooling model taking into account the relevant helium phases which may appear during a stability experiment: it includes Kapitza thermal resistance in superfluid He, boundary layer formation and heat transfer in He I,...

  14. Electrochemically induced sol-gel deposition of ZnO films on Pt-nanoparticle modified FTO surfaces for enhanced photoelectrocatalytic energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkowski, Ramona; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-04-28

    The low conductivity of transparent conductive oxides such as fluorine-doped tin oxides (FTO) has a high impact on the electrochemically induced deposition of semiconductor films for photoelectrocatalytic investigations. Furthermore, the often high recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs influences the photoelectrochemical performance of semiconductor films. In order to improve the semiconductor deposition process as well as to decrease electron-hole pair recombination, we propose modification of FTO by electrochemically induced deposition of Pt nanoparticles. The deposited Pt nanoparticles improve on the one hand the conductivity of the FTO and on the other hand they create nuclei at which the sol-gel semiconductor deposition starts. We use ZnO as a well-characterised material to evaluate the effect of the influencing parameters during electrochemically induced sol-gel deposition with respect to the incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) derived from wavelength dependent photocurrent spectroscopy. Using optimised deposition parameters a substantially decreased recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers is demonstrated, if Pt-nanoparticles are first deposited on the FTO surface. By improving the diffusion of photogenerated electrons to the Pt nanoparticles and hence to the back contact the photoelectrochemical performance of the deposited ZnO films is substantially increased.

  15. Chemically deposited tin sulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkari, A., E-mail: anis.akkari@ies.univ-montp2.f [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia); Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Guasch, C. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Kamoun-Turki, N. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia)

    2010-02-04

    SnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates after multi-deposition runs by chemical bath deposition from aqueous solution containing 30 ml triethanolamine (TEA) (C{sub 6}H{sub 15}NO{sub 3}) (50%), 10 ml thioacetamide (CH{sub 3}CSNH{sub 2}), 8 ml ammonia (NH{sub 3}) solution and 10 ml of Sn{sup 2+}(0.1 M). These films were characterised with X-ray diffraction (XRD), with scanning electron microscopy, and with spectrophotometric measurements. The obtained thin films exhibit the zinc blend structure, the crystallinity seems to be improved as the film thickness increases and the band gap energy is found to be about 1.76 eV for film prepared after six depositions runs.

  16. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  17. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J L; Thomson, W; Howard, B; Schell, N; Näslund, L-Å; Rogström, L; Johansson-Jõesaar, M P; Ghafoor, N; Odén, M; Nothnagel, E; Shepard, A; Greer, J; Birch, J

    2015-09-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (>50 keV), high photon flux (>10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (<1 s) two-dimensional (2D) detector, permits time-resolved in situ structural analysis of thin film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (<11°), allowing large areas of reciprocal space to be imaged with a 2D detector. The system has been designed for use on the 1-tonne, ultra-high load, high-resolution hexapod at the P07 High Energy Materials Science beamline at PETRA III at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. The deposition system includes standard features of a typical UHV deposition system plus a range of special features suited for synchrotron radiation studies and industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument.

  18. Mechanism of Electron Beam Induced Oxide Layer Thickening on Iron–Iron Oxide Core–Shell Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You

    2015-04-16

    Materials exposed to radiation show structural changes and damages, especially in the nanoscale range. The characterizing equipment involving electron beam (e-beam) radiation for a nanosize imaging process, such as a transmission electron microscope, is no exception, in which the most prominent behavior of native oxide layer thickening has been widely studied. In this paper, we describe the physics behind the growth mechanism of the oxide layer in a core–shell iron/iron oxide nanoparticle (NP) under the impact of e-beam radiation. The particles studied were synthesized via a cluster deposition system. Due to the impact of the e-beam, these particles were observed to grow inward and outward resulting in a total increase of NP size. The theory is connected with experimental evidence to reveal the oxide layer thickening of the NP, which is favored and enhanced by vacancy formation, surface oxidation, and diffusion/void nucleation under the impact of a 200 keV e-beam.

