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Sample records for beam-beam compensation studies

  1. Beam-beam compensation studies in the Tevatron with electron lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    At the Fermilab Tevatron collider, we studied the feasibility of suppressing the antiproton head-on beam-beam tune spread using a magnetically confined 5-keV electron beam with Gaussian transverse profile overlapping with the circulating beam. When electron cooling of antiprotons was applied in regular Tevatron operations, the nonlinear head-on beam-beam effect on antiprotons was small. Therefore, we first focused on the operational aspects, such as beam alignment and stability, and on fundamental observations of tune shifts, tune spreads, lifetimes, and emittances. We also attempted two special collider stores with only 3 proton bunches colliding with 3 antiproton bunches, to suppress long-range forces and enhance head-on effects. We present here the results of this study and a comparison between numerical simulations and observations. These results contributed to the application of this compensation concept to RHIC at Brookhaven.

  2. Experimental Studies of Compensation of Beam-Beam Effects with Tevatron Electron Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab; Alexahin, Yu.; Bishofberger, Kip; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Reva, V.; Solyak, N.; Wildman, D.; Zhang, X.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; /Fermilab /Los Alamos /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN

    2008-02-01

    Applying the space-charge forces of a low-energy electron beam can lead to a significant improvement of the beam-particle lifetime limit arising from the beam-beam interaction in a high-energy collider [1]. In this article we present the results of various beam experiments with 'electron lenses', novel instruments developed for the beam-beam compensation at the Tevatron, which collides 980-GeV proton and antiproton beams. We study the dependencies of the particle betatron tunes on the electron beam current, energy and position; we explore the effects of electron-beam imperfections and noises; and we quantify the improvements of the high-energy beam intensity and the collider luminosity lifetime obtained by the action of the Tevatron Electron Lenses.

  3. Long-Range And Head-On Beam-Beam Compensation Studies in RHIC With Lessons for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; /Brookhaven; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J.P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; /LBL, Berkeley; Kabel, A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-28

    Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. Electron lenses were proposed for both RHIC and the LHC to reduce the head-on beam-beam effect. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations.

  4. Applications of electron lenses: scraping of high-power beams, beam-beam compensation, and nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-09-11

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Hollow electron beam collimation and halo control were studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN; a conceptual design was recently completed. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles. At Fermilab, we are planning to install an electron lens in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA, a 40-m ring for 150-MeV electrons) as one of the proof-of-principle implementations of nonlinear integrable optics to achieve large tune spreads and more stable beams without loss of dynamic aperture.

  5. Applications of electron lenses: scraping of high-power beams, beam-beam compensation, and nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Hollow electron beam collimation and halo control were studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN; a conceptual design was recently completed. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compens...

  6. LHC beam-beam compensation using wires and electron lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U; Shiltsev, V; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    We present weak-strong simulation results for a possible application of current-carrying wires and electron lenses to compensate the LHC long-range and head-on beambeam interaction, respectively, for nominal and PACMAN bunches. We show that these measures have the potential to considerably increase the beam-beam limit, allowing for a corresponding increase in peak luminosity.

  7. Beam-beam studies for the High-Energy LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmi, K; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    LHC upgrades are being considered both towards higher luminosity (HL-LHC) and towards higher energy (HE-LHC). In this paper we report initial studies of the beam-beam effects in the HE-LHC [1]. The HE-LHC aims at beam energies of 16.5 TeV, where the transverse emittance decreases due to synchrotron radiation with a 2-hour damping time. As a result of this emittance, shrinkage the beam-beam parameter increases with time, during a physics store. The beam-beam limit in the HE-LHC is explored using computer simulations.

  8. Contributions to the mini-workshop on beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of the Workshop was to assay the current understanding of compensation of the beam-beam effects in the Tevatron with use of low-energy high-current electron beam, relevant accelerator technology, along with other novel techniques of the compensation and previous attempts. About 30 scientists representing seven institutions from four countries--FNAL, SLAC, BNL, Novosibirsk, CERN, and Dubna were in attendance. Twenty one talks were presented. The event gave firm ground for wider collaboration on experimental test of the compensation at the Tevatron collider. This report consists of vugraphs of talks given at the meeting.

  9. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070952; Valishev, Aleksander; Shatilov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical β∗ values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  10. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartoukh, Stephane [CERN; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Shatilov, Dmitry [BINP, Novosibirsk

    2015-06-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical $\\beta^{\\ast}$values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  11. Testing Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, T L

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its minimum crossing angle are limited by the effect of long-range beam-beam collisions. A wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects and may allow for smaller crossing angles, or higher beam intensity. A prototype long-range wire compensator could be installed in the LHC by 2014/15. Since the originally reserved position for such a wire compensator is not available for this first step, we explore other possible options. Our investigations consider various longitudinal and transverse locations, different wire shapes, different optics configurations and several crossing angles between the two colliding beams. Simulations are carried out with the weak-strong code BBtrack. New postprocessing tools are introduced to analyse tune footprints and particle stability. In particular, a new method for the Lyapunov coefficient calculation is implemented. Submitted as "Tesi di laurea" at the University of Milano, 2012.

  12. Experimental demonstration of beam-beam compensation by Tevatron electron lenses and prospects for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Zhang, X.L.; /Fermilab; Bishofberger, K.; /Los Alamos

    2007-06-01

    Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams are significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron Collider Run II (2001-present). We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in high energy physics (HEP) operation, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades and discuss ways to improve it.

  13. The E-lens test bench for RHIC beam-beam compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu X.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Aronson, J.; Beebe, E. et al

    2012-05-20

    To compensate for the beam-beam effects from the proton-proton interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we are fabricating two electron lenses that we plan to install at RHIC IR10. Before installing the e-lenses, we are setting-up the e-lens test bench to test the electron gun, collector, GS1 coil, modulator, partial control system, some instrumentation, and the application software. Some e-lens power supplies, the electronics for current measurement will also be qualified on test bench. The test bench also was designed for measuring the properties of the cathode and the profile of the beam. In this paper, we introduce the layout and elements of the e-lens test bench; and we discuss its present status towards the end of this paper.

  14. Electron Lenses for compensation of beam-beam effects Tevatron, RHIC, LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Shiltsev, V

    2008-01-01

    Since previous BEAM’06 workshop a year ago, significant progress has been made in the field of beambeam compensation (BBC) – it has been experimentally demonstrated that both Tevatron Electron Lenses (TEL) significantly improve proton and luminosity lifetimes in high-luminosity stores. This article summarizes these results and discusses prospects of the BBC in Tevatron, RHIC and LHC.

  15. Beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.

    1994-12-01

    The term beam-beam effects is usually used to designate different phenomena associated with interactions of counter-rotating beams in storage rings. Typically, the authors speak about beam-beam effects when such interactions lead to an increase of the beam core size or to a reduction of the beam lifetime or to a growth of particle`s population in the beam halo and a correspondent increase of the background. Although observations of beam-beam effects are very similar in most storage rings, it is very likely that every particular case is largely unique and machine-dependent. This constitutes one of the problems in studying the beam-beam effects, because the experimental results are often obtained without characterizing a machine at the time of the experiment. Such machine parameters as a dynamic aperture, tune dependencies on amplitude of particle oscillations and energy, betatron phase advance between the interaction points and some others are not well known, thus making later analysis uncertain. The authors begin their discussion with demonstrations that beam-beam effects are closely related to non linear resonances. Then, they will show that a non linearity of the space charge field is responsible for the excitation of these resonances. After that, they will consider how beam-beam effects could be intensified by machine imperfections. Then, they will discuss a leading mechanism for the formation of the beam halo and will describe a new technique for beam tails and lifetime simulations. They will finish with a brief discussion of the coherent beam-beam effects.

  16. Compensation of the long-range beam-beam interactions as a path towards new configurations for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)390904; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Shatilov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    Colliding bunch trains in a circular collider demands a certain crossing angle in order to separate the two beams transversely after the collision. The magnitude of this crossing angle is a complicated function of the bunch charge, the number of long-range beam-beam interactions, of β* and type of optics (flat or round), and possible compensation or additive effects between several low-β insertions in the ring depending on the orientation of the crossing plane at each interaction point. About 15 years ago, the use of current bearing wires was proposed at CERN in order to mitigate the longrange beam-beam effects, therefore offering the possibility to minimize the crossing angle with all the beneficial effects this might have: on the luminosity performance by reducing the need for crab-cavities or lowering their voltage, on the required aperture of the final focus magnets, on the strength of the orbit corrector involved in the crossing bumps, and finally on the heat load and radiation dose deposited in the fi...

  17. Beam-Beam Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  18. Linearizing Intra-Train Beam-Beam Deflection Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam-beam deflection feedback acting within the crossing time of a single bunch train may be needed to keep linear collider beams colliding at high luminosity. In a short-pulse machine such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC) this feedback must converge quickly to be useful. The non-linear nature of beam-beam deflection vs. beam-beam offset in these machines precludes obtaining both rapid convergence and a stable steady-state lock to beam offsets with a linear feedback algorithm. We show that a simply realizable programmable non-linear amplifier in the feedback loop can linearize the feedback loop, approximately compensating the beam-beam deflection non-linearity. Performance of a prototype non-linear amplifier is shown. Improvement of convergence and stability of the beam-beam feedback loop is simulated

  19. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  20. Beam-beam simulation code BBSIM for particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient, fully parallelized, six-dimensional tracking model for simulating interactions of colliding hadron beams in high energy ring colliders and simulating schemes for mitigating their effects is described. The model uses the weak-strong approximation for calculating the head-on interactions when the test beam has lower intensity than the other beam, a look-up table for the efficient calculation of long-range beam-beam forces, and a self-consistent Poisson solver when both beams have comparable intensities. A performance test of the model in a parallel environment is presented. The code is used to calculate beam emittance and beam loss in the Tevatron at Fermilab and compared with measurements. They also present results from the studies of stwo schemes proposed to compensate the beam-beam interactions: (a) the compensation of long-range interactions in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN with a current carrying wire, (b) the use of a low energy electron beam to compensate the head-on interactions in RHIC.

  1. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  2. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  3. A symplectic coherent beam-beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a simple one-dimensional model to study the effects of the beam-beam force on the coherent dynamics of colliding beams. The key ingredient is a linearized beam-beam kick. We study only the quadrupole modes, with the dynamical variables being the 2nd-order moments of the canonical variables q, p. Our model is self-consistent in the sense that no higher order moments are generated by the linearized beam-beam kicks, and that the only source of violation of symplecticity is the radiation. We discuss the round beam case only, in which vertical and horizontal quantities are assumed to be equal (though they may be different in the two beams). Depending on the values of the tune and beam intensity, we observe steady states in which otherwise identical bunches have sizes that are equal, or unequal, or periodic, or behave chaotically from turn to turn. Possible implications of luminosity saturation with increasing beam intensity are discussed. Finally, we present some preliminary applications to an asymmetric collider. 8 refs., 8 figs

  4. Beam-beam effects in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Lebrun, P.; Moore, R.S.; Sen, T.; Tollestrup, A.; Valishev, A.; Zhang, X.L.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with 6 times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations. We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in operations, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades, and discuss ways to improve it.

  5. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  6. Small Angle Crab Compensation for LHC IR Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Akai, K; Dorda, U; Ohmi, K; Oide, K; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, T

    2007-01-01

    A small angle crab scheme is being considered for the LHC luminosity upgrade. In this paper we present a 400MHz superconducting cavity design and discuss the pertinent RF challenges. We also present a study on the beam-beam performance and proton-beam emittance growth in the presence of crab compensation, with RF noise sources.

  7. Beam-beam effect seen through forced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electron accelerator, tune is measured by giving beam transverse forced vibration caused by RF frequency. It is well known that beam-beam parameter can be measured if beam-beam interaction exists. Generally, small value is chosen as the amplitude of forced vibration, and many researches were done in this case. In this report, we discuss effect of resonance caused by beam-beam interaction in case of amplitude of forced vibration being big. (author)

  8. Simulation of Head-on Beam-Beam Limitations in Future High Energy Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Florio, Adrien; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Hadron Collider (FCC-hh) project calls for studies in a new regime of beam-beam interactions. While the emittance damping due to synchrotron radiation is still slower than in past or existing lepton colliders, it is significantly larger than in other hadron colliders. The slow reduction of the emittance is profitable for higher luminosity in term of transverse beam size at the interaction points and also to mitigate long-range beam-beam effects, potentially allowing for a reduction of the crossing angle between the beams during the operation. In such conditions, the strength of head-on beam-beam interactions increases, potentially limiting the beam brightness. 4D weak-strong and strong-strong simulations are performed in order to assess these limitations.

  9. Incoherent beam-beam effect---The relationship between tune-shift, bunch length and dynamic aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation studies of the influence of long bunches on the beam-beam effect in particle colliders suggest that, despite the risk from synchro-betatron resonances, the attainable luminosity may be greater than that obtained for short bunches

  10. Observations of the beam-beam interaction in hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has three parts. In the first part the basic beam-beam theory will be reviewed. Theoretical issues relevant to e+e- colliders will not be mentioned. In the second part we summarize the operational experiences at FERMILAB and CERN. In the last part of the paper, experiments on long-range beam-beam interactions in the TEVATRON are reviewed. (orig./BBOE)

  11. A new model for the collective beam-beam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, J.A.; Sobol, A.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vogt, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    The Collective Beam-Beam interaction is studied in the framework of maps with a ''kick-lattice'' model in 4-D phase space. A novel approach to the classical method of averaging is used to derive an approximate map which is equivalent to a flow within the averaging approximation. The flow equation is a continuous-time Vlasov equation which we call the averaged Vlasov equation, the new model of this paper. The power of this approach is evidenced by the fact that the averaged Vlasov equation has exact equilibria and the associated lineralized equations have uncoupled azimuthal Fourier modes. The equation for the Fourier modes leads to a Fredholm integral equation of the third kind and the setting is ready-made for the development of a weakly nonlinear theory to study the coupling of the {pi} and {sigma} modes. The {pi} and {sigma} modes are calculated from the third kind integral equation and results are compared with the kick-lattice model. (orig.)

  12. Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Simulation of Bunch Length Splitting at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Qiang, J; Pieloni, Tatiana; Ohmi, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal bunch length splitting was observed for some LHC beams. In this paper, we will report on the study of the observation using strong-strong beam-beam simulations. We explore a variety of factors including initial momentum deviation, collision crossing angle, synchrotron tune, chromaticity, working points and bunch intensity that contribute to the beam particle loss and the bunch length splitting, and try to understand the underlying mechanism of the observed phenomena.

  13. A Study on Compensation for Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兰兰

    2012-01-01

    Considering the linguistic and cultural difference between English and Chinese, it is inevitable to lose the original musical beauty, visual beauty and original rhetorical devices in advertisements translation. So compensation measures are always taken to compensate the lost information. This paper focuses on the discussion of the features of advertisement, cultural and linguistic differences between English and Chinese advertisements, which result in the loss of information. And compensation strategies on words, musical beauty and rhetorical devices in advertisement translation are introduced in this paper.

  14. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux

  15. Nonlinear Localized Coherent Spectrum of Beam-Beam Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    We consider modeling for strong-strong beam-beam interactions beyond preceding linearized/perturbative methods such as soft gaussian approximation or FMM (HFMM) etc. In our approach discrete coherent modes, discovered before, and possible incoherent oscillations appear as a result of multiresolution/multiscale fast convergent decomposition in the bases of high-localized exact nonlinear modes represented by wavelets or wavelet packets functions. The constructed solutions represent the full multiscale spectrum in all internal hidden scales from slow to fast oscillating eigenmodes. Underlying variational method provides algebraical control of the spectrum.

  16. Modelling of Beam-Beam Effects in Multiscales

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    We present the applications of nonlinear local harmonic analysis methods to the modelling of beam-beam interaction. Our approach is based on methods provided the possibility to work with dynamical beam localization in phase space. The consideration of Fokker-Planck or Vlasov-Maxwell models is based on a number of anzatzes, which reduce initial problems to a number of dynamical systems (with constraints) and on variational-wavelet approach to polynomial/rational approximations for reduced nonlinear dynamics. We calculate contribution to full dynamics (partition function) from all underlying subscales via nonlinear eigenmodes decomposition.

  17. Luminosity dilution due to random offset beam-beam interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider beam-beam interaction in a collider in the case when the beams randomly displace around the equilibrium orbit at the interaction point. Due to the random part of the interaction, particles diffuse over the betatron amplitude causing an emittance growth of the beam. A Fokker-Planck equation is derived in which a diffusion coefficient is related with the spectral density of the noise. Estimations for the Superconducting Super Collider parameters give a tolerable level of the high-frequency beam offset at the interaction point. 2 refs

  18. Beam-Beam Effect with an External Noise in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmi, K; Höfle, Wolfgang; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    In absence of synchrotron radiation, proton beams do not have any damping mechanism for incoherent betatron motion. A noise, which kicks beam particles in the transverse plane, gives a coherent betatron amplitude. If the system is linear, the coherent motion is maintained in amplitude. Nonlinear force, beam-beam and beam-electron cloud interactions, cause a decoherence of the betatron motion keeping the amplitude of each beam particle, with the result that an emittance growth arises. We focus only on fast noise with a correlation time of 1-100 turns. Slower noise is less serious, because it is regarded as an adiabatic change like a closed orbit change. As sources of the noise, we consider the bunch by bunch feedback system and phase jitter of cavities which turns to transverse noise via a crab cavity.

  19. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A L; Peng, S X; Ren, H T; Zhang, T; Zhang, J F; Xu, Y; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H(+) beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H(-) beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H(-) ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  20. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A L; Peng, S X; Ren, H T; Zhang, T; Zhang, J F; Xu, Y; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H(+) beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H(-) beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H(-) ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results. PMID:26932087

  1. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, A. L.; Chen, J. E. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H{sup +} beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H{sup −} ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  2. Beam-beam interaction and pacman effects in the SSC with momentum oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to find the combined effects of beam-beam interaction (head-on and long-range) and random nonlinear multipoles in dipole magnets, the transverse oscillations of ''regular'' as well as ''pacman'' particles are traced for 256 synchrotron oscillation periods (corresponding to 135K revolutions) in the proposed SSC. Results obtained in this study do not show any obvious reduction of dynamic or linear apertures for pacman particles when compared with regular particles for (Δp/p) = 0. There are some indications of possible sudden or gradual increases in the oscillation amplitude, for pacman as well as regular particles, when the amplitude of momentum oscillation is as large as 3σ. 4 refs., 7 figs

  3. Impact of beam-beam effects on precision luminosity measurements at the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Rimbault, C; Mönig, K; Schulte, D

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of beam-beam effects on the precision luminosity measurement at the International Linear Collider is investigated quantitatively for the first time. GUINEA-PIG, a beam-beam interaction simulation tool, is adapted to treat the space charge effects affecting the Bhabha events used in this measurement. The biases due to the resulting changes in kinematics are evaluated for different center-of-mass energies and beam parameters.

  4. SMALL ANGLE CRAB COMPENSATION FOR LHC IR UPGRADE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALAGA,R.; DORDA, U.; OHMI, D.; OIDE, K.; TOMAS, R.; ZIMMERMANN, F.

    2007-06-25

    A small angle (< 1 mrad) crab scheme is an attractive option for the LHC luminosity upgrade to recover the geometric luminosity loss from the finite crossing angle [I]. The luminosity loss increases steeply to unacceptable levels as the IP beta function is reduced below its nominal value (see Fig. 1 in Ref. [2]). The crab compensation in the LHC can be accomplished using only two sets of deflecting RF cavities, placed in collision-free straight sections of the LHC to nullify the effective crossing angles at IPI & IP5. We also explore a 400 MHz superconducting cavity design and discuss the pertinent RF challenges. We present IR optics configurations with low-angle crab crossing, study the beam-beam performance and proton-beam emittance growth in the presence of crab compensation, lattice errors, and crab RF noise sources.

  5. DAFNE Lifetime Optimization with Octupoles and Compensating Wires

    CERN Document Server

    Milardi, C; Preger, M A; Raimondi, P; Zobov, M; Shatilov, D

    2008-01-01

    Long-range beam-beam interactions (parasitic crossings) were one of the main luminosity performance limitations for the lepton F-factory DAFNE in its original configuration. In particular, the parasitic crossings led to a substantial lifetime reduction of both beams in collision. This puts a limit on the maximum storable current and, as a consequence, on the achievable peak and integrated luminosity. In order to mitigate the problem, numerical and experimental studies of the parasitic crossings compensation by current-carrying wires have been done. During the operation for the KLOE experiment two such wires have been installed at both ends of the interaction region. They produced a relevant improvement in the lifetime of the weak beam (positrons) at the maximum current of the strong one (electrons) without luminosity loss, in agreement with the numerical predictions. The same compensating mechanism has been adopted during the run for the FINUDA experiment as well, with less evident benefits than in the previo...

  6. Synchrotron radiation damping, intrabeam scattering and beam-beam simulations for HE-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Valishev, A

    2011-01-01

    The proposed High-Energy LHC project presents an unusual combination of strong synchrotron radiation (SR) damping and intrabeam scattering (IBS), which is not seen in present-day hadron colliders. The subject of investigation reported in this paper was the simulation of beam-beam effect for the HE-LHC parameters. Parameters of SR and IBS are calculated, and the luminosity evolution is simulated in the absence of beambeam interaction. Then, a weak-strong numerical simulation is used to predict the effect of beam-beam interaction on particle losses and emittance evolution.

  7. Study on Ecological Compensation System and Land Desertification Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhixiang; Gao, Bingtao

    2009-01-01

    The problems of desertification control in China are analyzed from the perspective of ecological compensation. Firstly, there is no guarantee of ecological compensation system in desertification control. On the basis of knowing land desertification connotation, the western region is taken as an example to analyze the serious consequence brought by land desertification, besides, the connotation and importance of ecological compensation are summarized, as well as the views related to resolve th...

  8. Parallel Beam-Beam Simulation Incorporating Multiple Bunches and Multiple Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, F W; Pieloni, T

    2007-01-01

    The simulation code COMBI has been developed to enable the study of coherent beam-beam effects in the full collision scenario of the LHC, with multiple bunches interacting at multiple crossing points over many turns. The program structure and input are conceived in a general way which allows arbitrary numbers and placements of bunches and interaction points (IP's), together with procedural options for head-on and parasitic collisions (in the strong-strong sense), beam transport, statistics gathering, harmonic analysis, and periodic output of simulation data. The scale of this problem, once we go beyond the simplest case of a pair of bunches interacting once per turn, quickly escalates into the parallel computing arena, and herein we will describe the construction of an MPI-based version of COMBI able to utilize arbitrary numbers of processors to support efficient calculation of multi-bunch multi-IP interactions and transport. Implementing the parallel version did not require extensive disruption of the basic ...

  9. Quality of physiotherapy services for injured workers compensated by workers' compensation in Quebec: a focus group study of physiotherapy professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Anne; Laliberté, Maude; Hunt, Matthew; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2015-02-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are among the leading causes of work-related physical disability in the province of Quebec in Canada. The authors conducted a focus group study with physiotherapists and physical rehabilitation therapists working with patients whose treatments are compensated by the Quebec Workers' Compensation Board with the goal of exploring quality of care and ethical issues. Three main themes were identified: (1) systemic factors, (2) complexity in treatment decisions and (3) inequality of care. Although physiotherapy professionals strive to give these patients the best possible care, patients might not always be provided with optimal or equal treatment. When compared with other patients, there appear to be differences with respect to access to care and types of services offered to injured workers, raising equity concerns. Factors that shape and constrain quality of physiotherapy services for injured workers need to be addressed to improve care for these patients.

  10. Ecological Compensation Mechanism of Agricultural Water Resources: An Empirical Study in Zhejiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qichang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological compensation is a new area in the field of resources environment. In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about ecological compensation mechanism and analyze influential factors based on agricultural perspective. The result shows that: first, loss of development opportunities is the most important factor that will affect ecological compensation, the regression coefficient is 0.071; sec, environmental protection cost is the most significant variable in ecological compensat...

  11. Compensation Management in Semi Government Sector Case study of State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Hanif

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose- This research paper seeks to analyze the compensation management, issues regarding compensation and its relation with employee performance & firm’s overall results. Design/methodology/approach- Using the two different and most effective ways of collecting data, questionnaires and Interviews, the results explain the relationship between employee compensation, job satisfaction, performance and business results.Findings- Equality in compensation and performance based pay system can better lead to employee satisfaction and improvement in performance of the business. Research Limitations/implications- A limitation is the inability to control for employee performance and satisfaction with the increased workload.Practical implications- Performance based compensation system has been linked to the increased job satisfaction, low absenteeism and increased business results. Originality Value- The paper is first to study the relationship between compensation, job satisfaction and business results in detail while additionally testing originality of the relationship and controlling for fixed effects.

  12. Study on Compensation Control of STATCOM Based on MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduced modular multi-level converter (MMC, which could enhance the voltage and power level by sub-converter modules in series and was easy to extend to any level of output. Its structure and working mechanism were described. By analyzing the energy transfer performance of STATCOM based on MMC working conditions in the compensation, a comprehensive compensation control strategy was proposed based on direct current control mode. By analyzing the higher harmonic components circulation generated by the inconsistencies in the three-phase upper and lower arm voltage, a loop control strategy is proposed for the suppression of the circulation in the arms of the M-STATCOM. The simulation results show the strategy has a better tracking precision and response speed for the compensation control.

  13. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, Strahinja

    2013-01-01

    Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: - Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. - Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. - Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.

  14. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, Strahinja

    2013-01-01

    Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: -> Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. -> Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. -> Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.

  15. Long range beam-beam interaction and the effect on the beam and luminosity lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Crouch, Matthew; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Banfi, Danilo; Buffat, Xavier; Tambasco, Claudia; Alexahin, Yuri; Bruce, Roderik; Giachino, Rossano; Pojer, Mirko; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Trad, Georges; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the minimum crossing angle achievable in the LHC is a key parameter to identify the collider luminosity reach. In this note, we summarise the observations collected during a dedicated experiment performed in 2015, where the strength of the long range beam-beam interaction is varied by reducing the crossing angle at IP1 and IP5. The crossing angle and the impact of the long range beam-beam interaction is analysed with respect to the beam and luminosity lifetimes. The effect of reducing Landau octupoles initially operating at 476 [A] and high chromaticity values (15 units) are also shown. The minimum crossing angle achievable with collisions is identified, together with the impact on beam and luminosity lifetimes

  16. Numerical Analysis of Parasitic Crossing Compensation with Wires in DA$\\Phi$NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valishev, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shatilov, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics (BINP); Milardi, C. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Zobov, M. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF)

    2015-06-24

    Current-bearing wire compensators were successfully used in the 2005-2006 run of the DAΦNE collider to mitigate the detrimental effects of parasitic beam-beam interactions. A marked improvement of the positron beam lifetime was observed in machine operation with the KLOE detector. In view of the possible application of wire beam-beam compensators for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade, we revisit the DAΦNE experiments. We use an improved model of the accelerator with the goal to validate the modern simulation tools and provide valuable input for the LHC upgrade project.

  17. Numerical analysis of parasitic crossing compensation with wires in DA$\\Phi$NE

    CERN Document Server

    Valishev, A; Milardi, C; Zobov, M

    2015-01-01

    Current bearing wire compensators were successfully used in the 2005-2006 run of the DA{\\Phi}NE collider to mitigate the detrimental effects of parasitic beam-beam interactions. A marked improvement of the positron beam lifetime was observed in machine operation with the KLOE detector. In view of the possible application of wire beam-beam compensators for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade, we revisit the DA{\\Phi}NE experiments. We use an improved model of the accelerator with the goal to validate the modern simulation tools and provide valuable input for the LHC upgrade project.

  18. Development and validation of self-consistent 3D beam-beam modeling code within SciDAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of beam-beam effects has been an ongoing activity within SciDAC. We report the first validation of a detailed beam-beam simulation with data measured at the VEPP-2M collider in Novosbirsk. The validation of the simulation gives us con.dence to apply it to understanding and improving the operation of existing colliders such as the Tevatron, RHIC and LHC, and the design of the International Linear Collider

  19. Caloric compensation for sugar-sweetened beverages in meals: A population-based study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombi-Vaca, Maria Fernanda; Sichieri, Rosely; Verly-Jr, Eliseu

    2016-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption can cause positive energy balance, therefore leading to weight gain. A plausible biological mechanism to explain this association is through weak caloric compensation for liquid calories. However, there is an ongoing debate surrounding SSB calorie compensation. The body of evidence comes from a diversity of study designs and highly controlled settings assessing food and beverage intake. Our study aimed to test for caloric compensation of SSB in the free-living setting of daily meals. We analyzed two food records of participants (age 10 years or older) from the 2008-2009 National Dietary Survey (Brazil, N = 34,003). We used multilevel analyses to estimate the within-subject effects of SSB on food intake. Sugar-sweetened beverage calories were not compensated for when comparing daily energy intake over two days for each individual. When comparing meals, we found 42% of caloric compensation for breakfast, no caloric compensation for lunch and zero to 22% of caloric compensation for dinner, differing by household per capita income. In conclusion, SSB consumption contributed to higher energy intake due to weak caloric compensation. Discouraging the intake of SSB especially during lunch and dinner may help reduce excessive energy intake and lead to better weight management. PMID:26708263

  20. Study on Adaptive Control with Neural Network Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单剑锋; 黄忠华; 崔占忠

    2004-01-01

    A scheme of adaptive control based on a recurrent neural network with a neural network compensation is presented for a class of nonlinear systems with a nonlinear prefix. The recurrent neural network is used to identify the unknown nonlinear part and compensate the difference between the real output and the identified model output. The identified model of the controlled object consists of a linear model and the neural network. The generalized minimum variance control method is used to identify pareters, which can deal with the problem of adaptive control of systems with unknown nonlinear part, which can not be controlled by traditional methods. Simulation results show that this algorithm has higher precision, faster convergent speed.

  1. Compensation for Land Loss in Reservoir Resettlement: A Case Study of The Three Gorges Project, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYi-qian; TanYan

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies current policies in compensation for land lost due to construction of the Three Gorges project (TGP), China. In the case study of Kaixian County, the value of land in the peri-urban areas is underestimated. Some losses in land are tangible and thus measurable, but some losses are intangible and thus immeasurable. The land available in the resettlement areas is scarce and rarely of equivalent quality. This study suggests that the loss of agricultural land be compensated with alternative land and/or non-land-based livelihood strategies, including part compensation in monetary terms and preferential policies.

  2. Coherent beam-beam effects observation and mitigation at the RHIC collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White S.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.

    2012-05-20

    In polarized proton operation in RHIC coherent beam-beam modes are routinely observed with beam transfer function measurements in the vertical plane. With the existence of coherent modes a larger space is required in the tune diagram than without them and stable conditions can be compromised for operation with high intensity beams as foreseen for future luminosity upgrades. We report on experiments and simulations carried out to understand the existence of coherent modes in the vertical plane and their absence in the horizontal plane, and investigate possible mitigation strategies.

  3. Beam-beam effects in the high-pile-up tests of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Trad, G

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the beam-beam limit in the LHC is of great importance, since identifying its source is crucial for the luminosity optimization scenario. Several experiments were carried out to search for this limit and check whether it is dominated by the head-on (HO) or the long-range (LR) interactions. In this paper only the HO collision effects will be considered, tracking the evolution of the maximum tune shift achieved during the dedicated machine developments and the special high pile-up fills.

  4. Beam-beam effects in the high-pile-up tests of the LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Trad, G.

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the beam-beam limit in the LHC is of great importance, since identifying its source is crucial for the luminosity optimization scenario. Several experiments were carried out to search for this limit and check whether it is dominated by the head-on (HO) or the long-range (LR) interactions. In this paper only the HO collision effects will be considered, tracking the evolution of the maximum tune shift achieved during the dedicated machine developments and the special high pile-up ...

  5. A Study on Employees' Perception towards Compensation Management System in Selected Branches of SBI of Ujjain District

    OpenAIRE

    Harish Shukla; Shweta Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Employee satisfaction is one of the most important aspects in the organization that cannot be ensured without proper compensation management system. The present work is based on the study of Compensation Management System in selected branches of SBI. SBI being the largest nationalized bank needs strong compensation management systems so that it can achieve rapid growth at national as well as international level. The study aims at knowing whether current compensation policy is able to attract,...

  6. An empirical study of desired versus actual compensation practices in determining intrapreneurial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu O. Madu; Boris Urban

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: Past research recognises that human resources management practices may influence innovative behaviour, particularly as compensation systems can be used as a tool to increase intrapreneurial activity.Research purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between actual versus desired compensation practices and elevated intrapreneurial behaviour. This is in line with research that focuses on how to promote business innovation, rather than merely research whether i...

  7. Financial compensation and vocational recovery: a prospective study of secondary care neck and back patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Rasmussen, C; Leboeuf-Yde, C

    2009-01-01

    Financial compensation has been shown to be a negative prognostic factor for pain and disability in patients with neck or low back pain. It is unclear whether this association is causal and to what extent it hampers return to work. The objective of this study was to assess the direct influence...... of a financial compensation process on the ability to remain in regular employment in patients with suspected disc herniation....

  8. Simulation of beam-induced plasma for the mitigation of beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Yu, K.; Litvinenko, V.

    2015-05-03

    One of the main challenges in the increase of luminosity of circular colliders is the control of the beam-beam effect. In the process of exploring beam-beam mitigation methods using plasma, we evaluated the possibility of plasma generation via ionization of neutral gas by proton beams, and performed highly resolved simulations of the beam-plasma interaction using SPACE, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The process of plasma generation is modelled using experimentally measured cross-section coefficients and a plasma recombination model that takes into account the presence of neutral gas and beam-induced electromagnetic fields. Numerically simulated plasma oscillations are consistent with theoretical analysis. In the beam-plasma interaction process, high-density neutral gas reduces the mean free path of plasma electrons and their acceleration. A numerical model for the drift speed as a limit of plasma electron velocity was developed. Simulations demonstrate a significant reduction of the beam electric field in the presence of plasma. Preliminary simulations using fully-ionized plasma have also been performed and compared with the case of beam-induced plasma.

  9. Experimental study for the compensation of axial flow force in a spool value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kazuo; Watanabe, Haruo; Guo, Mao-ying

    1987-09-15

    A method was developed to decrease flow force by compensation buckets, and the effect of the geometric parameters of the bucket on the flow force was studied. Experimental spools and sleeves in a variety of shapes were made to compare their effects on the compensation of the flow force, and the differences in their effects were studied using the trially made visualization experimental equipment. The axial flow force measuring device was made of spool valves and a micrometer head capable of adjusting the position of the spool. The values obtained from the experiment where no compensation bucket was provided were used as the base for the verification. It became clear that the compensation effect was maximum when all corners of the bucket were rounded. The compensation effect of the sleeve showed little difference in the angle range of 69/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/. The compensation effect was maximum with the outlet angle of 50/sup 0/ and inlet angle of 69/sup 0/ of the sleeve in the bucket area. The effects of the axial width and the depth of the bucket were also reported. (13 figs, 1 tab, 7 refs)

  10. Impact of Long Range Beam-Beam Effects on Intensity and Luminosity Lifetimes from the 2015 LHC Run

    CERN Document Server

    Crouch, Matthew; Banfi, Danilo; Barranco, Javier; Bruce, Roderik; Buffat, Xavier; Muratori, Bruno; Pieloni, Tatiana; Pojer, Mirko; Salvachua, Belen; Tambasco, Claudia; Trad, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Luminosity is one of the key parameters that determines the performance of colliding beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Luminosity can therefore be used to quantify the impact of beam-beam interactions on the beam lifetimes and emittances. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project aims to reach higher luminosities, approximately a factor of 7 larger than the nominal LHC at peak luminosity without crab cavities. Higher luminosities are achieved by increasing the bunch populations and reducing the transverse beam sizes. This results in stronger beam-beam effects. Here the LHC luminosity and beam intensity decay rates are analysed as a function of reducing beam separation with the aim of characterising the impact of beam-beam effects on the luminosity and beam lifetime. The analysis and results are discussed with possible application to the HL-LHC upgrade.

  11. Ecological Compensation Mechanism of Agricultural Water Resources: An Empirical Study in Zhejiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichang Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological compensation is a new area in the field of resources environment. In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about ecological compensation mechanism and analyze influential factors based on agricultural perspective. The result shows that: first, loss of development opportunities is the most important factor that will affect ecological compensation, the regression coefficient is 0.071; sec, environmental protection cost is the most significant variable in ecological compensation, the sig value is 0.007 and the regression coefficient is positive; third, public awareness has high coefficient value as 0.048, means that public awareness plays a positive effect. Overall, the regression model of the empirical results with the above assumptions, under the 10% significant level, the loss of development opportunities; environmental protection cost; the compensation standard; public awareness of the value of ecological environment variable are significantly variables that affecting ecological compensation and the effects of other variables are not obvious. On this basis, we put forward relevant suggestions.

  12. Radiation and Background Levels in a CLIC Detector due to Beam-Beam Effects Optimisation of Detector Geometries and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, André; Lohse, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    The high charge density---due to small beam sizes---and the high energy of the proposed CLIC concept for a linear electron--positron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 3~TeV lead to the production of a large number of particles through beam-beam interactions at the interaction point during every bunch crossing (BX). A large fraction of these particles safely leaves the detector. A still significant amount of energy will be deposited in the forward region nonetheless, which will produce secondary particles able to cause background in the detector. Furthermore, some particles will be created with large polar angles and directly cause background in the tracking detectors and calorimeters. The main sources of background in the detector, either directly or indirectly, are the incoherent $mathrm{e}^{+}mathrm{e}^{-}$ pairs and the particles from $gammagamma ightarrow$ hadron events. The background and radiation levels in the detector have to be estimated, to study if a detector is feasible, that can han...

  13. Effect of a spectrometer magnet on the beam-beam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornacchia, M; Parzen, G

    1981-01-01

    The presence of experimental apparatus in the interaction regions of an intersecting beam accelerator changes the configuration of the crossing beams. This changes the space-charge forces with respect to the standard, magnet-free crossing. The question is: what is the maximum allowable perturbation caused by the spectrometer magnet that can be tolerated from the point of view of the beam dynamics. This paper is limited to the perturbations that the curved trajectories cause the beam-beam space charge nonlinearities. The question has arisen of how one defines the strength of the perturbation. The only solution is to compute the strength of the most important nonlinear resources. In what follows, the computational method used in calculating these resonances is described, and compared with those induced by random orbit errors.

