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Sample records for beam-beam compensation studies

  1. Long-Range And Head-On Beam-Beam Compensation Studies in RHIC With Lessons for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; /Brookhaven; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J.P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; /LBL, Berkeley; Kabel, A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-28

    Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. Electron lenses were proposed for both RHIC and the LHC to reduce the head-on beam-beam effect. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations.

  2. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  3. Applications of electron lenses: scraping of high-power beams, beam-beam compensation, and nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-09-11

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Hollow electron beam collimation and halo control were studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN; a conceptual design was recently completed. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles. At Fermilab, we are planning to install an electron lens in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA, a 40-m ring for 150-MeV electrons) as one of the proof-of-principle implementations of nonlinear integrable optics to achieve large tune spreads and more stable beams without loss of dynamic aperture.

  4. Applications of electron lenses: scraping of high-power beams, beam-beam compensation, and nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Hollow electron beam collimation and halo control were studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN; a conceptual design was recently completed. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compens...

  5. LHC beam-beam compensation using wires and electron lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U; Shiltsev, V; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    We present weak-strong simulation results for a possible application of current-carrying wires and electron lenses to compensate the LHC long-range and head-on beambeam interaction, respectively, for nominal and PACMAN bunches. We show that these measures have the potential to considerably increase the beam-beam limit, allowing for a corresponding increase in peak luminosity.

  6. The effects of betatron phase advances on beam-beam and its compensation in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2011-03-28

    In this article we perform simulation studies to investigate the effects of betatron phase advances between the beam-beam interaction points on half-integer resonance driving term, second order chromaticty and dynamic aperture in RHIC. The betatron phase advances are adjusted with artificial matrices inserted in the middle of arcs. The lattices for the 2011 RHIC polarized proton (p-p) run and 2010 RHIC Au-Au runs are used in this study. We also scan the betatron phase advances between IP8 and the electron lens for the proposed Blue ring lattice with head-on beam-beam compensation.

  7. Status of head-on beam-beam compensation in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W; Anerella, M; Blaskiewicz, M; Bruno, D; Costanzo, M; Dawson, W C; Gassner, D M; Gu, X; Gupta, R C; Hamdi, K; Hock, J; Hoff, L T; Hulsart, R; Jain, A K; Lambiase, R; Luo, Y; Mapes, M; Marone, A; Michnoff, R; Miller, T A; Minty, M; Montag, C; Muratore, J; Nemesure, S; Phillips, D; Pikin, A I; Plate, S R; Rosas, P; Snydstrup, L; Tan, Y; Theisen, C; Thieberger, P; Tuozzolo, J; Wanderer, P; White, S M; Zhang, W

    2014-01-01

    In polarized proton operation, the performance of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is limited by the head-on beam-beam effect. To overcome this limitation, two electron lenses are under commissioning. We give an overview of head-on beam-beam compensation in general and in the specific design for RHIC, which is based on electron lenses. The status of installation and commissioning are presented along with plans for the future.

  8. Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.

  9. Contributions to the mini-workshop on beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of the Workshop was to assay the current understanding of compensation of the beam-beam effects in the Tevatron with use of low-energy high-current electron beam, relevant accelerator technology, along with other novel techniques of the compensation and previous attempts. About 30 scientists representing seven institutions from four countries--FNAL, SLAC, BNL, Novosibirsk, CERN, and Dubna were in attendance. Twenty one talks were presented. The event gave firm ground for wider collaboration on experimental test of the compensation at the Tevatron collider. This report consists of vugraphs of talks given at the meeting.

  10. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070952; Valishev, Aleksander; Shatilov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical β∗ values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  11. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartoukh, Stephane [CERN; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Shatilov, Dmitry [BINP, Novosibirsk

    2015-06-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical $\\beta^{\\ast}$values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  12. Testing Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, T L

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its minimum crossing angle are limited by the effect of long-range beam-beam collisions. A wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects and may allow for smaller crossing angles, or higher beam intensity. A prototype long-range wire compensator could be installed in the LHC by 2014/15. Since the originally reserved position for such a wire compensator is not available for this first step, we explore other possible options. Our investigations consider various longitudinal and transverse locations, different wire shapes, different optics configurations and several crossing angles between the two colliding beams. Simulations are carried out with the weak-strong code BBtrack. New postprocessing tools are introduced to analyse tune footprints and particle stability. In particular, a new method for the Lyapunov coefficient calculation is implemented. Submitted as "Tesi di laurea" at the University of Milano, 2012.

  13. RF Wire Compensator of Long-Range Beam-Beam Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U; Kroyer, T; Zimmermann, F

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic aperture of the proton beam circulating in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to be limited by up to 120 long-range beam-beam encounters. In order to perfectly compensate the LHC long-range beambeam effect for nominal as well as for so-called "PACMAN" bunches, i.e. bunches at the start or end of a bunch train, the strength of a wire compensator should be adjusted for each bunch individually. Here an RF-based compensator is proposed as a practical solution for the PACMAN compensation. We show that this approach also allows relaxing the power and precision requirements compared with those of a pulsed DC device, to a level within the state-of-the-art of RF technology. Furthermore it permits the use of a passive circulator in the tunnel close to the beam and thus a significant reduction of the transmission line length and of the associated multiple reflections. Simulations of dynamic aperture and emittance growth, issues related to RF phase noise, and first experimental results from laborator...

  14. The E-lens test bench for RHIC beam-beam compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu X.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Aronson, J.; Beebe, E. et al

    2012-05-20

    To compensate for the beam-beam effects from the proton-proton interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we are fabricating two electron lenses that we plan to install at RHIC IR10. Before installing the e-lenses, we are setting-up the e-lens test bench to test the electron gun, collector, GS1 coil, modulator, partial control system, some instrumentation, and the application software. Some e-lens power supplies, the electronics for current measurement will also be qualified on test bench. The test bench also was designed for measuring the properties of the cathode and the profile of the beam. In this paper, we introduce the layout and elements of the e-lens test bench; and we discuss its present status towards the end of this paper.

  15. Results of long range beam-beam studies and observations during operation in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2011-01-01

    We studied possible limitations due to the long range beam-beam effects in the LHC. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, we have reduced the crossing angles to enhance long range beam-beam effects to evaluate their influence on dynamic aperture and losses. Experience from operation with reduced separation was analysed and provides additional evidence.

  16. Compensation of beam-beam and space-charge effects: experience to-date and near-future opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Shiltsev, V

    2014-01-01

    Beam-beam interactions and space-charge effects belong to the category of the most long-standing issues in beam physics, and even today, after several decades of very active exploration and development of counter-measures, they still pose the most profound limitations on performance of accelerator facilities. In this brief review we consider past experience in active compensation of these effects and possible new schemes for further exploration in near-future, in particular, within the framework of the electron-ion collider R&D.

  17. Compensation of the long-range beam-beam interactions as a path towards new configurations for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)390904; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Shatilov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    Colliding bunch trains in a circular collider demands a certain crossing angle in order to separate the two beams transversely after the collision. The magnitude of this crossing angle is a complicated function of the bunch charge, the number of long-range beam-beam interactions, of β* and type of optics (flat or round), and possible compensation or additive effects between several low-β insertions in the ring depending on the orientation of the crossing plane at each interaction point. About 15 years ago, the use of current bearing wires was proposed at CERN in order to mitigate the longrange beam-beam effects, therefore offering the possibility to minimize the crossing angle with all the beneficial effects this might have: on the luminosity performance by reducing the need for crab-cavities or lowering their voltage, on the required aperture of the final focus magnets, on the strength of the orbit corrector involved in the crossing bumps, and finally on the heat load and radiation dose deposited in the fi...

  18. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  19. Beam-beam simulation code BBSIM for particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient, fully parallelized, six-dimensional tracking model for simulating interactions of colliding hadron beams in high energy ring colliders and simulating schemes for mitigating their effects is described. The model uses the weak-strong approximation for calculating the head-on interactions when the test beam has lower intensity than the other beam, a look-up table for the efficient calculation of long-range beam-beam forces, and a self-consistent Poisson solver when both beams have comparable intensities. A performance test of the model in a parallel environment is presented. The code is used to calculate beam emittance and beam loss in the Tevatron at Fermilab and compared with measurements. They also present results from the studies of stwo schemes proposed to compensate the beam-beam interactions: (a) the compensation of long-range interactions in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN with a current carrying wire, (b) the use of a low energy electron beam to compensate the head-on interactions in RHIC.

  20. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  1. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  2. Implementation of depolarization due to beam-beam effects in the beam-beam interaction simulation tool GUINEA-PIG++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbault, C.; Le Meur, G.; Blampuy, F.; Bambade, P.; Schulte, D.

    2009-12-01

    Depolarization is a new feature in the beam-beam simulation tool GUINEA-PIG++ (GP++). The results of this simulation are studied and compared with another beam-beam simulation tool, CAIN, considering different beam parameters for the International Linear Collider (ILC) with a centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV.

  3. Beam-Beam Effects in the Ring-Ring Version of eRHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Jack; Wang, Dong; Wang, Fuhua

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC is a proposed electron ring at the RHIC that will provide collisions between a polarized 5-10 GeV electron beam and an ion beam from one of the RHIC rings. In order to achieve proposed high luminosity, large bunch current and small beta-functions at the IP has to be employed. Such measures result in large beam-beam parameters, 0.029 and 0.08 for the electron beam and 0.0065 and 0.0033 for the proton beam in the horizontal and vertical plane, respectively, in the current ZDR design. The beam-beam effect especially the coherent beam-beam effect is therefore one of important issues to the eRHIC. Moreover, the proposed configuration of unequal circumferences of the electron and proton rings could further enhance the coherent beam-beam effect. The beam-beam effect of eRHIC has therefore been studied with a self-consistent beam-beam simulation by using the particle-in-cell method. Beam-beam limits of the electron and proton beam were examined as thresholds of the onset of coherent beam-beam instability. F...

  4. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  5. Empirical model for controlling beam-beam effects in ISABELLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzen, G

    1980-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction may limit the beam intensity in ISABELLE. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the beam-beam interaction, there appears to be no reliable method at present for computing the effects of the beam-beam interaction. The steps taken at ISABELLE to limit beam-beam effects are based largely on the experience accumulated at the ISR. At the ISR, the beam-beam effects do not appear to be large, and the beam intensity at the ISR does not appear to be limited by beam-beam effects. The beam-beam effects may be much stronger in ISABELLE because of factors like higher intensity and stronger non-linearities.

  6. Small Angle Crab Compensation for LHC IR Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Akai, K; Dorda, U; Ohmi, K; Oide, K; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, T

    2007-01-01

    A small angle crab scheme is being considered for the LHC luminosity upgrade. In this paper we present a 400MHz superconducting cavity design and discuss the pertinent RF challenges. We also present a study on the beam-beam performance and proton-beam emittance growth in the presence of crab compensation, with RF noise sources.

  7. Experimental observations and theoretical models for beam-beam phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheifets, S.

    1981-03-01

    The beam-beam interaction in storage rings exhibits all the characteristics of nonintegrable dynamical systems. Here one finds all kinds of resonances, closed orbits, stable and unstable fixed points, stochastic layers, chaotic behavior, diffusion, etc. The storage ring itself being an expensive device nevertheless while constructed and put into operation presents a good opportunity of experimentally studying the long-time behavior of both conservative (proton machines) and nonconservative (electron machines) dynamical systems - the number of bunch-bunch interactions routinely reaches values of 10/sup 10/-10/sup 11/ and could be increased by decreasing the beam current. At the same time the beam-beam interaction puts practical limits for the yield of the storage ring. This phenomenon not only determines the design value of main storage ring parameters (luminosity, space charge parameters, beam current), but also in fact prevents many of the existing storage rings from achieving design parameters. Hence, the problem has great practical importance along with its enormous theoretical interest. A brief overview of the problem is presented.

  8. Simulation of Head-on Beam-Beam Limitations in Future High Energy Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Florio, Adrien; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Hadron Collider (FCC-hh) project calls for studies in a new regime of beam-beam interactions. While the emittance damping due to synchrotron radiation is still slower than in past or existing lepton colliders, it is significantly larger than in other hadron colliders. The slow reduction of the emittance is profitable for higher luminosity in term of transverse beam size at the interaction points and also to mitigate long-range beam-beam effects, potentially allowing for a reduction of the crossing angle between the beams during the operation. In such conditions, the strength of head-on beam-beam interactions increases, potentially limiting the beam brightness. 4D weak-strong and strong-strong simulations are performed in order to assess these limitations.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Beam-Beam Effects in the Proposed Electron-Ion Colider at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsa Terzic, Yuhong Zhang

    2010-05-01

    One key limiting factor to a collider luminosity is beam-beam interactions which usually can cause serious emittance growth of colliding beams and fast reduction of luminosity. Such nonlinear collective beam effect can be a very serious design challenge when the machine parameters are pushed into a new regime. In this paper, we present simulation studies of the beam-beam effect for a medium energy ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF.

  10. Weak-strong Beam-beam Simulations for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfi, Danilo [Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne; Barranco, Javier [Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne; Pieloni, Tatiana [CERN; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we present dynamic aperture studies for possible High Luminosity LHC optics in the presence of beam-beam interactions, crab crossing schemes and magnets multipolar errors. Possible operational scenarios of luminosity leveling by transverse offset and betatron function are also studied and the impact on the beams stability is discussed.

  11. A new model for the collective beam-beam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, J.A.; Sobol, A.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vogt, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    The Collective Beam-Beam interaction is studied in the framework of maps with a ''kick-lattice'' model in 4-D phase space. A novel approach to the classical method of averaging is used to derive an approximate map which is equivalent to a flow within the averaging approximation. The flow equation is a continuous-time Vlasov equation which we call the averaged Vlasov equation, the new model of this paper. The power of this approach is evidenced by the fact that the averaged Vlasov equation has exact equilibria and the associated lineralized equations have uncoupled azimuthal Fourier modes. The equation for the Fourier modes leads to a Fredholm integral equation of the third kind and the setting is ready-made for the development of a weakly nonlinear theory to study the coupling of the {pi} and {sigma} modes. The {pi} and {sigma} modes are calculated from the third kind integral equation and results are compared with the kick-lattice model. (orig.)

  12. Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Simulation of Bunch Length Splitting at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Qiang, J; Pieloni, Tatiana; Ohmi, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal bunch length splitting was observed for some LHC beams. In this paper, we will report on the study of the observation using strong-strong beam-beam simulations. We explore a variety of factors including initial momentum deviation, collision crossing angle, synchrotron tune, chromaticity, working points and bunch intensity that contribute to the beam particle loss and the bunch length splitting, and try to understand the underlying mechanism of the observed phenomena.

  13. Halo formation from mismatched beam-beam interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2003-05-23

    In this paper, we report on the halo formation and emittance growth driven by a parametric resonance during mismatched beam-beam collisions. In the regime of the weak-strong beam-beam interaction, if two beams have the same machine tunes, on-axis head-on collisions between a mismatched strong beam and a weak beam will not cause the formation of halo. However, if the two beams collide with an initial offset, the beam-beam force from the mismatched strong beam can cause halo formation and emittance growth in the weak beam. Meanwhile, if two beams have different machine tunes, for opposite charged colliding beams, when the machine tune of the weak beam is smaller than that of strong beam, there is emittance growth in the weak beam. When the machine tune of the weak beam is larger than that of the strong beam, there is little emittance growth. In the regime of strong-strong beam-beam interaction, halo is formed in both beams even when the two beams collide head-on on the axis with equal machine tunes. This puts a strong requirement for a good beam match during the injection to colliders in order to avoid the emittance growth.

  14. Beam-Beam Simulations with GUINEA-PIG

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    While the bunches in a linear collider cross only once, due to their small size they experience a strong beam-beam effect. GUINEA-PIG is a code to simulate the impact of this effect on luminosity and back ground. A short overview of the program is given with examples of its application to the back ground strudies for TESLA, the top quark threshold scan and a possible luminosity monitor, as well as some results for CLIC.

  15. Observations and open questions in beam-beam interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The first of the hadron colliders, ISR, started operation in 1970. In the following years, the hadron colliders to follow were the SPS (started 1980), the Tevatron (started 1987 first as a fixed target machine), RHIC (started 2000) and most recently the LHC, which started in 2008. HERA was a hybrid that collided electrons and protons. All of these accelerators had or have their performance limited by the effects of the beam-beam interactions. That has also been true for the electron-positron colliders such as LEP, CESR, KEKB and PEPII. In this article I will discuss how the beam-beam limitations arose in some of these machines. The discussion will be focused on common themes that span the different colliders. I will mostly discuss the hadron colliders but sometimes discuss the lepton colliders where relevant. Only a handful of common accelerator physics topics are chosen here, the list is not meant to be exhaustive. A comparative review of beam-beam performance in the ISR, SPS and Tevatron (ca 1989) can be found in reference. Table 1 shows the relevant parameters of colliders (excluding the LHC), which have accelerated protons.

  16. A Study on Compensation for Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兰兰

    2012-01-01

    Considering the linguistic and cultural difference between English and Chinese, it is inevitable to lose the original musical beauty, visual beauty and original rhetorical devices in advertisements translation. So compensation measures are always taken to compensate the lost information. This paper focuses on the discussion of the features of advertisement, cultural and linguistic differences between English and Chinese advertisements, which result in the loss of information. And compensation strategies on words, musical beauty and rhetorical devices in advertisement translation are introduced in this paper.

  17. Report of the group on beam-beam effects in circular colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    We present a summary of the discussions and conclusions of the working group on beam-beam effects for circular colliders. This group was part of the larger beam-beam dynamics group at the 7th ICFA Workshop on Beam Dynamics, on the subject Beam-Beam and Beam-Radiation Interactions,'' held at UCLA, May 13--16, 1991. 15 refs.

  18. Development of a Beam-Beam Simulation Code for e+e- Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    BEPC will be upgraded into BEPCII, and the luminosity will be about 100 times higher. We developed a three dimensional strong-strong PIC code to study the beam-beam effects in BEPCII. The transportation through the arc is the same as that in Hirata's weak-strong code. The beam-beam force is computed directly by solving the Poisson equation using the FACR method, and the boundary potential is computed by circular convolution. The finite bunch length effect is included by longitudinal slices. An interpolation scheme is used to reduce the required slice number in simulations. The standard message passing interface (MPI) is used to parallelize the code. The computing time increases linearly with (n+1), where n is the slice number. The calculated luminosity of BEPCII at the design operating point is less than the design value. The best area in the tune space is near (0.505,0.57) according to the survey, where the degradation of luminosity can be improved.

  19. Beam-Beam Effect with an External Noise in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmi, K; Höfle, Wolfgang; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    In absence of synchrotron radiation, proton beams do not have any damping mechanism for incoherent betatron motion. A noise, which kicks beam particles in the transverse plane, gives a coherent betatron amplitude. If the system is linear, the coherent motion is maintained in amplitude. Nonlinear force, beam-beam and beam-electron cloud interactions, cause a decoherence of the betatron motion keeping the amplitude of each beam particle, with the result that an emittance growth arises. We focus only on fast noise with a correlation time of 1-100 turns. Slower noise is less serious, because it is regarded as an adiabatic change like a closed orbit change. As sources of the noise, we consider the bunch by bunch feedback system and phase jitter of cavities which turns to transverse noise via a crab cavity.

  20. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux

  1. Luminosity Increase at the Incoherent Beam-Beam Limit with Six Superbunches in RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, W.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    2003-12-01

    By colliding bunches of greater length under a larger angle, the tune spread caused by the beam-beam interaction can be reduced. Assuming a constant limit for the beam-beam tune shift, the bunch intensity can then be raised. In this way, a luminosity increase is possible. We review this strategy for proton beams in RHIC, with two collisions and consider six long bunches. Barrier cavities are used to fill every accelerating bucket of the machine, except for an abort gap, and to create the superbunches bunches at store. Resonances driven by the beam-beam interaction and coherent effects are neglected in this article.

  2. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A L; Peng, S X; Ren, H T; Zhang, T; Zhang, J F; Xu, Y; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H(+) beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H(-) beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H(-) ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  3. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, A. L.; Chen, J. E. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H{sup +} beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H{sup −} ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  4. Impact of beam-beam effects on precision luminosity measurements at the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Rimbault, C; Mönig, K; Schulte, D

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of beam-beam effects on the precision luminosity measurement at the International Linear Collider is investigated quantitatively for the first time. GUINEA-PIG, a beam-beam interaction simulation tool, is adapted to treat the space charge effects affecting the Bhabha events used in this measurement. The biases due to the resulting changes in kinematics are evaluated for different center-of-mass energies and beam parameters.

  5. Development of 3D beam-beam simulation for the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, E.; Amundson, J.; Spentzouris, P.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-06-01

    We present status of development of a 3D Beam-Beam simulation code for simulating the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The essential features of the code are 3D particle-in-cell Poisson solver for calculating the Beam-Beam electromagnetic interactions with additional modules for linear optics, machine impedance and chromaticity, and multiple bunch tracking. The simulations match synchrobetatron oscillations measured at the VEPP-2M collider. The impedance calculations show beam instability development consistent with analytic expressions.

  6. DAFNE Lifetime Optimization with Octupoles and Compensating Wires

    CERN Document Server

    Milardi, C; Preger, M A; Raimondi, P; Zobov, M; Shatilov, D

    2008-01-01

    Long-range beam-beam interactions (parasitic crossings) were one of the main luminosity performance limitations for the lepton F-factory DAFNE in its original configuration. In particular, the parasitic crossings led to a substantial lifetime reduction of both beams in collision. This puts a limit on the maximum storable current and, as a consequence, on the achievable peak and integrated luminosity. In order to mitigate the problem, numerical and experimental studies of the parasitic crossings compensation by current-carrying wires have been done. During the operation for the KLOE experiment two such wires have been installed at both ends of the interaction region. They produced a relevant improvement in the lifetime of the weak beam (positrons) at the maximum current of the strong one (electrons) without luminosity loss, in agreement with the numerical predictions. The same compensating mechanism has been adopted during the run for the FINUDA experiment as well, with less evident benefits than in the previo...

  7. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, Strahinja

    2013-01-01

    Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: -> Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. -> Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. -> Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.

  8. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, Strahinja

    2013-01-01

    Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: - Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. - Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. - Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.

  9. Numerical analysis of parasitic crossing compensation with wires in DA$\\Phi$NE

    CERN Document Server

    Valishev, A; Milardi, C; Zobov, M

    2015-01-01

    Current bearing wire compensators were successfully used in the 2005-2006 run of the DA{\\Phi}NE collider to mitigate the detrimental effects of parasitic beam-beam interactions. A marked improvement of the positron beam lifetime was observed in machine operation with the KLOE detector. In view of the possible application of wire beam-beam compensators for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade, we revisit the DA{\\Phi}NE experiments. We use an improved model of the accelerator with the goal to validate the modern simulation tools and provide valuable input for the LHC upgrade project.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Parasitic Crossing Compensation with Wires in DA$\\Phi$NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valishev, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shatilov, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics (BINP); Milardi, C. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Zobov, M. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF)

    2015-06-24

    Current-bearing wire compensators were successfully used in the 2005-2006 run of the DAΦNE collider to mitigate the detrimental effects of parasitic beam-beam interactions. A marked improvement of the positron beam lifetime was observed in machine operation with the KLOE detector. In view of the possible application of wire beam-beam compensators for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade, we revisit the DAΦNE experiments. We use an improved model of the accelerator with the goal to validate the modern simulation tools and provide valuable input for the LHC upgrade project.

  11. Compensation Management in Semi Government Sector Case study of State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Hanif

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose- This research paper seeks to analyze the compensation management, issues regarding compensation and its relation with employee performance & firm’s overall results. Design/methodology/approach- Using the two different and most effective ways of collecting data, questionnaires and Interviews, the results explain the relationship between employee compensation, job satisfaction, performance and business results.Findings- Equality in compensation and performance based pay system can better lead to employee satisfaction and improvement in performance of the business. Research Limitations/implications- A limitation is the inability to control for employee performance and satisfaction with the increased workload.Practical implications- Performance based compensation system has been linked to the increased job satisfaction, low absenteeism and increased business results. Originality Value- The paper is first to study the relationship between compensation, job satisfaction and business results in detail while additionally testing originality of the relationship and controlling for fixed effects.

  12. Study on Compensation Control of STATCOM Based on MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduced modular multi-level converter (MMC, which could enhance the voltage and power level by sub-converter modules in series and was easy to extend to any level of output. Its structure and working mechanism were described. By analyzing the energy transfer performance of STATCOM based on MMC working conditions in the compensation, a comprehensive compensation control strategy was proposed based on direct current control mode. By analyzing the higher harmonic components circulation generated by the inconsistencies in the three-phase upper and lower arm voltage, a loop control strategy is proposed for the suppression of the circulation in the arms of the M-STATCOM. The simulation results show the strategy has a better tracking precision and response speed for the compensation control.

  13. Study on Development Process and Mechanism of Ecological Compensation in Beijing and Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Chengwei; Shi Zulin

    2012-01-01

    The problem of water resources has become a bottle- neck for the sustainable development of Beijing and Hebei Province (the two regions together are called "Jingji Region" for short). It is imperative to establish an effective and equitable water resources ecological compensation (eco-compensation) mecha- nism. The three stages of water resources eco-compensation are expatiated here namely the eco-compensation missing stage, eco- compensation start stage and the eco-compensation development stage. Through the establishment of eco-compensation game mod- el based on the game theory, the reasons of the formation for the three stages were analyzed, as well as the conversion conditions from non-cooperative game to cooperative game among the related stakeholders including the central government, the water recipi- ent government and the water source government. Furthermore, this study pointed out that the water resources eco-compensation in Jingji Region was not established based on the institution, but formed and developed in coping with the challenges of water cri- sis. However, institution construction is quite essential in game process for the water recipient government and the water source government. Finally recommendations in four areas including le- galization of eco-compensation mechanism, setting up compensa- tion standards, leading industrial upgrading and developing related incentives and constraints were concluded.

  14. Simulation of beam-induced plasma for the mitigation of beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Yu, K.; Litvinenko, V.

    2015-05-03

    One of the main challenges in the increase of luminosity of circular colliders is the control of the beam-beam effect. In the process of exploring beam-beam mitigation methods using plasma, we evaluated the possibility of plasma generation via ionization of neutral gas by proton beams, and performed highly resolved simulations of the beam-plasma interaction using SPACE, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The process of plasma generation is modelled using experimentally measured cross-section coefficients and a plasma recombination model that takes into account the presence of neutral gas and beam-induced electromagnetic fields. Numerically simulated plasma oscillations are consistent with theoretical analysis. In the beam-plasma interaction process, high-density neutral gas reduces the mean free path of plasma electrons and their acceleration. A numerical model for the drift speed as a limit of plasma electron velocity was developed. Simulations demonstrate a significant reduction of the beam electric field in the presence of plasma. Preliminary simulations using fully-ionized plasma have also been performed and compared with the case of beam-induced plasma.

  15. Study on Adaptive Control with Neural Network Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单剑锋; 黄忠华; 崔占忠

    2004-01-01

    A scheme of adaptive control based on a recurrent neural network with a neural network compensation is presented for a class of nonlinear systems with a nonlinear prefix. The recurrent neural network is used to identify the unknown nonlinear part and compensate the difference between the real output and the identified model output. The identified model of the controlled object consists of a linear model and the neural network. The generalized minimum variance control method is used to identify pareters, which can deal with the problem of adaptive control of systems with unknown nonlinear part, which can not be controlled by traditional methods. Simulation results show that this algorithm has higher precision, faster convergent speed.

  16. Compensation for Land Loss in Reservoir Resettlement: A Case Study of The Three Gorges Project, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yi-qian; Tan Yan

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies current policies in compensation for land lost due to construction of the Three Gorges project (TGP), China. In the case study of Kaixian County, the value of land in the peri-urban areas is underestimated. Some losses in land are tangible and thus measurable, but some losses are intangible and thus immeasurable. The land available in the resettlement areas is scarce and rarely of equivalent quality. This study suggests that the loss of agricultural land be compensated with alternative land and/or non-land-based livelihood strategies, including part compensation in monetary terms and preferential policies.

  17. Compensation for Land Loss in Reservoir Resettlement: A Case Study of The Three Gorges Project, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYi-qian; TanYan

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies current policies in compensation for land lost due to construction of the Three Gorges project (TGP), China. In the case study of Kaixian County, the value of land in the peri-urban areas is underestimated. Some losses in land are tangible and thus measurable, but some losses are intangible and thus immeasurable. The land available in the resettlement areas is scarce and rarely of equivalent quality. This study suggests that the loss of agricultural land be compensated with alternative land and/or non-land-based livelihood strategies, including part compensation in monetary terms and preferential policies.

  18. Radiation and Background Levels in a CLIC Detector due to Beam-Beam Effects Optimisation of Detector Geometries and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, André; Lohse, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    The high charge density---due to small beam sizes---and the high energy of the proposed CLIC concept for a linear electron--positron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 3~TeV lead to the production of a large number of particles through beam-beam interactions at the interaction point during every bunch crossing (BX). A large fraction of these particles safely leaves the detector. A still significant amount of energy will be deposited in the forward region nonetheless, which will produce secondary particles able to cause background in the detector. Furthermore, some particles will be created with large polar angles and directly cause background in the tracking detectors and calorimeters. The main sources of background in the detector, either directly or indirectly, are the incoherent $mathrm{e}^{+}mathrm{e}^{-}$ pairs and the particles from $gammagamma ightarrow$ hadron events. The background and radiation levels in the detector have to be estimated, to study if a detector is feasible, that can han...

  19. Simulations on pair creation from beam-beam interaction in linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Yokoya, K. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    It has been recognized that e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pair creation during the collision of intense beams in linear colliders will cause potential background problems for high energy experiments. Detailed knowledge of the angular-momentum spectrum of these low energy pairs is essential to the design of the interaction region. In this paper, we modify the computer code ABEL (Analysis of Beam-beam Effects in Linear colliders) to include the pair creation processes, using the equivalent photon approximation. Special care has been taken on the non-local nature of the virtual photon exchanges. The simulation results are then compared with known analytic formulas, and applied to the next generation colliders such as JLC. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Effect of a spectrometer magnet on the beam-beam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornacchia, M; Parzen, G

    1981-01-01

    The presence of experimental apparatus in the interaction regions of an intersecting beam accelerator changes the configuration of the crossing beams. This changes the space-charge forces with respect to the standard, magnet-free crossing. The question is: what is the maximum allowable perturbation caused by the spectrometer magnet that can be tolerated from the point of view of the beam dynamics. This paper is limited to the perturbations that the curved trajectories cause the beam-beam space charge nonlinearities. The question has arisen of how one defines the strength of the perturbation. The only solution is to compute the strength of the most important nonlinear resources. In what follows, the computational method used in calculating these resonances is described, and compared with those induced by random orbit errors.

  1. A Study on Employees' Perception towards Compensation Management System in Selected Branches of SBI of Ujjain District

    OpenAIRE

    Harish Shukla; Shweta Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Employee satisfaction is one of the most important aspects in the organization that cannot be ensured without proper compensation management system. The present work is based on the study of Compensation Management System in selected branches of SBI. SBI being the largest nationalized bank needs strong compensation management systems so that it can achieve rapid growth at national as well as international level. The study aims at knowing whether current compensation policy is able to attract,...

  2. Analytical estimation of the beam-beam interaction limited dynamic apertures and lifetimes in e{sup +}e{sup -} circular colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J

    2000-12-01

    Physically speaking, the delta function like beam-beam nonlinear forces at interaction points (IPs) act as a sum of delta function nonlinear multipoles. By applying the general theory established in ref. [1], in this paper we investigate analytically the beam-beam interaction limited dynamic apertures and the corresponding beam lifetimes for both the round and the flat beams. Relations between the beam-beam limited beam lifetimes and the beam-beam tune shifts are established, which show clearly why experimentally one has always a maximum beam-beam tune shift, {zeta}{sub y,max}, around 0.045 for e{sup +}e{sup -} circular colliders, and why one can use round beams to double this value approximately. Comparisons with some machine parameters are given. Finally, we discuss the mechanism of the luminosity reduction due to a definite collision crossing angle. (author)

  3. Financial compensation and vocational recovery: a prospective study of secondary care neck and back patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Rasmussen, C; Leboeuf-Yde, C

    2009-01-01

    Financial compensation has been shown to be a negative prognostic factor for pain and disability in patients with neck or low back pain. It is unclear whether this association is causal and to what extent it hampers return to work. The objective of this study was to assess the direct influence...... of a financial compensation process on the ability to remain in regular employment in patients with suspected disc herniation....

  4. Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Water Conservation Area: A Case Study of Dongjiang River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Fanbin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate economic compensation from downstream to upstream watershed is important to solve China’s social and economic imbalances between regions and can potentially enhance water resources protection and ecological security. The study analyzes the implementation of ecological compensation policy and related legal basis under ecological compensation mechanism theory and practice patterns, based on current natural environment and socio-economic development of national origin in Dongjiang water conservation areas. Under the principle of “Users pay”, the Dongjiang River is the subject of ecological compensation and recipient. By using the “cost-benefit analysis” and “cost method of industrial development opportunity”, we estimate that the total ecological compensation amounted to 513.35 million yuan. When estimated by the indicators such as water quantity, water quality and water use efficiency, we establish the “environmental and ecological protection cost sharing model” and measure the total cost of protecting downstream watershed areas, the Guangdong Province, is about 108.61 million yuan. The implementation of the Dongjiang source region that follows the principles of ecological compensation and approaches are also designed

  5. An empirical study of desired versus actual compensation practices in determining intrapreneurial behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugochukwu O. Madu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Past research recognises that human resources management practices may influence innovative behaviour, particularly as compensation systems can be used as a tool to increase intrapreneurial activity.Research purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between actual versus desired compensation practices and elevated intrapreneurial behaviour. This is in line with research that focuses on how to promote business innovation, rather than merely research whether innovation is desirable for businesses or not.Motivation for the study: Recognising that entrepreneurial actions are the bedrock of intrapreneurial behaviour and that these behaviours may be critical to the long-term vitality of a firm and economy, it is important to facilitate the empirical study of them in an underresearched, emerging market environment. Moreover, compensation such as reward preferences and variable pay schemes remain controversial in terms of their costs versus contributions, and these constructs deserve more empirical research.Research approach, design and method: The study employed a quantitative research design, using a cross-sectional and empirical approach with primary data sources. A structured webbased instrument rendered a sample of 209 respondents from a diverse set of businesses. Canonical correlational analysis was carried out to test the hypotheses.Main findings: The results reveal that a gap exists between an employee’s perception of desired compensation practices and the actual compensation practices. The results further highlight that non-outcome-based measures like pay risk, job risk and expectations of success play a role in determining whether employees decide to be intrapreneurial or not.Practical/managerial implications: Due to the potential impact rewards have on intrapreneurial behaviour, it is necessary to design relevant compensation systems as part of organisational architecture in order to foster

  6. Analytical treatment of the nonlinear electron cloud effect and the combined effects with beam-beam and space charge nonlinear forces in storage rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we treat first some nonlinear beam dynamics problems in storage rings, such as beam dynamic apertures due to magnetic multipoles, wiggles, beam-beam effects, nonlinear space charge effect, and then nonlinear electron cloud effect combined with beam-beam and space charge effects, analytically. This analytical treatment is applied to BEPC Ⅱ. The corresponding analytical expressions developed in this paper are useful both in understanding the physics behind these problems and also in making practical quick hand estimations.

  7. A cross-language study of compensation in response to real-time formant perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsuya, Takashi; MacDonald, Ewen; Purcell, David W.;

    2011-01-01

    Past studies have shown that when formants are perturbed in real time, speakers spontaneously compensate for the perturbation by changing their formant frequencies in the opposite direction to the perturbation. Further, the pattern of these results suggests that the processing of auditory feedbac...

  8. Modelling and Simulation of Static Var Compensator (SVC in Power System Studies by MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houari BOUDJELLA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling and simulation of Static Var Compensator (SVC in power system studies by MATLAB. In the first step, we have modeled mathematically with MathCAD how to analyze the rating of SVC (Boudjella, 2008. In second step, we have conferred modelling of SVC in power system to analyze its behaviour operating with in control range and outside of control range and how to perform power system studies which is anchored with load flow analysis for SVC realization. In the third step, we have been modelling separately the SVC transfer functions with open control loop in the respective control elements: measuring module, thyristor susceptance control module and voltage regulator module, and we have used lag/led compensators theories to configure open and close loop transfer function with respective gain/phase margin. At the final step, we have controlled the voltage and the reactive power transit in the power system, by SVC device.

  9. Compensated Arrhenius formalism applied to a conductivity study in poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, F; Derouiche, Y; Leblond, J M; Maschke, U; Douali, R

    2015-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity is studied in a series of poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate monomers. The experimental data are analyzed by means of the approach recently proposed by Petrowsky et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B. 113, 5996 (2009)10.1021/jp810095g]. This so-called compensated Arrhenius formalism (CAF) approach takes into account the influence of the dielectric permittivity on the exponential prefactor in the classical Arrhenius equation. The experimental data presented in this paper show a good agreement with the CAF; this means that the exponential prefactor is principally dielectric permittivity dependent. The compensated data revealed two conduction processes with different activation energies; they correspond to low and high temperature ranges, respectively.

  10. Compensated Arrhenius formalism applied to a conductivity study in poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, F.; Derouiche, Y.; Leblond, J. M.; Maschke, U.; Douali, R.

    2015-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity is studied in a series of poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate monomers. The experimental data are analyzed by means of the approach recently proposed by Petrowsky et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B. 113, 5996 (2009), 10.1021/jp810095g]. This so-called compensated Arrhenius formalism (CAF) approach takes into account the influence of the dielectric permittivity on the exponential prefactor in the classical Arrhenius equation. The experimental data presented in this paper show a good agreement with the CAF; this means that the exponential prefactor is principally dielectric permittivity dependent. The compensated data revealed two conduction processes with different activation energies; they correspond to low and high temperature ranges, respectively.

  11. Comprehensive study of CD compensation and carrier phase estimation in optical communication systems influenced by equalization enhanced phase noise

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Sergeyev, Sergey; Friberg, Ari T; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-01-01

    The performance of long-haul coherent optical fiber transmission system is significantly affected by the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN), due to the interaction between the electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) and the laser phase noise. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on different chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation and carrier phase recovery (CPR) approaches, in the n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK) and the n-level quadrature amplitude modulation (n-QAM) coherent optical transmission systems, considering the impacts of EEPN. Four CD compensation methods are considered: the time-domain equalization (TDE), the frequency-domain equalization (FDE), the least mean square (LMS) adaptive equalization are applied for EDC, and the dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is employed for optical dispersion compensation (ODC). Meanwhile, three carrier phase recovery methods are also involved: a one-tap normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm, a block-wise average (BWA) algorithm, and a...

  12. Study of on-machine error identification and compensation methods for micro machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Ming; Yu, Han-Jen; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chiu, Hung-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Micro machining plays an important role in the manufacturing of miniature products which are made of various materials with complex 3D shapes and tight machining tolerance. To further improve the accuracy of a micro machining process without increasing the manufacturing cost of a micro machine tool, an effective machining error measurement method and a software-based compensation method are essential. To avoid introducing additional errors caused by the re-installment of the workpiece, the measurement and compensation method should be on-machine conducted. In addition, because the contour of a miniature workpiece machined with a micro machining process is very tiny, the measurement method should be non-contact. By integrating the image re-constructive method, camera pixel correction, coordinate transformation, the error identification algorithm, and trajectory auto-correction method, a vision-based error measurement and compensation method that can on-machine inspect the micro machining errors and automatically generate an error-corrected numerical control (NC) program for error compensation was developed in this study. With the use of the Canny edge detection algorithm and camera pixel calibration, the edges of the contour of a machined workpiece were identified and used to re-construct the actual contour of the work piece. The actual contour was then mapped to the theoretical contour to identify the actual cutting points and compute the machining errors. With the use of a moving matching window and calculation of the similarity between the actual and theoretical contour, the errors between the actual cutting points and theoretical cutting points were calculated and used to correct the NC program. With the use of the error-corrected NC program, the accuracy of a micro machining process can be effectively improved. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods, micro-milling experiments on a micro machine tool were conducted, and the results

  13. MOKE study of Co/Ti/(Gd-Co) multilayers near the magnetic compensation state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalov, A.V. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Ural State University, Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Lenin Avenue 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernandez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Vas' kovskiy, V.O. [Ural State University, Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Lenin Avenue 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electronica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: galina@uniovi.es; Barandiaran, J.M. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electronica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Anton, R. Lopez [Departamento de Electricidad y Electronica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Tejedor, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2006-08-10

    The magnetic behaviour of [Co/Ti/a-Gd{sub 0.36}Co{sub 0.64}/Ti]{sub 4}/Co layered structures was studied by means of the transversal magneto-optic Kerr effect, with Ti spacers of different thicknesses. Within the Gd{sub 0.36}Co{sub 0.64} amorphous layer, the Gd magnetic sub-lattice dominates at all investigated temperatures. The strong exchange interaction at the interfaces causes 'macroscopic ferrimagnetic behaviour' in the whole system. The existence of a magnetic compensation state in the complete multilayer system was manifested by the change of sign in the magneto-optic hysteresis loops and the increase of coercivity. The evolution of the critical field for a spin-orientation transition leading to a non-collinear magnetic state near the 'compensation temperature' can be described within molecular field theory. The influence of the non-magnetic spacer thickness on the characteristics of the compensation state is also discussed.

  14. Roles of energy conservation and climate feedback in Bjerknes compensation: a coupled modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Haijin; Yang, Haijun; Yin, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The roles of energy balance and climate feedback in Bjerknes compensation (BJC) are studied through wind-perturbation experiments in a coupled climate model. Shutting down surface winds over the ocean causes significant reductions in both wind-driven and thermohaline overturning circulations, leading to a remarkable decrease in poleward ocean heat transport (OHT). The sea surface temperature (SST) responds with an increasing meridional gradient, resulting in a stronger Hadley Cell, and thus an enhanced atmosphere heat transport (AHT), compensating the OHT decrease. This is the so-called BJC. Coupled model experiments confirm that the occurrence of BJC is an intrinsic requirement of local energy conservation, and local climate feedback determines the degree of BJC, consistent with our previous theoretical results. Negative (positive or zero) local feedback results in AHT change undercompensating (overcompensating or perfectly compensating) OHT change. Using the radiative kernel technique, the general local feedback between the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere and surface temperature can be partitioned into individual feedbacks that are related to perturbations in temperature, water vapor, surface albedo, and clouds. We find that the overcompensation in the tropics (extratropics) is mainly caused by positive feedbacks related to water vapor and clouds (surface albedo). The longwave feedbacks related to SST and atmospheric temperature are always negative and strong outside the tropics, well offsetting positive feedbacks in most regions and resulting in undercompensation. Different dominant feedbacks give different BJC scenarios at different regions, acting together to maintain the local energy balance.