  19. Optical refractive index and static permittivity of mixed Zr-Si oxide thin films prepared by ion beam induced CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, F.J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: fjferrer@us.es; Frutos, F. [E.T.S. de Ingenieria Informatica, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.; Yubero, F. [Insituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, c/ Americo vespucio, no. 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-12-03

    Mixed oxides Zr{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} (0 < x < 1) thin films have been prepared at room temperature by decomposition of (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}O){sub 3}SiH and Zr[OC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sub 4} volatile precursors induced by mixtures of O{sub 2}{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ions. The films were flat and amorphous independently of the Si/Zr ratio and did not present phase segregation of the pure single oxides (SiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}). A 10-23 at.% of H and 1-5 at.% of C atoms remained incorporated in the films depending on the mixture ratio of the Si and Zr precursors and the composition of the bombarding gas used during the deposition process. These impurities are mainly forming hydroxyl and carboxylic groups. Optical refractive index and static permittivity of the films were determined by reflection NIR-Vis spectroscopy and C-V electrical characterization, respectively. It is found that the refractive index increases non-linearly from 1.45 to 2.10 as the Zr content in the thin films increases. The static permittivity also increases non-linearly from {approx} 4 for pure SiO{sub 2} to {approx} 15 for pure ZrO{sub 2}. Optical and electrical characteristics of the films are justified by their impurity content and the available theories.

  20. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102406 Chen Gang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Li Fengming Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Yuquanshan Graphite Deposit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,27(4),2009,p.325-329,4 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)Key words:graphite deposit,XinjiangYuquanshan graphite deposit of Xinjiang occurs in mica-quartz schist of Xingeer Information which belongs to Xinditate Group of Lower Pt in Kuluketage Block of Tarim paleo-continent,and experiences two mineralizing periods of

  1. Determination of the fission barrier height in fission of heavy radioactive beams induced by the (d,p)-transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    A theoretical framework is described, allowing to determine the fission barrier height using the observed cross sections of fission induced by the (d,p)-transfer with accuracy, which is not achievable in another type of low-energy fission of neutron-deficient nuclei, the $\\beta$-delayed fission. The primary goal is to directly determine the fission barrier height of proton-rich fissile nuclei, preferably using the radio-active beams of isotopes of odd elements, and thus confirm or exclude the low values of fission barrier heights, typically extracted using statistical calculations in the compound nucleus reactions at higher excitation energies. Calculated fission cross sections in transfer reactions of the radioactive beams show sufficient sensitivity to fission barrier height. In the probable case that fission rates will be high enough, mass asymmetry of fission fragments can be determined. Results will be relevant for nuclear astrophysics and for production of super-heavy nuclei. Transfer induced fission of...

  2. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140876 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550025,China);Yang Ruidong Study on the Strontium Isotopic Composition of Large Devonian Barite Deposits from Zhenning,Guizhou Province(Geochimica,

  3. A "test of concept" comparison of aerodynamic and mechanical resuspension mechanisms for particles deposited on field rye grass ( Secale cercele).—Part 2. Threshold mechanical energies for resuspension particle fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Dale A.; Lawson, Robert E.; Thompson, Roger S.

    Kinetic energy from the oscillatory impacts of the grass stalk against a stationary object was measured with a kinetic energy measuring device. These energy inputs were measured as part of a resuspension experiment of uniform latex microspheres deposited on a single rye grass seed pod in a wind tunnel. The experiment was designed to measure resuspension from aerodynamic (viscous and turbulent) mechanisms compared to that from mechanisms from mechanical resuspension resulting from the oscillatory impact of the grass hitting a stationary object. The experiment was run for deposited spherical latex particles with diameters from 2 to 8.1 μm. Wind tunnel tests were run for wind speeds from 2 to 18.5 m s -1 and a turbulence intensity (root-mean-square fluctuation wind speed/mean wind speed) of 0.1. Our experiments showed the following: Threshold mechanical energy input rates increased from 0.04 to 0.2 μJ s -1 for resuspension of spherical polystyrene latex particles from 2 to 8.1 μm diameter. Kinetic energy flux generated by mechanical impact of the wind-driven oscillating grass was found to be highly sensitive to slightly different placements and grass morphology. The kinetic energy input by impaction of the grass against a stationary cylinder is roughly proportional to the kinetic energy flux of the wind.