  14. Simulations on pair creation from beam-beam interaction in linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Yokoya, K. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    It has been recognized that e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pair creation during the collision of intense beams in linear colliders will cause potential background problems for high energy experiments. Detailed knowledge of the angular-momentum spectrum of these low energy pairs is essential to the design of the interaction region. In this paper, we modify the computer code ABEL (Analysis of Beam-beam Effects in Linear colliders) to include the pair creation processes, using the equivalent photon approximation. Special care has been taken on the non-local nature of the virtual photon exchanges. The simulation results are then compared with known analytic formulas, and applied to the next generation colliders such as JLC. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  15. An empirical study of desired versus actual compensation practices in determining intrapreneurial behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugochukwu O. Madu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Past research recognises that human resources management practices may influence innovative behaviour, particularly as compensation systems can be used as a tool to increase intrapreneurial activity.Research purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between actual versus desired compensation practices and elevated intrapreneurial behaviour. This is in line with research that focuses on how to promote business innovation, rather than merely research whether innovation is desirable for businesses or not.Motivation for the study: Recognising that entrepreneurial actions are the bedrock of intrapreneurial behaviour and that these behaviours may be critical to the long-term vitality of a firm and economy, it is important to facilitate the empirical study of them in an underresearched, emerging market environment. Moreover, compensation such as reward preferences and variable pay schemes remain controversial in terms of their costs versus contributions, and these constructs deserve more empirical research.Research approach, design and method: The study employed a quantitative research design, using a cross-sectional and empirical approach with primary data sources. A structured webbased instrument rendered a sample of 209 respondents from a diverse set of businesses. Canonical correlational analysis was carried out to test the hypotheses.Main findings: The results reveal that a gap exists between an employee’s perception of desired compensation practices and the actual compensation practices. The results further highlight that non-outcome-based measures like pay risk, job risk and expectations of success play a role in determining whether employees decide to be intrapreneurial or not.Practical/managerial implications: Due to the potential impact rewards have on intrapreneurial behaviour, it is necessary to design relevant compensation systems as part of organisational architecture in order to foster

  16. Analytical estimation of the beam-beam interaction limited dynamic apertures and lifetimes in e{sup +}e{sup -} circular colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J

    2000-12-01

    Physically speaking, the delta function like beam-beam nonlinear forces at interaction points (IPs) act as a sum of delta function nonlinear multipoles. By applying the general theory established in ref. [1], in this paper we investigate analytically the beam-beam interaction limited dynamic apertures and the corresponding beam lifetimes for both the round and the flat beams. Relations between the beam-beam limited beam lifetimes and the beam-beam tune shifts are established, which show clearly why experimentally one has always a maximum beam-beam tune shift, {zeta}{sub y,max}, around 0.045 for e{sup +}e{sup -} circular colliders, and why one can use round beams to double this value approximately. Comparisons with some machine parameters are given. Finally, we discuss the mechanism of the luminosity reduction due to a definite collision crossing angle. (author)

  17. A study on marine region carrying capacity and eco-compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Caihua; You, Kui; Ma, Weiwei; Xie, Jun; Li, Fengqi

    2012-06-01

    With the using up of land resources, people are beginning to pay attention to the exploitation of the ocean and the use of marine resources is becoming more and more intense. Whether and how the ocean can be sustainably exploited as it is being exploited is an academic hot topic. This question is addressed in this paper based on the theories of carrying capacity of a marine region and marine eco-compensation, and the amount of the loss is calculated by the method of Time Value of Capital. This thesis covers the study of eco-compensation between two specific subjects with clear compensation objects, and as a defined approach and standard, the proposed method has good operability and positive practical significance in the good use of the ocean.

  18. The effects of performance measurement and compensation on motivation: An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Herpen; C.M. van Praag; K. Cools

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system can strongly affect the motivation of employees. Building on economic and psychological theory this study develops a conceptual model that is used to empirically test this effect. Our survey results demonstrate a posi

  19. Compensation for respiratory motion by gated radiotherapy: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Lars; Tücking, Thomas; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2005-05-01

    Respiratory organ motion is known to be one of the largest intrafractional organ motions. Therefore, it is important to investigate the potential benefit of gated dose delivery approaches which aim to account for the respective dose uncertainties. In this study respiration is simulated by a moving lung phantom; the movement is not restricted to a normal sinusoidal progression and simulates the one of the embedded lung tumour in the cranial-caudal direction. An IMRT plan with a total of 29 beam segments was designed for the treatment of this tumour. It was irradiated in its resting position—which is the position at exhalation—and during movement. Furthermore the irradiation was triggered using different amplitude thresholds, which means that the irradiation only proceeded if the deviation of the tumour's position from its resting position is smaller than the given threshold. We determined the gating-related increase of the treatment time for various gating procedures. We also measured the resulting dose distribution in specific slices of the phantom perpendicular to the direction of the movement using film dosimetry and compared it to the dose distribution of the static case. Since these film measurements cannot be done inside the whole tumour, additionally the movement and gating was simulated using the planning software to calculate the 3D dose distribution inside the tumour and to generate dose volume histograms for different treatment modalities. The total treatment time was observed to increase by 20%-100% depending on the individual gating threshold and can be calculated easily. The analysis of the films showed that irradiation without gating leads to significant underdosages up to 33%, especially at the edge of the tumour. With gating it is possible to considerably reduce this underdosage down to 9% depending on the trigger threshold. The calculation of the dose volume histograms makes it possible to find a reasonable compromise between the improvement of

  20. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, S

    2015-01-01

    Three methods for handling beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at ILC are tested and evaluated in this work. The first method represents an optimization of the LEPtype asymmetric selection cuts that reduce the counting biases. The second method uses the experimentally reconstructed shape of the √ s ′ spectrum to determine the Beamstrahlung component of the bias. The last, recently proposed, collision-frame method relies on the reconstruction of the collision-frame velocity to define the selection function in the collision frame both in experiment and in theory. Thus the luminosity expression is insensitive to the difference between the CM frame of the collision and the lab frame. The collision-frame method is independent of the knowledge of the beam parameters, and it allows an accurate reconstruction of the luminosity spectrum above 80% of the nominal CM energy. However, it gives no precise infromation about luminosity below 80% of the nominal CM energy. The compatibility of diverse selection cut...

  1. Studies of beam injection with a compensated bump and uncompensated bump in a synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation sources Indus-1 and Indus-2 have a synchrotron as the common injector. A three kicker compensated bump injection scheme was employed for beam injection into this synchrotron. The stored beam current in the synchrotron is higher, when all the three kickers are operated at the same current than when kickers are operated at currents required to generate compensated bump. Beam dynamics studies have been done to understand why this happens. Theoretical studies indicate that higher stored current in the later case is attributed to smaller residual oscillations of injected beam. These studies also reveal that if the angle of the injected beam during beam injection is kept varying, the performance could be further improved. This is experimentally confirmed by injecting the beam on rising part of the injection septum magnet current pulse

  2. Studies of beam injection with a compensated bump and uncompensated bump in a synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar Fakhri, Ali; Prajapati, S. K.; Ghodke, A. D.; Singh, Gurnam [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-08-15

    Synchrotron radiation sources Indus-1 and Indus-2 have a synchrotron as the common injector. A three kicker compensated bump injection scheme was employed for beam injection into this synchrotron. The stored beam current in the synchrotron is higher, when all the three kickers are operated at the same current than when kickers are operated at currents required to generate compensated bump. Beam dynamics studies have been done to understand why this happens. Theoretical studies indicate that higher stored current in the later case is attributed to smaller residual oscillations of injected beam. These studies also reveal that if the angle of the injected beam during beam injection is kept varying, the performance could be further improved. This is experimentally confirmed by injecting the beam on rising part of the injection septum magnet current pulse.

  3. Effect of the crab waist and of the micro-beta on the beam-beam instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the luminosity and the strengths of the beam-beam resonances for colliders with large horizontal crossing angles. Achievable luminosities of such colliders can reach high values provided that the number of particles in colliding beams can be increased while the vertical β-function can be decreased till the mini-beta range. The crab waist option of the optics in the interaction region decreases (or, even vanishes) the strengths of two-dimensional betatron weak-strong beam-beam resonances and of their synchro-betatron satellites provided that β-functions at the interaction point can be decreased till the micro-beta range. This can help to increase the achievable value of the collider luminosity.

  4. Compensated Arrhenius formalism applied to a conductivity study in poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, F.; Derouiche, Y.; Leblond, J. M.; Maschke, U.; Douali, R.

    2015-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity is studied in a series of poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate monomers. The experimental data are analyzed by means of the approach recently proposed by Petrowsky et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B. 113, 5996 (2009), 10.1021/jp810095g]. This so-called compensated Arrhenius formalism (CAF) approach takes into account the influence of the dielectric permittivity on the exponential prefactor in the classical Arrhenius equation. The experimental data presented in this paper show a good agreement with the CAF; this means that the exponential prefactor is principally dielectric permittivity dependent. The compensated data revealed two conduction processes with different activation energies; they correspond to low and high temperature ranges, respectively.

  5. Comprehensive study of CD compensation and carrier phase estimation in optical communication systems influenced by equalization enhanced phase noise

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Sergeyev, Sergey; Friberg, Ari T; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-01-01

    The performance of long-haul coherent optical fiber transmission system is significantly affected by the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN), due to the interaction between the electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) and the laser phase noise. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on different chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation and carrier phase recovery (CPR) approaches, in the n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK) and the n-level quadrature amplitude modulation (n-QAM) coherent optical transmission systems, considering the impacts of EEPN. Four CD compensation methods are considered: the time-domain equalization (TDE), the frequency-domain equalization (FDE), the least mean square (LMS) adaptive equalization are applied for EDC, and the dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is employed for optical dispersion compensation (ODC). Meanwhile, three carrier phase recovery methods are also involved: a one-tap normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm, a block-wise average (BWA) algorithm, and a...

  6. Analytical treatment of the nonlinear electron cloud effect and the combined effects with beam-beam and space charge nonlinear forces in storage rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we treat first some nonlinear beam dynamics problems in storage rings, such as beam dynamic apertures due to magnetic multipoles, wiggles, beam-beam effects, nonlinear space charge effect, and then nonlinear electron cloud effect combined with beam-beam and space charge effects, analytically. This analytical treatment is applied to BEPC Ⅱ. The corresponding analytical expressions developed in this paper are useful both in understanding the physics behind these problems and also in making practical quick hand estimations.

  7. Study of on-machine error identification and compensation methods for micro machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Ming; Yu, Han-Jen; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chiu, Hung-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Micro machining plays an important role in the manufacturing of miniature products which are made of various materials with complex 3D shapes and tight machining tolerance. To further improve the accuracy of a micro machining process without increasing the manufacturing cost of a micro machine tool, an effective machining error measurement method and a software-based compensation method are essential. To avoid introducing additional errors caused by the re-installment of the workpiece, the measurement and compensation method should be on-machine conducted. In addition, because the contour of a miniature workpiece machined with a micro machining process is very tiny, the measurement method should be non-contact. By integrating the image re-constructive method, camera pixel correction, coordinate transformation, the error identification algorithm, and trajectory auto-correction method, a vision-based error measurement and compensation method that can on-machine inspect the micro machining errors and automatically generate an error-corrected numerical control (NC) program for error compensation was developed in this study. With the use of the Canny edge detection algorithm and camera pixel calibration, the edges of the contour of a machined workpiece were identified and used to re-construct the actual contour of the work piece. The actual contour was then mapped to the theoretical contour to identify the actual cutting points and compute the machining errors. With the use of a moving matching window and calculation of the similarity between the actual and theoretical contour, the errors between the actual cutting points and theoretical cutting points were calculated and used to correct the NC program. With the use of the error-corrected NC program, the accuracy of a micro machining process can be effectively improved. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods, micro-milling experiments on a micro machine tool were conducted, and the results

  8. Compensation Management in Semi Government Sector Case study of State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Hanif

    2011-01-01

    Purpose- This research paper seeks to analyze the compensation management, issues regarding compensation and its relation with employee performance & firm’s overall results. Design/methodology/approach- Using the two different and most effective ways of collecting data, questionnaires and Interviews, the results explain the relationship between employee compensation, job satisfaction, performance and business results.Findings- Equality in compensation and performance based pay system can bett...

  9. Compensation committee composition and CEO compensation – Finnish evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Uusitalo, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of compensation committee composition on the level of CEO compensation. The composition of the compensation committee is analyzed by using five variables which are: 1) the proportion of non-independent directors, 2) the proportion of long-serving directors, 3) the proportion of CEO-directors, 4) the proportion of busy directors and 5) the presence of a blockholder on the compensation committee. CEO compensation is measure...

  10. Deserved Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National People's Congress (NPC), the top legislature, recently adopted amendments to the Law on State Compensation, granting citizens greater power to obtain compensation when their rights are violated by the state.

  11. Stealth Compensation Via Retirement Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk; Fried, Jesse M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes an important form of "stealth compensation" provided to managers of public companies. We show how boards have been able to camouflage large amount of executive compensation through the use of retirement benefits and payments. Our study highlights the significant role that camouflage and stealth compensation play in the design of compensation arrangements. Our study also highlights the significance of whether information about compensation arrangements is not merely publicl...

  12. The Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Questionnaire: A Cross-national Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bova, Nicoletta; De Jonge, Jan; Guglielmi, Dina

    2015-08-01

    The demand-induced strain compensation model is a theoretical job stress model that has been tested in different kinds of empirical study in several countries. To measure key concepts in the model (job demands and job resources), the demand-induced strain compensation questionnaire (DISQ) was developed and has been used in many empirical studies. However, most studies neither focused on the psychometric properties of the DISQ nor tested it cross-nationally. In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the DISQ tested on Italian (n = 422) and Dutch (n = 1629) employees. Results indicated that the six-factor model, consisting of cognitive, emotional and physical job demands as well as cognitive, emotional and physical job resources, provided a better fit to the data than an alternative two-factor model (demands and resources only). Findings were invariant across Italian and Dutch samples. Internal consistencies were satisfactory. Additionally, the six dimensions of DISQ were found to be meaningfully related to employee active learning behaviour, emotional exhaustion and musculoskeletal disorders. Results suggest the DISQ questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the proposed dimensions of job demands and job resources in both Italian and Dutch work contexts. PMID:26252420

  13. Motion compensation with a scanned ion beam: a technical feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrafractional motion results in local over- and under-dosage in particle therapy with a scanned beam. Scanned beam delivery offers the possibility to compensate target motion by tracking with the treatment beam. Lateral motion components were compensated directly with the beam scanning system by adapting nominal beam positions according to the target motion. Longitudinal motion compensation to mitigate motion induced range changes was performed with a dedicated wedge system that adjusts effective particle energies at isocenter. Lateral compensation performance was better than 1% for a homogeneous dose distribution when comparing irradiations of a stationary radiographic film and a moving film using motion compensation. The accuracy of longitudinal range compensation was well below 1 mm. Motion compensation with scanned particle beams is technically feasible with high precision

  14. Factors that challenge health for people involved in the compensation process following a motor vehicle crash: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Elbers, N.A.; Akkermans, A.J.; Lockwood, K.; Craig, A.; Cameron, I.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are associated with diminished mental health, and furthermore, evidence suggests the process of claiming compensation following an MVC further increases distress and impedes recovery. However, further research is required on why the compensation process is stressful. The aim of the current study is twofold. The first is to investigate whether the interaction with the insurance agency is associated with anxiety. The second is to explore qualitatively aspe...

  15. Does time off work after injury vary by jurisdiction? A comparative study of eight Australian workers' compensation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Collie, Alex; Lane, Tyler J; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Thompson, Jason; McLeod, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the jurisdiction in which a work-related injury compensation claim is made is an independent predictor of duration of time off work following work injury, and if so, the magnitude of the effect. Setting Eight Australian state and territory workers' compensation systems, providing coverage for more than 90% of the Australian labour force. Administrative claims data from these systems were provided by government regulatory authorities for the study. Participants ...

  16. Studies on dynamic motion compensation and positioning accuracy on star tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Zhang; Yuncai, Hao; Li, Wang; Da, Liu

    2015-10-01

    Error from motion is the dominant restriction on the improvement of dynamic performance on a star tracker. As a remarkable motion error, the degree of nonuniformity of the star image velocity field on the detector is studied, and thus a general model for the moving star spot is built. To minimize velocity nonuniformity, a novel general method is proposed to derive the proper motion compensation and location accuracy in cases of both uniform velocity and acceleration. Using this method, a theoretic analysis on the accuracy of time-delayed integration and similar techniques, which are thought of as state-of-the-art approaches to reduce error from motion, is conducted. The simulations and experimental results validate the proposed method. Our method shows a more steady performance than the dynamic binning algorithm. The positional error could be neglected when the smear length is far less than 3.464 times the scale of star spot, which suggests accuracy can be maintained by changing frame-integration time inverse proportional to the velocity on the focal plane. It also shows that the acceleration effect must be compensated to achieve accuracy close to the Cramér-Rao lower bound. PMID:26479618

  17. Motion compensation with a scanned ion beam: a technical feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft Gerhard; Haberer Thomas; Bert Christoph; Grözinger Sven; Rietzel Eike

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Intrafractional motion results in local over- and under-dosage in particle therapy with a scanned beam. Scanned beam delivery offers the possibility to compensate target motion by tracking with the treatment beam. Methods Lateral motion components were compensated directly with the beam scanning system by adapting nominal beam positions according to the target motion. Longitudinal motion compensation to mitigate motion induced range changes was performed with a dedicated w...

  18. Study of the transient effects of the space charge compensation on the dynamics of an intense beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A main interest in the design of ion accelerators is the control of the dynamics of intense beams at low energy. This dynamics is dominated by nonlinear effects of the Space Charge (SC) field. This SC field induces a halo formation which can induce losses along the transport. Once ionized by the beam, the residual gas, diffused by the source and produced by the desorption of the vacuum chamber of the accelerator, contributes to the production of electrons and ions. According to their sign of charge compared to the beam, these particles will be repelled or confined. The accumulation of particles in the beam contributes to the compensation of the SC field. However, this neutralization induces other non linearity which are dependent on time. This thesis presents an experimental and theoretical work of the SC compensation for ion beams (H+ and H-). The dynamics of these beams is modelled by a new PIC code, CARTAGO, ensuring the coupling between the created plasma and the studied beams. A single-particle study introduces the dynamics of the plasma in presence of the SC field and of an external magnetic field. The modeling of the compensation with the 1D version of CARTAGO code gave the establishment times and the compensation degrees for several cases of beams and various gas pressures. The compensation of a protons beam was studied more particularly in the low-energy line of the Injector of Protons of High Intensity (IPHI) at Saclay. Simulations show an over-compensation of the space charge inside the focusing solenoid and outside the compensation is only partial. Experimental confrontations of the 2D(r,z) modeling results in a part of this line are also detailed. (author)

  19. Study on the Industrial Ecological Compensation in Inter-basin Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Yachen Liu

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the inter-basin pollution of water sources, the meaning, the content, and the system of the industrial ecological compensation are proposed in this article and the corresponding inter-basin industrial ecological compensation institution is suggested to be established.

  20. RANDOM AND SYSTEMATIC FIELD ERRORS IN THE SNS RING: A STUDY OF THEIR EFFECTS AND COMPENSATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER,C.J.; LEE,Y.Y.; WENG,W.T.

    1998-06-22

    The Accumulator Ring for the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l] is to accept a 1 ms beam pulse from a 1 GeV Proton Linac at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. For each beam pulse, 10{sup 14} protons (some 1,000 turns) are to be accumulated via charge-exchange injection and then promptly extracted to an external target for the production of neutrons by spallation. At this very high intensity, stringent limits (less than two parts in 10,000 per pulse) on beam loss during accumulation must be imposed in order to keep activation of ring components at an acceptable level. To stay within the desired limit, the effects of random and systematic field errors in the ring require careful attention. This paper describes the authors studies of these effects and the magnetic corrector schemes for their compensation.

  1. A Study on Improving the Overloaded Speech Waveform to Distinguish Alcohol Intoxication using Spectral Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Hee Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, speech characteristics from before and after alcohol intoxication has been comparatively analyzed through speech analysis to obtain the degree of intoxication along with its parameters. However, the overload of the input signal must be considered prior to anything else. When distinguishing intoxication under overload conditions, an error cannot be avoided. Therefore, distinguishing the level of intoxication must be conducted by using a method that is not significantly influenced by overload. Thus, reliability of distinguishing the degree of intoxication was enhanced by preprocessing the overload to compensate the spectrum. The SNR and intoxication distinguishment rate resulted comparatively better at about 2 and 5% overload clipping rate, however, resulted in an error and increase at 10% overload clipping rate.

  2. Case Study of Marine Ecological Compensation Criteria Based on Environmental Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-wei; YANG Zhi-feng; TANG Jun-jian; CHEN Chu-han

    2009-01-01

    This paper forecasted and identified the environmental risks and ecological effect caused by chemical spill by simulating the xylene spill in Xiamen waters. The evaluation objects of ecological damage include four parts: marine ecosystem services, sea water quality, marine biological resources (plankton, benthos, nekton, etc.), and beach habitat. The ecological compensation criterion was confirmed as 1.73 million Yuan per year in the short term and 8.09 million Yuan in the long term. And an ecological compensation mode was suggested to be that if the chemical spill does not occur this year, the compensation will return to the enterprise next year; while if chemical spill occurs, the compensation will not be returned. The encouragement mechanism "returning compensation if no spill" might motivate enterprises to improve the environmental risk management and avoid the risks.

  3. Influence of Prosthetic Sagittal Alignment on Trans-Tibial Amputee Gait and Compensating Pattern:A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiaohong; WANG Rencheng; ZHANG Ming; LI Xiaobing

    2008-01-01

    This study relates the gait asymmetry,residual limb comfort,and energy cost dunng walking and identifies a compensating pattem for the trans-tibial amputees when the prostheses are misaligned.One male subject with a trans-tibial amputation volunteered for the study.The knee joint moments at the prosthetic side,the phase symmetry index,and the interface pressures were discussed under three sagittalal ignment settings.The results show that the subject changes the knee joint moment,gait symmetry,and interface pressure with a misaligned prosthesis to improve his comfort and movement dudng walking.A high-quality liner reduces the gait sensitivity to misalignment and enhances the amputee's ability to compensate for misalignment.Since different people have different compensation pattems,more cases will be studied in future work.

  4. Study on energy difference compensation for high intense multi-bunch electron beam generated by a photocathode RF-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Waseda University, we have been studying a high quality electron beam generation and its application experiments with a Cs-Te photocathode RF-Gun. To generate more intense and stable electron beam, we have been developing the cathode irradiating UV laser which consists of optical fiber amplifier and LD pumped amplifier. As the result, more than 100 multi-bunch electron beam with 1nC each bunch charge was obtained. However, it has to be considered that the accelerating voltage will decrease because of the beam loading effect. So we have studied the RF amplitude modulation technique to compensate the bunch by bunch energy difference. The energy difference will caused by transient accelerating voltage in RF-Gun cavity and beam loading effect. As the result of this compensation method, the energy difference has been compensated to 1% p-p, while 5% p-p without compensation. In this conference, we will report our multi-bunch electron beam linac system, the details of energy compensation method using the RF amplitude modulation and the results of beam experiment. (author)

  5. Cardiac motion compensation and resolution modeling in simultaneous PET-MR: a cardiac lesion detection study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibon, Y.; Ouyang, J.; Zhu, X.; Huang, C.; Reese, T. G.; Chun, S. Y.; Li, Q.; El Fakhri, G.

    2013-04-01

    Cardiac motion and partial volume effects (PVE) are two of the main causes of image degradation in cardiac PET. Motion generates artifacts and blurring while PVE lead to erroneous myocardial activity measurements. Newly available simultaneous PET-MR scanners offer new possibilities in cardiac imaging as MRI can assess wall contractility while collecting PET perfusion data. In this perspective, we develop a list-mode iterative reconstruction framework incorporating both tagged-MR derived non-rigid myocardial wall motion and position dependent detector point spread function (PSF) directly into the PET system matrix. In this manner, our algorithm performs both motion ‘deblurring’ and PSF deconvolution while reconstructing images with all available PET counts. The proposed methods are evaluated in a beating non-rigid cardiac phantom whose hot myocardial compartment contains small transmural and non-transmural cold defects. In order to accelerate imaging time, we investigate collecting full and half k-space tagged MR data to obtain tagged volumes that are registered using non-rigid B-spline registration to yield wall motion information. Our experimental results show that tagged-MR based motion correction yielded an improvement in defect/myocardium contrast recovery of 34-206% as compared to motion uncorrected studies. Likewise, lesion detectability improved by respectively 115-136% and 62-235% with MR-based motion compensation as compared to gating and no motion correction and made it possible to distinguish non-transmural from transmural defects, which has clinical significance given the inherent limitations of current single modality imaging in identifying the amount of residual ischemia. The incorporation of PSF modeling within the framework of MR-based motion compensation significantly improved defect/myocardium contrast recovery (5.1-8.5%, p defect detectability (39-56%, p < 0.01). No statistical difference was found in PET contrast and lesion detectability

  6. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yanez, Elvia; Lopez, Jesus [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Durango, Victoria de Durango, Durango (Mexico); ISSSTE General Hospital Dr. Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Victoria de Durango, Durango (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  7. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yañez, Elvia; López, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerología de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  8. Fast Poisson Solvers for Self-Consistent Beam-Beam and Space-Charge Field Computation in Multiparticle Tracking Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Adrien; Pieloni, Tatiana; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    We present two different approaches to solve the 2-dimensional electrostatic problem with open boundary conditions to be used in fast tracking codes for beam-beam and space charge simulations in high energy accelerators. We compare a fast multipoles method with a hybrid Poisson solver based on the fast Fourier transform and finite differences in polar coordinates. We show that the latter outperforms the first in terms of execution time and precision, allowing for a reduction of the noise in the tracking simulation. Furthermore the new algorithm is shown to scale linearly on parallel architectures with shared memory. We conclude by effectively replacing the HFMM by the new Poisson solver in the COMBI code.

  9. Losses compensation; Compensation des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One mission of RTE (Electric Power Transportation), is to watch over the losses compensation resulting from the power transport on the electric power network. Since january 2001, RTE makes good the electric losses by the purchase of energy. To choose the marketers, a consultation has been realized by RTE. This document presents the rules concerning these losses compensation. (A.L.B.)

  10. Study, analysis and simulation of a static compensator D-STATCOM for distribution systems of electric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed MOKHTARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Flexible Alternative Current Transmission System « FACTS » devices are controllers based on power electronics. It has been demonstrated that they can improve transient stability and help to damp electromechanical oscillations in distribution power systems. The aim of this paper was to clarify the power flow without and with a Distribution Static Compensator « D-STATCOM » and to improve the quality of the Algerian network. It is a shunt compensation device which is generally used to solve power quality problems in distribution systems. The present work will use these devices to study the functions available in the control of reactive power compensation as well as maintaining voltage. The simulation is done under MATLAB/SIMULINK for D-STATCOM and voltage source converter (VSC. Through this paper, D-STATCOM has demonstrated excellent performance and effectively improved the power quality in distribution networks.

  11. Circulating granulocyte lifespan in compensated alcohol-related cirrhosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Jonathan R; Farahi, Neda; Heard, Sarah; Chilvers, Edwin R; Verma, Sumita; Peters, Adrien M

    2016-09-01

    Although granulocyte dysfunction is known to occur in cirrhosis, in vivo studies of granulocyte lifespan have not previously been performed. The normal circulating granulocyte survival half-time (G - t½), determined using indium-111 ((111)In)-radiolabeled granulocytes, is ~7 h. In this pilot study, we aimed to measure the in vivo G - t½ in compensated alcohol-related cirrhosis. Sequential venous blood samples were obtained in abstinent subjects with alcohol-related cirrhosis over 24 h post injection (PI) of minimally manipulated (111)In-radiolabeled autologous mixed leukocytes. Purified granulocytes were isolated from each sample using a magnetic microbead-antibody technique positively selecting for the marker CD15. Granulocyte-associated radioactivity was expressed relative to peak activity, plotted over time, and G - t½ estimated from data up to 12 h PI This was compared with normal neutrophil half-time (N - t½), determined using a similar method specifically selecting neutrophils in healthy controls at a collaborating center. Seven patients with cirrhosis (six male, aged 57.8 ± 9.4 years, all Child-Pugh class A) and seven normal controls (three male, 64.4 ± 5.6 years) were studied. Peripheral blood neutrophil counts were similar in both groups (4.6 (3.5 - 5.5) × 10(9)/L vs. 2.8 (2.7 - 4.4) × 10(9)/L, respectively, P = 0.277). G - t½ in cirrhosis was significantly lower than N - t½ in controls (2.7 ± 0.5 h vs. 4.4 ± 1.0 h, P = 0.007). Transient rises in granulocyte and neutrophil-associated activities occurred in four patients from each group, typically earlier in cirrhosis (4-6 h PI) than in controls (8-10 h), suggesting recirculation of radiolabeled cells released from an unidentified focus. Reduced in vivo granulocyte survival in compensated alcohol-related cirrhosis is a novel finding and potentially another mechanism for immune dysfunction in chronic liver disease. Larger studies are needed to

  12. The effects of performance measurement and compensation on motivation : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Herpen, M; Van Praag, M; Cools, K

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between pay and performance. Economic and psychological theories predict that the design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system affect the motivation of employees. Our survey results demonstrate a positive relationship

  13. Sexual and mental health in compensated dating in youth in Hong Kong: An exploratory quantitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, MHT; Wong, PWC; Chan, M.; Law, YW; Fu, KW; Chau, MCL; Yip, PSF

    2015-01-01

    Compensated dating, also known as enjo kosai (in Japanese), assisted relationship, freelance teenage sex work, and casual teen prostitution, emerged in Japan in 1990s and has spread to other Asian societies including Korea, Thailand, Taiwan, Shanghai and Hong Kong in the early 2000s. The compensated dating phenomenon was considered similar to youth sexual exploitation, defined as the exchange of sexual activity for money or other consideration according to Office of the United Nations High Co...

  14. Soil movements associated with compensation grouting during line 9 excavation in Barcelona: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mariano, Alessandra; Gens Solé, Antonio; Mair, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes a case history -related to the Line 9 excavation in Barcelonawhere compensation grouting was initially proposed to minimize the movements of the buildings close to or directly above the tunnel alignment, some of which have piled foundations. Unexpectedly, the ground settlements due to the pre-conditioning stage of the compensation grouting became very significant leading to some light damage to one of the buildings. Eventually, the decision was taken to stop the treatme...

  15. A Study on Compensation for Management and Protection Expenses of Non-commercial Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the compensation nature of non-commercial forests under different ownership from two aspects, namely, whether the property right is limited and whether the management and protection expense has been incurred: there are no economic loss compensation problems caused by changes and limitation of property rights for the state-owned non-commercial forests with only the compensation on management and protection expense; but for the non-commercial forests owned by collectives or individuals, double compensation for both the economic loss and management expense exists because of limitation on the property right. In addition, an inframarginal economic analysis framework has been built for the management and protection compensation problems faced by non-commercial forests under different ownership in the perspective of the division of labor. Research results show that: the compensation standard for the management and protection expenses of non-commercial forests shall fall in between the "completely self-sufficient forestry economic structure U(Ayz)" and the "completely specialized productive structure of non-commercial forests U(B1)".

  16. Energetic studies on DNA-peptide interaction in relation to the enthalpy-entropy compensation paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Robin C K; Huang, Jonathan T B; Chien, Shih-Chuan; Huang, Roy; Jeng, Kee-Ching G; Chen, Yen-Chung; Liao, Mokai; Wu, Jia-Rong; Hung, Wei-Kang; Hung, Chia-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ling; Waring, Michael J; Sheh, Leung

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to interpret the energetic basis of complex DNA-peptide interactions according to a novel allosteric interaction network approach. In common with other designed peptides, five new conjugates incorporating the XPRK or XHypRK motif (Hyp = hydroxyproline) attached to a N-methylpyrrole (Py) tract with a basic tail have been found to display cooperative binding to DNA involving multiple monodentate as well as interstrand bidentate interactions. Using quantitative DNase I footprinting it appears that allosteric communication via cooperative binding to multiple sites on complementary DNA strands corresponds to two different types of DNA-peptide interaction network. Temperature variation experiments using a dodecapeptide RY-12 show that lower temperature (25 °C) favor a circuit type of allosteric interaction network, whereas higher temperatures (31 and 37 °C) afford only a partial-circuit type of network. Circular dichroism studies show that our five peptides induce significant local conformational changes in DNA via the minor groove, with apparently dimeric binding stoichiometry. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that these peptides, together with another seven for comparison, are strongly exothermic upon binding to a model 13-mer DNA duplex, characterized by ΔH ranging from -14.7 to -74.4 kcal mol(-1), and also high TΔS ranging from -6.5 to -65.9 kcal mol(-1). Multiple monodentate and bidentate interactions, as well as ionic forces that mediate positive cooperativity in sequence recognition, are consistent with a dramatic decrease in entropy and a 'tightening' effect of DNA conformation. Distinctive enthalpy-entropy compensation (EEC) relationships are demonstrated for the interaction of all twelve designed peptides with DNA, affording a straight line of slope close to unity when ΔH is plotted versus TΔS, with a y-axis intercept (average ΔG) corresponding to -8.5 kcal mol(-1), while the observed ΔG ranges from -8.2 to -9.1 kcal mol(-1) for

  17. Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Examining data of a sample of UK companies over the period 2003–2006 we find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant. An increase in the number of compensation co

  18. Cardiac motion compensation and resolution modeling in simultaneous PET-MR: a cardiac lesion detection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac motion and partial volume effects (PVE) are two of the main causes of image degradation in cardiac PET. Motion generates artifacts and blurring while PVE lead to erroneous myocardial activity measurements. Newly available simultaneous PET-MR scanners offer new possibilities in cardiac imaging as MRI can assess wall contractility while collecting PET perfusion data. In this perspective, we develop a list-mode iterative reconstruction framework incorporating both tagged-MR derived non-rigid myocardial wall motion and position dependent detector point spread function (PSF) directly into the PET system matrix. In this manner, our algorithm performs both motion ‘deblurring’ and PSF deconvolution while reconstructing images with all available PET counts. The proposed methods are evaluated in a beating non-rigid cardiac phantom whose hot myocardial compartment contains small transmural and non-transmural cold defects. In order to accelerate imaging time, we investigate collecting full and half k-space tagged MR data to obtain tagged volumes that are registered using non-rigid B-spline registration to yield wall motion information. Our experimental results show that tagged-MR based motion correction yielded an improvement in defect/myocardium contrast recovery of 34–206% as compared to motion uncorrected studies. Likewise, lesion detectability improved by respectively 115–136% and 62–235% with MR-based motion compensation as compared to gating and no motion correction and made it possible to distinguish non-transmural from transmural defects, which has clinical significance given the inherent limitations of current single modality imaging in identifying the amount of residual ischemia. The incorporation of PSF modeling within the framework of MR-based motion compensation significantly improved defect/myocardium contrast recovery (5.1–8.5%, p < 0.01) and defect detectability (39–56%, p < 0.01). No statistical difference was found in PET contrast and

  19. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Caitlin E; Main, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Calf (Bos taurus) depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2) develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC). We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr) and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the landscape. We

  20. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Jacobs

    Full Text Available Calf (Bos taurus depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1 quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2 develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC. We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the

  1. Simulation Study on the Emittance Compensation of Off-axis Emitted Beam in RF Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Rui-Xuan; Jia, Qi-Ka; Papadopoulos, Christos; Sannibale, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    To make full use of photocathode material and improve its quantum efficiency lifetime, it can be necessary to operate laser away from the cathode center in photoinjectors. In RF guns, the off-axis emitted beam will see a time-dependent RF effect, which would generate a significant growth in transverse emittance. It has been demonstrated that such an emittance growth can be almost completely compensated by orienting the beam on a proper orbit in the downstream RF cavities along the injector. In this paper we analyze in detail the simulation techniques used in reference[1] and the issues associated with them. The optimization of photoinjector systems involving off-axis beams is a challenging problem. To solve this problem, one needs advanced simulation tools including both genetic algorithms and an efficient algorithm for 3D space charge. In this paper, we report on simulation studies where the two codes ASTRA and IMPACT-T are used jointly to overcome these challenges, in order to optimize a system designed to ...

  2. Compensation trends of the angulation of first molars:retrospective study of 1 403 malocclusion cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Su; Bing Han; Sa Li; Bin Na; Wen Ma; Tian-Min Xu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the compensatory trends of mesiodistal angulation of first molars in malocclusion cases. We compared differences in the angulation of first molars in different developmental stages, malocclusion classifications and skeletal patterns. The medical records and lateral cephalogrammes of 1 403 malocclusion cases taken before treatment were measured to evaluate compensation of molar angulation in relation to the skeletal jaw. The cases were stratified by age, Angle classification and skeletal patterns. Differences in the mesiodistal angulation of the first molars were compared among the stratifications. We observed three main phenomena. First, angulation of the upper first molar varied significantly with age and tipped most distally in cases aged ,12 years and least distally in cases aged .16 years. The lower first molar did not show such differences. Second, in Angle Class II or skeletal Class II cases, the upper first molar was the most distally tipped, the lower first molar was the most mesially tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in Class III cases. Third, in high-angle cases, the upper and lower first molars were the most distally tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in low-angle cases. These data suggest that the angulation of the molars compensated for various growth patterns and malocclusion types. Hence, awareness of molar angulation compensation would help to adjust occlusal relationships, control anchorage and increase the chances of long-term stability.

  3. Large-scale population study of human cell lines indicates that dosage compensation is virtually complete.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette M Johnston

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available X chromosome inactivation in female mammals results in dosage compensation of X-linked gene products between the sexes. In humans there is evidence that a substantial proportion of genes escape from silencing. We have carried out a large-scale analysis of gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from four human populations to determine the extent to which escape from X chromosome inactivation disrupts dosage compensation. We conclude that dosage compensation is virtually complete. Overall expression from the X chromosome is only slightly higher in females and can largely be accounted for by elevated female expression of approximately 5% of X-linked genes. We suggest that the potential contribution of escape from X chromosome inactivation to phenotypic differences between the sexes is more limited than previously believed.