  15. Study on a Mechanical Semi-Active Heave Compensation System of Drill String for Use on Floating Drilling Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyou Liu

    Full Text Available There are some disadvantages for existing heave compensation systems of drill string used for the Floating Drilling Platform (FDP, including high energy consumption, large and complex structure, and expensive manufacturing and maintenance costs. In view of the above, we present a streamlined mechanical semi-active heave compensation system (MSAHC in this study. This system consists of active compensation part with the pinion and rack and passive compensation part. In order to evaluate system performance of the MSAHC, we establish its simulation model with AMEsim software. In the process of simulation, displacement of rotary hook and energy consumption is regarded as performance parameters of the system. And the change rule of two performance parameters are analyzed by changing these design parameters including gear radius of the pinion and rack, scale coefficient of PID, rotary hook load, heave height and heave period of the FDP, and accumulator volume. Then, based on the simulation results of the MSAHC system performance, we have selected out a best set of design parameters from them. Moreover, the feasibility of the design scheme of the MSAHC is effectively verified by comparison with the existing three heave compensation system. The result shows that the energy consumption of the MSAHC is lower than the active heave compensation system (AHC and the semi-active heave compensation system (SAHC when achieving a same compensation effect as well as the accumulator volume of MSAHC is half of the passive heave compensation system (PHC. Therefore, the new designed MSAHC not only ensure compensation effect but also lower energy consumption, and its structure is simplified by adopting the simple mechanical structure to decrease manufacturing cost, maintenance cost and floor space.

  16. Study on a Mechanical Semi-Active Heave Compensation System of Drill String for Use on Floating Drilling Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyou; Tang, Yang; Huang, Chongjun; Xie, Chong

    2015-01-01

    There are some disadvantages for existing heave compensation systems of drill string used for the Floating Drilling Platform (FDP), including high energy consumption, large and complex structure, and expensive manufacturing and maintenance costs. In view of the above, we present a streamlined mechanical semi-active heave compensation system (MSAHC) in this study. This system consists of active compensation part with the pinion and rack and passive compensation part. In order to evaluate system performance of the MSAHC, we establish its simulation model with AMEsim software. In the process of simulation, displacement of rotary hook and energy consumption is regarded as performance parameters of the system. And the change rule of two performance parameters are analyzed by changing these design parameters including gear radius of the pinion and rack, scale coefficient of PID, rotary hook load, heave height and heave period of the FDP, and accumulator volume. Then, based on the simulation results of the MSAHC system performance, we have selected out a best set of design parameters from them. Moreover, the feasibility of the design scheme of the MSAHC is effectively verified by comparison with the existing three heave compensation system. The result shows that the energy consumption of the MSAHC is lower than the active heave compensation system (AHC) and the semi-active heave compensation system (SAHC) when achieving a same compensation effect as well as the accumulator volume of MSAHC is half of the passive heave compensation system (PHC). Therefore, the new designed MSAHC not only ensure compensation effect but also lower energy consumption, and its structure is simplified by adopting the simple mechanical structure to decrease manufacturing cost, maintenance cost and floor space. PMID:26186620

  17. Deserved Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National People's Congress (NPC), the top legislature, recently adopted amendments to the Law on State Compensation, granting citizens greater power to obtain compensation when their rights are violated by the state.

  18. An Experimental Study on Voltage Compensation Method using Autonomous Decentralized Control of Distributed Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Hirokazu

    When many distributed generators (DGs) are connected to a distribution line, the upward power flow from DGs causes the difficulty in line voltage regulation. As the countermeasure, we propose several methods to control the line voltage by use of DGs' reactive power outputs. These methods using only DGs' reactive power are implemented in an autonomous decentralized way. DGs with the function to estimate the line impedance provide the power system with reactive power according to the estimated impedance value, and regulate the line voltage. We evaluate the effect of the proposed methods for voltage compensation by experimental studies using commercial grid-connected inverters for PV system.

  19. Simulation study on the emittance compensation of off-axis emitted beam in RF photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui-Xuan; Mitchell, Chad; Jia, Qi-Ka; Papadopoulos, Christos; Sannibale, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    To make full use of the photocathode material and improve its quantum efficiency lifetime, it can be necessary to operate the laser away from the cathode center in photoinjectors. In RF guns, the off-axis emitted beam will see a time-dependent RF effect, which would generate a significant growth in transverse emittance. It has been demonstrated that such an emittance growth can be almost completely compensated by orienting the beam on a proper orbit in the downstream RF cavities along the injector [1]. In this paper we analyze in detail the simulation techniques used in reference [1] and the issues associated with them. The optimization of photoinjector systems involving off-axis beams is a challenging problem. To solve this problem, one needs advanced simulation tools including both genetic algorithms and an efficient algorithm for 3D space charge. In this paper, we report on simulation studies where the two codes ASTRA and IMPACT-T are used jointly to overcome these challenges, in order to optimize a system designed to compensate for the emittance growth in a beam emitted off axis. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11375199), and Chinese Scholarship Council

  20. A cohort study of workers compensated for mercury intoxication following employment in the fur hat industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merler, E; Boffetta, P; Masala, G; Monechi, V; Bani, F

    1994-11-01

    This article presents the preliminary results of a follow-up study (1950-1992) of 1,146 subjects (person-years = 30,954; 23,055 for women) receiving compensation for mercury poisoning. In a province of Tuscany in central Italy, severe exposure to mercury occurred during fur hat production. A deficit in all causes of mortality was observed in both sexes, whereas mortality due to cancer was slightly higher than expected. Mortality from stomach cancer was significantly elevated for men and women. A significant excess of lung cancer was observed in women only. Whereas the excess of stomach cancer probably reflects elevated rates in the study area rather than exposure to mercury, the excess of lung cancer mortality does appear to be related to mercury exposure. Smoking habits or other exposures at work do not seem to explain the excess of lung cancer.

  1. RANDOM AND SYSTEMATIC FIELD ERRORS IN THE SNS RING: A STUDY OF THEIR EFFECTS AND COMPENSATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER,C.J.; LEE,Y.Y.; WENG,W.T.

    1998-06-22

    The Accumulator Ring for the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l] is to accept a 1 ms beam pulse from a 1 GeV Proton Linac at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. For each beam pulse, 10{sup 14} protons (some 1,000 turns) are to be accumulated via charge-exchange injection and then promptly extracted to an external target for the production of neutrons by spallation. At this very high intensity, stringent limits (less than two parts in 10,000 per pulse) on beam loss during accumulation must be imposed in order to keep activation of ring components at an acceptable level. To stay within the desired limit, the effects of random and systematic field errors in the ring require careful attention. This paper describes the authors studies of these effects and the magnetic corrector schemes for their compensation.

  2. A Space Charge Compensation Study of Low Energy Hydrogen Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Ismail, A; Uriot, D; Pichoff, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    High-power accelerators are being studied for several projects including accelerator driven neutron or neutrino sources. The low energy part of these facilities has to be carefully optimized to match the beam requirements of the higher energy parts. The complexity of high intensity beam dynamics in the low energy line is essentially due to the non-linear space charge effects. The PIC code CARTAGO* has been developed in order to simulate the beam transport at low energy including the temporal evolution effects of the space charge compensation. This paper relates the structure and the numerical methods of a 2D (r,z) new version of the code. The effects of the longitudinal space charge, the image charge and external 2D (r,z) magnetic field were included. The results of H+

  3. Case Study of Marine Ecological Compensation Criteria Based on Environmental Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-wei; YANG Zhi-feng; TANG Jun-jian; CHEN Chu-han

    2009-01-01

    This paper forecasted and identified the environmental risks and ecological effect caused by chemical spill by simulating the xylene spill in Xiamen waters. The evaluation objects of ecological damage include four parts: marine ecosystem services, sea water quality, marine biological resources (plankton, benthos, nekton, etc.), and beach habitat. The ecological compensation criterion was confirmed as 1.73 million Yuan per year in the short term and 8.09 million Yuan in the long term. And an ecological compensation mode was suggested to be that if the chemical spill does not occur this year, the compensation will return to the enterprise next year; while if chemical spill occurs, the compensation will not be returned. The encouragement mechanism "returning compensation if no spill" might motivate enterprises to improve the environmental risk management and avoid the risks.

  4. Influence of Prosthetic Sagittal Alignment on Trans-Tibial Amputee Gait and Compensating Pattern:A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiaohong; WANG Rencheng; ZHANG Ming; LI Xiaobing

    2008-01-01

    This study relates the gait asymmetry,residual limb comfort,and energy cost dunng walking and identifies a compensating pattem for the trans-tibial amputees when the prostheses are misaligned.One male subject with a trans-tibial amputation volunteered for the study.The knee joint moments at the prosthetic side,the phase symmetry index,and the interface pressures were discussed under three sagittalal ignment settings.The results show that the subject changes the knee joint moment,gait symmetry,and interface pressure with a misaligned prosthesis to improve his comfort and movement dudng walking.A high-quality liner reduces the gait sensitivity to misalignment and enhances the amputee's ability to compensate for misalignment.Since different people have different compensation pattems,more cases will be studied in future work.

  5. Cardiac motion compensation and resolution modeling in simultaneous PET-MR: a cardiac lesion detection study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibon, Y.; Ouyang, J.; Zhu, X.; Huang, C.; Reese, T. G.; Chun, S. Y.; Li, Q.; El Fakhri, G.

    2013-04-01

    Cardiac motion and partial volume effects (PVE) are two of the main causes of image degradation in cardiac PET. Motion generates artifacts and blurring while PVE lead to erroneous myocardial activity measurements. Newly available simultaneous PET-MR scanners offer new possibilities in cardiac imaging as MRI can assess wall contractility while collecting PET perfusion data. In this perspective, we develop a list-mode iterative reconstruction framework incorporating both tagged-MR derived non-rigid myocardial wall motion and position dependent detector point spread function (PSF) directly into the PET system matrix. In this manner, our algorithm performs both motion ‘deblurring’ and PSF deconvolution while reconstructing images with all available PET counts. The proposed methods are evaluated in a beating non-rigid cardiac phantom whose hot myocardial compartment contains small transmural and non-transmural cold defects. In order to accelerate imaging time, we investigate collecting full and half k-space tagged MR data to obtain tagged volumes that are registered using non-rigid B-spline registration to yield wall motion information. Our experimental results show that tagged-MR based motion correction yielded an improvement in defect/myocardium contrast recovery of 34-206% as compared to motion uncorrected studies. Likewise, lesion detectability improved by respectively 115-136% and 62-235% with MR-based motion compensation as compared to gating and no motion correction and made it possible to distinguish non-transmural from transmural defects, which has clinical significance given the inherent limitations of current single modality imaging in identifying the amount of residual ischemia. The incorporation of PSF modeling within the framework of MR-based motion compensation significantly improved defect/myocardium contrast recovery (5.1-8.5%, p defect detectability (39-56%, p < 0.01). No statistical difference was found in PET contrast and lesion detectability

  6. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yañez, Elvia; López, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerología de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  7. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yanez, Elvia; Lopez, Jesus [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Durango, Victoria de Durango, Durango (Mexico); ISSSTE General Hospital Dr. Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Victoria de Durango, Durango (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  8. The effects of performance measurement and compensation on motivation : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Herpen, M; Van Praag, M; Cools, K

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between pay and performance. Economic and psychological theories predict that the design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system affect the motivation of employees. Our survey results demonstrate a positive relationship

  9. Aligning Compensation Strategy with Business Strategy - A case study of a company within the service industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mytty, Noora; Pedak, Karla; Sun, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Business strategy and compensation strategy are commonly recognized as important strategic issues in an organization over the past decades. Collectively, they play a crucial role in determining organization’s performance and economic success, hence the correlation and interaction between the two is gaining more attention among companies and researchers. Literature states that an optimal alignment between business strategy and compensation strategy facilitates organization to secure its compet...

  10. A Study on Compensation for Management and Protection Expenses of Non-commercial Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the compensation nature of non-commercial forests under different ownership from two aspects, namely, whether the property right is limited and whether the management and protection expense has been incurred: there are no economic loss compensation problems caused by changes and limitation of property rights for the state-owned non-commercial forests with only the compensation on management and protection expense; but for the non-commercial forests owned by collectives or individuals, double compensation for both the economic loss and management expense exists because of limitation on the property right. In addition, an inframarginal economic analysis framework has been built for the management and protection compensation problems faced by non-commercial forests under different ownership in the perspective of the division of labor. Research results show that: the compensation standard for the management and protection expenses of non-commercial forests shall fall in between the "completely self-sufficient forestry economic structure U(Ayz)" and the "completely specialized productive structure of non-commercial forests U(B1)".

  11. Creative compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll, D

    1994-09-19

    A discussion is presented of executive compensation in Canada's petroleum industry. Mandatory disclosure of executive compensation and benefits is regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission. Examination of the compensation packages of 80 oilpatch CEOs shows a clear difference in philosophy between large and small companies. Larger companies pay larger salaries, offer pension plans, and reward long-term loyalty. Within smaller companies, compensation tends to be linked with stock performance. Trends in compensation are to lower base salaries with more variables such as bonuses, cash incentives and gain-sharing programs. Increasing shareholder scrutiny is prompting more stringent guidelines on stock option plans. Some companies place performance conditions on stock vesting. Another option is to grant premium priced options to executives, to increase the gains required for the executive to post a profit. Other comapanies are granting stock options to their field personnel, or are granting stock to all employees. Directors are playing an increasing role in executive compensation. 4 tabs.

  12. Energetic studies on DNA-peptide interaction in relation to the enthalpy-entropy compensation paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Robin C K; Huang, Jonathan T B; Chien, Shih-Chuan; Huang, Roy; Jeng, Kee-Ching G; Chen, Yen-Chung; Liao, Mokai; Wu, Jia-Rong; Hung, Wei-Kang; Hung, Chia-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ling; Waring, Michael J; Sheh, Leung

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to interpret the energetic basis of complex DNA-peptide interactions according to a novel allosteric interaction network approach. In common with other designed peptides, five new conjugates incorporating the XPRK or XHypRK motif (Hyp = hydroxyproline) attached to a N-methylpyrrole (Py) tract with a basic tail have been found to display cooperative binding to DNA involving multiple monodentate as well as interstrand bidentate interactions. Using quantitative DNase I footprinting it appears that allosteric communication via cooperative binding to multiple sites on complementary DNA strands corresponds to two different types of DNA-peptide interaction network. Temperature variation experiments using a dodecapeptide RY-12 show that lower temperature (25 °C) favor a circuit type of allosteric interaction network, whereas higher temperatures (31 and 37 °C) afford only a partial-circuit type of network. Circular dichroism studies show that our five peptides induce significant local conformational changes in DNA via the minor groove, with apparently dimeric binding stoichiometry. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that these peptides, together with another seven for comparison, are strongly exothermic upon binding to a model 13-mer DNA duplex, characterized by ΔH ranging from -14.7 to -74.4 kcal mol(-1), and also high TΔS ranging from -6.5 to -65.9 kcal mol(-1). Multiple monodentate and bidentate interactions, as well as ionic forces that mediate positive cooperativity in sequence recognition, are consistent with a dramatic decrease in entropy and a 'tightening' effect of DNA conformation. Distinctive enthalpy-entropy compensation (EEC) relationships are demonstrated for the interaction of all twelve designed peptides with DNA, affording a straight line of slope close to unity when ΔH is plotted versus TΔS, with a y-axis intercept (average ΔG) corresponding to -8.5 kcal mol(-1), while the observed ΔG ranges from -8.2 to -9.1 kcal mol(-1) for

  13. Compensating for non-response in a study estimating the incidence of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence by a two-phased design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    at 48% by a two-phase design and weighted logistic regression. The total non-response rate was 53.6%. This motivated the present study to compensate for non-response by applying adjustment of the weights and by multiple imputation of missing data in the estimation of the frequencies of mental disorders...... compensation for non-response was applied, the frequencies of mental disorders were similar. The variables used for the compensation were of problematic value....

  14. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Jacobs

    Full Text Available Calf (Bos taurus depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1 quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2 develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC. We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the

  15. Simulation Study on the Emittance Compensation of Off-axis Emitted Beam in RF Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Rui-Xuan; Jia, Qi-Ka; Papadopoulos, Christos; Sannibale, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    To make full use of photocathode material and improve its quantum efficiency lifetime, it can be necessary to operate laser away from the cathode center in photoinjectors. In RF guns, the off-axis emitted beam will see a time-dependent RF effect, which would generate a significant growth in transverse emittance. It has been demonstrated that such an emittance growth can be almost completely compensated by orienting the beam on a proper orbit in the downstream RF cavities along the injector. In this paper we analyze in detail the simulation techniques used in reference[1] and the issues associated with them. The optimization of photoinjector systems involving off-axis beams is a challenging problem. To solve this problem, one needs advanced simulation tools including both genetic algorithms and an efficient algorithm for 3D space charge. In this paper, we report on simulation studies where the two codes ASTRA and IMPACT-T are used jointly to overcome these challenges, in order to optimize a system designed to ...

  16. Compensation trends of the angulation of first molars: retrospective study of 1403 malocclusion cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hong; Han, Bing; Li, Sa; Na, Bin; Ma, Wen; Xu, Tian-Min

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the compensatory trends of mesiodistal angulation of first molars in malocclusion cases. We compared differences in the angulation of first molars in different developmental stages, malocclusion classifications and skeletal patterns. The medical records and lateral cephalogrammes of 1403 malocclusion cases taken before treatment were measured to evaluate compensation of molar angulation in relation to the skeletal jaw. The cases were stratified by age, Angle classification and skeletal patterns. Differences in the mesiodistal angulation of the first molars were compared among the stratifications. We observed three main phenomena. First, angulation of the upper first molar varied significantly with age and tipped most distally in cases aged 16 years. The lower first molar did not show such differences. Second, in Angle Class II or skeletal Class II cases, the upper first molar was the most distally tipped, the lower first molar was the most mesially tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in Class III cases. Third, in high-angle cases, the upper and lower first molars were the most distally tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in low-angle cases. These data suggest that the angulation of the molars compensated for various growth patterns and malocclusion types. Hence, awareness of molar angulation compensation would help to adjust occlusal relationships, control anchorage and increase the chances of long-term stability.

  17. Compensation trends of the angulation of first molars:retrospective study of 1 403 malocclusion cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Su; Bing Han; Sa Li; Bin Na; Wen Ma; Tian-Min Xu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the compensatory trends of mesiodistal angulation of first molars in malocclusion cases. We compared differences in the angulation of first molars in different developmental stages, malocclusion classifications and skeletal patterns. The medical records and lateral cephalogrammes of 1 403 malocclusion cases taken before treatment were measured to evaluate compensation of molar angulation in relation to the skeletal jaw. The cases were stratified by age, Angle classification and skeletal patterns. Differences in the mesiodistal angulation of the first molars were compared among the stratifications. We observed three main phenomena. First, angulation of the upper first molar varied significantly with age and tipped most distally in cases aged ,12 years and least distally in cases aged .16 years. The lower first molar did not show such differences. Second, in Angle Class II or skeletal Class II cases, the upper first molar was the most distally tipped, the lower first molar was the most mesially tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in Class III cases. Third, in high-angle cases, the upper and lower first molars were the most distally tipped, and opposite angulation compensation was observed in low-angle cases. These data suggest that the angulation of the molars compensated for various growth patterns and malocclusion types. Hence, awareness of molar angulation compensation would help to adjust occlusal relationships, control anchorage and increase the chances of long-term stability.

  18. Study of the transient effects of the space charge compensation on the dynamics of an intense beam; Etude des effets transitoires de la compensation de charge d'espace sur la dynamique d'un faisceau intense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ismail, A

    2005-09-15

    A main interest in the design of ion accelerators is the control of the dynamics of intense beams at low energy. This dynamics is dominated by nonlinear effects of the Space Charge (SC) field. This SC field induces a halo formation which can induce losses along the transport. Once ionized by the beam, the residual gas, diffused by the source and produced by the desorption of the vacuum chamber of the accelerator, contributes to the production of electrons and ions. According to their sign of charge compared to the beam, these particles will be repelled or confined. The accumulation of particles in the beam contributes to the compensation of the SC field. However, this neutralization induces other non linearity which are dependent on time. This thesis presents an experimental and theoretical work of the SC compensation for ion beams (H{sup +} and H{sup -}). The dynamics of these beams is modelled by a new PIC code, CARTAGO, ensuring the coupling between the created plasma and the studied beams. A single-particle study introduces the dynamics of the plasma in presence of the SC field and of an external magnetic field. The modeling of the compensation with the 1D version of CARTAGO code gave the establishment times and the compensation degrees for several cases of beams and various gas pressures. The compensation of a protons beam was studied more particularly in the low-energy line of the Injector of Protons of High Intensity (IPHI) at Saclay. Simulations show an over-compensation of the space charge inside the focusing solenoid and outside the compensation is only partial. Experimental confrontations of the 2D(r,z) modeling results in a part of this line are also detailed. (author)

  19. Luminosity Loss due to Beam Distortion and the Beam-Beam Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, Tor O; Seryi, Andrei; Sramek, Christopher K

    2005-01-01

    In a linear collider, sources of emittance dilution such as transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will couple the vertical phase space to the longitudinal position within the beam (the so-called ‘banana effect'). When the Intersection Point (IP) disruption parameter is large, these beam distortions will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. We study this phenomena both analytically using linear theory and via numerical simulation. In particular, we examine the dependence of the luminosity loss on the wavelength of the beam distortions and the disruption parameter. This analysis may prove useful when optimizing the vertical disruption parameter for luminosity operation with given beam distortions.

  20. A closer look at the beam-beam processes at ILC and CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Hartin, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The strength of the electromagnetic fields in the bunch collision at a linear collider will have a significant effect, yielding large numbers of beamstrahlung photons and associated coherent pair production. These effects are limited in the proposed ILC beam parameters which limit the strength of the bunch field to $\\Upsilon_{\\text{ave}}=0.27$. The CLIC 3 Tev design by comparison has a $\\Upsilon_{\\text{ave}}=3.34$ yielding huge number of coherent pairs. In terms of the precision physics programs of these proposed colliders there is an imperative to investigate the effect of the strong bunch fields on higher order processes. From the exact wavefunctions used in the calculation of transition rates within the Furry interaction picture, and using appropriate simplifications, a multiplicative factor to the coupling constants was obtained. This indicates a significant variation to the transition rate near threshold energies. Further studies are in progress to calculate the exact effect on expected observables.

  1. Large-scale population study of human cell lines indicates that dosage compensation is virtually complete.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette M Johnston

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available X chromosome inactivation in female mammals results in dosage compensation of X-linked gene products between the sexes. In humans there is evidence that a substantial proportion of genes escape from silencing. We have carried out a large-scale analysis of gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from four human populations to determine the extent to which escape from X chromosome inactivation disrupts dosage compensation. We conclude that dosage compensation is virtually complete. Overall expression from the X chromosome is only slightly higher in females and can largely be accounted for by elevated female expression of approximately 5% of X-linked genes. We suggest that the potential contribution of escape from X chromosome inactivation to phenotypic differences between the sexes is more limited than previously believed.

  2. A Study of Dispersion Compensation of Polarization Multiplexing-Based OFDM-OCDMA for Radio-over-Fiber Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ta Yen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic dispersion from optical fiber is the most important problem that produces temporal skews and destroys the rectangular structure of code patterns in the spectra-amplitude-coding-based optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA system. Thus, the balance detection scheme does not work perfectly to cancel multiple access interference (MAI and the system performance will be degraded. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM is the fastest developing technology in the academic and industrial fields of wireless transmission. In this study, the radio-over-fiber system is realized by integrating OFDM and OCDMA via polarization multiplexing scheme. The electronic dispersion compensation (EDC equalizer element of OFDM integrated with the dispersion compensation fiber (DCF is used in the proposed radio-over-fiber (RoF system, which can efficiently suppress the chromatic dispersion influence in long-haul transmitted distance. A set of length differences for 10 km-long single-mode fiber (SMF and 4 km-long DCF is to verify the compensation scheme by relative equalizer algorithms and constellation diagrams. In the simulation result, the proposed dispersion mechanism successfully compensates the dispersion from SMF and the system performance with dispersion equalizer is highly improved.

  3. A Study of Dispersion Compensation of Polarization Multiplexing-Based OFDM-OCDMA for Radio-over-Fiber Transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chih-Ta; Chen, Wen-Bin

    2016-09-07

    Chromatic dispersion from optical fiber is the most important problem that produces temporal skews and destroys the rectangular structure of code patterns in the spectra-amplitude-coding-based optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) system. Thus, the balance detection scheme does not work perfectly to cancel multiple access interference (MAI) and the system performance will be degraded. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is the fastest developing technology in the academic and industrial fields of wireless transmission. In this study, the radio-over-fiber system is realized by integrating OFDM and OCDMA via polarization multiplexing scheme. The electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) equalizer element of OFDM integrated with the dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) is used in the proposed radio-over-fiber (RoF) system, which can efficiently suppress the chromatic dispersion influence in long-haul transmitted distance. A set of length differences for 10 km-long single-mode fiber (SMF) and 4 km-long DCF is to verify the compensation scheme by relative equalizer algorithms and constellation diagrams. In the simulation result, the proposed dispersion mechanism successfully compensates the dispersion from SMF and the system performance with dispersion equalizer is highly improved.

  4. Detection of and compensation for blocked elements using large coherent apertures: ex vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Marko; Bottenus, Nick; Kuo, Lily; Kumar, Shalki; Dahl, Jeremy; Trahey, Gregg

    2016-04-01

    When imaging with ultrasound through the chest wall, it is not uncommon for parts of the array to get blocked by ribs, which can limit the acoustic window and significantly impede visualization of the structures of interest. With the development of large-aperture, high-element-count, 2-D arrays and their potential use in transthoracic imaging, detecting and compensating for the blocked elements is becoming increasingly important. We synthesized large coherent 2-D apertures and used them to image a point target through excised samples of canine chest wall. Blocked elements are detected based on low amplitude of their signals. As a part of compensation, blocked elements are turned off on transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx), and point-target images are created using: coherent summation of the remaining channels, compounding of intercostal apertures, and adaptive weighting of the available Tx/Rx channel-pairs to recover the desired k-space response. The adaptive compensation method also includes a phase aberration correction to ensure that the non-blocked Tx/Rx channel pairs are summed coherently. To evaluate the methods, we compare the point-spread functions (PSFs) and near-field clutter levels for the transcostal and control acquisitions. Specifically, applying k-space compensation to the sparse aperture data created from the control acquisition reduces sidelobes from -6.6 dB to -12 dB. When applied to the transcostal data in combination with phase-aberration correction, the same method reduces sidelobes only by 3 dB, likely due to significant tissue induced acoustic noise. For the transcostal acquisition, turning off blocked elements and applying uniform weighting results in maximum clutter reduction of 5 dB on average, while the PSF stays intact. Compounding reduces clutter by about 3 dB while the k-space compensation increases clutter magnitude to the non-compensated levels.

  5. Study on A Control Method of PAPF for Resonance Damping and Harmonics Compensation in Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fang; Wu, Longhui; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    In power system, capacitors are widely used to compensate reactive power, which generally cause resonance problems in harmonic distorted network. In this paper, A method of using a parallel active power filter (PAPF) to damp the resonances is proposed. The proposed method is compound with traditi......In power system, capacitors are widely used to compensate reactive power, which generally cause resonance problems in harmonic distorted network. In this paper, A method of using a parallel active power filter (PAPF) to damp the resonances is proposed. The proposed method is compound...

  6. Questioning Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Transparent management and open information needed for the fund set up to compensate victims of the 2008 Sanlu milk scandal Almost three years after the Sanlu milk scandal that caused thousands of infants in China to develop urinary disease after drinking melamine

  7. Design and experimental study of compensation fitting on the angle-tuned filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Kan; HUANG De-xiu; LIU Wen; CHANG Jin

    2008-01-01

    For a 100 GHz DWDM angle-tuned filter with low polarization dependent loss,the insertion loss and the Gaussiantransformation tendency of the transmission spectrum will become more serious as the incident angle is increased.It is because of that the optical path and the transmission modes of the thin film filter will change when the incident angle is varied.According to the thin film matrix theory,the analysis model is established,the displacement change of the transmission field is simulated,and a dynamic compensation fitting is also designed and fabricated in the paper.The experimental results show that it can effectively reduce the insertion loss and the phenomenon of Gaussian process.Using the compensation fitting,the tunable range of the filter is at about 20 nm which coincides with the theoretical design.

  8. Study on offshore wind farm integration mode and reactive power compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Xiaoyan; Hong, Lijun; Fu, Yang [Shanghai Univ. of Electrical Power (China). Power and Automation Engineering Dept.

    2013-07-01

    Two typical offshore wind farm grid-connected modes are introduced and dynamic characteristics under their modes are compared from the simulation by PSS/E. The result shows that offshore wind farm with VSC-HVDC has better dynamic characteristics on fault isolation, reactive power compensation, and fault ride through ability. In addition, STATCOM has been applied to the offshore wind farm, the simulation results indicates that it can improve the bus voltage stability in fault and maintain the voltage level under a small perturbation.

  9. Non-linear beam-beam forces in storage rings. Particular analysis for S. S. C. and L. H. C. parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusterla, M.; Servizi, G.; Turchetti, G.

    1985-10-01

    Theoretical models, suitable for description of the long behaviour of bunched and unbunched beams of particles in accelerators and storage rings, are becoming more and more appreciated by physicists that want a high luminosity joined with the stability of the beams. Such a point is going to be particulary important for the next generation machines as L.E.P., S.S.C. and L.H.C. In this note we are giving a simplified analysis of the beam-beam non-linear effects for proton colliders on the basis of the latest designs (we think of S.S.C. and L.H.C.). Before doing that, however, we like to consider the general features of the dynamical approaches that describe the beam-beam forces both for the proton proton rings (fixed angle collision) and for proton-antiproton or electronpositron rings (head-on collisions): they follow directly from the recent developments of non-linear classical mechanics, namely the K.A.M. theorem and the transition to a chaotic motion in deterministic mechanical systems.

  10. Compensating for electrode polarization in dielectric spectroscopy studies of colloidal suspensions: theoretical assessment of existing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, Claire; Dubois, Emmanuelle; Jiménez, María Luisa; van der Ploeg, Jacques; Turnhout, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy can be used to determine the dipole moment of colloidal particles from which important interfacial electrokinetic properties, for instance their zeta potential, can be deduced. Unfortunately, dielectric spectroscopy measurements are hampered by electrode polarization (EP). In this article, we review several procedures to compensate for this effect. First EP in electrolyte solutions is described: the complex conductivity is derived as function of frequency, for two cell geometries (planar and cylindrical) with blocking electrodes. The corresponding equivalent circuit for the electrolyte solution is given for each geometry. This equivalent circuit model is extended to suspensions. The complex conductivity of a suspension, in the presence of EP, is then calculated from the impedance measured. Different methods for compensating for EP are critically assessed, with the help of the theoretical findings. Their limit of validity is given in terms of characteristic frequencies. We can identify with one of these frequencies the frequency range within which data uncorrected for EP may be used to assess the dipole moment of colloidal particles. In order to extract this dipole moment from the measured data, two methods are reviewed: one is based on the use of existing models for the complex conductivity of suspensions, the other is the logarithmic derivative method. An extension to multiple relaxations of the logarithmic derivative method is proposed.

  11. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zheng; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the Accelerator Driven Sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with CW operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple PID feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of PI feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7%...

  12. Modified conceptual model for compensated root water uptake - A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Andre

    2016-03-01

    Modeling root water uptake within the macroscopic approach is usually done by introducing a sink term in the Richards equation. This sink term represents potential water uptake reduced by a so-called stress reduction factor accounting for stress due to high suctions, oxygen deficit or salinity. Since stress in some parts of the soil can be compensated by enhanced water uptake in less stressed parts, several compensation models have been suggested. One of them is the empirical model of Jarvis, which is often applied due to its mathematical elegance and simplicity. However, it has been discussed that under certain conditions and assumptions this model might predict too high transpiration rates, which are not in agreement with the assumed stress reduction function. The aim of this paper is (i) to analyze these inconsistencies and (ii) to introduce a simple constraint for transpiration in a way as if the complete water would be taken form the location with highest uptake rate in the uncompensated case. Transpiration from 50 cm deep soils with hydraulic functions representing different textures, ranging from a clay loam to a coarse sand, was simulated with the original and the modified model using HYDRUS-1D. Root distribution was assumed to be uniform or linearly decreasing with depth. In case of the fine textured soils and uniform root density, the original model predicted transpiration equal to potential transpiration even when the complete root domain was already heavily stressed if the maximum enhancement factor for uptake was 2. These results are not in agreement with the original meaning of the stress reduction function. The modification eliminates the inconsistencies by limiting transpiration to a maximum value based on the highest uncompensated uptake rate in the root zone. It does neither increase the mathematical complexity nor require any additional parameters.

  13. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Snoek, Govert J; Kouwenhoven, Mirjam; Nene, Anand V; Jannink, Michiel J A

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation); however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval) with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shoulder joints and muscle activation were measured and compared. Seven subjects reduced elbow extension (range 1.8°-4.5°) during the maximal reaching task with gravity compensation. In the reach and retrieval task with gravity compensation, all subjects decreased elbow extension (range 0.1°-11.0°). Eight subjects executed movement closer to the body. Regarding muscle activation, gravity compensation did not influence timing; however, the amplitude of activation decreased, especially in antigravity muscles, namely mean change +/- standard deviation of descending part of trapezius (18.2% +/- 37.5%), anterior part of deltoid (37.7% +/- 16.7%), posterior part of deltoid (32.0% +/- 13.9%), and long head biceps (49.6% +/- 20.0%). Clinical implications for the use of gravity compensation in rehabilitation (during activities of daily living or exercise therapy) should be further investigated with a larger population.

  14. EEPN and CD study for coherent optical nPSK and nQAM systems with RF pilot based phase noise compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Gunnar; Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Friberg, Ari T; Zhang, Yimo

    2012-04-09

    A radio frequency (RF) carrier can be used to mitigate the phase noise impact in n-level PSK and QAM systems. The systems performance is influenced by the use of an RF pilot carrier to accomplish phase noise compensation through complex multiplication in combination with discrete filters to compensate for the chromatic dispersion (CD). We perform a detailed study comparing two filters for the CD compensation namely the fixed frequency domain equalizer (FDE) filter and the adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) filter. The study provides important novel physical insight into the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) influence on the system bit-error-rate (BER) versus optical signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) performance. Important results of the analysis are that the FDE filter position relative to the RF carrier phase noise compensation module provides a possibility for choosing whether the EEPN from the Tx or the LO laser influences the system quality. The LMS filter works very inefficiently when placed prior to the RF phase noise compensation stage of the Rx whereas it works much more efficiently and gives almost the same performance as the FDE filter when placed after the RF phase noise compensation stage.

  15. Cross-over studies underestimate energy compensation: The example of sucrose-versus sucralose-containing drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadah, Nouf S; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    The vast majority of preload-test-meal studies that have investigated the effects on energy intake of disguised nutrient or other food/drink ingredient manipulations have used a cross-over design. We argue that this design may underestimate the effect of the manipulation due to carry-over effects. To test this we conducted comparable cross-over (n = 69) and parallel-groups (n = 48) studies testing the effects of sucrose versus low-calorie sweetener (sucralose) in a drink preload on test-meal energy intake. The parallel-groups study included a baseline day in which only the test meal was consumed. Energy intake in that meal was used to control for individual differences in energy intake in the analysis of the effects of sucrose versus sucralose on energy intake on the test day. Consistent with our prediction, the effect of consuming sucrose on subsequent energy intake was greater when measured in the parallel-groups study than in the cross-over study (respectively 64% versus 36% compensation for the 162 kcal difference in energy content of the sucrose and sucralose drinks). We also included a water comparison group in the parallel-groups study (n = 24) and found that test-meal energy intake did not differ significantly between the water and sucralose conditions. Together, these results confirm that consumption of sucrose in a drink reduces subsequent energy intake, but by less than the energy content of the drink, whilst drink sweetness does not increase food energy intake. Crucially, though, the studies demonstrate that study design affects estimated energy compensation.

  16. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zheng; He, Yuan; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the accelerator driven sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with continuous wave (CW) operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple proportional plus integral and deviation (PID) feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of proportional and integral (PI) feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7% after turning on this control algorithm. The design and experimental results of this system are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  17. Study for compensation of unexpected image placement error caused by VSB mask writer deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-joo; Choi, Min-kyu; Moon, Seong-yong; Cho, Han-Ku; Doh, Jonggul; Ahn, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    The Electron Optical System (EOS) is designed for the electron beam machine employing a vector scanned variable shaped beam (VSB) with the deflector. Most VSB systems utilize multi stage deflection architecture to obtain a high precision and a high-speed deflection at the same time. Many companies use the VSB mask writer and they have a lot of experiences about Image Placement (IP) error suffering from contaminated EOS deflector. And also most of VSB mask writer users are having already this error. In order to use old VSB mask writer, we introduce the method how to compensate unexpected IP error from VSB mask writer. There are two methods to improve this error due to contaminated deflector. The one is the usage of 2nd stage grid correction in addition to the original stage grid. And the other is the usage of uncontaminated area in the deflector. According to the results of this paper, 30% of IP error can be reduced by 2nd stage grid correction and the change of deflection area in deflector. It is the effective method to reduce the deflector error at the VSB mask writer. And it can be the one of the solution for the long-term production of photomask.

  18. Review of Studies on Compensation Mechanism for Farmland Protection%耕地保护补偿机制研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2012-01-01

    从耕地保护补偿的理论基础、耕地外部效益及政府市场双重失灵与市场补偿的关系、与耕地保护补偿相关的政策措施、耕地保护补偿机制设计方面对已有的研究进行了回顾与分析,结果表明:随着耕地保护逐渐成为国家和社会关注的焦点和热点问题,耕地保护制度的相关研究有了长足的发展,其中在市场补偿方面尤其在耕地保护补偿的研究取得了上很大的成就,但是在研究内容、范围和方法层面仍存在改进空间,有待进一步探讨.%The paper reviews and analyzes the existing studies on the following four aspects: the theoretical basis of compensation for farmland protection; the relationship among external benefits of cultivated land, dual failure of the government and market compensation; policies and measures ralated to market compensation design of compensation mechanism for farmland protection. As indicated by the results, since farmland protection is gradually becoming the national and social focus, the relevant studies on farmland protection system have developed rapidly, great achievements have been made in the studies on market compensation especially the compensation for farmland compensation, but the study content, range and methods still need to be improved and discussed.

  19. Study on the Optimizing Operation of Exhaust Air Heat Recovery and Solar Energy Combined Thermal Compensation System for Ground-Coupled Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed an exhaust air heat recovery and solar energy combined thermal compensation system (ESTC for ground-coupled heat pumps. Based on the prediction of the next day’s exhaust air temperature and solar irradiance, an optimized thermal compensation (OTC method was developed in this study as well, in which the exhaust air heat recovery compensator and solar energy compensator in the ESTC system run at high efficiency throughout various times of day. Moreover, a modified solar term similar days group (STSDG method was proposed to improve the accuracy of solar irradiance prediction in hazy weather. This modified STSDG method was based on air quality forecast and AQI (air quality index correction factors. Through analyzing the operating parameters and the simulation results of a case study, the ESTC system proved to have good performance and high efficiency in eliminating the heat imbalance by using the OTC method. The thermal compensation quantity per unit energy consumption (TEC of ESTC under the proposed method was 1.25 times as high as that under the traditional operation method. The modified STSDG method also exhibited high accuracy. For the accumulated solar irradiance of the four highest daily radiation hours, the monthly mean absolute percentage error (MAPE between the predicted values and the measured values was 6.35%.

  20. An Experimental Study of Medical Error Explanations: Do Apology, Empathy, Corrective Action, and Compensation Alter Intentions and Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazione, Samantha; Pace, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Medical malpractice lawsuits are a growing problem in the United States, and there is much controversy regarding how to best address this problem. The medical error disclosure framework suggests that apologizing, expressing empathy, engaging in corrective action, and offering compensation after a medical error may improve the provider-patient relationship and ultimately help reduce the number of medical malpractice lawsuits patients bring to medical providers. This study provides an experimental examination of the medical error disclosure framework and its effect on amount of money requested in a lawsuit, negative intentions, attitudes, and anger toward the provider after a medical error. Results suggest empathy may play a large role in providing positive outcomes after a medical error.

  1. Can 'football-team color-code' compensate for anomia? The case study of FN, a patient with color anomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, R; Aretouli, E; Loukopoulou, E; Parissis, D; Ioannides, P; Karakostas, D

    2005-06-01

    A case study is reported on large ischemic infracts involving cortical and subcortical areas of the parietal lobes bilaterally, especially left temporo-parietal and right parietal. On examination, the diagnosis of vascular dementia with color anomia, optic aphasia for colors, was established. The patient (FN) showed great difficulty in understanding a scene as a whole and in describing complex scenes. FN's oral comprehension skills at word and sentence level were satisfactory and he exhibited communicative effectiveness during conversation. He could read letter by letter, but could not make simple judgments of shapes. FN exhibited a marked inability to name colors presented to him visually and to indicate or point to the color requested from the examiner. The most interesting of all the patient's characteristics was the strategy--a football-team color-code--he had developed for compensating for his inability to name colors.