  4. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122457 Cai Jianshe ( Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Drawing,Fuzhou 350011,China ) On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Longtangsi Fluorite Deposit in Pucheng County,Fujian Province ( Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080 / P,30 ( 4 ), 2011,p.301-306,3illus.,1table,6 refs.,with English abstract ) Key words:fluorspar deposit,Fujian Province

  5. Analysis of transverse RMS emittance growth of a beam induced by spherical and chromatic aberration in a solenoidal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, Radhakanta, E-mail: radhakanta.physics@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Nayak, Biswaranjan [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Sharma, Archana; Mittal, Kailash C. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-01-21

    In a medium energy beam transport line transverse rms emittance growth associated with spherical aberration is analysed. An analytical expression is derived for beam optics in a solenoid field considering terms up to the third order in the radial displacement. Two important phenomena: effect of spherical aberrations in axial-symmetric focusing lens and influence of nonlinear space charge forces on beam emittance growth are discussed for different beam distributions. In the second part nonlinear effect associated with chromatic aberration that describes the growth of emittance and distortion of phase space area is discussed.

  6. Analysis of transverse RMS emittance growth of a beam induced by spherical and chromatic aberration in a solenoidal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Radhakanta; Nayak, Biswaranjan; Sharma, Archana; Mittal, Kailash C.

    2016-01-01

    In a medium energy beam transport line transverse rms emittance growth associated with spherical aberration is analysed. An analytical expression is derived for beam optics in a solenoid field considering terms up to the third order in the radial displacement. Two important phenomena: effect of spherical aberrations in axial-symmetric focusing lens and influence of nonlinear space charge forces on beam emittance growth are discussed for different beam distributions. In the second part nonlinear effect associated with chromatic aberration that describes the growth of emittance and distortion of phase space area is discussed.

  7. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  8. Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)-Auger-Thin-Layer Electrochemical Studies of the Underpotential Deposition of Lead onto Gold Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-15

    Underpotential Deposition of Lead onto Gold Single Crystals by P. ilagans, A. Homa, W. O’Grady and E. Yeager Prepared as part of the Ph.D. thesis of P. L. Hagans...from Repot) 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on revorso ide If necessary and Identify by block numb-) Underpotential deposition , lead...If necepaury an IdantHy by block number) ’The underpotential deposition of lead onto very clean and well-ordered single crystal Au samples was

  9. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110947 Chen Xinglong(Guizhou Bureau of Nonferrous Metal and Nuclear Geology,Guiyang 550005,China);Gong Heqiang Endowment Factors and Development & Utilization Strategy of Bauxite Resource in North Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(2),2010,p.106-110,6 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province20110948 Dang Yanxia(Mineral Resource & Reservoir Evaluation Center,Urumiq 830000,China);Fan Wenjun Geological Features and a Primary Study of Metallogenesis of the Wucaiwang Zeolite Deposit,Fuyun County(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(2),2010,p.167-170,2 illus.,1 table,5 refs.)Key words:zeolite deposit,Xinjiang Nearly all zeolite deposits in the world result from low-temperature-alteration of glass-bearing volcanic rocks.The southern slope of the Kalamali Mountain is one of the regions where medium to acid volcanics are major lithological type,thus it is a preferred area to look for zeolite deposit.The Wucaiwang zeolite ore district consists of mainly acid volcanic-clastic rocks.

  10. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091594 Bao Yafan(The Third Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Siping 136000,China);Liu Yanjun Relations between Bashenerxi Granite,West Dongkunlun and Baiganhu Tungsten-Tin Deposit(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27(3),2008,p.56-59,67,5 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:tungsten ores,tin ores,monzogranite,Kunlun Mountains20091595 Chen Fuwen(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Yichang 443003,China);Dai Pingyun Metallogenetic and Isotopic Chronological Study on the Shenjiaya Gold Deposit in Xuefeng Mountains,Hunan Province(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,82(7),2008,p.906-911,3 illus.,2 tables,30 refs.)Key words:gold ores,HunanThe Shenjiaya gold deposit is a representative one

  11. Electrical characterization of electron beam induced damage on sub-10 nm n-channel MOS transistors using nano-probing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jonghyuk; Lee, Sungho; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2016-11-01

    Electron beam induced damage on sub-10 nm n-channel MOS transistors was evaluated using an atomic force microscopy-based nano-probing technique. After electron beam irradiation, all the device parameters shifted including threshold voltage (V th), saturation current, sub-threshold slope and transistor leakage current. A negative shift in V th occurred at low electron beam acceleration voltage (V acc) because of the increase in oxide trapped holes generated by excited plasmons. At high V acc, however, a positive V th shift was observed because of an increased contribution of interface trap generation caused by the deeper electron penetration depth. In addition, interface trap generation not only degraded the sub-threshold slope due to the additional capacitance from the generated interface traps, but also increased transistor leakage current due to changes in junction characteristics. Our studies show that it is critical to avoid electron beam exposure before electrical characterization on sub-10 nm devices even in the range of less than 1.0 kV of V acc using nano-probe systems.