  4. A Study of Dispersion Compensation of Polarization Multiplexing-Based OFDM-OCDMA for Radio-over-Fiber Transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chih-Ta; Chen, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Chromatic dispersion from optical fiber is the most important problem that produces temporal skews and destroys the rectangular structure of code patterns in the spectra-amplitude-coding-based optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) system. Thus, the balance detection scheme does not work perfectly to cancel multiple access interference (MAI) and the system performance will be degraded. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is the fastest developing technology in the academic and industrial fields of wireless transmission. In this study, the radio-over-fiber system is realized by integrating OFDM and OCDMA via polarization multiplexing scheme. The electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) equalizer element of OFDM integrated with the dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) is used in the proposed radio-over-fiber (RoF) system, which can efficiently suppress the chromatic dispersion influence in long-haul transmitted distance. A set of length differences for 10 km-long single-mode fiber (SMF) and 4 km-long DCF is to verify the compensation scheme by relative equalizer algorithms and constellation diagrams. In the simulation result, the proposed dispersion mechanism successfully compensates the dispersion from SMF and the system performance with dispersion equalizer is highly improved. PMID:27618042

  5. Detection of and compensation for blocked elements using large coherent apertures: ex vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Marko; Bottenus, Nick; Kuo, Lily; Kumar, Shalki; Dahl, Jeremy; Trahey, Gregg

    2016-04-01

    When imaging with ultrasound through the chest wall, it is not uncommon for parts of the array to get blocked by ribs, which can limit the acoustic window and significantly impede visualization of the structures of interest. With the development of large-aperture, high-element-count, 2-D arrays and their potential use in transthoracic imaging, detecting and compensating for the blocked elements is becoming increasingly important. We synthesized large coherent 2-D apertures and used them to image a point target through excised samples of canine chest wall. Blocked elements are detected based on low amplitude of their signals. As a part of compensation, blocked elements are turned off on transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx), and point-target images are created using: coherent summation of the remaining channels, compounding of intercostal apertures, and adaptive weighting of the available Tx/Rx channel-pairs to recover the desired k-space response. The adaptive compensation method also includes a phase aberration correction to ensure that the non-blocked Tx/Rx channel pairs are summed coherently. To evaluate the methods, we compare the point-spread functions (PSFs) and near-field clutter levels for the transcostal and control acquisitions. Specifically, applying k-space compensation to the sparse aperture data created from the control acquisition reduces sidelobes from -6.6 dB to -12 dB. When applied to the transcostal data in combination with phase-aberration correction, the same method reduces sidelobes only by 3 dB, likely due to significant tissue induced acoustic noise. For the transcostal acquisition, turning off blocked elements and applying uniform weighting results in maximum clutter reduction of 5 dB on average, while the PSF stays intact. Compounding reduces clutter by about 3 dB while the k-space compensation increases clutter magnitude to the non-compensated levels.

  6. Study on A Control Method of PAPF for Resonance Damping and Harmonics Compensation in Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fang; Wu, Longhui; Chen, Zhe;

    2009-01-01

    In power system, capacitors are widely used to compensate reactive power, which generally cause resonance problems in harmonic distorted network. In this paper, A method of using a parallel active power filter (PAPF) to damp the resonances is proposed. The proposed method is compound with...... traditional method, it shows that whether the capacitor current is included in the detecting current of PAPF or not. Also the PAPF with proposed method has strong ability in harmonic compensation. Finally, the experiment results are presented to verify the analysis....

  7. Industrial Pollution and Economic Compensation : A  Study of Down Stream Villages in Noyyal River, Tirupur, Tamil Nadu, South India

    OpenAIRE

    Santhi Kanna, Dorai Kannan

    2008-01-01

    Tirupur is an Indian textile town which constitutes many dyeing and bleaching units situated in the upstream. Tirupur serves as one of the major exporters of textiles. The industrial pollution have affected not only the surface water but also the soils and ground water. This thesis studies the impacts of industrial pollution on agriculture and livestock. It also explores the implicated problems involved in putting an economic compensation mechanism into practise. The impact study was made on ...

  8. Study on the compensated lead hadron calorimeter characteristics by means of hadron and electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, G. A.; Apokin, V. D.; Buyanov, O. V.

    The results on measuring the basic characteristics of a compensated lead calorimeter (NEPTUN experiment) in a hadron and electron beam are presented. A prototype consisting of 30 modulus was used in the measurements. The energy resolution follows the dependence approximately = 57%/sq. root of E, the detector uniformity is (+-)5%, the measured e/h ratio is close to unity.

  9. The study of neck lateral projections using for al compensation filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Young Il [Chonnam University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seong Gil [Kwangju Health Junior College, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-15

    For improving the image quality in case of neck Lateral projections, the AI compensation filter were used and conclusion that, it could be got the high image quality able to observe the shadow of cervical spine, hyoid bone, trachea, soft tissue simultaneously.

  10. Questioning Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Transparent management and open information needed for the fund set up to compensate victims of the 2008 Sanlu milk scandal Almost three years after the Sanlu milk scandal that caused thousands of infants in China to develop urinary disease after drinking melamine

  11. Design and experimental study of compensation fitting on the angle-tuned filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Kan; HUANG De-xiu; LIU Wen; CHANG Jin

    2008-01-01

    For a 100 GHz DWDM angle-tuned filter with low polarization dependent loss,the insertion loss and the Gaussiantransformation tendency of the transmission spectrum will become more serious as the incident angle is increased.It is because of that the optical path and the transmission modes of the thin film filter will change when the incident angle is varied.According to the thin film matrix theory,the analysis model is established,the displacement change of the transmission field is simulated,and a dynamic compensation fitting is also designed and fabricated in the paper.The experimental results show that it can effectively reduce the insertion loss and the phenomenon of Gaussian process.Using the compensation fitting,the tunable range of the filter is at about 20 nm which coincides with the theoretical design.

  12. Respiratory Motion Compensation Using Diaphragm Tracking for Cone-Beam C-Arm CT: A Simulation and a Phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bögel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long acquisition times lead to image artifacts in thoracic C-arm CT. Motion blur caused by respiratory motion leads to decreased image quality in many clinical applications. We introduce an image-based method to estimate and compensate respiratory motion in C-arm CT based on diaphragm motion. In order to estimate respiratory motion, we track the contour of the diaphragm in the projection image sequence. Using a motion corrected triangulation approach on the diaphragm vertex, we are able to estimate a motion signal. The estimated motion signal is used to compensate for respiratory motion in the target region, for example, heart or lungs. First, we evaluated our approach in a simulation study using XCAT. As ground truth data was available, a quantitative evaluation was performed. We observed an improvement of about 14% using the structural similarity index. In a real phantom study, using the artiCHEST phantom, we investigated the visibility of bronchial tubes in a porcine lung. Compared to an uncompensated scan, the visibility of bronchial structures is improved drastically. Preliminary results indicate that this kind of motion compensation can deliver a first step in reconstruction image quality improvement. Compared to ground truth data, image quality is still considerably reduced.

  13. A closer look at the beam-beam processes at ILC and CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Hartin, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The strength of the electromagnetic fields in the bunch collision at a linear collider will have a significant effect, yielding large numbers of beamstrahlung photons and associated coherent pair production. These effects are limited in the proposed ILC beam parameters which limit the strength of the bunch field to $\\Upsilon_{\\text{ave}}=0.27$. The CLIC 3 Tev design by comparison has a $\\Upsilon_{\\text{ave}}=3.34$ yielding huge number of coherent pairs. In terms of the precision physics programs of these proposed colliders there is an imperative to investigate the effect of the strong bunch fields on higher order processes. From the exact wavefunctions used in the calculation of transition rates within the Furry interaction picture, and using appropriate simplifications, a multiplicative factor to the coupling constants was obtained. This indicates a significant variation to the transition rate near threshold energies. Further studies are in progress to calculate the exact effect on expected observables.

  14. Luminosity Loss due to Beam Distortion and the Beam-Beam Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, Tor O; Seryi, Andrei; Sramek, Christopher K

    2005-01-01

    In a linear collider, sources of emittance dilution such as transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will couple the vertical phase space to the longitudinal position within the beam (the so-called ‘banana effect'). When the Intersection Point (IP) disruption parameter is large, these beam distortions will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. We study this phenomena both analytically using linear theory and via numerical simulation. In particular, we examine the dependence of the luminosity loss on the wavelength of the beam distortions and the disruption parameter. This analysis may prove useful when optimizing the vertical disruption parameter for luminosity operation with given beam distortions.

  15. Study on offshore wind farm integration mode and reactive power compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Xiaoyan; Hong, Lijun; Fu, Yang [Shanghai Univ. of Electrical Power (China). Power and Automation Engineering Dept.

    2013-07-01

    Two typical offshore wind farm grid-connected modes are introduced and dynamic characteristics under their modes are compared from the simulation by PSS/E. The result shows that offshore wind farm with VSC-HVDC has better dynamic characteristics on fault isolation, reactive power compensation, and fault ride through ability. In addition, STATCOM has been applied to the offshore wind farm, the simulation results indicates that it can improve the bus voltage stability in fault and maintain the voltage level under a small perturbation.

  16. Compensating for electrode polarization in dielectric spectroscopy studies of colloidal suspensions: theoretical assessment of existing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, Claire; Dubois, Emmanuelle; Jiménez, María Luisa; van der Ploeg, Jacques; Turnhout, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy can be used to determine the dipole moment of colloidal particles from which important interfacial electrokinetic properties, for instance their zeta potential, can be deduced. Unfortunately, dielectric spectroscopy measurements are hampered by electrode polarization (EP). In this article, we review several procedures to compensate for this effect. First EP in electrolyte solutions is described: the complex conductivity is derived as function of frequency, for two cell geometries (planar and cylindrical) with blocking electrodes. The corresponding equivalent circuit for the electrolyte solution is given for each geometry. This equivalent circuit model is extended to suspensions. The complex conductivity of a suspension, in the presence of EP, is then calculated from the impedance measured. Different methods for compensating for EP are critically assessed, with the help of the theoretical findings. Their limit of validity is given in terms of characteristic frequencies. We can identify with one of these frequencies the frequency range within which data uncorrected for EP may be used to assess the dipole moment of colloidal particles. In order to extract this dipole moment from the measured data, two methods are reviewed: one is based on the use of existing models for the complex conductivity of suspensions, the other is the logarithmic derivative method. An extension to multiple relaxations of the logarithmic derivative method is proposed.

  17. Compensating for Electrode Polarization in Dielectric Spectroscopy Studies of Colloidal Suspensions: Theoretical Assessment of Existing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, Claire; Dubois, Emmanuelle; Jiménez, María L.; van der Ploeg, J. P. M; van Turnhout, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy can be used to determine the dipole moment of colloidal particles from which important interfacial electrokinetic properties, for instance their zeta potential, can be deduced. Unfortunately, dielectric spectroscopy measurements are hampered by electrode polarization (EP). In this article, we review several procedures to compensate for this effect. First EP in electrolyte solutions is described: the complex conductivity is derived as function of frequency, for two cell geometries (planar and cylindrical) with blocking electrodes. The corresponding equivalent circuit for the electrolyte solution is given for each geometry. This equivalent circuit model is extended to suspensions. The complex conductivity of a suspension, in the presence of EP, is then calculated from the impedance. Different methods for compensating for EP are critically assessed, with the help of the theoretical findings. Their limit of validity is given in terms of characteristic frequencies. We can identify with one of these frequencies the frequency range within which data uncorrected for EP may be used to assess the dipole moment of colloidal particles. In order to extract this dipole moment from the measured data, two methods are reviewed: one is based on the use of existing models for the complex conductivity of suspensions, the other is the logarithmic derivative method. An extension to multiple relaxations of the logarithmic derivative method is proposed. PMID:27486575

  18. Asymmetry compensation in a small vampire bat population in a cave: a case study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ueti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Normally, the wings are assumed to be symmetrical, since radical departure from symmetry is known to hinder flight. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the symmetry of the wing structure in a population of common vampire bats, Desmodus rotundus. The bones of both wings were measured, and the area of each wing was calculated. Asymmetry was found, with males having a larger number of asymmetric bone structures than females. Moreover, both directional asymmetry and antisymmetry were identified for the males, whereas for the females only fluctuating asymmetry was found. However, although asymmetry does occur, it is generally compensated for by complementary changes in the structures of the other wing. We believe that by keeping the wing area symmetrical, potential aerodynamic problems may be minimized.

  19. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zheng; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the Accelerator Driven Sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with CW operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple PID feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of PI feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7%...

  20. Study on high temperature Fabry-Perot fiber acoustic sensor with temperature self-compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pan; Tong, Xinglin; Zhao, Minli; Deng, Chengwei; Guo, Qian; Mao, Yan; Wang, Kun

    2015-09-01

    A Fabry-Perot (F-P) fiber acoustic sensor, which can work under high-temperature harsh environment with temperature self-compensation, is designed and prepared. A condenser was used to maintain the sensor to work in a stable temperature environment. Because of the special structure of the sensor and the function of the condenser, the cavity variation of the sensor caused by changes of external temperature from -10°C to 500°C would not exceed 8 nm. The experimental results show that the sensor has a good frequency response in a range of 1 to 5 kHz and the field experiment results show that it could be used for hydraulic decoking online monitoring by judging the acoustic frequency spectrum.

  1. 交流传动系统串联补偿和并联补偿的研究%A Comparative Study of Series Compensation or Shunt Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆罕默德·阿登姆; 范瑜; 朱明春

    2002-01-01

    描述了串联补偿线路和并联补偿线路的比较,而且专门对具有相同额定值的静态无功补偿(Static Var Compensator SVC)和晶控串联电容器(Thyristor-Contorlled Series Capacitor TCSC)进行了比较.通过变化传输线的线路长度来测试这两种控制器在加强暂态稳定性方面的效果.结果表明,随着传输线路长度的增加,静态无功补偿装置比晶控串联电容器有更好的效果.

  2. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Snoek, Govert J; Kouwenhoven, Mirjam; Nene, Anand V; Jannink, Michiel J A

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation); however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval) with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shoulder joints and muscle activation were measured and compared. Seven subjects reduced elbow extension (range 1.8°-4.5°) during the maximal reaching task with gravity compensation. In the reach and retrieval task with gravity compensation, all subjects decreased elbow extension (range 0.1°-11.0°). Eight subjects executed movement closer to the body. Regarding muscle activation, gravity compensation did not influence timing; however, the amplitude of activation decreased, especially in antigravity muscles, namely mean change +/- standard deviation of descending part of trapezius (18.2% +/- 37.5%), anterior part of deltoid (37.7% +/- 16.7%), posterior part of deltoid (32.0% +/- 13.9%), and long head biceps (49.6% +/- 20.0%). Clinical implications for the use of gravity compensation in rehabilitation (during activities of daily living or exercise therapy) should be further investigated with a larger population.

  3. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: An explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke G . M. Kloosterman, PT, MSc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI use arm support (gravity compensation; however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shoulder joints and muscle activation were measured and compared. Seven subjects reduced elbow extension (range 1.8°-4.5° during the maximal reaching task with gravity compensation. In the reach and retrieval task with gravity compensation, all subjects decreased elbow extension (range 0.1°-11.0°. Eight subjects executed movement closer to the body. Regarding muscle activation, gravity compensation did not influence timing; however, the amplitude of activation decreased, especially in antigravity muscles, namely mean change +/- standard deviation of descending part of trapezius (18.2% +/- 37.5%, anterior part of deltoid (37.7% +/- 16.7%, posterior part of deltoid (32.0% +/- 13.9%, and long head biceps (49.6% +/- 20.0%. Clinical implications for the use of gravity compensation in rehabilitation (during activities of daily living or exercise therapy should be further investigated with a larger population.

  4. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zheng; He, Yuan; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the accelerator driven sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with continuous wave (CW) operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple proportional plus integral and deviation (PID) feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of proportional and integral (PI) feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7% after turning on this control algorithm. The design and experimental results of this system are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  5. A phantom study of dose compensation behind hip prosthesis using portal dosimetry and dynamic MLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: A dose compensation method is presented for patients with hip prosthesis based on Dynamic Multi Leaves Collimator (DMLC) planning. Calculations are done from an exit Portal Dose Image (PDI) from 6 MV Photon beam using an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) from Varian. Four different hip prostheses are used for this work. Methods: From an exit PDI the fluence needed to yield a uniform dose distribution behind the prosthesis is calculated. To back-project the dose distribution through the phantom, the lateral scatter is removed by deconvolution with a point spread function (PSF) determined for depths from 10 to 40 cm. The dose maximum, Dmax, is determined from the primary plan which delivers the PDI. A further deconvolution to remove the dose glare effect in the EPID is performed as well. Additionally, this calculated fluence distribution is imported into the Treatment Planning System (TPS) for the final calculation of a DMLC plan. The fluence file contains information such as the relative central axis (CAX) position, grid size and fluence size needed for correct delivery of the DMLC plan. GafChromic EBT films positioned at 10 cm depth are used as verification of uniform dose distributions behind the prostheses. As the prosthesis is positioned at the phantom surface the dose verifications are done 10 cm from the prosthesis. Conclusion: The film measurement with 6 MV photon beam shows uniform doses within 5% for most points, but with hot/cold spots of 10% near the femoral head prostheses

  6. Study on High-order Polarization Mode Dispersion and its Compensation Method in High-speed Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of high-speed, long-distance optical fiber communication systems, single-mode fiber polarization mode dispersion (PMD: Polarization mode dispersion becomes one of the important factor limiting high-speed, long-distance optical fiber transmission. Polarization mode dispersion can cause pulse broadening in thedigital transmission system, result inter-symbol interference in digital communications, has seriously affected the quality of signal transmission. Because PMD has statistical properties under external influences during transmission, polarization mode dispersion compensation technology is much more complex than chromatic dispersion compensation techniques. This paper mainly discusses PMD and high-order PMD compensation method, simulate the first order PMD statistical properties, second order PMD statistical properties, and the broaden factor under un-compensation, the first-order compensation, the second-order compensation and the third-order compensation. the simulations have obtained that the compensation method based on center frequency Taylor series expansion does not apply to large PMD pulse-width ratio, but the high-order PMD compensation method based on the average frequency can reduce the broadening factor.

  7. Reducing workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, M J

    1994-01-01

    Employers can reduce their workers' compensation costs by encouraging internal communication and education before and after injuries occur. Comprehensive workers' compensation programs can be developed by integrating the management of employee benefits and workers' compensation claims. PMID:10133659

  8. Review of Studies on Compensation Mechanism for Farmland Protection%耕地保护补偿机制研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2012-01-01

    从耕地保护补偿的理论基础、耕地外部效益及政府市场双重失灵与市场补偿的关系、与耕地保护补偿相关的政策措施、耕地保护补偿机制设计方面对已有的研究进行了回顾与分析,结果表明:随着耕地保护逐渐成为国家和社会关注的焦点和热点问题,耕地保护制度的相关研究有了长足的发展,其中在市场补偿方面尤其在耕地保护补偿的研究取得了上很大的成就,但是在研究内容、范围和方法层面仍存在改进空间,有待进一步探讨.%The paper reviews and analyzes the existing studies on the following four aspects: the theoretical basis of compensation for farmland protection; the relationship among external benefits of cultivated land, dual failure of the government and market compensation; policies and measures ralated to market compensation design of compensation mechanism for farmland protection. As indicated by the results, since farmland protection is gradually becoming the national and social focus, the relevant studies on farmland protection system have developed rapidly, great achievements have been made in the studies on market compensation especially the compensation for farmland compensation, but the study content, range and methods still need to be improved and discussed.

  9. Can 'football-team color-code' compensate for anomia? The case study of FN, a patient with color anomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, R; Aretouli, E; Loukopoulou, E; Parissis, D; Ioannides, P; Karakostas, D

    2005-06-01

    A case study is reported on large ischemic infracts involving cortical and subcortical areas of the parietal lobes bilaterally, especially left temporo-parietal and right parietal. On examination, the diagnosis of vascular dementia with color anomia, optic aphasia for colors, was established. The patient (FN) showed great difficulty in understanding a scene as a whole and in describing complex scenes. FN's oral comprehension skills at word and sentence level were satisfactory and he exhibited communicative effectiveness during conversation. He could read letter by letter, but could not make simple judgments of shapes. FN exhibited a marked inability to name colors presented to him visually and to indicate or point to the color requested from the examiner. The most interesting of all the patient's characteristics was the strategy--a football-team color-code--he had developed for compensating for his inability to name colors.

  10. A study of influences of the workers' compensation and injury management regulations on aviation safety at a workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devinder K; Nikraz, Hamid; Chen, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    As the aviation industries developed, so too did the recognition that there must be an effective regulatory framework to address issues related to the workers' compensation and rehabilitation. All employees would like to work and return home safely from their workplace. Therefore, the efficient management of workplace injury and disease reduces the cost of aviation operations and improves flight safety. Workers' compensation and injury management laws regulate a majority of rehabilitation and compensation issues, but achieving an injury-free workplace remains a major challenge for the regulators. This paper examines the clauses of the workers' compensation and injury management laws of Western Australia related to workplace safety, compensation, and rehabilitations of the injured workers. It also discusses various provisions of common law under the relevant workers' health injury management legislations.

  11. Executive Compensation Concentration and Institutional Ownership Power

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Tingting Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine whether institutional shareholders prefer concentrated or dispersed executive compensation structure. To address this question, we study the relationship between executive compensation concentration and institutional ownership power because institutional investors can influence executive compensation more when they have more power. We measure institutional ownership power using institutional ownership level and institutional ownership concentration. We find a signifi...

  12. BOARD STRUCTURE AND CEO COMPENSATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anjam, Zeshan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between board structure (non executive directors, executive directors and independent non executive directors) and CEO compensation, in the context of an emerging and developing economy of Pakistan in year 2009. Most of the previous studies about board structure and CEO compensation are based in developed economies but this study is about a developing and emerging economy Pakistan and possibly this attempt will contributes to literature. Data for 86 listed...

  13. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  14. CEO Compensation and Bank Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Athar, Iqbal; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Ali, Saffar

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to discover the determinants of compensation of the chief executive officers in the banking industry of Pakistan. Accounting based performance measures and size of the firm have been used as predictors. Results of the study are consistent with arguments, suggesting significant and positive impact of size (assets) of the firm on CEO compensation while no association is found with either of the performance measure of the firm except income before tax (IBT). Return on Assets ...

  15. Labor compensation,labor productivity and labor cost advantage—An empirical study of Chinese manufacturing enterprises during 2000-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都阳; 曲玥

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the usual practice of equating wages or labor compensation with labor cost,this paper incorporates labor productivity into an analytical framework and holds that the labor cost advantage is the relative relationship between labor compensation and labor productivity.Based on an empirical study of the data of Chinese manufacturing firms that include all state-owned enterprises and non-state-owned enterprises with their annual revenue greater than 5 million yuan from 2000 to 2007,this paper finds that labor compensation growth was accompanied by faster labor productivity growth.Hence,the labor cost advantage was not weakened during this period.Furthermore,this paper conducts an exploration of how to sustain labor cost advantages in the future and proposes that they can be sustained by upgrading the industrial structure and improving the education system.

  16. On the usability of `compensated temperature` output of Honeywell PPTR sensor for coastal oceanographic and limnological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Vijaykumar, K.; Sundar, D.; Tengali, S.

    Usability of the temperature output, primarily meant for temperature-compensation of the pressure output of Honeywell silicon piezoresistive precision pressure transducer (PPTR) for sea-level measurements, is presented. Laboratory calibration...

  17. Sagittal plane compensations for artificially induced limitation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christine; Nester, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish whether reduced dorsiflexion at the first metatarsophalangeal joint affects sagittal plane kinematics at the ankle, knee, and hip. Twenty individuals with symptom-free metatarsophalangeal joints were studied as they walked with and without an insole designed to restrict first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion. Sagittal plane kinematics at the ankle, knee, and hip were compared in the two conditions. When walking with the insole, the ankle was more dorsiflexed during late midstance and less plantarflexed during propulsion, the knee was more flexed during midstance, and the hip was less extended during late midstance. This evidence of a link between the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the kinematics of the proximal joints demonstrates the potential for the clinical entities of hallux rigidus and hallux limitus to influence gait and justifies more detailed study of this relationship. PMID:15153589

  18. A Study of Learner-Oriented Negative Emotion Compensation in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiwei; Zheng, Qinghua; Li, Haifei

    2014-01-01

    E-learning provides an unprecedented flexibility and convenience for e-learners by breaking the limitations of space and time. However, the role of emotion is neglected in current e-learning systems. We focus strictly on negative emotions of e-learners, integrating emotion regulation theories with recommender technique, and present the study of…

  19. 永定河流域水生态补偿标准研究%Water related eco-compensation standard study for the Yongding River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付意成; 阮本清; 许凤冉; 储立民

    2012-01-01

    Water related eco-compensation is an important approach to prevent water environmental deterio- ration and realize watershed sustainable development. Compensation standard calculation is the key to as- sess environmental compensation feasibility in specific district. In view of the defects during watershed eco-compensation process, this paper provides the compensation standard implementation foundation consider- ing the theoretical system, management system and operation mechanism at present. Taking the Yongding River basin as the study area, the water related eco-compensation standard conceptual framework was estab- lished. According to the indiscerptible attribute of water quantity and quality, watershed compensation stan- dard was illustrated by considering water price and the outflow in the main stream of Yongding River. A set of alternative equations for water quantity compensation under different rainfall probability were devel- oped. Taking into account water quality class llI as the standard of water quality control, the treatment cost for the contaminated water body was estimated.%生态补偿是用水竞争激烈的流域遏制水环境恶化趋势,实现向可持续开发利用转变的重要手段。生态补偿标准的核算是实施生态补偿的关键环节。针对流域水生态补偿实施中的不足,借鉴国内外在理论体系、管理体制、运行机制相关层面的研究成果,构建了完善补偿标准的理论框架。以永定河流域为研究对象,给出了流域水生态补偿标准的实施依据。并根据水量水质不可分割特性,给出了跨区域的水量、水质补偿标准测算方法,探讨了基于污染物处理水平的补偿标准计算过程。最后针对补偿标准测算中出现的问题,给出了完善流域水生生态补偿机制的建议。

  20. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Caitlin E Jacobs; Main, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    Calf (Bos taurus) depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2) develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model co...

  1. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Gruse

    Full Text Available Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day. Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin

  2. 电容器串联补偿系统电磁暂态仿真研究%Study on Electromagnetic Transient Simulation of Series Compensation Capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓琴; 苟锐锋; 李琳; 杨帆; 吴鹏岗

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the 500 kV series compensation line,this paper describes how to build the series compensator capacitor system models to realize the electromagnetic transient simulation study by applying EMTDC software. The research mainly includes the constructing of the main circuit of series compensation capacitors system, the selection of the typical fault cases, the simulation of the transient characteristics, and other related contents, so that it will be used to decide the key technical parameters of series compensation system equipments by transient simulation analyzing and studying.%本文以500 kV 电容器串联补偿线路系统为研究目标,应用电磁暂态软件EMTDC构建电容器串联补偿系统模型,进行电容器串联补偿系统仿真研究,主要包括串联电容器补偿系统主回路的建立、典型故障工况的选择及暂态特性的仿真等相关内容。通过进行串联电容器补偿系统暂态仿真分析和研究,确定串联电容器补偿系统组成设备的主要技术参数。

  3. A case study of a team-based, quality-focused compensation model for primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Overton, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    In 2011, Fairview Health Services began replacing their fee-for-service compensation model for primary care providers (PCPs), which included an annual pay-for-performance bonus, with a team-based model designed to improve quality of care, patient experience, and (eventually) cost containment. In-depth interviews and an online survey of PCPs early after implementation of the new model suggest that it quickly changed the way many PCPs practiced. Most PCPs reported a shift in orientation toward quality of care, working more collaboratively with their colleagues and focusing on their full panel of patients. The majority reported that their quality of care had improved because of the model and that their colleagues' quality had to. The comprehensive change did, however, result in lower fee-for-service billing and reductions in PCP satisfaction. While Fairview's compensation model is still a work in progress, their early experiences can provide lessons for other delivery systems seeking to reform PCP compensation.

  4. Study on Total Compensation Optimization Based on Employees' Needs%基于员工需求的全面薪酬方案优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周箴; 杨柳青

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of total compensation optimization based on employees' needs, this paper tries to build optimization model of total compensation, which studies the optimal solution of total compensation components from the perspective of employees' utilization. The results show that general staff in the corporate tends to choose cash-based total compensation components, e. g. salary, supplemental pension, rather than health insurance and annual leave. In addition, the results also show that employees' preference analysis can not represent employees' utilization analysis.%针对以员工需求为出发点的全面薪酬方案的优化问题,通过构建全面薪酬方案优化模型,从员工效用角度研究全面薪酬要素的最佳组合,并以某零售公司为样本进行了实证研究.研究结果表明,企业中的普通员工通常都倾向于选择货币化的全面薪酬要素,比如现金收入、补充养老金等,而相对忽略健康保险、年休假等非货币要素.另外,研究结果还表明员工偏好分析不能完全代表员工效用分析.

  5. Compensating for non-response in a study estimating the incidence of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence by a two-phased design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The study compensates for the non-response that was observed in a previous study that estimated the frequencies of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA) (more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence). In this study, the frequency of any mental disorder was estimated...... at 48% by a two-phase design and weighted logistic regression. The total non-response rate was 53.6%. This motivated the present study to compensate for non-response by applying adjustment of the weights and by multiple imputation of missing data in the estimation of the frequencies of mental disorders...... diagnostic examination applying Present State Examination as gold standard. The weighted analyses were based on scores of the screening instrument SCL-8AD compiled of SCL-8, SCL-ANX4, and SCL-DEP6 from the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire. In the present study, the variables sex, age...

  6. Study on the System of Death for Compensation%死亡赔偿金制度问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文丽

    2015-01-01

    As an important means of relief in Tort Liability Act,the system of death for compensation plays an active role in the remedy for the right to life and protection of human rights.At present,China's system of death compensation faces several problems:calculation method of death compensation is miss-ing,unified standard is difficult to apply,and body of death compensation claims and the rule of mental damages are rough.Therefore,it should be clear that the nature of the death penalty,establishing a reasona-ble calculation standard of death compensation,and perfecting the body of claims of death compensation.%作为《侵权责任法》中一种重要的救济途径,死亡赔偿金制度在生命权救济和人权保障方面发挥着积极作用。目前,我国的死亡赔偿金制度面临死亡赔偿金计算方法缺失、统一死亡赔偿金标准难以适用、死亡赔偿金请求权主体和精神损害赔偿规则粗糙等问题。因此,应明确死亡赔偿金的性质,合理制定死亡赔偿金的计算标准,完善死亡赔偿金的请求权主体。

  7. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would r

  8. Study on the 4×10 Gb/s, 400 km dispersion compensation by chirped optical fiber grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Pei(裴丽); Tigang Ning(宁提纲); Wei Jian(简伟); Tangjun Li(李唐军); Shuisheng Jian(简水生)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the dispersion compensation for 4×10 Gb/s, 400 km G.652 fiber by chirped optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is introduced. For the first time, we have measured and compensated the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) of FBG, which in each channel is less than 1.1 ps. When the bit error rate (BER) is 10-10 and the bit error is zero, the transmission power penalty of each channel is less than 2 dB, and the best result is negative which means that the receiver sensitivity is increased after transmission.

  9. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan; Vahid Rezadoost

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust...

  10. Options in Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Frimor, Hans; Munk, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We derive the optimal compensation contract in a principal–agent setting in which outcome is used to provide incentives for both effort and risky investments. To motivate investment, optimal compensation entails rewards for high as well as low outcomes, and it is increasing at the mean outcome...... to motivate effort. If rewarding low outcomes is infeasible, compensation consisting of stocks and options is a near-efficient means of overcoming the manager's induced aversion to undertaking risky investments, whereas stock compensation is not. However, stock plus option compensation may induce excessively...

  11. Experimental Study on Time-Spread/Wavelength-Hop Optical Code Division Multiplexing with Dispersion-Compensating En/Decoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideaki; Tamai; Hideyuki; Iwamura; Naoki; Minato; Saeko; Oshiba

    2003-01-01

    10Gbit/s time-spread/wavelength-hop optical code generation and decoding are performed by dispersion-compensating fiber Bragg grating (FBG) en/decoder pair. Error-free 10km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission of 10Gbit/s optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) has been experimentally demonstrated.

  12. An Economic Analysis of Compensation for Rural Land Expropriation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To study which method is more effective in complete compensation and zero compensation for rural land expropriation,we use economic models to analyze whether the government is benevolent and which compensation method can achieve the social optimal level.The results show that both complete compensation and zero compensation will lead to over-investment of land owners,and consequently result in loss of social welfare.

  13. Study of stress-induced velocity variation in concrete under direct tensile force and monitoring of the damage level by using thermally-compensated Coda Wave Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Abraham, Odile; Grondin, Frédéric; Loukili, Ahmed; Tournat, Vincent; Le Duff, Alain; Lascoup, Bertrand; Durand, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we describe an experimental study of concrete behavior under a uniaxial tensile load by use of the thermally-compensated Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) analysis. Under laboratory conditions, uniaxial tensile load cycles are imposed on a cylindrical concrete specimen, with continuous ultrasonic measurements being recorded within the scope of bias control protocols. A thermally-compensated CWI analysis of multiple scattering waves is performed in order to evaluate the stress-induced velocity variation. Concrete behavior under a tensile load can then be studied, along with CWI results from both its elastic performance (acoustoelasticity) and plastic performance (microcracking corresponding to the Kaiser effect). This work program includes a creep test with a sustained, high tensile load; the acoustoelastic coefficients are estimated before and after conducting the creep test and then used to demonstrate the effect of creep load. PMID:22989948

  14. Does Miscanthus cultivation on organic soils compensate for carbon loss from peat oxidation? A dual label study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Cédric; Leifeld, Jens; Müller, Moritz; Schulin, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural use of organic soils requires drainage and thereby changes conditions in these soils from anoxic to oxic. As a consequence, organic carbon that had been accumulated over millennia is rapidly mineralized, so that these soils are converted from a CO2 sink to a source. The peat mineralization rate depends mainly on drainage depth, but also on crop type. Various studies show that Miscanthus, a C4 bioenergy plant, shows potential for carbon sequestration in mineral soils because of its high productivity, its dense root system, absence of tillage and high preharvest litterfall. If Miscanthus cropping would have a similar effect in organic soils, peat consumption and thus CO2 emissions might be reduced. For our study we compared two adjacent fields, on which organic soil is cultivated with Miscanthus (since 20 years) and perennial grass (since 6 years). Both sites are located in the Bernese Seeland, the largest former peatland area of Switzerland. To determine wether Miscanthus-derived carbon accumulated in the organic soil, we compared the stable carbon isotopic signatures of the experimental soil with those of an organic soil without any C4-plant cultivation history. To analyze the effect of C4-C accumulation on peat degradability we compared the CO2 emissions by incubating 90 soil samples of the two fields for more than one year. Additionally, we analysed the isotopic CO2 composition (13C, 14C) during the first 25 days of incubation after trapping the emitted CO2 in NaOH and precipitating it as BaCO3. The ∂13C values of the soil imply, that the highest share of C4-C of around 30% is situated at a depth of 10-20 cm. Corn that used to be cultivated on the grassland field before 2009 still accounts for 8% of SOC. O/C and H/C ratios of the peat samples indicate a stronger microbial imprint of organic matter under Miscanthus cultivation. The amount of CO2 emitted was not affected by the cultivation type. On average 57% of the CO2 was C4 derived in the

  15. Economic and financial benefits as a compensation for living near a nuclear power station. A case study of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although dwellers living near a nuclear power station are entitled to economic/financial benefits such as increased job opportunities and local tax revenues pertaining to the power station, it is not clear whether such benefits are appreciated by the dwellers. Two findings of this study based upon a social survey of local dwellers living near the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station are summarized as follows. First, an increase in the per capita sizes of the local tax revenue and national subsidies resulted in a larger share of respondents who thought that those revenues are beneficial. Therefore, local dwellers are aware of the sizes of economic/financial benefits. Second, given the same risk level of nuclear disaster, a larger per capita financial benefit resulted in a larger share of respondents who felt compensated for the nuclear risk. However, this increase in the number of compensated respondents is low relative to the increase in the amount of financial benefits. (author)

  16. Preliminary clinical study of copper compensator in IMRT%铜补偿器IMRT技术的初步临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦远; 王培; 康盛伟; 吴凡; 黄娜; 李建; 黎杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the dosimetry for copper compensator in IMRT.Methods 10 patients (3 nasopharyngeal carcinoma,4 esophageal cancer,3 colorectal cancer) from IMRT plans made in Oncentra Planning System enrolled in this study.The fluence matrices of each plan were converted into compensator thickness matrices based on attenuation coefficient of copper under 6 MV radiation ray which was measured with ion chamber.While irradiating the homogenous phantom with the intensity modulated plans performed by copper compensator,film was used to measure the planar dose.In the end,γanalysis was carried out between the measured and calculated planar doses with the criteria of 3% DD/3 mm DTA.Paired t test to MU differences of MLC plans and copper compensator plans.Results The γanalysis results showed the planar dose pass rates of 10 plans lie between 90.2% and 98.2%,which means the IMRf technique based on copper compensator can meet the clinical needs.The MU for copper compensator IMRT plans is less than the MLC IMRT plans (873.9 vs.975.1,P =0.005).Conclusions Compared to conventional IMRT based on MLC,copper compensator has the advantage of lower requirement of hardware and lower scattering dose in patient.Copper compensator can meet the needs of clinical practice.%目的 初步评价铜补偿器IMRT技术的可行性和临床价值.方法 选取IMRT计划系统中10例肿瘤患者,其中鼻咽癌3例、食管癌4例、直肠癌3例.首先通过电离室测量6 MV射线在一组不同厚度铜板的衰减系数,拟合出厚度计算公式;然后将计划系统导出的计划文件转换为补偿器厚度矩阵,将其导入数控机床完成补偿器切割制作,最后在均匀体模上实施基于补偿器的IMRT计划.采用胶片测量平面剂量,与计划系统计算的平面剂量做3%/3 mm标准下的γ分析.配对t检验MLC计划和铜补偿器计划的机器跳数差异.结果 根据实际测量拟合出的公式准确计算出切割深度,利用计划

  17. Empirical Study on Incentive Mechanism for Compensation of Independent Director%独立董事薪酬激励机制实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建明

    2011-01-01

    Using a econometric model and the data about listed companies in Shanghai Stock Market,this paper studies empirically the factors influencing compensation of independent directors. The result shows as follows: the compensation level of independent directors is positive correlation with that of senior managers and supervisors, and is negative correlation with the shareholding level of senior managers (the compensation level of independent directors in state-owned listed companies is higher than that in non-state-owned listed companies (the enhancing of ownership concentration degree helps to decrease the compensation level of independent directors;performance and general manager turnover have no impacts on it.%利用面板计量模型以及2005-2009年我国沪市上市公司的相关数据,实证检验了上市公司独立董事薪酬的影响因素.研究发现:独立董事的薪酬激励水平与高管薪酬水平、监事薪酬水平显著正相关,与高管持股水平显著负相关;国有上市公司独立董事的薪酬要高于非国有上市公司,股权集中程度的提高会显著降低独立董事的薪酬水平;公司业绩及总经理变更对独立董事薪酬均没有显著影响.