  2. A study of influences of the workers' compensation and injury management regulations on aviation safety at a workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devinder K; Nikraz, Hamid; Chen, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    As the aviation industries developed, so too did the recognition that there must be an effective regulatory framework to address issues related to the workers' compensation and rehabilitation. All employees would like to work and return home safely from their workplace. Therefore, the efficient management of workplace injury and disease reduces the cost of aviation operations and improves flight safety. Workers' compensation and injury management laws regulate a majority of rehabilitation and compensation issues, but achieving an injury-free workplace remains a major challenge for the regulators. This paper examines the clauses of the workers' compensation and injury management laws of Western Australia related to workplace safety, compensation, and rehabilitations of the injured workers. It also discusses various provisions of common law under the relevant workers' health injury management legislations.

  3. Faculty Compensation Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silander, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Faculty compensation policy is seen as one means by which an institution influences the faculty to work toward institutional goals. Among the broad criteria for compensation are worth, equity, need, and market measures. Benefits and issues in compensation including differentials in compensation, merit, part-time instruction, etc. are discussed.…

  4. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  5. Compensation for Occupational Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    The legal scope and criteria for occupational cancer in Korea was out of date. The aim of this study was to review the current criteria for occupational cancer and amend the existent criteria on the basis of recent scientific evidence. The scientific evidence and the legal list of occupational cancer were analyzed to identify the causes of occupational cancer on a global scale. The relationship between compensated occupational cancer cases and carcinogen exposure in Korea was examined. The fa...

  6. Labor compensation,labor productivity and labor cost advantage—An empirical study of Chinese manufacturing enterprises during 2000-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都阳; 曲玥

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the usual practice of equating wages or labor compensation with labor cost,this paper incorporates labor productivity into an analytical framework and holds that the labor cost advantage is the relative relationship between labor compensation and labor productivity.Based on an empirical study of the data of Chinese manufacturing firms that include all state-owned enterprises and non-state-owned enterprises with their annual revenue greater than 5 million yuan from 2000 to 2007,this paper finds that labor compensation growth was accompanied by faster labor productivity growth.Hence,the labor cost advantage was not weakened during this period.Furthermore,this paper conducts an exploration of how to sustain labor cost advantages in the future and proposes that they can be sustained by upgrading the industrial structure and improving the education system.

  7. 主体功能区生态补偿模型初探%Study on ecological compensation model for Major Function Oriented Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐梦月; 陈江龙; 高金龙; 叶欠

    2012-01-01

    Reasonable scientific ecological compensation mechanisms that balance different interests are critical to a successful implementation of Major Function Oriented Zone (MFOZ) plan. Current studies on ecological compensation standard of MFOZ are relatively deficient. This study divided the four MFOZs in China into two groups and analyzed three classical ecological compensation theories. The two MFOZ groups were development and protection zones and three classical theories were ecological environment value theory, externality theory and public goods theory. On the basis of "protector to profit, beneficiary to compensate", an ecological compensation model was constructed. The model also took into account the willingness of the development zones to pay, and the ecological benefits and ecosystem services of the protection zones to contribute along with its influence scope. Ecological footprint and ecosystem service-driven gravity model were used to establish the compensation model for MFOZ. The four steps that accounted for the eco-compensation mechanism included compensation standard, compensation fund, distribution plan and implementation mode. Development zones paid ecological compensations to protection zones via financial payments by governments to realize the model objectives. The study also suggested funding from multiple sources, implementation of diverse and diverse participants. It was of urgent theoretical and practical importance to establish ecological compensation model that facilitated the realization of the objectives of MFOZ plan. It was also recommended that implementation of a sound ecological compensation model would encourage ecological protection, limit vandalism and provide scientific basis for balanced differential region development.%本文将我国四大主体功能区分为开发型区域与保护型区域两大类,在分析生态补偿的生态环境价值论、外部性理论和公共产品理论三大经典基础理论的基础上,依据

  8. The Effect of Compensation Studies on Disadvantaged Children's Self Concept Levels and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadioglu, Ömür

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of "Bir Umut Ol Benim Için" (Be My Hope) project which was prepared for the children who were disadvantaged by being influenced from several risk factors as compared to their peers on the self-concepts and locus of controls of the children. The study group consisted of 33 children who were…

  9. The Buffering Effect of Selection, Optimization, and Compensation Strategy Use On The Relationship Between Problem Solving Demands and Occupational Well-Being : A Daily Diary Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Antje; Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated within-person relationships between daily problem solving demands, selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategy use, job satisfaction, and fatigue at work. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that high SOC strategy use boosts the positiv

  10. Improvement of quantification in SPECT studies by scatter and attenuation compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, R.B.; Mas, J.; Bidet, R.

    1989-07-01

    The filtered backprojection images obtained from classical SPECT studies are not adequate for evaluation of volumes or parameters of clinical interest. Noise, scattering, boundary accuracy and attenuation are the main problems of SPECT quantification. It is the aim of the following study to overcome these difficulties. The first step of all correction algorithm is the contour detection of the attenuation medium. A new procedure, previously described by the authors, accurately and automatically found the boundaries of the surrounding body. The Compton scattering elimination is carried out by a modified version of Jaszczak's method. This alteration is essential to implement the iterative attenuation correction algorithm derived from Chang's method. Results obtained using computer simulation and real phantoms or clinical studies demonstrate the high improvement of contrast and count levels in the corrected slices. The process is fully automatic and the efficiency of the procedures allow fast processing of the daily SPECT examination.

  11. 永定河流域水生态补偿标准研究%Water related eco-compensation standard study for the Yongding River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付意成; 阮本清; 许凤冉; 储立民

    2012-01-01

    Water related eco-compensation is an important approach to prevent water environmental deterio- ration and realize watershed sustainable development. Compensation standard calculation is the key to as- sess environmental compensation feasibility in specific district. In view of the defects during watershed eco-compensation process, this paper provides the compensation standard implementation foundation consider- ing the theoretical system, management system and operation mechanism at present. Taking the Yongding River basin as the study area, the water related eco-compensation standard conceptual framework was estab- lished. According to the indiscerptible attribute of water quantity and quality, watershed compensation stan- dard was illustrated by considering water price and the outflow in the main stream of Yongding River. A set of alternative equations for water quantity compensation under different rainfall probability were devel- oped. Taking into account water quality class llI as the standard of water quality control, the treatment cost for the contaminated water body was estimated.%生态补偿是用水竞争激烈的流域遏制水环境恶化趋势,实现向可持续开发利用转变的重要手段。生态补偿标准的核算是实施生态补偿的关键环节。针对流域水生态补偿实施中的不足,借鉴国内外在理论体系、管理体制、运行机制相关层面的研究成果,构建了完善补偿标准的理论框架。以永定河流域为研究对象,给出了流域水生态补偿标准的实施依据。并根据水量水质不可分割特性,给出了跨区域的水量、水质补偿标准测算方法,探讨了基于污染物处理水平的补偿标准计算过程。最后针对补偿标准测算中出现的问题,给出了完善流域水生生态补偿机制的建议。

  12. Extralinguistic Communication Compensates for the Loss of Verbal Fluency: A Case Study of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Steven R.; Cagigas, Xavier E.

    1997-01-01

    The case study of an older woman with Alzheimer's disease shows that while her command of words and syntax had deteriorated, her ability to use other forms of communication had not. Her alternative forms of communication included use of gesture, facial expression, posture, and tone of voice. (MSE)

  13. A Study of Learner-Oriented Negative Emotion Compensation in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiwei; Zheng, Qinghua; Li, Haifei

    2014-01-01

    E-learning provides an unprecedented flexibility and convenience for e-learners by breaking the limitations of space and time. However, the role of emotion is neglected in current e-learning systems. We focus strictly on negative emotions of e-learners, integrating emotion regulation theories with recommender technique, and present the study of…

  14. DRDC Toronto Guidelines for Compensation of Subjects Participating in Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Defence, 2008 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2008 DRDC Toronto TM 2008-138...studies. Résumé …..... RDDC Toronto est le centre de recherche de l’Agence qui conseille, fournit les innovations et assure la gestion des données pour...des niveaux de stress supérieurs à ceux qu’ils vivraient au cours d’une journée normale et/ou de les encourager à donner de leur temps pour

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF ERROR COMPENSATION FOR OPTICAL SIGNAL COORDINATE DETERMINATION BY DOUBLE SYNTHESIZED APERTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Obolenskov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents theoretical and experimental analysis of dependence of the determination error of a modulated optical signal under intense background illumination on the value of mutual shift of two current-voltage characteristics if using a double synthesized aperture on multiscan position-sensitive detector. Method. The studies have been carried out on a specially designed setup, that allows scanning photosensitive area of multiscan position-sensitive detector by an optical beam that imitates intense solar illumination. At the same time the position error of determination of weak modulated optical signal coordinate is measured at different relative position of signal and background illumination, and background power. Main Results. Experimental studies have confirmed the theoretical conclusions. It is shown that the use of double synthesized aperture of multiscan position-sensitive detector with the voltage shift of the current-voltage characteristics equal to 0.4 V enables to reduce position determination error of a weak modulated signal by an order of magnitude. Practical Relevance. Research results have opened the opportunity of accuracy increase for position-sensitive systems operating under background illuminations exceeding the level of information optical signal.

  16. [Experimental study of post-labyrinthectomy compensation by means of the torsion pendulum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Díaz, L; Martinez-Mena, A; Davalos-Valenzuela, E; Ugalde-Martinez, S

    1976-01-01

    Recovery patterns after unilateral labyrinthectomy were studied using a torsion pendulum to produce angular accelerations in unanaesthetized, immovilized cats. The oculomotor activity before and during angular accelerations was recorded and cuantified in 10 post-labyrinthectomized cats during 26 days of recovery both with and without environmental fixation (eyes open or covered). The integrated nistagmus obtained with rotation in each direction was used as a measure of oculomotor activity, as well as an indicator of directional preponderance. It was found this indicator to be far more sensitive than the raw electronystagmic tracings to detect asymmetries in the oculomotor response. The integrated movement of the eyes without ambiental fixation (eyes covered) was consistently 40% of the pendulum's displacement; while having both eyes open, the ocular displacement was equal (100%) to that of the environment. These relations changed in a predictable and characteristic way after labyrinthectomy. Approximately between 5 and 12 days post-labyrinthectomy, the responses to stimulus in both directions become of very small magnitude, indicating a depression of the reflexes originating in the remaining normal labyrinth.

  17. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would r

  18. A case study of a team-based, quality-focused compensation model for primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Overton, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    In 2011, Fairview Health Services began replacing their fee-for-service compensation model for primary care providers (PCPs), which included an annual pay-for-performance bonus, with a team-based model designed to improve quality of care, patient experience, and (eventually) cost containment. In-depth interviews and an online survey of PCPs early after implementation of the new model suggest that it quickly changed the way many PCPs practiced. Most PCPs reported a shift in orientation toward quality of care, working more collaboratively with their colleagues and focusing on their full panel of patients. The majority reported that their quality of care had improved because of the model and that their colleagues' quality had to. The comprehensive change did, however, result in lower fee-for-service billing and reductions in PCP satisfaction. While Fairview's compensation model is still a work in progress, their early experiences can provide lessons for other delivery systems seeking to reform PCP compensation.

  19. Study on the System of Death for Compensation%死亡赔偿金制度问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文丽

    2015-01-01

    As an important means of relief in Tort Liability Act,the system of death for compensation plays an active role in the remedy for the right to life and protection of human rights.At present,China's system of death compensation faces several problems:calculation method of death compensation is miss-ing,unified standard is difficult to apply,and body of death compensation claims and the rule of mental damages are rough.Therefore,it should be clear that the nature of the death penalty,establishing a reasona-ble calculation standard of death compensation,and perfecting the body of claims of death compensation.%作为《侵权责任法》中一种重要的救济途径,死亡赔偿金制度在生命权救济和人权保障方面发挥着积极作用。目前,我国的死亡赔偿金制度面临死亡赔偿金计算方法缺失、统一死亡赔偿金标准难以适用、死亡赔偿金请求权主体和精神损害赔偿规则粗糙等问题。因此,应明确死亡赔偿金的性质,合理制定死亡赔偿金的计算标准,完善死亡赔偿金的请求权主体。

  20. Study on the 4×10 Gb/s, 400 km dispersion compensation by chirped optical fiber grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Pei(裴丽); Tigang Ning(宁提纲); Wei Jian(简伟); Tangjun Li(李唐军); Shuisheng Jian(简水生)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the dispersion compensation for 4×10 Gb/s, 400 km G.652 fiber by chirped optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is introduced. For the first time, we have measured and compensated the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) of FBG, which in each channel is less than 1.1 ps. When the bit error rate (BER) is 10-10 and the bit error is zero, the transmission power penalty of each channel is less than 2 dB, and the best result is negative which means that the receiver sensitivity is increased after transmission.

  1. Experimental Study on Time-Spread/Wavelength-Hop Optical Code Division Multiplexing with Dispersion-Compensating En/Decoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideaki; Tamai; Hideyuki; Iwamura; Naoki; Minato; Saeko; Oshiba

    2003-01-01

    10Gbit/s time-spread/wavelength-hop optical code generation and decoding are performed by dispersion-compensating fiber Bragg grating (FBG) en/decoder pair. Error-free 10km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission of 10Gbit/s optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) has been experimentally demonstrated.

  2. An Economic Analysis of Compensation for Rural Land Expropriation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To study which method is more effective in complete compensation and zero compensation for rural land expropriation,we use economic models to analyze whether the government is benevolent and which compensation method can achieve the social optimal level.The results show that both complete compensation and zero compensation will lead to over-investment of land owners,and consequently result in loss of social welfare.

  3. Expected damage to accelerator equipment due to the impact of the full LHC beam: beam instrumentation, experiments and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Burkart, Florian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the biggest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world, designed to collide two proton beams with particle momentum of 7 TeV/c each. The stored energy of 362MJ in each beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper or to evaporate about 300 liter of water. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can cause severe damage to accelerator equipment. Reliable machine protection systems are necessary to safely operate the accelerator complex. To design a machine protection system, it is essential to know the damage potential of the stored beam and the consequences in case of a failure. One (catastrophic) failure would be, if the entire beam is lost in the aperture due to a problem with the beam dumping system. This thesis presents the simulation studies, results of a benchmarking experiment, and detailed target investigation, for this failure case. In the experiment, solid copper cylinders were irradiated with the 440GeV proton beam delivered by the ...

  4. Chromosome X-wide association study identifies Loci for fasting insulin and height and evidence for incomplete dosage compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taru Tukiainen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The X chromosome (chrX represents one potential source for the "missing heritability" for complex phenotypes, which thus far has remained underanalyzed in genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Here we demonstrate the benefits of including chrX in GWAS by assessing the contribution of 404,862 chrX SNPs to levels of twelve commonly studied cardiometabolic and anthropometric traits in 19,697 Finnish and Swedish individuals with replication data on 5,032 additional Finns. By using a linear mixed model, we estimate that on average 2.6% of the additive genetic variance in these twelve traits is attributable to chrX, this being in proportion to the number of SNPs in the chromosome. In a chrX-wide association analysis, we identify three novel loci: two for height (rs182838724 near FGF16/ATRX/MAGT1, joint P-value = 2.71×10(-9, and rs1751138 near ITM2A, P-value = 3.03×10(-10 and one for fasting insulin (rs139163435 in Xq23, P-value = 5.18×10(-9. Further, we find that effect sizes for variants near ITM2A, a gene implicated in cartilage development, show evidence for a lack of dosage compensation. This observation is further supported by a sex-difference in ITM2A expression in whole blood (P-value = 0.00251, and is also in agreement with a previous report showing ITM2A escapes from X chromosome inactivation (XCI in the majority of women. Hence, our results show one of the first links between phenotypic variation in a population sample and an XCI-escaping locus and pinpoint ITM2A as a potential contributor to the sexual dimorphism in height. In conclusion, our study provides a clear motivation for including chrX in large-scale genetic studies of complex diseases and traits.

  5. Study on the Type Division of the Ecological Compensation and Pollution Compensation Basing on the Section of the Cross-Boundary River's Responsibliè Target Assessment%基于流域跨界责任目标考核断面的生态补偿与污染赔偿类型划分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁亦欣; 于鲁冀; 葛丽燕

    2012-01-01

    With the case study of the river basin ecological compensation and pollution compensation pilot in Henan Province, this paper discusses the present research situation and existence questions of the domestic river basin ecological compensation and pollution compensation's type classification. Through combining with river features and outstanding issues of Henan, it carries out technical methods study on watershed ecological compensation and pollution compensation classification which based on target value of the watershed responsibility assessment section and attaches importance to operability. The paper focuses on technical roadmap, classification principle and classification method of ecological compensation and pollution compensation type, furthermore, and takes Henan as an illustration to make study on watershed ecological compensation pollution compensation classification. At last, it turns out that watershed ecological compensation and pollution compensation classification which based on target value of the watershed responsibility assessment section is more operational and practical as well as dynamic in space and time when compared with watershed ecological compensation and pollution compensation classification which based on watershed scale and prominent environmental and development issues because it is more in-depth and detailed. This is not only beneficial for partition of the responsibility body and determination of compensation subject and object, but also link between policies of ecological compensation mechanism and current environmental protection responsibility target assessment system, what's more, it impels work of local governments and water pollution prevention and control.%以河南省流域生态补偿与污染赔偿试点研究为例,探讨了国内流域生态补偿与污染赔偿类型划分研究现状及存在问题,结合河南省流域特征和突出问题,以可操作性为着力点,开展了基于流域责任目标考核断面目标

  6. Rationalizing vaccine injury compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M

    2008-01-01

    Legislation recently adopted by the United States Congress provides producers of pandemic vaccines with near-total immunity from civil lawsuits without making individuals injured by those vaccines eligible for compensation through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. The unusual decision not to provide an alternative mechanism for compensation is indicative of a broader problem of inconsistency in the American approach to vaccine-injury compensation policy. Compensation policies have tended to reflect political pressures and economic considerations more than any cognizable set of principles. This article identifies a set of ethical principles bearing on the circumstances in which vaccine injuries should be compensated, both inside and outside public health emergencies. A series of possible bases for compensation rules, some grounded in utilitarianism and some nonconsequentialist, are discussed and evaluated. Principles of fairness and reasonableness are found to constitute the strongest bases. An ethically defensible compensation policy grounded in these principles would make a compensation fund available to all individuals with severe injuries and to individuals with less-severe injuries whenever the vaccination was required by law or professional duty.

  7. Preliminary clinical study of copper compensator in IMRT%铜补偿器IMRT技术的初步临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦远; 王培; 康盛伟; 吴凡; 黄娜; 李建; 黎杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the dosimetry for copper compensator in IMRT.Methods 10 patients (3 nasopharyngeal carcinoma,4 esophageal cancer,3 colorectal cancer) from IMRT plans made in Oncentra Planning System enrolled in this study.The fluence matrices of each plan were converted into compensator thickness matrices based on attenuation coefficient of copper under 6 MV radiation ray which was measured with ion chamber.While irradiating the homogenous phantom with the intensity modulated plans performed by copper compensator,film was used to measure the planar dose.In the end,γanalysis was carried out between the measured and calculated planar doses with the criteria of 3% DD/3 mm DTA.Paired t test to MU differences of MLC plans and copper compensator plans.Results The γanalysis results showed the planar dose pass rates of 10 plans lie between 90.2% and 98.2%,which means the IMRf technique based on copper compensator can meet the clinical needs.The MU for copper compensator IMRT plans is less than the MLC IMRT plans (873.9 vs.975.1,P =0.005).Conclusions Compared to conventional IMRT based on MLC,copper compensator has the advantage of lower requirement of hardware and lower scattering dose in patient.Copper compensator can meet the needs of clinical practice.%目的 初步评价铜补偿器IMRT技术的可行性和临床价值.方法 选取IMRT计划系统中10例肿瘤患者,其中鼻咽癌3例、食管癌4例、直肠癌3例.首先通过电离室测量6 MV射线在一组不同厚度铜板的衰减系数,拟合出厚度计算公式;然后将计划系统导出的计划文件转换为补偿器厚度矩阵,将其导入数控机床完成补偿器切割制作,最后在均匀体模上实施基于补偿器的IMRT计划.采用胶片测量平面剂量,与计划系统计算的平面剂量做3%/3 mm标准下的γ分析.配对t检验MLC计划和铜补偿器计划的机器跳数差异.结果 根据实际测量拟合出的公式准确计算出切割深度,利用计划

  8. Study on the Design Factors and Modes of Team Compensation Scheme%团队薪酬计划的设计要素与模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正堂; 王亚蓓; 刘宁

    2012-01-01

    团队薪酬计划是发挥团队功效的重要制度保障,但是,关于其设计要素和模式的理论研究还很薄弱。任务互依性是团队工作的基本属性,决定了团队的薪酬互依性,并形成了团队内一次分配和二次分配两个层次。团队薪酬计划的设计包括绩效测量、绩效目标、绩效薪酬敏感性等要素。本文总结归纳了常见的分配模式,一次分配包括基于绝对绩效标准的预算制薪酬计划和基于相对绩效标准的竞赛制薪酬计划两种方式,而二次分配包括平均分配法、绝对贡献分配法和相对贡献分配法三种方式。两个层次不同分配方式的结合,会形成多样的团队薪酬计划模式,每种薪酬计划都有其适用的不同情境。%Almost all organizations employ workgroups or teams. With the increasing emphasis on team-based work, team compensation scheme is an important institutional guarantee for the smooth operation of the team. Researchers have documented a growing interest in group-based compensation, or "pay systems in which group members pay is at least partially contingent on measurable group performance". Substantial field evidence exists for the relationship between group incentives andgroup performance. Empirical evidence at the individual level shows that incentives may influence performance, in part, through their influence on goal setting. Additionally, research has shown how organizational contextual variables such as monetary incentives and self-set goal level instructions influence goal valences. Others have studied processes that mediate the relationship between group goals and group performance. However, there is little theoretical study on the design factors and modes of team compensation scheme so far. Based on the pastcompensation theories and practices, this paper considers that the design factors and modes are theoretical premises of the empirical study on the effects of different team

  9. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own di

  10. Options in Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Frimor, Hans; Munk, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We derive the optimal compensation contract in a principal–agent setting in which outcome is used to provide incentives for both effort and risky investments. To motivate investment, optimal compensation entails rewards for high as well as low outcomes, and it is increasing at the mean outcome to...

  11. Photoluminescence study of the effect of strain compensation on InAs/AlAsSb quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhexin; Laghumavarapu, Ramesh B.; Simmonds, Paul J.; Ji, Haiming; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate stacked structures of InAs/AlAsSb/InP quantum dots using temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence. The band gap of InAs/AlAsSb QDs is 0.73 eV at room temperature, which is close to the ideal case for intermediate band solar cells. As the number of quantum dot layers is increased, the photoluminescence undergoes a blue-shift due to the effects of accumulated compressive strain. This PL red shift can be counteracted using thin layers of AlAs to compensate the strain. We also derive thermal activation energies for this exotic quantum dot system.

  12. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... are based on misconceptions and do not apply to compensation of present actual harm. Finally, two arguments are presented to the effect that, in so far as developed countries accept a major commitment to mitigate climate change, they should also accept a commitment to address or compensate actual harm from...... in the future, then there is also moral reason to address these harms if they materialize now. We argue that these principles are applicable to climate change, and that given the commitment of wealthy countries to a "common but differentiated responsibility," they lead to a commitment to address or compensate...

  13. Research on the Willingness to Accept Compensation and Compensation Sharing of Returning Land for Farming to Forestry in Zhangjiakou and Chengde Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the willingness to accept compensation and compensation sharing of returning land for farming to forestry in Zhangjiakou and Chengde region.[Method] Based on the investigation of farmers' willingness to accept ecological compensation in Zhangjiakou and Chengde region,farmers' willingness to accept compensation was quantized,and the calculation model of sharing rate of ecological compensation was established,finally the sharing rate of ecological compensation was calculated c...

  14. Studies of enthalpy-entropy compensation, partial entropies, and Kirkwood-Buff integrals for aqueous solutions of glycine, L-leucine, and glycylglycine at 298.15 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhe, Deepti N; Dagade, Dilip H; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Patil, Kesharsingh J

    2009-12-31

    Densities and osmotic coefficient measurements for dilute aqueous solutions of glycine, l-leucine, and glycylglycine have been reported at 298.15 K. The partial molar volumes and activity coefficients of solute as well as solvent have been estimated using the density and osmotic coefficient data, respectively. Excess and mixing thermodynamic properties, such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes, have been obtained using the activity data from this study and the heat data reported in the literature. The concentration enthalpy-entropy compensation effects have been observed for the studied systems, and the compensation temperatures are reported. It has been observed that the excess free energy change for all the studied systems is almost the same over the studied concentration range, showing that the differences in properties of such solutions are largely decided by the enthalpy-entropy effects. These results, along with partial entropy data, show the effects of the presence of hydrophobic interactions and water structure making effect in the case of aqueous solutions of l-leucine. The application of the Starikov-Norden enthalpy-entropy compensation model yielded information about a "hidden Carnot cycle" and the existence of multiple microphases. Application of the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions for the studied systems yields pair correlation functions between the components. The variation of Kirkwood-Buff integrals with concentration further signifies the concentration dependence of the hydrophobic hydration and interactions in the solution phase. The osmotic second virial coefficients have also been obtained using the KB theory and show good agreement with those obtained using the McMillan-Mayer theory of solutions. The mean square concentration fluctuations is estimated using the KB theory, which gives information about the microheterogeneity in the solution phase, which further reflects the presence of hydration and solute association.

  15. PRESSURE COMPENSATION METHOD OF UNDERWATER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM WITH HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT BEING UNDER ATMOSPHERIC CIRCUMSTANCE AND PRESSURE COMPENSATED VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qingfeng; Li Yanmin; Zhong Tianyu; Xu Guohua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the-state-of-the-art of pressure compensation of underwater hydraulic systems (UHSs), a new method of pressure compensation of UHSs, whose hydraulic power unit is in the atmospheric circumstance, is proposed. And a pilot-operated relief valve with pressure compensation is realized. The pressure compensation precision is guaranteed by direct detection. Its dynamic performance and stability are improved by a dynamic feedback. Theoretical study, simulation and experiment show that the pilot-operated relief valve with pressure compensation has a fine property of tracking underwater ambient pressure and meet the requirement of underwater ambient pressure compensation.

  16. 薪酬激励与管理者过度自信——基于薪酬行为观的研究%Executive Compensation and Managerial Overconfidence:Study from the Angle of Compensation-based Behavioral View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文芳; 汤四新

    2012-01-01

    行为是制度与绩效的中介,由于忽视了薪酬对参与者心理和行为的影响,传统代理理论框架下薪酬合约的激励效果是不明确的。文章实证检验了薪酬激励对管理者自信程度的作用。研究发现,薪酬(无论薪酬水平还是薪酬差距)是管理者自信程度的重要影响因素。与非国有上市公司相比,在国有上市公司中薪酬激励对管理者自信程度的正向促进作用更为显著;公司所在地市场化进程较高时,薪酬激励对管理者自信程度也具有更为显著的正向促进作用。%Behavior is the intermediary between institution and perform ance. Owing to a neglect of the effect of compensation on participants psy chology and behavior, the incentive effects of compensation contracts under traditional agency theory framework are ambiguous. This paper empirically studies the effect of executive compensation on managerial confidence. It shows that executive compensation, whether compensation level or compen sation gap between managers, is an important factor influencing managerial confidence. Compared with nonstateowned listed companies, executive compensation in stateowned listed companies has a more significantly posi tive effect on managerial confidence; higher degree of marketization in the company location leads to a more significantly positive effect of executive compensation on managerial confidence.

  17. A General Theoretical Model of Enthalpy-EntropyCompensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Lei; GUO, Qing-Xiang

    2001-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation remains a mystery in chemistry and biophysics.recent study suggested that the solventreorganization might constitute the physical orihin of the compensation, which was unforumstely not wisely applicable because compensation was also observeserved in solid phade reactions.In this study,a general theoretical model based upon strictmathematical deduction was presented,which indicated thatthe redistribution of the distinguishable subspecies might bethe physical origin of the enthalpy-intropy compensations in solvation and surface adsorption weue discussed.

  18. ECOLOGICAL COMPENSATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE ENVIRONMENT, DUE TO THE HEATING OF BUILDINGS CASE STUDY: ENERGY EFFICIENCY AT THE FACULTY OF SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicerone Marinescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find a green way to reduce the carbon dioxide released into the environment due to the heating system for buildings. The amount of carbon dioxide is 10500 kg per year for University of Pitesti. For compensation this is necessary to plant trees around the building of Faculty of Sciences. We studied about the advantages of Paulownia trees in terms of absorption of carbon dioxide and quick-growing speed. In the first three years they reach maturity and have a height of about 20 meters. Our researches estimate that a number of 40 Paulownia trees could eliminate this pollution.

  19. Comprehensive Monitor-Oriented Compensation Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Colombo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compensation programming is typically used in the programming of web service compositions whose correct implementation is crucial due to their handling of security-critical activities such as financial transactions. While traditional exception handling depends on the state of the system at the moment of failure, compensation programming is significantly more challenging and dynamic because it is dependent on the runtime execution flow — with the history of behaviour of the system at the moment of failure affecting how to apply compensation. To address this dynamic element, we propose the use of runtime monitors to facilitate compensation programming, with monitors enabling the modeller to be able to implicitly reason in terms of the runtime control flow, thus separating the concerns of system building and compensation modelling. Our approach is instantiated into an architecture and shown to be applicable to a case study.

  20. The Land Compensation Status Analysis and the Compensation Principle Study for Reservoir Immigrant Settlement Areas%水库移民安置区土地补偿现状与补偿原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈银蓉; 梅昀; 刘灵辉; 李进军

    2012-01-01

    With the change of rural land system, the land compensation of immigrant resettlement areas has significance to coordinate the interests balance between the relevant subjects in reservoir resettlement. Based on field investigation, this paper analyzes the present situation and problems of the land compensation of immigrant settlement areas. Then using land property rights theory and welfare economics theory, it illustrates the fundamental principle of land compensation in resettlement areas from the aspect of compensation reasons, scopes and principles. Finally it puts forward some policy suggestions, including improving the relevant laws and regulations, coordinating the stakeholders' relationship of hydropower engineering construction, balancing the benefits between benefited party and injured party, reflecting the farmland value and etc. The results indicate; ①The land compensation of immigrant resettlement areas doesn't reflect the protection of land rights in terms of the existing law and real received compensation. ②The collective and residents in resettlement should receive appropriate equity compensation. The compensation range involves both the transfer of land use right and change in the rights distribution of jointly owned land ownership. ③ As for the construction and improvement of land system, the compensation standard should be determined according to land resources in resettlement areas and the condition of transfer land, the collective and residents in flooded area and resettlement area should get the equal compensation, and the value of agricultural land should be achieved.%随着农村土地制度的变化,安置区土地补偿问题对于协调水库移民安置中各相关主体之间的利益平衡具有重要的意义.本文基于实地调查,首先分析了水库移民安置区土地补偿的现状和存在的问题;其次,运用土地产权理论和福利经济理论,从安置区土地补偿的原因、范围和补偿原则等方面

  1. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  2. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... are based on misconceptions and do not apply to compensation of present actual harm. Finally, two arguments are presented to the effect that, in so far as developed countries accept a major commitment to mitigate climate change, they should also accept a commitment to address or compensate actual harm from...... climate change. The first argument appeals to the principle that if it is an injustice to cause risk of incurring harm in the future, then it is also an injustice to cause a similar harm now. The second argument appeals to the principle that if there is moral reason to reduce the risk of specific harms...

  3. ACTS Rain Fade Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, Thom A.

    1996-01-01

    Performance status of the Adaptive Rain Fade Compensation includes: (1) The rain fade protocol is functional detecting fades, providing an additional 10 dB of margin and seamless transitions to and from coded operation; (2) The stabilization of the link margins and the optimization of rain fade decision thresholds has resulted in improved BER performance; (3) Characterization of the fade compensation algorithm is ongoing.

  4. Dosage compensation in birds

    OpenAIRE

    McQueen, H A; McBride, D; Miele, G; Bird, A.P.; Clinton, M

    2001-01-01

    The Z and W sex chromosomes of birds have evolved independently from the mammalian X and Y chromosomes [1]. Unlike mammals, female birds are heterogametic (ZW), while males are homogametic (ZZ). Therefore male birds, like female mammals, carry a double dose of sex-linked genes relative to the other sex. Other animals with nonhomologous sex chromosomes possess "dosage compensation" systems to equalize the expression of sex-linked genes. Dosage compensation occurs in animals as diverse as mamma...

  5. Method for Analysis of an Offshore Heave Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwi-Nam Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A heave compensation system consists of a drill string compensator (DSC and an active heave compensator (AHC cylinder, which together produce control force over an oil pressure system suitable for transmission of considerable power and compensating for heaving motion of the hull during drilling work. In this study, a heave compensator of an oil pressure system was simulated to draw a conclusion, which was verified by comparison with the result of a test conducted using an actual miniature model. The compensation rate was 95%, based on which the dynamic behaviors of an actual-size heave compensator were presumed. Furthermore, the speed of each cylinder and the acceleration of heave can be determined and used to fabricate an actual-size heave compensator.

  6. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy

  7. An fMRI Study of Nonverbally Gifted Reading Disabled Adults: Has Deficit Compensation Effected Gifted Potential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Gilger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience has advanced our understanding of the neurological basis of reading disability. Yet, no functional imaging work has been reported on the twice-exceptional dyslexic: individuals exhibiting both nonverbal-giftedness and reading disability (RD. We compared groups of reading-disabled (RD, nonverbally-gifted (G, nonverbally-gifted-RD (GRD, and control (C adults on validated word-rhyming and spatial visualization fMRI tasks, and standardized psychometric tests, to ascertain if the neurological functioning of GRD subjects was similar to that of typical RD or G subjects, or perhaps some unique RD subtype. Results demonstrate that GRD adults resemble non-gifted reading disabled (RD adults in performance on paper-and-pencil reading, math and spatial tests, and in patterns of functional activation during rhyming and spatial processing. Data are consistent with what may be a shared etiology of reading disability and giftedness in GRD individuals that yields a lifespan interaction with reading compensation effects, modifying how their adult brain processes text and spatial stimuli.

  8. An fMRI study of nonverbally gifted reading disabled adults: has deficit compensation effected gifted potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.; Talavage, Thomas M.; Olulade, Olumide A.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience has advanced our understanding of the neurological basis of reading disability (RD). Yet, no functional imaging work has been reported on the twice-exceptional dyslexic: individuals exhibiting both non-verbal-giftedness and RD. We compared groups of reading-disabled (RD), non-verbally-gifted (G), non-verbally-gifted-RD (GRD), and control (C) adults on validated word-rhyming and spatial visualization fMRI tasks, and standardized psychometric tests, to ascertain if the neurological functioning of GRD subjects was similar to that of typical RD or G subjects, or perhaps some unique RD subtype. Results demonstrate that GRD adults resemble non-gifted RD adults in performance on paper-and-pencil reading, math and spatial tests, and in patterns of functional activation during rhyming and spatial processing. Data are consistent with what may be a shared etiology of RD and giftedness in GRD individuals that yields a lifespan interaction with reading compensation effects, modifying how their adult brain processes text and spatial stimuli. PMID:24009572

  9. An fMRI study of nonverbally gifted reading disabled adults: has deficit compensation effected gifted potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W; Talavage, Thomas M; Olulade, Olumide A

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience has advanced our understanding of the neurological basis of reading disability (RD). Yet, no functional imaging work has been reported on the twice-exceptional dyslexic: individuals exhibiting both non-verbal-giftedness and RD. We compared groups of reading-disabled (RD), non-verbally-gifted (G), non-verbally-gifted-RD (GRD), and control (C) adults on validated word-rhyming and spatial visualization fMRI tasks, and standardized psychometric tests, to ascertain if the neurological functioning of GRD subjects was similar to that of typical RD or G subjects, or perhaps some unique RD subtype. Results demonstrate that GRD adults resemble non-gifted RD adults in performance on paper-and-pencil reading, math and spatial tests, and in patterns of functional activation during rhyming and spatial processing. Data are consistent with what may be a shared etiology of RD and giftedness in GRD individuals that yields a lifespan interaction with reading compensation effects, modifying how their adult brain processes text and spatial stimuli.

  10. Epigenetic Variation May Compensate for Decreased Genetic Variation with Introductions: A Case Study Using House Sparrows (Passer domesticus on Two Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W. Schrey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms impact several phenotypic traits and may be important for ecology and evolution. The introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus exhibits extensive phenotypic variation among and within populations. We screened methylation in populations from Kenya and Florida to determine if methylation varied among populations, varied with introduction history (Kenyan invasion <50 years old, Florida invasion ~150 years old, and could potentially compensate for decrease genetic variation with introductions. While recent literature has speculated on the importance of epigenetic effects for biological invasions, this is the first such study among wild vertebrates. Methylation was more frequent in Nairobi, and outlier loci suggest that populations may be differentiated. Methylation diversity was similar between populations, in spite of known lower genetic diversity in Nairobi, which suggests that epigenetic variation may compensate for decreased genetic diversity as a source of phenotypic variation during introduction. Our results suggest that methylation differences may be common among house sparrows, but research is needed to discern whether methylation impacts phenotypic variation.

  11. Executive Compensation: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bognanno, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Chief executive officer (CEO) compensation is defined as the sum of base pay, bonuses, stock grants, stock options, other forms of compensation and benefits. Inflation?adjusted, median total CEO compensation in the United States almost tripled between 1992 and 2000, with grants of stock options evolving to be the largest component of compensation. This article presents the arguments for and against this level and composition of CEO compensation.

  12. Compensation for occupational diseases in the RSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J E; Garisch, D; Cornell, J E

    1987-03-01

    Compensation legislation for occupational disease in the RSA is at present complex and non-uniform, and the administrative bodies that process compensation claims are understaffed. In this setting occupational disease, particularly in migrant workers who are often ignorant of their rights under the law, frequently goes uncompensated. General practitioners and medical officers need to be aware of the basic provisions in the law, and how to submit claims in the best interests of their patients. Some case studies are included to illustrate problematic areas. The responsibilities of doctors in the diagnosis and compensation of occupational diseases are addressed.

  13. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Control of Hyperthermia Using Real Time Ultrasonic Thermal Strain Imaging with Motion Compensation, Phantom Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josquin Foiret

    Full Text Available Mild hyperthermia has been successfully employed to induce reversible physiological changes that can directly treat cancer and enhance local drug delivery. In this approach, temperature monitoring is essential to avoid undesirable biological effects that result from thermal damage. For thermal therapies, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has been employed to control real-time Focused Ultrasound (FUS therapies. However, combined ultrasound imaging and therapy systems offer the benefits of simple, low-cost devices that can be broadly applied. To facilitate such technology, ultrasound thermometry has potential to reliably monitor temperature. Control of mild hyperthermia was previously achieved using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller based on thermocouple measurements. Despite accurate temporal control of heating, this method is limited by the single position at which the temperature is measured. Ultrasound thermometry techniques based on exploiting the thermal dependence of acoustic parameters (such as longitudinal velocity can be extended to create thermal maps and allow an accurate monitoring of temperature with good spatial resolution. However, in vivo applications of this technique have not been fully developed due to the high sensitivity to tissue motion. Here, we propose a motion compensation method based on the acquisition of multiple reference frames prior to treatment. The technique was tested in the presence of 2-D and 3-D physiological-scale motion and was found to provide effective real-time temperature monitoring. PID control of mild hyperthermia in presence of motion was then tested with ultrasound thermometry as feedback and temperature was maintained within 0.3°C of the requested value.

  15. The basic study of a bi-material range compensator for improving dose uniformity for proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yoshihisa; Himukai, Takeshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Terashita, Yohsuke; Kamimura, Satoshi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Hotta, Kenji; Kohno, Ryosuke; Komori, Masataka; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2008-10-01

    A range compensator (abbreviated as a RC hereafter) is used to form a conformal dose distribution for heavy-charged-particle therapy. However, it induces distortion of the dose distribution. The induced inhomogeneity may result in a calibration error of a monitor unit (MU) assigned to a transmission ionization chamber. By using a bi-material RC made from a low-Z material and a high-Z material instead of the regular RC, the dose inhomogeneity has been obviously reduced by equalizing the lateral dose distributions formed by pencil beams traversing elements of the RC with different base thicknesses at the same water-equivalent depth. We designed and manufactured a 4 x 4 matrix-shaped single-material RC and a bi-material RC with the same range losses at corresponding elements of the RCs. The bi-material RC is made from chemical wood (the main chemical component is an ABS resin) as a low-Z material and from brass as a high-Z material. Sixteen segments of the RC are designed so that the range-loss differences of the adjacent segments of the RC range from 0 to 50 mm in steps of 5 mm. We measured dose distributions in water formed by a 160 MeV proton beam traversing the single-material RC or the bi-material RC, using the HIMAC biology beam port. Large dips and bumps were observed in the dose distribution formed by the use of the single-material RC; the dose uniformity has been significantly improved in the target region by the use of the bi-material RC. The improvement has been obtained at the expense of blurring lateral penumbra. For clinical application of this method to a patient with large density inhomogeneity, a simple modification method of the original calculation model has been given.

  16. Power factor compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barra R, Felipe [Schneider Electric Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    Every company is looking for ways to increase productivity as a way to gain a competitive advantage. Energy is a significant element in making any product and so it is important to assess production processes from an energy perspective. This paper discusses the impact of power factor compensation on energy efficiency. The life cycle solution for energy efficiency involves optimization of active energy using automation and regulation. A brief explanation is given of how each component of a company plays a part in this cycle. Examples include simulations and analysis, modeling, performance monitoring facilities, and environmental sustainability. Reactive energy suppliers and the installation of capacitors are also explained. Types of compensation include fixed and automation compensations. Economic advantages include a reduction in the electricity bill and active energy consumption. Technical advantages include reduction in voltage drop and an increase in available power. The power correction factor also improves reliability and contributes to conservation of the environment.

  17. Compensation neurosis rides again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A

    1992-01-01

    Compensation neurosis (CN), also known as accident neurosis, has generally not been considered to be a 'real' disorder. In 1961 it was seemingly laid to rest by Henry Miller, a distinguished neurologist, in a sharp article which appeared in the British Medical Journal. Miller's view of patients who presented psychological symptoms following accidents or traumas was suspicious. Compensated or not, his view seemed to be that they should have their legal process finished as quickly as possible and then they will miraculously convalescence. Miller's work, it appeared, was the coup de grâce for this ill-defined diagnosis. Today, however, compensation neurosis seems to ride again. After a prolonged silence in the psychiatric literature, new papers are emerging, strongly suggesting that this vanishing diagnosis be reconsidered. This new trend will be presented.