  12. Electron beam induced water-soluble silk fibroin nanoparticles as a natural antioxidant and reducing agent for a green synthesis of gold nanocolloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkrongsak, Soraya; Tangthong, Theeranan; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2016-01-01

    The research proposes a novel water-soluble silk fibroin nanoparticles (WSSF-NPs) created by electron beam irradiation. In this report, we demonstrate the effects of electron beam irradiation doses ranging from 1 to 30 kGy on the molecular weight (MW), nanostructure formation, antioxidant activity and reducing power of the WSSF-NPs. Electron beam-induced degradation of SF causing MW reduction from 250 to 37 kDa. Chemical characteristic functions of SF still remained after exposing to electron beam. The WSSF-NPs with the MW of 37 kDa exhibited spherical morphology with a nanoscaled size of 40 nm. Antioxidant activities and reducing powers were investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhryl free radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively. The WSSF-NPs showed greater antioxidant activity and reducing power than non-irradiated SF. By increasing their antioxidant and reducing power efficiencies, WSSF-NPs potentially created gold nanocolloid. WSSF-NPs produced by electron beam irradiation would be a great merit for the uses as a natural antioxidant additive and a green reducing agent in biomedical, cosmetic and food applications.

  13. Electron-beam-induced current measurements with applied bias provide insight to locally resolved acceptor concentrations at p-n junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Ras, D., E-mail: daniel.abou-ras@helmholtz-berlin.de; Schäfer, N.; Baldaz, N.; Brunken, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Boit, C. [Technische Universität Berlin, Department of Semiconductor Devices, Einsteinufer 19, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements have been employed for the investigation of the local electrical properties existing at various types of electrical junctions during the past decades. In the standard configuration, the device under investigation is analyzed under short-circuit conditions. Further insight into the function of the electrical junction can be obtained when applying a bias voltage. The present work gives insight into how EBIC measurements at applied bias can be conducted at the submicrometer level, at the example of CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells. From the EBIC profiles acquired across ZnO/CdS/CuInSe{sub 2}/Mo stacks exhibiting p-n junctions with different net doping densities in the CuInSe{sub 2} layers, values for the width of the space-charge region, w, were extracted. For all net doping densities, these values decreased with increasing applied voltage. Assuming a linear relationship between w{sup 2} and the applied voltage, the resulting net doping densities agreed well with the ones obtained by means of capacitance-voltage measurements.

  14. Electron-beam-induced current at absorber back surfaces of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavalakkatt, J.; Abou-Ras, D., E-mail: daniel.abou-ras@helmholtz-berlin.de; Nichterwitz, M.; Caballero, R.; Rissom, T.; Unold, T.; Scheer, R.; Schock, H. W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz. 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Haarstrich, J.; Ronning, C. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich Schiller Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-01-07

    The present work reports on investigations of the influence of the microstructure on electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin-film solar cells. For this purpose, ZnO/CdS/CIGSe stacks of these solar cells were lifted off the Mo-coated glass substrates. The exposed CIGSe backsides of these stacks were investigated by means of electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements as well as by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). EBIC and CL profiles across grain boundaries (GBs), which were identified by EBSD, do not show any significant changes at Σ3 GBs. Across non-Σ3 GBs, on the other hand, the CL signals exhibit local minima with varying peak values, while by means of EBIC, decreased and also increased short-circuit current values are measured. Overall, EBIC and CL signals change across non-Σ3 GBs always differently. This complex situation was found in various CIGSe thin films with different [Ga]/([In]+[Ga]) and [Cu]/([In]+[Ga]) ratios. A part of the EBIC profiles exhibiting reduced signals across non-Σ3 GBs can be approximated by a simple model based on diffusion of generated charge carriers to the GBs.

  15. Electron-beam-induced current at absorber back surfaces of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalakkatt, J.; Abou-Ras, D.; Haarstrich, J.; Ronning, C.; Nichterwitz, M.; Caballero, R.; Rissom, T.; Unold, T.; Scheer, R.; Schock, H. W.