  18. Study on the Design Factors and Modes of Team Compensation Scheme%团队薪酬计划的设计要素与模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正堂; 王亚蓓; 刘宁

    2012-01-01

    团队薪酬计划是发挥团队功效的重要制度保障,但是,关于其设计要素和模式的理论研究还很薄弱。任务互依性是团队工作的基本属性,决定了团队的薪酬互依性,并形成了团队内一次分配和二次分配两个层次。团队薪酬计划的设计包括绩效测量、绩效目标、绩效薪酬敏感性等要素。本文总结归纳了常见的分配模式,一次分配包括基于绝对绩效标准的预算制薪酬计划和基于相对绩效标准的竞赛制薪酬计划两种方式,而二次分配包括平均分配法、绝对贡献分配法和相对贡献分配法三种方式。两个层次不同分配方式的结合,会形成多样的团队薪酬计划模式,每种薪酬计划都有其适用的不同情境。%Almost all organizations employ workgroups or teams. With the increasing emphasis on team-based work, team compensation scheme is an important institutional guarantee for the smooth operation of the team. Researchers have documented a growing interest in group-based compensation, or "pay systems in which group members pay is at least partially contingent on measurable group performance". Substantial field evidence exists for the relationship between group incentives andgroup performance. Empirical evidence at the individual level shows that incentives may influence performance, in part, through their influence on goal setting. Additionally, research has shown how organizational contextual variables such as monetary incentives and self-set goal level instructions influence goal valences. Others have studied processes that mediate the relationship between group goals and group performance. However, there is little theoretical study on the design factors and modes of team compensation scheme so far. Based on the pastcompensation theories and practices, this paper considers that the design factors and modes are theoretical premises of the empirical study on the effects of different team

  19. Prevalence and compensation of academic leaders, professors, and trustees on publicly traded US healthcare company boards of directors: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Timothy S; Good, Chester B

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence, characteristics, and compensation of members of the boards of directors of healthcare industry companies who hold academic appointments as leaders, professors, or trustees. Design Cross sectional study. Setting US healthcare companies publicly traded on the NASDAQ or New York Stock Exchange in 2013. Participants 3434 directors of pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical equipment and supply, and healthcare provider companies. Main outcome measures Prevalence, annual compensation, and beneficial stock ownership of directors with affiliations as leaders, professors, or trustees of academic medical and research institutions. Results 446 healthcare companies met the study search criteria, of which 442 (99%) had publicly accessible disclosures on boards of directors. 180 companies (41%) had one or more academically affiliated directors. Directors were affiliated with 85 geographically diverse non-profit academic institutions, including 19 of the top 20 National Institute of Health funded medical schools and all of the 17 US News honor roll hospitals. Overall, these 279 academically affiliated directors included 73 leaders, 121 professors, and 85 trustees. Leaders included 17 chief executive officers and 11 vice presidents or executive officers of health systems and hospitals; 15 university presidents, provosts, and chancellors; and eight medical school deans or presidents. The total annual compensation to academically affiliated directors for their services to companies was $54 995 786 (£35 836 000; €49 185 900) (median individual compensation $193 000) and directors beneficially owned 59 831 477 shares of company stock (median 50 699 shares). Conclusions A substantial number and diversity of academic leaders, professors, and trustees hold directorships at US healthcare companies, with compensation often approaching or surpassing common academic clinical salaries. Dual obligations to for profit company

  20. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own di

  1. Medical leadership compensation framework

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlíř, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    This master thesis deals with outlining the rationale of redesigning medical leadership compensation framework within Interior Health Authority (IH). In particular, reviews IH's organizational structure, analyses job descriptions for medical leaders, recommends improvements of communication flow across the authority and designs medical leader's compensation model.

  2. Multiple Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    2010-01-01

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Data for a sample of UK companies over the period 2003-2006 are analyzed using a variety of econometric methods. We find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant.

  3. 折弯机机械补偿技术研究%Studies of Compensation Technology for Bending Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武锐; 高建和; 方开荣

    2011-01-01

    板料折弯机由于滑块、工作台的挠度变形而引起的模具间的压力不均匀,该问题是导致折弯机折弯精度不高的主要原因.通过弹性力学理论分析,在传统的机械式楔形补偿器机构的基础上,提出了一种恒刚度机械式楔形补偿器,并验证了其压力补偿效果.%The uneven pressure between the moulds of sheet metal bending machine is caused by the deformation deflection of the slider and workbench. So the bending accuracy of the bending machine is always poor. The paper proposes a new structure of the mechanical wedge compensator with constant stiffness based on the traditional structure and elasticity theoretical analysis and rerifies the pressure compensational effect.

  4. Research on the Willingness to Accept Compensation and Compensation Sharing of Returning Land for Farming to Forestry in Zhangjiakou and Chengde Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the willingness to accept compensation and compensation sharing of returning land for farming to forestry in Zhangjiakou and Chengde region.[Method] Based on the investigation of farmers' willingness to accept ecological compensation in Zhangjiakou and Chengde region,farmers' willingness to accept compensation was quantized,and the calculation model of sharing rate of ecological compensation was established,finally the sharing rate of ecological compensation was calculated c...

  5. 中美上市家族企业薪酬机制的比较研究%The Comparative Study on Compensation Mechanism in Listed Family Business between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建林

    2011-01-01

    从年度报酬、持股水平、薪酬差距角度出发,分析中美两国上市家族企业的薪酬机制结构、激励效果及其异同,提出完善中国上市家族企业薪酬机制的努力方向。%The paper studies the difference of compensation mechanism structure and its effects in listed family business between China and America.The compensation mechanism includes annual pay,shareholding level and compensation gap.Finally,Based on the conclusion

  6. 薪酬激励与管理者过度自信——基于薪酬行为观的研究%Executive Compensation and Managerial Overconfidence:Study from the Angle of Compensation-based Behavioral View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文芳; 汤四新

    2012-01-01

    行为是制度与绩效的中介,由于忽视了薪酬对参与者心理和行为的影响,传统代理理论框架下薪酬合约的激励效果是不明确的。文章实证检验了薪酬激励对管理者自信程度的作用。研究发现,薪酬(无论薪酬水平还是薪酬差距)是管理者自信程度的重要影响因素。与非国有上市公司相比,在国有上市公司中薪酬激励对管理者自信程度的正向促进作用更为显著;公司所在地市场化进程较高时,薪酬激励对管理者自信程度也具有更为显著的正向促进作用。%Behavior is the intermediary between institution and perform ance. Owing to a neglect of the effect of compensation on participants psy chology and behavior, the incentive effects of compensation contracts under traditional agency theory framework are ambiguous. This paper empirically studies the effect of executive compensation on managerial confidence. It shows that executive compensation, whether compensation level or compen sation gap between managers, is an important factor influencing managerial confidence. Compared with nonstateowned listed companies, executive compensation in stateowned listed companies has a more significantly posi tive effect on managerial confidence; higher degree of marketization in the company location leads to a more significantly positive effect of executive compensation on managerial confidence.

  7. Turbulence compensation: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Schutte, Klamer; Dijk, Judith; Schwering, Piet B. W.; van Iersel, Miranda; Doelman, Niek J.

    2012-06-01

    In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification over larger distances. In many (military) scenarios this is of crucial importance. In this paper we give an overview of several software and hardware approaches to compensate for the visual artifacts caused by turbulence. These approaches are very diverse and range from the use of dedicated hardware, such as adaptive optics, to the use of software methods, such as deconvolution and lucky imaging. For each approach the pros and cons are given and it is indicated for which scenario this approach is useful. In more detail we describe the turbulence compensation methods TNO has developed in the last years and place them in the context of the different turbulence compensation approaches and TNO's turbulence compensation roadmap. Furthermore we look forward and indicate the upcoming challenges in the field of turbulence compensation.

  8. PRESSURE COMPENSATION METHOD OF UNDERWATER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM WITH HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT BEING UNDER ATMOSPHERIC CIRCUMSTANCE AND PRESSURE COMPENSATED VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qingfeng; Li Yanmin; Zhong Tianyu; Xu Guohua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the-state-of-the-art of pressure compensation of underwater hydraulic systems (UHSs), a new method of pressure compensation of UHSs, whose hydraulic power unit is in the atmospheric circumstance, is proposed. And a pilot-operated relief valve with pressure compensation is realized. The pressure compensation precision is guaranteed by direct detection. Its dynamic performance and stability are improved by a dynamic feedback. Theoretical study, simulation and experiment show that the pilot-operated relief valve with pressure compensation has a fine property of tracking underwater ambient pressure and meet the requirement of underwater ambient pressure compensation.

  9. ECOLOGICAL COMPENSATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE ENVIRONMENT, DUE TO THE HEATING OF BUILDINGS CASE STUDY: ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT THE FACULTY OF SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicerone Marinescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find a green way to reduce the carbon dioxide released into the environment due to the heating system for buildings. The amount of carbon dioxide is 10500 kg per year for University of Pitesti. For compensation this is necessary to plant trees around the building of Faculty of Sciences. We studied about the advantages of Paulownia trees in terms of absorption of carbon dioxide and quick-growing speed. In the first three years they reach maturity and have a height of about 20 meters. Our researches estimate that a number of 40 Paulownia trees could eliminate this pollution.

  10. A General Theoretical Model of Enthalpy-EntropyCompensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Lei; GUO, Qing-Xiang

    2001-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation remains a mystery in chemistry and biophysics.recent study suggested that the solventreorganization might constitute the physical orihin of the compensation, which was unforumstely not wisely applicable because compensation was also observeserved in solid phade reactions.In this study,a general theoretical model based upon strictmathematical deduction was presented,which indicated thatthe redistribution of the distinguishable subspecies might bethe physical origin of the enthalpy-intropy compensations in solvation and surface adsorption weue discussed.

  11. The Land Compensation Status Analysis and the Compensation Principle Study for Reservoir Immigrant Settlement Areas%水库移民安置区土地补偿现状与补偿原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈银蓉; 梅昀; 刘灵辉; 李进军

    2012-01-01

    With the change of rural land system, the land compensation of immigrant resettlement areas has significance to coordinate the interests balance between the relevant subjects in reservoir resettlement. Based on field investigation, this paper analyzes the present situation and problems of the land compensation of immigrant settlement areas. Then using land property rights theory and welfare economics theory, it illustrates the fundamental principle of land compensation in resettlement areas from the aspect of compensation reasons, scopes and principles. Finally it puts forward some policy suggestions, including improving the relevant laws and regulations, coordinating the stakeholders' relationship of hydropower engineering construction, balancing the benefits between benefited party and injured party, reflecting the farmland value and etc. The results indicate; ①The land compensation of immigrant resettlement areas doesn't reflect the protection of land rights in terms of the existing law and real received compensation. ②The collective and residents in resettlement should receive appropriate equity compensation. The compensation range involves both the transfer of land use right and change in the rights distribution of jointly owned land ownership. ③ As for the construction and improvement of land system, the compensation standard should be determined according to land resources in resettlement areas and the condition of transfer land, the collective and residents in flooded area and resettlement area should get the equal compensation, and the value of agricultural land should be achieved.%随着农村土地制度的变化,安置区土地补偿问题对于协调水库移民安置中各相关主体之间的利益平衡具有重要的意义.本文基于实地调查,首先分析了水库移民安置区土地补偿的现状和存在的问题;其次,运用土地产权理论和福利经济理论,从安置区土地补偿的原因、范围和补偿原则等方面

  12. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... are based on misconceptions and do not apply to compensation of present actual harm. Finally, two arguments are presented to the effect that, in so far as developed countries accept a major commitment to mitigate climate change, they should also accept a commitment to address or compensate actual harm from...... climate change. The first argument appeals to the principle that if it is an injustice to cause risk of incurring harm in the future, then it is also an injustice to cause a similar harm now. The second argument appeals to the principle that if there is moral reason to reduce the risk of specific harms...

  13. Study of thermal compensation of corrugated pipe%波节换热管热补偿性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志力; 冯兴奎; 黄荔烈

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study of thermal compensation of corrugated pipes is carried out by measuring the stress and stiffness.The experimental and analytical results show that the axial rigidity of the corrugated pipe is 23.0 percent of the bare pipe with the same thickness and diameter,and the thermal compensation performance of the former is 2.27 times the latter’s under equal-stress condition.By using corrugated pipe bundle instead of the bare pipe bundle with the same stiffness as its tube sheet,the axial thermal compensation can be increased by 40.4 percent,and the corresponding pulling-out force is 53.2 percent of that of the bare pipe bundle.The above conclusions provide basis for the design of the bellows heat exchangers.%通过轴向刚度与应力的测试,对波节换热管的轴向热补偿性能进行了试验研究。研究结果表明,波节换热管单管的刚度为相应光管的23.4%;在最大应力相同的条件下,波节换热管的轴向热补偿量为相应光管的2.27倍;在光管管束与壳体等刚度条件下,用波节管管束代替光管管束,轴向热补偿量可提高40.4%,相应的拉脱力为光管管束的53.2%。这一结论为波纹管换热器的应用提供了有效的设计依据。

  14. ACTS Rain Fade Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, Thom A.

    1996-01-01

    Performance status of the Adaptive Rain Fade Compensation includes: (1) The rain fade protocol is functional detecting fades, providing an additional 10 dB of margin and seamless transitions to and from coded operation; (2) The stabilization of the link margins and the optimization of rain fade decision thresholds has resulted in improved BER performance; (3) Characterization of the fade compensation algorithm is ongoing.

  15. Optimal Sales Force Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Kräkel; Anja Schöttner

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic moral-hazard model to derive optimal sales force compensation plans without imposing any ad hoc restrictions on the class of feasible incentive contracts. We explain when the compensation plans that are most common in practice - fixed salaries, quota-based bonuses, commissions, or a combination thereof - are optimal. Fixed salaries are optimal for small revenue-cost ratios. Quota-based bonuses (commissions) should be used if the revenue-cost ratio takes intermediate (larg...

  16. Essays in Executive Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is made of three empirical research papers focused on executive compensation topics. The first chapter is a solo paper, while the second and third papers are co-authored with Antonio Parbonetti. The first chapter answers to Bushman and Smith’s (2001) call for research on compensation of executives other than CEOs. Specifically, using a sample of 586 firm-year observations over the period 2000-2009, I investigate the economic determinants and effects on shareholder va...

  17. The economic consequences of executive compensation disclosure: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Lofruthe, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Executive compensation frequently makes headlines in both academic journals and the yellow press. From the academic point of view, executive compensation has its grounds in agency theory. Effective compensation schemes align the interests of managers and owners and motivate managers to maximize shareholder value. Disclosure of compensation schemes enables shareholders to evaluate the remuneration contracts’ adequacy. In 2005, the German legislator created a natural exp...

  18. Review of studies validating the protective efficacy of a new technology designed to compensate adverse biological effects caused by vdu and GSM cell phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 13 studies were initiated and coordinated by Technolab Research Center in 6 laboratories from 3 countries (France, UK, Japan). These studies were aimed at: 1) investigating potential adverse biological effects associated with exposure to non ionizing radiation emitted by two types of communication devices, video display units and cell phones; 2) assessing the efficacy of a compensation magnetic oscillating technology designed to protect from non ionizing radiation. Five types of biological systems including chicken embryos, young chickens, healthy mice, mice suffering from cancer and humans were used. A set of 10 biological parameters were assessed, including embryonic mortality, hormones, antibodies, haematological parameters, stress, mood, ocular damage, neurogenesis, micronuclei formation and intracellular calcium. Overall endpoints were affected by irradiation, in terms of increased embryonic mortality, immune depression, depletion of hormones crucial for the regulation of the immune system, changes in haematological parameters, increased stress, mood alteration, induction of ophthalmologic disorders, inhibition of the neurogenesis in brain areas associated with memory processes, induction of symptoms of cell dysfunction, apoptosis or cancer, and disruption of trans-membrane fluxes of calcium. On the other hand, the compensation magnetic oscillation technology tested allowed significant correction of altered physiological parameters, as well as improvement or disappearance of observed pathological symptoms (author)

  19. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy

  20. Executive Compensation and Financial Performance in the Real Estate Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Barbara J.; Roger M. Shelor

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between financial performance, firm size, and executive compensation among firms in the real estate industry. Previous analyses of compensation have not been industry specific. The findings indicate that there is a significant relationship between executive compensation and measures of financial performance, firm size, and age of the highest paid executive.

  1. An fMRI Study of Nonverbally Gifted Reading Disabled Adults: Has Deficit Compensation Effected Gifted Potential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Gilger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience has advanced our understanding of the neurological basis of reading disability. Yet, no functional imaging work has been reported on the twice-exceptional dyslexic: individuals exhibiting both nonverbal-giftedness and reading disability (RD. We compared groups of reading-disabled (RD, nonverbally-gifted (G, nonverbally-gifted-RD (GRD, and control (C adults on validated word-rhyming and spatial visualization fMRI tasks, and standardized psychometric tests, to ascertain if the neurological functioning of GRD subjects was similar to that of typical RD or G subjects, or perhaps some unique RD subtype. Results demonstrate that GRD adults resemble non-gifted reading disabled (RD adults in performance on paper-and-pencil reading, math and spatial tests, and in patterns of functional activation during rhyming and spatial processing. Data are consistent with what may be a shared etiology of reading disability and giftedness in GRD individuals that yields a lifespan interaction with reading compensation effects, modifying how their adult brain processes text and spatial stimuli.

  2. An fMRI study of nonverbally gifted reading disabled adults: has deficit compensation effected gifted potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.; Talavage, Thomas M.; Olulade, Olumide A.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience has advanced our understanding of the neurological basis of reading disability (RD). Yet, no functional imaging work has been reported on the twice-exceptional dyslexic: individuals exhibiting both non-verbal-giftedness and RD. We compared groups of reading-disabled (RD), non-verbally-gifted (G), non-verbally-gifted-RD (GRD), and control (C) adults on validated word-rhyming and spatial visualization fMRI tasks, and standardized psychometric tests, to ascertain if the neurological functioning of GRD subjects was similar to that of typical RD or G subjects, or perhaps some unique RD subtype. Results demonstrate that GRD adults resemble non-gifted RD adults in performance on paper-and-pencil reading, math and spatial tests, and in patterns of functional activation during rhyming and spatial processing. Data are consistent with what may be a shared etiology of RD and giftedness in GRD individuals that yields a lifespan interaction with reading compensation effects, modifying how their adult brain processes text and spatial stimuli. PMID:24009572

  3. An fMRI study of nonverbally gifted reading disabled adults: has deficit compensation effected gifted potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W; Talavage, Thomas M; Olulade, Olumide A

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience has advanced our understanding of the neurological basis of reading disability (RD). Yet, no functional imaging work has been reported on the twice-exceptional dyslexic: individuals exhibiting both non-verbal-giftedness and RD. We compared groups of reading-disabled (RD), non-verbally-gifted (G), non-verbally-gifted-RD (GRD), and control (C) adults on validated word-rhyming and spatial visualization fMRI tasks, and standardized psychometric tests, to ascertain if the neurological functioning of GRD subjects was similar to that of typical RD or G subjects, or perhaps some unique RD subtype. Results demonstrate that GRD adults resemble non-gifted RD adults in performance on paper-and-pencil reading, math and spatial tests, and in patterns of functional activation during rhyming and spatial processing. Data are consistent with what may be a shared etiology of RD and giftedness in GRD individuals that yields a lifespan interaction with reading compensation effects, modifying how their adult brain processes text and spatial stimuli.

  4. Epigenetic Variation May Compensate for Decreased Genetic Variation with Introductions: A Case Study Using House Sparrows (Passer domesticus on Two Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W. Schrey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms impact several phenotypic traits and may be important for ecology and evolution. The introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus exhibits extensive phenotypic variation among and within populations. We screened methylation in populations from Kenya and Florida to determine if methylation varied among populations, varied with introduction history (Kenyan invasion <50 years old, Florida invasion ~150 years old, and could potentially compensate for decrease genetic variation with introductions. While recent literature has speculated on the importance of epigenetic effects for biological invasions, this is the first such study among wild vertebrates. Methylation was more frequent in Nairobi, and outlier loci suggest that populations may be differentiated. Methylation diversity was similar between populations, in spite of known lower genetic diversity in Nairobi, which suggests that epigenetic variation may compensate for decreased genetic diversity as a source of phenotypic variation during introduction. Our results suggest that methylation differences may be common among house sparrows, but research is needed to discern whether methylation impacts phenotypic variation.

  5. Bank Efficiency and Executive Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy King; Jonathan Williams

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether handsomely rewarding bank executives’ realizes superior efficiency by determining if executive remuneration contracts produce incentives that offset potential agency problems and lead to improvements in bank efficiency. We calculate executive Delta and Vega to proxy executives’ risk-taking following changes in their compensation contracts and estimate their relationship with alternative profit efficiency. Our study uses novel instruments to account for the potentially e...

  6. 中美上市公司高管薪酬差距与公司绩效的比较研究%A Comparative Study of Executive Compensation Gap and Firm Performance between U. S. and Chinese Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玲; 黄速建

    2012-01-01

    This research referred to theoretical and empirical studies on executives' compensation gap by Chinese and foreign researchers. Considering the cultural differences between China and U. S. , the research raised several assumptions on the relationship between executive compensation gap and firm performance. In addition, through comparative analysis, it tested the application of Tournament Theory and Behavior Theory to Chinese and U.S. listed companies. The paper collected year 2008 -2010 data from Chinese and U. S. listed companies in Information Technology industry, including 310 valid samples from 170 Chinese listed companies and 93 valid samples from 31 U.S. listed companies. It deployed multiple linear regressions as its research method. The research found that, firstly, the compensation gap among the five highest compensated executives (calculated by subtracting the fifth highest compensation from the top compensation as the absolute value or dividing the fifth highest by the top compensation as the relative ratio) of U. S. listed IT companies was much more widely distributed than that of the Chinese companies'. The 50th percentile of the relative total cash ratio of the fifth highest compensation to the top compensation of the U. S. companies is 0.37, while the 50th percentile of the same ratio of the Chinese companies stands at 0.64. Thus, U.S. listed IT companies' executives earn a greater amount of tournament prize via promotion than that of executives in Chinese companies. Secondly, for U.S. companies, in the cases of ROA and ROE as the dependent variables respectively, both correlation tests and multiple linear regressions results prove that executive base salary gap had negative correlation with firm performance, while total cash gap had positive association with firm performance, no matter the gap calculated in terms of absolute value or relative ratio. The result suggested the relationship of U. S. companies' executve total cash

  7. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  8. Compensation for occupational diseases in the RSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J E; Garisch, D; Cornell, J E

    1987-03-01

    Compensation legislation for occupational disease in the RSA is at present complex and non-uniform, and the administrative bodies that process compensation claims are understaffed. In this setting occupational disease, particularly in migrant workers who are often ignorant of their rights under the law, frequently goes uncompensated. General practitioners and medical officers need to be aware of the basic provisions in the law, and how to submit claims in the best interests of their patients. Some case studies are included to illustrate problematic areas. The responsibilities of doctors in the diagnosis and compensation of occupational diseases are addressed.

  9. The basic study of a bi-material range compensator for improving dose uniformity for proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yoshihisa; Himukai, Takeshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Terashita, Yohsuke; Kamimura, Satoshi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Hotta, Kenji; Kohno, Ryosuke; Komori, Masataka; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2008-10-01

    A range compensator (abbreviated as a RC hereafter) is used to form a conformal dose distribution for heavy-charged-particle therapy. However, it induces distortion of the dose distribution. The induced inhomogeneity may result in a calibration error of a monitor unit (MU) assigned to a transmission ionization chamber. By using a bi-material RC made from a low-Z material and a high-Z material instead of the regular RC, the dose inhomogeneity has been obviously reduced by equalizing the lateral dose distributions formed by pencil beams traversing elements of the RC with different base thicknesses at the same water-equivalent depth. We designed and manufactured a 4 x 4 matrix-shaped single-material RC and a bi-material RC with the same range losses at corresponding elements of the RCs. The bi-material RC is made from chemical wood (the main chemical component is an ABS resin) as a low-Z material and from brass as a high-Z material. Sixteen segments of the RC are designed so that the range-loss differences of the adjacent segments of the RC range from 0 to 50 mm in steps of 5 mm. We measured dose distributions in water formed by a 160 MeV proton beam traversing the single-material RC or the bi-material RC, using the HIMAC biology beam port. Large dips and bumps were observed in the dose distribution formed by the use of the single-material RC; the dose uniformity has been significantly improved in the target region by the use of the bi-material RC. The improvement has been obtained at the expense of blurring lateral penumbra. For clinical application of this method to a patient with large density inhomogeneity, a simple modification method of the original calculation model has been given.

  10. Compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To secure fair and efficient compensation for damage likely to be caused by the utilisation of nuclear energy, a special civil liability regime was set up by several international conventions. Three of these conventions are in force and Spain is a Contracting Party to all three. The principles established in the first instance at European level by the Paris Convention (absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, limitation of such liability, compulsory insurance...) are intended to guarantee that possible victims of a nuclear incident will obtain compensation for damage suffered. The Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention provides for official funds to compensate victims through intervention by the Contracting Parties. Each Contracting Party should implement these Conventions at national level by appropriate legislation, which is what Spain did with its Act on Nuclear Energy of 29th April 1964, as supplemented in 1967 by the Regulations on Cover for Nuclear Hazards. (N.E.A.)

  11. Spin compensation temperature in the Monte Carlo study of a mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on the decorated triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.

    2016-07-01

    Mixed-spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising model on the decorated triangular lattice is studied by the use of Monte Carlo simulation. Within this approach, the results for the ground-state of the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic of decorated triangular lattice are obtained. The reduced transition temperature of each sublattice are obtained. The reduced temperature of compensation is also obtained. The thermal total ratio of magnetic susceptibilities of sublattices is given. The effect of crystal field and exchange interactions on the magnetization of the system are detailed. The magnetic hysteresis cycles are found for different values of exchanges interactions between the same lattice and the two sublattices different, for different crystal filed and temperatures. In addition, very weak exchange interactions and for a higher temperatures and a higher crystal filed values the decorated triangular lattice has been exhibited the superparamagnetic behavior.

  12. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  13. Empirical Evidence of Recurring International Compensation Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Harvey

    1993-01-01

    The expansion of international business necessitates an increased number of employees based in foreign markets. These expatriates, nationals and third-country nationals represent unique and complex compensation problems. This article addresses five of the recurring compensation problems reported by members of the Society for Human Resource Management International (SHRMI) in a recent survey.© 1993 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1993) 24, 785–799

  14. Compensation and Incentives in German Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz Heimes; Steffen Seemann

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze executive compensation in Germany for the period 2005-2009. We use a self-collected dataset on compensation arrangements in German corporations to estimate the impact of firm performance and firm risk on executive pay. To be in line with earlier studies in this literature, we first measure firm performance and firm risk based on stock market returns. Our findings support the prediction from agency theory that incentive pay decreases with firm risk. We find, however, t...

  15. Compensators for IMRT - an investigation in quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allows dose distributions which adequately consider organs at risk (OAR) and dose homogeneity to the target volume. This is practically reached by conforming the beam profiles to the shape of the planning target volume (PTV), by shaping the fluence with multileaf collimators (MLC) or compensators. Though compensator production is time consuming and seems less convenient than the use of MLC, compensators offer much easier quality assurance. In this study the effects of certain simplifications of compensator production were studied. Compensators were produced and ionization chamber measurements in a water phantom and film measurements in a solid phantom were performed to verify the compensators. The results of the measurements were compared to the fluence distributions given by the planning system. The measurements were meant to show how realistic the investigated simplifications were, and to reveal a suitable and reliable testing method for compensators. Monte-Carlo calculations employing the EGS 4 Code were further performed to support the measurements. (orig.)

  16. A study of benefits compensation mechanism for agricultural water rights trading under the restriction of ecological reconstruction: case study of Shiyang River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural water allocation system based on priority rights has caused regional conJtiets and downstream ecological degradation.It is the urgent need to introduce the concept of the initial water rights and establish benefits compensation mechanism to resolve such problems.This paper takes the Shivang River basin as an example to calculate the opportunity cost of 0.97×108m3 of agricultural water encroached by the middle reach based on initial water right allocation system under which water is allocated in accordance with the ratio between agricultural population of two different regions concerning the downstream ecological reconstruction needs with Bio-economic model (BEM).The results suggest that the total economic loss of Minqin County for ecological econstruction amounts to 2.57×108 yuan,of which 1.68×108 yuan is ecological compensation,representing the economic loss Minqin suffered for ecological reconstruction which should burden beneficial groups of eeological reconstruction and 0.89×108 yuan is the economic loss Minqin suffered due to Liangzhou's encroachment behavior which should be compensated by Liangzhou.

  17. Working and Living in Northern vs Southern Ontario Is Associated with the Duration of Compensated Time off Work: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Senthanar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Northern Ontario, Canada has a larger elder population, more resource-based employment, and limited access to physicians and specialists compared to southern Ontario. Given these important differences, it is possible that work disability rates will vary between the two Ontario jurisdictions.Objective: To determine the association between time lost due to workplace injuries and illnesses occurring in northern vs southern Ontario and work disability duration from 2006– 2011.Methods: The study base included all lost-time claims approved by the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board in Ontario, Canada for workplace injury or illness compensation occurring between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011. All eligible participants had to be 18 years of age or older at the time of making the claim and participants were excluded if one of the three variables used to determine location (claimant home postal code, workplace geographical code, and WSIB firm location were missing. Multivariable proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for sex, age, occupation, part of body, and nature of injury relating Ontario geographical location to compensated time off work.Results: A total of 156 453 lost-time claims were approved over the study period. Injured and ill workers from northern Ontario were 16% less likely to return to work than those from southern Ontario. Adjustment for potential confounding factors had no effect.Conclusion: The disability duration in northern Ontario is longer than that in southern Ontario. Future research should focus on assessing the relevant factors associated with this observation to identify opportunities for intervention.

  18. Coase Competition and Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Hal Varian

    1994-01-01

    I show that the Pigovian solution to a simple externalities problem and a particular Coasian solution can be viewed as competitive equilibria from different initial endowments. I also describe the ``compensation mechanism,'' a mechanism that implements either the Coasian or Pigovian solution as the outcome of an economically natural bargaining game.

  19. A compensation index for multiattribute decision strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koele, P; Westenberg, M R

    1995-09-01

    In multiattribute decision problems, the subject has to evaluate a number of alternatives with given values on a number of attributes, in order to arrive at some conclusion about the attractiveness or utility of these alternatives. The information processing procedure leading to a conclusion is called adecision strategy, and one of the main research topics in multiattribute decision research has been the extent to which these strategies follow compensatory principles. Judges are said to follow compensatory strategies when low values on some attributes are compensated for by high values on other attributes. In process tracing studies using the information board technique, descriptions of decision strategies are usually based on three indices of the information search process:variability of search,search pattern (Payne, 1976), anddepth of search. Variability of search, defined as the standard deviation of the proportion of information searched per alternative, is considered to give an indication of the degree of compensation of a decision strategy, compensation being smaller as variability increases. In this article, we propose an alternative way for establishing the degree of compensation of decision strategies in information board studies. We argue that the degree of compensation depends on both variability of searchand depth of search (the proportion of information searched), and that a valid compensation index has to be a multiplicative function of these two indices.

  20. The Research on the Regulation to the Compensated Utilization of the Resource Assets in Telecommunication Service Industry: Wireless Frequency as a Study Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This Paper focuses on the compensated utilization of resource assets such as wireless frequency. It supplies the methods of estimating value of resource assets based on the analysis of its characteristics. It also analyzes the compensated policy-making and its affects on the Telecommunication Service Providers (TSP) performance gained by using resource assets. The results of the research indicate that the compensated utilization will promote the TSP to improve their economic efficiency, and aid to build a fairer competitive environment in Telecommunication Service Industry (TSI) in China.

  1. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  2. Executive Compensation And Contract-Driven Earnings Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Sun

    2012-01-01

    Earnings management is found to be driven by different managerial incentives. Previous studies have identified that executive compensation contracts create incentives for earnings management. The agency theory and the positive accounting theory provide explanations for contract-driven earnings management. This study links the agency theory and the positive accounting theory and reviews the early executive compensation studies, bonus plan maximisation hypothesis and equity-based compensation. ...

  3. Firm performance and CEO compensation : Determinants of CEO compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Minu; Yavuz, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    CEO compensation is a much discussed concept in the media and in the society in general. The center of the discussion is mostly around the high CEO compensations and the gaps between the compensation to the CEOs and to rest of the employees. As this is an interesting and topical concept, we hence wanted to examine how CEO compensation is determined in firms listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange. We wanted to examine if CEOs actually get their compensation for obtained firm performance, or if ther...

  4. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  5. Neuronal correlates of ADHD in adults with evidence for compensation strategies – a functional MRI study with a Go/No-Go paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Response inhibition impairment is one of the most characteristic symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Thus functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a Go/No-Go task seems to be an ideal tool for examining neuronal correlates of inhibitory control deficits in ADHD. Prior studies have shown frontostriatal abnormalities in children and adolescents. The aim of our study was to investigate whether adults with ADHD would still show abnormal brain activation in prefrontal brain regions during motor response inhibition tasks. Methods: fMRI was used to compare brain activation in 15 untreated adult patients with ADHD and 15 healthy reference volunteers during performance of a Go/No-Go task. Results: In contrast to various other studies with children and adolescents with ADHD, we found no significant difference in the activity of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC or other frontostriatal structures between ADHD and healthy adults. Significantly enhanced activity was found in the parietal cortex, which is known to play an important role in building up attention. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the enhanced activity is due to the ability of adult ADHD patients to compensate their deficits for a short time, which is demonstrated in our study by equal task performance in both groups.

  6. 对数控铣削加工中刀具补偿的探讨%Tool Compensation Study to CNC Milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁增众

    2011-01-01

    合理设置刀具半径补偿值,灵活应用刀具半径补偿功能,对简化数控铣削编程有着非常重要的意义。文章分析常用的刀具半径补偿方式,以FANUCOi系统为例,探讨C刀具半径补偿。%Set a reasonable value for tool radius compensation,tool radius compensation and flexible application,to simplify the programming of CNC milling has very important significance.This paper analyzes the common tool radius compensation,FANUC 0i system as an example to explore the C tool radius compensation.

  7. Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Pulsatile Flow in Bi-leaflet Mechanical Heart Valves with Image Compensation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yubing; Yeo, Tony Joon Hock; Zhao, Yong; Hwang, Ned H. C.

    2006-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is an important technique in studying blood flow in heart valves. Previous PIV studies of flow around prosthetic heart valves had different research concentrations, and thus never provided the physical flow field pictures in a complete heart cycle, which compromised their pertinence for a better understanding of the valvular mechanism. In this study, a digital PIV (DPIV) investigation was carried out with improved accuracy, to analyse the pulsatile flow field ...

  8. Compensating for non-response in a study estimating the incidence of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence by a two-phased design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    at 48% by a two-phase design and weighted logistic regression. The total non-response rate was 53.6%. This motivated the present study to compensate for non-response by applying adjustment of the weights and by multiple imputation of missing data in the estimation of the frequencies of mental disorders....... METHODS: The study took place in a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants. During one year, all 2,414 incident individuals on LSA were identified. By a two-phase design 1,121 individuals were screened in Phase 1. In Phase 2, which was a subsample of Phase 1, 337 individuals participated in a psychiatric...... diagnostic examination applying Present State Examination as gold standard. The weighted analyses were based on scores of the screening instrument SCL-8AD compiled of SCL-8, SCL-ANX4, and SCL-DEP6 from the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire. In the present study, the variables sex, age...

  9. Ultrasound guided fluorescence molecular tomography with improved quantification by an attenuation compensated born-normalization and in vivo preclinical study of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baoqiang; Berti, Romain; Abran, Maxime; Lesage, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.lesage@polymtl.ca [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec H1T 1C8 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Ultrasound imaging, having the advantages of low-cost and non-invasiveness over MRI and X-ray CT, was reported by several studies as an adequate complement to fluorescence molecular tomography with the perspective of improving localization and quantification of fluorescent molecular targets in vivo. Based on the previous work, an improved dual-modality Fluorescence-Ultrasound imaging system was developed and then validated in imaging study with preclinical tumor model. Ultrasound imaging and a profilometer were used to obtain the anatomical prior information and 3D surface, separately, to precisely extract the tissue boundary on both sides of sample in order to achieve improved fluorescence reconstruction. Furthermore, a pattern-based fluorescence reconstruction on the detection side was incorporated to enable dimensional reduction of the dataset while keeping the useful information for reconstruction. Due to its putative role in the current imaging geometry and the chosen reconstruction technique, we developed an attenuation compensated Born-normalization method to reduce the attenuation effects and cancel off experimental factors when collecting quantitative fluorescence datasets over large area. Results of both simulation and phantom study demonstrated that fluorescent targets could be recovered accurately and quantitatively using this reconstruction mechanism. Finally, in vivo experiment confirms that the imaging system associated with the proposed image reconstruction approach was able to extract both functional and anatomical information, thereby improving quantification and localization of molecular targets.