  18. 黑河流域生态补偿长效机制研究%Study on High-Effective Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Heihe River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳; 赵仕沛; 王新功; 韩艳利; 葛雷

    2014-01-01

    Based on the present situation and problems of ecological compensation in the Heihe River basin,a long and high effective ecological compensation mechanism was put forward,which included the pluralistic ecological compensation main bodies and objects,different compensation standards and compensation ways,and the compensation policy systems,etc. The research indicates that the ecological compensation main bodies should be converted from single government to be pluralistic,and ecological compensation ways should be converted from single fund compensation to industry compensation,technique compensation and professional people compensation,and compensation standards should be different in differ-ent areas and different periods. Besides,the role of marketing in ecological compensation mechanism should be fully played in order to improve the effective of ecological compensation.%分析黑河流域生态补偿的现状及存在问题,结合目前流域实际,提出建立黑河流域生态补偿长效机制,包括确定黑河流域生态补偿主体、客体、标准、方式及建立生态补偿政策体系。研究认为:黑河流域生态补偿主体应由国家补偿逐步过渡到国家、流域、社会共同补偿;补偿方式应逐步多元化,由资金补偿过渡到产业补偿、技术补偿与人才补偿等多元化补偿,充分发挥市场补偿的作用,提高补偿效率;补偿标准应在科学计算的基础上充分协商,因地制宜。

  19. Executive compensation and firm performance: Evidence from Indian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Raithatha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between executive compensation and firm performance among Indian firms. The evidence suggests that firm performance measured by accounting, as well as market-based measures, significantly affects executive compensation. We also test for the presence of persistence in executive compensation by employing the system-generalised methods of moments (GMM estimator. We find significant persistence in executive compensation among the sample firms. Further, we report the absence of pay–performance relationship among the smaller sample firms and business group affiliated firms. Thus, our findings cast doubts over the performance-based executive compensation practices of Indian business group affiliated firms.

  20. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  1. Spin compensation temperature in the Monte Carlo study of a mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on the decorated triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.

    2016-07-01

    Mixed-spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising model on the decorated triangular lattice is studied by the use of Monte Carlo simulation. Within this approach, the results for the ground-state of the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic of decorated triangular lattice are obtained. The reduced transition temperature of each sublattice are obtained. The reduced temperature of compensation is also obtained. The thermal total ratio of magnetic susceptibilities of sublattices is given. The effect of crystal field and exchange interactions on the magnetization of the system are detailed. The magnetic hysteresis cycles are found for different values of exchanges interactions between the same lattice and the two sublattices different, for different crystal filed and temperatures. In addition, very weak exchange interactions and for a higher temperatures and a higher crystal filed values the decorated triangular lattice has been exhibited the superparamagnetic behavior.

  2. A study of benefits compensation mechanism for agricultural water rights trading under the restriction of ecological reconstruction: case study of Shiyang River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural water allocation system based on priority rights has caused regional conJtiets and downstream ecological degradation.It is the urgent need to introduce the concept of the initial water rights and establish benefits compensation mechanism to resolve such problems.This paper takes the Shivang River basin as an example to calculate the opportunity cost of 0.97×108m3 of agricultural water encroached by the middle reach based on initial water right allocation system under which water is allocated in accordance with the ratio between agricultural population of two different regions concerning the downstream ecological reconstruction needs with Bio-economic model (BEM).The results suggest that the total economic loss of Minqin County for ecological econstruction amounts to 2.57×108 yuan,of which 1.68×108 yuan is ecological compensation,representing the economic loss Minqin suffered for ecological reconstruction which should burden beneficial groups of eeological reconstruction and 0.89×108 yuan is the economic loss Minqin suffered due to Liangzhou's encroachment behavior which should be compensated by Liangzhou.

  3. Development and Experimental Study on the 180 t Floating Platform Heave Compensator%180 t浮式平台升沉补偿装置开发与试验研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定亚; 南树歧; 张强; 王璐

    2016-01-01

    针对国外海洋升沉补偿装置价格昂贵的问题,开发了180 t浮式平台升沉补偿装置。该装置采用被动补偿和主动补偿联合控制模式,具有电反馈泵阀控制、并联增距半主动补偿、活塞运动等速设计以及跟随模拟信号测试等关键创新技术。对180 t浮式平台升沉补偿装置进行了静载和动载试验。试验结果表明,180 t浮式平台升沉补偿装置满足静载和动载工作要求,补偿精度达到80%以上。最后提出应进一步完成180 t浮式平台升沉补偿装置的工业性试验、加强安全阀国产化配套研究和继续开展补偿控制方式及补偿精度研究等3点建议。该装置的成功开发对海洋浮式钻井平台钻井系统的安全运行具有一定的参考作用。%Due to the high cost issue of foreign marine heave compensator, a 180 t floating platform heave compensator device has been developed. The device uses joint control mode integrating passive and active compen-sation, with key innovations like electrical feedback for pump valve control, double stroke for semi-active compen-sation, uniform-velocity piston design and follow-up analog signal testing. Through test technique study, static and dynamic load tests for the heave compensator was determined. The results showed that the heave compensator has met the static and dynamic load requirements with the compensation accuracy of above 80%. Finally, three sugges-tions have been proposed that further industrial test should be conducted, study on safety valve domestication should be strengthened and compensation control pattern and compensation accuracy studies should be continued.

  4. A compensation index for multiattribute decision strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koele, P; Westenberg, M R

    1995-09-01

    In multiattribute decision problems, the subject has to evaluate a number of alternatives with given values on a number of attributes, in order to arrive at some conclusion about the attractiveness or utility of these alternatives. The information processing procedure leading to a conclusion is called adecision strategy, and one of the main research topics in multiattribute decision research has been the extent to which these strategies follow compensatory principles. Judges are said to follow compensatory strategies when low values on some attributes are compensated for by high values on other attributes. In process tracing studies using the information board technique, descriptions of decision strategies are usually based on three indices of the information search process:variability of search,search pattern (Payne, 1976), anddepth of search. Variability of search, defined as the standard deviation of the proportion of information searched per alternative, is considered to give an indication of the degree of compensation of a decision strategy, compensation being smaller as variability increases. In this article, we propose an alternative way for establishing the degree of compensation of decision strategies in information board studies. We argue that the degree of compensation depends on both variability of searchand depth of search (the proportion of information searched), and that a valid compensation index has to be a multiplicative function of these two indices.

  5. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  6. Overseas Studies of Efficiency of Ecological Compensation:A Review%国外生态补偿效率研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程臻宇; 刘春宏

    2015-01-01

    目前国外学者对生态补偿效率问题的研究,涵盖了生态补偿效率标准、生态补偿效率的测度方法、有效的生态补偿工具选择与政策设计等多个方面。成本有效性和预算效率都是衡量生态补偿效率的有效标准;基于有效时空分配和预算效率、额外性以及生态补偿基线的测度方法是几种比较成形的效率测度方法;生态补偿政策工具的选择对生态补偿效率影响显著,同质性生态补偿工具通常比聚集式生态补偿工具低效;有效生态补偿政策的设计原则对于我国刚刚开展的生态补偿效率研究和实践具有现实启示意义。%Current overseas research on ecological compensation efficiency covers many aspects such as benchmark of ecological com-pensation efficiency,methods of measuring ecological compensation efficiency,effective and efficient choices and design of ecological compensation policy tools.Both cost effectiveness and budget efficiency are the crucial benchmarks on judging efficiency of ecological compensation.As for the measuring methods of ecological compensation efficiency,this article introduces some matured ones including efficient spatio -temporal allocation,budget efficiency,additionality and ecological compensation baseline.Ecological compensation effi-ciency is remarkably affected by different choices of ecological compensation policy tools,and homogeneous compensation policy tools are generally less efficient than agglomerative ones.Efficient design principles of effective ecological compensation policy may enlighten the domestic ecological compensation efficiency research and practice.

  7. The Research on the Regulation to the Compensated Utilization of the Resource Assets in Telecommunication Service Industry: Wireless Frequency as a Study Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This Paper focuses on the compensated utilization of resource assets such as wireless frequency. It supplies the methods of estimating value of resource assets based on the analysis of its characteristics. It also analyzes the compensated policy-making and its affects on the Telecommunication Service Providers (TSP) performance gained by using resource assets. The results of the research indicate that the compensated utilization will promote the TSP to improve their economic efficiency, and aid to build a fairer competitive environment in Telecommunication Service Industry (TSI) in China.

  8. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  9. Neuronal correlates of ADHD in adults with evidence for compensation strategies – a functional MRI study with a Go/No-Go paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Response inhibition impairment is one of the most characteristic symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Thus functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a Go/No-Go task seems to be an ideal tool for examining neuronal correlates of inhibitory control deficits in ADHD. Prior studies have shown frontostriatal abnormalities in children and adolescents. The aim of our study was to investigate whether adults with ADHD would still show abnormal brain activation in prefrontal brain regions during motor response inhibition tasks. Methods: fMRI was used to compare brain activation in 15 untreated adult patients with ADHD and 15 healthy reference volunteers during performance of a Go/No-Go task. Results: In contrast to various other studies with children and adolescents with ADHD, we found no significant difference in the activity of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC or other frontostriatal structures between ADHD and healthy adults. Significantly enhanced activity was found in the parietal cortex, which is known to play an important role in building up attention. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the enhanced activity is due to the ability of adult ADHD patients to compensate their deficits for a short time, which is demonstrated in our study by equal task performance in both groups.

  10. Enhanced job performance: a new role for military compensation

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This study concentrates on aspects of military and civilian compensation that motivate employees and provide incentives upon which job performance and productivity may depend. The study achieves its end by applying successful attributes of civilian compensation to military remuneration systems. Its main purpose is to judge whether military pay is structured toward a modern view of performance-based compensation and whether it is comparable to civilian pay. At issue is a military pay system th...

  11. Compensating for non-response in a study estimating the incidence of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence by a two-phased design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    at 48% by a two-phase design and weighted logistic regression. The total non-response rate was 53.6%. This motivated the present study to compensate for non-response by applying adjustment of the weights and by multiple imputation of missing data in the estimation of the frequencies of mental disorders....... METHODS: The study took place in a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants. During one year, all 2,414 incident individuals on LSA were identified. By a two-phase design 1,121 individuals were screened in Phase 1. In Phase 2, which was a subsample of Phase 1, 337 individuals participated in a psychiatric...... diagnostic examination applying Present State Examination as gold standard. The weighted analyses were based on scores of the screening instrument SCL-8AD compiled of SCL-8, SCL-ANX4, and SCL-DEP6 from the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire. In the present study, the variables sex, age...

  12. Ultrasound guided fluorescence molecular tomography with improved quantification by an attenuation compensated born-normalization and in vivo preclinical study of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baoqiang; Berti, Romain; Abran, Maxime; Lesage, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.lesage@polymtl.ca [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec H1T 1C8 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Ultrasound imaging, having the advantages of low-cost and non-invasiveness over MRI and X-ray CT, was reported by several studies as an adequate complement to fluorescence molecular tomography with the perspective of improving localization and quantification of fluorescent molecular targets in vivo. Based on the previous work, an improved dual-modality Fluorescence-Ultrasound imaging system was developed and then validated in imaging study with preclinical tumor model. Ultrasound imaging and a profilometer were used to obtain the anatomical prior information and 3D surface, separately, to precisely extract the tissue boundary on both sides of sample in order to achieve improved fluorescence reconstruction. Furthermore, a pattern-based fluorescence reconstruction on the detection side was incorporated to enable dimensional reduction of the dataset while keeping the useful information for reconstruction. Due to its putative role in the current imaging geometry and the chosen reconstruction technique, we developed an attenuation compensated Born-normalization method to reduce the attenuation effects and cancel off experimental factors when collecting quantitative fluorescence datasets over large area. Results of both simulation and phantom study demonstrated that fluorescent targets could be recovered accurately and quantitatively using this reconstruction mechanism. Finally, in vivo experiment confirms that the imaging system associated with the proposed image reconstruction approach was able to extract both functional and anatomical information, thereby improving quantification and localization of molecular targets.

  13. Neurovestibular Compensation following Ototoxic Lesion and Labyrinthectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanshenas, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Unilateral labyrinthectomy and intra-tympanic gentamycin have been employed in the treatment of Ménière's disease, but the efficacy of these techniques has not been well established. Objective The objective of this study is to measure the time course of recovery from a unilateral labyrinthectomy either after ipsilateral topical treatment with gentamicin to the inner ear or without the previous insult. Methods Twenty-nine adult Mongolian gerbils were randomized into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 17 received a right ear gentamicin drug-induced lesion by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL. Group 2 (n = 12 only received a right unilateral labyrinthectomy lesion. We measured the horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses in gerbils before and after the lesion. The gerbils received an angular acceleration stimulus and their eye movements were recorded. Results The gentamicin lesion resulted in a quicker recovery. Experimental groups underwent a similar time course of recovery. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Both groups displayed adaptation to the lesion by day 21, but long-term compensation did not completely revert to the original pre-lesion state. Conclusions In a lesion requiring both static and dynamic compensation as in UL, the need for a static compensation may alter pre-existing compensation from a previous dynamic insult and require a new compensation. A previous lesion and adaptation is not preserved for a second lesion and the subject has to re-compensate. Therefore, surgical treatment in Meniere's disease such as UL can be considered without prior gentamicin treatment. Static and dynamic compensations do not appear to be as independent as previous studies have suggested.

  14. Thermodynamic studies of aqueous solutions of 2,2,2-cryptand at 298.15 K: enthalpy-entropy compensation, partial entropies, and complexation with K+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Vasim R; Terdale, Santosh S; Ahamad, Abdul; Gupta, Gaurav R; Dagade, Dilip H; Hundiwale, Dilip G; Patil, Kesharsingh J

    2013-12-19

    The osmotic coefficient measurements for binary aqueous solutions of 2,2,2-cryptand (4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8.8.8] hexacosane) in the concentration range of ~0.009 to ~0.24 mol·kg(-1) and in ternary aqueous solutions containing a fixed concentration of 2,2,2-cryptand of ~0.1 mol·kg(-1) with varying concentration of KBr (~0.06 to ~0.16 mol·kg(-1)) have been reported at 298.15 K. The diamine gets hydrolyzed in aqueous solutions and needs proper approach to obtain meaningful thermodynamic properties. The measured osmotic coefficient values are corrected for hydrolysis and are used to determine the solvent activity and mean ionic activity coefficients of solute as a function of concentration. Strong ion-pair formation is observed, and the ion-pair dissociation constant for the species [CrptH](+)[OH(-)] is reported. The excess and mixing thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes) have been obtained using the activity data from this study and the heat data reported in the literature. Further, the data are utilized to compute the partial molal entropies of solvent and solute at finite as well as infinite dilution of 2,2,2-cryptand in water. The concentration dependent non-linear enthalpy-entropy compensation effect has been observed for the studied system, and the compensation temperature along with entropic parameter are reported. Using solute activity coefficient data in ternary solutions, the transfer Gibbs free energies for transfer of the cryptand from water to aqueous KBr as well as transfer of KBr from water to aqueous cryptand were obtained and utilized to obtain the salting constant (ks) and thermodynamic equilibrium constant (log K) values for the complex (2,2,2-cryptand:K(+)) at 298.15 K. The value of log K = 5.8 ± 0.1 obtained in this work is found to be in good agreement with that reported by Lehn and Sauvage. The standard molar entropy for complexation is also estimated for the 2,2,2-cryptand

  15. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  16. The buffering effect of selection, optimization, and compensation strategy use on the relationship between problem solving demands and occupational well-being: a daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Antje; Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated within-person relationships between daily problem solving demands, selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategy use, job satisfaction, and fatigue at work. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that high SOC strategy use boosts the positive relationship between problem solving demands and job satisfaction, and buffers the positive relationship between problem solving demands and fatigue. Using a daily diary study design, data were collected from 64 administrative employees who completed a general questionnaire and two daily online questionnaires over four work days. Multilevel analyses showed that problem solving demands were positively related to fatigue, but unrelated to job satisfaction. SOC strategy use was positively related to job satisfaction, but unrelated to fatigue. A buffering effect of high SOC strategy use on the demands-fatigue relationship was found, but no booster effect on the demands-satisfaction relationship. The results suggest that high SOC strategy use is a resource that protects employees from the negative effects of high problem solving demands.

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Reading Comprehension Achievement from Grades 3 to 10: Investigating Models of Stability, Cumulative Growth, and Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska-White, Bozena; Kirby, John R.; Lee, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 78 Canadian English-speaking students examined the applicability of the stability, cumulative, and compensatory models in reading comprehension development. Archival government-mandated assessments of reading comprehension at Grades 3, 6, and 10, and the Canadian Test of Basic Skills measure of reading comprehension…

  18. Electronic compensation technique to deliver a total body dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakeman, Tara E.

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been conventionally used to compensate for the varying thickness throughout the body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two pair of parallel opposed fields. One pair of large fields is used to encompass the majority of the patient's anatomy. The other pair are very small open fields focused only on the thin bottom portion of the patient's anatomy, which requires much less radiation than the rest of the body to reach 100% of the prescribed dose. A desirable fluence pattern was manually painted within each of the larger fields for each patient to provide a more uniform distribution. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In the electronically compensated plans, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the conventionally-compensated plans by an average of 15%, indicating a more uniform dose. The mean body doses calculated from the electronically compensated DVH remained comparable to that of the conventionally-compensated plans, indicating an accurate delivery of the prescription dose using electronic compensation. All calculated monitor units were within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not increase the beam on time beyond clinically acceptable limits while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup

  19. Studies on Establishing the Compensation Mechanism of Mineral Exploitation%对建立矿产资源开发生态补偿机制的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝庆; 孟旭光

    2012-01-01

    建立矿产资源开发生态补偿机制是完善生态补偿机制的一个重要方面.文章介绍了我国矿产资源开发生态补偿的基本情况、取得的主要成效和存在的主要问题.在此基础上,提出了完善矿产资源生态补偿机制的6条建议:梳理相关政策法规,稳妥推进矿产资源开发生态补偿;明细执法主体,规范补偿费收取办法;加大中央财政转移支付,拓宽矿山环境治理资金渠道;实施差别化政策,对新老矿区采取不同的补偿政策;明确法律责任,重视发挥地方政府和市场的作用;注重公众参与,保障特殊群体的利益.研究成果对完善我国矿产资源开发生态补偿机制和推进生态立法提供了重要支撑.%It is an important aspect of ecology compensation mechanism compensation that establishing ecology compensation mechanism of mineral resources exploitation. This article introduces basic situation, achievement and the existing problems of China's mineral resources exploitation ecology compensation mechanism. And in this foundation, it puts forward six proposals to perfect mineral resources ecology compensation mechanism. Firstly, combing the related policy laws and regulations and advance the mineral resources exploitation ecology compensation mechanism reliably; secondly, definituding the subject of enforcement and standardize compensation charge method; thirdly, increasing the central finance transfer payments and broaden the fund channels of mine environment treatment; fourthly, carrying out variant policies and adopt different compensation policy to the new and old mining areas; fifthly, clearing-cut the legal liability and attach importance to the effect of local government and market; finally, paying attention to the public participation and protect the benefit of special group. The research results provide an important support to consummate our country mineral resource exploitation ecology compensation mechanism and the

  20. 滑枕热变形精度补偿技术的研究与应用%Study and application on accuracy compensation of ram thermal deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全宝; 武记超; 罗永俊; 张高峰

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the cause of ram thermal deformation was analysed, and the method for controlling and reducing the thermal deformation was introduced. Through designing the thermal deformation measurement device, and by combining the experiments research with practical study, the thermal deformation of floor type boring and milling machine' s ram was measured by Holzer type displacement sensor. Then, the ram thermal deformation was compensated by SIMATIC function module of Siemens 840 D. The ram thermal deformation error was reduced, and the work accuracy of the machine tool was enhanced.%分析了滑枕热变形的起因,介绍了控制和减小热变形的方法,然后通过设计热变形测量装置,采用实验研究和实践相结合的方法,用霍尔式位移传感器测量落地铣镗床滑枕热变形伸长量,通过西门子840D数控系统SIMATIC功能对机床滑枕热位移进行了补偿,减小了滑枕热变形误差,提高了机床的工作精度.

  1. The "aid contract" and its compensation scheme: a case study of the performance of the Ugandan health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Cruz, Valeria; McPake, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Current literature on aid effectiveness describes increasing use of a more contractual approach to the relationship between donor and recipient government in which a system of rewards and penalties for good and bad performance operates. The purpose of this case study of the Ugandan health sector was to understand the extent to which this approach is influencing processes and effectiveness. This qualitative study used a conceptual framework based on agency theory and 'realistic evaluation'. Our results showed that the main official mechanism to assess and reward performance established through the Sector Wide Approach lacked objective criteria and was based on an unstructured system of discussions and agreements among donors. The achievement of a satisfactory performance rating was facilitated by the agreeing to undertakings that were under-demanding, vaguely formulated and lacking quantitative benchmarks against which progress could be measured. However, even when poor performance was readily observable, penalties failed to be applied by donors. This was always the case in relation to health sector performance and mostly so in relation to general governance and accountability. Funds continued to be disbursed despite the lack of progress made in achieving targets and undertakings and other evident performance problems (e.g. in the area of governance). A series of explanations of the failure to penalise were put forward by donor representatives in relation to this behaviour including the need to maintain long-term relationships based on trust and not to undermine health sector performance by withdrawing aid. Thus there are likely to be incentives to disburse funds and report success, irrespective of the realities of aid programmes in the context of large foreign aid volumes associated with increased political visibility of aid in donor countries.

  2. 新疆煤炭开发生态补偿机制研究%Study on Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Development of Coal Resource in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩茜

    2011-01-01

    文章在分析新疆现行的煤炭资源补偿机制及其补偿作用的基础上,调查分析了新疆建立煤炭资源生态补偿机制的基础和条件,提出从补偿对象、补偿主体、补偿模式、补偿数额量化以及补偿费使用5个基本方面构建煤炭生态补偿机制,并提出适合新疆实际的对策建议。%Based on the analysis of current compensation mechanism and effect for coal resource in Xin- jiang, analyze the basis and conditions of establishing ecological compensation mechanism for coal re- source, build the compensation mechanism from five basic aspects, including the object, the subject and the model of compensation, the amount and the using of compensation fee, and propose practical policies and proposals for Xinjiang.

  3. Analysis of car-following model with cascade compensation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Cascade compensation mechanism was designed to improve the dynamical performance of traffic flow system. Two compensation methods were used to study unit step response in time domain and frequency characteristics with different parameters. The overshoot and phase margins are proportional to the compensation parameter in an underdamped condition. Through the comparison we choose the phase-lead compensation method as the main strategy in suppressing the traffic jam. The simulations were conducted under two boundary conditions to verify the validity of the compensator. The conclusion can be drawn that the stability of the system is strengthened with increased phase-lead compensation parameter. Moreover, the numerical simulation results are in good agreement with analytical results.

  4. Real-Time Compensation of Chatter Vibration in Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The chatter vibration stands for a sudden relative vibration appeared between a material and a tool while processing with a machine. This vibration is a factor that seriously affects the quality of processed materials as well as being a factor which causes serious damages to the tool and the machine. This study is related to the detection and compensation of chatter vibration that can compensate chatter vibration faster and produce processed goods with more precision by autonomous compensation. The above-mentioned chatter vibration compensator includes the chatter vibration sensor and the chatter compensator that estimates the compensation value according to the sensor detecting the chatter vibration of machine tool and the chatter vibration detected from the sensor while having a feature of being organized by interlocking with the machine tool controller.

  5. [Dosage compensation mechanism of X chromosome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Yun; Chen, Mei; Li, Bin

    2012-08-01

    Dosage compensation mechanism is crucial for the balance expression of X chromosome genes, which ensures the protein or enzyme encoded by the X chromosome to be equal or almost equal expression amounts between males and females. However, different organisms have evolved distinct dosage compensation strategies, and so far three kinds of dosage compensation strategies among organisms have been reported. The first strategy is that the single male X chromosome expression is doubly activated; the second one is to inactivate one female X chromosome by leaving both sexes with one active allele; and the third one is to reduce the expression to half activity in both X chromosomes of the female. The study of dosage compensation will be useful to reveal the mechanism of regulation of X-linked genes as well as the evolution and the differentiation progress of the sex chromosome, and it can also contribute to illustrate mutation and distortion of sex chromosome. Therefore, this paper briefly reviewed and discussed the progresses and prospects of the important mechanism of dosage compensation.

  6. Managerial Stock Compensation and Risky Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana Nastasescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the mix of CEO equity-based compensation, namely stock options and restricted stock, and firms' risky investment. In general, the theory suggests that long-term compensation aligns CEOs' and shareholders' interests by inducing the managers to undertake risky investment, which has a positive impact on longterm well-being of the firm. However, as my results show, it is important to distinguish between types of awards since they can have different effects on the riskiness of the firm. In this respect, I answer the question how are different types of stock based compensation related to the executives' determination to increase or not the intensity of the firm's risky investment? I find that awarding the CEOs preponderantly with stock options positively affects the firm's level of R&D investment. Conversely, a higher proportion of restricted stock in the CEO's compensation is related to lower investment in (risky R&D. The inverse relation of causality also holds. Firms that make intensive R&D investments are more likely to award their CEOs with more stock options relative to restricted stock. Overall, the results are consistent with the theoretical prediction, in that the managerial compensation scheme plays an important role in determining the level of R&D investment.

  7. Study on the accounting of coal resources compensation cost%论煤炭资源补偿成本的核算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荷青

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the component of coal resources compensation cost from the view of the aim of calculating the depletion, and then analyzes the current method of accounting coal resources compensation cost. Finally, the paper puts forward some suggestion to accounting the compensation cost through the wasting asset accounts.%本文从折耗提取的目的出发,以新的角度来审视煤炭资源补偿成本的构成内容,并对现行的会计核算方法进行了分析.然后在此基础上,提出应通过"递耗资产"科目进行核算.

  8. Potential compensation of hydrological extremes in headwaters: case study of upper Vltava River basin, Šumava Mts., Czechia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocum, Jan; Janský, Bohumír.; Česák, Julius

    2010-05-01

    reaction to causal amount of precipitation in the case of highly peaty areas, therefore more distinct runoff variability of streams draining peat land localities. These findings were affirmed by geochemical approach laboratory outcomes within the meaning of significant contribution of runoff from peat lands to the total runoff during extreme flood situations. An important component of rainfall-runoff process in source areas of czech rivers represented by snow conditions was analyses very in detail by means of monitoring of snow cover height and its water equivalent in chosen experimental catchments. Outcomes of this study should markedly help with significant precising of estimation of water storage retained in a snow cover. Consecutive runoff simulations using mathematical techniques would then improve a hydrological forecast. In terms of present dyking of former channels draining peat land represented by so called peat bog revitalization partial findings refer to positive effect during mean runoff situations but their considerably negative influence on runoff process in cases of extremely high discharges. In order to achieve retention potential enhancement in source areas of czech rivers an evaluation of possible former accumulative reservoirs (used for wood floating in former times) restoration which could function for example as dry (green) polders should be considered. The system of such small storage bins could function as an alternative and supplement to greater dam reservoirs. Possible spaces for water retention are measured by geodetic total station and modelled by suitable methods in GIS software. Existing outcomes advert to the fact that the effectiveness of such reservoir system would not have to be neglecting. By implementation of these unforceable measures realized in river headstream areas it could be contributed to reduction of peak flows and to increase of water resources during extreme droughts in future.

  9. Urban agglomeration and CEO compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; John, Kose; Waisman , Maya

    2012-01-01

    An underlying assumption in the executive compensation literature is that there is a national labor market for CEOs. The urban economics literature, however, documents higher ability among workers in large metropolitans, which results in a real and stable urban wage premium. In this paper, we investigate the link between the spatial clustering of firms in big, central cities (i.e., urban agglomeration) and the level and structure of CEO compensation. Using CEO compensation data for the period...

  10. EMPIRICALLY STUDY ON COMPENSATION WILL OF GRASSLAND ECOLOGY IN INNER MONGOLIA%内蒙古草原生态补偿意愿的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩芳; 王芳; 长青; 刘鑫

    2011-01-01

    草原生态补偿意愿是确定草原生态补偿标准的莺要参考,理论上补偿意愿包括补偿主体的支付意愿和补偿对象的受偿意愿.利用条件价值评估法(CVM)研究补偿主体的支付意愿和补偿对象的受偿意愿.通过采用SPSS软件中的皮尔逊相关分析法得出如下结论:内蒙占地区居民对草原生态补偿的支付意愿是23.10元/hm2·年;内蒙古草原牧区牧民的受偿意愿是1944.75/hm2·年.影响支付意愿的因素主要是被访者的受教育程度(即学历水平)、对草原生态环境的认知程度和家庭人口;影响受偿意愿的因素主要是牲畜饲养方式和牧民居住地距离旗政府所在地的距离.%The compensation will of grassland ecology is the important reference to determine the compensation standards of grassland ecology. This paper theoretically put forward that the compensation will should include the paying willingness of compensation object and the accepting willingness of compensation subject. The paper issued the paying willingness of compensation subject and the accepting willingness of compensation object by CVM. Through using SPSS software of pearson correlation analysis, its conclusion is that the paying willingness of grassland ecological compensation in Inner Mongolia is 23.10 yuan/hm2 every year. And the accepting willingness of the nomads in Inner Mongolia grassland is 1944.75 yuan/hm2 every year. The main factors of paying willingness are education degree of the respondent (i.e. degree level ) and the cognition about grassland ecological environment and family population .And the factors of the accepting willingness are the raising livestock way and the distance from residence to the seat of government flag.

  11. Electronic compensator for 100-Gb//s PDM-CO-OFDM long-haul transmission systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun Liu; Yaojun Qiao; Yuefeng Ji

    2011-01-01

    @@ We study an electronic compensator (EC) as a receiver for a 100-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-CO-OFDM) system without optical dispersion compensation.EC, including electrical dispersion compensation (EDC), least squares channel estimation and compensation (LSCEC), and phase compensation (PC), is used to compensate for chromatic dispersion (CD), phase noise, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), and channel impairments, respectively.Simulations show that EC is highly effective in compensating for those impairments and that the performance is close to the theoretical limitation of optical signal-to-noise rate (OSNR), CD, and PMD.Its robustness against those transmission impairments and fiber nonlinearity are also systematically studied.%We study an electronic compensator (EC) as a receiver for a 100-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-CO-OFDM) system without optical dispersion compensation. EC, including electrical dispersion compensation (EDC), least squares channel estimation and compensation (LSCEC), and phase compensation (PC), is used to compensate for chromatic dispersion (CD), phase noise, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), and channel impairments,respectively. Simulations show that EC is highly effective in compensating for those impairments and that the performance is close to the theoretical limitation of optical signal-to-noise rate (OSNR), CD, and PMD. Its robustness against those transmission impairments and fiber nonlinearity are also systematically studied.

  12. Supersymmetric composite gauge fields with compensators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    We study supersymmetric composite gauge theory, supplemented with compensator mechanism. As our first example, we give the formulation of N = 1 supersymmetric non-Abelian composite gauge theory without the kinetic term of a non-Abelian gauge field. The important ingredient is the Proca-Stueckelberg-type compensator scalar field that makes the gauge-boson field equation non-singular, i.e., the field equation can be solved for the gauge field algebraically as a perturbative expansion. As our second example, we perform the gauging of chiral-symmetry for N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions by a composite gauge field. These results provide supporting evidence for the consistency of the mechanism that combines the composite gauge field formulations and compensator formulations, all unified under supersymmetry.

  13. 中国企业高管薪酬差距研究%A Study on the Compensation Gap among Executives at Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳; 李实

    2016-01-01

    利用2005-2012年中国上市公司数据对企业之间高管薪酬差距的分析,有以下结论:(1)中国企业之间高管薪酬差距较大,在某些年份甚至高于一般员工之间的工资差距,主要原因在于少数企业高管的超额薪酬.(2) 2005-2012年企业之间高管薪酬差距呈现急剧扩大、后逐渐缩小的走势.波动的主导因素是少数金融企业高管薪酬水平的大起大落;高管薪酬差距缩小的主要因素是政府对国有企业高管的限薪政策.中央政府对国有企业高管薪酬加以约束,将有助于抑制全社会企业高管薪酬的过快增长.(3)在同一波动中,国有上市公司高管薪酬的决定机制与非国有公司仍有明显差别.(4)国有企业高管薪酬决定机制及公司治理结构,并没有在缓解高管薪酬过快增长和缩小薪酬差距方面发挥应有的作用.%Based on data for 2005 to 2012,an analysis of the compensation gap between top executives at different Chinese listed companies reveals the following conclusions.(1) The large compensation gap existing among executives at listed Chinese companies-in some years even larger than that between rank-and-file employees-is mainly caused by the exorbitant executive compensation at a minority of companies.(2) Between 2005 and 2012,the compensation gap first widened dramatically and then diminished gradually.The leading factor in this fluctuation was the drastic rise and fall in the level of executive compensation at a handful of financial enterprises.The main reason for the narrowing of the compensation gap is central government regulation,which has helped to curb the excessive growth of executive compensation in society as a whole.(3) Even in the same round of fluctuation,state-owned listed companies differ markedly from non-state-owned listed companies in the way their executive compensation is decided.(4) State-owned listed companies' executive compensation strategies and their internal governance

  14. The Study of Compensation Management for Shanxi Coal Enterprises%山西煤炭企业员工薪酬管理问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晶

    2015-01-01

    Weather gradually gets warmer, the Shanxi coal around the loss-making enterprises more than 70%, some companies reduce hair, wage arrears outstanding. As coal companies want to remain competitive in a deteri-orating market environment, in addition to upgrading the industrial structure outside, must establish and improve the salary management system to attract and retain qualified personnel. In this paper, the Shanxi coal enterprises as the object of study employee compensation management problems, through analysis of Shanxi coal companies pay employees, noted enterprise reward management problems and propose appropriate countermeasures on this basis. By study aims to provide a theoretical reference for the Shanxi Coal enterprise salary management.%山西各地煤炭企业亏损面超过70%,一些企业减发、欠发工资问题突出,作为煤炭企业要想在持续恶化的市场环境中保持竞争优势,除进行产业结构升级以外,必须建立完善的薪酬管理制度吸引人才、留住人才.本文以山西煤炭企业为对象,研究员工薪酬管理问题,通过分析山西煤炭企业员工薪酬现状,指出企业薪酬管理中存在的问题并在此基础上提出相应的解决对策.通过研究旨在对山西煤炭企业薪酬管理问题提供一定的理论参考.

  15. Study on the Scientific and Legal Basis of Ecological Damage Compensation%生态损害补偿与赔偿的科学及法律基础探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶欢欢; 彭本荣; 刘岩; 郑苗壮

    2014-01-01

    in academic and management communities about the connotation and economic and legal character of ecological compensation due to the different context in different disciplines. There is an urgent need to clarify the scientific implication of ecological damage and the associated jurisprudential distinctions between remediation (Buchang) and compensation (Peichang) to promote the implementation of ecological compensation. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the scientific implication, jurisprudential differences and legal regime of ecological damage and compensation based on the review of relative terms of ecological compensation, which then to provide references for further theoretical study and practice of ecological compensation in China. Firstly, the paper analyzed the connotation of ecological compensation from perspectives of environmental management, environmental economics and law, reviewed the evolution of ecological compensation practices in China, the paper and concluded that the ecological compensation should at least includes payments for ecosystem services (PES), ecological damage compensation and ecological damage claim. Secondly, this paper analyzed the scientific and legal connotation of ecological damage: (1) the ecological damage is the harmful effect to a free natural resource resulted from human activities, namely primary ecological damage;(2) the ecological damage can be categorized three groups, damage resulted from wrongful acts, non-wrongful acts and accumulative pollution from the perspective of legal theory;(3) the occurrence basis, legal nature, time and pattern of undertaking responsibility and the applicable law are different between the remediation and compensation; 4) the responsible parties should take the different liability according to the different acts. Thirdly, the paper discussed the legal basis and regime of establishing and implementing ecological compensation from the principle of liability fixation, the subject

  16. 中美上市公司高管薪酬差距与公司绩效的比较研究%A Comparative Study of Executive Compensation Gap and Firm Performance between U. S. and Chinese Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玲; 黄速建

    2012-01-01

    This research referred to theoretical and empirical studies on executives' compensation gap by Chinese and foreign researchers. Considering the cultural differences between China and U. S. , the research raised several assumptions on the relationship between executive compensation gap and firm performance. In addition, through comparative analysis, it tested the application of Tournament Theory and Behavior Theory to Chinese and U.S. listed companies. The paper collected year 2008 -2010 data from Chinese and U. S. listed companies in Information Technology industry, including 310 valid samples from 170 Chinese listed companies and 93 valid samples from 31 U.S. listed companies. It deployed multiple linear regressions as its research method. The research found that, firstly, the compensation gap among the five highest compensated executives (calculated by subtracting the fifth highest compensation from the top compensation as the absolute value or dividing the fifth highest by the top compensation as the relative ratio) of U. S. listed IT companies was much more widely distributed than that of the Chinese companies'. The 50th percentile of the relative total cash ratio of the fifth highest compensation to the top compensation of the U. S. companies is 0.37, while the 50th percentile of the same ratio of the Chinese companies stands at 0.64. Thus, U.S. listed IT companies' executives earn a greater amount of tournament prize via promotion than that of executives in Chinese companies. Secondly, for U.S. companies, in the cases of ROA and ROE as the dependent variables respectively, both correlation tests and multiple linear regressions results prove that executive base salary gap had negative correlation with firm performance, while total cash gap had positive association with firm performance, no matter the gap calculated in terms of absolute value or relative ratio. The result suggested the relationship of U. S. companies' executve total cash

  17. How does injury compensation affect health and disability in patients with complaints of whiplash? A qualitative study among rehabilitation experts-professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Suzan; Pieterse, Marcel; Reneman, Michiel; Verhoeven, Jan; Palen, van der Job

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore rehabilitation professionals’ opinions about the influence and the pathways of injury compensation (IC) on health and disability in patients with whiplash associated disorder (WAD). Methods: Semi-structured interviews were performed among a purposeful selected sample of Dutch exp

  18. How does injury compensation affect health and disability in patients with complaints of whiplash? A qualitative study among rehabilitation experts-professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Suzan; Pieterse, Marcel; Reneman, Michiel; Verhoeven, Jan; van der Palen, Job

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore rehabilitation professionals' opinions about the influence and the pathways of injury compensation (IC) on health and disability in patients with whiplash associated disorder (WAD). Methods: Semi-structured interviews were performed among a purposeful selected sample of Dutch exp

  19. A Study of the School Principal Labor Market in Arkansas: Implications for Incentive-Based Compensation Policies to Improve Principal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Marc Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Improving principal quality in Arkansas may be a partial solution to the public policy problem of low performing public schools. Just as policymakers in other states are beginning to explore incentive-based compensation policies to improve principal quality, education policymakers in Arkansas should look to these policies as a way to align goals…

  20. Respiratory motion compensation for simultaneous PET/MR based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled radial MR data: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Christopher M.; Heußer, Thorsten; Flach, Barbara; Brehm, Marcus; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new method for PET/MR respiratory motion compensation, which is based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled MR data and a) runs in parallel with the PET acquisition, b) can be interlaced with clinical MR sequences, and c) requires less than one minute of the total MR acquisition time per bed position. In our simulation study, we applied a 3D encoded radial stack-of-stars sampling scheme with 160 radial spokes per slice and an acquisition time of 38 s. Gated 4D MR images were reconstructed using a 4D iterative reconstruction algorithm. Based on these images, motion vector fields were estimated using our newly-developed 3D-2D registration framework. A 4D PET volume of a patient with eight hot lesions in the lungs and upper abdomen was simulated and MoCo 4D PET images were reconstructed based on the motion vector fields derived from MR. For evaluation, average SUVmean values of the artificial lesions were determined for a 3D, a gated 4D, a MoCo 4D and a reference (with ten-fold measurement time) gated 4D reconstruction. Compared to the reference, 3D reconstructions yielded an underestimation of SUVmean values due to motion blurring. In contrast, gated 4D reconstructions showed the highest variation of SUVmean due to low statistics. MoCo 4D reconstructions were only slightly affected by these two sources of uncertainty resulting in a significant visual and quantitative improvement in terms of SUVmean values. Whereas temporal resolution was comparable to the gated 4D images, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were close to the 3D reconstructions.

  1. Externalities and Compensation : Primeval Games and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.; Borm, P.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The classical literature (Pigou (1920), Coase (1960), Arrow (1970)) and the relatively recent studies (cf.Varian (1994)) associate the externality problem with efficiency.This paper focuses explicitly on the compensation problem in the context of externalities.To capture the features of inter-indivi

  2. An Examination of Superintendent Salaries and Compensation Packages in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The salaries and compensation packages of women in the United States fall short of those to men holding similar employment positions. This study will look specifically at the salaries and compensation packages of current Kentucky school superintendents and investigate whether or not there exists discrepencies among them along gender lines. The…

  3. Compensation: The Impact of Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1994-01-01

    Complexity of employee compensation policy is examined as it applies to colleges and universities. It is argued that sound compensation policy helps the institution attract and retain qualified, skilled employees. New approaches that shift the focus from job to employee are outlined, and their implications for institutions of higher education are…

  4. Alternative Teacher Compensation: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppich, Julia E.; Rigby, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This policy primer is designed to provide base-line information about new forms of teacher pay that are emerging around the country, to support the local conversations and negotiations that will lead to the development of innovative compensation systems. It identifies reasons why teacher compensation is high on local, state, and federal policy…

  5. 38 CFR 3.459 - Death compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death compensation. 3.459..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.459 Death compensation. (a) Death compensation will be apportioned if the child or children of the deceased veteran are not in the custody of...