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports on investigations of the influence of the microstructure on electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin-film solar cells. For this purpose, ZnO/CdS/CIGSe stacks of these solar cells were lifted off the Mo-coated glass substrates. The exposed CIGSe backsides of these stacks were investigated by means of electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements as well as by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). EBIC and CL profiles across grain boundaries (GBs), which were identified by EBSD, do not show any significant changes at Σ3 GBs. Across non-Σ3 GBs, on the other hand, the CL signals exhibit local minima with varying peak values, while by means of EBIC, decreased and also increased short-circuit current values are measured. Overall, EBIC and CL signals change across non-Σ3 GBs always differently. This complex situation was found in various CIGSe thin films with different [Ga]/([In]+[Ga]) and [Cu]/([In]+[Ga]) ratios. A part of the EBIC profiles exhibiting reduced signals across non-Σ3 GBs can be approximated by a simple model based on diffusion of generated charge carriers to the GBs.

  16. Core-shell InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes analyzed by electron beam induced current microscopy and cathodoluminescence mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernycheva, M; Neplokh, V; Zhang, H; Lavenus, P; Rigutti, L; Bayle, F; Julien, F H; Babichev, A; Jacopin, G; Largeau, L; Ciechonski, R; Vescovi, G; Kryliouk, O

    2015-07-21

    We report on the electron beam induced current (EBIC) microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) characterization correlated with compositional analysis of light emitting diodes based on core/shell InGaN/GaN nanowire arrays. The EBIC mapping of cleaved fully operational devices allows to probe the electrical properties of the active region with a nanoscale resolution. In particular, the electrical activity of the p-n junction on the m-planes and on the semi-polar planes of individual nanowires is assessed in top view and cross-sectional geometries. The EBIC maps combined with CL characterization demonstrate the impact of the compositional gradients along the wire axis on the electrical and optical signals: the reduction of the EBIC signal toward the nanowire top is accompanied by an increase of the CL intensity. This effect is interpreted as a consequence of the In and Al gradients in the quantum well and in the electron blocking layer, which influence the carrier extraction efficiency. The interface between the nanowire core and the radially grown layer is shown to produce in some cases a transitory EBIC signal. This observation is explained by the presence of charged traps at this interface, which can be saturated by electron irradiation.

  17. Beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton running period

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arduini, Gianluigi; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruce, Roderik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muskinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palm, Marcus; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; 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Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; 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Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses various observations on beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton run. Building on published results based on 2011 data, the correlations between background and residual pressure of the beam vacuum are revisited. Ghost charge evolution over 2012 and its role for backgrounds are evaluated. New methods to monitor ghost charge with beam-gas rates are presented and observations of LHC abort gap population by ghost charge are discussed in detail. Fake jets from colliding bunches and from ghost charge are analysed with improved methods, showing that ghost charge in individual radio-frequency buckets of the LHC can be resolved. Some results of two short periods of dedicated cosmic-ray background data-taking are shown; in particular cosmic-ray muon induced fake jet rates are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and to the fake jet rates from beam background. A thorough analysis of a particular LHC fill, where abnormally high background was obse...

  18. Electron beam-induced structural transformations of MoO{sub 3} and MoO{sub 3-x} crystalline nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Droguett, D. E., E-mail: dodiaz@fis.puc.cl [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica (Chile); Zuniga, A. [Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas (Chile); Solorzano, G. [PUC-RIO, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia, DCMM (Brazil); Fuenzalida, V. M. [Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas (Chile)

    2012-01-15

    Electron beam-induced damage and structural changes in MoO{sub 3} and MoO{sub 3-x} single crystalline nanostructures were revealed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination (at 200 kV) after few minutes of concentrating the electron beam onto small areas (diameters between 25 and 200 nm) of the samples. The damage was evaluated recording TEM images, while the structural changes were revealed acquiring selected area electron diffraction patterns and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images after different irradiation times. The as-received nanostructures of orthorhombic MoO{sub 3} were transformed to a Magneli's phase of the oxide ({gamma}-Mo{sub 4}O{sub 11}) after {approx}10 min of electron beam irradiation. The oxygen loss from the oxide promoted structural changes. HRTEM observations showed that, in the first stage of the reduction, oxygen vacancies generated by the electron beam are accommodated by forming crystallographic shear planes. At a later stage of the reduction process, a polycrystalline structure was developed with highly oxygen-deficient grains. The structural changes can be attributed to the local heating of the irradiated zone combined with radiolysis.

  19. Beam-induced and cosmic-ray backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the LHC 2012 proton-proton running period

    Science.gov (United States)

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