  10. Enhanced job performance: a new role for military compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, James Scott.

    2000-01-01

    This study concentrates on aspects of military and civilian compensation that motivate employees and provide incentives upon which job performance and productivity may depend. The study achieves its end by applying successful attributes of civilian compensation to military remuneration systems. Its main purpose is to judge whether military pay is structured toward a modern view of performance-based compensation and whether it is comparable to civilian pay. At issue is a military pay system th...

  11. Study on Influence on Screw Chiller Performance Through Compensating Vapor in the Course of Compression%中间补气对螺杆冷水机组性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李日华; 张天翼; 杨侨明

    2015-01-01

    Differences of twin screw compressor with and without compensating vapor in the course of compression are studied by simulation and calculation. Data about the influence on performance of compressor by the nozzle loca-tion, the compensating vapor quality, and the compensating vapor pressure are obtained. Then analysis is made together with experimental data of refrigerant R134a used in the cooling cycle, which concluding that the optimism compensat-ing vapor quality and the compensating vapor pressure for the compressor. Also the experimental data show that the compressor could reach its optimism performance though compensating vapor in the course of compression even in a cooling working condition.%通过对螺杆压缩机中间补气的模型进行模拟分析和计算,分析了压缩机中间补气前及补气后的差别,分析出补气口位置、压缩机的补气量和补气压力对螺杆压缩机的性能和功率的影响。然后结合螺杆压缩机用R134a冷媒在制冷空调工况下测试数据进行分析,最终得到压缩机中间补气的最佳补气压力和补气量。实验结果表明,即使在制冷空调工况下,通过中间补气,也可以使压缩机得到最佳的性能系数。

  12. Thermodynamic studies of aqueous solutions of 2,2,2-cryptand at 298.15 K: enthalpy-entropy compensation, partial entropies, and complexation with K+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Vasim R; Terdale, Santosh S; Ahamad, Abdul; Gupta, Gaurav R; Dagade, Dilip H; Hundiwale, Dilip G; Patil, Kesharsingh J

    2013-12-19

    The osmotic coefficient measurements for binary aqueous solutions of 2,2,2-cryptand (4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8.8.8] hexacosane) in the concentration range of ~0.009 to ~0.24 mol·kg(-1) and in ternary aqueous solutions containing a fixed concentration of 2,2,2-cryptand of ~0.1 mol·kg(-1) with varying concentration of KBr (~0.06 to ~0.16 mol·kg(-1)) have been reported at 298.15 K. The diamine gets hydrolyzed in aqueous solutions and needs proper approach to obtain meaningful thermodynamic properties. The measured osmotic coefficient values are corrected for hydrolysis and are used to determine the solvent activity and mean ionic activity coefficients of solute as a function of concentration. Strong ion-pair formation is observed, and the ion-pair dissociation constant for the species [CrptH](+)[OH(-)] is reported. The excess and mixing thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes) have been obtained using the activity data from this study and the heat data reported in the literature. Further, the data are utilized to compute the partial molal entropies of solvent and solute at finite as well as infinite dilution of 2,2,2-cryptand in water. The concentration dependent non-linear enthalpy-entropy compensation effect has been observed for the studied system, and the compensation temperature along with entropic parameter are reported. Using solute activity coefficient data in ternary solutions, the transfer Gibbs free energies for transfer of the cryptand from water to aqueous KBr as well as transfer of KBr from water to aqueous cryptand were obtained and utilized to obtain the salting constant (ks) and thermodynamic equilibrium constant (log K) values for the complex (2,2,2-cryptand:K(+)) at 298.15 K. The value of log K = 5.8 ± 0.1 obtained in this work is found to be in good agreement with that reported by Lehn and Sauvage. The standard molar entropy for complexation is also estimated for the 2,2,2-cryptand

  13. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  14. Electronic compensation technique to deliver a total body dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakeman, Tara E.

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been conventionally used to compensate for the varying thickness throughout the body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two pair of parallel opposed fields. One pair of large fields is used to encompass the majority of the patient's anatomy. The other pair are very small open fields focused only on the thin bottom portion of the patient's anatomy, which requires much less radiation than the rest of the body to reach 100% of the prescribed dose. A desirable fluence pattern was manually painted within each of the larger fields for each patient to provide a more uniform distribution. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In the electronically compensated plans, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the conventionally-compensated plans by an average of 15%, indicating a more uniform dose. The mean body doses calculated from the electronically compensated DVH remained comparable to that of the conventionally-compensated plans, indicating an accurate delivery of the prescription dose using electronic compensation. All calculated monitor units were within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not increase the beam on time beyond clinically acceptable limits while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup

  15. Numerical study of a thermally-compensated high-energy double-pass Nd:YAG amplifier design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jihoon; Cho, Seryeyohan; Kim, Taeshin; Yu, Tae Jun

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a comparative study of double-pass Nd:YAG laser amplifiers by comparing the thermally-induced optical losses of various designs through numerical simulations. The simulation code was developed to estimate the total optical losses from three thermal effects: depolarization, thermal lensing, and bi-focusing. At first, we verified the code with the well-known single-rod amplifier configurations. After that, we extended the code for dual-rod designs, which are more appropriate for high-energy applications. Finally, the adoption of a diverging input beam is suggested to reduce thermal losses dramatically and to avoid stubborn design issues, such as damage, aberration, system complexity, etc., in dual-rod high-energy double-pass amplifiers.

  16. The "aid contract" and its compensation scheme: a case study of the performance of the Ugandan health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Cruz, Valeria; McPake, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Current literature on aid effectiveness describes increasing use of a more contractual approach to the relationship between donor and recipient government in which a system of rewards and penalties for good and bad performance operates. The purpose of this case study of the Ugandan health sector was to understand the extent to which this approach is influencing processes and effectiveness. This qualitative study used a conceptual framework based on agency theory and 'realistic evaluation'. Our results showed that the main official mechanism to assess and reward performance established through the Sector Wide Approach lacked objective criteria and was based on an unstructured system of discussions and agreements among donors. The achievement of a satisfactory performance rating was facilitated by the agreeing to undertakings that were under-demanding, vaguely formulated and lacking quantitative benchmarks against which progress could be measured. However, even when poor performance was readily observable, penalties failed to be applied by donors. This was always the case in relation to health sector performance and mostly so in relation to general governance and accountability. Funds continued to be disbursed despite the lack of progress made in achieving targets and undertakings and other evident performance problems (e.g. in the area of governance). A series of explanations of the failure to penalise were put forward by donor representatives in relation to this behaviour including the need to maintain long-term relationships based on trust and not to undermine health sector performance by withdrawing aid. Thus there are likely to be incentives to disburse funds and report success, irrespective of the realities of aid programmes in the context of large foreign aid volumes associated with increased political visibility of aid in donor countries.

  17. Past Performance and Executive Compensation: Evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Salamah Wahyuni

    2014-01-01

    This research examine the pay-for-performance hypothesis by studying Indonesian firms during the global financial crisis. Controlling for some firm fundamental factors and industry, we find that there is strong evidence that past performance drives the compensation paid to executives. This paper also reveals that financial firms tend to compensate their executive higher than those of non-financial firms. State-owned firms compensate a higher salary for their directors and commissioners than t...

  18. Determinants of CEO compensation in Pakistan from 2007 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    ANJAM, ZESHAN

    2010-01-01

    Most studies of the determinants of executive compensation are based on the experience of developed countries. This paper examines the relationship between firm size, firm performance and board composition on CEO compensation, in the context of an emerging and developing economy of Pakistan. Data for 83 listed firms from Lahore stock exchange, Pakistan has been used for 2007 to 2009. The findings show that firm size is one of the major determining factors of CEO compensation ra...

  19. On the Compensation of Dynamic Reaction Forces in Stationary Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Radermacher, Tobias; Lübbert, Jan; Weber, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a method for active electrohydraulic force compensation in industrial scale high power applications. A valve controlled cylinder moves a mass using the force of inertia to compensate for the reaction forces of an industrial process. Two strategies for force compensation are developed and investigated in a 160 ton clamping unit of an injection moulding machine to significantly reduce the excitation. Results of the different strategies are shown and evaluated. Advantages and ...

  20. Executive Compensation, Earnings Management and Over Investment in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ei Yet Chu; Saw Imm Song

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the inter-relationship between executive compensation, earnings management and over investment. Using a sample of 196 Malaysian public listed firms, the findings show a positive endogenous relationship between executive compensation and over investment. Measuring equity compensation in incentive ratio, for each percent of over investment, one percent improvement in share prices will increase 23% of executive directors' equity value. Over investment, however, leads to a ...

  1. Compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation of French [u]: an acoustic and perceptual study of 4-year-old children

    CERN Document Server

    Ménard, Lucie; Aubin, Jérôme; Savariaux, Christophe; Thibeault, Mélanie

    2008-01-01

    The relations between production and perception in 4-year-old children were examined in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic and perceptual analyses of the rounded vowel [u] produced by twelve 4-year-old French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a 15-mm-diameter tube inserted between the lips. Recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation (N1), immediately upon insertion of the tube and for the next 19 trials in this perturbed condition, with (P2) or without articulatory instructions (P1), and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials (N2). The results of the acoustic analyses reveal speaker-dependent alterations of F1, F2, and/or F0 in the perturbed conditions and after the removal of the tube. For some subjects, the presence of the tube resulted in very little change; for others, an increase in F2 was observed in P1, which was generally reduced in some of the 20 repetitions, but not systematical...

  2. Risk compensation behaviours in construction workers' activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yingbin; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the construction workers have the tendency of engaging in risk compensation behaviours, and identify the demographic variables, which may influence the extent to which the construction workers may show risk compensation behaviours. Both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) approaches were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted with all the construction workers on three building construction sites of a leading construction company in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted to validate the findings of the quantitative research. The findings indicate that workers tend to show risk compensation behaviours in the construction environment. The workers with more working experience, higher education, or having never been injured at work before have a higher tendency to show risk compensation in their activities than the others. The implication is that contractors need to assess the potential influence of workers' risk compensation behaviours when evaluating the effect of risk control measures. It is recommended that supervisors pay more attention to the behavioural changes of those workers who have more experience, higher education, and have never been injured before after the implementation of new safety control measures on construction site. PMID:24134314

  3. Functional Brain Networks Are Altered in Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes: Signs for Compensation of Cognitive Decrements? The Maastricht Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Frank C G; Backes, Walter H; van Veenendaal, Tamar M; Hofman, Paul A M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Wildberger, Joachim E; Jansen, Jacobus F A

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with cognitive decrements, accelerated cognitive decline, and increased risk for dementia. Patients with the metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for diabetes, may display comparable cognitive decrements as seen in type 2 diabetes. Currently, the impact of diabetes and prediabetes on cognition and the underlying organization of functional brain networks still remain to be elucidated. This study investigated whether functional brain networks are affected in type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Forty-seven participants with diabetes, 47 participants with prediabetes, and 45 control participants underwent detailed cognitive testing and 3-Tesla resting state functional MRI. Graph theoretical network analysis was performed to investigate alterations in functional cerebral networks. Participants with diabetes displayed altered network measures, characterized by a higher normalized cluster coefficient and higher local efficiency, compared with control participants. The network measures of the participants with prediabetes fell between those with diabetes and control participants. Lower processing speed was associated with shorter path length and higher global efficiency. Participants with type 2 diabetes have altered functional brain networks. This alteration is already apparent in the prediabetic stage to a somewhat lower level, hinting at functional reorganization of the cerebral networks as a compensatory mechanism for cognitive decrements. PMID:27217484

  4. The Interplay between Director Compensation and CEO Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Lin; Lu Lin

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the determinants of director compensation and CEO compensation and investigates whether director compensation has an effect on CEO compensation. Based on 713 firms (or 2,852 firm-years) between 2007 and 2010, we find that CEO tenure is related to the ability of the CEO in influencing the board’s pay determination process. However, sitting on the board does not strengthen the CEO’s power over the board during the pay negotiation process. More importantly, we...

  5. Analysis of car-following model with cascade compensation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Cascade compensation mechanism was designed to improve the dynamical performance of traffic flow system. Two compensation methods were used to study unit step response in time domain and frequency characteristics with different parameters. The overshoot and phase margins are proportional to the compensation parameter in an underdamped condition. Through the comparison we choose the phase-lead compensation method as the main strategy in suppressing the traffic jam. The simulations were conducted under two boundary conditions to verify the validity of the compensator. The conclusion can be drawn that the stability of the system is strengthened with increased phase-lead compensation parameter. Moreover, the numerical simulation results are in good agreement with analytical results.

  6. Real-Time Compensation of Chatter Vibration in Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The chatter vibration stands for a sudden relative vibration appeared between a material and a tool while processing with a machine. This vibration is a factor that seriously affects the quality of processed materials as well as being a factor which causes serious damages to the tool and the machine. This study is related to the detection and compensation of chatter vibration that can compensate chatter vibration faster and produce processed goods with more precision by autonomous compensation. The above-mentioned chatter vibration compensator includes the chatter vibration sensor and the chatter compensator that estimates the compensation value according to the sensor detecting the chatter vibration of machine tool and the chatter vibration detected from the sensor while having a feature of being organized by interlocking with the machine tool controller.

  7. Comparative studies on the farmers' willingness to accept eco-compensation in wetlands nature reserve%湿地保护区周边农户生态补偿意愿比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌海; 崔丽娟; 毛旭锋; 温亚利

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are unique habitats formed in the interactions between water and land. As one of the most productive ecological systems with richest biodiversity, it plays an irreplaceable role in the maintenance of ecological safety. Since the 1970s, wetland loss and degradation have sparked a series of environmental problems on a global scale, which have become a major threat to national or global sustainable development. Especially, rapid economic development combined with the lacks of wetland protection in China, have lead to serious imbalance between wetland protection and economic development. As a result of the above problems, decreased natural wetland and degradation of wetland function seem out of control. Now, wetland ecological compensation became more and more important because it is a choice for sustainable utilization of wetland resources. As an economic and policy means widely applied in developed countries, ecological compensation has been effectively used in the adjustment of natural resources conservation and resource utilization. Wetland ecological compensation study has always been a hot but difficult research spot. As an important ecological barrier in the western China, Crested ibis national Nature Reserve plays an important role in protection Crested ibis as well as its habitats. However, wetlands in Qinling Nature Reserve are typical ecological and environmental vulnerable zones. Excessive development and resource utilization makes the vulnerability of ecology and environment of this region increasing.It is necessary to take effective measures to develop a reasonable ecological compensation mechanism and policies for the coordination of ecological and economic development. As a basic unit in the implementation of ecological compensation, local fanners are key actors to give impetus to the ecological compensation. Understanding their willingness in cooperation and compensation is particularly important for improving farmers' ecological compensation

  8. A STUDY OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL GOVERNANCE OF COMPENSATION SYSTEM ON PUBLIC NON-PROFIT HOSPITAL%公立非营利医院补偿方对医院的内外部治理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李从东; 沈凯; 汤勇力; 邢晓辉

    2009-01-01

    本文首先研究了公立非营利医院补偿体系和治理结构之间的相互关系,然后根据利益相关者理论,深入分析了医院补偿方的属性、利益诉求、实现途径,并提出在公立医院法人治理结构中物格与人格的映射关系.接着阐述了补偿体系外部治理的机制.文章最后指出,补偿方需要从内部治理和外部治理两方面对公立医院共同治理,从而提高公立非营利医院的运行效率和资金补偿的效率.%The correlation of compensation system and governance structure in public non-profit hospital is studied firstly. Then the property, interest claim and implement ways of payers is analyzed based on "Stakeholder Theory", and the mapping between governance attribute and payers' personality in the governance structure of public hospital is advanced. And then the external governance mechanism of compensation system was discussed. Finally it is pointed that the internal and external governance of compensation system are both needed to improve the efficiency of public hospital and compensation system.

  9. Monte Carlo study of the surface effect on the compensation and critical behaviour in a molecular-based magnetic film AFeIIFeIII(C2O4)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulation is used to study the magnetic properties and critical behaviour of a molecular-based magnetic film AFeIIFeIII(C2O4)3(A = N(n - CnH2n+1)4, n = 3-5). The effects of surface exchange coupling, surface single-ion anisotropy and layer thickness on the compensation temperature and critical temperature of a ferrimagnetic mixed spin-2 and spin-5/2 Ising model on a honeycomb lattice are discussed in detail. The results show that the surface intralayer exchange coupling R1 = J1S/|J1| and surface interlayer exchange coupling R2 = J2S/|J1| play important roles in the compensation and critical behaviour of the system. In particular, we have found two special points R1c at which the compensation and critical temperatures are independent of the layer thickness L and the surface single-ion anisotropy D1S/|J1|. A number of characteristic phenomena, such as the possibility of two and three compensation points, are found. The effects of the layer thickness L on the susceptibility, internal energy and specific heat with temperature are numerically investigated.

  10. Managerial Stock Compensation and Risky Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana Nastasescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the mix of CEO equity-based compensation, namely stock options and restricted stock, and firms' risky investment. In general, the theory suggests that long-term compensation aligns CEOs' and shareholders' interests by inducing the managers to undertake risky investment, which has a positive impact on longterm well-being of the firm. However, as my results show, it is important to distinguish between types of awards since they can have different effects on the riskiness of the firm. In this respect, I answer the question how are different types of stock based compensation related to the executives' determination to increase or not the intensity of the firm's risky investment? I find that awarding the CEOs preponderantly with stock options positively affects the firm's level of R&D investment. Conversely, a higher proportion of restricted stock in the CEO's compensation is related to lower investment in (risky R&D. The inverse relation of causality also holds. Firms that make intensive R&D investments are more likely to award their CEOs with more stock options relative to restricted stock. Overall, the results are consistent with the theoretical prediction, in that the managerial compensation scheme plays an important role in determining the level of R&D investment.

  11. Supersymmetric composite gauge fields with compensators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    We study supersymmetric composite gauge theory, supplemented with compensator mechanism. As our first example, we give the formulation of N = 1 supersymmetric non-Abelian composite gauge theory without the kinetic term of a non-Abelian gauge field. The important ingredient is the Proca-Stueckelberg-type compensator scalar field that makes the gauge-boson field equation non-singular, i.e., the field equation can be solved for the gauge field algebraically as a perturbative expansion. As our second example, we perform the gauging of chiral-symmetry for N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions by a composite gauge field. These results provide supporting evidence for the consistency of the mechanism that combines the composite gauge field formulations and compensator formulations, all unified under supersymmetry.

  12. Electronic compensator for 100-Gb//s PDM-CO-OFDM long-haul transmission systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun Liu; Yaojun Qiao; Yuefeng Ji

    2011-01-01

    @@ We study an electronic compensator (EC) as a receiver for a 100-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-CO-OFDM) system without optical dispersion compensation.EC, including electrical dispersion compensation (EDC), least squares channel estimation and compensation (LSCEC), and phase compensation (PC), is used to compensate for chromatic dispersion (CD), phase noise, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), and channel impairments, respectively.Simulations show that EC is highly effective in compensating for those impairments and that the performance is close to the theoretical limitation of optical signal-to-noise rate (OSNR), CD, and PMD.Its robustness against those transmission impairments and fiber nonlinearity are also systematically studied.%We study an electronic compensator (EC) as a receiver for a 100-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-CO-OFDM) system without optical dispersion compensation. EC, including electrical dispersion compensation (EDC), least squares channel estimation and compensation (LSCEC), and phase compensation (PC), is used to compensate for chromatic dispersion (CD), phase noise, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), and channel impairments,respectively. Simulations show that EC is highly effective in compensating for those impairments and that the performance is close to the theoretical limitation of optical signal-to-noise rate (OSNR), CD, and PMD. Its robustness against those transmission impairments and fiber nonlinearity are also systematically studied.

  13. Study on the Scientific and Legal Basis of Ecological Damage Compensation%生态损害补偿与赔偿的科学及法律基础探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶欢欢; 彭本荣; 刘岩; 郑苗壮

    2014-01-01

    in academic and management communities about the connotation and economic and legal character of ecological compensation due to the different context in different disciplines. There is an urgent need to clarify the scientific implication of ecological damage and the associated jurisprudential distinctions between remediation (Buchang) and compensation (Peichang) to promote the implementation of ecological compensation. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the scientific implication, jurisprudential differences and legal regime of ecological damage and compensation based on the review of relative terms of ecological compensation, which then to provide references for further theoretical study and practice of ecological compensation in China. Firstly, the paper analyzed the connotation of ecological compensation from perspectives of environmental management, environmental economics and law, reviewed the evolution of ecological compensation practices in China, the paper and concluded that the ecological compensation should at least includes payments for ecosystem services (PES), ecological damage compensation and ecological damage claim. Secondly, this paper analyzed the scientific and legal connotation of ecological damage: (1) the ecological damage is the harmful effect to a free natural resource resulted from human activities, namely primary ecological damage;(2) the ecological damage can be categorized three groups, damage resulted from wrongful acts, non-wrongful acts and accumulative pollution from the perspective of legal theory;(3) the occurrence basis, legal nature, time and pattern of undertaking responsibility and the applicable law are different between the remediation and compensation; 4) the responsible parties should take the different liability according to the different acts. Thirdly, the paper discussed the legal basis and regime of establishing and implementing ecological compensation from the principle of liability fixation, the subject

  14. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G. M.; Snoek, Govert J.; Kouwenhoven, Mirjam; Nene, Anand V.; Jannink, Michiel J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation), however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown We conducted a cross-sectional explorative st

  15. Study on the establishment of Chinese oil compensation fund%浅论中国油污基金的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 赵月林

    2007-01-01

    China, as a big shipping country and a council of International Maritime Organization (IMO), has great amount of oil imports and exports. However it is not a member state of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund 1992 (FUND 92) and does not establish a national compensation fund for oil damage. This paper compares the current three different compensation fund models and analyzes the legal characters of the oil pollution compensation fund, then gives some suggestions on establishment of national oil pollution fund in China.%中国是一个航运大国,也是世界海事组织的理事国,且有着较大的油类进出口量,然而它却不是的成员国,而且也尚未建立国内油污基金.针对以上情况,论述国内油污赔偿基金建立的必要性,比较国际上现有的三种油污基金模式,分析油污基金的法律特征,提出建立国内油污基金的建议.

  16. Externalities and Compensation : Primeval Games and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.; Borm, P.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The classical literature (Pigou (1920), Coase (1960), Arrow (1970)) and the relatively recent studies (cf.Varian (1994)) associate the externality problem with efficiency.This paper focuses explicitly on the compensation problem in the context of externalities.To capture the features of inter-indivi

  17. Sales Force Motivation and Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Anca-Mihaela TEAU

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrate how sales managers can use sales incentives and compensations to motivate their sales team. To motivate sales people effectively, sales managers must have a thorough understanding of human needs and the concepts of motivation. They must also learn how to use the various forms of sales incentives and compensation to meet their salespeople’s needs.

  18. 78 FR 28441 - Executive Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... comments on Executive Compensation on June 5, 2009 (74 FR 26989). The public notice and comment period... compensation for a given position at similar institutions.'' \\9\\ \\8\\ 74 FR at 26990 (June 5, 2009). \\9\\ Section... Corporation Act (12 U.S.C. 1452(h)(2)). \\4\\ See 74 FR at 26990 (June 5, 2009). Additionally, the proposed...

  19. An overview of turbulence compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Iersel, M. van; Doelman, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification

  20. 38 CFR 3.459 - Death compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death compensation. 3.459..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.459 Death compensation. (a) Death compensation will be apportioned if the child or children of the deceased veteran are not in the custody of...

  1. Primary-care physician compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Arik

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews existing models of physician compensation and presents information about current compensation patterns for primary-care physicians in the United States. Theories of work motivation are reviewed where they have relevance to the desired outcome of satisfied, productive physicians whose skills and expertise are retained in the workforce. Healthcare reforms that purport to bring accountability for healthcare quality and value-rather than simply volume-bring opportunities to redesign primary-care physician compensation and may allow for new compensation methodologies that increase job satisfaction. Physicians are increasingly shunning the responsibility of private practice and choosing to work as employees of a larger organization, often a hospital. Employers of physicians are seeking compensation models that reward both productivity and value. PMID:22786738

  2. Is there a clinical benefit with a smooth compensator design compared with a plunged compensator design for passive scattered protons?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabibian, Art A., E-mail: art.tabibian@gmail.com [University of Texas School of Allied Health-Medical Dosimetry, Houston, TX (United States); Powers, Adam; Dolormente, Keith; Oommen, Sneha; Tiwari, Akhil [University of Texas School of Allied Health-Medical Dosimetry, Houston, TX (United States); Palmer, Matt [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Zhu, Xiaorong R.; Li, Heng; Sahoo, Narayan; Wisdom, Paul [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Physics, Houston, TX (United States); Velasco, Kyle [Radiation Oncology Resources, Goshen, IN (United States); Erhart, Kevin; Stanley, Henry [Decimal, Inc, Sanford, FL (United States); Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc T. [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In proton therapy, passive scattered proton plans use compensators to conform the dose to the distal surface of the planning volume. These devices are custom made from acrylic or wax for each treatment field using either a plunge-drilled or smooth-milled compensator design. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a clinical benefit of generating passive scattered proton radiation treatment plans with the smooth compensator design. We generated 4 plans with different techniques using the smooth compensators. We chose 5 sites and 5 patients for each site for the range of dosimetric effects to show adequate sample. The plans were compared and evaluated using multicriteria (MCA) plan quality metrics for plan assessment and comparison using the Quality Reports [EMR] technology by Canis Lupus LLC. The average absolute difference for dosimetric metrics from the plunged-depth plan ranged from −4.7 to +3.0 and the average absolute performance results ranged from −6.6% to +3%. The manually edited smooth compensator plan yielded the best dosimetric metric, +3.0, and performance, + 3.0% compared to the plunged-depth plan. It was also superior to the other smooth compensator plans. Our results indicate that there are multiple approaches to achieve plans with smooth compensators similar to the plunged-depth plans. The smooth compensators with manual compensator edits yielded equal or better target coverage and normal tissue (NT) doses compared with the other smooth compensator techniques. Further studies are under investigation to evaluate the robustness of the smooth compensator design.

  3. Addressing Return-to-Work Issues in the Federal Employees' Compensation Act with Administrative Data.

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Maxwell; Albert Liu; Nathan Wozny; Caroline Massad Francis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of workers' compensation claims, case management indicators, and work outcomes using administrative data on the cases reported under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act from 2005 to 2010.

  4. Study on Implementation Framework and Compensation Pattern of Basin Ecological Compensation Mechanism in China:From the Perspective of Compensation Funds Source%中国流域生态补偿机制实施框架与补偿模式研究——基于补偿资金来源的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军锋; 侯超波

    2013-01-01

    Basin Ecological Compensation Mechanism (BECM) is an important policy tool to resolve eco-environmental problems and realize compensable utilization of environmental resources. Selecting proper BECM pattern in terms of local conditions and combining it with basin situation are of great significance to popularize BECM in the whole country. Based on this background, this paper first reviews the BECM practice progress all around the country, constructs an implementation framework system of BECM, and summarizes the basic links and main features of the Framework. Furthermore, the paper classifies BECM practices into four types from the perspective of compensation funds sources and discusses the specific characteristics and application conditions of each pattern. That' s to say, negotiated transaction BECM pattern among governments' upstream and downstream, jointly funded BECM pattern among governments' upstream and downstream, financial transfer payment BECM pattern among governments and inter-government compulsory withholding BECM pattern based on outbound water quality. Finally, the paper puts forward some reflections and recommendations to perfect BECM in China.%流域生态补偿机制是解决流域生态环境问题、实现环境资源有偿利用的重要政策工具,结合流域及地方实际情况,因地制宜选择合适的流域生态补偿模式对于在全国范围切实开展流域生态补偿实践具有重要意义.本文在述评我国流域生态补偿实践进展及其相关问题的基础上,研究构建我国流域生态补偿机制实施框架体系,揭示其基本环节的主要特点,并从补偿资金来源的视角,将我国流域生态补偿模式划分为上下游政府间协商交易的流域生态补偿模式、上下游政府间共同出资的流域生态补偿模式、政府间财政转移支付的流域生态补偿模式和基于出境水质的政府间强制性扣缴流域生态补偿模式等类别,系统阐释了各种模式的特

  5. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  6. 农村电网不对称负荷补偿方法研究%Study on compensation method of unbalanced load in rural power grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房俊龙; 于洪涛; 马文川; 蔡银哿; 杨庆忠; 杨国良

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposed TCR type static var compensator based on Steinmetz theory which it could be used in the rural power grid, it could compensate unbalanced load and improve power factor in the meantime. The results showed that method could effectively make three-phase load balance, while increasing the power factor, had a certain theoretical and application value.%文章提出在农村电网中采用基于Steinmetz电路理论的TCR型静止无功补偿器,平衡三相不对称负荷,提高系统功率因数。仿真验证结果表明,该方法能使三相负荷平衡,提高功率因数,具有一定理论意义及应用价值。

  7. 现阶段我国征地补偿价格标准研究%STUDY ON THE LAND ACQUISITION COMPENSATION STANDARD IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉莹

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there are several problems in the compensation of the land acquisition such as the low com-pensationprice, unclear scope of compensation, and uncertain attribution of the benefits of land. This paper aimed to put forward some suggestions toimprove the land acquisition compensation standard on the basis of the view of land dualistic value, using the Marx land rent and price theory and Coase 's theorem. And also it introduced the market comparisonand income approach into the compensation mechanism. It suggested that (1) the compensation for farmers and communities should be separated. The loss of adjacent land also should be included in the scope of compensation. (2)The compensation for communities should be decided according to the market priceusing market comparison approach, while the compensation for farmers should use the income approach on the basis of the capi-talization of the net income which was decided by the income deposit interest rate. (3)the supervisory administra-tion should improving the implement and monitoring system. (4)improving the land management and promoting the property rights more clearly. (5)Definitely decide the new benefits of landinto the investors.%现阶段我国的征地补偿机制存在补偿额度过低、补偿范围不明确、土地新增收益的归属不清晰等问题.文章以土地二元价值理论为基础,结合马克思的地租与地价理论及科斯定理,旨在提出自己关于征地补偿价格标准改善的可行性建议.该文将不动产估价中的市场比较法与收益法引入征地补偿机制中,提出以下建议:(1)集体与失地农民分开补偿,对于有相关权益的土地的损失也应纳入补偿的范围.(2)市场机制与政府作用相结合进行补偿,其中政府以市场机制为基础在补偿过程中起主导作用.对集体的补偿以当前市价为基准进行补偿,可由市场比较法确定,对失地农民的补偿借鉴不动产估价的收益法,通过其净收

  8. Study on Reactive Power Compensation Theory for 10 kV Distribution Network%10 kV配电网无功补偿理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱岩; 刘晓伟

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic concept and principle of wattless power compensation, through the analysis of grid lines, re-veals the relations between reactive power and voltage loss, loss of the power grid in the form of formula, and discusses the significance of improving power factor by wattless compensation, in a bid to provide reference for improving the quality of power supply of electric power enterprises.%阐述无功补偿的基本概念及工作原理,通过分析电网等值线路,用公式的形式列出无功与电压损耗、线损的关系,阐述通过无功补偿提高电网中功率因数的意义,为提高电力企业的供电质量提供参考。

  9. The study Influence Internal aspects of compensation strategies on the Development Innovation staff Agricultural Bank Chahrmahal & Bakhtiari Province Using Robbins & DeCenzo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Hakami Shalamzari

    2014-05-01

    Results show that the 43 percent of employees innovation by index compensation strategy is predictable.Also, the findings indicate that most of the opportunity to grow is that for every one unit increase in the independent variable 34 percent change in the dependent variable (D innovation will develop stage after freedom and authority to work with a 26 percent working interest impressive 22% with little impact on other independent variables did not show change.

  10. An overview of turbulence compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Klamer; van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Dijk, Judith; Schwering, Piet B. W.; van Iersel, Miranda; Doelman, Niek J.

    2012-09-01

    In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification over larger distances. In many (military) scenarios this is of crucial importance. In this paper we give an overview of several software and hardware approaches to compensate for the visual artifacts caused by turbulence. These approaches are very diverse and range from the use of dedicated hardware, such as adaptive optics, to the use of software methods, such as deconvolution and lucky imaging. For each approach the pros and cons are given and it is indicated for which type of scenario this approach is useful. In more detail we describe the turbulence compensation methods TNO has developed in the last years and place them in the context of the different turbulence compensation approaches and TNO's turbulence compensation roadmap. Furthermore we look forward and indicate the upcoming challenges in the field of turbulence compensation.

  11. 串联型电能质量补偿器的实验研究%TEST STUDY OF SERIES POWER QUALITY COMPENSATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋平; 赵剑锋; 唐国庆

    2001-01-01

    串联电能质量补偿器对提高电能质量、减小经济损失具有重要作用。文中介绍了串联型电能质量补偿器的工作原理,并对其进行了实验研究。实验结果表明,串联型电能质量补偿器可有效抑制电网电压中的闪变、波动以及谐波等各种畸变,从而满足电力负荷对供电质量的高要求。%The series power quality compensator has the important functions on improving power qualities and decreasing economic losses. In this paper, the principle of series power quality compensator is introduced, and the experiment of this device is performed. The results of the test show that the compensator can effectively suppress the distortions such as asymmetry, sags and swells, as well as the harmonic voltages of systems, thus meet the higher requirements for power quality of the electrical loads.

  12. The cost and compensability of trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Dickson, Cara; Black, Deborah; Nau, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Injury in Australia was responsible for 400 000 hospitalisations in 2002. This study aimed to examine the direct costs of trauma patients in a Level 1 trauma centre and determine the compensability of those patients. Data on all admitted patients (206) filling trauma criteria were collected prospectively over a 3-month period (November 2006 to January 2007). A 10-question survey was completed on each patient to record mechanism of injury, third party private health insurance or workers compensation, and direct costs were also obtained. 30% of trauma admissions had an injury severity score (ISS)> 15 (n = 62; median ISS =9; range, 1-56). Median length of stay was 3 days (range, 1-126). Almost half (47%) of the patients were involved in road trauma, and 29% in falls. More than half (53.4%) were eligible for compensation (21.8% of patients had full hospital health insurance cover, 21.4% third party insurance and 9.2% workers compensation). The mechanism of injury with the highest median cost per patient was assault, followed by pedal cyclists, pedestrians then motor vehicle collisions. PMID:19203337

  13. MOTION COMPENSATION FOR WIDE BEAM SAR BASED ON FREQUENCY DIVISION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiaoshuang; Yu Weidong; Li Zaoshe

    2008-01-01

    Aperture-dependent motion compensation is important for wide beam Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data processing. This paper studies a wide beam motion compensation algorithm based on frequency division. It takes blocks along azimuth dimension in frequency domain and applies an-gle-variant motion compensation in time domain. With this frequency division based motion com-pensation approach,the effects of aperture-dependent residual phase errors are corrected precisely. The rationale and procedure of this algorithm are introduced in detail. Point targets and images of a P-band airborne SAR with motion errors are simulated to validate this algorithm. Compared with the wide beam motion compensation algorithms based on time division,the proposed algorithm has better performance,especially in terms of high-frequency motion errors.

  14. A Study of Ecological Compensation from the Perspective of Regional Division%区域分工视角下的生态补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国平; 王奕淇; 张文彬

    2016-01-01

    Firstly,the paper explains the comparative advantage theory of regional division and cooperation in a new way,puts forth the establishment of division and cooperation of interregional ecological products and material products,in order touse regional resource endowments to improve the efficiency. However,it is difficult to translate ecological products into eco-nomic value because of the existence of externalities,which results in the problems of regional development imbalance and in-equity. The paper argues that the establishment of interregional ecological compensation mechanism is an important way to co-ordinate efficiency and fairness and to solve regional development imbalance. Secondly,the paper,based on regional divisionand cooperation of ecological products and material products as well as according to ecological value equivalent,determinesthe amount of regional ecological compensation by comparing the state of ecological surplus value and ecological owe value. Fi-nally,the paper,taking the provincial data of China in 2013 as the research sample,empirically estimates the state of everyprovinces'ecological surplus value and ecological owe value,the results show that 14 regions of ecological surplus value,headed by Tibet autonomous region,should be compensated,and 17 regions of ecological owe value,headed by Jiangsu prov-ince,should pay the compensation. The estimated amount of ecological compensation in this paper is only a very small propor-tion of the GDP of compensation subject,which is not a burden to economic development and is a reasonable payment,andprovides a useful reference for determining interregional ecological compensation standard.%文章首先对区域分工与合作的比较优势理论进行新的诠释,提出构建区域间的生态产品与物质产品分工与合作,以利用区域资源禀赋提高效率,但由于外部性的存在,生态产品很难转化为经济价值,造成了区域间的发展失衡和不公平问题,认为建立

  15. Fundamentals of compensation and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, J A; Fallon, L F

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss the objectives of compensation programs--including direct and indirect forms of reward--and employee motivation. Job descriptions and job evaluations are also explored. PMID:11401793

  16. Study on Compensation Standard of Land Expropriation Based on Comprehensive Value of Cultivated Land%基于耕地综合价值的土地征收补偿标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸培新; 卜婷婷; 吴正廷

    2011-01-01

    The existing compensation of cultivated land expropriation only covers cultivated land value of agricultural use and employment, and neglects other values such as ecological value, which leads to a series of social and economic problems related to cultivated land expropriation. Therefore, it is necessary to protect farmers' land rights and cultivated land resources to establish a reasonable standard of cultivated land expropriation. Based on the theory of comprehensive value of cultivated land resources, land expropriation compensation needs to cover three kinds of value; agricultural economic value, social security value and ecological value. Then, different methods are employed to calculate various values of land. The return flow discount method is used for agricultural economic value measurement, and cost substitution method for social value calculation, and of contingent value method for ecological value. Last, Nanjing City of Jiangsu Province is taken as an example to establish expropriation compensation standard adapted to comprehensive land value in 2007. The result of the case study shows that compensation received by farmers according to comprehensive compensation standard shall be 6.6 times of the existing compensation standard for land expropriation. Because the new land compensation can internalize external value of cultivated land such as social stability value and ecological values, and effectively eliminate the market failure during the cultivated land expropriation, it will improve the efficiency of cultivated land conversion to non-agricultural use. In addition, new standard of land compensation is much lower than the current benchmark price of construction land; therefore, it is feasible in economy and acceptable in society.%由于现行耕地征收补偿仅对耕地的农业经济价值以及部分就业保障价值进行补偿,忽视了耕地的其他价值,导致了耕地征收中的一系列社会经济问题产生.因此,合理制定

  17. Recent trends in compensation practices

    OpenAIRE

    David E. Lebow; Louise Sheiner; Lawrence Slifman; Martha Starr-McCluer

    1999-01-01

    According to some accounts, compensation practices have recently been undergoing marked changes, with an increasing number of firms said to be substituting lump-sum payments for regular pay increases, allowing for greater variability of remuneration across individuals or groups, and making greater use of profit sharing or stock options. Many of these practices are outside the scope of the typical measures of economy-wide compensation growth. Moreover, intensified use of these schemes ought to...