  6. Workers' compensation law: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, B

    1994-09-01

    1. The workers' compensation system provides benefits to workers who are injured or made ill in the course of employment or their dependents regardless of fault. 2. The current workers' compensation laws benefit both the employer and the employee; however, workers' compensation is an exclusive remedy which bars recovery through a negligence lawsuit. 3. Workers' compensation regulations interact with other federal statutes such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and the Family Medical Leave Act. 4. Workers' compensation covers occupational injuries and occupational diseases, which may include cumulative trauma and mental stress claims. Nurses may be instrumental in evaluating and planning for an injured employee's return to work and occasionally in detecting fraudulent claims.

  7. Is there a clinical benefit with a smooth compensator design compared with a plunged compensator design for passive scattered protons?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabibian, Art A., E-mail: art.tabibian@gmail.com [University of Texas School of Allied Health-Medical Dosimetry, Houston, TX (United States); Powers, Adam; Dolormente, Keith; Oommen, Sneha; Tiwari, Akhil [University of Texas School of Allied Health-Medical Dosimetry, Houston, TX (United States); Palmer, Matt [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Zhu, Xiaorong R.; Li, Heng; Sahoo, Narayan; Wisdom, Paul [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Physics, Houston, TX (United States); Velasco, Kyle [Radiation Oncology Resources, Goshen, IN (United States); Erhart, Kevin; Stanley, Henry [Decimal, Inc, Sanford, FL (United States); Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc T. [MD Anderson Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In proton therapy, passive scattered proton plans use compensators to conform the dose to the distal surface of the planning volume. These devices are custom made from acrylic or wax for each treatment field using either a plunge-drilled or smooth-milled compensator design. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a clinical benefit of generating passive scattered proton radiation treatment plans with the smooth compensator design. We generated 4 plans with different techniques using the smooth compensators. We chose 5 sites and 5 patients for each site for the range of dosimetric effects to show adequate sample. The plans were compared and evaluated using multicriteria (MCA) plan quality metrics for plan assessment and comparison using the Quality Reports [EMR] technology by Canis Lupus LLC. The average absolute difference for dosimetric metrics from the plunged-depth plan ranged from −4.7 to +3.0 and the average absolute performance results ranged from −6.6% to +3%. The manually edited smooth compensator plan yielded the best dosimetric metric, +3.0, and performance, + 3.0% compared to the plunged-depth plan. It was also superior to the other smooth compensator plans. Our results indicate that there are multiple approaches to achieve plans with smooth compensators similar to the plunged-depth plans. The smooth compensators with manual compensator edits yielded equal or better target coverage and normal tissue (NT) doses compared with the other smooth compensator techniques. Further studies are under investigation to evaluate the robustness of the smooth compensator design.

  8. Paying Teachers for Their Worth: Policies on Teacher Compensation at the School District and Regional Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James E.; Brown, Kathleen Sullivan

    This study reviewed the historical development of the teacher-compensation paradigm, discussed the current trends in alternative compensation policy strategies, and examined the teacher-compensation policies and practices in one state. The study was a mixed-methods policy analysis that used multiple linear regression, cluster analysis, and…

  9. 农村电网不对称负荷补偿方法研究%Study on compensation method of unbalanced load in rural power grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房俊龙; 于洪涛; 马文川; 蔡银哿; 杨庆忠; 杨国良

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposed TCR type static var compensator based on Steinmetz theory which it could be used in the rural power grid, it could compensate unbalanced load and improve power factor in the meantime. The results showed that method could effectively make three-phase load balance, while increasing the power factor, had a certain theoretical and application value.%文章提出在农村电网中采用基于Steinmetz电路理论的TCR型静止无功补偿器,平衡三相不对称负荷,提高系统功率因数。仿真验证结果表明,该方法能使三相负荷平衡,提高功率因数,具有一定理论意义及应用价值。

  10. Study on Reactive Power Compensation Theory for 10 kV Distribution Network%10 kV配电网无功补偿理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱岩; 刘晓伟

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic concept and principle of wattless power compensation, through the analysis of grid lines, re-veals the relations between reactive power and voltage loss, loss of the power grid in the form of formula, and discusses the significance of improving power factor by wattless compensation, in a bid to provide reference for improving the quality of power supply of electric power enterprises.%阐述无功补偿的基本概念及工作原理,通过分析电网等值线路,用公式的形式列出无功与电压损耗、线损的关系,阐述通过无功补偿提高电网中功率因数的意义,为提高电力企业的供电质量提供参考。

  11. Compensation temperatures of mixed spin-2 and spin-((5)/(2)) ferrimagnetic system with interlayer coupling; a study of a molecular-based magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Qi

    2002-01-01

    Compensation points of layer system consisting of mixed spin-2 and spin-((5)/(2)) ferrimagnetic honeycomb lattice layers which are coupled together with two kinds of positive interlayer coupling are examined by the use of the effective-field theory with correlations (EFT). In particular, the effects of interlayer coupling and a positive crystal-field constant of the spin-2 ions on the compensation temperature are investigated, in order to clarify the characteristic behavior of the temperature dependence of the total magnetization M. This is related to the experimental works of a molecular-based magnetic multilayer film, N(n-C sub 4 H sub 9) sub 4 Fe sup I sup I Fe sup I sup I sup I (C sub 2 O sub 4) sub 3. A comparison is made between the results in this paper and those in a previous work obtained by using Monte-Carlo simulations.

  12. 现阶段我国征地补偿价格标准研究%STUDY ON THE LAND ACQUISITION COMPENSATION STANDARD IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉莹

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there are several problems in the compensation of the land acquisition such as the low com-pensationprice, unclear scope of compensation, and uncertain attribution of the benefits of land. This paper aimed to put forward some suggestions toimprove the land acquisition compensation standard on the basis of the view of land dualistic value, using the Marx land rent and price theory and Coase 's theorem. And also it introduced the market comparisonand income approach into the compensation mechanism. It suggested that (1) the compensation for farmers and communities should be separated. The loss of adjacent land also should be included in the scope of compensation. (2)The compensation for communities should be decided according to the market priceusing market comparison approach, while the compensation for farmers should use the income approach on the basis of the capi-talization of the net income which was decided by the income deposit interest rate. (3)the supervisory administra-tion should improving the implement and monitoring system. (4)improving the land management and promoting the property rights more clearly. (5)Definitely decide the new benefits of landinto the investors.%现阶段我国的征地补偿机制存在补偿额度过低、补偿范围不明确、土地新增收益的归属不清晰等问题.文章以土地二元价值理论为基础,结合马克思的地租与地价理论及科斯定理,旨在提出自己关于征地补偿价格标准改善的可行性建议.该文将不动产估价中的市场比较法与收益法引入征地补偿机制中,提出以下建议:(1)集体与失地农民分开补偿,对于有相关权益的土地的损失也应纳入补偿的范围.(2)市场机制与政府作用相结合进行补偿,其中政府以市场机制为基础在补偿过程中起主导作用.对集体的补偿以当前市价为基准进行补偿,可由市场比较法确定,对失地农民的补偿借鉴不动产估价的收益法,通过其净收

  13. 公益林生态服务市场补偿政策研究%Studying on Ecological Service Market Compensation Policy of Non-commercial Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钦; 林雅秋; 黄志榕; 杨秀云; 黄李煌; 谢锦华

    2011-01-01

    文章论述了公益林生态服务市场补偿政策的理论依据,认为政府政策创新是公益林生态服务市场补偿的基础,政府应制订公益林生态服务交易制度,明确规定公益林生态服务的权利和义务;并且提出政府要规定企业二氧化碳的排放标准和公益林水丈生态服务补偿主体,制订自然保护区配额交易政策等.%The paper illustrates theory base of ecological service market compensation policy of non-commercial forest.It is considered that government policy innovation is foundation of market compensation, and government must establish trading system and regulate right and obligation of ecological service of non-commercial forest. The paper put forward that government regulate corporation CO2 emission standard and subject of ecological compensation, and establish quota trading policy of natural protection area, and so on.

  14. Contouring error compensation on a micro coordinate measuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Wang, Hung-Yu; Ye, Jyun-Kuan

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional measurements of nano-technology researches have received a great attention in the world. Based on the high accuracy demand, the error compensation of measurement machine is very important. In this study, a high precision Micro-CMM (coordinate measuring machine) has been developed which is composed of a coplanar stage for reducing the Abbé error in the vertical direction, the linear diffraction grating interferometer (LDGI) as the position feedback sensor in nanometer resolution, and ultrasonic motors for position control. This paper presents the error compensation strategy including "Home accuracy" and "Position accuracy" in both axes. For the home error compensation, we utilize a commercial DVD pick-up head and its S-curve principle to accurately search the origin of each axis. For the positioning error compensation, the absolute positions relative to the home are calibrated by laser interferometer and the error budget table is stored for feed forward error compensation. Contouring error can thus be compensated if both the compensation of both X and Y positioning errors are applied. Experiments show the contouring accuracy can be controlled to within 50nm after compensation.

  15. Study on Influence Factors of Willingness to Pay Compensation Standard of Non-Commercial Forest%生态公益林补偿标准的支付意愿影响因素研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白斯琴; 陈钦

    2015-01-01

    运用Logistic模型分析了受益者对生态公益林补偿标准的支付意愿影响因素,结果表明:劳动力人数、家庭纯收入、对受益者是否产生影响对生态公益林补偿标准支付意愿具有正向的显著影响;年龄、家庭总人口、耕地面积、林地面积、是否了解生态公益林补偿政策具有负向的显著影响。在分析基础上提出建议:促进居民收入提高;让受益者了解保护生态公益林对个人产生的影响;建立受益者对生态公益林生态效益补偿的机制。%This paper analyzes the influence factors of willingness to pay compensation standards of non-commercial forest with Logistic model. The study finds that: labor force, the net income of the family and whether having an impact on people have a positive significant impact on the willingness to pay compensation standards of non-commercial forest; age, the family’s population, arable land, woodland area, whether understanding the compensation policy have a significant negative impact. Based on the analysis, this paper makes recommendations: promote income increase; make benefici-aries understand the impact of non-commercial forest; establish non-commercial forest ecological bene-fit compensation mechanisms of beneficiaries.

  16. Study on Compensation Standard of Land Expropriation Based on Comprehensive Value of Cultivated Land%基于耕地综合价值的土地征收补偿标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸培新; 卜婷婷; 吴正廷

    2011-01-01

    The existing compensation of cultivated land expropriation only covers cultivated land value of agricultural use and employment, and neglects other values such as ecological value, which leads to a series of social and economic problems related to cultivated land expropriation. Therefore, it is necessary to protect farmers' land rights and cultivated land resources to establish a reasonable standard of cultivated land expropriation. Based on the theory of comprehensive value of cultivated land resources, land expropriation compensation needs to cover three kinds of value; agricultural economic value, social security value and ecological value. Then, different methods are employed to calculate various values of land. The return flow discount method is used for agricultural economic value measurement, and cost substitution method for social value calculation, and of contingent value method for ecological value. Last, Nanjing City of Jiangsu Province is taken as an example to establish expropriation compensation standard adapted to comprehensive land value in 2007. The result of the case study shows that compensation received by farmers according to comprehensive compensation standard shall be 6.6 times of the existing compensation standard for land expropriation. Because the new land compensation can internalize external value of cultivated land such as social stability value and ecological values, and effectively eliminate the market failure during the cultivated land expropriation, it will improve the efficiency of cultivated land conversion to non-agricultural use. In addition, new standard of land compensation is much lower than the current benchmark price of construction land; therefore, it is feasible in economy and acceptable in society.%由于现行耕地征收补偿仅对耕地的农业经济价值以及部分就业保障价值进行补偿,忽视了耕地的其他价值,导致了耕地征收中的一系列社会经济问题产生.因此,合理制定

  17. Stock Repurchases and Incentive Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    1998-01-01

    A longstanding puzzle in corporate finance is the rise of stock repurchases as a means of distributing earnings to shareholders. While most attempts to explain repurchase behavior focus on the incentives of firms, this paper focuses on the incentives of the agents who run firms, as determined by those agents' compensation packages. The increased use of repurchases coincided with an increasing reliance on stock options to compensate top managers, and stock options encourage managers to choose ...

  18. 取样光栅在色散补偿中的应用特性研究%Study on applications of sampled fiber grating in dispersion compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹丹; 王海芳

    2014-01-01

    For multi-channel dispersion compensation in DWDM systems,this paper first analyzes the sampled fiber grating by using the transfer matrix method and on this basis carries out simulation experiments by regulating the linear chirping coeffi-cients.The simulation results indicate that in the multi-channel dispersion compensation,the reflective spectra of the chirped sampled fiber grating are uniform and all the reflectivities are above 90%;that the delay spectrum is consistent and the mini-mum delay jitter is smaller than 40 ps;and that the dispersion diagram is also uniform and can compensate both the positive and negative dispersion,and in the simulation,the dispersion value does not exceed 500 ps/nm.%针对密集波分复用系统中多信道色散补偿问题,文章首先采用传输矩阵法对取样光栅进行了分析,然后介绍了在此基础上通过调节线性啁啾系数所进行的仿真实验。仿真结果表明,在多信道色散补偿中,啁啾取样光栅反射谱的反射率非常均匀,且都达到了90%以上;时延谱具有很好的一致性,最小时延抖动<40 ps;色散图也比较均匀,能完成正负色散的补偿,且在仿真中色散值可以不超过500 ps/nm。

  19. 浙江省农业巨灾风险损失补偿机制研究%Study on Agricultural Catastrophe Loss Compensation Mechanism of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈蕾

    2012-01-01

    浙江省从2006年开展政策性农业保险以来,农业抗风险能力得到明显增强,但目前的农业巨灾损失补偿机制尚不能确保农业保险制度的持续发展。文章从巨灾风险造成农业保险市场失灵的视角出发,分析浙江省农业巨灾风险损失补偿现状,并提出应从建立农业灾害数据库、充分利用再保险分散风险的功能、建立农业巨灾风险基金等方面入手完善浙江省农业巨灾损失分担机制。%Since Zhejiang carried out policy -oriented agricultural insurance from 2006, agricultural risk -re- sisting ability is significantly enhanced, but the loss compensation mechanism of current agricultural catastrophe is not able to ensure the sustainable development of the agricultural insurance. From the perspective of the agricultural insurance market failure caused by catastrophe risk, this paper analyze the current situation of agricultural catastro- phe risk compensation of Zhejiang, puts forward some suggestion that could improve agricuhural loss compensation mechanism of catastrophe risk, such as the establishment of agricultural disaster database, making full use of reinsurance to diversify risk function, the establishment of agricultural catastrophe risk fund, etc.

  20. Software Design and Study of Humidity Sensor SVM Temperature Compensation%湿度传感器的SVM温度补偿研究及软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高大惟; 刘建玲

    2014-01-01

    Considering the humidity sensor easily affected by temperature can lead to the decline of the measurement accura-cy,improved AMPSO-SVM for temperature compensation of sensor was proposed,and compensation model was established,which was compared with the traditional GRID-SVM and GA-SVM.The results show that the improved algorithm can effectively reduce the effect of temperature,improve the measuring accuracy of humidity sensor,and is superior to other methods on the compensation accuracy and speed.At the same time,graphical user interface of MATLAB is used to design the temperature compensation software of humidity sensor.An example was simulated on the platform,thus validating the effectiveness of the software.%针对湿度传感器受温度影响严重而导致测量精度下降的问题,提出了采用改进的粒子群( PSO)和支持向量机( SVM)相结合的方法( AMPSO-SVM)对传感器进行温度补偿,建立了补偿模型,并与传统的网格寻优支持向量机( GRID-SVM)以及遗传算法支持向量机方法( GA-SVM)进行了比较。结果表明:改进的粒子群支持向量机方法能有效地降低温度影响,提高了湿度传感器的测量精度,并且在补偿精度和速度上都优于其他方法。同时利用MATLAB的图形用户界面环境( GUI)设计了湿度传感器的SVM温度补偿软件,并在该平台上进行了实例仿真,充分验证了软件的有效性。

  1. Using Diffusion-Reaction Simulation to Study the Formation and Self-Compensation Mechanism of Cu Doping in CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, D.; Akis, R.; Brinkman, D.; Moore, A.; Yang, Ji-Hui; Krasikov, D.; Sankin, I.; Ringhofer, C.; Vasileska, D.

    2016-11-21

    An improved model of copper p-type doping in CdTe absorbers is proposed that accounts for the mechanisms related to tightly bound Cu(i)-Cu(Cd) and Cd(i)-Cu(Cd) complexes that both limit diffusion and cause self-compensation of Cu species. The new model explains apparent discrepancy between DFT-calculated and fitted diffusion parameters of Cu reported in our previous work, and allows for better understanding of performance and metastabilities in CdTe PV devices.

  2. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158... Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the... a new compensation level based on an analysis of the data provided under paragraph (c)(1) of...

  3. 48 CFR 752.7007 - Personnel compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel compensation... Personnel compensation. The following clause shall be used in all USAID cost-reimbursement contracts. Personnel Compensation (JUL 2007) (a) Direct compensation of the Contractor's personnel will be...

  4. 22 CFR 96.34 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 96.34 Section 96.34 Foreign... Financial and Risk Management § 96.34 Compensation. (a) The agency or person does not compensate any... for compensation within the intercountry adoption community in that country, to the extent that...

  5. 30 CFR 90.103 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 90.103 Section 90.103 Mineral..., Rights of Part 90 Miners § 90.103 Compensation. (a) The operator shall compensate each Part 90 miner at... part. (d) In addition to the compensation required to be paid under paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of...

  6. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  7. 43 CFR 4.355 - Omitted compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Omitted compensation. 4.355 Section 4.355... Compensation § 4.355 Omitted compensation. When, subsequent to the issuance of a final order determining heirs under § 4.352, it is found that certain additional compensation had been due the decedent and had...

  8. 7 CFR 930.133 - Compensation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation rate. 930.133 Section 930.133 Agriculture... Regulations § 930.133 Compensation rate. A compensation rate of $250 per meeting shall be paid to the public member and to the alternate public member when attending Board meetings. Such compensation is a...

  9. 12 CFR 9.15 - Fiduciary compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiduciary compensation. 9.15 Section 9.15 Banks... BANKS Regulations § 9.15 Fiduciary compensation. (a) Compensation of bank. If the amount of a national bank's compensation for acting in a fiduciary capacity is not set or governed by applicable law,...

  10. 23 CFR 751.15 - Just compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Just compensation. 751.15 Section 751.15 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.15 Just compensation. (a) Just compensation shall be paid the owner for the... removed, relocated, or disposed of pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 136. (b) No rights to compensation accrue until...

  11. 12 CFR 7.2011 - Compensation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Corporate Practices § 7.2011 Compensation plans. Consistent with safe and sound banking practices and the compensation provisions of 12 CFR part 30, a national bank may adopt compensation plans, including, among... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation plans. 7.2011 Section 7.2011...

  12. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those...

  13. Intonation and Compensation of Fretted String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Varieschi, Gabriele U

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present mathematical models and we analyze the physics related to the problem of intonation of musical instruments such as guitars, mandolins and similar, i.e., we study how to produce perfectly in tune notes on these instruments. This analysis begins with the correct fret placement on the instrument fingerboard, following precise mathematical laws, but then it becomes increasingly complicated due to the geometrical deformation of the strings when these instruments are played, and also due to the inharmonic characteristics of the same strings. As a consequence of these factors, perfect intonation of all the notes on the instrument can never be achieved, but complex compensation procedures are introduced and studied to minimize the problem. To test the validity of these compensation procedures, we have performed extensive measurements using standard monochord sonometers and other basic acoustical devices, which confirm the correctness of our theoretical models. In particular, these experimenta...

  14. Study on Pricing Compensation Mechanism of Clean Energy Based on Triangle Fuzzy Number%基于三角模糊数的清洁能源电价补偿机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠富; 何楠; 周凤翱; 张科

    2013-01-01

    By setting an effective and reasonable compensation mechanism of clean energy pricing, it can promote clean energy power to develop easily. Based on the externalities of clean power, this paper identifies the reasonable compensation range by triangle fuzzy number and calculates the compensation value of different objects by degree of membership, the objects include clean power plants, power enterprises and power consumers. In order to study this problem clearly, it took wind power for an example and made quantity research in the measures of improving power pricing compensation mechanism by triangle fuzzy number and object constraint theories. To power users, the reasonable compensation range is 0. 002 yuan/kW · h-0. 008 yuan/kW · h. To power enterprises, the range is 3 869. 48 yuan/MW-16 096. 74 yuan/MW. To clean power plants (wind power plant), the range is 0. 218 9 yuan/kW· h-0. 241 2 yuan/kW · h. The results show that compensation ranges are relative to the different objects, and the compensation value will change by the quantities of clean power in gird.%为了制定合理的清洁能源电价补偿机制,推动清洁能源电力的有效发展,分析了我国清洁能源电价补偿机制现状及存在的问题,基于清洁能源电力的外部性特征,引入三角模糊数,通过模糊数将补偿机制中补偿金额的计算扩展为补偿区间的确定,同时将不同对象的可能补偿额度定为隶属度;并以风电为例,运用模糊响应公式对其补偿区间进行了量化分析.结果表明,电力用户补偿区间为0.002~0.008元/(kW·h),电网企业补偿区间为3 869.48~16 096.74元/MW,清洁能源电厂(风电厂)补偿区间为0.218 9~0.241 2元/(kW·h),且清洁能源电力的各级补偿区间与补偿对象密切相关,补偿额度也会随其上网电量的变化而波动.

  15. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill J Yates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that nonlabyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  16. Self-Compensating Excitation of Fluxgate Sensors for Space Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Alec; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of the new self-compensating excitation circuitry to the new generation of high-precise space vector magnetometers. The application starts with complex study including design of new robust model of the non-linear inductor leading to investigation...... of the most crucial points, continuous by design of the self-compensating excitation unit and concludes with unit complex testing and application to the magnetometer. The application of the self-compensation of the excitation decreases temperature drift of the magnetometer offset caused by the temperature...

  17. 75 FR 49595 - Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Parts 1, 10, and 25 Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act; Compensation for Disability and... Workers' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Parts 1, 10, and 25 RIN 1240-AA03 Performance of Functions;...

  18. Error Model and Compensation of Bell-Shaped Vibratory Gyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Su

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A bell-shaped vibratory angular velocity gyro (BVG, inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a type of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. This paper focuses on development of an error model and compensation of the BVG. A dynamic equation is firstly established, based on a study of the BVG working mechanism. This equation is then used to evaluate the relationship between the angular rate output signal and bell-shaped resonator character, analyze the influence of the main error sources and set up an error model for the BVG. The error sources are classified from the error propagation characteristics, and the compensation method is presented based on the error model. Finally, using the error model and compensation method, the BVG is calibrated experimentally including rough compensation, temperature and bias compensation, scale factor compensation and noise filter. The experimentally obtained bias instability is from 20.5°/h to 4.7°/h, the random walk is from 2.8°/h1/2 to 0.7°/h1/2 and the nonlinearity is from 0.2% to 0.03%. Based on the error compensation, it is shown that there is a good linear relationship between the sensing signal and the angular velocity, suggesting that the BVG is a good candidate for the field of low and medium rotational speed measurement.

  19. Compensation for electrical converter nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2013-11-19

    Systems and methods are provided for delivering energy from an input interface to an output interface. An electrical system includes an input interface, an output interface, an energy conversion module between the input interface and the output interface, an inductive element between the input interface and the energy conversion module, and a control module. The control module determines a compensated duty cycle control value for operating the energy conversion module to produce a desired voltage at the output interface and operates the energy conversion module to deliver energy to the output interface with a duty cycle that is influenced by the compensated duty cycle control value. The compensated duty cycle control value is influenced by the current through the inductive element and accounts for voltage across the switching elements of the energy conversion module.

  20. Motion error compensation of multi-legged walking robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangwen; Chen, Xuedong; Wang, Xinjie; Tang, Weigang; Sun, Yi; Pan, Chunmei

    2012-07-01

    Existing errors in the structure and kinematic parameters of multi-legged walking robots, the motion trajectory of robot will diverge from the ideal sports requirements in movement. Since the existing error compensation is usually used for control compensation of manipulator arm, the error compensation of multi-legged robots has seldom been explored. In order to reduce the kinematic error of robots, a motion error compensation method based on the feedforward for multi-legged mobile robots is proposed to improve motion precision of a mobile robot. The locus error of a robot body is measured, when robot moves along a given track. Error of driven joint variables is obtained by error calculation model in terms of the locus error of robot body. Error value is used to compensate driven joint variables and modify control model of robot, which can drive the robots following control model modified. The model of the relation between robot's locus errors and kinematic variables errors is set up to achieve the kinematic error compensation. On the basis of the inverse kinematics of a multi-legged walking robot, the relation between error of the motion trajectory and driven joint variables of robots is discussed. Moreover, the equation set is obtained, which expresses relation among error of driven joint variables, structure parameters and error of robot's locus. Take MiniQuad as an example, when the robot MiniQuad moves following beeline tread, motion error compensation is studied. The actual locus errors of the robot body are measured before and after compensation in the test. According to the test, variations of the actual coordinate value of the robot centroid in x-direction and z-direction are reduced more than one time. The kinematic errors of robot body are reduced effectively by the use of the motion error compensation method based on the feedforward.

  1. Forest eco-compensation mechanism:a survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fen; Li Wenhua; Liu Moucheng

    2008-01-01

    China is a country with a vast territory and a large population but limited forest resources,which is mainly distritruted in the economically less developed regions,Therefore,it is particularly important to address the issue to establish forest eco-compensation mechanism to overcome the problems of inequitv between the people and promote the public incentive for forest management and conservation.The defition of eco-compensation is deeply discussed basebased on the literature review of national and international in itiatives.According to summary and analysis of the empirical work of forest eco-compensation at international level,some significant inspirations are draw this paper.Based on them,this paper focuses on the forest eco-compensation mechanism of China.Firstly,integrating with the actual situation of China,the paper puts forward the policy framework of eco-compensation.the institutional framework of eco-eompensation should be established among the multi-departments with different temporal and spatial scales.Secondly the types and ranges of forest eco-compensation are,further ,studied,that is three levels of forest eco-compensation such as micro-level,macro-level as well as media-level,and then the standards of eco-compensation are primarily estimated,which include the three factors,namely direct expense of plantation,opportunity tost for forests protection and benefits of Jbrest ecosystem services.Finally the recommendation is creaated in terms of above research conclusions,which is provide the vital important references for government policy making in the forest eco-compensation domain.

  2. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  3. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  4. Depth Compensated Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography via Digital Compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Boroomand, Ameneh; Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a well-known imaging modality which allows for \\textit{in-vivo} visualization of the morphology of different biological tissues at cellular level resolutions. The overall SD-OCT imaging quality in terms of axial resolution and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) degrades with imaging depth, while the lateral resolution degrades with distance from the focal plane. This image quality degradation is due both to the design of the SD-OCT imaging system and the optical properties of the imaged object. Here, we present a novel Depth Compensated SD-OCT (DC-OCT) system that integrates a Depth Compensating Digital Signal Processing (DC-DSP) module to improve the overall imaging quality via digital compensation. The designed DC-DSP module can be integrated to any SD-OCT system and is able to simultaneously compensate for the depth-dependent loss of axial and lateral resolutions, depth-varying SNR, as well as sidelobe artifact for improved imaging quality. The integrated D...

  5. Compensation of Dipolar-Exciton Spin Splitting in Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetoluminescence of spatially indirect dipolar excitons collected in 25 nm GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well within a lateral potential trap has been studied in perpendicular magnetic field in Faraday geometry. The paramagnetic spin splitting of the luminescence line of the heavy-hole excitons in the trap centre is completely compensated at magnetic fields below critical value, around 2 Tesla. The effect of spin-splitting compensation is caused by the exchange interaction in dense exciton Bo...

  6. The impact of SFAS 123R on CEO equity compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Quartin, Rosana Inês Hipólito

    2009-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Finance from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In December of 2004, FASB released SFAS 123R, mandating the expensing of executive stock options. This paper studies the changes that occurred in CEO equity compensation in the period of 2000 to 2006. Complementary, I analyze the relevance of performance conditions in this form of compensation. There are two main findings: (i) in th...

  7. Optical compensation device for chest film radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert G.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; DeForest, Sherman E.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hier, Richard G.

    1990-07-01

    Although chest radiography is the most commonly performed radiographic examination and one of the most valuable and cost-effective studies in medicine it suffers from relatively high error rates in both missing pathology and false positive interpretations. Detectability of lung nodules and other structures in underpenetrated regions of the chest film can be improved by both exposure and optical compensation but current compensation systems require major capital cost or a significant change in normal clinical practice. A new optical compensation system called the " Intelligent X-Ray Illuminator" (IXI) automatically and virtually instantaneously generates a patient-specific optical unsharp mask that is projected directly on a radiograph. When a radiograph is placed on the IXI which looks much like a conventional viewbox it acquires a low-resolution electronic image of this film from which the film transmission is derived. The transmission information is inverted and blurred in an image processor to form an unsharp mask which is fed into a spatial light modulator (SLM) placed between a light source and the radiograph. The SLM tailors the viewbox luminance by decreasing illumination to underexposed (i. e. transmissive) areas of the radiograph presenting the observer with an optically unsharp-masked image. The IXI uses the original radiograph and will allow it to be viewed on demand with conventional (uniform illumination. Potentially the IXI could introduce the known beneficial aspects of optical unsharp masking into radiology at low capital

  8. 三电平APF死区效应及其补偿策略研究%Study on Dead-time Effect of Active Filter with a Three-level NPC Inverter and Its Compensation Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华; 张迎; 李成君

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of dead-time of the active power filters (APF),the dead-time effect, and the impact of the APF output for different time and different switching state of dead-time are studied and analyzed. In order to avoid damage to power switching devices,a few seconds of dead-time must be inserted in the switching signals to prevent a short circuit.By adopting current feedback compensation method,the PWM pulse widened or compressed by dead-time period can be compressed or widened,thus effectively compensating dead-time effect.Finally the experimental results indicate that the APF system can provide the required signals to perform filtering and compensation.%为解决三电平有源电力滤波器( APF)存在的死区影响问题,对死区效应产生的机理进行了详细分析,对不同的死区时间及不同开关状态条件下死区对APF输出的影响进行了研究.针对因存在死区使逆变器输出补偿电流波形在幅值和相位上产生偏差的问题,提出了通过电流极性判断的电流反馈型死区补偿方法,有效地解决了死区给有源滤波系统带来的补偿效果降低问题,实验结果验证了该方法的有效性.

  9. Ongoing transients in carbonate compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudreau, B.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Hofmann, A.F.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is acidifying the oceans. Over the next 2000 years, this will modify the dissolution and preservation of sedimentary carbonate. By coupling new formulas for the positions of the calcite saturation horizon, zsat, the compensation depth, zcc, and the snowline, zsnow, to a b

  10. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  11. Can Education Compensate for Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which education can compensate for social disadvantage is a matter of political controversy, especially in the context of policies for social mobility. On the one hand, to blame poor achievement on social class or poverty was seen to dodge the professional responsibility of teachers. On the other, the strong correlation between…

  12. Working conditions, compensation and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Solveig Osborg

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines absence behaviour in relation to the working environment. A theoretical model is built in order to separate the effects of voluntary absences and absences related to ill health, where health effects are assumed to be tied to working conditions. This model is based on the Shapiro and Stiglitz efficiency wage model. In addition, work environment is introduced as a part of the compensation package. The model gives a testable hypothesis of compensating wage differentials. A panel of quarterly firm level data from 1990 to 1998 are used and the theoretical model is supported by the empirical findings. The result indicates that the workers may not be fully compensated when experiencing high levels of noise in the work area, or when the job involves a high degree of monotonous work, heavy or frequent lifting or poor work postures. Ill health, and thus increased long-term absence, is not highly related to economic variables. However, long-term absence is relatively higher if the firm is troubled with many accidents or near misses. In addition, disamenities for which workers are not fully compensated cause ill health and increased long-term absence.

  13. Joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining with feedback error compensation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seyeong

    2009-11-01

    This letter investigates the effect of feedback error on the performance of the joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (AMDC) scheme which was previously studied with an assumption of error-free feedback channels. We also propose to utilize adaptive diversity to compensate for the performance degradation due to feedback error. We accurately quantify the performance of the joint AMDC scheme in the presence of feedback error, in terms of the average number of combined paths, the average spectral efficiency, and the average bit error rate. Selected numerical examples are presented and discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback error compensation strategy with adaptive combining. It is observed that the proposed compensation strategy can offer considerable error performance improvement with little loss in processing power and spectral efficiency in comparison with the no compensation case. Copyright © 2009 IEEE.

  14. 液压振动台负载流量补偿方法的研究%Study on load-flow compensation of hydraulic vibration table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博; 侯京锋; 窦雪川; 张静; 郝岩研; 王家乐; 王有杰

    2014-01-01

    通过将负载变化折算为相应控制指令,并与期望指令相叠加后,作为最终的控制指令输出给伺服阀,构造负载流量与期望控制指令之间的比例关系,实现了液压振动台抑制负载干扰对流量波动的影响,提高了液压振动台运动控制精度。经过流量补偿后的液压振动台在负载变化时可以实现对输入指令较好的跟踪,可对机械振动或冲击环境进行更好的模拟。%By superposing the control command converted from the varying load and the expected control command as the last control command, the linear dependency between the load-flow and the expected control command is constructed. The method could achieve the suppression of load-flow fluctuation influenced by load variation, and improve the control precision of the table. The hydraulic vibration table could track the expected command with load varying well by the load-flow compensation method, and simulate the vibration environment and the shock environment better.

  15. 药物临床试验受试者损害赔偿方案调研%Study on Damage Compensation for Subjects in Drugs Clinical Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 康长清; 舒鹤; 郭晋敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the current situation of damage compensation for subjects in drugs clinical trials.Methods: Retrospective analyzes was conducted on 70 drug clinical trail from January 2008 to December 2014 in our hospital , including protocols、informed consent and insurance .Results: It was written in most proto-cols that sponsor undertook damage compensation due to experimental drugs , however , lack of detailed rules .Dam-age compensation for subjects was missed in some informed consents .17 drugs clinical trials provided insurance , the rate of jointing insurance 24 .3%.In international trail , the rate of jointing insurance ( 100%) was higher than that in domestic trail (9.1%).As to domestic trail, the rate of jointing insurance increased gradually .There was no difference between insurance of different periods .In 17 insurance , 13 were clinical trial liability insurance , oth-ers were product and general liability insurance;5 provided insurance instruction , only insurance certificate or poli-cy in others;2 insurance applied foreign language .Conclusion:Through project access system , strengthening the ethical approval , strengthening quality management to prevent the damage occurred , participants damage happened after fully protect the health and rights and interests of the subjects , and actively promote clinical trial insurance to perfect our subjects′damage compensation mechanism , the protection of the rights of the subjects , and reduce the risk of clinical trials .%目的:分析与探讨药物临床试验中受试者损害赔偿方案现状,推动临床试验为受试者提供损害赔偿的实施与规范化。方法回顾性调查某院2008年1月~2014年12月药物临床试验对受试者提供赔偿情况,调查资料主要包括试验协议、知情同意书和保险。结果试验协议中均声明由试验药物引起的受试者损害赔偿由申办方承担,但缺乏细则。部分知情同意书中缺失受

  16. Compensation of chromatic and polarization mode dispersion in fiber-optic communication lines in microwave signals transmittion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaev, A. N.; Krishpents, G. P.; Davydov, V. V.; Vysoczkiy, M. G.

    2016-08-01

    Methods of dispersion compensation in fiber-optic communication lines. A new proposed method of electronic dispersion compensation in the transmission of microwave signals through fiber-optic lines. Represents is proposed the results of experimental studies of this method.

  17. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  18. 不同放牧率下糙隐子草种群补偿性生长的研究%Study on Over-compensation Growth of Cleistogenes squarrosa Population in Inner Mongolia Steppe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪诗平; 王艳芬

    2001-01-01

    Cleistogenes squarrosa ((Trin.) Keng) is a C4 plant and a short,perennial grass with drought tolerance that tends to occupy the medium degradation grassland in Inner Mongolia steppe. It is an ideal plant suitable for the studies on compensation or over-compensation growth because its important value of population is the maximum in the medium disturbance in Inner Mongolia steppe. The results showed that the over-compensation existed for net primary productivity (NPP) of Cleistogenes squarrosa population because the plant morphotypes remaining in the population were characterized by a higher density with small individual plant in moderate stocking rate (1.33 sheep.hm-2 during 138 days of growth seasons). As for an individual plant, grazing reduced the height and biomass per plant, but the above-ground net photosynthesis efficiency or above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) was increased and it almost did not affect the below-ground net primary productivity (BNPP) in the moderate stocking rate. However, the lower compensation of ANPP was a greater cost with BNPP in heavy stocking rate (>4.00 sheep.hm-2 during 138 days of growth season). From this study, it appears that the plant-herbivore association might be regarded as mutualistic in moderate grazing because not only the ANPP of the population was increased, but also was the efficiency of herbage utilization. However, the compensation of ANPP was attained at the cost of BNPP, therefore, the association between plant and herbivore might trade-off in heavy grazing because the temporary higher efficiency of herbage utilization could not keep the sustainable development of the population. The results support the grazing optimization hypothesis.%糙隐子草(Cleistogeness quarrosa(Trin.)Keng)是研究草原植物在放牧利用条件下补偿性生长及其机制的较理想的实验材料。通过对该草生产力的形成及其构成的研究表明,在适牧条件下,糙隐子草种群明显

  19. 16 CFR 16.16 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 16.16 Section 16.16 Commercial... MANAGEMENT § 16.16 Compensation. (a) Committee members. Unless otherwise provided by law, the Commission... cost to the Commission. The compensation to be paid to such consultant may not exceed the maximum...

  20. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  1. 45 CFR 1604.5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 1604.5 Section 1604.5 Public Welfare... Compensation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and § 1604.7(a), a recipient's written policies shall not permit a full-time attorney to receive any compensation for the outside practice of...

  2. 34 CFR 106.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 106.54 Section 106.54 Education... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice which, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages...

  3. 6 CFR 17.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 17.515 Section 17.515 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  4. 22 CFR 146.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 146.515 Section 146.515 Foreign... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  5. 32 CFR 196.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 196.515 Section 196.515 National... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  6. 41 CFR 101-4.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compensation. 101-4.515... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not... pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate...

  7. 45 CFR 618.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 618.515 Section 618.515 Public... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  8. 24 CFR 3.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 3.515 Section 3.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  9. 10 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 5.515 Section 5.515 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in...

  10. 45 CFR 86.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 86.54 Section 86.54 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.54 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  11. 7 CFR 15a.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 15a.54 Section 15a.54 Agriculture Office... Activities Prohibited § 15a.54 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice which, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  12. 13 CFR 113.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 113.515 Section 113... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  13. 22 CFR 229.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 229.515 Section 229.515 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  14. 18 CFR 1317.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 1317.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  15. 47 CFR 51.221 - Reciprocal compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reciprocal compensation. 51.221 Section 51.221... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.221 Reciprocal compensation. The rules governing reciprocal compensation are set forth in subpart H of this part....

  16. 45 CFR 2555.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 2555.515 Section 2555.515 Public... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  17. 43 CFR 41.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 41.515 Section 41.515 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  18. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836.577 Section 836.577 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL...' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  19. 49 CFR 25.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 25.515 Section 25.515 Transportation... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  20. 38 CFR 23.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 23.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  1. 29 CFR 36.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compensation. 36.515 Section 36.515 Labor Office of the... Activities Prohibited § 36.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  2. 15 CFR 8a.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 8a.515 Section 8a.515... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  3. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  4. 36 CFR 1211.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 1211.515... Prohibited § 1211.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the...

  5. 33 CFR 5.55 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 5.55 Section 5.55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.55 Compensation. No member of the Auxiliary shall receive any compensation for his services as...

  6. 45 CFR 1607.5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 1607.5 Section 1607.5 Public Welfare... Compensation. (a) While serving on the governing body of a recipient, no attorney member shall receive compensation from that recipient, but any member may receive a reasonable per diem expense payment...

  7. 10 CFR 1042.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 1042.515 Section 1042.515 Energy DEPARTMENT... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  8. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modul...

  9. 12 CFR 620.31 - Compensation committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation committees. 620.31 Section 620.31 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DISCLOSURE TO SHAREHOLDERS Bank and Association Audit and Compensation Committees § 620.31 Compensation committees. Each Farm Credit bank...

  10. 77 FR 4885 - Patent Compensation Board Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 780 RIN 1990-AA33 Patent Compensation Board Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel... Patent ] Compensation Board regulations to provide that the Secretary of Energy, or a person acting in that position, shall appoint, as needed, a three member panel to serve as the Patent Compensation...

  11. SU-E-T-357: Electronic Compensation Technique to Deliver Total Body Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, T [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Wang, I; Podgorsak, M [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient’s immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has conventionally been used to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Methods: Treatment plans utilizing electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two, specifically weighted, pair of opposed fields. One pair of open, large fields (collimator=45°), to encompass the patient’s entire anatomy, and one pair of smaller fields (collimator=0°) focused only on the thicker midsection of the patient. The optimal fluence for each one of the smaller fields was calculated at a patient specific penetration depth. Irregular surface compensators provide a more uniform dose distribution within the smaller opposed fields. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for the evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In one case, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 195.8% to 165.3% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the region of electronic compensation. The mean body doses calculated from the DVH were also reduced from the non-compensated 120.6% to 112.7% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more accurate delivery of the prescription dose. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not substantially increase the beam on time while it can significantly reduce the compensator

  12. 76 FR 37897 - Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ..., Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, Federal Employees' Compensation Act File, 67 FR 16826 (April 8... Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) by Employment Standards Order No. 2-74 (39 FR 34722). The... Programs (37 FR 20533) and an Office of Federal Employees' Compensation (37 FR 22979). In 1974, these...

  13. 75 FR 66589 - Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... cash compensation, golden parachute policy, severance or other aspects of compensation.'' See Report of... compensation policies and practices as they relate to risk management and risk-taking incentives, these... extent that risk considerations are a material aspect of the issuer's compensation policies or...

  14. 带有死区补偿的欠驱动AUV深度控制%Study on the depth control of underactuated AUV with dead-zone compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪兴; 苏玉民; 张国成

    2016-01-01

    由于舵桨联合操控的水下机器人舵机传动系统死区非线性的存在,严重影响了某水下机器人的深度控制效果。文章以该水下机器人为研究对象,同时考虑了其欠驱动的运动特性及外界有界干扰和模型参数摄动,设计了具有自适应补偿功能的PID控制器,利用Lyapunov稳定性理论,证明在该控制器作用下,该控制系统是全局稳定的。最后进行了仿真实验。实验结果表明该控制器具有很好的控制效果,是行之有效的。%In the underactuated AUV Controlled by thrusters and fins, the dead-zone nonlinearity of steer-ing engine transmission system can direct influence the depth control performance. In this paper, under-ac-tuated motion characteristic external bounded disturbance and model parameter perturbation are consid-ered. A PID with self-adaptive compensation function is proposed. With the help of Lyapunov function, the control system is proved to be globally stable. The simulation results show effectiveness of this method.

  15. Dynamical compensation in physiological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Omer; Swisa, Avital; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval; Alon, Uri

    2016-11-08

    Biological systems can maintain constant steady-state output despite variation in biochemical parameters, a property known as exact adaptation. Exact adaptation is achieved using integral feedback, an engineering strategy that ensures that the output of a system robustly tracks its desired value. However, it is unclear how physiological circuits also keep their output dynamics precise-including the amplitude and response time to a changing input. Such robustness is crucial for endocrine and neuronal homeostatic circuits because they need to provide a precise dynamic response in the face of wide variation in the physiological parameters of their target tissues; how such circuits compensate their dynamics for unavoidable natural fluctuations in parameters is unknown. Here, we present a design principle that provides the desired robustness, which we call dynamical compensation (DC). We present a class of circuits that show DC by means of a nonlinear feedback loop in which the regulated variable controls the functional mass of the controlling endocrine or neuronal tissue. This mechanism applies to the control of blood glucose by insulin and explains several experimental observations on insulin resistance. We provide evidence that this mechanism may also explain compensation and organ size control in other physiological circuits.

  16. Beam instability studies for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.

    1994-09-01

    Beam instability studies of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) during the period 1989--1993 are briefly reviewed in this paper. Various topics are covered: single bunch and multi-bunch, single beam and beam-beam, parasitic heating and active feedback, etc. Although the SSC will not be built, many of the results obtained from these studies remain as useful references to the accelerator community.

  17. An Eigenstructure Assignment for a Static Synchronous Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad N. Al-Husban

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Power flow through an AC transmission line is influenced by three basic electrical parameters, which are line impedance, magnitudes and phase-shift angle between the sending and receiving voltages. Therefore, the change in any of the three basic parameters means a change in the power flow through the transmission line. The aims of this research paper are: increase the power transfer capability of transmission systems, minimize the transmission losses, support a good voltage profile and retain system stability under large disturbances. Study the use of eigenstructure techniques for state feedback control of the power system static compensator. Therefore, the mathematical analysis was performed for eigenvector assignment, power flow transmission line and for the static compensator analysis based on the transformation of the three-phase into d-q frame. Approach: A novel control method for regulating the power system in case of abnormal conditions was carried out. The system considered is a static synchronous compensator. The study includes a detailed mathematical analysis of the impact of the shunt compensator on the power flow; investigation of the system constraints and their effects on the static compensator control; in addition simulation of static compensator to control a transmitted active power flow on the transmission line. The conducted method provides a way of constructing the state feedback gain matrix to satisfy a certain prescribed performance. Results: The solutions of the obtained equation were conducted using the computer simulation method for both open-loop and static compensator techniques. The result shows fast tracking of the power flow transient response when using the static compensator technique comparing with open-loop technique. However, the same trend of the behavior was observed for all cases. Conclusion: A new method for developing a parameterized feedback matrix that assigns a closed-loop prespecified

  18. PMD compensation based on a new type dynamic first-order PMD compensator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Shilong Pan; Jia Jia; Yanfu Yang; Caiyun Lou

    2006-01-01

    @@ A dynamic first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensator based on garnet and yttrium vanadate crystal has been proposed and implemented. Consisting of a differential group delay (DGD) generator and a Faraday rotator (FR), this PMD compensator has only two degrees of freedom. Feedback control and compensation algorithm are both very simple. Experimental results reveal the compensator behaviors to be excellent for PMD compensation in 40-Gb/s optical time domain multiplexing (OTDM)system.

  19. 78 FR 68867 - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed... Office of Workers' Compensation (OWCP) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, (OWCP) administers...

  20. Combination of Reactive Current Droop Compensation and Line Drop Compensation for Improving Voltage Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Qing; LIN Xiang-ning

    2009-01-01

    Recent events related to power system failure have shown that voltage collapse can be a cause of widespread outages.The thrust of this paper is to discuss and establish means of mitigating system voltage instability by using a combination of both reactive current droop compensation and line drop compensation.It is shown that the point that the voltage regulator controls can be defined by a new method which is based on a widely accepted vohage stability analysis tool.This tool can be used to determine which generators will have an impact on the maximum permissible loading of a bus.Dynamic analysis was carried out on the CIGRE Nordic test system to study the impact of control point location on time to collapse and it is shown that the new scheme can improve the voltage stability.

  1. A spectral climatology for atmospheric compensation of hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John H.; Resmini, Ronald G.

    2016-05-01

    Most Earth observation hyperspectral imagery (HSI) detection and identification algorithms depend critically upon a robust atmospheric compensation capability to correct for the effects of the atmosphere on the radiance signal. Atmospheric compensation methods typically perform optimally when ancillary ground truth data are available, e.g., high fidelity in situ radiometric observations or atmospheric profile measurements. When ground truth is incomplete or not available, additional assumptions must be made to perform the compensation. Meteorological climatologies are available to provide climatological norms for input into the radiative transfer models; however no such climatologies exist for empirical methods. The success of atmospheric compensation methods such as the empirical line method suggests that remotely sensed HSI scenes contain comprehensive sets of atmospheric state information within the spectral data itself. It is argued that large collections of empirically-derived atmospheric coefficients collected over a range of climatic and atmospheric conditions comprise a resource that can be applied to prospective atmospheric compensation problems. A previous study introduced a new climatological approach to atmospheric compensation in which empirically derived spectral information, rather than sensible atmospheric state variables, is the fundamental datum. The current work expands the approach across an experimental archive of 127 airborne HSI datasets spanning nine physical sites to represent varying climatological conditions. The representative atmospheric compensation coefficients are assembled in a scientific database of spectral observations and modeled data. Improvements to the modeling methods used to standardize the coefficients across varying collection and illumination geometries and the resulting comparisons of adjusted coefficients are presented. The climatological database is analyzed to show that common spectral similarity metrics can be used

  2. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Compensation during Gait using Hamstring Muscle Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalfamo, Paola Formento; Aguiar, Gerardo; Curi, Jorge; Braidot, Ariel

    2010-06-10

    Previous research has shown that an increase in hamstring activation may compensate for anterior tibial transalation (ATT) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee (ACLd); however, the effects of this compensation still remain unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify the activation of the hamstring muscles needed to compensate the ATT in ACLd knee during the complete gait cycle and to evaluate the effect of this compensation on quadriceps activation and joint contact forces. A two dimensional model of the knee was used, which included the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints, knee ligaments, the medial capsule and two muscles units. Simulations were conducted to determine the ATT in healthy and ACLd knee and the hamstring activation needed to correct the abnormal ATT to normal levels (100% compensation) and to 50% compensation. Then, the quadriceps activation and the joint contact forces were calculated. Results showed that 100% compensation would require hamstring and quadriceps activations larger than their maximum isometric force, and would generate an increment in the peak contact force at the tibiofemoral (115%) and patellofemoral (48%) joint with respect to the healthy knee. On the other hand, 50% compensation would require less force generated by the muscles (less than 0.85 of maximum isometric force) and smaller contact forces (peak tibiofemoral contact force increased 23% and peak patellofemoral contact force decreased 7.5% with respect to the healthy knee). Total compensation of ATT by means of increased hamstring activity is possible; however, partial compensation represents a less deleterious strategy.

  3. Discussions and Recommendations about Establishing Agro-ecological Compensation Mechanism in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; WU; Zichen; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism is the objective requirement for protecting agricultural ecological environment on the prerequisite of stabilizing and benefiting farmers,to realize protection in the process of development and promote development through protection.This study analyzed existing problems in the practice of establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism in Jiangsu Province,including failure to form systematic compensation system due to limited technological reserve,failure to bring into play expected compensation effect due to scant attention,and failure to set up perfect input mechanism due to insufficient financing channel.In line with these problems,it came up with feasible policy recommendations,including strictly implementing top frame design for agro-ecological compensation and giving impetus to standardized and institutionalized work,building pilot demonstration area for agro-ecological compensation,setting up diversified agro-ecological compensation approaches,establishing long-term security mechanism for agro-ecological compensation,and strengthening propaganda and education of agro-ecological compensation.It is expected to provide reference for establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism in Jiangsu Province,and also provide system guarantee for promoting ecological progress and agricultural modernization in Jiangsu Province.

  4. Suggestions on Forest Ecological Compensation-Taking Mudanjiang City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Zhang Zheng; Cui Li-juan; Siji K-Maunel; Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    The forest ecological compensation is an important factor to balance the interests of different areas for sustainable development and environment protection. Mudanjiang City in Heilongjiang Province of China is rich of forest resources. The forestry coverage rate reached 62.3% in 2014, after forestry conservation program from 2002. The authors explored the factors impacted on forest ecological compensation in Mudanjiang City, which was a demonstration as a case study, through experts' evaluation scores and AHP methodology to analyze the forest ecological compensation factors and lay the foundation for the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism. At the same time, we provided an example to explore the effective way and speed up the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism. The study found that the main factors that determined forest ecological compensation in Mudanjiang City were ecology and natural resources. Based on the analyses, some suggestions were put forward to promote the mechanism in a sustainable way.

  5. Executive-employee Compensation Gap and Firm Performance ——An Empirical Study Based on the Panel Data of China's Listed Manufacturing Companies%高管-员工薪酬差距与企业绩效——基于中国制造业上市公司面板数据的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵睿

    2012-01-01

    There are two very different basic theories that tournament theory and behavioral theory explain the impacts of the compensation gap between top managers and ordinary employees on enterprise performance. Tournament theory insists that big executive-employee compensation gap can reduce the cost of monitoring, and provide strong incentive for both the clients and the agents, therefore the increasing of the compensation gap will improve firm performance. But behavior theory purports that small executive-employee compensation gap will improve cooperation, reduce the political conspiracy and destroy management juggling as to improve firm performance. So according to those pure theories, it is will improve firm performance or not. , so small compensation gap will be better difficult to infer that big compensation gap The empirical strategy of this paper is fixed effect panel data model. We use Tobin's Q as the explained firm perform variable. The explanatory variables include executive-employee compensation gap, the square of the gap, average compensation of executives, average compensation of employees. The other explanatory variables such as the share ratio of executives, the proportion of the independent directors, enterprise asset scale, the number of employees, executive team size, and the dummy variable of the state-owned enterprise are also included. Using the panel data of all China's A-share listed manufacturing companies from the year of 1999 to 2009, this article empirically studies the effects of executive-employee compensation gap to firm performance. It finds that the relationship between compensation gap and firm performance is not linear, but likes an inverse U curve. It means that executive-employee compensation gap has positive effects on firm performance, but when the gap reaches a certain level, it will produce negative effects on firm performance. Furthermore, this relationship will not change with the characters of the controlling shareholders

  6. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  7. Electronic tissue compensation achieved with both dynamic and static multileaf collimator in eclipse treatment planning system for Clinac 6 EX and 2100 CD Varian linear accelerators: Feasibility and dosimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinhikar Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC and static multileaf collimator (SMLC, along with three-dimensional treatment planning system (3-D TPS, open the possibility of tissue compensation. A method using electronic tissue compensator (ETC has been implemented in Eclipse 3-D TPS (V 7.3, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA at our center. The ETC was tested for head and neck conformal radiotherapy planning. The purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of DMLC and SMLC in head and neck field irradiation for delivering homogeneous dose in the midplane at a pre-defined depth. In addition, emphasis was given to the dosimetric aspects in commissioning ETC in Eclipse. A Head and Neck Phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, USA was used for the dosimetric verification. Planning was carried out for both DMLC and SMLC ETC plans. The dose calculated at central axis by eclipse with DMLC and SMLC was noted. This was compared with the doses measured on machine with ion chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD. The calculated isodose curves and profiles were compared with the measured ones. The dose profiles along the two major axes from Eclipse were also compared with the profiles obtained from Amorphous Silicon (AS500 Electronic portal imaging device (EPID on Clinac 6 EX machine. In uniform dose regions, measured dose values agreed with the calculated doses within 3%. Agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in the dose gradient zone was within 3 mm. The isodose curves and the profiles were found to be in good agreement with the measured curves and profiles. The measured and the calculated dose profiles along the two major axes were flat for both DMLC and SMLC. The dosimetric verification of ETC for both the linacs demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the ETC treatment modality for achieving uniform dose distributions. Therefore, ETC can be used as a tool in head and neck treatment planning optimization for improved dose uniformity.

  8. 上市公司股票期权激励与公司风险的实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Relationship between Stock Options Compensation and Risk of Chinese A-share Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉; 程东全; 顾峰

    2012-01-01

    Using the sample of Chinese A-share listed companies from 2006 to 2009, we make an empirical study on the relationship between managerial stock options compensation, investment risk and operating risk. We find that managerial stock options compensation, investment risk and operating risk have notably positive effects on each other. By introducing the concept of Vega, we indicate that the stock price volatility will increase the value of executives' stock options, and reduce their risk aversion; thereby they will increase the company's investment risk and operating risk. By controlling other factors and endogenous, we empirically prove the conclusion.%利用我国A股上市公司2006~2009年的数据,对上市公司高管人员的股票期权激励与公司投资风险和经营风险之间的关系进行实证研究,并通过引入股票期权的Vega分析未来股价波动对公司高管人员股票期权收益等的影响.结果表明:股票期权激励与公司的投资风险、经营风险存在显著的双向正相关关系;股价的波动性将增加高管人员股票期权的收益,减轻管理者对风险的厌恶感,从而增加公司的投资风险与经营风险.

  9. Electronic tissue compensation achieved with both dynamic and static multileaf collimator in eclipse treatment planning system for Clinac 6 EX and 2100 CD Varian linear accelerators: Feasibility and dosimetric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Sharma, Pramod K.; Patkar, Sachin; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M.; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) and static multileaf collimator (SMLC), along with three-dimensional treatment planning system (3-D TPS), open the possibility of tissue compensation. A method using electronic tissue compensator (ETC) has been implemented in Eclipse 3-D TPS (V 7.3, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) at our center. The ETC was tested for head and neck conformal radiotherapy planning. The purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of DMLC and SMLC in head and neck field irradiation for delivering homogeneous dose in the midplane at a pre-defined depth. In addition, emphasis was given to the dosimetric aspects in commissioning ETC in Eclipse. A Head and Neck Phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, USA) was used for the dosimetric verification. Planning was carried out for both DMLC and SMLC ETC plans. The dose calculated at central axis by eclipse with DMLC and SMLC was noted. This was compared with the doses measured on machine with ion chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). The calculated isodose curves and profiles were compared with the measured ones. The dose profiles along the two major axes from Eclipse were also compared with the profiles obtained from Amorphous Silicon (AS500) Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) on Clinac 6 EX machine. In uniform dose regions, measured dose values agreed with the calculated doses within 3%. Agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in the dose gradient zone was within 3 mm. The isodose curves and the profiles were found to be in good agreement with the measured curves and profiles. The measured and the calculated dose profiles along the two major axes were flat for both DMLC and SMLC. The dosimetric verification of ETC for both the linacs demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the ETC treatment modality for achieving uniform dose distributions. Therefore, ETC can be used as a tool in head and neck treatment planning optimization for improved dose uniformity. PMID

  10. 湿地生态保护和补偿机制探讨--以洪湖湿地为例%Study on Wetland Ecological Protection and Compensation Mechanism-Take Honghu Lake as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操建华

    2016-01-01

    It is a strategic measure and effective form to enhance wetland protection and coordinate the in-terests of all stakeholders.This study reviews the three main stages of Honghu wetland ecological protec-tion and compensation practices and summaries its characteristics,effectiveness and problems.The policy suggestions have also been proposed,which focus on the following opinions such as government’s main responsibility,the payment system by environmental vandals,decision-making mechanism based on com-munity participation,the minimum compensation standards based on protection costs and development op-portunity cost,sustainable utilization,and reduction of the fishermen ’s relying on the wetland through training and industry development.%建立和实施湿地生态补偿机制是加强湿地保护的战略性措施和协调各方利益的有效形式。通过归纳和评价洪湖湿地生态保护与补偿实践,以及从湖区小范围试点到大规模铺开的三个阶段的主要做法、成效、特点和存在的问题,提出了具体的政策建议。强调了建设初期的政府责任、生态环境破坏者赔偿机制、基于社区参与的决策机制、基于生态保护成本和发展机会成本为最低依据的补偿标准、保护与合理利用相结合,以及通过产业发展和就业培训促进渔民转产等观点。

  11. Reforming Miners' Lung Disease Compensation in South Africa--Long Overdue but What Are the Options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Rodney; Rees, David

    2016-02-01

    A number of countries have workers' compensation systems which reserve specific arrangements for workers in certain sectors, notably mining. This article describes the current impetus to reform of the century-old South African mining compensation system. It is intended as a case study of the implications of harmonization of two disparate compensation systems for occupational lung disease, specifically in relation to equity in financial benefits, equity in coverage, linkage of compensation to disease prevention, and efficient administration. After decades of neglect, it is clear that while inferior financial benefits for miners are no longer tenable, the costs of equalization are not supportable by the current actuarial status of the miners' Compensation Fund. There is also an argument for two miner-specific entitlements to be retained--free medical examinations for ex-miners and autopsy-based posthumous compensation. A new dispensation to support the casualties of a declining industry will require sustained political will.

  12. Opportunities for the compensation of the fluctuation feed-in from renewable energy sources. Study commissioned by the German Renewable Energy Federation; Moeglichkeiten zum Ausgleich Fluktuierender Einspeisungen aus Erneuerbaren Energien. Studie im Auftrag des Bundesverbandes Erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzikalla, Norbert; Achner, Siggi; Bruehl, Stefan [BET Buero fuer Energiewirtschaft und technische Planung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-05-01

    The platform 'system transformation' of the German Renewable Energy Federation (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) accompanies the forthcoming restructuring of the energy supply towards 100 percent renewable energy. The previous discussions of this platform provided two results: the fluctuating renewable energies must be placed at the center of considerations in order to enable a sustainable system design and market design. Furthermore, the question of how the fluctuating feed-in from renewable energy sources can be compensated has to be answered. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on these compensation options. There are different flexibility options available in order to create a safe, environmentally sustainable and affordable energy system.

  13. Fixman compensating potential for general branched molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Abhinandan, E-mail: Abhi.Jain@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Kandel, Saugat; Wagner, Jeffrey; Larsen, Adrien; Vaidehi, Nagarajan, E-mail: nvaidehi@coh.org [Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    The technique of constraining high frequency modes of molecular motion is an effective way to increase simulation time scale and improve conformational sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, it has been shown that constraints on higher frequency modes such as bond lengths and bond angles stiffen the molecular model, thereby introducing systematic biases in the statistical behavior of the simulations. Fixman proposed a compensating potential to remove such biases in the thermodynamic and kinetic properties calculated from dynamics simulations. Previous implementations of the Fixman potential have been limited to only short serial chain systems. In this paper, we present a spatial operator algebra based algorithm to calculate the Fixman potential and its gradient within constrained dynamics simulations for branched topology molecules of any size. Our numerical studies on molecules of increasing complexity validate our algorithm by demonstrating recovery of the dihedral angle probability distribution function for systems that range in complexity from serial chains to protein molecules. We observe that the Fixman compensating potential recovers the free energy surface of a serial chain polymer, thus annulling the biases caused by constraining the bond lengths and bond angles. The inclusion of Fixman potential entails only a modest increase in the computational cost in these simulations. We believe that this work represents the first instance where the Fixman potential has been used for general branched systems, and establishes the viability for its use in constrained dynamics simulations of proteins and other macromolecules.

  14. Audiovisual bimodal mutual compensation of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The perception of human languages is inherently a multi-modalprocess, in which audio information can be compensated by visual information to improve the recognition performance. Such a phenomenon in English, German, Spanish and so on has been researched, but in Chinese it has not been reported yet. In our experiment, 14 syllables (/ba, bi, bian, biao, bin, de, di, dian, duo, dong, gai, gan, gen, gu/), extracted from Chinese audiovisual bimodal speech database CAVSR-1.0, were pronounced by 10 subjects. The audio-only stimuli, audiovisual stimuli, and visual-only stimuli were recognized by 20 observers. The audio-only stimuli and audiovisual stimuli both were presented under 5 conditions: no noise, SNR 0 dB, -8 dB, -12 dB, and -16 dB. The experimental result is studied and the following conclusions for Chinese speech are reached. Human beings can recognize visual-only stimuli rather well. The place of articulation determines the visual distinction. In noisy environment, audio information can remarkably be compensated by visual information and as a result the recognition performance is greatly improved.

  15. Object individuation and compensation in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Silvia; Fait, Elisa; Brignani, Debora; Mazza, Veronica

    2016-04-01

    Theories on neural compensation suggest that aged participants overactivate the brain areas involved in a task to compensate for the age-related decline. In this electrophysiological study, we investigated the temporal locus of neural overactivation in aging during multiple target processing. We measured performance and three event-related brain potential responses (N1, N2pc, and contralateral delay activity) in young and old adults, while they enumerated a variable number (1-4) of targets presented in an easy (distractor absent) or difficult (distractor present) condition. The main results indicated that although N2pc (∼200 ms) increased in amplitude in the distractor-present condition in the young group, no modulation occurred for the old group. Old participants were associated with larger N2pc amplitudes than young participants in the distractor-absent condition, where both groups had comparable levels of accuracy. These effects were not present for N1 and contralateral delay activity. Overall, the data suggest that in enumeration, aging is associated with compensatory effects that rely on the selection mechanism responsible for target individuation.

  16. International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund was established under a 1971 Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization Convention to supplement the 1969 Civil Liability Convention (CLC) under which shipowners were held liable for damage caused by oil spills up to $18 million per incident; the new fund increases the amount payable per incident to $57 million as of April 1979. A further increase up to about $76 million is now under consideration. During 1979, the Fund has been concerned in particular with claims arising out of oil spills in Japan and the Baltic Sea. In the former case, some 540 tons of oil was lost by Miya Maru No. 8 after a collision in March 1979 in the Japanese Inland Sea; cleanup costs and compensation to fishermen were about (pound sterling)400,000. In the latter phase, crude oil apparently coming from the Russian tanker Antonio Gramsci, which grounded off Ventspils in February 1979, drifted across the Baltic and was trapped in or under the ice. After the ice melted, it spread to more than 2000 islands in the Swedish Archipelaso; cleanup measures may result in claims as high as (pound sterling) 8 million.

  17. Engineering Compensations in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Micahel; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... compensations based on forward recovery principles. We extend the existing Web service transaction coordination architecture and infrastructure in order to support flexible compensation operations. A contract-based approach is being used, which allows the specification of permitted compensations at runtime. We...... introduce the abstract service and adapter components which allow us to separate the compensation logic from the coordination logic. In this way, we can easily plug in or plug out different compensation strategies based on a specification language defined on top of basic compensation activities and complex...

  18. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  19. Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Lugowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flow-reaction forces acting in hydraulic valves have been studied for many decades. Despite this, they are difficult to account for due to the complexities of the jet flow. This paper focuses only on the reduction, also referred to as compensation, of the flow force as applied to a valve spool featuring a profile of a turbine bucket. Fluid power textbooks explain the compensation taking place on such a profile by applying Newton laws of motion to the profile and deliver an equation for the magnitude and the direction of the flow force. This paper shows that both the magnitude and the direction of the compensating flow force are incorrect if calculated from the textbook equation. A corrected analysis of the dynamic forces is presented that are in agreement with earlier experiments by this author. It follows that the compensating flow force should be calculated from the static-pressure imbalance on the spool profile. That is, not Newton but Pascal law should be applied to calculate the compensating flow force.

  20. An integrated thermal compensation system for MEMS inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Ren; Teng, Li-Tao; Chao, Jen-Wei; Sue, Chung-Yang; Lin, Chih-Hsiou; Chen, Hong-Ren; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2014-03-04

    An active thermal compensation system for a low temperature-bias-drift (TBD) MEMS-based gyroscope is proposed in this study. First, a micro-gyroscope is fabricated by a high-aspect-ratio silicon-on-glass (SOG) process and vacuum packaged by glass frit bonding. Moreover, a drive/readout ASIC, implemented by the 0.25 µm 1P5M standard CMOS process, is designed and integrated with the gyroscope by directly wire bonding. Then, since the temperature effect is one of the critical issues in the high performance gyroscope applications, the temperature-dependent characteristics of the micro-gyroscope are discussed. Furthermore, to compensate the TBD of the micro-gyroscope, a thermal compensation system is proposed and integrated in the aforementioned ASIC to actively tune the parameters in the digital trimming mechanism, which is designed in the readout ASIC. Finally, some experimental results demonstrate that the TBD of the micro-gyroscope can be compensated effectively by the proposed compensation system.

  1. An Integrated Thermal Compensation System for MEMS Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ren Chiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An active thermal compensation system for a low temperature-bias-drift (TBD MEMS-based gyroscope is proposed in this study. First, a micro-gyroscope is fabricated by a high-aspect-ratio silicon-on-glass (SOG process and vacuum packaged by glass frit bonding. Moreover, a drive/readout ASIC, implemented by the 0.25 µm 1P5M standard CMOS process, is designed and integrated with the gyroscope by directly wire bonding. Then, since the temperature effect is one of the critical issues in the high performance gyroscope applications, the temperature-dependent characteristics of the micro-gyroscope are discussed. Furthermore, to compensate the TBD of the micro-gyroscope, a thermal compensation system is proposed and integrated in the aforementioned ASIC to actively tune the parameters in the digital trimming mechanism, which is designed in the readout ASIC. Finally, some experimental results demonstrate that the TBD of the micro-gyroscope can be compensated effectively by the proposed compensation system.

  2. Compensation Strategies: Tracking Movement in EFL Learners' Speaking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Alireza; Negin Taji, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the compensation strategies used by Iranian elementary EFL learners across the speaking skill. The participants of this study were a sample of 120 EFL elementary male and female learners whose ages ranged between 11 and 25 at a language institute in Rostam, Iran. The main participants were homogenized through…

  3. Can privacy concerns for insurance of connected cars be compensated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, S.; De Reuver, G.A.; Kroesen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-of-things technologies enable service providers such as insurance companies to collect vast amounts of privacy-sensitive data on car drivers. This paper studies whether and how privacy concerns of car owners can be compensated by offering monetary benefits. We study the case of usage based

  4. Delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Sanchez-Tapias, J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B....

  5. Seigniorage Compensation for Swaziland and Policy Implication.

    OpenAIRE

    Mkhonta, Simiso F.

    1992-01-01

    Seigniorage compensation for Swaziland is found to depend on Emalangeni in circulation in Swaziland besides the obvious effect of an increase in ZAR/Rands in circulation in South Africa. Where a percent increase in Emalangeni in circulation in Swaziland at time t decreases seigniorage compensation by 0.186 percent and a percent increase in Emalangeni in circulation at time t-1 decreases seigniorage compensation by 0.134 percent through both substitution and base effects respectively. Thus a...

  6. Undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluskin, Efim; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Xu, Joseph Z.

    2016-05-31

    A method and apparatus for implementing dynamic compensation of magnetic forces for undulators are provided. An undulator includes a respective set of magnet arrays, each attached to a strongback, and placed on horizontal slides and positioned parallel relative to each other with a predetermined gap. Magnetic forces are compensated by a set of compensation springs placed along the strongback. The compensation springs are conical springs having exponential-force characteristics that substantially match undulator magnetic forces independently of the predetermined gap. The conical springs are positioned along the length of the magnets.

  7. 14 CFR 1253.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.515 Compensation. A...

  8. Enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation was found to be a universal law in protein unfolding based on over 3 000 experimental data. Water molecular reorganization accompanying the protein unfolding was suggested as the origin of the enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding. It is indicated that the enthalpy-entropy compensation constitutes the physical foundation that satisfies the biological need of the small free energy changes in protein unfolding, without the sacrifice of the bio-diversity of proteins. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory proposed herein also provides valuable insights into the Privalov's puzzle of enthalpy and entropy convergence in protein unfolding.

  9. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  10. Lithium compensation for full cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Xilin; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Jiguang, Jiguang

    2016-05-17

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a lithium-ion battery system comprising an anode, an anode current collector, and a layer of lithium metal in contact with the current collector, but not in contact with the anode. The lithium compensation layer dissolves into the electrolyte to compensate for the loss of lithium ions during usage of the full cell. The specific placement of the lithium compensation layer, such that there is no direct physical contact between the lithium compensation layer and the anode, provides certain advantages.

  11. Broadband dispersion compensation using microstructure fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhang; Xiaomin Ren; Yongzhao Xu; Zinan Wang; Yongqing Huang; Xue Chen

    2007-01-01

    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876Dispersion and dispersion slope compensation of 10-Gb/s pulses using microstructure fibers (MFs) is demonstrated experimentally. A 26-m MF is used to compensate the dispersion of 2-km standard singe mode fiber in a 20-nm range in C band. The experimental results show that a significant improvement can be achieved in the quality of the observed pulses with the dispersion compensation. Moreover, the further research shows that the MF can compensate the anomalous dispersion of a single mode fiber within ±0.27 ps/(nm·km) over a 50-nm wavelength range from 1520 to 1570 nm.

  12. Linear Optics Compensation of the Superconducting Wiggler in HLS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lin; Li, Wei-min; Xu, Hong-liang; Zhang, He

    2005-01-01

    Hefei Light Source is a dedicated VUV light source. A superconducting wiggler magnet with 6 Tesla magnetic field was installed on the storage ring to generate hard X-ray radiation. With the compensation of tune shift due to insertion device, beam was successfully stored, but the beam lifetime was decreased much. In order to cure the lifetime, a simple hard-edge model of the wiggler was constructed in lattice simulation code and the compensation scheme was extensively studied again. Calculation showed that it is difficulty to localize the strong focusing effects from wiggler magnet. Then, a new scheme was brought forward and experimental result showed that it can restore the beam lifetime largely. As the application of LOCO method in HLS, a new compensation scheme was calculated by response matrix fitting, and the experimental result also presented in this paper.

  13. Mandatory IFRS adoption and executive compensation: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchuan Hou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS affects the contractual benefits of using accounting information to determine executive compensation in China. After controlling for firm and corporate governance characteristics, we find strong evidence supporting the positive role of mandatory IFRS adoption on the accounting-based performance sensitivity of executive compensation. Subsample analysis suggests that improvements in accounting-based performance sensitivity after IFRS adoption differ across regions with various levels of institutional quality and across firms that are affected to a different extent by the adoption. Additional analysis supports the argument that the positive effects of IFRS adoption on the use of accounting performance in executive compensation are driven by the reduction in accounting conservatism associated with IFRS adoption.

  14. Mandatory IFRS adoption and executive compensation:Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingchuan; Hou; Qinglu; Jin; Lanfang; Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how the mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS) affects the contractual benefits of using accounting information to determine executive compensation in China. After controlling for firm and corporate governance characteristics, we find strong evidence supporting the positive role of mandatory IFRS adoption on the accounting-based performance sensitivity of executive compensation. Subsample analysis suggests that improvements in accounting-based performance sensitivity after IFRS adoption differ across regions with various levels of institutional quality and across firms that are affected to a different extent by the adoption. Additional analysis supports the argument that the positive effects of IFRS adoption on the use of accounting performance in executive compensation are driven by the reduction in accounting conservatism associated with IFRS adoption.

  15. Beam loading compensation for the NLC low frequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Miller, R.; Farkas, D.; Raubenheimer, T.; Tang, H.; Yeremian, D.

    1997-03-01

    The NLC low rf linacs are heavily loaded by a beam of about 130 ns in macropulse length (90 bunches) and a current up to 2.75 Amps. Beam loading voltage generates a large energy spread along the bunch train. This energy spread is critical for lattice design and, if not properly compensated, induces emittance growth and in turn lowers the luminosity of the machine. In this paper, the authors study the {Delta}F and {Delta}T beam loading compensation techniques for the NLC low rf linacs. They will apply these methods to the NLC low rf linacs to demonstrate the efficacy of these methods. Finally, they discuss a hybrid {Delta}T + {Delta}F method to improve the efficiency of beam loading compensation.

  16. Thermal effects and thermal compensation in the OSIRIS camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J. Jesús; Tejada, Carlos; Farah, Alejandro; Rasilla, Jose L.; Fuentes, F. Javier

    2003-03-01

    Tight stability requirements for the imager/spectrograph OSIRIS (a Day One optical instrument for the GTC telescope) demand a careful treatment of thermal effects within the OSIRIS camera. Mostly due to the thermal response of refraction indices of its glasses (and not so much to curvature, spacing or thickness variations of the lenses), the camera optics alone degrades beyond requirements the image quality and plate scale under the expected ambient temperature variations (about 1.8 °C/hour). Thermal effects and thermal compensator studies of the OSIRIS camera are first summarized, before discussing how the motion (of a few microns per °C) of the 3rd camera doublet, as a sole compensator, practically eliminates thermal influences on both image quality and plate scale. A concept for the passive implementation of the compensator is also discussed.

  17. Dosage compensation, the origin and the afterlife of sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jan; Meller, Victoria H

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 100 years Drosophila has been developed into an outstanding model system for the study of evolutionary processes. A fascinating aspect of evolution is the differentiation of sex chromosomes. Organisms with highly differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the mammalian X and Y, must compensate for the imbalance in gene dosage that this creates. The need to adjust the expression of sex-linked genes is a potent force driving the rise of regulatory mechanisms that act on an entire chromosome. This review will contrast the process of dosage compensation in Drosophila with the divergent strategies adopted by other model organisms. While the machinery of sex chromosome compensation is different in each instance, all share the ability to direct chromatin modifications to an entire chromosome. This review will also explore the idea that chromosome-targeting systems are sometimes adapted for other purposes. This appears the likely source of a chromosome-wide targeting system displayed by the Drosophila fourth chromosome.

  18. Factors Influencing CEO Compensation in US Telecommunication Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garanina Tatiana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define the relationship between a set of factors and CEO compensation that will enable companies to imply better corporate governance practices in their management process. Developed econometric model is tested on the data of US telecom companies for the period 2004-2012. The study revealed that CEO compensation is strongly and positively related to revenue and earnings per share of the company, and unrelated to return on net assets and market value added. These results enable companies to use CEO compensation system as an effective mechanism to eliminate agency problem and, consequently, agency costs. The main directions for further research in this field are outlined.

  19. The Compensation and Benefits System: Private Companies vs. Budgetary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Bogdan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic evolution of the last decades has entailed major changes concerning the Human Resource Management practices, in both private and budgetary sector of Romania. In order to maintain efficiency and market competitivity, a company must adapt to these changes by altering its human resource strategy since managers are encountering increasingly complex challenges as to attracting, motivating and retaining employees. Such an objective might be accomplished by elaborating a competitive system of employee compensation. This article focuses on the stage reached by the Human Resource Management in the compensation and benefits system of the private and budgetary sector. For the latter, we are focusing on the romanian system of higher education. This study demonstrates that the compensation and benefits system which is implemented in romanian universities is limited and can offer few opportunities as compared to the one implemented by private companies. It is worth saying that the legal system has a negative impact in this matter.

  20. Managers’ Compensation in a Mixed Ownership Industry: Evidence from Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sean Shenghsiu; Hirth, Richard A.; Smith, Dean G.

    2016-01-01

    An extensive literature is devoted to differences between for-profit and non-profit health-care providers’ prices, utilization, and quality. Less is known about for-profit and non-profit managers’ compensation and its relationship with financial and quality performance. The aim of this study is to examine whether for-profit and non-profit nursing homes place differential weights on financial and quality performance in determining managers’ compensation. Using a unique 8-year dataset on Ohio nursing homes, fixed-effect regression models of managers’ compensation include financial and quality performance as well as other explanatory variables concerning firm and market characteristics and manager qualifications. Among for-profit nursing homes, compensation of owner-managers and non-owner managers are compared. Compensation of for-profit managers is significantly positively associated with profit margin and return-on-assets, while compensation of non-profit managers does not exhibit any consistent relationship with financial measures. Compensation of neither for-profit nor non-profit managers is significantly related to quality measures. Nursing home size and managers’ years of experience are the only consistent determinants of compensation. Owner-managers earn significantly higher compensation than non-owner managers and their compensation is less related to nursing home performance. Finding that home size and experience are strong determinants of compensation, and the association with ownership and financial performance for for-profit nursing homes are as expected. The insignificant relationship between compensation and quality performance is potentially troublesome. PMID:28083528

  1. No evidence that HPV vaccination leads to sexual risk compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bo T

    2016-06-02

    Uptake of the HPV vaccine has been lower than the uptake of most other childhood vaccines offered in public programs. Since the HPV vaccine protects against a sexually transmitted virus, one barrier to uptake specific to the HPV vaccine may be the concern that vaccination may encourage risky sexual behaviour. Unanimous findings from recent studies show that HPV vaccination does not lead to sexual risk compensation, which is an important message to parents, clinicians and other decision-makers regarding HPV vaccination. Some issues remain to be investigated, like HPV vaccination and sexual risk compensation among boys.

  2. Price Elasticities of Food Demand: Compensated vs Uncompensated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Kenneth W; Si, Jiawei

    2016-11-01

    Two recent studies have provided a comprehensive review/summary of a large number of estimates of the price elasticity of food consumption using a meta-regression approach. In this letter, we introduce a way of removing the income effect from these elasticities to recover the compensated elasticities. Although the income effect is small, the compensated elasticities vary by income group. Both types of elasticity should possibly be considered when assessing the impact of policy changes on food consumption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 外派海员人身伤亡赔偿问题的研究%Study on issues relating to compensation for death or injury of seafarers serving onboard foreign ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付松悦; 王玉洋

    2012-01-01

    文中就外派海员人身伤亡赔偿的依据和赔偿额度进行了分析,对给予外派海员合理赔偿提出了建议。%This paper analyses the basis and amount of compensation fir death or injury of seafarers serving onboard t-oreign ships and provides some suggestions to ensure reasonable compensation fir those seafarers serving on forcign ships.

  4. A new compensator at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2005-01-01

    In 2001 a first Static Var Compensator (SVC) based on a set of thyristor-controlled reactors was commissioned for the SPS. This was the first step in the process of replacing the obsolete saturated reactors installed in the early seventies. The second step is now in preparation: dismantling of the so-called “North compensator” and replacing it with a second SVC, essentially identical to the one commissioned in 2001. This paper describes the project and its consequences for the operation of the 400/18 kV main substation. The paper describes briefly the recuperation of certain existing components, civil engineering and other hardware. Finally a budget estimation and the planning are presented.

  5. 76 FR 6009 - Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... more specific shareholder opinion through separate votes on cash compensation, golden parachute policy... 402(s) \\65\\ of Regulation S-K about the issuer's compensation policies and practices as they relate to... the issuer's compensation policies or decisions for named executive officers, the issuer is...

  6. Beslissingsprocessen van verkeersdeelnemers : covernota bij de rapporten van W.H. Janssen: "Risk compensation and the effect of an incentive : a laboratory study" (IFZ 1988 C-26), "An experimental evaluation of safety incentive schemes" (IZF 1989 C-19), en "Seat belt wearing and driving behaviour : an empirical investigation" (IZF 1991 C-15).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.

    1993-01-01

    This cover note comments on the following three TNO Institute for Perception (IZF) Reports: (1) "Risk compensation and the effect of an incentive: a laboratory study"; (2) "An experimental evaluation of safety incentive schemes"; and (3) "Seat belt wearing and driving behaviour: an empirical investi

  7. 生态补偿在小流域尺度的实践——以安徽省秋浦河流域为例%Practice of Eco-compensation Mechanism in Small Watershed A Case Study of Qiupu River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐勤; 荣慧芳

    2011-01-01

    针对小流域生态补偿实践中管理体制与机制不健全,补偿交易成本高,补偿标准、补偿主体、范围难以确定,补偿方式单一等弊端,以安徽境内秋浦河为例,采用系统研究、模型研究、文献研究、实证研究方法,运用系统理论,构建了其生态补偿实施体系.结果表明:秋浦河流域生态补偿实践框架,由驱动力、法规保障、管理与运行、监督等子系统构成.政策与社会基础、流域上下游对水质、水流调节的供求关系是生态补偿的驱动力;制定生态补偿法规、成立生态补偿委员会是实施补偿的基础;构建多元融资与支付机制、多元补偿方式机制、协商、调解为主的补偿途经机制、监督机制、科学确定补偿标准等是实施补偿的关键.基于秋浦河流域上游提供的生态服务及保护生态受损的发展成本,估算了2009年实际补偿金额为40553.66万元.秋浦河流域生态补偿有利于协调流域不同群体的环境与经济利益,有利于流域可持续发展与环境友好型社会建设,可为我国小流域生态补偿实践提供借鉴.%Some deficiencies still exist in practice of small watershed ecological compensation cases such as imperfect management system, indeterminate compensation standards and compensation subjects, single compensation pattern. Using model research, literature method and empirical approach, this study constructs eco-compensation mechanism for Qiupu River based on system theory, including driving forces, legal guarantee, management and operation systems and monitoring mechanism. Social foundation and supply and demand of the whole river is driving force of eco-compensation. Eco-compensation committee is the foundation for eco-compensation. Eco-compensation mechanism law, multivariate compensation mechanism, monitoring mechanism and scientific standard mechanism are all the key elements to implement the eco-compensation. This paper figures out

  8. Speech Compensation for Time-Scale-Modified Auditory Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogane, Rintaro; Honda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine speech compensation in response to time-scale-modified auditory feedback during the transition of the semivowel for a target utterance of /ija/. Method: Each utterance session consisted of 10 control trials in the normal feedback condition followed by 20 perturbed trials in the modified auditory…

  9. Crime victims’ experiences with seeking compensation: a qualitative exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Hebly (Marnix); J.D.M. van Dongen (Josanne); S.D. Lindenbergh (Siewert)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article describes and discusses the results of an exploratory qualitative study regarding the experiences of victims of crime with damage recovery. It examines the steps taken by crime victims to obtain compensation, their considerations in whether or not to follow

  10. Review of "Assessing the Compensation of Public-School Teachers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    This report compares the pay, pension costs and retiree health benefits of teachers with those of similarly qualified private-sector workers. The study concludes that teachers receive total compensation 52% greater than fair market levels, which translates into a $120 billion annual "overcharge" to taxpayers. Built on a series of faulty analyses,…

  11. Workers' Compensation Claims and Physical Fitness Capacity of Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study compared police officers' physical fitness levels with workers' compensation (WC) claims. Officers who collected WC were predominantly female, younger, and lower ranking, with better physical fitness than officers not collecting WC. Officers in the second highest fitness level and older officers with greater cardiovascular fitness had…

  12. Changes in Muscle Activation after Reach Training with Gravity Compensation in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Gerdienke B.; Krabben, Thijs; Renzenbrink, Gerbert J.; Ijzerman, Maarten J.; Hermens, Hermie J.; Jannink, Michiel J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of gravity compensation training on reaching and underlying changes in muscle activation. In this clinical trial, eight chronic stroke patients with limited arm function received 18 sessions (30 min) of gravity-compensated reach training (during 6 weeks) in combination with a rehabilitation…

  13. The linkages between business strategies and compensation policies using miles and snow's framework

    OpenAIRE

    Saura, M. D.; Gómez-Mejía, Luis R.