  18. Option compensation and industry competition

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, KP; Stoughton, NM

    2009-01-01

    Compensation policy has become one of the most important ingredients of corporate governance. In this paper we take a new look at the issue, by contrasting the use of options with that of stock. We do this by integrating the repricing or resetting aspect of options with that of industrial structure. We show that industry competition may play an important role in dictating which form of compensation is optimal. When aggressive competition for key professional staff is an issue, the flexibility...

  19. Board Independence, CEO Pay, and Camouflaged Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Verdú, Pablo; Singh, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    We study how directors' reputational concerns influence executive compensation and the use ofcamouflaged forms of pay. We show that, in order to signal their independence to investors,boards lower managers' pay, but may also pay managers in hidden ways or structure compensationinefficiently. We also show that independent boards are more likely to make use of hiddencompensation than manager-friendly boards. We apply our model to study the costs and benefitsof greater pay transparency and of me...

  20. Compensation: current thinking in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear third party Liability law constitutes an exception to the general law of tort liability in several respects, notably the channelling of all liability to the nuclear operator even where the operator has not been at fault, and the obligation imposed upon the operator to provide financial security covering its liability. In addition, French law gives priority to compensating personal injuries, fixes the list of radioactively-induced diseases and establishes compensation based on a lump sum payment. The Group examined how these principles could be concretely implemented. It recommended two actions be taken before all else and as soon as possible: the creation of a medical group responsible for ongoing health surveillance apart from any possibility of an accident; and the establishment of a standard compensation agreement which would be prepared in advance and in consultation with interested stakeholders, to allow for compensation to be distributed quickly. Concerning organisational matters, the Group proposed setting up a 'Monitoring Committee' which would bring together all interested parties. The Group also investigated the possibility of setting up a 'One-Stop Shop' which would enable victims to contact one single agency in their quest for compensation for damage suffered, regardless of the source of the compensation funds. (author)

  1. Empiricall study on compensation standard for grassland ecology in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古草原生态补偿标准的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩芳; 长青; 王芳; 刘鑫

    2011-01-01

    Through analysis of grassland ecological compensation standard in Inner Mongolia,we think that compensation standards of grassland ecology in Inner Mongolia should include three aspects of content: the direct costs,the opportunity cost and grassland ecosystem service function value.According to the economic and social development and grassland ecological degradation degree of Inner Mongolia,we consider that grassland ecological compensation shall be determined in the third stage,namely "compensation standard=direct cost+all the opportunity cost ".Taking the prohibiting grazing in Inner Mongolia as a case,and urban disposable income per capita and rural net income per capita of the national average as reference,it is measured that the opportunity cost of development limition in Inner Mongolia steppe pastoral nomads is 35.4yuan/mu.And compensation standard reference is 47.55 yuan/mu at the third phase.At the same time,we estimated the coefficient of the developing stage simulated the growth curve of economic development in Inner Mongolia using the data of statistical yearbook of Inner Mongolia.Based on it the correction coefficient for dynamic adjustment of the compensation standard is determined,the dynamic adjustment is achieved.%通过分析内蒙古草原生态补偿标准存在的问题,确定内蒙古草原生态补偿标准应该包含三方面的内容:直接成本、机会成本和草原生态服务功能价值。根据内蒙古经济社会发展现状及草原生态退化程度确定内蒙古草原生态补偿应处于第三个阶段,即"补偿标准=直接成本+全部机会成本",并以内蒙古禁牧为例,以全国城镇居民人均可支配收入和农村居民人均纯收入为参照,测算出,内蒙古草原牧区牧民发展权受限的机会成本为35.4元/亩,第三阶段补偿标准的参考值是47.55元/亩。同时,利用内蒙古统计年鉴的相关数据估算内蒙古的发展阶段系数,模拟出内蒙古

  2. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Compensation during Gait using Hamstring Muscle Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Catalfamo, Paola Formento; Aguiar, Gerardo; Curi, Jorge; Braidot, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that an increase in hamstring activation may compensate for anterior tibial transalation (ATT) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee (ACLd); however, the effects of this compensation still remain unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify the activation of the hamstring muscles needed to compensate the ATT in ACLd knee during the complete gait cycle and to evaluate the effect of this compensation on quadriceps activation and joint contac...

  3. Determinants of family employee work performance and compensation in family businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Merwe, Stephanus

    2009-01-01

    This study characterizes employee compensation in family owned and managed firms compared to that in non-family firms and professionally managed family firms. The general results show that employee compensation differs between firms. This is an important finding because to understand employee compensation designs it is necessary to understand the role of ownership concentration and management composition in the firm, since the compensation components are explicitly defined according to risk s...

  4. The Effect of National Culture on CEO Compensation: Evidence from Europe and North America

    OpenAIRE

    Arnbom, Therése; Horntvedt, Jon Emil; Andén, Ludvig

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which culture, in six European and two North-American countries, affects CEO compensation. If differences in culture between countries can provide an explanation for cross-national differences in CEO compensation, it may increase multinational corporations understanding of how to design CEO compensations in the countries where they operate. Acquiring such knowledge would maximize the effect of their compensation plans. The study relates ...

  5. 浙江省农业巨灾风险损失补偿机制研究%Study on Agricultural Catastrophe Loss Compensation Mechanism of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈蕾

    2012-01-01

    浙江省从2006年开展政策性农业保险以来,农业抗风险能力得到明显增强,但目前的农业巨灾损失补偿机制尚不能确保农业保险制度的持续发展。文章从巨灾风险造成农业保险市场失灵的视角出发,分析浙江省农业巨灾风险损失补偿现状,并提出应从建立农业灾害数据库、充分利用再保险分散风险的功能、建立农业巨灾风险基金等方面入手完善浙江省农业巨灾损失分担机制。%Since Zhejiang carried out policy -oriented agricultural insurance from 2006, agricultural risk -re- sisting ability is significantly enhanced, but the loss compensation mechanism of current agricultural catastrophe is not able to ensure the sustainable development of the agricultural insurance. From the perspective of the agricultural insurance market failure caused by catastrophe risk, this paper analyze the current situation of agricultural catastro- phe risk compensation of Zhejiang, puts forward some suggestion that could improve agricuhural loss compensation mechanism of catastrophe risk, such as the establishment of agricultural disaster database, making full use of reinsurance to diversify risk function, the establishment of agricultural catastrophe risk fund, etc.

  6. 补偿型医疗保险中的约定代位权探究%The Study of Conventional Subrogation in Compensated Medical Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史卫进

    2016-01-01

    According to on the third explanation of several issues about the application of Insurance Law ( opening soliciting draft ) issued by supreme people’ s court, in compensated medical insurance, insur-ers have the right to assume statutory subrogation rule after claims. However, this compensated medical insurance subrogation is in conflict with current Insurance Law under the principle of Legislation Law ( i. e. no violation to legal provisions) . To tackle this problem, conventional subrogation should be applied in compensated medical insurance, and it can not only avoid the direct conflict with Insurance Law, but also consider the party autonomy, thus it is more flexible than statutory subrogation rule. Meanwhile, conventional subrogation of compensated medical insurance should be adopted to achieve the cohesion to Insurance Law so as to make up the insufficiency where no substitution-claim about conventional subro-gation is permitted in current Insurance Law.%最高人民法院在《关于适用〈保险法〉若干问题的解释三》(征求意见稿)中提出,补偿型医疗保险合同中,保险人理赔后可行使法定代位权。根据司法解释不得违反法律规定的立法法原则,最高人民法院提出的补偿型医疗保险代位权规则与我国现行保险法的规定相左。为解决这一问题,在补偿型医疗保险中可以适用约定代位权,这不仅避免了与保险法直接产生冲突,而且用约定代位权的方式引入当事人意思自治,较法定代位权适用更灵活。应采用补偿型医疗保险约定代位权规则来实现与保险法的衔接,以弥补我国现有保险法规定中存在的补偿型医疗保险禁止保险代位追偿的不足。

  7. Study on Community-based Mechanism of Agricultural Eco-compensation%以社区为基础的农业生态补偿机制初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海军; 陈刚; 周强

    2013-01-01

      在社区这一基础上,能够看到其对自然资源管理的有效性,因此结合目前政府与市场的不足,引入社区的概念将对农业生态补偿(甚至生态补偿)产生积极意义。以社区为基础的农业生态补偿机制,要求将各方资源放在有非政府组织(NGO)指导、由各方监督的社区平台上进行配置,其运行要求相应的支撑保障体系,包括法律体系、绿色核算体系、融资体系、组织管理体系等。同时,该机制认为将社区作为最小的补偿客体,能有效降低各种交易成本,集中资源解决社区公共问题,增强补偿客体争取合理权益的能力,以及降低生态治理等成本等等。最后,本文也指出了社区理念引入存在的几个需要进一步解决的问题。%we can see the effective of community-based natural resources management, thus, there is positive significance to agricultural eco-compensation while we introduce the word community into it for the shortcomings of government and market. Community-based mechanism of agricultural eco-compensation calls for we should put resources of each side on this platform that is supervised and guided by each side and NGO to allocate. And it must own the support security systems including legal system, green accounting system, financing system, organization management system, and so on. Meanwhile, we view the community as the basic object of compensation, because it can reduce the transaction cost, centralize resource to solve community public problem, enhance the ability of compensation object to fight for legal benefits, and reduce the cost of ecological management and so on. Finally, it points out several issues in order to research further.

  8. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those...

  9. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158... Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the... a new compensation level based on an analysis of the data provided under paragraph (c)(1) of...

  10. 48 CFR 752.7007 - Personnel compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel compensation... Personnel compensation. The following clause shall be used in all USAID cost-reimbursement contracts. Personnel Compensation (JUL 2007) (a) Direct compensation of the Contractor's personnel will be...

  11. 44 CFR 295.21 - Allowable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable compensation. 295... OF HOMELAND SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE Compensation Available Under the CGFAA § 295.21 Allowable compensation. (a) Allowable compensation. The CGFAA provides for...

  12. 22 CFR 96.34 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 96.34 Section 96.34 Foreign... Financial and Risk Management § 96.34 Compensation. (a) The agency or person does not compensate any... for compensation within the intercountry adoption community in that country, to the extent that...

  13. 30 CFR 90.103 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 90.103 Section 90.103 Mineral..., Rights of Part 90 Miners § 90.103 Compensation. (a) The operator shall compensate each Part 90 miner at... part. (d) In addition to the compensation required to be paid under paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of...

  14. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  15. 43 CFR 4.355 - Omitted compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Omitted compensation. 4.355 Section 4.355... Compensation § 4.355 Omitted compensation. When, subsequent to the issuance of a final order determining heirs under § 4.352, it is found that certain additional compensation had been due the decedent and had...

  16. 12 CFR 620.31 - Compensation committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation committees. 620.31 Section 620.31... Association Audit and Compensation Committees § 620.31 Compensation committees. Each Farm Credit bank and association must establish and maintain a compensation committee by adopting a written charter describing...

  17. 7 CFR 930.133 - Compensation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation rate. 930.133 Section 930.133 Agriculture... Regulations § 930.133 Compensation rate. A compensation rate of $250 per meeting shall be paid to the public member and to the alternate public member when attending Board meetings. Such compensation is a...

  18. 12 CFR 9.15 - Fiduciary compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiduciary compensation. 9.15 Section 9.15 Banks... BANKS Regulations § 9.15 Fiduciary compensation. (a) Compensation of bank. If the amount of a national bank's compensation for acting in a fiduciary capacity is not set or governed by applicable law,...

  19. 23 CFR 751.15 - Just compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Just compensation. 751.15 Section 751.15 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.15 Just compensation. (a) Just compensation shall be paid the owner for the... removed, relocated, or disposed of pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 136. (b) No rights to compensation accrue until...

  20. 12 CFR 7.2011 - Compensation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Corporate Practices § 7.2011 Compensation plans. Consistent with safe and sound banking practices and the compensation provisions of 12 CFR part 30, a national bank may adopt compensation plans, including, among... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation plans. 7.2011 Section 7.2011...

  1. X-Chromosome dosage compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2005-01-01

    In mammals, flies, and worms, sex is determined by distinctive regulatory mechanisms that cause males (XO or XY) and females (XX) to differ in their dose of X chromosomes. In each species, an essential X chromosome-wide process called dosage compensation ensures that somatic cells of either sex express equal levels of X-linked gene products. The strategies used to achieve dosage compensation are diverse, but in all cases, specialized complexes are targeted specifically to the X chromosome(s) of only one sex to regulate transcript levels. In C. elegans, this sex-specific targeting of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) is controlled by the same developmental signal that establishes sex, the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes (X:A signal). Molecular components of this chromosome counting process have been defined. Following a common step of regulation, sex determination and dosage compensation are controlled by distinct genetic pathways. C. elegans dosage compensation is implemented by a protein complex that binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to reduce transcript levels by one-half. The dosage compensation complex resembles the conserved 13S condensin complex required for both mitotic and meiotic chromosome resolution and condensation, implying the recruitment of ancient proteins to the new task of regulating gene expression. Within each C. elegans somatic cell, one of the DCC components also participates in the separate mitotic/meiotic condensin complex. Other DCC components play pivotal roles in regulating the number and distribution of crossovers during meiosis. The strategy by which C. elegans X chromosomes attract the condensin-like DCC is known. Small, well-dispersed X-recognition elements act as entry sites to recruit the dosage compensation complex and to nucleate spreading of the complex to X regions that lack recruitment sites. In this manner, a repressed chromatin state is spread in cis over short or long distances, thus establishing the

  2. Intonation and Compensation of Fretted String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Varieschi, Gabriele U

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present mathematical models and we analyze the physics related to the problem of intonation of musical instruments such as guitars, mandolins and similar, i.e., we study how to produce perfectly in tune notes on these instruments. This analysis begins with the correct fret placement on the instrument fingerboard, following precise mathematical laws, but then it becomes increasingly complicated due to the geometrical deformation of the strings when these instruments are played, and also due to the inharmonic characteristics of the same strings. As a consequence of these factors, perfect intonation of all the notes on the instrument can never be achieved, but complex compensation procedures are introduced and studied to minimize the problem. To test the validity of these compensation procedures, we have performed extensive measurements using standard monochord sonometers and other basic acoustical devices, which confirm the correctness of our theoretical models. In particular, these experimenta...

  3. Outline of amendments to nuclear compensation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendments to 'the Japanese Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage', submitted to the Diet in February, 1989, were approved as drafted as from January 1st, 1990. Although the Revised Law requires a nuclear operator to raise its financial security amount from 10 to 30 Billion yen, the framework of the Law remains, in principle, unchanged. How we should deal with cross frontier nuclear incidents is an important problem to be studied hereafter. (author)

  4. Study on Pricing Compensation Mechanism of Clean Energy Based on Triangle Fuzzy Number%基于三角模糊数的清洁能源电价补偿机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠富; 何楠; 周凤翱; 张科

    2013-01-01

    By setting an effective and reasonable compensation mechanism of clean energy pricing, it can promote clean energy power to develop easily. Based on the externalities of clean power, this paper identifies the reasonable compensation range by triangle fuzzy number and calculates the compensation value of different objects by degree of membership, the objects include clean power plants, power enterprises and power consumers. In order to study this problem clearly, it took wind power for an example and made quantity research in the measures of improving power pricing compensation mechanism by triangle fuzzy number and object constraint theories. To power users, the reasonable compensation range is 0. 002 yuan/kW · h-0. 008 yuan/kW · h. To power enterprises, the range is 3 869. 48 yuan/MW-16 096. 74 yuan/MW. To clean power plants (wind power plant), the range is 0. 218 9 yuan/kW· h-0. 241 2 yuan/kW · h. The results show that compensation ranges are relative to the different objects, and the compensation value will change by the quantities of clean power in gird.%为了制定合理的清洁能源电价补偿机制,推动清洁能源电力的有效发展,分析了我国清洁能源电价补偿机制现状及存在的问题,基于清洁能源电力的外部性特征,引入三角模糊数,通过模糊数将补偿机制中补偿金额的计算扩展为补偿区间的确定,同时将不同对象的可能补偿额度定为隶属度;并以风电为例,运用模糊响应公式对其补偿区间进行了量化分析.结果表明,电力用户补偿区间为0.002~0.008元/(kW·h),电网企业补偿区间为3 869.48~16 096.74元/MW,清洁能源电厂(风电厂)补偿区间为0.218 9~0.241 2元/(kW·h),且清洁能源电力的各级补偿区间与补偿对象密切相关,补偿额度也会随其上网电量的变化而波动.

  5. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill J Yates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that nonlabyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  6. Self-Compensating Excitation of Fluxgate Sensors for Space Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Alec; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of the new self-compensating excitation circuitry to the new generation of high-precise space vector magnetometers. The application starts with complex study including design of new robust model of the non-linear inductor leading to investigation...... of the most crucial points, continuous by design of the self-compensating excitation unit and concludes with unit complex testing and application to the magnetometer. The application of the self-compensation of the excitation decreases temperature drift of the magnetometer offset caused by the temperature...

  7. 75 FR 49595 - Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Parts 1, 10, and 25 Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act; Compensation for Disability and... Workers' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Parts 1, 10, and 25 RIN 1240-AA03 Performance of Functions;...

  8. 对流量补偿电液负载模拟器的研究%Study on electro-hydraulic load simulator based on flow compensation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安惠; 汪成文; 郝晓欣; 权龙

    2015-01-01

    针对多余力影响电液负载模拟器加载精度的问题,增加了流量补偿回路。由于运动的承载系统强迫负载模拟器跟随其运动产生多余力,而多余力是影响电液负载模拟器跟踪精度的主要因素。利用流量补偿速度回路、伺服阀力回路分别控制负载模拟器速度和输出力,从结构上实现力与速度的解耦,消除被测系统主运动对电液负载模拟器加载精度的影响。利用阀口压差对速度回路中的伺服阀流量进行修正,以消除压降对流量的影响从而提高流量补偿回路动态性能。基于PID控制建立系统数学模型并搭建物理仿真模型,通过理论分析和仿真结果分析证明该方案具有可行性。%To address the surplus force problem of electro-hydraulic load simulator (EHLS),a method adding a flow compensation circuit is developed in this paper.As the major factor affecting the tracking performance of EHLS,surplus force is mainly caused by loaded system’s active motion.Through adding the flow compensation velocity circuit,force and velocity are respectively controlled and well decoupled.Thus the influence of the actua-tor’s velocity on the loading force can be well eliminated.Utilizing the pressure difference at valve’s ports,the flow trough servo valve is modified.The flow of modified servo valve does not correspond to its pressure drop yet, which finally improve the dynamic performance of flow compensation circuit.System mathematical model and sim-ulation model are built based on PID control.Theoretical analysis and simulation results prove the feasibility of the method.

  9. Error Model and Compensation of Bell-Shaped Vibratory Gyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Su

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A bell-shaped vibratory angular velocity gyro (BVG, inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a type of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. This paper focuses on development of an error model and compensation of the BVG. A dynamic equation is firstly established, based on a study of the BVG working mechanism. This equation is then used to evaluate the relationship between the angular rate output signal and bell-shaped resonator character, analyze the influence of the main error sources and set up an error model for the BVG. The error sources are classified from the error propagation characteristics, and the compensation method is presented based on the error model. Finally, using the error model and compensation method, the BVG is calibrated experimentally including rough compensation, temperature and bias compensation, scale factor compensation and noise filter. The experimentally obtained bias instability is from 20.5°/h to 4.7°/h, the random walk is from 2.8°/h1/2 to 0.7°/h1/2 and the nonlinearity is from 0.2% to 0.03%. Based on the error compensation, it is shown that there is a good linear relationship between the sensing signal and the angular velocity, suggesting that the BVG is a good candidate for the field of low and medium rotational speed measurement.

  10. Host state incentives and compensation:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing several options for selecting a host state, the Commission elected to proceed with anoption that builds upon developing grass-roots acceptance and support. To foster such support the Commission has adopted an incentives and compensation package. The purpose of the package is that the incentives and compensations offered are designed to encourage an objective and unbiased review of accepting the responsibilities of a host state or community, and the package helps to guarantee that a facility will become a state/community asset and not impose economic, environmenta, or social hardships for the host community. This report, which describes the Commission's host state incentive and compensation package, the monetary benefit to the host community and state will be substantial. Community benefits will exceed $40 million over 20 years and benefits to the state will be approximately $24 million over the 20-year expected life of the facility. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Compensation for electrical converter nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2013-11-19

    Systems and methods are provided for delivering energy from an input interface to an output interface. An electrical system includes an input interface, an output interface, an energy conversion module between the input interface and the output interface, an inductive element between the input interface and the energy conversion module, and a control module. The control module determines a compensated duty cycle control value for operating the energy conversion module to produce a desired voltage at the output interface and operates the energy conversion module to deliver energy to the output interface with a duty cycle that is influenced by the compensated duty cycle control value. The compensated duty cycle control value is influenced by the current through the inductive element and accounts for voltage across the switching elements of the energy conversion module.

  12. Forest eco-compensation mechanism:a survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fen; Li Wenhua; Liu Moucheng

    2008-01-01

    China is a country with a vast territory and a large population but limited forest resources,which is mainly distritruted in the economically less developed regions,Therefore,it is particularly important to address the issue to establish forest eco-compensation mechanism to overcome the problems of inequitv between the people and promote the public incentive for forest management and conservation.The defition of eco-compensation is deeply discussed basebased on the literature review of national and international in itiatives.According to summary and analysis of the empirical work of forest eco-compensation at international level,some significant inspirations are draw this paper.Based on them,this paper focuses on the forest eco-compensation mechanism of China.Firstly,integrating with the actual situation of China,the paper puts forward the policy framework of eco-compensation.the institutional framework of eco-eompensation should be established among the multi-departments with different temporal and spatial scales.Secondly the types and ranges of forest eco-compensation are,further ,studied,that is three levels of forest eco-compensation such as micro-level,macro-level as well as media-level,and then the standards of eco-compensation are primarily estimated,which include the three factors,namely direct expense of plantation,opportunity tost for forests protection and benefits of Jbrest ecosystem services.Finally the recommendation is creaated in terms of above research conclusions,which is provide the vital important references for government policy making in the forest eco-compensation domain.

  13. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  14. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  15. Depth Compensated Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography via Digital Compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Boroomand, Ameneh; Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a well-known imaging modality which allows for \\textit{in-vivo} visualization of the morphology of different biological tissues at cellular level resolutions. The overall SD-OCT imaging quality in terms of axial resolution and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) degrades with imaging depth, while the lateral resolution degrades with distance from the focal plane. This image quality degradation is due both to the design of the SD-OCT imaging system and the optical properties of the imaged object. Here, we present a novel Depth Compensated SD-OCT (DC-OCT) system that integrates a Depth Compensating Digital Signal Processing (DC-DSP) module to improve the overall imaging quality via digital compensation. The designed DC-DSP module can be integrated to any SD-OCT system and is able to simultaneously compensate for the depth-dependent loss of axial and lateral resolutions, depth-varying SNR, as well as sidelobe artifact for improved imaging quality. The integrated D...

  16. The 'compensation effect' in the graphite/CO2 reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compensation effect is the often observed linear relationship between the activation energy and pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius equations of a series of related reactions. Previously reported studies of the graphite/CO2 reaction at different total pressures and CO2/CO ratios are used as an example of the compensation effect. The effect is shown in general to be an artefact produced by a strong correlation between the parameter estimates in the conventional Arrhenius plot. A transformation of the Arrhenius plot to minimise the overall correlation between estimates and thus enable detection of a true compensation effect is presented. The results of this transformation on the kinetic data for the graphite/CO2 reaction are consistent with previous analyses of the reaction system. They show that there is only a limited compensation effect within this study and demonstrate the influence of the approach to equilibrium of the graphite/CO2 reaction. (author)

  17. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating. PMID:27551992

  18. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating.

  19. Some unpleasant general equilibrium implications of executive incentive compensation contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, John B; Gershun, Natalia; Marc P. Giannoni

    2011-01-01

    We consider a simple variant of the standard real business cycle model in which shareholders hire a self-interested executive to manage the firm on their behalf. A generic family of compensation contracts similar to those employed in practice is studied. When compensation is convex in the firm's own dividend (or share price), a given increase in the firm's output generated by an additional unit of physical investment results in a more than proportional increase in the manager's income. Incent...

  20. Management Compensation and Firm-Level Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, most developed countries have experienced a simultaneous increase in income inequality and management compensation. In this paper, we study the relation between management compensation and firm-level income dynamics in a general equilibrium model. Empirical estimation, of the model's key parameters show that the rising management premium is indeed the main driving force behind the observed increase in income inequality. This is the case even when other potential sources suc...

  1. Remuneration Committee, Board Independence and Top Executive Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Chii-Shyan Kuo; Shih-Ti Yu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether the levels and structures of top executive compensation vary discernibly with different levels of board independence. We also examine how the newly mandated adoption of the remuneration committee (RC) in Taiwan affects the board independence-executive pay relation. The mandatory establishment of RC for Taiwanese public firms, starting in 2011, is intended to strengthen the reasonableness and effectiveness of the executive compensation structure; thus, it is t...

  2. Compensation packages: a strategic tool for employees’ performance and retention

    OpenAIRE

    Omotayo Adewale OSIBANJO; Adenike Anthonia ADENIJI; Hezekiah Olubusayo FALOLA; Princess Thelma HEIRSMAC

    2014-01-01

    The rate at which employees in private universities in Nigeria jump from one university to the other is becoming more disturbing and this could be as a result of compensation packages of different universities to attract competent employees. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of compensation packages on employees’ job performance and retention in a selected private University in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria. A model was developed and tested using one hundred and eleven valid qu...

  3. Optical compensation device for chest film radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert G.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; DeForest, Sherman E.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hier, Richard G.

    1990-07-01

    Although chest radiography is the most commonly performed radiographic examination and one of the most valuable and cost-effective studies in medicine it suffers from relatively high error rates in both missing pathology and false positive interpretations. Detectability of lung nodules and other structures in underpenetrated regions of the chest film can be improved by both exposure and optical compensation but current compensation systems require major capital cost or a significant change in normal clinical practice. A new optical compensation system called the " Intelligent X-Ray Illuminator" (IXI) automatically and virtually instantaneously generates a patient-specific optical unsharp mask that is projected directly on a radiograph. When a radiograph is placed on the IXI which looks much like a conventional viewbox it acquires a low-resolution electronic image of this film from which the film transmission is derived. The transmission information is inverted and blurred in an image processor to form an unsharp mask which is fed into a spatial light modulator (SLM) placed between a light source and the radiograph. The SLM tailors the viewbox luminance by decreasing illumination to underexposed (i. e. transmissive) areas of the radiograph presenting the observer with an optically unsharp-masked image. The IXI uses the original radiograph and will allow it to be viewed on demand with conventional (uniform illumination. Potentially the IXI could introduce the known beneficial aspects of optical unsharp masking into radiology at low capital

  4. Can Education Compensate for Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which education can compensate for social disadvantage is a matter of political controversy, especially in the context of policies for social mobility. On the one hand, to blame poor achievement on social class or poverty was seen to dodge the professional responsibility of teachers. On the other, the strong correlation between…

  5. Ongoing transients in carbonate compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudreau, B.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Hofmann, A.F.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is acidifying the oceans. Over the next 2000 years, this will modify the dissolution and preservation of sedimentary carbonate. By coupling new formulas for the positions of the calcite saturation horizon, zsat, the compensation depth, zcc, and the snowline, zsnow, to a b

  6. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  7. Working conditions, compensation and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Solveig Osborg

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines absence behaviour in relation to the working environment. A theoretical model is built in order to separate the effects of voluntary absences and absences related to ill health, where health effects are assumed to be tied to working conditions. This model is based on the Shapiro and Stiglitz efficiency wage model. In addition, work environment is introduced as a part of the compensation package. The model gives a testable hypothesis of compensating wage differentials. A panel of quarterly firm level data from 1990 to 1998 are used and the theoretical model is supported by the empirical findings. The result indicates that the workers may not be fully compensated when experiencing high levels of noise in the work area, or when the job involves a high degree of monotonous work, heavy or frequent lifting or poor work postures. Ill health, and thus increased long-term absence, is not highly related to economic variables. However, long-term absence is relatively higher if the firm is troubled with many accidents or near misses. In addition, disamenities for which workers are not fully compensated cause ill health and increased long-term absence.

  8. Psychology of Pay and Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry, Hk.; Smelser, N.J.; Baltes, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the compensation, of managers and employees is structured along quite comparable patterns. One part consists of base pay, a second part of results-oriented pay, and a third part of secondary labor conditions. In many instances part four is composed of perquisites: be

  9. Joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining with feedback error compensation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seyeong

    2009-11-01

    This letter investigates the effect of feedback error on the performance of the joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (AMDC) scheme which was previously studied with an assumption of error-free feedback channels. We also propose to utilize adaptive diversity to compensate for the performance degradation due to feedback error. We accurately quantify the performance of the joint AMDC scheme in the presence of feedback error, in terms of the average number of combined paths, the average spectral efficiency, and the average bit error rate. Selected numerical examples are presented and discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback error compensation strategy with adaptive combining. It is observed that the proposed compensation strategy can offer considerable error performance improvement with little loss in processing power and spectral efficiency in comparison with the no compensation case. Copyright © 2009 IEEE.

  10. 液压振动台负载流量补偿方法的研究%Study on load-flow compensation of hydraulic vibration table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博; 侯京锋; 窦雪川; 张静; 郝岩研; 王家乐; 王有杰

    2014-01-01

    通过将负载变化折算为相应控制指令,并与期望指令相叠加后,作为最终的控制指令输出给伺服阀,构造负载流量与期望控制指令之间的比例关系,实现了液压振动台抑制负载干扰对流量波动的影响,提高了液压振动台运动控制精度。经过流量补偿后的液压振动台在负载变化时可以实现对输入指令较好的跟踪,可对机械振动或冲击环境进行更好的模拟。%By superposing the control command converted from the varying load and the expected control command as the last control command, the linear dependency between the load-flow and the expected control command is constructed. The method could achieve the suppression of load-flow fluctuation influenced by load variation, and improve the control precision of the table. The hydraulic vibration table could track the expected command with load varying well by the load-flow compensation method, and simulate the vibration environment and the shock environment better.

  11. 电容器并补大功率晶闸管阀的研究%STUDY OF HIGH-POWER THYRISTOR VALVE ON CAPACITOR SHUNT COMPENSATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会金; 彭疆南; 陈孜孜; 陈允平

    2001-01-01

    大功率无触头电容器投切开关是实现中压配电网无功补偿的技术关键。本文对高电压、大电流、无电弧、无触头高压电容开关研制中应解决的晶闸管串联均压、光电触发系统、脉冲放大回路的取能和晶闸管“工况”的在线监测问题进行了讨论,提出了具体的实施方案和实用电路。%The high-power non-contact switch is the key to realize the dynamic reactive power compensation in medi um-voltage distribution network. This paper respectively discusses such questions as series voltage-sharing of the thyristor valve, the photoelectric trigger system, the getting energy of the pulse amplification circits and the on-line monitoring of the thyristors operating mode ;also presents the detail implement scheme and practical circuits.

  12. 中韩船舶油污损害赔偿制度的比较%The Comparative Study on the Institutions of the Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage between China and Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑才荣

    2011-01-01

    In terms of geographical position and trading,Korea is an important neighbouring country to China.Because of ocean shipping's international nature,it is possible that shipowners of China are involved in the oil pollution affair in Korea.To study the institution of the compensation for oil pollution damage in Korea not only can protect the interests of Chinese shipowners but also have benefit for perfecting China's legislation.This paper compares the institutions of the compensation for oil pollution damage between China and Korea and presents proposals on perfecting related legislation of China.%韩国不论是从地理位置还是经济贸易往来,对于我国是很重要的邻国.由于海上运输的国际性,我国的船东有在该国卷入油污损害赔偿案件的可能,研究其油污损害赔偿制度能够更好的保护我国船东的权益,而且对于我国完善油污民事赔偿立法有一定的借鉴作用.本篇论文比较了中韩油污损害赔偿制度,并对完善我国油污损害赔偿制度提出几点建议.

  13. Compensation of chromatic and polarization mode dispersion in fiber-optic communication lines in microwave signals transmittion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaev, A. N.; Krishpents, G. P.; Davydov, V. V.; Vysoczkiy, M. G.

    2016-08-01

    Methods of dispersion compensation in fiber-optic communication lines. A new proposed method of electronic dispersion compensation in the transmission of microwave signals through fiber-optic lines. Represents is proposed the results of experimental studies of this method.

  14. CEO Compensation in Canada, 1971-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Gelinas; Lisa Baillargeon

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws from a unique database spanning over 35 years of Canadian CEOs’ compensation to explorethe interplay among: the information available to boards of directors of Canadian companies for makingexecutive pay decisions, the Canadian business environment, and the compensation that Canadian CEOsreceived. We find a very strong correlation between Canadian CEOs’ compensation and the amount ofinformation on CEO compensation available to boards of directors. We further note that the evol...

  15. 16 CFR 16.16 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 16.16 Section 16.16 Commercial... MANAGEMENT § 16.16 Compensation. (a) Committee members. Unless otherwise provided by law, the Commission... cost to the Commission. The compensation to be paid to such consultant may not exceed the maximum...

  16. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  17. 45 CFR 1604.5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 1604.5 Section 1604.5 Public Welfare... Compensation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and § 1604.7(a), a recipient's written policies shall not permit a full-time attorney to receive any compensation for the outside practice of...

  18. 34 CFR 106.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 106.54 Section 106.54 Education... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice which, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages...

  19. 6 CFR 17.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 17.515 Section 17.515 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  20. 22 CFR 146.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 146.515 Section 146.515 Foreign... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  1. 32 CFR 196.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 196.515 Section 196.515 National... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  2. 31 CFR 28.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 28.515 Section 28.515... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.515 Compensation. A... in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex...

  3. 41 CFR 101-4.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compensation. 101-4.515... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not... pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate...

  4. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT General Procedure § 136.113 Other compensation....

  5. 45 CFR 618.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 618.515 Section 618.515 Public... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  6. 24 CFR 3.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 3.515 Section 3.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  7. 10 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 5.515 Section 5.515 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in...

  8. 45 CFR 86.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 86.54 Section 86.54 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.54 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  9. 7 CFR 15a.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 15a.54 Section 15a.54 Agriculture Office... Activities Prohibited § 15a.54 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice which, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  10. 13 CFR 113.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 113.515 Section 113... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  11. 22 CFR 229.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 229.515 Section 229.515 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  12. 18 CFR 1317.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 1317.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  13. 47 CFR 51.221 - Reciprocal compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reciprocal compensation. 51.221 Section 51.221... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.221 Reciprocal compensation. The rules governing reciprocal compensation are set forth in subpart H of this part....

  14. 7 CFR 301.74-5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 301.74-5 Section 301.74-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-5 Compensation. (a) Eligibility. The following individuals are eligible to receive compensation from the U.S. Department of Agriculture...

  15. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  16. 45 CFR 2555.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 2555.515 Section 2555.515 Public... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  17. 43 CFR 41.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 41.515 Section 41.515 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  18. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836.577 Section 836.577 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL...' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  19. 49 CFR 25.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 25.515 Section 25.515 Transportation... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  20. 14 CFR 1253.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 1253.515 Section 1253.515... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.515 Compensation. A recipient... rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at...

  1. 77 FR 5381 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY...: We are amending the plum pox regulations to provide for the payment of compensation to eligible owners of non-fruit-bearing ornamental tree nurseries and to increase the amount of compensation that...

  2. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modules...

  3. 40 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 5.515 Section 5.515... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  4. 38 CFR 23.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 23.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  5. 29 CFR 36.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compensation. 36.515 Section 36.515 Labor Office of the... Activities Prohibited § 36.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  6. 15 CFR 8a.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 8a.515 Section 8a.515... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  7. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  8. 36 CFR 1211.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 1211.515... Prohibited § 1211.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the...

  9. 28 CFR 54.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 54.515 Section 54.515... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  10. 33 CFR 5.55 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 5.55 Section 5.55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.55 Compensation. No member of the Auxiliary shall receive any compensation for his services as...

  11. 45 CFR 1607.5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 1607.5 Section 1607.5 Public Welfare... Compensation. (a) While serving on the governing body of a recipient, no attorney member shall receive compensation from that recipient, but any member may receive a reasonable per diem expense payment...

  12. 7 CFR 1280.208 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 1280.208 Section 1280.208 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Board § 1280.208 Compensation. Board members shall serve without compensation, but shall be...

  13. 10 CFR 1042.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 1042.515 Section 1042.515 Energy DEPARTMENT... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  14. Study of Power Reactive Compensation Strategy Based on PSCAD%基于PSCAD的电力无功补偿策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚鲁; 黄知超; 范兴明; 杜亚鹏

    2011-01-01

    建立了变电站10km电力传输系统、并联电容器组及工厂负荷模型,基于PSCAD仿真结果分析了在异步和同步两种策略下投切电容器组时产生的涌流和过电压的变化.结果表明,与异步投切相比,同步投切电容器组时产生的涌流和过电压较小,因此改善了电网暂态稳定性、提高了输电质量、保护了电网器件.研究结果有助于工厂根据自身的投入成本及电压需求采取合适的无功补偿策略.%The 10km power transmission system of transformer substation, the parallel capacitor banks and the factory load models are established in this paper. Also the over-voltage and inrush current waves are obtained from switching condenser bank with synchronous and asynchronous strategies in PSCAD and analyzed. The analytical result of above indicated that the fluctuation of switching with synehrunization is smoother than asynchronous strategy. So the transient stability.is improved and the transmission quality is enhanced, also the electrical component is protected with it. The finding is helpful to the factories in selecting suited reactive power compensation based on the input costs and voltage level required of their own.

  15. 76 FR 37897 - Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ..., Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, Federal Employees' Compensation Act File, 67 FR 16826 (April 8... Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) by Employment Standards Order No. 2-74 (39 FR 34722). The... Programs (37 FR 20533) and an Office of Federal Employees' Compensation (37 FR 22979). In 1974, these...

  16. Compensating Differentials for Sexual Harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Joni Hersch

    2011-01-01

    Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used to calculate the first measures of sexual harassment risks by industry, a...

  17. Has compensation become more flexible?

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra A. Cannon; Bruce C. Fallick; Michael Lettau; Raven E. Saks

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, numerous observers have argued that global competition, increased reliance on contingent workers, and the breakdown of implicit contracts have made compensation practices in the United States more flexible; in particular, employers have become more concerned with how an employee's pay compares to that in other firms and less concerned with considerations of equity or relative pay within the firm. This paper uses establishment-level data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Em...

  18. Increasing the effectiveness of Navy retention compensation by evaluating different auction compensation formats

    OpenAIRE

    Triplett, Terry W.; Winters, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the U.S. military under intense scrutiny to cut costs, the Department of Defense must determine ways to use its limited resources more efficiently. One financial incentive ripe for change is the retention bonus. This compensation tool, used by the military to retain highly qualified individuals, could be harnessed more effectively with an auction mechanism for distribution. This thesis studies three different types of auctions, an...

  19. An Eigenstructure Assignment for a Static Synchronous Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad N. Al-Husban

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Power flow through an AC transmission line is influenced by three basic electrical parameters, which are line impedance, magnitudes and phase-shift angle between the sending and receiving voltages. Therefore, the change in any of the three basic parameters means a change in the power flow through the transmission line. The aims of this research paper are: increase the power transfer capability of transmission systems, minimize the transmission losses, support a good voltage profile and retain system stability under large disturbances. Study the use of eigenstructure techniques for state feedback control of the power system static compensator. Therefore, the mathematical analysis was performed for eigenvector assignment, power flow transmission line and for the static compensator analysis based on the transformation of the three-phase into d-q frame. Approach: A novel control method for regulating the power system in case of abnormal conditions was carried out. The system considered is a static synchronous compensator. The study includes a detailed mathematical analysis of the impact of the shunt compensator on the power flow; investigation of the system constraints and their effects on the static compensator control; in addition simulation of static compensator to control a transmitted active power flow on the transmission line. The conducted method provides a way of constructing the state feedback gain matrix to satisfy a certain prescribed performance. Results: The solutions of the obtained equation were conducted using the computer simulation method for both open-loop and static compensator techniques. The result shows fast tracking of the power flow transient response when using the static compensator technique comparing with open-loop technique. However, the same trend of the behavior was observed for all cases. Conclusion: A new method for developing a parameterized feedback matrix that assigns a closed-loop prespecified

  20. PMD compensation based on a new type dynamic first-order PMD compensator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Shilong Pan; Jia Jia; Yanfu Yang; Caiyun Lou

    2006-01-01

    @@ A dynamic first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensator based on garnet and yttrium vanadate crystal has been proposed and implemented. Consisting of a differential group delay (DGD) generator and a Faraday rotator (FR), this PMD compensator has only two degrees of freedom. Feedback control and compensation algorithm are both very simple. Experimental results reveal the compensator behaviors to be excellent for PMD compensation in 40-Gb/s optical time domain multiplexing (OTDM)system.

  1. 78 FR 68867 - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed... Office of Workers' Compensation (OWCP) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, (OWCP) administers...

  2. Combination of Reactive Current Droop Compensation and Line Drop Compensation for Improving Voltage Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Qing; LIN Xiang-ning

    2009-01-01

    Recent events related to power system failure have shown that voltage collapse can be a cause of widespread outages.The thrust of this paper is to discuss and establish means of mitigating system voltage instability by using a combination of both reactive current droop compensation and line drop compensation.It is shown that the point that the voltage regulator controls can be defined by a new method which is based on a widely accepted vohage stability analysis tool.This tool can be used to determine which generators will have an impact on the maximum permissible loading of a bus.Dynamic analysis was carried out on the CIGRE Nordic test system to study the impact of control point location on time to collapse and it is shown that the new scheme can improve the voltage stability.

  3. Study on Error Compensation of Tool Deflection Based on Cutting Force in NC Machining%数控加工刀具变形误差补偿技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苏渊; 杨茂奎; 杨川

    2011-01-01

    Force-induced error is one of the key elements in achieving overall product quality in NC machining.The study introduces a model of cutting force, takes into account the affect of thickness of chip and establishs an error model caused by the deflection of the cutting tool. The study introduces a linear iterative machining error compensation approach. The algorithm is focused on the errors of deflection of the tool caused by the cutting force. The error compensation scheme is simulated using NC machining center and the results show that the algorithm is correct.%在数控铣削加工的研究中,刀具变形引起的加工误差对工件的加工精度影响较大.研究了一种考虑切屑厚度影响的切削力模型,建立了由切削力引起的刀具变形加工误差的分析模型.为了提高加工精度,提出了一种线性迭代误差补偿算法,方法主要对由切削力引起的刀具变形产生的切削误差进行循环迭代补偿.通过应用数控加工中心,方案进行了验证,对补偿后的加工误差测量值和补偿后的误差预测值进行比较,结果表明,采用的方法对刀具变形引起的误差能进行有效的补偿.

  4. 阵列天线微动对前视SAR成像影响及补偿研究%Influence of Array Antenna Micro-motion on Forward-looking SAR Imaging and Compensation Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯海平; 曲长文; 丁灿; 杨俭

    2011-01-01

    基于阵列技术的前视SAR能对载机前方区域高分辨成像,但阵列天线的微动会对成像产生影响.该文提出了基于时频分析提取微动特征参数的方法,研究了阵列天线微动对前视SAR成像影响及补偿问题:基于前视SAR阵列天线特点对阵列天线微动进行建模,并分析了阵列天线形变的补偿方法.然后基于时频分析方法讨论了阵列天线微动的时频特性并对参数进行了估计.最后在天线微动条件下对点目标进行了成像仿真,并结合成像特征对天线微动补偿前后的结果进行了分析比较.结果表明该文所建模型和所提算法是正确和有效的.%Airborne forward-looking SAR based on array technology can supply high-resolution images of the area with respect to forward direction of the flight path. However, micro-motion of the array antenna may affect imaging. Extraction method of micro-motion characteristic parameters based on time-frequency analysis is proposed, and influence of array antenna micro-motion on forward-looking SAR imaging and the compensation method are investigated. Firstly, micro-motion model of array antenna is established based on antenna characteristic of forward-looking SAR, and compensation method of array antenna deformation is analyzed. Then, time-frequency characteristic of array antenna micro-motion is studied based on time-frequency analysis method. Finally, imaging simulation of point target in the condition of antenna micro-motion is done. Imaging results before and after compensation are compared combined with imaging characteristic. Results indicate that the established model and proposed method are correct and valid.

  5. Executive-employee Compensation Gap and Firm Performance ——An Empirical Study Based on the Panel Data of China's Listed Manufacturing Companies%高管-员工薪酬差距与企业绩效——基于中国制造业上市公司面板数据的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵睿

    2012-01-01

    There are two very different basic theories that tournament theory and behavioral theory explain the impacts of the compensation gap between top managers and ordinary employees on enterprise performance. Tournament theory insists that big executive-employee compensation gap can reduce the cost of monitoring, and provide strong incentive for both the clients and the agents, therefore the increasing of the compensation gap will improve firm performance. But behavior theory purports that small executive-employee compensation gap will improve cooperation, reduce the political conspiracy and destroy management juggling as to improve firm performance. So according to those pure theories, it is will improve firm performance or not. , so small compensation gap will be better difficult to infer that big compensation gap The empirical strategy of this paper is fixed effect panel data model. We use Tobin's Q as the explained firm perform variable. The explanatory variables include executive-employee compensation gap, the square of the gap, average compensation of executives, average compensation of employees. The other explanatory variables such as the share ratio of executives, the proportion of the independent directors, enterprise asset scale, the number of employees, executive team size, and the dummy variable of the state-owned enterprise are also included. Using the panel data of all China's A-share listed manufacturing companies from the year of 1999 to 2009, this article empirically studies the effects of executive-employee compensation gap to firm performance. It finds that the relationship between compensation gap and firm performance is not linear, but likes an inverse U curve. It means that executive-employee compensation gap has positive effects on firm performance, but when the gap reaches a certain level, it will produce negative effects on firm performance. Furthermore, this relationship will not change with the characters of the controlling shareholders

  6. What is the minimal vestibular function required for compensation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F. O.; Wade, S. W.; Nashner, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    Living with an uncompensated, abnormal vestibular system requires oppressive modification of life style and often prevents return to work and activities of daily living. Patients with vestibular abnormalities were studied to determine the minimal residual vestibular function required to achieve compensation. Three groups of patients with (a) complete unilateral loss of vestibular function with normal horizontal canal-vestibulo-ocular (HCVOR) function in the opposite ear, (b) complete unilateral loss with abnormal HCVOR function in the opposite ear, and (c) bilateral reduction of vestibular function from aminoglycoside toxicity underwent vestibuloocular (VOR), optokinetic (OKN), visual-VOR (VVOR), and computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) tests before and after therapeutic procedures. Results suggest that a minimal VOR response amplitude must be present for compensation of VVOR function to occur. The roles of VOR and OKN phase shifts in vestibular compensation are more complicated and require further study. Compensation of vestibulospinal function does not necessarily accompany VOR or VVOR compensation. Ascending and descending vestibular compensatory mechanisms may involve different spatial sensory inputs. Results of these studies have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with vestibular disorders, including selection and monitoring of patients for therapeutic regimens such as vestibular nerve section and streptomycin therapy.

  7. Discussions and Recommendations about Establishing Agro-ecological Compensation Mechanism in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; WU; Zichen; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism is the objective requirement for protecting agricultural ecological environment on the prerequisite of stabilizing and benefiting farmers,to realize protection in the process of development and promote development through protection.This study analyzed existing problems in the practice of establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism in Jiangsu Province,including failure to form systematic compensation system due to limited technological reserve,failure to bring into play expected compensation effect due to scant attention,and failure to set up perfect input mechanism due to insufficient financing channel.In line with these problems,it came up with feasible policy recommendations,including strictly implementing top frame design for agro-ecological compensation and giving impetus to standardized and institutionalized work,building pilot demonstration area for agro-ecological compensation,setting up diversified agro-ecological compensation approaches,establishing long-term security mechanism for agro-ecological compensation,and strengthening propaganda and education of agro-ecological compensation.It is expected to provide reference for establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism in Jiangsu Province,and also provide system guarantee for promoting ecological progress and agricultural modernization in Jiangsu Province.

  8. Suggestions on Forest Ecological Compensation-Taking Mudanjiang City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Zhang Zheng; Cui Li-juan; Siji K-Maunel; Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    The forest ecological compensation is an important factor to balance the interests of different areas for sustainable development and environment protection. Mudanjiang City in Heilongjiang Province of China is rich of forest resources. The forestry coverage rate reached 62.3% in 2014, after forestry conservation program from 2002. The authors explored the factors impacted on forest ecological compensation in Mudanjiang City, which was a demonstration as a case study, through experts' evaluation scores and AHP methodology to analyze the forest ecological compensation factors and lay the foundation for the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism. At the same time, we provided an example to explore the effective way and speed up the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism. The study found that the main factors that determined forest ecological compensation in Mudanjiang City were ecology and natural resources. Based on the analyses, some suggestions were put forward to promote the mechanism in a sustainable way.

  9. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  10. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  11. Electronic tissue compensation achieved with both dynamic and static multileaf collimator in eclipse treatment planning system for Clinac 6 EX and 2100 CD Varian linear accelerators: Feasibility and dosimetric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Sharma, Pramod K.; Patkar, Sachin; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M.; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) and static multileaf collimator (SMLC), along with three-dimensional treatment planning system (3-D TPS), open the possibility of tissue compensation. A method using electronic tissue compensator (ETC) has been implemented in Eclipse 3-D TPS (V 7.3, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) at our center. The ETC was tested for head and neck conformal radiotherapy planning. The purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of DMLC and SMLC in head and neck field irradiation for delivering homogeneous dose in the midplane at a pre-defined depth. In addition, emphasis was given to the dosimetric aspects in commissioning ETC in Eclipse. A Head and Neck Phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, USA) was used for the dosimetric verification. Planning was carried out for both DMLC and SMLC ETC plans. The dose calculated at central axis by eclipse with DMLC and SMLC was noted. This was compared with the doses measured on machine with ion chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). The calculated isodose curves and profiles were compared with the measured ones. The dose profiles along the two major axes from Eclipse were also compared with the profiles obtained from Amorphous Silicon (AS500) Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) on Clinac 6 EX machine. In uniform dose regions, measured dose values agreed with the calculated doses within 3%. Agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in the dose gradient zone was within 3 mm. The isodose curves and the profiles were found to be in good agreement with the measured curves and profiles. The measured and the calculated dose profiles along the two major axes were flat for both DMLC and SMLC. The dosimetric verification of ETC for both the linacs demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the ETC treatment modality for achieving uniform dose distributions. Therefore, ETC can be used as a tool in head and neck treatment planning optimization for improved dose uniformity. PMID

  12. Electronic tissue compensation achieved with both dynamic and static multileaf collimator in eclipse treatment planning system for Clinac 6 EX and 2100 CD Varian linear accelerators: Feasibility and dosimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinhikar Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC and static multileaf collimator (SMLC, along with three-dimensional treatment planning system (3-D TPS, open the possibility of tissue compensation. A method using electronic tissue compensator (ETC has been implemented in Eclipse 3-D TPS (V 7.3, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA at our center. The ETC was tested for head and neck conformal radiotherapy planning. The purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of DMLC and SMLC in head and neck field irradiation for delivering homogeneous dose in the midplane at a pre-defined depth. In addition, emphasis was given to the dosimetric aspects in commissioning ETC in Eclipse. A Head and Neck Phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, USA was used for the dosimetric verification. Planning was carried out for both DMLC and SMLC ETC plans. The dose calculated at central axis by eclipse with DMLC and SMLC was noted. This was compared with the doses measured on machine with ion chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD. The calculated isodose curves and profiles were compared with the measured ones. The dose profiles along the two major axes from Eclipse were also compared with the profiles obtained from Amorphous Silicon (AS500 Electronic portal imaging device (EPID on Clinac 6 EX machine. In uniform dose regions, measured dose values agreed with the calculated doses within 3%. Agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in the dose gradient zone was within 3 mm. The isodose curves and the profiles were found to be in good agreement with the measured curves and profiles. The measured and the calculated dose profiles along the two major axes were flat for both DMLC and SMLC. The dosimetric verification of ETC for both the linacs demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the ETC treatment modality for achieving uniform dose distributions. Therefore, ETC can be used as a tool in head and neck treatment planning optimization for improved dose uniformity.

  13. 湿地生态保护和补偿机制探讨--以洪湖湿地为例%Study on Wetland Ecological Protection and Compensation Mechanism-Take Honghu Lake as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操建华

    2016-01-01

    It is a strategic measure and effective form to enhance wetland protection and coordinate the in-terests of all stakeholders.This study reviews the three main stages of Honghu wetland ecological protec-tion and compensation practices and summaries its characteristics,effectiveness and problems.The policy suggestions have also been proposed,which focus on the following opinions such as government’s main responsibility,the payment system by environmental vandals,decision-making mechanism based on com-munity participation,the minimum compensation standards based on protection costs and development op-portunity cost,sustainable utilization,and reduction of the fishermen ’s relying on the wetland through training and industry development.%建立和实施湿地生态补偿机制是加强湿地保护的战略性措施和协调各方利益的有效形式。通过归纳和评价洪湖湿地生态保护与补偿实践,以及从湖区小范围试点到大规模铺开的三个阶段的主要做法、成效、特点和存在的问题,提出了具体的政策建议。强调了建设初期的政府责任、生态环境破坏者赔偿机制、基于社区参与的决策机制、基于生态保护成本和发展机会成本为最低依据的补偿标准、保护与合理利用相结合,以及通过产业发展和就业培训促进渔民转产等观点。

  14. 上市公司股票期权激励与公司风险的实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Relationship between Stock Options Compensation and Risk of Chinese A-share Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉; 程东全; 顾峰

    2012-01-01

    Using the sample of Chinese A-share listed companies from 2006 to 2009, we make an empirical study on the relationship between managerial stock options compensation, investment risk and operating risk. We find that managerial stock options compensation, investment risk and operating risk have notably positive effects on each other. By introducing the concept of Vega, we indicate that the stock price volatility will increase the value of executives' stock options, and reduce their risk aversion; thereby they will increase the company's investment risk and operating risk. By controlling other factors and endogenous, we empirically prove the conclusion.%利用我国A股上市公司2006~2009年的数据,对上市公司高管人员的股票期权激励与公司投资风险和经营风险之间的关系进行实证研究,并通过引入股票期权的Vega分析未来股价波动对公司高管人员股票期权收益等的影响.结果表明:股票期权激励与公司的投资风险、经营风险存在显著的双向正相关关系;股价的波动性将增加高管人员股票期权的收益,减轻管理者对风险的厌恶感,从而增加公司的投资风险与经营风险.

  15. Pay Me Later: Inside Debt and Its Role in Managerial Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Rangarajan K; Yermack, David

    2006-01-01

    Inside debt, such as pensions and deferred compensation, constitutes a widely-used form of executive compensation, yet the valuation and incentive effects of these instruments have been almost entirely overlooked by prior work. Our paper initiates this line of research by studying CEO pension arrangements in a sample of 237 large capitalization firms. Among our findings are that CEO compensation in most large cap firms exhibits a balance between debt- and equity-based incentives, with the bal...

  16. Interaction of finger enslaving and error compensation in multiple finger force production

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Joel R.; Mark L. Latash; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have documented two patterns of finger interaction during multi-finger pressing tasks, enslaving and error compensation, which do not agree with each other. Enslaving is characterized by positive correlation between instructed (master) and non-instructed (slave) finger(s) while error compensation can be described as a pattern of negative correlation between master and slave fingers. We hypothesize that pattern of finger interaction, enslaving or compensation, depends on the i...

  17. The background factor of the driving compensation behavior among elderly drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Taishi, Nozomi; Usui, Shinnosuke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine what factors lead to driving compensation behavior among elderly drivers, particularly focusing on the effect of self-reported driving performance, and to investigate the relationship between driving compensation behavior and traffic accidents or violations. After analyzing 237 elderly drivers, the results showed that whereas self-reported driving performances influenced driving compensation behaviors, the relationship between self-reported driving perf...

  18. Discussions and Recommendations about Establishing Agro-ecological Compensation Mechanism in Jiangsu Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Zichen

    2014-01-01

    Establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism is the objective requirement for protecting agricultural ecological environment on the prerequisite of stabilizing and benefiting farmers, to realize protection in the process of development and promote development through protection. This study analyzed existing problems in the practice of establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism in Jiangsu Province, including failure to form systematic compensation system due to limited technolo...

  19. Study on value compensation for social responsibility of cultivated land based on the level of regional economic development%基于区域经济发展水平的耕地社会责任价值补偿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方斌; 王波

    2011-01-01

    Taking province as research unit, the article quantified social responsibilities of cultivated land protection to test different provincial social responsibility for cultivated land protection and the value deviation given by the state, confirming its degree of obligations in the aspects. The study carried on the research of relation and built a regression model between economic development and social responsibility value per unit area cultivated land, with referring to five major indicators of economic development such as per capita GDP. The result showed that the most food productive areas were the major object of compensation. Heilongjiang Province had the highest gain compensation quantum in 2009, reaching 158.73X 108 yuan, while Guangdong Province had the highest paying compensation quantum in 2009, amounting to 91.76×108 yuan. The results also suggested the rea- sonably establishing the value of compensation regarding to area cultivated land social responsibility would play an important role in performing their respective responsibilities, and mobilizing grain production enthusiasm from major grain producing areas. The arable land would be protected better only with the earnest social acceptance of this value.%以省为单元量化其耕地保护社会责任价值,以此检验不同省份所承担的耕地保护社会责任价值与国家赋予的应承担价值偏差,从而确定其在该方面履行责任的程度。本文选取人均GDP等五个主要经济发展水平作参照,进行相关性分析,建立经济发展水平指标与单位面积耕地社会责任价值之间的回归模型。研究结果表明:粮食主产区所承担的责任远高于发达地区,以2009年为例,黑龙江省应获得的补偿额可达158.73×10。元/年,广东省应支付的补偿额达91.76×10。元/年。合理的区域耕地社会责任价值补偿额的确定,对各地履行各自责任,调动粮食主产区的粮食生产积极性将

  20. A theoretical study on the competitive ability's non-balance compensation of the basketball team-analysis of physical fitness compensation%篮球队竞技能力非衡补偿理论研究——体能补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫二涛; 林凤炎; 陈晋

    2009-01-01

    Through video observation and statistics, this article analyzed the results of western final-Spur vs. Jazz during NBA 06-07 season8. The results show that there are non-balances in time dimensionality of win and lose points. After studied the changing of win and lose points, it thought one match could be divided into 4 time periods, sueh as 1-9, 10-24, 25-34, 35-48min; the non-balance and balance compensation could be used in every period in order to develop team's stability by re-allocating and changing players in spot.%运用录像观察法、数理统计法,对NBA2006-2007赛季西部决赛马刺队、爵士队5场比赛得、失分统计结果进行分析,结果发现,球队得、失分在时间维度上存在非衡性.通过对篮球比赛中球队得、失分变化分析,可以将球队在一场比赛中体能变化分为四个时段,即1min-9min、10min-24min、25min-34min、35min-48min四段,运用非衡性补偿方法与平衡性补偿方法,对球队场上运动员进行配备、替换,能够提高球队的稳定性.

  1. Reforming Miners' Lung Disease Compensation in South Africa--Long Overdue but What Are the Options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Rodney; Rees, David

    2016-02-01

    A number of countries have workers' compensation systems which reserve specific arrangements for workers in certain sectors, notably mining. This article describes the current impetus to reform of the century-old South African mining compensation system. It is intended as a case study of the implications of harmonization of two disparate compensation systems for occupational lung disease, specifically in relation to equity in financial benefits, equity in coverage, linkage of compensation to disease prevention, and efficient administration. After decades of neglect, it is clear that while inferior financial benefits for miners are no longer tenable, the costs of equalization are not supportable by the current actuarial status of the miners' Compensation Fund. There is also an argument for two miner-specific entitlements to be retained--free medical examinations for ex-miners and autopsy-based posthumous compensation. A new dispensation to support the casualties of a declining industry will require sustained political will.

  2. Audiovisual bimodal mutual compensation of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The perception of human languages is inherently a multi-modalprocess, in which audio information can be compensated by visual information to improve the recognition performance. Such a phenomenon in English, German, Spanish and so on has been researched, but in Chinese it has not been reported yet. In our experiment, 14 syllables (/ba, bi, bian, biao, bin, de, di, dian, duo, dong, gai, gan, gen, gu/), extracted from Chinese audiovisual bimodal speech database CAVSR-1.0, were pronounced by 10 subjects. The audio-only stimuli, audiovisual stimuli, and visual-only stimuli were recognized by 20 observers. The audio-only stimuli and audiovisual stimuli both were presented under 5 conditions: no noise, SNR 0 dB, -8 dB, -12 dB, and -16 dB. The experimental result is studied and the following conclusions for Chinese speech are reached. Human beings can recognize visual-only stimuli rather well. The place of articulation determines the visual distinction. In noisy environment, audio information can remarkably be compensated by visual information and as a result the recognition performance is greatly improved.

  3. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  4. Pointing compensation system for spacecraft instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A closed loop system reduces pointing errors in one or more spacecraft instruments. Associated with each instrument is a electronics package (3) for commanding motion in that instrument and a pointing control system (5) for imparting motion in that instrument in response to a command (4) from the commanding package (3). Spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) compensates for instrument pointing errors caused by instrument-motion-induced spacecraft motion. Any finite number of instruments can be so compensated, by providing each pointing control system (5) and each commanding package (3), for the instruments desired to be compensated, with a link to the spacecraft motion compensation logic (25). The spacecraft motion compensation logic (25) is an electronic manifestation of the algebraic negative of a model of the dynamics of motion of the spacecraft. An example of a suitable model, and computer-simulated results, are presented.

  5. An integrated thermal compensation system for MEMS inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Ren; Teng, Li-Tao; Chao, Jen-Wei; Sue, Chung-Yang; Lin, Chih-Hsiou; Chen, Hong-Ren; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2014-01-01

    An active thermal compensation system for a low temperature-bias-drift (TBD) MEMS-based gyroscope is proposed in this study. First, a micro-gyroscope is fabricated by a high-aspect-ratio silicon-on-glass (SOG) process and vacuum packaged by glass frit bonding. Moreover, a drive/readout ASIC, implemented by the 0.25 µm 1P5M standard CMOS process, is designed and integrated with the gyroscope by directly wire bonding. Then, since the temperature effect is one of the critical issues in the high performance gyroscope applications, the temperature-dependent characteristics of the micro-gyroscope are discussed. Furthermore, to compensate the TBD of the micro-gyroscope, a thermal compensation system is proposed and integrated in the aforementioned ASIC to actively tune the parameters in the digital trimming mechanism, which is designed in the readout ASIC. Finally, some experimental results demonstrate that the TBD of the micro-gyroscope can be compensated effectively by the proposed compensation system. PMID:24599191

  6. Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Lugowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flow-reaction forces acting in hydraulic valves have been studied for many decades. Despite this, they are difficult to account for due to the complexities of the jet flow. This paper focuses only on the reduction, also referred to as compensation, of the flow force as applied to a valve spool featuring a profile of a turbine bucket. Fluid power textbooks explain the compensation taking place on such a profile by applying Newton laws of motion to the profile and deliver an equation for the magnitude and the direction of the flow force. This paper shows that both the magnitude and the direction of the compensating flow force are incorrect if calculated from the textbook equation. A corrected analysis of the dynamic forces is presented that are in agreement with earlier experiments by this author. It follows that the compensating flow force should be calculated from the static-pressure imbalance on the spool profile. That is, not Newton but Pascal law should be applied to calculate the compensating flow force.

  7. An Integrated Thermal Compensation System for MEMS Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ren Chiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An active thermal compensation system for a low temperature-bias-drift (TBD MEMS-based gyroscope is proposed in this study. First, a micro-gyroscope is fabricated by a high-aspect-ratio silicon-on-glass (SOG process and vacuum packaged by glass frit bonding. Moreover, a drive/readout ASIC, implemented by the 0.25 µm 1P5M standard CMOS process, is designed and integrated with the gyroscope by directly wire bonding. Then, since the temperature effect is one of the critical issues in the high performance gyroscope applications, the temperature-dependent characteristics of the micro-gyroscope are discussed. Furthermore, to compensate the TBD of the micro-gyroscope, a thermal compensation system is proposed and integrated in the aforementioned ASIC to actively tune the parameters in the digital trimming mechanism, which is designed in the readout ASIC. Finally, some experimental results demonstrate that the TBD of the micro-gyroscope can be compensated effectively by the proposed compensation system.

  8. Formant compensation for auditory feedback with English vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsuya, Takashi; MacDonald, Ewen N; Munhall, Kevin G;

    2015-01-01

    to differences in the degree of lingual contact or jaw openness. This may in turn influence the ways in which speakers compensate for auditory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine speakers' compensatory behavior with six English monophthongs. Specifically, the current study tested to see...

  9. Compensation Strategies: Tracking Movement in EFL Learners' Speaking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Alireza; Negin Taji, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the compensation strategies used by Iranian elementary EFL learners across the speaking skill. The participants of this study were a sample of 120 EFL elementary male and female learners whose ages ranged between 11 and 25 at a language institute in Rostam, Iran. The main participants were homogenized through…

  10. A New Interpretation of Compensate Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, M X

    2000-01-01

    A new interpretation of compensate effect is presented. The Hawking effect in general space-time can be taken as a compensate effect of the scale transformation of coordinate time on the horizon in generalized tortoise coordinates transformation. It is proved that the Hawking temperature is the pure gauge of compensate field in tortoise coordinates. This interpretation does not refer to a zero-temperature space-time.

  11. Compensation consultants and CEO pay: UK evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Voulgaris, Georgios; Stathopoulos, Konstantinos; Walker, Martin

    2010-01-01

    International audience Manuscript type: Empirical Research Question/ Issue: This paper provides new evidence on the effect of compensation consultants on CEO pay. Research Findings/ Insights: We produce new evidence on the managerial power approach (MPA) to corporate governance by examining the influence of compensation consultants on CEO pay structures and the decision to hire a compensation consultant in the UK. We find evidence that is not consistent with the MPA. Contrary to the MPA pr...

  12. Compensation for earnings risk under worker heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, P.; Hartog, J.; Webbink, D.

    2006-01-01

    We use two large Dutch datasets to estimate the Risk Augmented Mincer equation and test for risk compensation in expected earnings. We replicate earlier findings of a positive premium for risk and a negative premium for skew and add confirmation of the key results if we control for individual ability. We find that immigrants have graduated in more risky educations but obtain identical risk compensation. Among recent graduates, women receive higher risk compensation than men, consistent with t...

  13. Securitization and Compensation in Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Inderst, Roman; Pfeil, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the interaction between financial institutions' internal compensation policy, the quality of loans, and their securitization decision. We also assess the case for requiring financial institutions to defer bonus pay so as to make incentives more commensurate with the longer-term risk of their transactions. While mandatory deferred compensation can improve the quality of loans, we also show when it has the opposite effect. We further analyze when mandatory deferred compensation can c...

  14. Extended frequency compensation of a diamagnetic loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of compensation for a diamagnetic loop that is magnetically coupled to a concentric stainless-steel vacuum vessel is presented. This compensation method accounts for imperfect magnetic coupling between the vessel eddy currents, the diamagnetic loop, and the plasma diamagnetic currents, and it also corrects for a finite loading resistance on the diamagnetic loop. A procedure for adjusting and calibrating the active-filter compensation circuit is presented. It can be applied to internal or external diamagnetic loops. (author)

  15. Employee Sentiment and Stock Option Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Nittai K. Bergman; Dirk Jenter

    2005-01-01

    The use of equity-based compensation for employees in the lower ranks of large organizations is a puzzle for standard economic theory: undiversified employees should discount company equity heavily, and any positive incentive effects should be diminished by free rider problems. We analyze whether the popularity of option compensation for rank and file employees may be driven by employee optimism. We develop a model of optimal compensation policy for a firm faced with employees with positive o...

  16. Beam instability studies for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.

    1994-09-01

    Beam instability studies of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) during the period 1989--1993 are briefly reviewed in this paper. Various topics are covered: single bunch and multi-bunch, single beam and beam-beam, parasitic heating and active feedback, etc. Although the SSC will not be built, many of the results obtained from these studies remain as useful references to the accelerator community.

  17. Broadband dispersion compensation using microstructure fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhang; Xiaomin Ren; Yongzhao Xu; Zinan Wang; Yongqing Huang; Xue Chen

    2007-01-01

    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876Dispersion and dispersion slope compensation of 10-Gb/s pulses using microstructure fibers (MFs) is demonstrated experimentally. A 26-m MF is used to compensate the dispersion of 2-km standard singe mode fiber in a 20-nm range in C band. The experimental results show that a significant improvement can be achieved in the quality of the observed pulses with the dispersion compensation. Moreover, the further research shows that the MF can compensate the anomalous dispersion of a single mode fiber within ±0.27 ps/(nm·km) over a 50-nm wavelength range from 1520 to 1570 nm.

  18. Lithium compensation for full cell operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Xilin; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Jiguang, Jiguang

    2016-05-17

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a lithium-ion battery system comprising an anode, an anode current collector, and a layer of lithium metal in contact with the current collector, but not in contact with the anode. The lithium compensation layer dissolves into the electrolyte to compensate for the loss of lithium ions during usage of the full cell. The specific placement of the lithium compensation layer, such that there is no direct physical contact between the lithium compensation layer and the anode, provides certain advantages.

  19. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  20. Enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation was found to be a universal law in protein unfolding based on over 3 000 experimental data. Water molecular reorganization accompanying the protein unfolding was suggested as the origin of the enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding. It is indicated that the enthalpy-entropy compensation constitutes the physical foundation that satisfies the biological need of the small free energy changes in protein unfolding, without the sacrifice of the bio-diversity of proteins. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory proposed herein also provides valuable insights into the Privalov's puzzle of enthalpy and entropy convergence in protein unfolding.

  1. Undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluskin, Efim; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Xu, Joseph Z.

    2016-05-31

    A method and apparatus for implementing dynamic compensation of magnetic forces for undulators are provided. An undulator includes a respective set of magnet arrays, each attached to a strongback, and placed on horizontal slides and positioned parallel relative to each other with a predetermined gap. Magnetic forces are compensated by a set of compensation springs placed along the strongback. The compensation springs are conical springs having exponential-force characteristics that substantially match undulator magnetic forces independently of the predetermined gap. The conical springs are positioned along the length of the magnets.

  2. Thermal effects and thermal compensation in the OSIRIS camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J. Jesús; Tejada, Carlos; Farah, Alejandro; Rasilla, Jose L.; Fuentes, F. Javier

    2003-03-01

    Tight stability requirements for the imager/spectrograph OSIRIS (a Day One optical instrument for the GTC telescope) demand a careful treatment of thermal effects within the OSIRIS camera. Mostly due to the thermal response of refraction indices of its glasses (and not so much to curvature, spacing or thickness variations of the lenses), the camera optics alone degrades beyond requirements the image quality and plate scale under the expected ambient temperature variations (about 1.8 °C/hour). Thermal effects and thermal compensator studies of the OSIRIS camera are first summarized, before discussing how the motion (of a few microns per °C) of the 3rd camera doublet, as a sole compensator, practically eliminates thermal influences on both image quality and plate scale. A concept for the passive implementation of the compensator is also discussed.

  3. Emittance compensation of CW DC-gun photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emittance growth induced by space charge effect is very important, especially for CW DC-gun photoinjector. In this work, the linear space charge force and its effect on electron beam transverse emittance are studied, and the principle and properties of emittance compensation by solenoid are analyzed. The CAEP DC-gun photoinjector with a solenoid is also simulated by code Parmela. Simulated results indicate that the normalized transverse emittance of an 80 pC bunch at the 350 keV DC-gun ex-it is 5.14 mm · mrad. And after compensated by a solenoid, it becomes 1.27 mm · mrad. The emittance of beam is well compensated. (authors)

  4. Beam loading compensation for the NLC low frequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Miller, R.; Farkas, D.; Raubenheimer, T.; Tang, H.; Yeremian, D.

    1997-03-01

    The NLC low rf linacs are heavily loaded by a beam of about 130 ns in macropulse length (90 bunches) and a current up to 2.75 Amps. Beam loading voltage generates a large energy spread along the bunch train. This energy spread is critical for lattice design and, if not properly compensated, induces emittance growth and in turn lowers the luminosity of the machine. In this paper, the authors study the {Delta}F and {Delta}T beam loading compensation techniques for the NLC low rf linacs. They will apply these methods to the NLC low rf linacs to demonstrate the efficacy of these methods. Finally, they discuss a hybrid {Delta}T + {Delta}F method to improve the efficiency of beam loading compensation.

  5. The Compensation and Benefits System: Private Companies vs. Budgetary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Bogdan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic evolution of the last decades has entailed major changes concerning the Human Resource Management practices, in both private and budgetary sector of Romania. In order to maintain efficiency and market competitivity, a company must adapt to these changes by altering its human resource strategy since managers are encountering increasingly complex challenges as to attracting, motivating and retaining employees. Such an objective might be accomplished by elaborating a competitive system of employee compensation. This article focuses on the stage reached by the Human Resource Management in the compensation and benefits system of the private and budgetary sector. For the latter, we are focusing on the romanian system of higher education. This study demonstrates that the compensation and benefits system which is implemented in romanian universities is limited and can offer few opportunities as compared to the one implemented by private companies. It is worth saying that the legal system has a negative impact in this matter.

  6. Dosage compensation, the origin and the afterlife of sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jan; Meller, Victoria H

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 100 years Drosophila has been developed into an outstanding model system for the study of evolutionary processes. A fascinating aspect of evolution is the differentiation of sex chromosomes. Organisms with highly differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the mammalian X and Y, must compensate for the imbalance in gene dosage that this creates. The need to adjust the expression of sex-linked genes is a potent force driving the rise of regulatory mechanisms that act on an entire chromosome. This review will contrast the process of dosage compensation in Drosophila with the divergent strategies adopted by other model organisms. While the machinery of sex chromosome compensation is different in each instance, all share the ability to direct chromatin modifications to an entire chromosome. This review will also explore the idea that chromosome-targeting systems are sometimes adapted for other purposes. This appears the likely source of a chromosome-wide targeting system displayed by the Drosophila fourth chromosome.

  7. Factors Influencing CEO Compensation in US Telecommunication Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garanina Tatiana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define the relationship between a set of factors and CEO compensation that will enable companies to imply better corporate governance practices in their management process. Developed econometric model is tested on the data of US telecom companies for the period 2004-2012. The study revealed that CEO compensation is strongly and positively related to revenue and earnings per share of the company, and unrelated to return on net assets and market value added. These results enable companies to use CEO compensation system as an effective mechanism to eliminate agency problem and, consequently, agency costs. The main directions for further research in this field are outlined.