    1996-01-01

    This study links a multidimensional measure of compensatíon strategy to Miles and Snow's (1978) business strategies, and examines their interactive impact on firm performance. The results reported here indicate that a more mechanistic compensation strategy makes a greater contribution to firm performance among defenders, while a more organic compensation strategy makes a greater contribution to firm performance among prospectors

  14. Design of Anti-windup Compensator for Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Chen, Zhe; Su, Chi

    2013-01-01

    -windup compensator (AWC) is applied to the controller of the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system to improve power system stability. First, power system with actuator saturation is described to formulate the problem mathematically. Then, uniform anti-windup scheme is studied and compensator...

  15. Time-varying phase diversity turbulence compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Schutte, K.; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Long range object identification needs visual identification over large distances. However, atmospheric turbulence does hinder long range imaging. Therefore it is crucial to compensate the visual artifacts due to atmospheric turbulence. In this paper we propose a new method to compensate these turbu

  16. 45 CFR 63.35 - Dual compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual compensation. 63.35 Section 63.35 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE... compensation. If a project staff member or consultant of one grantee is involved simultaneously in two or...

  17. 28 CFR 345.54 - Overtime compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overtime compensation. 345.54 Section 345.54 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.54 Overtime compensation. An...

  18. 28 CFR 34.111 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 34.111 Section 34.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.111 Compensation. All peer reviewers will be eligible to be paid according to applicable...

  19. 24 CFR 964.340 - Resident compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident compensation. 964.340 Section 964.340 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) Program § 964.340 Resident compensation. Residents employed to provide services or renovation...

  20. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113 Section 136.113 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT General Procedure § 136.113 Other compensation....

  1. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...

  2. Springback Compensation: Fundamental Topics and Practical Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingbeek, R.; Meinders, T.; Ohnimus, S.; Petzoldt, M.; Weiher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Now that the simulation of deep drawing processes has become more reliable the virtual compensation of the forming tools has become reality. In literature, the Displacement Adjustment (DA) algorithm has proved to be most effective. In this article it is shown how the compensation factor, required fo

  3. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  4. A brief history of dosage compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stanley M. Gartler

    2014-08-01

    In 1914, H. J. Muller postulated the origin of the Y chromosome as having resulted from restricted recombination between homologous sex chromosomes in the male and the accumulation of deleterious mutations. This evolutionary process leads to dosage compensation. This article lays out a brief history of dosage compensation in genetics.

  5. Color Data Compensation for Illumination Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pranchalee Rattanasakornchai; Yasushi Hoshino; Chun Weilin

    2004-01-01

    Compensation method for illumination change, which has big influences on the characteristics of imaging system, is studied. On the condition that color chart is placed in the view of camera, the imaging system recognizes the color chart and the signals from the camera are processed by using the color chart data. Concerning the light from the window, and fluorescent light, it is confirmed that color chart is possible to be recognized and the color system is corrected to the expected chart signal within the error 10 % by considering quadratic terms of RGB. This method is considered to improve the accuracy of motion detection and also to better video communication by realizing preferalle color reproduction.

  6. 20 CFR 211.15 - Verification of compensation claimed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of compensation claimed. 211.15... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.15 Verification of compensation claimed. Compensation claimed by an... Board before it may be credited. An employee's claim to compensation not credited shall be processed...

  7. 20 CFR 211.2 - Definition of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 211.2 Section 211... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.2 Definition of compensation. (a) The term compensation means any form... termination allowance paid under section 702 of that Act. Compensation may be paid as money, a commodity,...

  8. 20 CFR 211.14 - Maximum creditable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum creditable compensation. 211.14... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.14 Maximum creditable compensation. Maximum creditable compensation... Employment Accounts shall notify each employer of the amount of maximum creditable compensation applicable...

  9. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is computed by first determining the employee's highest 60 months of railroad compensation...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.313 - Homeland Security Compensation Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... compensation matters such as Departmental compensation policies and principles, the annual allocation of funds... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Homeland Security Compensation Committee... Homeland Security Compensation Committee. (a) DHS will establish a Homeland Security Compensation...

  11. 分蓄洪区生态补偿机制研究:以洪湖分蓄洪区为例%Research on the ecological compensation mechanism of flood diversion and storage areas:a case study of Honghu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭贤则; 周子晨

    2015-01-01

    为研究分蓄洪区的生态补偿机制,以洪湖分蓄洪区为例,通过分析洪湖分蓄洪区发展现状和发展过程中遇到的困难,指出对分蓄洪区进行生态补偿,弥补因分蓄洪工程建设和运用而减少的损失,促进当地经济可持续发展是很有必要的。论述分蓄洪区生态补偿的内容:补偿范围、补偿主体和对象、补偿标准、补偿方式。提出国家应该尽快完善对分蓄洪区进行生态补偿的法规政策,促进分蓄洪区经济可持续发展。%A case study of Honghu ,the paper research in the ecological compensation mechanism of flood diversion and storage areas.By analyzing the current situation of Honghu flood diversion and storage areas and the difficulties encountered in the procese of development,it points out that it necessary to use the ecological compensation to flood diversion and storage areas,it can make up for the loss of the construction and use of flood diversion and storage areas,and accelerate the sustainable development of the local economy.The paper discusses the range of compensation,the subject and object of compensation,the standard of compensation and the way of compensation for the ecological compensation mechanism of flood diversion and storage areas.The government should improve the regulations and policies of the ecological compensation mechanism of flood diversion and storage areas as soon as possible,to accelerate the sustainable development of the economy of flood diversion and storage areas.

  12. Compensating large PMD by a fiber grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tangjun Li(李唐军); Muguang Wang(王目光); Cao Diao(刁操); Shuisheng Jian(简水生)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the first- and second-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) with the amount of 132.994-ps differential group-delay (DGD) and maximum 476.129-ps/nm second-order PMD can be compensated by a two-stages PMD compensator at a 40-Gb/s optical fiber communication system. The first stage has one free degree that is used for first order and high orders PMD compensations by rotating the state of polarization. The second-stage is used for remainder PMD compensations. After compensation, the average DGD and the maximum second-order PMD are reduced to 345.310 fs and 3.102 ps/nm, respectively.

  13. Rectangular Laser Resonators with Astigmatic Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    2005-01-01

    An investigation of rectangular resonators with a view to the compensation of astigmatism has been performed. In order to have beam waists placed at the same positions in the tangential and sagittal planes, pairs of equal mirrors were considered. It was found that at least two concave mirrors...... are necessary to obtain compensation. Four-concave-mirror systems are most stable close to the quadratic geometry, although the symmetric quadratic resonator itself cannot be compensated for astigmatism. Using four equal concave mirrors, compensation of astigmatism can be obtained in two arms at the same time....... Usually several stability ranges are found for four-mirror resonators with pair-wise equal mirrors, and it is possible with these systems to obtain small compensated beam waist radii suitable for frequency conversion. Relevant formulae are given and several relevant examples are shown using simulation...

  14. Variable compensation in Primary Healthcare: a report on the experience in Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli Neto, Paulo; Faoro, Nilza Teresinha; Prado Júnior, José Carlos do; Pisco, Luís Augusto Coelho

    2016-05-01

    How professionals are compensated may affect how they perform their tasks. Fixed compensation may take the form of wages, payment for productivity or capitation. In addition to fixed compensation, there are numerous mechanisms for variable compensation. This article describes the experience of Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, and Lisbon in Portugal, using different models of performance-based compensation. In all three of these examples, management felt the need to offer monetary reward to achieve certain goals. The indicators analyzed the structure, processes and outcomes, and assessed professionals individual and as part of healthcare teams. In Lisbon, variable compensation can be as high as 40% of the base wage, while in Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro it is limited to 10%. Despite the growing use of this management tool in Brazil and the world, further studies are required to analyze the effectiveness of variable compensation.

  15. A Review of Studies of Agro-ecology Compensation in Recent Ten Years%近十年来国内关于农业生态补偿研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海军; 陈刚

    2013-01-01

    The research literatures of agro-ecological compensation in recent ten years were divided into five aspects: mechanism of agro-ecological compensation mechanism, system of agro-ecological compensation, legislation of agro-ecological compensation, standard of agro-ecological compensation, and foreign experience of agro-ecological compensation. And through analyzing, it was found that there are some shortages in the aspects of the basic conceptual definition, application of accounting technology, the localization of foreign experience, argument of area adaptability of default premise and subjects' comprehensive application. Finally, the development tendency and direction of agro-ecology compensation were summarized.%将近十年来国内期刊关于农业生态补偿的研究文献被归纳为以农业生态补偿的机制为中心的探讨、关于农业生态补偿的制度讨论、农业生态补偿的立法研究、对国外经验的借鉴和讨论补偿的核心问题——补偿标准等5个主要方面,进行了回顾与分析,发现目前的研究在基本概念的认识、核算方法的综合应用、国外经验的本土化、默认前提的地区适应性论证、学科综合等方面还存在不足.最后,总结了其发展趋势与方向.

  16. 基于二次曲线拟合的相位编码多普勒补偿研究%Study on Phase Coded Doppler Compensation Based on Conic Fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨咚咚; 屈建社; 杨辉; 凤宏晓

    2015-01-01

    相位编码信号由于其脉冲间码型捷变、图钉状模糊函数和不存在距离-多普勒模糊等低截获性能,在当前雷达对抗领域获得广泛的关注和应用。由于目标运动会使相位编码回波受到多普勒频率调制,破坏了各个调相码之间的相位关系,相关处理会出现失配现象,输出主瓣降低,旁瓣升高,系统在探测高速目标会出现多普勒失配。根据m序列码脉冲压缩随着目标速度的失配变化和目标多普勒容限关系,本论文研究了较为实用的二次曲线拟合局部脉冲压缩曲线。根据三点多普勒补偿的脉压结果实现全局最优补偿的自动估算。所提算法具有简单的实现过程,易于工程实现。%The phase coded signal causes widely attention and is applied in current radar antijamming field since its code pattern agility among pulses, thumbtack ambiguity funcion and inexisistence of LPI capabilities like range and Doppler ambiguity. Doppler mismatch may occur when the system is detecting high speed targets since phase coded echo may be modulated by Doppler frequency owing to target movement; this will damage phase relation among phase modulating codes, and the related processing will occur mismatch phenomenon,and the output main lobe is low, and side lobe upscending. More practical applied conic fitting partial pulse compression curve is studied ac-cording to m sequence code pulse compression changes as mismatch of target speed and target Doppler tolerance re-lation. The automatic estimation of global optimal compensation is implemented according to pulse compression re-sult of 3-point Doppler compensation. The proposed algorithm is featured with simple implementation process and easily realization in engineering.

  17. Compensating Losses in Bridge Employment? Examining Relations between Compensation Strategies, Health Problems, and Intention to Remain at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Andreas; De Lange, Annet; Weigl, Matthias; Oxfart, Caroline; Van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the precursors of bridge employment, this study aimed to investigate whether individual action strategies in terms of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC; Baltes & Baltes, 1990) are able to buffer the well-known negative impact of poor health on the intention to remain in the workforce. 784 employees (60-85…

  18. Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. (Beck (R.W.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Confidence in the Knowledge Base of English Language Learners Studying Science: Using Agency to Compensate for the Lack of Adequate Linguistic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Aneta L.; Mansour, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the cultural and linguistic environments of learners are often associated with identity shifts. The aim of this study was to explore what identity shifts occur when science students from Bahraini national schools transition to an international university. The role of two aspects of learner identity—that is, English proficiency and science background knowledge, was examined in this study. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with students and with university lecturers. The analysis suggested three conceptual themes of (1) reliance on science knowledge, (2) the auxiliary role of professional language and (3) adequacy of student learning strategies, demonstrating what subjective meanings the participants ascribe to the interplay between science knowledge and linguistic ability. The findings suggest that despite the lack of adequate linguistic attributes, the students are still able to successfully learn science in the context of language change. It is also implied that through strategically utilising their academic background in science, students preserve their identity as successful learners from school through to university. We conclude that agency plays a separate role in transition and is not a sole function of identity. We also contest the idea of language as a necessary attribute of one's identity as it was perceived by our participants to be an advantage and an auxiliary tool rather than a requirement.

  20. Examining Geospatial Technology Tools to Compensate for Limited Exposures and Integrate Diverse Map and Data Resources in Geological Studies of the Southern Blue Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, N.; Ryan, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    aspects built in, and allow immediate, global-scale representations. However, these systems include relatively limited capabilities for independent data manipulation, and are constrained by the spatial detail of the integrated databases. Absent the ability to separate out individual rock units from geological maps, the regional study of rock associations via GeoMapApp is necessarily problematic. Also, low-resolution topographic base maps and digital elevation models (DEMs) inhibit exports to three-dimensional manipulation programs, and the exported content can only be minimally manipulated. For multivariate geological data resources such as one encounters in the study of mountain belts, an multi-tool approach combining commercial ArcGIS data management with various visualization tools appears to produce the best results in terms of research study of such datasets, and for the production of effective classroom visualizations.

  1. Sagittal Balance in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Radiographic Study of Spinopelvic Compensation After Selective Posterior Fusion of Thoracolumbar/Lumbar (Lenke 5C) Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xi-Ming; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Xiao-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Bai, Yu-Shu; Li, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between spinal sagittal alignment and pelvic parameters is well known in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. However, few studies have reported the sagittal spinopelvic relationship after selective posterior fusion of thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves. We evaluated the relationship between spinal sagittal alignment and the pelvis, and analyzed how the pelvic sagittal state is adjusted in Lenke type 5C patients. We conducted a retrospective study of 36 patients with Lenke type 5C curves who received selective posterior TL/L curve fusion. Coronal and spinopelvic sagittal parameters were pre and postoperatively compared. Pearson coefficients were used to analyze the correlation between all spinopelvic sagittal parameters before and after surgery. We also evaluated 3 pelvic morphologies (anteverted, normal, and retroverted) before and after surgery. Preoperatively, the mean pelvic incidence was 46.0°, with a pelvic tilt and sacral slope (SS) of 8.2° and 37.8°, respectively, and 25% (9/36) of patients had an anteverted pelvis, whereas the other 75% had a normal pelvis. Postoperatively, 42% (15/36) of patients had a retroverted pelvis, 53% (19/36) had a normal pelvis, and 2 patients had an anteverted pelvis. Logistic regression analyses yielded 2 factors that were significantly associated with the risk for a postoperative unrecovered anteverted pelvis, including increased lumbar lordosis (LL) (odds ratio [OR] 4.8, P = 0.029) and increased SS (OR 5.6, P = 0.018). Four factors were significantly associated with the risk of a postoperative newly anteverted pelvis, including LL at the final follow-up (OR 6.9, P = 0.009), increased LL (OR 8.9, P = 0.003), LL below fusion (OR 9.4, P = 0.002), and increased SS (OR 11.5, P = 0.001). The pelvic state may be adjusted after selective posterior TL/L curve fusion in Lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. It is difficult to improve an anteverted pelvis in patients who have an LL

  2. Self Organization in Compensated Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2004-03-01

    In partially compensated semiconductor (PCS) Fermi level is pinned to donor sub-band. Due to positional randomness and almost isoenergetic hoppings, donor-spanned electronic subsystem in PCS forms fluid-like highly mobile collective state. This makes PCS playground for pattern formation, self-organization, complexity emergence, electronic neural networks, and perhaps even for origins of life, bioevolution and consciousness. Through effects of impact and/or Auger ionization of donor sites, whole PCS may collapse (spinodal decomposition) into microblocks potentially capable of replication and protobiological activity (DNA analogue). Electronic screening effects may act in RNA fashion by introducing additional length scale(s) to system. Spontaneous quantum computing on charged/neutral sites becomes potential generator of informationally loaded microstructures akin to "Carl Sagan Effect" (hidden messages in Pi in his "Contact") or informational self-organization of "Library of Babel" of J.L. Borges. Even general relativity effects at Planck scale (R.Penrose) may affect the dynamics through (e.g.) isotopic variations of atomic mass and local density (A.A.Berezin, 1992). Thus, PCS can serve as toy model (experimental and computational) at interface of physics and life sciences.

  3. GVD compensation schemes with considering PMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiying Yang(杨爱英); Anshi Xu(徐安士); Deming Wu(吴德明)

    2003-01-01

    Three group velocity dispersion (GVD) compensation schemes, i.e., the post-compensation, pre-compensation and hybrid-compensation schemes, are discussed with considering polarization mode disper-sion (PMD). In the 10- and 40-Gbit/s non-return-zero (NRZ) on-off-key (OOK) systems, three physicalfactors, Kerr effect, GVD and PMD are considered. The numerical results show that, when the impactof PMD is taken into account, the GVD pre-compensation scheme performs best with more than 1 dBbetter of average eye-opening penalty (EOP) when input power is up to 10 dBm in the 10-Gbit/s system.However the GVD post-compensation scheme perforns best for the case of 40 Gbit/s with input power lessthan 13 dBm, and GVD pre-compensation will be better if the input power increased beyond this range.The results are different from those already reported under the assumption that the impact of PMD isneglected. Therefore, the research in this paper provide a different insight into the system optimizationwhen PMD, Kerr effect and GVD are considered.

  4. Compensator configurations for load currents' symmetrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinaru, D.; Manescu, L. G.; Dinu, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper approaches aspects regarding the mitigation effects of asymmetries in 3-phase 3-wire networks. The measure consisting in connecting of load current symmetrization devices at the load coupling point is presented. A time-variation of compensators parameters is determined as a function of the time-recorded electrical values. The general sizing principle of the load current symmetrization reactive components is based on a simple equivalent model of the unbalanced 3-phase loads. By using these compensators a certain control of the power components transits is ensured in the network. The control is based on the variations laws of the compensators parameters as functions of the recorded electrical values: [B] = [T]·[M]. The link between compensator parameters and measured values is ensured by a transformation matrix [T] for each operation conditions of the supply network. Additional conditions for improving of energy and efficiency performance of the compensator are considered: i.e. reactive power compensation. The compensator sizing algorithm was implemented into a MATLAB environment software, which generate the time-evolution of the parameters of load current symmetrization device. The input data of application takes into account time-recording of the electrical values. By using the compensator sizing software, some results were achieved for the case of a consumer connected at 20 kV busbar of a distribution substation, during 24 hours measurement session. Even the sizing of the compensators aimed some additional network operation aspects (power factor correction) correlated with the total or major load symmetrizations, the harmonics aspects of the network values were neglected.

  5. 农业清洁生产技术应用的补偿机制实证研究——以云南省大理州洱源县农户调查为例%Empirical Study on the Compensation Mechanism about Adoption of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology:A Case Study on the Survey of Farmers in Eryuan County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 尹昌斌; 程磊磊

    2011-01-01

    A case study was carried out on the survey of farmers in Eryuan County,Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province.Research method is the contingent valuation method(CVM).Some theoretical and practical problems were probed assuming the government would provide compensation to farmers.First analyzed the willingness to accept adoption about three types of agricultural cleaner production technologies(ACPT) including of using special fertilizer,straw returned farmland and construction of septic tanks.Second determinated the two compensation manners accepted by farmers were cash compensation and material compensation.Third estimated the three categories of compensation standard wanted by farmers.Finally investigated the degree of perceived need by farmers about the three types of supporting policies that would be implemented by the government to promote clean technology development.%以云南省大理州洱源县农户调查为例,开展农户对于农业清洁生产技术采纳的补偿意愿实证研究。研究采用意愿价值评估法,在假设政府提供补偿的前提下进行农户问卷调查,获得农户对于采用不同农业清洁技术的受偿意愿数据,从而为制定相应的补偿政策提供依据。首先,分析了农户对于使用配方肥、秸秆还田及修建化粪池等3类清洁技术的采纳意愿;其次,明确了农户愿意接受的现金和实物2种补偿方式;第三,简单估算了农户采纳3类清洁技术希望获得的补偿标准;最后,调查了农户对于政府可能采取的推进清洁技术发展的配套政策的偏好程度。

  6. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding andmotion compensation. The methods incorporate state-of-the-art lossless techniques such ascontext based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding, high resolution motion field estimation,3d-dimensional predictors, prediction...... using one or multiple previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images are up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better...... than coding that does not utilize motion compensation....

  7. Ion dynamics in plasma compensation scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, I.V.; Lotov, K.V. E-mail: lotov@inp.nsk.su

    2002-06-11

    In this paper the ability of a plasma to compensate beam-induced fields at the interaction point of muon colliders is discussed. Among numerous factors that limit beam and plasma parameters for which a given compensation degree can be achieved, one of the most important limitations (the motion of plasma ions) is analyzed in details. It is found that this limitation is determined by an instability of the relative motion of plasma electrons and ions. It is shown that discussed parameters of ultimate muon colliders fall outside the applicability area of plasma compensation.

  8. A salaried compensation model for postanesthesia nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushala, M E; Henderson, M A

    1995-08-01

    Health care organizations involved in innovative and creative work redesign projects may find traditional pay structures inadequate to meet the needs of the changing environment. The idea of salaried compensation for registered nurses is not unprecedented. However, few salaried compensation models for nurses are described in the literature. This article presents a model that we believe will be of particular interest to nurses in PACUs, because its design allows for adequate call coverage plus flexibility in scheduling. In addition, this compensation model eliminates incidental overtime, thus allowing for a more predictable salary budget.

  9. Advanced median method for timing jitter compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Zhu Jiangmiao; Jan Verspecht; Liu Mingliang; Li Yang

    2008-01-01

    Timing jitter is one of the main factors that influence on the accuracy of time domain precision measurement. Timing jitter compensation is one of the problems people concern. Because of the flaws of median method, PDF deconvolution method and synthetic method, we put forward a new method for timing jitter compensation, which is called advanced median method. The theory of the advanced median method based on probability and statistics is analyzed, and the process of the advanced median method is summarized in this paper. Simulation and experiment show that compared with other methods, the new method could compensate timing jitter effectively.

  10. 矿产资源开发生态补偿指标体系及模型构建研究%Study on construction of ecological compensation index system and model of mineral resources exploitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 廖建军; 杨知建

    2015-01-01

    According to the survey data and related documents of bureau of land and resources in Hengyang city,use of environmental pollution, environmental damage compensation and other environmental tort compensation,a total of 11 factors to build Hengyang mineral resources devel-opment ecological compensation index system,using AHP method to determine the index compensation priority,and on the basis of constructing the index system,combined with the relevant statistical information,according to the estimation method to establish the compensation standard of the 11 factors model of environmental cost. The results can provide scientific basis for Hengyang city make policy of mineral resources exploita-tion compensation.%依据调查所得资料及衡阳市国土资源局相关文件,利用环境污染补偿、环境破坏补偿及其他环境侵权补偿方面共11个因子构建衡阳市矿产资源开发生态补偿指标体系,采用层次分析法( AHP)得出各指标补偿优先顺序,并依据构建的指标体系,结合相关统计信息,按环境成本估算法建立这11个因子的补偿标准模型,研究结果可为衡阳市在本区域内进行矿产资源开发补偿决策提供科学依据。

  11. Compensation packages: a strategic tool for employees’ performance and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Adewale OSIBANJO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rate at which employees in private universities in Nigeria jump from one university to the other is becoming more disturbing and this could be as a result of compensation packages of different universities to attract competent employees. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of compensation packages on employees’ job performance and retention in a selected private University in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria. A model was developed and tested using one hundred and eleven valid questionnaires which were completed by academics and non-academic staff of the university. The collected data were carefully analyzed using simple percentage supported by structural equation modelling to test the hypotheses and relationships that may exist among the variables under consideration. The results showed strong relationship between compensation packages and employees’ performance and retention. The summary of the findings indicates that there is strong correlation between the tested dependent and independent variables (salary, bonus, incentives, allowances, and fringe benefits. However, management and decision makers should endeavour to review compensation packages at various levels in order to earn employees’ satisfaction and prevention of high labour turnover among the members of staff.

  12. Polystyrene microspheres enable 10‐color compensation for immunophenotyping of primary human leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Karen D.; Norman, John C.; Huye, Leslie; Hegde, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Compensation is a critical process for the unbiased analysis of flow cytometry data. Numerous compensation strategies exist, including the use of bead‐based products. The purpose of this study was to determine whether beads, specifically polystyrene microspheres (PSMS) compare to the use of primary leukocytes for single color based compensation when conducting polychromatic flow cytometry. To do so, we stained individual tubes of both PSMS and leukocytes with panel specific antibodies conjugated to fluorochromes corresponding to fluorescent channels FL1‐FL10. We compared the matrix generated by PSMS to that generated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Ideal for compensation is a sample with both a discrete negative population and a bright positive population. We demonstrate that PSMS display autofluorescence properties similar to PBMC. When comparing PSMS to PBMC for compensation PSMS yielded more evenly distributed and discrete negative and positive populations to use for compensation. We analyzed three donors' PBMC stained with our 10‐color T cell subpopulation panel using compensation generated by PSMS vs.PBMC and detected no significant differences in the population distribution. Panel specific antibodies bound to PSMS represent an invaluable valid tool to generate suitable compensation matrices especially when sample material is limited and/or the sample requires analysis of dynamically modulated or rare events. © 2015 The Authors. Cytometry Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26202733

  13. An integrated method for estimating compensations for environmental services of forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Xiao-bo; DAI Li-min; HU Xiao-fei

    2005-01-01

    The values of non-marketable forest products have largely been ignored, which made the conservation of the natural resources increasingly more economically difficult. Based on the previous studies, compensation subsidy for the values of non-marketable forest products was computed with a method of compensation coefficient that combines the Engel Coefficient and Logistic Curve. The method was applied in Changbai Mountain area. The total value of the compensation subsidy in 1999 was supposed to 637.93 Yuan·hm-2, of which 70% would be paid directly to the local stakeholders and is much higher than the compensation subsidy previously computed (75Yuan·hm-2·year-1). It is currently impossible for the central government to bear all the costs and investment of natural forest protection. A practical solution is that the local government should invest in forest and put the compensation subsidy into the current revenue.

  14. A new quantitative model of ecological compensation based on ecosystem capital in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang

    2009-04-01

    Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors.

  15. Theoretical study on ignition compensating temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature sensitivity of the propellant has significant influence on the interior ballistic performance of guns. Many physical and chemical approaches are employed to decrease this temperature sensitivity of the propellant. In this article, it is proposed that the temperature sensitivity of the propellant is changed by altering the factors required to ignition. A one-dimensional two-phase flow interior ballistic model is established to analyze the relation between ignition factors and temperature sensitivity. The simulation results show that the propellant temperature sensitivity is changed by altering the ignition factors. That is, the interior ballistic performance is affected by altering the size of fire hole, breaking liner pressure, and ignition location. Based on the simulation results, the temperature sensitivity can be controlled by matching of charges and intelligent control ignition system.

  16. A Study of Ultrasonic Wavefront Distortion Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    in Section 6.1A . High resolution, high contrast breast imaging implies seeing a black cyst or a hypoechogenic lesion 60 dB weaker than a brightly...hyperechogenic or hypoechogenic . If you identify any lesions please circle and number them on images. Figure 20 shows optical amplitude and phase

  17. 环境再生产与森林生态效益补偿%THE ENVIRONMENTAL REPRODUCTION AND COMPENSATION FOR ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF FOREST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄选瑞; 张玉珍; 藤起和; 赵连清; 陈占稳

    2002-01-01

    To set up compensation system for ecological benefits of forest is important safeguard that can coordinate the benefit relationship between forest manager and person who benefit from environmental services function of forest,ensure funds for forest protection and management be firmly invested.By analyzing the problems confronted with study and practice in compensation system for ecological benefits of forest,author put forward that environmental reproduction is one of theoretical base of compensation system for ecological benefits of forest.The paper make systematic discussion about why compensation system for ecological benefits of forest should be made,how much funds should be compensated,who should supply with compensation funds and how to compensate.Meanwhile,the contents about how to use compensation funds,who should use funds and how to monitor the use of funds are also discussed.Finally,the overall train of though for directing study and practices be put forward.

  18. 7 CFR 930.61 - Handler compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Regulations § 930.61 Handler compensation. Each handler handling cherries from a...

  19. 40 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.515 Compensation. A recipient...

  20. 28 CFR 54.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.515 Compensation. A recipient...

  1. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, provides a federal "superfund" to clean up...

  2. Compensating for estimation smoothing in kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky, Vera

    1996-01-01

    Smoothing is a characteristic inherent to all minimum mean-square-error spatial estimators such as kriging. Cross-validation can be used to detect and model such smoothing. Inversion of the model produces a new estimator-compensated kriging. A numerical comparison based on an exhaustive permeability sampling of a 4-fr2 slab of Berea Sandstone shows that the estimation surface generated by compensated kriging has properties intermediate between those generated by ordinary kriging and stochastic realizations resulting from simulated annealing and sequential Gaussian simulation. The frequency distribution is well reproduced by the compensated kriging surface, which also approximates the experimental semivariogram well - better than ordinary kriging, but not as well as stochastic realizations. Compensated kriging produces surfaces that are more accurate than stochastic realizations, but not as accurate as ordinary kriging. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Multichannel Adaptive Polarization Mode Dispersion Compensation with One Compensator in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Transmission Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi; CHEN Ming-hua; ZHANG Ji-yu; XIE Shi-zhong

    2007-01-01

    A simple two-section polarization mode dispersion(PMD) compensator is proposed for multichannel PMD compensation, which can compensate two or even more channels simultaneously. Because of the statistical characteristics and the frequency-dependence of PMD, for current single mode fiber with moderate PMD, the probability that all channels are severely degraded at the same time is extremely small, which makes it possible to compensate a dense wavelength division multiplexing(DWDM) transmission system with moderate PMD using this compensator. It is shown that the outage probability of a 40×43Gb/s DWDM transmission system using this compensator is decreased significantly from 3.6×10-3 to 3.6×10-5.

  4. Reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М.Galynovskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of models of three-phase-to-single-phase rotary reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators in a circuit simulation system is analyzed. It is shown that combined control mode of opposite-connected thyristors may result in the exciter armature winding short circuits both at the thyristor feed-forward and lagging current delay angles. It must be taken into consideration when developing brushless compensator excitation systems.

  5. Reactive power compensation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Wolfgang; Just, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive resource on reactive power compensation, presenting the design, application and operation of reactive power equipment and installations The area of reactive power compensation is gaining increasing importance worldwide. If suitably designed, it is capable of improving voltage quality significantly, meaning that losses in equipment and power systems are reduced, the permissible loading of equipment can be increased, and the over-all stability of system operation improved. Ultimately, energy use and CO2 emisson are reduced. This unique guide discusses the

  6. Nonlinear Thermal Compensators for WGM Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    In an alternative version of a proposed bimaterial thermal compensator for a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator, a mechanical element having nonlinear stiffness would be added to enable stabilization of a desired resonance frequency at a suitable fixed working temperature. The previous version was described in "Bimaterial Thermal Compensators for WGM Resonators." Both versions are intended to serve as inexpensive means of preventing (to first order) or reducing temperature-related changes in resonance frequencies.

  7. Transitioning to value-based physician compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    An effective strategy for creating a viable physician compensation plan should include nine key steps or tactics: Get physicians on board early. Engage a physician champion. Create a compensation committee. Address department-level issues and differences. Verify the plan's affordability. Adopt a routine review schedule. Understand the payer environment and keep in contact with payers. Stay abreast of industry trends. Maintain an ongoing dialogue with physicians.

  8. Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.

  9. Compensated Fiber-Optic Frequency Distribution Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Meeting 447 UNCOMPENSATED RESULTS The results of the thermal tests are shown in Figures 8 and 9. For the uncompensated link test, we used a...used in IFLs that rely on long-term stability. Figure 8. Thermal test results of the uncompensated link...Figure 9. Thermal test results of the compensated link. The phase variation is almost completely eliminated, confirming the thermal compensation

  10. Dynamic Strain Conductivity of Compensated Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainabidinov, S. Z.; Mamatkarimov, O. O.; Tursunov, I. G.; Tuychiev, U. A.

    In this paper the strain thermal Hall effect has been investigated in initial n-Si(P) and strongly compensated n-Si(Ni) samples of different compensation degree, which have been subject to uniform hydrostatic compression (UHC) under a pulse pressure regime ranging from 0 to 7×108 Pa. An experimental investigation of the strain thermal effect in the n-Si(Ni) sample leads to an essential strain conductivity increase, which is largely controlled by density variations of majority carriers.

  11. The effect of financial compensation on health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury: systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnel F Murgatroyd

    Full Text Available The effect of financial compensation on health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury requires further exploration because results to date are varied and controversial. This systematic review identifies compensation related factors associated with poorer health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury. Searches were conducted using electronic medical journal databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Informit, Web of Science for prospective studies published up to October 2012. Selection criteria included: prognostic factors associated with validated health outcomes; six or more months follow up; and multivariate statistical analysis. Studies solely measuring return to work outcomes were excluded. Twenty nine articles were synthesised and then assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to determine evidence levels. The results were mixed. There was strong evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer psychological function; and legal representation and poorer physical function. There was moderate evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer physical function; and legal representation and poorer psychological function. There was limited evidence of an association between compensation status and increased pain. In seven studies the association depended on the outcome measured. No studies reported an association between compensation related factors and improved health outcomes. Further research is needed to find plausible reasons why compensation related factors are associated with poorer health following musculoskeletal injury.

  12. Does injury compensation lead to worse health after whiplash? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B; Gargett, Susan; Sterling, Michele

    2012-06-01

    One might expect that injury compensation would leave injured parties better off than they would otherwise have been, yet many believe that compensation does more harm than good. This study systematically reviews the evidence on this "compensation hypothesis" in relation to compensable whiplash injuries. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, PsycInfo, CCTR, Lexis, and EconLit were searched from the date of their inception to April 2010 to locate longitudinal studies, published in English, comparing the health outcomes of adults exposed/not exposed to compensation-related factors. Studies concerning serious neck injuries, using claimants only, or using proxy measures of health outcomes were excluded. Eleven studies were included. These examined the effect of lawyer involvement, litigation, claim submission, or previous claims on pain and other health outcomes. Among the 16 results reported were 9 statistically significant negative associations between compensation-related factors and health outcomes. Irrespective of the compensation-related factor involved and the health outcome measured, the quality of these studies was similar to studies that did not find a significant negative association: most took some measures to address selection bias, confounding, and measurement bias, and none resolved the potential for reverse causality bias that arises in the relationship between compensation-related factors and health. Unless ambiguous causal pathways are addressed, one cannot draw conclusions from statistical associations, regardless of their statistical significance and the extent of measures to address other sources of bias. Consequently, there is no clear evidence to support the idea that compensation and its related processes lead to worse health.

  13. Can privacy concerns for insurance of connected cars be compensated?

    OpenAIRE

    Derikx, S.; De Reuver, G.A.; Kroesen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-of-things technologies enable service providers such as insurance companies to collect vast amounts of privacy-sensitive data on car drivers. This paper studies whether and how privacy concerns of car owners can be compensated by offering monetary benefits. We study the case of usage based car insurance services for which the insurance fee is adapted to measured mileage and driving behaviour. A conjoint experiment shows that consumers prefer their current insurance products to usage ...

  14. 恒负载时转速降落开环补偿方法与实验研究%Open-loop Speed Loss Compensation Method and Experiment Study under Constant Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐南更; 彭天好; 张川; 许军; 王光洪

    2012-01-01

    分析变转速泵控马达调速系统转速降落的主要原因,指出系统泄漏和电机机械特性均能引起转速降落,推导出转速降落补偿系数表达式,建立了恒负载时变转速泵控马达调速系统转速降落补偿方法.实验结果表明:在恒负载时,采用所提出的补偿方法能够很好地实现转速降落补偿.%The reasons of motor speed loss in variable-speed pump-control-motor governing system were analyzed. It was pointed out that system leakage and electromotor mechanical properties were the reasons. Speed drop compensation coefficient expression was derived, and the compensation method under constant load in variable-speed pump-control-motor governing system was built. The experiment results show that using this compensation method, motor speed loss in constant load can be compensated.

  15. Statutory Compensation for the Wrongly Imprisoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Tina

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the unique challenges faced by men and women who have been wrongly convicted, imprisoned, and subsequently exonerated, and discusses the relevance of social work to exoneration. The ways in which exonerees can seek compensation are described, and state compensation statutes are examined, delineating monetary and reentry support provisions. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia have compensation statutes. Monetary and reentry support provisions vary greatly by state, with few providing both. The wrongly imprisoned experience the same effects of incarceration as other prisoners; their psychological trauma, however, is exacerbated by the fact that they are innocent. Furthermore, upon release, exonerees have fewer reentry supports available to them compared with prisoners released on parole. This article supports the position that the state has a responsibility to provide adequate compensation, monetarily and servicewise, to the wrongly imprisoned, and that compensation by statutory means should be standard in every state. This article also highlights how social workers are uniquely qualified to provide immediate and long-term social and mental health services to exonerees, as well as to advocate for comprehensive exoneree compensation through state statutes.

  16. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  17. Study on Incentive Pattern of Senior Executives' Compensation of Chinese listed Companies%我国上市公司高管激励型薪酬模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨刚; 王磊; 由雯

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate aim to regulate and manage the listed companies' executive compensation is to make the executive compensation decision mechanism consistent with the enterprise's development strategy,so that the level of compensation and compensation structure can be more effective to attract and motivate executives.This paper puts forward incentive compensation model of listed company executives through the analysis of top executive compensation of listed company by the board of directors of subjective pricing system defect.It intends to make subjective pricing model into an objective pricing model.At the same time,the paper is trying to make contrast selection and proper modification to executives equity incentive mode of listed companies,and analysing the EVA defects incentive pattern and corresponding correction incentive mode and the hierarchy model of top executive compensation of listed company.The paper thinks that the pay gap between the CEO of listed company and other top executives(and not all executive pay gap) contributes to enhance the sense of responsibility,operating pressure and management authority of CEO of listed company.%对上市公司高管薪酬的调控与管理,最终目的是为了使高管薪酬的决策机制符合企业发展战略,使薪酬水平和薪酬结构能够更有效地吸引和激励高管人员。本文通过分析上市公司高管薪酬由董事会主观定价的制度性缺陷,提出了上市公司高管激励型薪酬模型,意在促使主观定价模式转变为客观定价模式。同时,对上市公司高管股权激励模式作了对比选择和适当改进,分析了EVA激励模式的缺陷和相应的修正激励模式以及上市公司高管薪酬的层级模式,提出了上市公司CEO与其他高管的薪酬差距有助于增强CEO的责任感、经营压力和管理权威。

  18. Study and Application of Pump Centre-setting Clearance Compensation Value of Double-cylinder Rotary Compressor%旋转式双缸压缩机泵体定心间隙补偿值研究应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旺宏; 黎法运; 熊枝林; 禹威; 吴小鸿

    2013-01-01

    双缸(双转子)旋转式压缩机因其高性价比,高可靠性,广泛的应用在大功率及变频空调上,但因其零部件多,组装工艺也相对复杂。本文主要是研究双缸泵体定心间隙变化对压缩机性能的影响,通过理论分析与试验验证相结合的方法,确保性能的前提下,通过对双缸下泵体最小扫描间隙偏心定心合理设计补偿值,降低泵体下线比例,提高生产效率,提高压缩机可靠性。%Double-cylinder (double rotor) rotary compressor is widely used in big power and inverter air conditioner due to its high performance/price ratio and high reliability. However, it involves many parts, and its assembly processes are relatively complicated. By combining the theoretical analysis and test verification, this paper studies the effect of double-cylinder pump centre-setting clearance variation on compressor performance on the premise of ensuring performance. We set a reasonable design of compensation value to the minimum scan clearance eccentric center-setting of the bottom pump of the double cylinder compressor. As a result, we reduced pump reject rate in the production line, increased production efficiency and improved compressor reliability.

  19. 我国药害救济、赔偿的联动机制研究%Study on the Relief-compensation Linkage Mechanism of Drug Misadventures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永法; 姚瑜嫔

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish relief-compensation linkage mechanism of drug misadventures in China to protect the rights of victims. METHODS: The types of drug misadventures were introduced, and the necessity and difficulty of relief and compensation to drug misadventures were analyzed. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: At the present, the responsibility to drug misadventures is clear under current law and regularity but it is difficult to achieve compensation. ADR relief system hasn't been established in China and enough evidence can't be obtained to certify drug misadventures. The relief-compensation organization of drug misadventures should be established in Department of Health, which is in charge of receiving filing, identification, fund management and payment, litigation and organization coordination of drug misadventures to build relief-compensation linkage mechanism of drug misadventures in China.%目的:促进我国药害救济、赔偿的联动机制构建,保障药害受害者的权益.方法:介绍药害的种类,分析药害救济、赔偿的必要性以及目前我国实行的药害救济、赔偿存在的问题.结果与结论:目前我国存在按现有法律法规药害责任明确但赔偿艰难、尚未建立药品不良反应救济制度、药害举证困难等问题.建议在卫生部成立药害救济、赔偿事务机构,负责药害受理、药害鉴定、基金给付、药害诉讼、部门协调等工作,构建我国药害救济、赔偿的联动机制.

  20. Verification and compensation of respiratory motion using an ultrasound imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao, E-mail: hchuang@mail.ntut.edu.tw; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Chiu, Wei-Hung; Tien, Der-Chi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Number 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Road, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ren-Hong; Hsu, Chung-Hsien [Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Number 95, Wen-Chang Road, Shih-Lin District, Taipei 11101, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to use ultrasound imaging as an aid for moving the treatment couch during diagnosis and treatment procedures associated with radiation therapy, in order to offset organ displacement caused by respiratory motion. A noninvasive ultrasound system was used to replace the C-arm device during diagnosis and treatment with the aims of reducing the x-ray radiation dose on the human body while simultaneously being able to monitor organ displacements. Methods: This study used a proposed respiratory compensating system combined with an ultrasound imaging system to monitor the compensation effect of respiratory motion. The accuracy of the compensation effect was verified by fluoroscopy, which means that fluoroscopy could be replaced so as to reduce unnecessary radiation dose on patients. A respiratory simulation system was used to simulate the respiratory motion of the human abdomen and a strain gauge (respiratory signal acquisition device) was used to capture the simulated respiratory signals. The target displacements could be detected by an ultrasound probe and used as a reference for adjusting the gain value of the respiratory signal used by the respiratory compensating system. This ensured that the amplitude of the respiratory compensation signal was a faithful representation of the target displacement. Results: The results show that performing respiratory compensation with the assistance of the ultrasound images reduced the compensation error of the respiratory compensating system to 0.81–2.92 mm, both for sine-wave input signals with amplitudes of 5, 10, and 15 mm, and human respiratory signals; this represented compensation of the respiratory motion by up to 92.48%. In addition, the respiratory signals of 10 patients were captured in clinical trials, while their diaphragm displacements were observed simultaneously using ultrasound. Using the respiratory compensating system to offset, the diaphragm

  1. Analysis of emittance compensation and simulation results to photo-cathode RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    LiuShengGuang

    2002-01-01

    The emittance compensation technology will be used on the photo-cathode RF gun for Shanghai SDUV-FEL. The space charge force and its effect on electron beam transverse emittance in RF gun is studied, the principle of emittance compensation in phase-space is discussed. The authors have designed a compensation solenoid and calculated its magnetic field distribution. Its performance has been studied by the code PARMELA. A simulation result indicates that the normalized transverse RMS emittance for electron beam of 1.5 nC is 1.612 pi mm centre dot mrad, electron energy E = 5.71 MeV

  2. An autotuning respiration compensation system based on ultrasound image tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Chun; Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Teng, Kuan-Ting; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Tien, Der-Chi; Wu, Chih-Jen; Jeng, Shiu-Chen; Chiou, Jeng-Fong

    2016-11-22

    The purpose of this study was to develop an ultrasound image tracking algorithm (UITA) for extracting the exact displacement of internal organs caused by respiratory motion. The program can track organ displacements in real time, and analyze the displacement signals associated with organ displacements via a respiration compensating system (RCS). The ultrasound imaging system is noninvasive and has a high spatial resolution and a high frame rate (around 32 frames/s), which reduces the radiation doses that patients receive during computed tomography and X-ray observations. This allows for the continuous noninvasive observation and compensation of organ displacements simultaneously during a radiation therapy session.This study designed a UITA for tracking the motion of a specific target, such as the human diaphragm. Simulated diaphragm motion driven by a respiration simulation system was observed with an ultrasound imaging system, and then the induced diaphragm displacements were calculated by our proposed UITA. These signals were used to adjust the gain of the RCS so that the amplitudes of the compensation signals were close to the target movements. The inclination angle of the ultrasound probe with respect to the surface of the abdomen affects the results of ultrasound image displacement tracking. Therefore, the displacement of the phantom was verified by a LINAC with different inclination-angle settings of the ultrasound probe. The experimental results indicate that the best inclination angle of the ultrasound probe is 40 degrees, since this results in the target displacement of the ultrasound images being close to the actual target motion. The displacement signals of the tracking phantom and the opposing displacement signals created by the RCS were compared to assess the positioning accuracy of our proposed ultrasound image tracking technique combined with the RCS.When the ultrasound probe was inclined by 40 degrees in simulated respiration experiments using sine

  3. Study on Value Loss Evaluation Model and Compensation Mechanism of Cultivated Land Conversion%耕地资源非农化价值损失评价模型与补偿机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任平; 吴涛; 周介铭

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The most serious problem associated with the cultivated land protection project in China is the long-term neglect of ecological value and social value existing within cultivated land. The value loss along with the cultivated land conversion is much beyond the economic value estimated with traditional perspective. Based on such understanding, this research is considering the deficiency of theory for understanding cultivated land conversion, and the insufficiency of comprehensive research on the scientific questions associated with cultivated land protection/conversion, such as the value constitute, the system, and the research method, are the core problems when studying cultivated land loss and conversion. Such questions are the basic theoretic issues that must be understood. To realize quantitative evaluation and simulation of value loss happening with cultivated land conversion, this paper established a value evaluation method and model for cultivated land, so as to provide a theoretical and practical reference for cultivated land protection and compensation policy.[Method]Based on the value classification method for cultivated land resources, income capitalization approach, equivalent replacement method, and market value method were applied to establishing a comprehensive evaluation model incorporating resource economic value, social value, and ecological service value. The economic value of cultivated land resource is based on through income capitalization approach, by which a serious of yield variance weights indices for different crops are modified. The social value is estimated by equivalent replacement method, in which the basic security value is replaced by the correction parameter of urban endowment insurance, the wage level for farmers’ employment is replaced by the productivity effect of agricultural labor, and the social stability value is replaced by the regional food supply-and-demand difference parameter. Finally, based on the amendment

  4. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Leslie, H.D.; Wheelis, W.B.

    1984-09-01

    An experimental and numerical wave mechanics study of cement bond logs demonstrated that wellsite computer processing can now segregate wellbore fluid effects from the sonic signal response to changing cement strength. Traditionally, cement logs have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore, without consideration of wellbore fluid effects. These effects were assumed to be negligible. However, with the increasing number of logs being run in completion fluids such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/, large variations in cement bond logs became apparent. A Schlumberger internal paper showing that bond log amplitude is related to the acoustic impedance of the fluid in which the tool is run led to a comprehensive study of wellbore fluid effects. Numerical and experimental models were developed simulating wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 95/8-in. casings by varying the wellbore fluid densities, viscosities, and fluid types (acoustic impedance). Parallel numerical modeling was undertaken using similar parameters. The results showed that the bond log amplitude varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid's acoustic impedance; for example, there was a 70 percent increase in the signal amplitude for 11.5-lb/ gal CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a Fluid-Compensated Bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of varying wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  5. 20 CFR 226.63 - Determining monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining monthly compensation. 226.63... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.63 Determining monthly compensation. (a) Based on yearly compensation. If Board records do...

  6. 20 CFR 336.4 - Base year compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Base year compensation. 336.4 Section 336.4... DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.4 Base year compensation. (a) Formula. For the purposes of this part, an employee's base year compensation includes any compensation in excess...

  7. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section... Mandatory and Prohibited Provisions § 535.803 Ocean freight forwarder compensation. No conference or group... compensation paid to an ocean freight forwarder; or (b) Agree to limit the payment of compensation to an...

  8. 50 CFR 296.4 - Claims eligible for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims eligible for compensation. 296.4... compensation. (a) Claimants. Damage or loss eligible for Fund compensation must be suffered by a commercial fisherman. (b) Damage or loss of fishing gear. Damage or loss is eligible for Fund compensation if it...

  9. 47 CFR 64.1310 - Payphone compensation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payphone compensation procedures. 64.1310... compensation procedures. (a) Unless the payphone service provider consents to an alternative compensation... not unreasonably withhold its consent to an alternative compensation arrangement. (1) Each...

  10. 46 CFR 2.01-60 - Overtime compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overtime compensation. 2.01-60 Section 2.01-60 Shipping... Inspecting and Certificating of Vessels § 2.01-60 Overtime compensation. (a) General. Extra compensations for... method of computing such extra compensation. (b) Application and certification of time. Application...

  11. 48 CFR 852.236-86 - Workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 852... Workers' compensation. As prescribed in 836.577, insert the following clause: Workers' Compensation (JAN... workers compensation laws to all lands and premises owned or held by the United States. (End of clause)...

  12. 39 CFR 3.2 - Compensation of Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation of Board. 3.2 Section 3.2 Postal... (ARTICLE III) § 3.2 Compensation of Board. Section 202(a)(1) of title 39 provides for the compensation of... meetings. Compensation is provided for not more than 42 days of meetings per year....

  13. 20 CFR 211.5 - Employee representative compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee representative compensation. 211.5... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.5 Employee representative compensation. All payments made by a railway... office he occupies with such organization are creditable as compensation, including payments made...

  14. 31 CFR 30.0 - Executive compensation and corporate governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.0 Executive compensation and corporate governance. The following questions and answers reflect the executive compensation and corporate governance... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Executive compensation and...

  15. 12 CFR 918.2 - Annual directors' compensation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual directors' compensation policy. 918.2... HOME LOAN BANKS BANK DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.2 Annual directors' compensation policy... written policy to provide for the payment to Bank directors of reasonable compensation for the...

  16. 76 FR 18966 - Listing Standards for Compensation Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... the compensation consultant, legal counsel, or other adviser; The policies and procedures of the... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 240 RIN 3235-AK95 Listing Standards for Compensation Committees AGENCY... issuer that is not in compliance with Section 10C's compensation committee and compensation...

  17. 12 CFR 918.3 - Compensation policy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation policy requirements. 918.3 Section... LOAN BANKS BANK DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.3 Compensation policy requirements. Payment to directors under each Bank's policy on director compensation may be based upon factors that the...

  18. Return to Work After Diskogenic Fusion in Workers' Compensation Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar fusion for degenerative disk disease (DDD) is associated with variable clinical outcomes. Patients with workers' compensation claims often have worse fusion outcomes than the general population. Few studies have evaluated the risk factors for poor outcomes within this clinically distinct population. The goal of this study was to identify preoperative predictors of return to work status after fusion for DDD in a workers' compensation setting. The authors used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), diagnosis and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) procedural codes to identify 1037 subjects from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation database who underwent fusion for DDD between 1993 and 2013. Of these subjects, 23.2% (n=241) made a sustained return to work within 2 years after fusion. To identify preoperative predictors of postoperative return to work status, the authors used multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for many important covariates. These included prolonged time out of work (Preturn to work rates associated with these risk factors were 10.4%, 2.0%, 11.9%, 21.1%, and 20.7%, respectively. Of the study subjects, 76.8% (n=796) did not return to work and had considerably worse postoperative outcomes, highlighted by chronic opioid dependence and high rates of failed back syndrome, additional surgery, and new psychiatric comorbidity. The low return to work rates and other generally poor outcomes reported in this study may indicate a more limited role for lumbar fusion among patients with DDD who have workers' compensation claims. More studies are needed to determine whether fusion for DDD can improve function and quality of life in these patients.

  19. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types.

  20. Static Var Compensator Project for the SPS Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives a progress report on the Static Var Compensator project BEF2 for the SPS electrical network. Following a market survey and a call for tenders, a contract has been awarded to ABB Sweden and the project is now in the phase of detailed performance studies, system design and ordering of the main electrical components. This progress report describes the electrical design, summarises the results of the harmonic filter design studies, discusses the interfacing of the control- and communication system and explains the mechanical layout of the Static Var Compensator and as well as the project co-ordination with the feeding BE substation renovation project. Finally, the project planning is presented and critical paths are evaluated.

  1. Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-08-01

    Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated the effect of received predation compensation on individual husbandry units' future herd size. The main finding in this study is that predation compensation had a positive effect on husbandry units' future herd size. The effect of predation compensation, however, was nonlinear in some years, indicating that predation compensation had a positive effect on future herd size only up to a certain threshold whereby adding additional predation compensation had little effect on future herd size. More importantly, the effect of predation compensation was positive after controlling for reindeer density, indicating that for a given reindeer density husbandry units receiving more predation compensation performed better (measured as the size of future herds) compared to husbandry units receiving less compensation.

  2. Compensating defrauded shareholders in insolvency: is parity the answer?

    OpenAIRE

    Mamutse, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies recent developments in Australian and US law permitting compensation for defrauded investors. For insolvent companies, these developments have drawn attention to the possibility of investor claims being satisfied on parity with the claims of ordinary unsecured creditors. This paper proposes that such a shift may be justified on the basis of a modern perspective of the principles underpinning corporate law. However, account must also be taken of the more practica...

  3. 38 CFR 21.3023 - Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parents. Where, however, entitlement is based on the death of more than one parent in the same parental... before attaining age 18 or while helpless based on the service of another parent in the same parental... concurrently with pension, compensation or dependency and indemnity compensation. (Authority: 38 U.S.C....

  4. Producer Compensation under Government Programs: What Should the Magnitude Be?

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Dwayne J.; Schmitz, Andrew; Troy G. SCHMITZ

    2015-01-01

    When policies are changed it is not uncommon for losers to be compensated. Economic theory and quantitative analysis are useful in determining the efficiency gains/losses associated with a policy change, but are little help in deciding what the approach to compensation should be. The amount of compensation varies, depending on, in part, the political clout of the parties being negatively affected by a policy change—compensation is what politicians and the sector demanding compensation can agr...

  5. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Wheelis, W.B. Jr.; Leslie, H.D.

    1986-08-01

    Simulations of cement bond logging (CBL) have shown that wellbore fluid effects can be segregated from sonic-signal response to changing cement strengths. Traditionally, the effects have been considered negligible and the CBL's have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore. However, large variations in CBL's have become apparent with the increasing number of logs run in completion fluids, such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/. To study wellbore fluid effects, physical and numerical models were developed that simulated the wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 9 5/8-in. casings for a range of wellbore fluid types and for both densities and viscosities. Parallel numerical modeling used similar parameters. Results show that bond-log amplitudes varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid acoustic impedance-i.e., there was a 70% increase in signal amplitudes for 11.5 lbm/gal (1370-kg/m/sup 3/) CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a fluid-compensated bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of various wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  6. Workers' compensation for occupational respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-young; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Song, Jaechul

    2014-06-01

    The respiratory system is one of the most important body systems particularly from the viewpoint of occupational medicine because it is the major route of occupational exposure. In 2013, there were significant changes in the specific criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases, which were established by the Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA). In this article, the authors deal with the former criteria, implications of the revision, and changes in the specific criteria in Korea by focusing on the 2013 amendment to the IACIA. Before the 2013 amendment to the IACIA, occupational respiratory disease was not a category because the previous criteria were based on specific hazardous agents and their health effects. Workers as well as clinicians were not familiar with the agent-based criteria. To improve these criteria, a system-based structure was added. Through these changes, in the current criteria, 33 types of agents and 11 types of respiratory diseases are listed under diseases of the respiratory system. In the current criteria, there are no concrete guidelines for evaluating work-relatedness, such as estimating the exposure level, latent period, and detailed examination methods. The results of further studies can support the formulation of detailed criteria.

  7. Error analysis and compensation research of scale factor for MEMS gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-zheng; Wang, Xiangjun; Tang, Qi-jian

    2014-11-01

    In dynamic condition, scale factor has been one of the main errors for MEMS (micro electromechanical system) gyroscopes. This paper, based on one kind of gyroscope in the airborne optoelectronic pod, studies the variation law of the scale factor and its compensation under different environment temperature and operating speed, and then puts forward to the method of combination of ambient temperature and actual angular velocity when compensating the MEMS gyroscope's scale factor error. Test result demonstrates that the scale factor error can be effectively suppressed, and compared with compensation method only based on temperature or angular velocity separately, this new method is easy practical and presents better performance.

  8. Transverse momentum compensation in [pi][sup +]p interactions at 250 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agababyan, N.M.; Ajinenko, I.V.; Bialkowska, H.; Chliapnikov, P.V.; Botterweck, F.; Charlet, M.; Wolf, E.A. de; Dziunikowska, K.; Endler, A.M.F.; Garutchava, Z.C.; Gulkanyan, H.R.; Kisielewska, D.; Kittel, W.; Olkiewicz, K.; Rizatdinova, F.K.; Shabalina, E.K.; Smirnova, L.N.; Stepaniak, J.; Tikhonova, L.A.; Tomaradze, A.G.; Wroblewski, A.; Verbeure, F.; Zotkin, S.A. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. Instelling Antwerpen, Wilrijk (Belgium) Inter-Univ. Inst. for High Energies, Brussels (Belgium) Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Techniques of Academy of Mining and Metallurgy and Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland) Nuclear Physics Inst., Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation) Univ. of Nijmegen/NIKHEF (Netherlands) Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation) Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) Inst. of High Energy Physics of Tbilisi State Univ. (Georgia) Univ. of Warsaw and Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland) Inst. of Physics, Yerevan (Arme; EHS/NA22 Collaboration

    1994-11-01

    Compensation of transverse momentum is studied in [pi][sup +] p interactions at 250 GeV/c. Significant p[sub T]-transfer is found between c.m.s. hemispheres. With respect to the beam axis transverse momentum is compensated over the whole event, with respect to the sphericity axis mainly within one hemisphere. The highest p[sub T] in the event is mainly compensated by increased multiplicity. The QGSM and FRITIOF models qualitatively reproduce these effects, but important differences are observed. (orig.)

  9. Dynamic Anti-Windup Compensator Design Considering Behavior of Controller State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiwitono, Unggul; Takamatsu, Shunsuke; Saeki, Masami; Ochi, Kiyoshi; Wada, Nobutada

    The purpose of this paper is to study the determination of L2 gain performance index in a design method of anti-windup compensator. Since the purpose of the anti-windup compensation is to control the controller state, we introduce a new L2 gain performance index that contains both the plant state and the controller state. Local control design technique which is based on the circle criterion is used for anti-windup compensator synthesis, while global control performance analysis is conducted using Popov criterion. Better response is obtained by tuning the two weighting matrices on the states of the performance index, which is demonstrated by simulation and experiment examples.

  10. Swarm intelligence for atmospheric compensation in free space optical communication-Modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaokun; Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A conventional adaptive optics (AO) system is widely used to compensate atmospheric turbulence in free space optical (FSO) communication systems, but wavefront measurements based on phase-conjugation principle are not desired under strong scintillation circumstances. In this study we propose a novel swarm intelligence optimization algorithm, which is called modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm (MSFL), to compensate the wavefront aberration. Simulation and experiments results show that MSFL algorithm performs well in the atmospheric compensation and it can increase the coupling efficiency in receiver terminal and significantly improve the performance of the FSO communication systems.

  11. Prediction of the thickness of the compensator filter in radiation therapy using computational intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehlaghi, Vahab; Taghipour, Mostafa; Haghparast, Abbas [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roshani, Gholam Hossein [School of Energy, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Abbas [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayesteh, Sajjad Pashootan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adineh-Vand, Ayoub [Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Gholam Reza, E-mail: ghkarimi@razi.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are investigated to predict the thickness of the compensator filter in radiation therapy. In the proposed models, the input parameters are field size (S), off-axis distance, and relative dose (D/D{sub 0}), and the output is the thickness of the compensator. The obtained results show that the proposed ANN and ANFIS models are useful, reliable, and cheap tools to predict the thickness of the compensator filter in intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

  12. Effect of physical exercise prelabyrinthectomy on locomotor balance compensation in the squirrel monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Yoshihara, T.; MacDonald, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of physical exercise, during a prepathology state, on locomotor balance compensation after subsequent unilateral labyrinthectomy in squirrel monkeys. An experimental group underwent 3 hr. of daily running exercise on a treadmill for 3 mo. prior to the surgery, whereas a control group was not exercised. Postoperatively, the locomotor balance function of both groups was tested for 3 mo. There was no significant difference in gait deviation counts in the acute phase of compensation. However, in the chronic compensation maintenance phase, the number of gait deviation counts was fewer in the exercise group, which showed significantly better performance stability.

  13. Voltage Unbalance and Harmonic Compensation in Microgrids by Cooperation of Distributed Generators and Active Power Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashempour, Mohammad M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    , selective virtual impedance and voltage/current regulators. Based on the secondary control, at first voltage harmonic compensation and voltage unbalance compensation of point of common coupling (PCC), that might includes sensitive loads, is carried out by DGs. Voltage compensation of PCC by DGs may cause...... severe voltage distortion at DGs terminals. Thus, the coordinated control is used to mitigate the voltage distortion to the defined maximum allowable value at DGs terminals. Evaluation of the proposed hierarchical control is carried out by a simulation study....

  14. Temperature compensation and entrainment in circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

    2012-06-01

    To anticipate daily variations in the environment and coordinate biological activities into a daily cycle many organisms possess a circadian clock. In the absence of external time cues the circadian rhythm persists with a period of approximately 24 h. The clock phase can be shifted by single pulses of light, darkness, chemicals, or temperature and this allows entrainment of the clock to exactly 24 h by cycles of these zeitgebers. On the other hand, the period of the circadian rhythm is kept relatively constant within a physiological range of constant temperatures, which means that the oscillator is temperature compensated. The mechanisms behind temperature compensation and temperature entrainment are not fully understood, neither biochemically nor mathematically. Here, we theoretically investigate the interplay of temperature compensation and entrainment in general oscillatory systems. We first give an analytical treatment for small temperature shifts and derive that every temperature-compensated oscillator is entrainable to external small-amplitude temperature cycles. Temperature compensation ensures that this entrainment region is always centered at the endogenous period regardless of possible seasonal temperature differences. Moreover, for small temperature cycles the entrainment region of the oscillator is potentially larger for rectangular pulses. For large temperature shifts we numerically analyze different circadian clock models proposed in the literature with respect to these properties. We observe that for such large temperature shifts sinusoidal or gradual temperature cycles allow a larger entrainment region than rectangular cycles.

  15. Status of dosage compensation of X chromosome in bovine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Sojeong; Ahn, Hyeonju; Seo, Minseok; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jin Nam; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Dosage compensation system with X chromosome upregulation and inactivation have evolved to overcome the genetic imbalance between sex chromosomes in both male and female of mammals. Although recent development of chromosome-wide technologies has allowed us to test X upregulation, discrete data processing and analysis methods draw disparate conclusions. A series of expression studies revealed status of dosage compensation in some species belonging to monotremes, marsupials, rodents and primates. However, X upregulation in the Artiodactyla order including cattle have not been studied yet. In this study, we surveyed the genome-wide transcriptional upregulation in X chromosome in cattle RNA-seq data using different gene filtration methods. Overall examination of RNA-seq data revealed that X chromosome in the pituitary gland expressed more genes than in other peripheral tissues, which was consistent with the previous results observed in human and mouse. When analyzed with globally expressed genes, a median X:A expression ratio was 0.94. The ratio of 1-to-1 ortholog genes between chicken and mammals, however, showed considerable reduction to 0.68. These results indicate that status of dosage compensation for cattle is not deviated from those found in rodents and primate, and this is consistent with the evolutionary history of cattle.

  16. Dynamic Simulation of EAF on RTDS for Compensation Sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, K. S.

    2017-02-01

    Large sized electric arc furnaces (EAF) causes power quality problems such as flicker, harmonics etc. due to their unbalanced and non-linear behavior characteristics. The rapid swings in real and reactive power of such non-linear loads causes fast repetitive voltage variations with appreciable voltage distortion caused by harmonics and unbalance. Some form of reactive compensation is usually adopted to limit the disturbances caused by EAF in electric power system, in particular the flicker. This paper highlights the results of a case study, where the arc furnace is modelled using statistical dynamic model of the furnace using real time digital simulator which allows more real time simulations tests to be conducted in a shorter time and also provides a more detailed power system representation for the tests. The investigation of the simulation study results showed that static VAR compensators can be successfully used for reduction of flicker levels, compensation of reactive power and for the regulation of voltage levels in the EAF plant under study.

  17. Passive temperature compensation in hydraulic dashpot used for the shut-off rod drive mechanism of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Narendra K., E-mail: nksingh_chikki@yahoo.com [Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Badodkar, Deepak N. [Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai, 400094 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Passive temperature compensation in hydraulic dashpot has been studied numerically as well as experimentally. • Temperature compensation is achieved by reducing the clearances in the hydraulic dashpot at elevated temperature to compensate for the viscosity reduction. • Temperature compensation effects due to difference in thermal expansion of common engineering materials and use of bimetallic strips have been analyzed. • Design of a novel passive temperature compensating hydraulic dashpot is presented, which can be used for wide range of temperature variations. - Abstract: Passive temperature compensating hydraulic dashpot has been studied numerically as well as experimentally in this paper. Study is focused on reducing the clearances of the hydraulic dashpot at elevated temperature which intern compensates for the reduction in viscosity of damping oil and the dashpot gives uniform performance for wide range of temperature variation. Temperature compensation effects are mainly due to difference in the thermal expansion of materials. Different combinations of materials are used to reduce the dashpot clearances at elevated temperature. Finite element commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics 5.1 has been used for numerical analysis. Fluid-structure analysis has been carried-out to study the thermal expansion and pressure generated in the hydraulic dashpot. Multiphysics study with solid mechanics, laminar flow and moving mesh interfaces has been carried-out. Thermal expansion results of study-1 (solid mechanics) are further extended in to study-2 (laminar flow and moving mesh) and dashpot pressure is estimated. These results show that bimetallic strip improves the dashpot performance at 55 °C but do not fully compensate beyond that and less severe impacts occurs. Specific combinations of design and materials have been presented in this paper for obtaining maximum temperature compensation. A novel passive temperature compensating hydraulic dashpot

  18. Study on Error Compensation Technology of Semi-closed-loop CNC Machine Tool%半闭环数控机床误差补偿技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐盛学

    2011-01-01

    为提高半闭环数控机床的位置精度,建立半闭环位置控制数学模型,研究机床传动误差的补偿机理,构造半闭环误差补偿控制模型,并通过一个实例验证了该误差补偿方法的有效性.%To impure the position accuracy of semi-closed-loop CNC machine too1, its position dynamic control model was established, The principle of mechanical transmission error compensation was analyzed, and a compention control loop was presented.The experimental result shows that the method of error compensation can effectively improve the accuracy of CNC machine tool.

  19. Research participant compensation: A matter of statistical inference as well as ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David M; Betensky, Rebecca A

    2015-11-01

    The ethics of compensation of research subjects for participation in clinical trials has been debated for years. One ethical issue of concern is variation among subjects in the level of compensation for identical treatments. Surprisingly, the impact of variation on the statistical inferences made from trial results has not been examined. We seek to identify how variation in compensation may influence any existing dependent censoring in clinical trials, thereby also influencing inference about the survival curve, hazard ratio, or other measures of treatment efficacy. In simulation studies, we consider a model for how compensation structure may influence the censoring model. Under existing dependent censoring, we estimate survival curves under different compensation structures and observe how these structures induce variability in the estimates. We show through this model that if the compensation structure affects the censoring model and dependent censoring is present, then variation in that structure induces variation in the estimates and affects the accuracy of estimation and inference on treatment efficacy. From the perspectives of both ethics and statistical inference, standardization and transparency in the compensation of participants in clinical trials are warranted.

  20. Calculation of ecological compensation for water sources for water diversion projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H. B.; Zhang, T. M.; Hu, C. Y.; Long, L. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the compensation of water diversion projects for the values of the terrestrial biological resources, water environment, and aquatic biological resources in water sources. An analysis of capital dynamics was conducted, and the economic development coefficient was used to correct the current method for calculating ecological compensation. A model was constructed to calculatethe ecological compensation for the water sources for water diversion projects. This model was used to calculate the ecological compensation for the Niulanjiang River provided by the Niulanjiang River to the Dianchi Lake water diversion project, which was calculated to be 136,799,400 RMB. As long as we know the occupying area of the project, the change of the river net flow after diversion and the local average GDP, the ecological compensation for water sources could be calculated by the model. The proposed model for calculating the ecological compensation for water sources is simple and incorporates the compensation provided by water diversion projects for the various environmental effects on water sources. It provides a guarantee for the capital to be used for the environmental protection of water sources and facilitates the sustainable development of the ecological environments of water sources.

  1. Workers' Compensation, Return to Work, and Lumbar Fusion for Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis is associated with consistent outcomes in the general population. However, workers' compensation is a risk factor for worse outcomes. Few studies have evaluated prognostic factors within this clinically distinct population. The goal of this study was to identify prognostic factors for return to work among patients with workers' compensation claims after fusion for spondylolisthesis. The authors used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify 686 subjects from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation who underwent fusion for spondylolisthesis from 1993 to 2013. Positive return to work status was recorded in patients who returned to work within 2 years of fusion and remained working for longer than 6 months. The criteria for return to work were met by 29.9% (n=205) of subjects. The authors used multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify prognostic factors for return to work. Negative preoperative prognostic factors for postoperative return to work included: out of work for longer than 1 year before fusion (PReturn to work rates associated with these factors were 9.7%, 0.0%, 10.0%, 29.2%, and 25.0%, respectively. If these subjects were excluded, the return to work rate increased to 60.4%. The 70.1% (n=481) of subjects who did not return to work had markedly worse outcomes, shown by higher medical costs, chronic opioid dependence, and higher rates of failed back syndrome, total disability, and additional surgery. Psychiatric comorbidity increased after fusion but was much higher in those who did not return to work. Future studies are needed to identify how to better facilitate return to work among similar patients with workers' compensation claims.

  2. Time Delay Compensation for Tracking Differentiator and Its Application on Phase Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengshan Dou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the time delay compensation for tracking differentiator and its application on phase sensor. Filtering time delay compensation algorithm for phase sensor of high speed maglev train with Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS system is studied. Firstly, the structure and functions of the sensor are introduced. Secondly, the reasons for the phase signal distortion are analyzed. Then, a kind of nonlinear Tracking Differentiator (TD is introduced. The time delay characteristics of the nonlinear TD are studied and the time delay constant is figured out approximately. Then, a compensation algorithm is proposed based on phase forecasting. At last the TD and its compensation algorithms are applied to the phase signal to improve the waveform. The experimental results show that the designed algorithm is effective.

  3. Compensation of F0 and formant frequencies in a real-time pitch-perturbation paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckey, Andreas; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    -perturbation experiments. In the present study, compensations in both F0 and formant frequencies were compared for perturbations of sustained vowels using a traditional pitch-perturbation paradigm. Within a sustained utterance, the auditory feedback was shifted by a constant magnitude for a short duration. Previous......While producing speech, talkers monitor both somatosensory and auditory feedback. Many studies have demonstrated that if auditory feedback is manipulated in real-time (e.g., using an effects processor to shift the frequency spectrum), subjects compensate by modifying their F0 in the direction...... studies have suggested that the large variability in compensation across individuals may be due to individual differences in weighting somatosensory and auditory feedback. Following this hypothesis, individuals’ compensations in F0 and formant frequency should be correlated. Results from the present...

  4. The Energy Compensation Study of Geiger -Mueller Tube Based on Geant4%基于Geant4的盖革计数管能量补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚玉巍; 刘明健; 张燕; 贾铭椿; 龚军军

    2011-01-01

    The energy response of Geiger - Mueller (GM) tube to ga mma radiation in wide energy range is mainly researched, and characteristics of energy response are briefly explained in theory. Some factors that influence energy response are analysed in the model of J4403 tube by Geant4. The analysis obtains energy response of compensated tube with various compensation shields, which provides the foundation for energy compensation.%重点研究了盖革计数管对于较宽能量范围的各能量γ射线的响应情况,从理论上简要说明了盖革计数管的能量响应特点,并针对国产的J4403型计数管使用蒙特卡罗软件Geant4分析了实际情况下能量补偿的各个影响因素,得到不同结构参数下计数管的能量响应情况,为计数管的能量补偿提供了依据.

  5. Mental health, belief deficit compensation, and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, J F

    1987-09-01

    The present study examined the relationship between religious and nonreligious paranormal beliefs and mental health, as well as the possibility that nonreligious subjects compensate for a lack of identification with traditional religion by increased nonreligious paranormal beliefs. Subjects were 80 undergraduates categorized as religious or nonreligious on the basis of scores on the Traditional Religion subscale of the Paranormal Belief Scale. Religious subjects had significantly higher total paranormal belief scores than nonreligious subjects. Those adopting religious paranormal beliefs were actually somewhat more likely to adopt other nonreligious paranormal beliefs. The failure of nonreligious subjects to compensate fully for this traditional religious belief deficit was reflected in their mental health ratings on the Langer's Mental Health Scale (Langer, 1962). Paranormal beliefs were found to be negatively correlated with reported symptoms of psychopathology, supporting the formulation that paranormal beliefs may serve to ensure psychic integrity by acting as "self-serving cognitive biases."

  6. GRID VOLTAGE STABILITY ENHANCEMENT USING PHOTOVOLTAIC BASED STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bhaskar Mayilvaganan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, we are mostly dependent on non renewable energy that have been and will continue to be a major cause of pollution and other environmental degradation. Because of these problems and our dwindling supply of petroleum, finding sustainable alternatives is becoming increasingly urgent. Perhaps, the greatest challenge is in devising a sustainable future, which relies on integration and control of renewable energy sources in grid distributed generation. This study presents the usage of utilizing Photovoltaic (PV Solar Farm (SF during idle conditions as Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM, to regulate the point of common coupling voltage when the wind farm supply the power to the grid. The proposed control will enable increased connections of WECS to the grid. MATLAB/Simulink based simulation results are presented for validation of the system. The PV-STATCOM increase the stability of the grid with interconnected wind farm system without any use of additional compensator.

  7. Readout Circuits for Noise Compensation in ISFET Sensory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, M. P.; Bhuyan, M.; Talukdar, C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents two different noise reduction techniques for ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) readout configuration and their comparison. The proposed circuit configurations are immune to the noise generated from the ISFET sensory system and particularly to the low frequency pH dependent 1/ f electrochemical noise. The methods used under this study are compensation of noise by differential OPAMP based and Wheatstone bridge circuit, where two identical commercial ISFET sensors were used. The statistical and frequency analysis of the data generated by this two methods were compared for different pH value ranging from pH 2 to 10 at room temperature, and it is found that the readout circuits are able to compensate the noise to a great extent.

  8. Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K. -N.

    2012-08-01

    The viability of replacing Americium–Beryllium (Am–Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D–T or D–D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am–Be, D–D, and D–T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D–D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am–Be or D–T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D–D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

  9. Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A.X., E-mail: axchen@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Antolak, A.J.; Leung, K.-N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-08-21

    The viability of replacing Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D-T or D-D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am-Be, D-D, and D-T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D-D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am-Be or D-T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D-D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

  10. Worker Alienation and Compensation at the Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Loka; Wing, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Corporations operating U.S. nuclear weapons plants for the federal government began tracking occupational exposures to ionizing radiation in 1943. However, workers, scholars, and policy makers have questioned the accuracy and completeness of radiation monitoring and its capacity to provide a basis for workers' compensation. We use interviews to explore the limitations of broad-scale, corporate epidemiological surveillance through worker accounts from the Savannah River Site nuclear weapons plant. Interviewees report inadequate monitoring, overbearing surveillance, limited venues to access medical support and exposure records, and administrative failure to report radiation and other exposures at the plant. The alienation of workers from their records and toil is relevant to worker compensation programs and the accuracy of radiation dose measurements used in epidemiologic studies of occupational radiation exposures at the Savannah River Site and other weapons plants.

  11. Controlling chaos based on an adaptive nonlinear compensator mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Ling-Ling; Li Dong-Hai; Sun Xian-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The control problems of chaotic systems are investigated in the presence of parametric uncertainty and persistent external disturbances based on nonlinear control theory.By using a designed nonlinear compensator mechanism,the system deterministic nonlinearity,parametric uncertainty and disturbance effect can be compensated effectively.The renowned chaotic Lorenz system subjected to parametric variations and external disturbances is studied as an illustrative example.From the Lyapunov stability theory,sufficient conditions for choosing control parameters to guarantee chaos control are derived.Several experiments are carried out,including parameter change experiments,set-point change experiments and disturbance experiments.Simulation results indicate that the chaotic motion can be regulated not only to steady states but also to any desired periodic orbits with great immunity to parametric variations and external disturbances.

  12. Position Control of Motion Compensation Cardiac Catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Samuel B.; Howe, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Robotic catheters have the potential to revolutionize cardiac surgery by enabling minimally invasive structural repairs within the beating heart. This paper presents an actuated catheter system that compensates for the fast motion of cardiac tissue using 3D ultrasound image guidance. We describe the design and operation of the mechanical drive system and catheter module and analyze the catheter performance limitations of friction and backlash in detail. To mitigate these limitations, we propose and evaluate mechanical and control system compensation methods, including inverse and model-based backlash compensation, to improve the system performance. Finally, in vivo results are presented that demonstrate that the catheter can track the cardiac tissue motion with less than 1 mm RMS error. The ultimate goal of this research is to create a fast and dexterous robotic catheter system that can perform surgery on the delicate structures inside of the beating heart. PMID:21874124

  13. Automatic Transaction Compensation for Reliable Grid Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Long Tang; Ming-Lu Li; Joshua Zhexue Huang

    2006-01-01

    As grid technology is expanding from scientific computing to business applications, service oriented grid computing is aimed at providing reliable services for users and hiding complexity of service processes from them. The grid services for coordinating long-lived transactions that occur in business applications play an important role in reliable grid applications. In this paper, the grid transaction service (GridTS) is proposed for dealing with long-lived business transactions. We present a compensation-based long-lived transaction coordination algorithm that enables users to select results from committed sub-transactions. Unlike other long-lived transaction models that require application programmers to develop corresponding compensating transactions, GridTS can automatically generate compensating transactions on execution of a long-lived grid transaction. The simulation result has demonstrated the feasibility of GridTS and effectiveness of the corresponding algorithm.

  14. Power analysis of static VAr compensators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela, F.R.; Arevalo, J.M.G.; Redondo, R.C. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de Salamanca, 37700 Bejar (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Analysis of three-phase loads usually assume them to be three impedances in a star or triangle connection. This is the reason why obtained results can only be considered valid for passive loads, strictly speaking. Analysis leading to the proposal of some static compensators is usually performed in this way, which induces to believe that this compensators are only valid for passive loads. An analysis procedure, which uses only powers to describe loads, is expounded in this paper. If applied to the analysis of static compensators, it reveals unequivocally their usefulness with active and passive three-phase loads. Therefore, this method is more general and, as it will be seen, easier. (author)

  15. Bimaterial Thermal Compensators for WGM Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    Bimaterial thermal compensators have been proposed as inexpensive means of preventing (to first order) or reducing temperature-related changes in the resonance frequencies of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators. A bimaterial compensator would apply, to a WGM resonator, a pressure that would slightly change the shape of the resonator and thereby change its resonance frequencies. Through suitable choice of the compensator dimensions and materials, it should be possible to make the temperature dependence of the pressure-induced frequency shift equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the temperature dependence of the frequency shift of the uncompensated resonator so that, to first order, a change in temperature would cause zero net change in frequency.

  16. Analyzing of Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Series Compensation Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Parhizgar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR is a series-connected compensator to generate a controllable voltage to against the short-term voltage disturbances. The technique of DVR is an effective and cost competitive approach to improve voltage quality at the load side. This study presents a single-phase and threephase DVR system with reduced switch-count topology to protect the sensitive load against abnormal voltage conditions. Most basic function, the DVR configuration consist of a two level Voltage Source Converter (VSC, a dc energy storage device, a coupling transformer Connected in shunt with the ac system This study presents the application of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR on power distribution systems for mitigation of voltage sag at critical loads. DVR is one of the compensating types of custom power devices. The DVR, which is based on forced-commutated Voltage Source Converter (VSC has been proved suitable for the task of compensating voltage sags/swells. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and understand the performances of DVR in supporting load voltages under voltage sags/swells conditions.

  17. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: the role of compensating cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Héctor; Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A

    2012-08-15

    Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L(-1)). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH(3)-TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal.

  18. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: The role of compensating cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, Hector, E-mail: hvaldes@ucsc.cl [Laboratorio de Tecnologias Limpias (F. Ingenieria), Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, Concepcion (Chile); Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica (F. Ingenieria), Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical and thermal treatment enhances catalytic activity of natural zeolite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified natural zeolite exhibits high stability after thermal treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reducing the compensating cation content leads to an increase on ozone abatement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface active atomic oxygen was detected using the DRIFT technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest reactivity toward ozone was performed by NH4Z3 zeolite sample. - Abstract: Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L{sup -1}). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal.

  19. A Study on the Establishing of the State Compensation for Spiritual Damage%从漠视到尊重——人权语境中解读精神损害国家赔偿制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何世俊

    2012-01-01

    Spiritual damage in state compensation means citizens' spiritual rights have been violated by the state power therefore leading to citizens' spiritual pains and sufferings or loss of spiritual interests. Only citizens' personal human rights that have been violated can re- sult in spiritual compensation, including rights of human liberty, life, health, reputation, hon- ors, as well as rights related to names, portraits, and those of legal persons. Rights protection organism has provided people tools to pursue spiritual remedy, but the abstraction of spiritual damage may lead to disordered compensation. In order to solve this issue, we need to establish reasonable compensation systems by using dual principles on spiritual damages, introducing spiritual damage evaluation system, utilizing previous research and precedents, consulting other civil compensations and reasonably exerting the judge' s discretion.%国家赔偿法意义上的精神损害是因精神权利遭到公权力的侵犯而引起的精神痛苦或精神利益的丧失、减损。可能引起精神损害的只能是公民人身权被侵犯,主要包括公民的生命健康权、人身自由权、荣誉权、名誉权、肖像权、姓名权、法人人身权。权利保护机制给予了公民精神损害的请求权,但精神损害的无形性可能会导致赔偿的无序性,为解决这一问题,实践中必须掌握精神损害赔偿的二分法原则,通过引入精神损害评估机制,利用引证判例、参照民事赔偿、合理使用法官的自由心证等方法构建合理有序的赔偿制度。

  20. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... are performed for a power system including the dispersed generation units connected into the system through power electronic converters and diode rectifier loads, which produce the distorted waveforms. The simulation results have demonstrated that good compensation effects can be achieved by using the combined...