  8. Beam loading compensation for the NLC low frequency linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NLC low rf linacs are heavily loaded by a beam of about 130 ns in macropulse length (90 bunches) and a current up to 2.75 Amps. Beam loading voltage generates a large energy spread along the bunch train. This energy spread is critical for lattice design and, if not properly compensated, induces emittance growth and in turn lowers the luminosity of the machine. In this paper, the authors study the ΔF and ΔT beam loading compensation techniques for the NLC low rf linacs. They will apply these methods to the NLC low rf linacs to demonstrate the efficacy of these methods. Finally, they discuss a hybrid ΔT + ΔF method to improve the efficiency of beam loading compensation

  9. Development of Inexpensive Static Var Compensator Using PIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinit Srithorn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design and construction of an economical static reactive power compensator using inexpensive Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC, with the aim to add dynamic response to local distribution power systems. As FACTS devices have been more prevalent to perform instantaneous power compensation providing the enhancement of transient voltage and system stability. For some distribution networks, its price and complicated operation make FACTS devices unfavorable. The PIC is programmed as the heart of the overall control system for monitoring voltage, generating controlled signal and modulating PI feedback-loop. Simulation was carried out to guide the control design. Experimental results show the performance of the system response. This implies that the proposed compensator can be used for real applications and envisages the future replacement of mechanical-switched capacitor/reactor.

  10. Mandatory IFRS adoption and executive compensation:Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingchuan; Hou; Qinglu; Jin; Lanfang; Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how the mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS) affects the contractual benefits of using accounting information to determine executive compensation in China. After controlling for firm and corporate governance characteristics, we find strong evidence supporting the positive role of mandatory IFRS adoption on the accounting-based performance sensitivity of executive compensation. Subsample analysis suggests that improvements in accounting-based performance sensitivity after IFRS adoption differ across regions with various levels of institutional quality and across firms that are affected to a different extent by the adoption. Additional analysis supports the argument that the positive effects of IFRS adoption on the use of accounting performance in executive compensation are driven by the reduction in accounting conservatism associated with IFRS adoption.

  11. Keeping the Board in the Dark: CEO Compensation and Entrenchment

    OpenAIRE

    Inderst, Roman; Mueller, Holger M.

    2005-01-01

    We study a model in which a CEO can entrench himself by hiding information from the board that would allow the board to conclude that he should be replaced. Assuming that even diligent monitoring by the board cannot fully overcome the information asymmetry vis-à-vis the CEO, we ask if there is a role for CEO compensation to mitigate the inefficiency. Our analysis points to a novel argument for high-powered, non-linear CEO compensation such as bonus pay or stock options. By shifting the CEO’s ...

  12. Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Lugowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flow-reaction forces acting in hydraulic valves have been studied for many decades. Despite this, they are difficult to account for due to the complexities of the jet flow. This paper focuses only on the reduction, also referred to as compensation, of the flow force as applied to a valve spool featuring a profile of a turbine bucket. Fluid power textbooks explain the compensation taking place on such a profile by applying Newton laws of motion to the profile and deliver an equation for the ma...

  13. Compensation of airflow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Tiedemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Compensation of airflow maldistribution in fin-and tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning is investigated with regards to circuitry design and control of individual channel superheats. In particularly, the interlaced and the face split circuitry designs are compared numerically using...... evaporator by modifying its U-bend connections. Furthermore, a 14% and 28% blockage of the face split evaporator is studied experimentally with control of individual channel superheats. It is shown that the face split circuitry with compensation gives the best performance in both dry and wet conditions...

  14. 外派海员人身伤亡赔偿问题的研究%Study on issues relating to compensation for death or injury of seafarers serving onboard foreign ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付松悦; 王玉洋

    2012-01-01

    文中就外派海员人身伤亡赔偿的依据和赔偿额度进行了分析,对给予外派海员合理赔偿提出了建议。%This paper analyses the basis and amount of compensation fir death or injury of seafarers serving onboard t-oreign ships and provides some suggestions to ensure reasonable compensation fir those seafarers serving on forcign ships.

  15. A new compensator at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2005-01-01

    In 2001 a first Static Var Compensator (SVC) based on a set of thyristor-controlled reactors was commissioned for the SPS. This was the first step in the process of replacing the obsolete saturated reactors installed in the early seventies. The second step is now in preparation: dismantling of the so-called “North compensator” and replacing it with a second SVC, essentially identical to the one commissioned in 2001. This paper describes the project and its consequences for the operation of the 400/18 kV main substation. The paper describes briefly the recuperation of certain existing components, civil engineering and other hardware. Finally a budget estimation and the planning are presented.

  16. 76 FR 6009 - Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Item 20 of Schedule 14A; TARP Adopting Release, supra note 18, at 75 FR 2790. b. Comments on the... Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No... 17 CFR Parts 229, 240 and 249 RIN 3235-AK68 Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and...

  17. 38 CFR 3.351 - Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's compensation ratings. 3.351 Section 3.351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION...

  18. 生态补偿在小流域尺度的实践——以安徽省秋浦河流域为例%Practice of Eco-compensation Mechanism in Small Watershed A Case Study of Qiupu River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐勤; 荣慧芳

    2011-01-01

    针对小流域生态补偿实践中管理体制与机制不健全,补偿交易成本高,补偿标准、补偿主体、范围难以确定,补偿方式单一等弊端,以安徽境内秋浦河为例,采用系统研究、模型研究、文献研究、实证研究方法,运用系统理论,构建了其生态补偿实施体系.结果表明:秋浦河流域生态补偿实践框架,由驱动力、法规保障、管理与运行、监督等子系统构成.政策与社会基础、流域上下游对水质、水流调节的供求关系是生态补偿的驱动力;制定生态补偿法规、成立生态补偿委员会是实施补偿的基础;构建多元融资与支付机制、多元补偿方式机制、协商、调解为主的补偿途经机制、监督机制、科学确定补偿标准等是实施补偿的关键.基于秋浦河流域上游提供的生态服务及保护生态受损的发展成本,估算了2009年实际补偿金额为40553.66万元.秋浦河流域生态补偿有利于协调流域不同群体的环境与经济利益,有利于流域可持续发展与环境友好型社会建设,可为我国小流域生态补偿实践提供借鉴.%Some deficiencies still exist in practice of small watershed ecological compensation cases such as imperfect management system, indeterminate compensation standards and compensation subjects, single compensation pattern. Using model research, literature method and empirical approach, this study constructs eco-compensation mechanism for Qiupu River based on system theory, including driving forces, legal guarantee, management and operation systems and monitoring mechanism. Social foundation and supply and demand of the whole river is driving force of eco-compensation. Eco-compensation committee is the foundation for eco-compensation. Eco-compensation mechanism law, multivariate compensation mechanism, monitoring mechanism and scientific standard mechanism are all the key elements to implement the eco-compensation. This paper figures out

  19. Translation Compensation for Cultural Default in Lexical Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞锋

    2015-01-01

    Cultural default is a concept derived from the cultural comparison between different cultures. People sharing the same culture do not realize its existence;however it often gives rise to obstacles for translators. By means of case studies, this paper dis⁃cusses the translation compensation for cultural default in lexical level.

  20. Speech Compensation for Time-Scale-Modified Auditory Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogane, Rintaro; Honda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine speech compensation in response to time-scale-modified auditory feedback during the transition of the semivowel for a target utterance of /ija/. Method: Each utterance session consisted of 10 control trials in the normal feedback condition followed by 20 perturbed trials in the modified auditory…

  1. Workers' Compensation Claims and Physical Fitness Capacity of Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study compared police officers' physical fitness levels with workers' compensation (WC) claims. Officers who collected WC were predominantly female, younger, and lower ranking, with better physical fitness than officers not collecting WC. Officers in the second highest fitness level and older officers with greater cardiovascular fitness had…

  2. Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Boris J.

    1995-01-01

    Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.

  3. Springback Compensation: Fundamental Topics and Practical Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingbeek, R.; Meinders, T.; Ohnimus, S.; Petzoldt, M.; Weiher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Now that the simulation of deep drawing processes has become more reliable the virtual compensation of the forming tools has become reality. In literature, the Displacement Adjustment (DA) algorithm has proved to be most effective. In this article it is shown how the compensation factor, required fo

  4. A brief history of dosage compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stanley M. Gartler

    2014-08-01

    In 1914, H. J. Muller postulated the origin of the Y chromosome as having resulted from restricted recombination between homologous sex chromosomes in the male and the accumulation of deleterious mutations. This evolutionary process leads to dosage compensation. This article lays out a brief history of dosage compensation in genetics.

  5. 45 CFR 63.35 - Dual compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual compensation. 63.35 Section 63.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE... compensation. If a project staff member or consultant of one grantee is involved simultaneously in two or...

  6. 28 CFR 345.54 - Overtime compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overtime compensation. 345.54 Section 345.54 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.54 Overtime compensation. An...

  7. 7 CFR 930.61 - Handler compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handler compensation. 930.61 Section 930.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Regulations § 930.61 Handler compensation. Each handler handling cherries from a...

  8. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  9. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  10. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  11. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...

  12. 44 CFR 19.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 19.515 Section... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other...

  13. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  14. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  15. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  16. 28 CFR 34.111 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 34.111 Section 34.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.111 Compensation. All peer reviewers will be eligible to be paid according to applicable...

  17. 24 CFR 964.340 - Resident compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident compensation. 964.340 Section 964.340 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) Program § 964.340 Resident compensation. Residents employed to provide services or renovation...

  18. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  19. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  20. Harmonic Resonance Damping with a Hybrid Compensation System in Power Systems with Dispersed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and a group of distributed passive filters has been studied previously. The passive filters are used for each distorting load or Dispersed Generation (DG) unit to remove major harmonics and provide reactive power compensation. The active...

  1. Design of Anti-windup Compensator for Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Chen, Zhe; Su, Chi;

    2013-01-01

    -windup compensator (AWC) is applied to the controller of the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system to improve power system stability. First, power system with actuator saturation is described to formulate the problem mathematically. Then, uniform anti-windup scheme is studied and compensator...

  2. Changes in Muscle Activation after Reach Training with Gravity Compensation in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Gerdienke B.; Krabben, Thijs; Renzenbrink, Gerbert J.; Ijzerman, Maarten J.; Hermens, Hermie J.; Jannink, Michiel J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of gravity compensation training on reaching and underlying changes in muscle activation. In this clinical trial, eight chronic stroke patients with limited arm function received 18 sessions (30 min) of gravity-compensated reach training (during 6 weeks) in combination with a rehabilitation…

  3. Color Data Compensation for Illumination Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pranchalee Rattanasakornchai; Yasushi Hoshino; Chun Weilin

    2004-01-01

    Compensation method for illumination change, which has big influences on the characteristics of imaging system, is studied. On the condition that color chart is placed in the view of camera, the imaging system recognizes the color chart and the signals from the camera are processed by using the color chart data. Concerning the light from the window, and fluorescent light, it is confirmed that color chart is possible to be recognized and the color system is corrected to the expected chart signal within the error 10 % by considering quadratic terms of RGB. This method is considered to improve the accuracy of motion detection and also to better video communication by realizing preferalle color reproduction.

  4. The impact of ecological compensation on farmers' ecological footprint: an empirical study on Giant Panda habitat%生态补偿对大熊猫栖息地周边农户生态足迹的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉波; 王梦君; 李俊清; 何洧

    2009-01-01

    Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat is under threat of fragmentation and disturbance from human being. How to reduce the threat is a cornerstone in the conservation of this flagship species. In order to get this objective, an ecological compensation project, with the sufficient consideration on recipients′ rights in survival and development, helped the farmers develop alternative livelihood and energy substitution to reduce their pressure on surrounding environment. Based on the ecological footprint (EF) concept, this study investigates 120 households to explore the influence of the ecological compensation on the household ecological footprints. The result indicated that the farmers occupied largest land area in "Forest" and "Pasture". Energy substitutions reduced fuel wood consumption dramatically and farmers′ occupancy on forest land. Farmers′ occupancy on grass land decreased with the adjustment of livestock breeding method. The recipients′ EF per capita declined from 2.7346hm2 (2005) to 1.6325 hm2 (2007), which demonstrated that ecological compensation can reduced local poor people′s EF and pressure on neighborhood environment, and this will benefit wildlife conservation.%大熊猫栖息地正面临破碎化和人类活动干扰的威胁,如何减少这些威胁成为保护大熊猫这一生态旗舰物种的关键.通过实施生态补偿项目,充分考虑当地弱势群体生存和发展的权利,帮助其进行生计替代和能源替代,以减小生态系统所承受的压力.以120个项目农户作为研究对象,利用生态足迹方法,探讨了生态补偿项目对生活在关键生态区域内农村人口的影响.结果表明,在各种生态生产性土地中,农户对林地和草地生态占用最大,能源替代可以大幅降低农户的薪柴消耗水平,从而降低农户对林地的生态占用.通过调整农户的牲畜养殖模式,减小了放牧对草地资源的压力和对草地的生态

  5. 20 CFR 211.15 - Verification of compensation claimed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of compensation claimed. 211.15... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.15 Verification of compensation claimed. Compensation claimed by an... Board before it may be credited. An employee's claim to compensation not credited shall be processed...

  6. 20 CFR 211.2 - Definition of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 211.2 Section 211... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.2 Definition of compensation. (a) The term compensation means any form... termination allowance paid under section 702 of that Act. Compensation may be paid as money, a commodity,...

  7. 20 CFR 211.14 - Maximum creditable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum creditable compensation. 211.14... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.14 Maximum creditable compensation. Maximum creditable compensation... Employment Accounts shall notify each employer of the amount of maximum creditable compensation applicable...

  8. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is computed by first determining the employee's highest 60 months of railroad compensation...

  9. Ownership Concentration, Top Management and Board Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of ownership concentration may influence executive and board compensation (Bebchuk & Fried, 2003. This article analyzes this relationship. Detailed information about top management and board compensation became available starting in 2010 through new Securities Commission filings. Linear regression models applied to a sample of 315 Brazilian companies traded on the national exchange indicate a negative and statistically significant economic correlation between executive compensation and the degree of ownership concentration. Ceteris paribus, companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration pay higher compensation to top executives. Family controlled companies pay more to their chief executive, but not to the managerial team as a whole, and the compensation of directors increases with a greater proportion of control group members or their relatives on the board. There was support for the Managerial Power Hypothesis in companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration and for the extraction of private benefits in companies where it is greater.

  10. Compensating large PMD by a fiber grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tangjun Li(李唐军); Muguang Wang(王目光); Cao Diao(刁操); Shuisheng Jian(简水生)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the first- and second-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) with the amount of 132.994-ps differential group-delay (DGD) and maximum 476.129-ps/nm second-order PMD can be compensated by a two-stages PMD compensator at a 40-Gb/s optical fiber communication system. The first stage has one free degree that is used for first order and high orders PMD compensations by rotating the state of polarization. The second-stage is used for remainder PMD compensations. After compensation, the average DGD and the maximum second-order PMD are reduced to 345.310 fs and 3.102 ps/nm, respectively.

  11. Rectangular Laser Resonators with Astigmatic Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    2005-01-01

    An investigation of rectangular resonators with a view to the compensation of astigmatism has been performed. In order to have beam waists placed at the same positions in the tangential and sagittal planes, pairs of equal mirrors were considered. It was found that at least two concave mirrors...... are necessary to obtain compensation. Four-concave-mirror systems are most stable close to the quadratic geometry, although the symmetric quadratic resonator itself cannot be compensated for astigmatism. Using four equal concave mirrors, compensation of astigmatism can be obtained in two arms at the same time....... Usually several stability ranges are found for four-mirror resonators with pair-wise equal mirrors, and it is possible with these systems to obtain small compensated beam waist radii suitable for frequency conversion. Relevant formulae are given and several relevant examples are shown using simulation...

  12. Engineering Compensations in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Micahel; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this paper, we introduce an engineering approach and an environment to deal with advanced...... introduce the abstract service and adapter components which allow us to separate the compensation logic from the coordination logic. In this way, we can easily plug in or plug out different compensation strategies based on a specification language defined on top of basic compensation activities and complex...

  13. 基于二次曲线拟合的相位编码多普勒补偿研究%Study on Phase Coded Doppler Compensation Based on Conic Fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨咚咚; 屈建社; 杨辉; 凤宏晓

    2015-01-01

    相位编码信号由于其脉冲间码型捷变、图钉状模糊函数和不存在距离-多普勒模糊等低截获性能,在当前雷达对抗领域获得广泛的关注和应用。由于目标运动会使相位编码回波受到多普勒频率调制,破坏了各个调相码之间的相位关系,相关处理会出现失配现象,输出主瓣降低,旁瓣升高,系统在探测高速目标会出现多普勒失配。根据m序列码脉冲压缩随着目标速度的失配变化和目标多普勒容限关系,本论文研究了较为实用的二次曲线拟合局部脉冲压缩曲线。根据三点多普勒补偿的脉压结果实现全局最优补偿的自动估算。所提算法具有简单的实现过程,易于工程实现。%The phase coded signal causes widely attention and is applied in current radar antijamming field since its code pattern agility among pulses, thumbtack ambiguity funcion and inexisistence of LPI capabilities like range and Doppler ambiguity. Doppler mismatch may occur when the system is detecting high speed targets since phase coded echo may be modulated by Doppler frequency owing to target movement; this will damage phase relation among phase modulating codes, and the related processing will occur mismatch phenomenon,and the output main lobe is low, and side lobe upscending. More practical applied conic fitting partial pulse compression curve is studied ac-cording to m sequence code pulse compression changes as mismatch of target speed and target Doppler tolerance re-lation. The automatic estimation of global optimal compensation is implemented according to pulse compression re-sult of 3-point Doppler compensation. The proposed algorithm is featured with simple implementation process and easily realization in engineering.

  14. Confidence in the Knowledge Base of English Language Learners Studying Science: Using Agency to Compensate for the Lack of Adequate Linguistic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Aneta L.; Mansour, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the cultural and linguistic environments of learners are often associated with identity shifts. The aim of this study was to explore what identity shifts occur when science students from Bahraini national schools transition to an international university. The role of two aspects of learner identity—that is, English proficiency and science background knowledge, was examined in this study. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with students and with university lecturers. The analysis suggested three conceptual themes of (1) reliance on science knowledge, (2) the auxiliary role of professional language and (3) adequacy of student learning strategies, demonstrating what subjective meanings the participants ascribe to the interplay between science knowledge and linguistic ability. The findings suggest that despite the lack of adequate linguistic attributes, the students are still able to successfully learn science in the context of language change. It is also implied that through strategically utilising their academic background in science, students preserve their identity as successful learners from school through to university. We conclude that agency plays a separate role in transition and is not a sole function of identity. We also contest the idea of language as a necessary attribute of one's identity as it was perceived by our participants to be an advantage and an auxiliary tool rather than a requirement.

  15. Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. (Beck (R.W.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Compensating Losses in Bridge Employment? Examining Relations between Compensation Strategies, Health Problems, and Intention to Remain at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Andreas; De Lange, Annet; Weigl, Matthias; Oxfart, Caroline; Van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the precursors of bridge employment, this study aimed to investigate whether individual action strategies in terms of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC; Baltes & Baltes, 1990) are able to buffer the well-known negative impact of poor health on the intention to remain in the workforce. 784 employees (60-85…

  17. Variable compensation in Primary Healthcare: a report on the experience in Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli Neto, Paulo; Faoro, Nilza Teresinha; Prado Júnior, José Carlos do; Pisco, Luís Augusto Coelho

    2016-05-01

    How professionals are compensated may affect how they perform their tasks. Fixed compensation may take the form of wages, payment for productivity or capitation. In addition to fixed compensation, there are numerous mechanisms for variable compensation. This article describes the experience of Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, and Lisbon in Portugal, using different models of performance-based compensation. In all three of these examples, management felt the need to offer monetary reward to achieve certain goals. The indicators analyzed the structure, processes and outcomes, and assessed professionals individual and as part of healthcare teams. In Lisbon, variable compensation can be as high as 40% of the base wage, while in Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro it is limited to 10%. Despite the growing use of this management tool in Brazil and the world, further studies are required to analyze the effectiveness of variable compensation.

  18. Examining Geospatial Technology Tools to Compensate for Limited Exposures and Integrate Diverse Map and Data Resources in Geological Studies of the Southern Blue Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, N.; Ryan, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    aspects built in, and allow immediate, global-scale representations. However, these systems include relatively limited capabilities for independent data manipulation, and are constrained by the spatial detail of the integrated databases. Absent the ability to separate out individual rock units from geological maps, the regional study of rock associations via GeoMapApp is necessarily problematic. Also, low-resolution topographic base maps and digital elevation models (DEMs) inhibit exports to three-dimensional manipulation programs, and the exported content can only be minimally manipulated. For multivariate geological data resources such as one encounters in the study of mountain belts, an multi-tool approach combining commercial ArcGIS data management with various visualization tools appears to produce the best results in terms of research study of such datasets, and for the production of effective classroom visualizations.

  19. Study for the Flow Force Compensation of Spool Valve Based on FLUENT%基于FLUENT的滑阀液动力补偿的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 安骥

    2014-01-01

    液动力是滑阀和阀腔的结构设计中考虑的关键因素之一。提出了一种在阀套上开圆弧型进出口流道的方法,对进出口处的油液进行导流,以达到减小液动力的目的。同时利用FLUENT软件分析该阀内流场,并与传统的直流道滑阀相比较,然后对改进后滑阀的液动力特性和阀口流量特性分析计算。该研究对滑阀的结构优化设计有一定的参考意义。%Flow force is one of the keys factors in the structural design of spool valve. In order to achieve the purpose to reduce the flow force , this paper presents a method on arc-shaped opening in the valve sleeve to deflector the oil of the opening. while using FLUENT software to analyze the flow field inside the valve, and compared with the conventional spool. Then analysis the characteristics of fluid dynamic and the valve orifice flow of the improved spool valve. The study has a certain reference value on the structural optimization of spool valve .

  20. Compensation claims for chiropractic in Denmark and Norway 2004-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jevne, Jørgen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

    2014-01-01

    about patient filed compensation claims related to the chiropractic consultation process. The aim of this study was to describe claims reported to the Danish Patient Compensation Association and the Norwegian System of Compensation to Patients related to chiropractic from 2004 to 2012. METHODS: All...... finalized compensation claims involving chiropractors reported to one of the two associations between 2004 and 2012 were assessed for age, gender, type of complaint, decisions and appeals. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study population. RESULTS: 338 claims were registered in Denmark...... and Norway between 2004 and 2012 of which 300 were included in the analysis. 41 (13.7%) were approved for financial compensation. The most frequent complaints were worsening of symptoms following treatment (n = 91, 30.3%), alleged disk herniations (n = 57, 19%) and cases with delayed referral (n = 46, 15...

  1. GVD compensation schemes with considering PMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiying Yang(杨爱英); Anshi Xu(徐安士); Deming Wu(吴德明)

    2003-01-01

    Three group velocity dispersion (GVD) compensation schemes, i.e., the post-compensation, pre-compensation and hybrid-compensation schemes, are discussed with considering polarization mode disper-sion (PMD). In the 10- and 40-Gbit/s non-return-zero (NRZ) on-off-key (OOK) systems, three physicalfactors, Kerr effect, GVD and PMD are considered. The numerical results show that, when the impactof PMD is taken into account, the GVD pre-compensation scheme performs best with more than 1 dBbetter of average eye-opening penalty (EOP) when input power is up to 10 dBm in the 10-Gbit/s system.However the GVD post-compensation scheme perforns best for the case of 40 Gbit/s with input power lessthan 13 dBm, and GVD pre-compensation will be better if the input power increased beyond this range.The results are different from those already reported under the assumption that the impact of PMD isneglected. Therefore, the research in this paper provide a different insight into the system optimizationwhen PMD, Kerr effect and GVD are considered.

  2. An Empirical Study On the Influence Factors of Top Managerial Compensation in Chinese Private Listed Companies---Based on Dynamic Panel Data Model%中国民营上市公司高管薪酬的影响因素--基于动态面板模型的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺彩银; 陈开军; 陈蓉

    2013-01-01

    选取2003至2010年间三大地区、十一大类行业的207家民营上市公司作为样本,基于系统广义矩估计方法分析民营上市公司高管薪酬的影响因素。结果显示:产权更为清晰、市场化导向更为明确的民营上市公司高管薪酬具有显著的粘性特征,高管薪酬还受到公司经营业绩、公司资本结构、公司规模等因素的正向影响。中国民营上市公司高管薪酬在一定程度上发挥了激励作用。%This paper studies the influence factors of top managerial compensation by selecting 207 private listed companies in three region and eleven industries between 2003 and 2010. It uses system GMM estimation method to find the factors of top managerial compensation in China's private listed companies. The results shows that it has been positively correlated with business performance, firm's capital structure and size. And also top managerial compensation is sticky. Overall, the compensation system can give full play to its functions of incentive.

  3. Compensator configurations for load currents' symmetrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinaru, D.; Manescu, L. G.; Dinu, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper approaches aspects regarding the mitigation effects of asymmetries in 3-phase 3-wire networks. The measure consisting in connecting of load current symmetrization devices at the load coupling point is presented. A time-variation of compensators parameters is determined as a function of the time-recorded electrical values. The general sizing principle of the load current symmetrization reactive components is based on a simple equivalent model of the unbalanced 3-phase loads. By using these compensators a certain control of the power components transits is ensured in the network. The control is based on the variations laws of the compensators parameters as functions of the recorded electrical values: [B] = [T]·[M]. The link between compensator parameters and measured values is ensured by a transformation matrix [T] for each operation conditions of the supply network. Additional conditions for improving of energy and efficiency performance of the compensator are considered: i.e. reactive power compensation. The compensator sizing algorithm was implemented into a MATLAB environment software, which generate the time-evolution of the parameters of load current symmetrization device. The input data of application takes into account time-recording of the electrical values. By using the compensator sizing software, some results were achieved for the case of a consumer connected at 20 kV busbar of a distribution substation, during 24 hours measurement session. Even the sizing of the compensators aimed some additional network operation aspects (power factor correction) correlated with the total or major load symmetrizations, the harmonics aspects of the network values were neglected.

  4. 政府补助条件下风电场送出项目投资效益研究%Study on Investment Benefit of Wind Farm Send-out Proj ect with Government Compensation Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志恒

    2014-01-01

    电网企业投资建设的风电送出工程可享受国家资本金补助和可再生能源电价附加补助。由于补助标准偏低,电网企业通过内部交叉补贴方式,承担了项目投资的不经济性。以实际工程为例,探讨资本金补助与可再生能源电价附加补助的财务评价处理方法,论证平均销售电价法、输配电价法计算风电送出项目投资效益的合理性,并提出保证项目投资效益的补助方案。%Wind power send-out engineering invested and constructed by power grid enterprise is able to enjoy state capital compensation and electrovalence additional compensation for renewable energy source.For reason of low compensation standard,by internal cross subsidy way,the power grid enterprise is undertaking diseconomy of project investment.Taking practical engineering as an example,this paper discusses financial estimation and handling ways for capital compensation and electrovalence additional compensation for renewable energy source.It demonstrates reasonability of calculating investment benefit of wind farm send-out project by using average sale price method and transmission and distribution price method.In addition,it proposes a compensation scheme for ensuing project investment benefit.

  5. Advanced median method for timing jitter compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Zhu Jiangmiao; Jan Verspecht; Liu Mingliang; Li Yang

    2008-01-01

    Timing jitter is one of the main factors that influence on the accuracy of time domain precision measurement. Timing jitter compensation is one of the problems people concern. Because of the flaws of median method, PDF deconvolution method and synthetic method, we put forward a new method for timing jitter compensation, which is called advanced median method. The theory of the advanced median method based on probability and statistics is analyzed, and the process of the advanced median method is summarized in this paper. Simulation and experiment show that compared with other methods, the new method could compensate timing jitter effectively.

  6. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given. We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding and motion compensation. The new coding methods combine state-of-the-art lossless techniques as JPEG (context based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding), with high resolution motion field estimation...... information is coded with the same algorithm as is used for the data. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images perform up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better than coding that does not utilize motion compensation...

  7. Zero energy buildings and mismatch compensation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    individual buildings and an element of economy of scale. For these three reasons mismatches should be dealt with at the aggregated level and not at the individual level of each building. Instead, this paper suggests to compensate the mismatch of a building by increasing (or decreasing) the capacity...... of the energy production unit. Based on historical data for the electricity supply area in western Denmark, this paper makes a first attempt to quantify mismatch compensation factors. The results indicate that such compensation factors are a little below one for buildings with photovoltaics (PV) and a little...

  8. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding andmotion compensation. The methods incorporate state-of-the-art lossless techniques such ascontext based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding, high resolution motion field estimation,3d-dimensional predictors, prediction...... using one or multiple previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images are up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better...... than coding that does not utilize motion compensation....

  9. Compensation packages: a strategic tool for employees’ performance and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Adewale OSIBANJO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rate at which employees in private universities in Nigeria jump from one university to the other is becoming more disturbing and this could be as a result of compensation packages of different universities to attract competent employees. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of compensation packages on employees’ job performance and retention in a selected private University in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria. A model was developed and tested using one hundred and eleven valid questionnaires which were completed by academics and non-academic staff of the university. The collected data were carefully analyzed using simple percentage supported by structural equation modelling to test the hypotheses and relationships that may exist among the variables under consideration. The results showed strong relationship between compensation packages and employees’ performance and retention. The summary of the findings indicates that there is strong correlation between the tested dependent and independent variables (salary, bonus, incentives, allowances, and fringe benefits. However, management and decision makers should endeavour to review compensation packages at various levels in order to earn employees’ satisfaction and prevention of high labour turnover among the members of staff.

  10. Theoretical study on ignition compensating temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature sensitivity of the propellant has significant influence on the interior ballistic performance of guns. Many physical and chemical approaches are employed to decrease this temperature sensitivity of the propellant. In this article, it is proposed that the temperature sensitivity of the propellant is changed by altering the factors required to ignition. A one-dimensional two-phase flow interior ballistic model is established to analyze the relation between ignition factors and temperature sensitivity. The simulation results show that the propellant temperature sensitivity is changed by altering the ignition factors. That is, the interior ballistic performance is affected by altering the size of fire hole, breaking liner pressure, and ignition location. Based on the simulation results, the temperature sensitivity can be controlled by matching of charges and intelligent control ignition system.

  11. Polystyrene microspheres enable 10‐color compensation for immunophenotyping of primary human leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Karen D.; Norman, John C.; Huye, Leslie; Hegde, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Compensation is a critical process for the unbiased analysis of flow cytometry data. Numerous compensation strategies exist, including the use of bead‐based products. The purpose of this study was to determine whether beads, specifically polystyrene microspheres (PSMS) compare to the use of primary leukocytes for single color based compensation when conducting polychromatic flow cytometry. To do so, we stained individual tubes of both PSMS and leukocytes with panel specific antibodies conjugated to fluorochromes corresponding to fluorescent channels FL1‐FL10. We compared the matrix generated by PSMS to that generated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Ideal for compensation is a sample with both a discrete negative population and a bright positive population. We demonstrate that PSMS display autofluorescence properties similar to PBMC. When comparing PSMS to PBMC for compensation PSMS yielded more evenly distributed and discrete negative and positive populations to use for compensation. We analyzed three donors' PBMC stained with our 10‐color T cell subpopulation panel using compensation generated by PSMS vs.PBMC and detected no significant differences in the population distribution. Panel specific antibodies bound to PSMS represent an invaluable valid tool to generate suitable compensation matrices especially when sample material is limited and/or the sample requires analysis of dynamically modulated or rare events. © 2015 The Authors. Cytometry Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26202733

  12. High rate of awarding compensation for claims of injuries related to clinical trials by pharmaceutical companies in Japan: a questionnaire survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Kurihara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: International norms and ethical standards have suggested that compensation for research-related injury should be provided to injured research volunteers. However, statistical data of incidence of compensation claims and the rate of awarding them have been rarely reported. METHOD: Questionnaire surveys were sent to pharmaceutical companies and medical institutions, focusing on industry-initiated clinical trials aiming at new drug applications (NDAs on patient volunteers in Japan. RESULTS: With the answers from pharmaceutical companies, the incidence of compensation was 0.8%, including 0.06% of monetary compensation. Of the cases of compensation claims, 99% were awarded. In turn, with the answers from medical institutions, the incidence of compensation was 0.6%, including 0.4% of serious but not death cases, and 0.04% of death cases. Furthermore, most claims for compensation were initiated by medical institutions, rather than by the patients. On the other hand, with the answers from clinical trial volunteers, 3% of respondents received compensations. These compensated cases were 25% of the injuries which cannot be ruled out from the scope of compensation. CONCLUSION: Our study results demonstrated that Japanese pharmaceutical companies have provided a high rate of compensation for clinical trial-related injuries despite the possibility of overestimation. In the era of global clinical development, our study indicates the importance of further surveys to find each country's compensation policy by determining how it is being implemented based on a survey of the actual status of compensation coming from statistical data.

  13. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, provides a federal "superfund" to clean up...

  14. Compensating for estimation smoothing in kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky, Vera

    1996-01-01

    Smoothing is a characteristic inherent to all minimum mean-square-error spatial estimators such as kriging. Cross-validation can be used to detect and model such smoothing. Inversion of the model produces a new estimator-compensated kriging. A numerical comparison based on an exhaustive permeability sampling of a 4-fr2 slab of Berea Sandstone shows that the estimation surface generated by compensated kriging has properties intermediate between those generated by ordinary kriging and stochastic realizations resulting from simulated annealing and sequential Gaussian simulation. The frequency distribution is well reproduced by the compensated kriging surface, which also approximates the experimental semivariogram well - better than ordinary kriging, but not as well as stochastic realizations. Compensated kriging produces surfaces that are more accurate than stochastic realizations, but not as accurate as ordinary kriging. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  15. 环境再生产与森林生态效益补偿%THE ENVIRONMENTAL REPRODUCTION AND COMPENSATION FOR ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF FOREST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄选瑞; 张玉珍; 藤起和; 赵连清; 陈占稳

    2002-01-01

    To set up compensation system for ecological benefits of forest is important safeguard that can coordinate the benefit relationship between forest manager and person who benefit from environmental services function of forest,ensure funds for forest protection and management be firmly invested.By analyzing the problems confronted with study and practice in compensation system for ecological benefits of forest,author put forward that environmental reproduction is one of theoretical base of compensation system for ecological benefits of forest.The paper make systematic discussion about why compensation system for ecological benefits of forest should be made,how much funds should be compensated,who should supply with compensation funds and how to compensate.Meanwhile,the contents about how to use compensation funds,who should use funds and how to monitor the use of funds are also discussed.Finally,the overall train of though for directing study and practices be put forward.

  16. Multichannel Adaptive Polarization Mode Dispersion Compensation with One Compensator in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Transmission Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi; CHEN Ming-hua; ZHANG Ji-yu; XIE Shi-zhong

    2007-01-01

    A simple two-section polarization mode dispersion(PMD) compensator is proposed for multichannel PMD compensation, which can compensate two or even more channels simultaneously. Because of the statistical characteristics and the frequency-dependence of PMD, for current single mode fiber with moderate PMD, the probability that all channels are severely degraded at the same time is extremely small, which makes it possible to compensate a dense wavelength division multiplexing(DWDM) transmission system with moderate PMD using this compensator. It is shown that the outage probability of a 40×43Gb/s DWDM transmission system using this compensator is decreased significantly from 3.6×10-3 to 3.6×10-5.

  17. 恒负载时转速降落开环补偿方法与实验研究%Open-loop Speed Loss Compensation Method and Experiment Study under Constant Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐南更; 彭天好; 张川; 许军; 王光洪

    2012-01-01

    分析变转速泵控马达调速系统转速降落的主要原因,指出系统泄漏和电机机械特性均能引起转速降落,推导出转速降落补偿系数表达式,建立了恒负载时变转速泵控马达调速系统转速降落补偿方法.实验结果表明:在恒负载时,采用所提出的补偿方法能够很好地实现转速降落补偿.%The reasons of motor speed loss in variable-speed pump-control-motor governing system were analyzed. It was pointed out that system leakage and electromotor mechanical properties were the reasons. Speed drop compensation coefficient expression was derived, and the compensation method under constant load in variable-speed pump-control-motor governing system was built. The experiment results show that using this compensation method, motor speed loss in constant load can be compensated.

  18. 开关操作对串补保护装置运行影响的研究%Studies on the Effects of Switch Action on the Protection of Compensation Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵昱; 王莉; 王坤; 邵庆华; 罗禹

    2013-01-01

    Compensation series is installed in the middle of EHV transmission line and its operation condition will affects the condition of the line. Protection equipment is installed on the compensation series. EMTP program is used to make models of compensation series and transmission lines, simulating the action of compensation series protection when line switches act. The paper analyzes the reason to the wrong action of protections according to waveforms and improvement measures are proposed.%串补装置一般安装于超高压输电线路中间,其运行状况将影响到整条线路的工作状态,因而在串补上加装一些保护设备.使用EMTP软件建立串补装置接输电线路模型,模拟线路两端开关动作时,串补保护装置的动作隋况,根据仿真输出波形,分析线路开关动作时,串补保护装置误动作的原因,并提出改进措施.

  19. Compensating Heterogeneous Salesforces: Some Explicit Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ram C. Rao

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers the question of how a sales manager should design the optimal compensation scheme for his salesforce when it consists of salespersons of varying selling skills, i.e., when the salesforce is heterogeneous. The manager's problem is to reward the salespersons based on observable, uncertain sales achieved by the salespersons. Under the assumption that both the manager and the salespersons are risk neutral, the optimal compensation scheme is derived. It consists of the manager...

  20. Job Dispersion and Compensating Wage Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Sullivan; Ted To

    2013-01-01

    The empirical literature on compensating wage differentials has a mixed history. While there have been some successes, much of this literature finds weak support for the theory of equalizing differences. We argue that it is dispersion in total job values or "job dispersion" that leads to biased compensating wage differential estimates. We begin by demonstrating how job dispersion can lead to biased hedonic estimates. Then we take a partial equilibrium on-the-job search model with utility from...